|Commenced in January 2007||Frequency: Monthly||Edition: International||Paper Count: 35|
Yeast cells are generally used as a model system of eukaryotes due to their complex genetic structure, rapid growth ability in optimum conditions, easy replication and well-defined genetic system properties. Thus, yeast cells increased the knowledge of the principal pathways in humans. During fermentation, carbohydrates (hexoses and pentoses) degrade into some toxic by-products such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF or HMF) and furfural. HMF influences the ethanol yield, and ethanol productivity; it interferes with microbial growth and is considered as a potent inhibitor of bioethanol production. In this study, yeast single cell behavior under HMF application was monitored by using a continuous flow single phase microfluidic platform. Microfluidic device in operation is fabricated by hot embossing and thermo-compression techniques from cyclo-olefin polymer (COP). COP is biocompatible, transparent and rigid material and it is suitable for observing fluorescence of cells considering its low auto-fluorescence characteristic. The response of yeast cells was recorded through Red Fluorescent Protein (RFP) tagged Nop56 gene product, which is an essential evolutionary-conserved nucleolar protein, and also a member of the box C/D snoRNP complexes. With the application of HMF, yeast cell proliferation continued but HMF slowed down the cell growth, and after HMF treatment the cell proliferation stopped. By the addition of fresh nutrient medium, the yeast cells recovered after 6 hours of HMF exposure. Thus, HMF application suppresses normal functioning of cell cycle but it does not cause cells to die. The monitoring of Nop56 expression phases of the individual cells shed light on the protein and ribosome synthesis cycles along with their link to growth. Further computational study revealed that the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory or inductive effects of HMF on growth are enriched in functional categories of protein degradation, protein processing, DNA repair and multidrug resistance. The present microfluidic device can successfully be used for studying the effects of inhibitory agents on growth by single cell tracking, thus capturing cell to cell variations. By metabolic engineering techniques, engineered strains can be developed, and the metabolic network of the microorganism can thus be manipulated such that chemical overproduction of target metabolite is achieved along with the maximum growth/biomass yield.
We study the biological effects induced by ionizing radiation in view of therapeutic exposure and the idea of space flights beyond Earth's magnetosphere. In particular, we examine the differences between base pair substitution induction by ionizing radiation in model haploid and diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Such mutations are difficult to study in higher eukaryotic systems. In our research, we have used a collection of six isogenic trp5-strains and 14 isogenic haploid and diploid cyc1-strains that are specific markers of all possible base-pair substitutions. These strains differ from each other only in single base substitutions within codon-50 of the trp5 gene or codon-22 of the cyc1 gene. Different mutation spectra for two different haploid genetic trp5- and cyc1-assays and different mutation spectra for the same genetic cyc1-system in cells with different ploidy — haploid and diploid — have been obtained. It was linear function for dose-dependence in haploid and exponential in diploid cells. We suggest that the differences between haploid yeast strains reflect the dependence on the sequence context, while the differences between haploid and diploid strains reflect the different molecular mechanisms of mutations.
Storage stability is the important factor of baker's yeast quality. Effect of the storage period (fifteen days) on storage sugars and cell viability of baker's yeast, produced from three S. cerevisiae strains (FC-620, FH-620, and FAT-12) as comparison with baker's yeast produced by S. cerevisae F-707 (original strain of baker's yeast factory) were investigated. Studied trehalose and glycogen content ranged from 10.19 to 14.79 % and from 10.05 to 10.69 % (d.w.), respectively before storage. The trehalose and glycogen content of all strains was decreased by increasing the storage period with no significant differences between the reduction rates of trehalose. Meanwhile, reduction rates of glycogen had significant differences between different strains, where the FH-620 and FC-620 strains had lowest rates as 18.12 and 20.70 %, respectively. Also, total viable cells and gassing power of all strains were decreased by increasing the storage period. FH-620 and FC-620 strains had the lowest values of reduction rates as an indicator of storage resistant. Where the reduction rates in total viable cells of FH-620 and FC-620 strains were 22.05 and 24.70%, respectively, while the reduction rates of gassing power were 20.90 and 24.30%, in the same order. On other hand, FAT-12 strain was more sensitive to storage as compared to original strain, where the reduction rates were 35.60 and 35.75%, respectively for total viable cells and gassing power.
Kefir is a traditional fermented refreshing beverage which is known for its valuable and beneficial properties for human health. Mainly yeast species, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains and fewer acetic acid bacteria strains live together in a natural matrix named “kefir grain”, which is formed from various proteins and polysaccharides. Different microbial species live together in slimy kefir grain and it has been thought that synergetic effect could take place between microorganisms, which belong to different genera and species. In this research, yeast and LAB were isolated from kefir samples obtained from Uludag University Food Engineering Department. The cell morphology of isolates was screened by microscopic examination. Gram reactions of bacteria isolates were determined by Gram staining method, and as well catalase activity was examined. After observing the microscopic/morphological and physical, enzymatic properties of all isolates, they were divided into the groups as LAB and/or yeast according to their physicochemical responses to the applied examinations. As part of this research, the antagonistic/synergistic efficacy of the identified five LAB and five yeast strains to each other were determined individually by disk diffusion method. The antagonistic or synergistic effect is one of the most important properties in a co-culture system that different microorganisms are living together. The synergistic effect should be promoted, whereas the antagonistic effect is prevented to provide effective culture for fermentation of kefir. The aim of this study was to determine microbial interactions between identified yeast and LAB strains, and whether their effect is antagonistic or synergistic. Thus, if there is a strain which inhibits or retards the growth of other strains found in Kefir microflora, this circumstance shows the presence of antagonistic effect in the medium. Such negative influence should be prevented, whereas the microorganisms which have synergistic effect on each other should be promoted by combining them in kefir grain. Standardisation is the most desired property for industrial production. Each microorganism found in the microbial flora of a kefir grain should be identified individually. The members of the microbial community found in the glue-like kefir grain may be redesigned as a starter culture regarding efficacy of each microorganism to another in kefir processing. The main aim of this research was to shed light on more effective production of kefir grain and to contribute a standardisation of kefir processing in the food industry.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and some yeast species are common microorganisms found in dairy products and most of them are responsible for the fermentation of foods. Such cultures are isolated and used as a starter culture in the food industry because of providing standardisation of the final product during the food processing. Choice of starter culture is the most important step for the production of fermented food. Isolated LAB and yeast cultures which have the ability to create a biofilm layer can be preferred as a starter in the food industry. The biofilm formation could be beneficial to extend the period of usage time of microorganisms as a starter. On the other hand, it is an undesirable property in pathogens, since biofilm structure allows a microorganism become more resistant to stress conditions such as antibiotic presence. It is thought that the resistance mechanism could be turned into an advantage by promoting the effective microorganisms which are used in the food industry as starter culture and also which have potential to stimulate the gastrointestinal system. Development of the biofilm layer is observed in some LAB and yeast strains. The resistance could make LAB and yeast strains dominant microflora in the human gastrointestinal system; thus, competition against pathogen microorganisms can be provided more easily. Based on this circumstance, in the study, 10 LAB and 10 yeast strains were isolated from various dairy products, such as cheese, yoghurt, kefir, and cream. Samples were obtained from farmer markets and bazaars in Bursa, Turkey. As a part of this research, all isolated strains were identified and their ability of biofilm formation was detected with two different methods and compared with each other. The first goal of this research was to determine whether isolates have the potential for biofilm production, and the second was to compare the validity of two different methods, which are known as “Tube method” and “96-well plate-based method”. This study may offer an insight into developing a point of view about biofilm formation and its beneficial properties in LAB and yeast cultures used as a starter in the food industry.
Extracellular laccases are copper-containing microbial enzymes with many industrial biotechnological applications. This study evaluated the ability of nutrients in coconut coir to enhance the yield of extracellular laccase of Galactomyces reesii IFO 10823 and develop a co-culture between this yeast and other filamentous fungi isolated from the fungus comb of Macrotermes sp. The co-culture between G. reesii IFO 10823 and M. indicus FJ-M-5 (G3) gave the highest activity at 580.20 U/mL. When grown in fermentation media prepared from coconut coir and distilled water at 70% of initial moisture without supplement addition, G3 produced extracellular laccase of 113.99 U/mL.
Cane molasses is used as a raw material for the production of baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in Egypt. The high levels of heavy metals in molasses cause a critical problem during fermentation and cause various kinds of technological difficulties (yield and quality of yeast become lower). The aim of the present study was to determine heavy metal concentrations (cadmium, nickel, lead, and copper) in crude and treated molasses obtained from the storage tanks of the baker’s yeast factory through four seasons. Also, the effect of crude molasses treatment by different methods (at laboratory scale) on heavy metals reduction and its comparison with factory treated molasses were conducted. The molasses samples obtained at autumn season had the highest values of all the studied heavy metals. The molasses treated by cation exchange resin then sulfuric acid had the lowest concentrations of heavy metals compared with other treatments.
A strain of Monascus purpureus CMU001 was used to prepare red yeast rice from Thai glutinous rice Korkor 6 (RD 6). Adding of different amounts of histidine (156, 312, 625 and 1250 mg in 100 g of rice grains)) under aerobic and air limitation (air-lock) condition were used in solid fermentation. Determination of the yield as well as monacolin K content was done. Citrinin content was also determined in order to confirm the safety use of prepared red yeast rice. It was found that under air-lock condition with 1250 mg of histidine addition gave the highest yield of 37.40 g of dried red yeast rice prepared from 100 g of rice. Highest 5.72 mg content of monacolin K was obtained under air-lock condition with 312 mg histidine addition. In the other hand, citrinin content was found to be less than 24462 ng/g of all dried red yeast rice samples under the experimental methods used in this work.
The effect of Zn2+, Mg2+, and Ba2+ on Saccharomyces pastorianus performance was evaluated in this study at independent and three variable combinations. After 96 h of fermentation, high wort fermentability (%F) = 29.53 was obtained in medium containing 900:4 ppm Mg2+ + Ba2+. Increased ethanol yield 7.35 %(v/v) and 7.13 %(v/v) were obtained in media containing 900:4 ppm Mg2+ + Ba2+ and 12:900 ppm Zn2+ + Mg2+. Decrease %F = 22.54 and ethanol yield 6.18 % (v/v) was obtained in medium containing 12:4 ppm Zn2+ + Ba2+. In media containing the individual ions, increased %F = 27.94 and 26.03 were recorded for media containing 700 ppm Mg2+ and 2 ppm Ba2+ , with ethanol yield of 7.88% (v/v) and 7.62% (v/v) respectively. Reduced %F and ethanol yield was observed for 10 ppm Zn2+ and 4 ppm Ba2+ media. The impact of Ba2+ at 1 and 2 ppm was significant.
Natural antimicrobials are used to preserve foods that can be found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. Antimicrobial substances are natural or artificial agents that produced by microorganisms or obtained semi/total chemical synthesis are used at low concentrations to inhibit the growth of other microorganisms. Food borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms are inactivated by the use of antagonistic microorganisms and their metabolites. Yeasts can produce toxic proteins or glycoproteins (toxins) that cause inhibition of sensitive bacteria and yeast species. Antimicrobial substance producing phenotypes belonging different yeast genus were isolated from different sources. Toxins secreted by many yeast strains inhibiting the growth of other yeast strains. These strains show antimicrobial activity, inhibiting the growth of mold and bacteria. The effect of antimicrobial agents produced by yeasts can be extremely fast, and therefore may be used in various treatment procedures. Rapid inhibition of microorganisms is possibly caused by microbial cell membrane lipopolysaccharide binding and in activation (neutralization) effect. Antimicrobial agents inhibit the target cells via different mechanisms of action.
The hydrolysis of lactose using β-galactosidase is one of the most promising biotechnological applications, which has wide range of potential applications in food processing industries. However, due to intracellular location of the yeast enzyme, and expensive extraction methods, the industrial applications of enzymatic hydrolysis processes are being hampered. The use of permeabilization technique can help to overcome the problems associated with enzyme extraction and purification of yeast cells and to develop the economically viable process for the utilization of whole cell biocatalysts in food industries. In the present investigation, standardization of permeabilization process of novel yeast isolate was carried out using a statistical model approach known as Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to achieve maximal b-galactosidase activity. The optimum operating conditions for permeabilization process for optimal β-galactosidase activity obtained by RSM were 1:1 ratio of toluene (25%, v/v) and ethanol (50%, v/v), 25.0 oC temperature and treatment time of 12 min, which displayed enzyme activity of 1.71 IU /mg DW.
The biomass-based fuels have become great concern in order to replace the petroleum-based fuels. Biofuels are a wide range of fuels referred to liquid, gas and solid fuels produced from biomass. Recently, higher chain alcohols such as 3-methyl-1-butanol and isobutanol have become a better candidate compared to bioethanol in order to replace gasoline as transportation fuel. Therefore, in this study, 3-methyl-1-butanol was produced through a fermentation process by yeast. Several types of yeast involved in this research including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces lactis GG799 and Pichia pastoris (KM71H, GS115 and X33). The result obtained showed that K. lactis GG799 gave the highest concentration of 3-methyl-1-butanol at 274 mg/l followed by S. cerevisiae, P. pastoris GS115, P. pastoris KM71H and P. pastoris X33 at 265 mg/l, 190 mg/l, 182 mg/l and 174 mg/l respectively. Based on the result, it proved that yeast have a potential in producing 3-methyl-1-butanol naturally.
The removal of chromium by living yeast biomass immobilized onto pozzolana was studied. The results obtained in batch experiments indicate that the immobilized yeast on to pozzolana is a excellent biosorbent of Cr(V) with a good removal rates of 85–90%. The initial concentration solution and agitation speed affected Cr(V) removal. The batch studies data were described using the Freundlich and Langmuir models, but the best fit was obtained with Langmuir model. The breakthrough curve from the continuous flow studies shows that immobilized yeast in the fixed-bed column is capable of decreasing Cr(VI) concentration from 15mg/l to a adequate level.
The effect of flakes from biologically activated hullless barley grain and malt extract on microbiological safety of yoghurt was studied. Pasteurized milk, freeze-dried yoghurt culture YF-L811 (Chr. Hansen, Denmark), flakes from biologically activated hull-less barley grain (Latvia) and malt extract (Ilgezeem, Latvia) were used for experiments. Yoghurt samples with flakes from biologically activated hull-less barley grain and malt extract were analyzed for total plate count of mesophylic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms, as well yeasts and moulds population during shelflife. Results showed that the changes of pH and titratable acidity affected the concentration of added malt extract. The lowest pH and the highest titratable acidity were determined in samples YFBG5% ME4% and YFBG5% ME6% on the 14th day. The total plate count decreased in all yoghurt samples except sample YFBG5% ME6%, where was determined the increase of microorganisms from 7th till 14th day. The adding of flakes from biologically activated hull-less barley grain in yoghurt samples caused the higher initial content of yeasts and moulds comparing with control. The growth of yeasts and moulds during shelf-life provided the added malt extract in yoghurt samples. Yoghurt enriched with flakes from biologically activated hull-less barley grain and malt extract from a microbiological perspective is safe product.
The aquatic plants are a promising renewable energy resource. Lake Fúquene polluting macrophytes, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes C. Mart.) and Brazilian elodea (Egeria densa Planch.), were saccharifiedby different treatments and fermented to ethanol by native yeasts. Among the tested chemical and biological methods for the saccharification, Pleurotus ostreatus at 10% (m/v) was chosen as the best pre-treatment in both macrophytes (P<0.01). Subsequently 49 yeasts were isolated from Lake Fúquene and nine strains were selected, which presented the highest precipitates characteristic of ethanol in the iodoform test. The fermentations from water hyacinth and Brazilian elodea hydrolysates using these yeasts produced ethanol at a rate between 0.38 to 0.80gL-1h-1 and 0.15 to 0.27gL-1h-1 respectively. The ethanol presence was confirmed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The nine yeasts chosen were preliminarily identified as belonging to the genera Candida spp., Brettanomyces sp. and Hansenula spp.
In the present study, effect of critical medium components (a total of fifteen components) on ethanol production from waste cashew apple juice (CAJ) using yeast Saccharomyces diasticus was studied. A statistical response surface methodology (RSM) based Plackett-Burman Design (PBD) was used for the design of experiments. The design contains a total of 32 experimental trails. The effect of medium components on ethanol was studied at two different levels such as low concentration level (-) and high concentration levels (+). The dependent variables selected in this study were ethanol concentration (g/L) and cellmass concentration (g/L). Data obtained from RSM on ethanol production were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). In general, initial substrate concentration significantly influenced the microbial growth and product formation. Of the medium components evaluated, CAJ concentration, yeast extract, (NH4)2SO4, and malt extract showed significant effect on ethanol fermentation. A second-order polynomial model was used to predict the experimental data and the model fitted the data with a high correlation coefficient (R2 > 0.98). Maximum ethanol (15.3 g/L) and biomass (6.4 g/L) concentrations were obtained at the optimum medium composition and at optimum condition (temperature-30°C; initial pH-6.8) after 72 h fermentation using S.diasticus.
The objective of this research is to study of microbial lipid production by locally photosynthetic microalgae and oleaginous yeast via integrated cultivation technique using CO2 emissions from yeast fermentation. A maximum specific growth rate of Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 of 0.284 (1/d) was obtained under an integrated cultivation and a maximum lipid yield of 1.339g/L was found after cultivation for 5 days, while 0.969g/L of lipid yield was obtained after day 6 of cultivation time by using CO2 from air. A high value of volumetric lipid production rate (QP, 0.223 g/L/d), specific product yield (YP/X, 0.194), volumetric cell mass production rate (QX, 1.153 g/L/d) were found by using ambient air CO2 coupled with CO2 emissions from yeast fermentation. Overall lipid yield of 8.33 g/L was obtained (1.339 g/L of Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 and 7.06g/L of T. maleeae Y30) while low lipid yield of 0.969g/L was found using non-integrated cultivation technique. To our knowledge this is the unique report about the lipid production from locally microalgae Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 and yeast T. maleeae Y30 in an integrated technique to improve the biomass and lipid yield by using CO2 emissions from yeast fermentation.