Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 147

Approaches to Developing Semantic Web Services
It has been recognized that due to the autonomy and heterogeneity, of Web services and the Web itself, new approaches should be developed to describe and advertise Web services. The most notable approaches rely on the description of Web services using semantics. This new breed of Web services, termed semantic Web services, will enable the automatic annotation, advertisement, discovery, selection, composition, and execution of interorganization business logic, making the Internet become a common global platform where organizations and individuals communicate with each other to carry out various commercial activities and to provide value-added services. This paper deals with two of the hottest R&D and technology areas currently associated with the Web – Web services and the semantic Web. It describes how semantic Web services extend Web services as the semantic Web improves the current Web, and presents three different conceptual approaches to deploying semantic Web services, namely, WSDL-S, OWL-S, and WSMO.
FPGA Based Parallel Architecture for the Computation of Third-Order Cross Moments
Higher-order Statistics (HOS), also known as cumulants, cross moments and their frequency domain counterparts, known as poly spectra have emerged as a powerful signal processing tool for the synthesis and analysis of signals and systems. Algorithms used for the computation of cross moments are computationally intensive and require high computational speed for real-time applications. For efficiency and high speed, it is often advantageous to realize computation intensive algorithms in hardware. A promising solution that combines high flexibility together with the speed of a traditional hardware is Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). In this paper, we present FPGA-based parallel architecture for the computation of third-order cross moments. The proposed design is coded in Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) and functionally verified by implementing it on Xilinx Spartan-3 XC3S2000FG900-4 FPGA. Implementation results are presented and it shows that the proposed design can operate at a maximum frequency of 86.618 MHz.
Variable Step-Size Affine Projection Algorithm With a Weighted and Regularized Projection Matrix

This paper presents a forgetting factor scheme for variable step-size affine projection algorithms (APA). The proposed scheme uses a forgetting processed input matrix as the projection matrix of pseudo-inverse to estimate system deviation. This method introduces temporal weights into the projection matrix, which is typically a better model of the real error's behavior than homogeneous temporal weights. The regularization overcomes the ill-conditioning introduced by both the forgetting process and the increasing size of the input matrix. This algorithm is tested by independent trials with coloured input signals and various parameter combinations. Results show that the proposed algorithm is superior in terms of convergence rate and misadjustment compared to existing algorithms. As a special case, a variable step size NLMS with forgetting factor is also presented in this paper.

Noise Analysis of Single-Ended Input Differential Amplifier using Stochastic Differential Equation

In this paper, we analyze the effect of noise in a single- ended input differential amplifier working at high frequencies. Both extrinsic and intrinsic noise are analyzed using time domain method employing techniques from stochastic calculus. Stochastic differential equations are used to obtain autocorrelation functions of the output noise voltage and other solution statistics like mean and variance. The analysis leads to important design implications and suggests changes in the device parameters for improved noise characteristics of the differential amplifier.

Development of New Control Techniques for Vibration Isolation of Structures using Smart Materials
In this paper, the effects of the restoring force device on the response of a space frame structure resting on sliding type of bearing with a restoring force device is studied. The NS component of the El - Centro earthquake and harmonic ground acceleration is considered for earthquake excitation. The structure is modeled by considering six-degrees of freedom (three translations and three rotations) at each node. The sliding support is modeled as a fictitious spring with two horizontal degrees of freedom. The response quantities considered for the study are the top floor acceleration, base shear, bending moment and base displacement. It is concluded from the study that the displacement of the structure reduces by the use of the restoring force device. Also, the peak values of acceleration, bending moment and base shear also decreases. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the developed and proposed method.
Roll of Membership functions in Fuzzy Logic for Prediction of Shoot Length of Mustard Plant Based on Residual Analysis
The selection for plantation of a particular type of mustard plant depending on its productivity (pod yield) at the stage of maturity. The growth of mustard plant dependent on some parameters of that plant, these are shoot length, number of leaves, number of roots and roots length etc. As the plant is growing, some leaves may be fall down and some new leaves may come, so it can not gives the idea to develop the relationship with the seeds weight at mature stage of that plant. It is not possible to find the number of roots and root length of mustard plant at growing stage that will be harmful of this plant as roots goes deeper to deeper inside the land. Only the value of shoot length which increases in course of time can be measured at different time instances. Weather parameters are maximum and minimum humidity, rain fall, maximum and minimum temperature may effect the growth of the plant. The parameters of pollution, water, soil, distance and crop management may be dominant factors of growth of plant and its productivity. Considering all parameters, the growth of the plant is very uncertain, fuzzy environment can be considered for the prediction of shoot length at maturity of the plant. Fuzzification plays a greater role for fuzzification of data, which is based on certain membership functions. Here an effort has been made to fuzzify the original data based on gaussian function, triangular function, s-function, Trapezoidal and L –function. After that all fuzzified data are defuzzified to get normal form. Finally the error analysis (calculation of forecasting error and average error) indicates the membership function appropriate for fuzzification of data and use to predict the shoot length at maturity. The result is also verified using residual (Absolute Residual, Maximum of Absolute Residual, Mean Absolute Residual, Mean of Mean Absolute Residual, Median of Absolute Residual and Standard Deviation) analysis.
Fuzzy Estimation of Parameters in Statistical Models
Using a set of confidence intervals, we develop a common approach, to construct a fuzzy set as an estimator for unknown parameters in statistical models. We investigate a method to derive the explicit and unique membership function of such fuzzy estimators. The proposed method has been used to derive the fuzzy estimators of the parameters of a Normal distribution and some functions of parameters of two Normal distributions, as well as the parameters of the Exponential and Poisson distributions.
Moment Generating Functions of Observed Gaps between Hypopnea Using Saddlepoint Approximations
Saddlepoint approximations is one of the tools to obtain an expressions for densities and distribution functions. We approximate the densities of the observed gaps between the hypopnea events using the Huzurbazar saddlepoint approximation. We demonstrate the density of a maximum likelihood estimator in exponential families.
Differential Sandwich Theorems with Generalised Derivative Operator
In this paper, a generalized derivatives operator n λ,βf introduced by the authors will be discussed. Some subordination and superordination results involving this operator for certain normalized analytic functions in the open unit disk will be investigated. Our results extend corresponding previously known results.
An Exploratory Environment for Concurrency Control Algorithms
Designing, implementing, and debugging concurrency control algorithms in a real system is a complex, tedious, and errorprone process. Further, understanding concurrency control algorithms and distributed computations is itself a difficult task. Visualization can help with both of these problems. Thus, we have developed an exploratory environment in which people can prototype and test various versions of concurrency control algorithms, study and debug distributed computations, and view performance statistics of distributed systems. In this paper, we describe the exploratory environment and show how it can be used to explore concurrency control algorithms for the interactive steering of distributed computations.
A Formal Approach for Proof Constructions in Cryptography
In this article we explore the application of a formal proof system to verification problems in cryptography. Cryptographic properties concerning correctness or security of some cryptographic algorithms are of great interest. Beside some basic lemmata, we explore an implementation of a complex function that is used in cryptography. More precisely, we describe formal properties of this implementation that we computer prove. We describe formalized probability distributions (σ-algebras, probability spaces and conditional probabilities). These are given in the formal language of the formal proof system Isabelle/HOL. Moreover, we computer prove Bayes- Formula. Besides, we describe an application of the presented formalized probability distributions to cryptography. Furthermore, this article shows that computer proofs of complex cryptographic functions are possible by presenting an implementation of the Miller- Rabin primality test that admits formal verification. Our achievements are a step towards computer verification of cryptographic primitives. They describe a basis for computer verification in cryptography. Computer verification can be applied to further problems in cryptographic research, if the corresponding basic mathematical knowledge is available in a database.
A New Approach for Controlling Overhead Traveling Crane Using Rough Controller

This paper presents the idea of a rough controller with application to control the overhead traveling crane system. The structure of such a controller is based on a suggested concept of a fuzzy logic controller. A measure of fuzziness in rough sets is introduced. A comparison between fuzzy logic controller and rough controller has been demonstrated. The results of a simulation comparing the performance of both controllers are shown. From these results we infer that the performance of the proposed rough controller is satisfactory.

Generating Normally Distributed Clusters by Means of a Self-organizing Growing Neural Network– An Application to Market Segmentation –
This paper presents a new growing neural network for cluster analysis and market segmentation, which optimizes the size and structure of clusters by iteratively checking them for multivariate normality. We combine the recently published SGNN approach [8] with the basic principle underlying the Gaussian-means algorithm [13] and the Mardia test for multivariate normality [18, 19]. The new approach distinguishes from existing ones by its holistic design and its great autonomy regarding the clustering process as a whole. Its performance is demonstrated by means of synthetic 2D data and by real lifestyle survey data usable for market segmentation.
An Image Encryption Method with Magnitude and Phase Manipulation using Carrier Images
We describe an effective method for image encryption which employs magnitude and phase manipulation using carrier images. Although it involves traditional methods like magnitude and phase encryptions, the novelty of this work lies in deploying the concept of carrier images for encryption purpose. To this end, a carrier image is randomly chosen from a set of stored images. One dimensional (1-D) discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is then carried out on the original image to be encrypted along with the carrier image. Row wise spectral addition and scaling is performed between the magnitude spectra of the original and carrier images by randomly selecting the rows. Similarly, row wise phase addition and scaling is performed between the original and carrier images phase spectra by randomly selecting the rows. The encrypted image obtained by these two operations is further subjected to one more level of magnitude and phase manipulation using another randomly chosen carrier image by 1-D DFT along the columns. The resulting encrypted image is found to be fully distorted, resulting in increasing the robustness of the proposed work. Further, applying the reverse process at the receiver, the decrypted image is found to be distortionless.
A New Image Encryption Approach using Combinational Permutation Techniques
This paper proposes a new approach for image encryption using a combination of different permutation techniques. The main idea behind the present work is that an image can be viewed as an arrangement of bits, pixels and blocks. The intelligible information present in an image is due to the correlations among the bits, pixels and blocks in a given arrangement. This perceivable information can be reduced by decreasing the correlation among the bits, pixels and blocks using certain permutation techniques. This paper presents an approach for a random combination of the aforementioned permutations for image encryption. From the results, it is observed that the permutation of bits is effective in significantly reducing the correlation thereby decreasing the perceptual information, whereas the permutation of pixels and blocks are good at producing higher level security compared to bit permutation. A random combination method employing all the three techniques thus is observed to be useful for tactical security applications, where protection is needed only against a casual observer.
Using the Semantic Web in Ubiquitous and Mobile Computing: the Morfeo Experience

With the advent of emerging personal computing paradigms such as ubiquitous and mobile computing, Web contents are becoming accessible from a wide range of mobile devices. Since these devices do not have the same rendering capabilities, Web contents need to be adapted for transparent access from a variety of client agents. Such content adaptation results in better rendering and faster delivery to the client device. Nevertheless, Web content adaptation sets new challenges for semantic markup. This paper presents an advanced components platform, called MorfeoSMC, enabling the development of mobility applications and services according to a channel model based on Services Oriented Architecture (SOA) principles. It then goes on to describe the potential for integration with the Semantic Web through a novel framework of external semantic annotation of mobile Web contents. The role of semantic annotation in this framework is to describe the contents of individual documents themselves, assuring the preservation of the semantics during the process of adapting content rendering, as well as to exploit these semantic annotations in a novel user profile-aware content adaptation process. Semantic Web content adaptation is a way of adding value to and facilitates repurposing of Web contents (enhanced browsing, Web Services location and access, etc).

Defining a Semantic Web-based Framework for Enabling Automatic Reasoning on CIM-based Management Platforms
CIM is the standard formalism for modeling management information developed by the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) in the context of its WBEM proposal, designed to provide a conceptual view of the managed environment. In this paper, we propose the inclusion of formal knowledge representation techniques, based on Description Logics (DLs) and the Web Ontology Language (OWL), in CIM-based conceptual modeling, and then we examine the benefits of such a decision. The proposal is specified as a CIM metamodel level mapping to a highly expressive subset of DLs capable of capturing all the semantics of the models. The paper shows how the proposed mapping provides CIM diagrams with precise semantics and can be used for automatic reasoning about the management information models, as a design aid, by means of newgeneration CASE tools, thanks to the use of state-of-the-art automatic reasoning systems that support the proposed logic and use algorithms that are sound and complete with respect to the semantics. Such a CASE tool framework has been developed by the authors and its architecture is also introduced. The proposed formalization is not only useful at design time, but also at run time through the use of rational autonomous agents, in response to a need recently recognized by the DMTF.
LOD Exploitation and Fast Silhouette Detection for Shadow Volumes
Shadows add great amount of realism to a scene and many algorithms exists to generate shadows. Recently, Shadow volumes (SVs) have made great achievements to place a valuable position in the gaming industries. Looking at this, we concentrate on simple but valuable initial partial steps for further optimization in SV generation, i.e.; model simplification and silhouette edge detection and tracking. Shadow volumes (SVs) usually takes time in generating boundary silhouettes of the object and if the object is complex then the generation of edges become much harder and slower in process. The challenge gets stiffer when real time shadow generation and rendering is demanded. We investigated a way to use the real time silhouette edge detection method, which takes the advantage of spatial and temporal coherence, and exploit the level-of-details (LOD) technique for reducing silhouette edges of the model to use the simplified version of the model for shadow generation speeding up the running time. These steps highly reduce the execution time of shadow volume generations in real-time and are easily flexible to any of the recently proposed SV techniques. Our main focus is to exploit the LOD and silhouette edge detection technique, adopting them to further enhance the shadow volume generations for real time rendering.
On the Application of Meta-Design Techniques in Hardware Design Domain
System-level design based on high-level abstractions is becoming increasingly important in hardware and embedded system design. This paper analyzes meta-design techniques oriented at developing meta-programs and meta-models for well-understood domains. Meta-design techniques include meta-programming and meta-modeling. At the programming level of design process, metadesign means developing generic components that are usable in a wider context of application than original domain components. At the modeling level, meta-design means developing design patterns that describe general solutions to the common recurring design problems, and meta-models that describe the relationship between different types of design models and abstractions. The paper describes and evaluates the implementation of meta-design in hardware design domain using object-oriented and meta-programming techniques. The presented ideas are illustrated with a case study.
Factors Influencing Rote Learner's Intention to Use WBL: Developing Country Study

Previous researches found that conventional WBL is effective for meaningful learner, because rote learner learn by repeating without thinking or trying to understand. It is impossible to have full benefit from conventional WBL. Understanding of rote learner-s intention and what influences it becomes important. Poorly designed user interface will discourage rote learner-s cultivation and intention to use WBL. Thus, user interface design is an important factor especially when WBL is used as comprehensive replacement of conventional teaching. This research proposes the influencing factors that can enhance learner-s intention to use the system. The enhanced TAM is used for evaluating the proposed factors. The research result points out that factors influencing rote learner-s intention are Perceived Usefulness of Homepage Content Structure, Perceived User Friendly Interface, Perceived Hedonic Component, and Perceived (homepage) Visual Attractiveness.

Model Transformation with a Visual Control Flow Language
Graph rewriting-based visual model processing is a widely used technique for model transformation. Visual model transformations often need to follow an algorithm that requires a strict control over the execution sequence of the transformation steps. Therefore, in Visual Model Processors (VMPs) the execution order of the transformation steps is crucial. This paper presents the visual control flow support of Visual Modeling and Transformation System (VMTS), which facilitates composing complex model transformations of simple transformation steps and executing them. The VMTS Visual Control Flow Language (VCFL) uses stereotyped activity diagrams to specify control flow structures and OCL constraints to choose between different control flow branches. This paper introduces VCFL, discusses its termination properties and provides an algorithm to support the termination analysis of VCFL transformations.
Modified Functional Link Artificial Neural Network
In this work, a Modified Functional Link Artificial Neural Network (M-FLANN) is proposed which is simpler than a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and improves upon the universal approximation capability of Functional Link Artificial Neural Network (FLANN). MLP and its variants: Direct Linear Feedthrough Artificial Neural Network (DLFANN), FLANN and M-FLANN have been implemented to model a simulated Water Bath System and a Continually Stirred Tank Heater (CSTH). Their convergence speed and generalization ability have been compared. The networks have been tested for their interpolation and extrapolation capability using noise-free and noisy data. The results show that M-FLANN which is computationally cheap, performs better and has greater generalization ability than other networks considered in the work.
Binary Decision Diagrams: An Improved Variable Ordering using Graph Representation of Boolean Functions

This paper presents an improved variable ordering method to obtain the minimum number of nodes in Reduced Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (ROBDD). The proposed method uses the graph topology to find the best variable ordering. Therefore the input Boolean function is converted to a unidirectional graph. Three levels of graph parameters are used to increase the probability of having a good variable ordering. The initial level uses the total number of nodes (NN) in all the paths, the total number of paths (NP) and the maximum number of nodes among all paths (MNNAP). The second and third levels use two extra parameters: The shortest path among two variables (SP) and the sum of shortest path from one variable to all the other variables (SSP). A permutation of the graph parameters is performed at each level for each variable order and the number of nodes is recorded. Experimental results are promising; the proposed method is found to be more effective in finding the variable ordering for the majority of benchmark circuits.

Fuzzy based Security Threshold Determining for the Statistical En-Route Filtering in Sensor Networks

In many sensor network applications, sensor nodes are deployed in open environments, and hence are vulnerable to physical attacks, potentially compromising the node's cryptographic keys. False sensing report can be injected through compromised nodes, which can lead to not only false alarms but also the depletion of limited energy resource in battery powered networks. Ye et al. proposed a statistical en-route filtering scheme (SEF) to detect such false reports during the forwarding process. In this scheme, the choice of a security threshold value is important since it trades off detection power and overhead. In this paper, we propose a fuzzy logic for determining a security threshold value in the SEF based sensor networks. The fuzzy logic determines a security threshold by considering the number of partitions in a global key pool, the number of compromised partitions, and the energy level of nodes. The fuzzy based threshold value can conserve energy, while it provides sufficient detection power.

Information Modelling for Adaptive Composition in Collaborative Work Environment
Extensive information is required within a R&D environment, and a considerable amount of time and efforts are being spent on finding the necessary information. An adaptive information providing system would be beneficial to the environment, and a conceptual model of the resources, people and context is mandatory for developing such applications. In this paper, an information model on various contexts and resources is proposed which provides the possibility of effective applications for use in adaptive information systems within a R&D project and meeting environment.
Grid Based and Random Based Ant Colony Algorithms for Automatic Hose Routing in 3D Space
Ant Colony Algorithms have been applied to difficult combinatorial optimization problems such as the travelling salesman problem and the quadratic assignment problem. In this paper gridbased and random-based ant colony algorithms are proposed for automatic 3D hose routing and their pros and cons are discussed. The algorithm uses the tessellated format for the obstacles and the generated hoses in order to detect collisions. The representation of obstacles and hoses in the tessellated format greatly helps the algorithm towards handling free-form objects and speeds up computation. The performance of algorithm has been tested on a number of 3D models.
A Mark-Up Approach to Add Value

This paper presents a mark-up approach to service creation in Next Generation Networks. The approach allows deriving added value from network functions exposed by Parlay/OSA (Open Service Access) interfaces. With OSA interfaces service logic scripts might be executed both on callrelated and call-unrelated events. To illustrate the approach XMLbased language constructions for data and method definitions, flow control, time measuring and supervision and database access are given and an example of OSA application is considered.

A Computational Stochastic Modeling Formalism for Biological Networks

Stochastic models of biological networks are well established in systems biology, where the computational treatment of such models is often focused on the solution of the so-called chemical master equation via stochastic simulation algorithms. In contrast to this, the development of storage-efficient model representations that are directly suitable for computer implementation has received significantly less attention. Instead, a model is usually described in terms of a stochastic process or a "higher-level paradigm" with graphical representation such as e.g. a stochastic Petri net. A serious problem then arises due to the exponential growth of the model-s state space which is in fact a main reason for the popularity of stochastic simulation since simulation suffers less from the state space explosion than non-simulative numerical solution techniques. In this paper we present transition class models for the representation of biological network models, a compact mathematical formalism that circumvents state space explosion. Transition class models can also serve as an interface between different higher level modeling paradigms, stochastic processes and the implementation coded in a programming language. Besides, the compact model representation provides the opportunity to apply non-simulative solution techniques thereby preserving the possible use of stochastic simulation. Illustrative examples of transition class representations are given for an enzyme-catalyzed substrate conversion and a part of the bacteriophage λ lysis/lysogeny pathway.

A Comparative Study of Main Memory Databases and Disk-Resident Databases
Main Memory Database systems (MMDB) store their data in main physical memory and provide very high-speed access. Conventional database systems are optimized for the particular characteristics of disk storage mechanisms. Memory resident systems, on the other hand, use different optimizations to structure and organize data, as well as to make it reliable. This paper provides a brief overview on MMDBs and one of the memory resident systems named FastDB and compares the processing time of this system with a typical disc resident database based on the results of the implementation of TPC benchmarks environment on both.
Weighted Clustering Coefficient for Identifying Modular Formations in Protein-Protein Interaction Networks
This paper describes a novel approach for deriving modules from protein-protein interaction networks, which combines functional information with topological properties of the network. This approach is based on weighted clustering coefficient, which uses weights representing the functional similarities between the proteins. These weights are calculated according to the semantic similarity between the proteins, which is based on their Gene Ontology terms. We recently proposed an algorithm for identification of functional modules, called SWEMODE (Semantic WEights for MODule Elucidation), that identifies dense sub-graphs containing functionally similar proteins. The rational underlying this approach is that each module can be reduced to a set of triangles (protein triplets connected to each other). Here, we propose considering semantic similarity weights of all triangle-forming edges between proteins. We also apply varying semantic similarity thresholds between neighbours of each node that are not neighbours to each other (and hereby do not form a triangle), to derive new potential triangles to include in module-defining procedure. The results show an improvement of pure topological approach, in terms of number of predicted modules that match known complexes.
Capturing an Unknown Moving Target in Unknown Territory using Vision and Coordination
In this paper we present an extension to Vision Based LRTA* (VLRTA*) known as Vision Based Moving Target Search (VMTS) for capturing unknown moving target in unknown territory with randomly generated obstacles. Target position is unknown to the agents and they cannot predict its position using any probability method. Agents have omni directional vision but can see in one direction at some point in time. Agent-s vision will be blocked by the obstacles in the search space so agent can not see through the obstacles. Proposed algorithm is evaluated on large number of scenarios. Scenarios include grids of sizes from 10x10 to 100x100. Grids had obstacles randomly placed, occupying 0% to 50%, in increments of 10%, of the search space. Experiments used 2 to 9 agents for each randomly generated maze with same obstacle ratio. Observed results suggests that VMTS is effective in locate target time, solution quality and virtual target. In addition, VMTS becomes more efficient if the number of agents is increased with proportion to obstacle ratio.
Design an Electronic Market Framework Using JADE Environment

The daily growing use of agents in software environments, because of many reasons such as independence and intelligence is not a secret anymore. One of such environments in which there is a prominent job for the agents would be emarketplaces in which a user is able to give those agents the responsibility of buying and selling, instead of searching the emarketplace himself. Making up a framework which has sufficient attention to the required roles and their relations, is the first step of achieving such e-markets. In this paper, we suggest a framework in order to establish such e-markets and we will continue investigating the roles such as seller or buyer and the relations in JADE environment in details.

A New Method for Complex Goods Selection in Electronic Markets
After the development of the Internet a suitable discipline for trading goods electronically has been emerged. However, this type of markets is not still mature enough in order to become independent and get closer to seller/buyer-s needs. Furthermore, the buyable and sellable goods in these markets still don-t have essential standards for being well-defined. In this paper, we will present a model for development of a market which can contain goods with variable definitions and we will also investigate its characteristics. Besides, by noticing the fact that people have different discriminations, it-s figured out that the significance of each attribute of a specific product may vary from different people-s view points. Consequently we-ll present a model for weighting and accordingly different people-s view points could be satisfied. These two aspects will be discussed completely throughout this paper.
Statistical Genetic Algorithm
Adaptive Genetic Algorithms extend the Standard Gas to use dynamic procedures to apply evolutionary operators such as crossover, mutation and selection. In this paper, we try to propose a new adaptive genetic algorithm, which is based on the statistical information of the population as a guideline to tune its crossover, selection and mutation operators. This algorithms is called Statistical Genetic Algorithm and is compared with traditional GA in some benchmark problems.
Relational Representation in XCSF
Generalization is one of the most challenging issues of Learning Classifier Systems. This feature depends on the representation method which the system used. Considering the proposed representation schemes for Learning Classifier System, it can be concluded that many of them are designed to describe the shape of the region which the environmental states belong and the other relations of the environmental state with that region was ignored. In this paper, we propose a new representation scheme which is designed to show various relationships between the environmental state and the region that is specified with a particular classifier.
Solving Bus Terminal Location Problem Using Genetic Algorithm
Bus networks design is an important problem in public transportation. The main step to this design, is determining the number of required terminals and their locations. This is an especial type of facility location problem, a large scale combinatorial optimization problem that requires a long time to be solved. The genetic algorithm (GA) is a search and optimization technique which works based on evolutionary principle of natural chromosomes. Specifically, the evolution of chromosomes due to the action of crossover, mutation and natural selection of chromosomes based on Darwin's survival-of-the-fittest principle, are all artificially simulated to constitute a robust search and optimization procedure. In this paper, we first state the problem as a mixed integer programming (MIP) problem. Then we design a new crossover and mutation for bus terminal location problem (BTLP). We tested the different parameters of genetic algorithm (for a sample problem) and obtained the optimal parameters for solving BTLP with numerical try and error.
Feature Selection Methods for an Improved SVM Classifier
Text categorization is the problem of classifying text documents into a set of predefined classes. After a preprocessing step, the documents are typically represented as large sparse vectors. When training classifiers on large collections of documents, both the time and memory restrictions can be quite prohibitive. This justifies the application of feature selection methods to reduce the dimensionality of the document-representation vector. In this paper, three feature selection methods are evaluated: Random Selection, Information Gain (IG) and Support Vector Machine feature selection (called SVM_FS). We show that the best results were obtained with SVM_FS method for a relatively small dimension of the feature vector. Also we present a novel method to better correlate SVM kernel-s parameters (Polynomial or Gaussian kernel).
An Optimization Model of CMMI-Based Software Project Risk Response Planning

Risk response planning is of importance for software project risk management (SPRM). In CMMI, risk management was in the third capability maturity level, which provides a framework for software project risk identification, assessment, risk planning, risk control. However, the CMMI-based SPRM currently lacks quantitative supporting tools, especially during the process of implementing software project risk planning. In this paper, an economic optimization model for selecting risk reduction actions in the phase of software project risk response planning is presented. Furthermore, an example taken from a Chinese software industry is illustrated to verify the application of this method. The research provides a risk decision method for project risk managers that can be used in the implementation of CMMI-based SPRM.

Feature Extraction from Aerial Photos
In Geographic Information System, one of the sources of obtaining needed geographic data is digitizing analog maps and evaluation of aerial and satellite photos. In this study, a method will be discussed which can be used to extract vectorial features and creating vectorized drawing files for aerial photos. At the same time a software developed for these purpose. Converting from raster to vector is also known as vectorization and it is the most important step when creating vectorized drawing files. In the developed algorithm, first of all preprocessing on the aerial photo is done. These are; converting to grayscale if necessary, reducing noise, applying some filters and determining the edge of the objects etc. After these steps, every pixel which constitutes the photo are followed from upper left to right bottom by examining its neighborhood relationship and one pixel wide lines or polylines obtained. The obtained lines have to be erased for preventing confusion while continuing vectorization because if not erased they can be perceived as new line, but if erased it can cause discontinuity in vector drawing so the image converted from 2 bit to 8 bit and the detected pixels are expressed as a different bit. In conclusion, the aerial photo can be converted to vector form which includes lines and polylines and can be opened in any CAD application.
Ottoman Script Recognition Using Hidden Markov Model
In this study, an OCR system for segmentation, feature extraction and recognition of Ottoman Scripts has been developed using handwritten characters. Detection of handwritten characters written by humans is a difficult process. Segmentation and feature extraction stages are based on geometrical feature analysis, followed by the chain code transformation of the main strokes of each character. The output of segmentation is well-defined segments that can be fed into any classification approach. The classes of main strokes are identified through left-right Hidden Markov Model (HMM).
Learning User Keystroke Patterns for Authentication
Keystroke authentication is a new access control system to identify legitimate users via their typing behavior. In this paper, machine learning techniques are adapted for keystroke authentication. Seven learning methods are used to build models to differentiate user keystroke patterns. The selected classification methods are Decision Tree, Naive Bayesian, Instance Based Learning, Decision Table, One Rule, Random Tree and K-star. Among these methods, three of them are studied in more details. The results show that machine learning is a feasible alternative for keystroke authentication. Compared to the conventional Nearest Neighbour method in the recent research, learning methods especially Decision Tree can be more accurate. In addition, the experiment results reveal that 3-Grams is more accurate than 2-Grams and 4-Grams for feature extraction. Also, combination of attributes tend to result higher accuracy.
Analog Circuit Design using Genetic Algorithm: Modified

Genetic Algorithm has been used to solve wide range of optimization problems. Some researches conduct on applying Genetic Algorithm to analog circuit design automation. These researches show a better performance due to the nature of Genetic Algorithm. In this paper a modified Genetic Algorithm is applied for analog circuit design automation. The modifications are made to the topology of the circuit. These modifications will lead to a more computationally efficient algorithm.

Fuzzy T-Neighborhood Groups Acting on Sets
In this paper, The T-G-action topology on a set acted on by a fuzzy T-neighborhood (T-neighborhood, for short) group is defined as a final T-neighborhood topology with respect to a set of maps. We mainly prove that this topology is a T-regular Tneighborhood topology.
Optimized Detection in Multi-Antenna System using Particle Swarm Algorithm
In this paper we propose a Particle Swarm heuristic optimized Multi-Antenna (MA) system. Efficient MA systems detection is performed using a robust stochastic evolutionary computation algorithm based on movement and intelligence of swarms. This iterative particle swarm optimized (PSO) detector significantly reduces the computational complexity of conventional Maximum Likelihood (ML) detection technique. The simulation results achieved with this proposed MA-PSO detection algorithm show near optimal performance when compared with ML-MA receiver. The performance of proposed detector is convincingly better for higher order modulation schemes and large number of antennas where conventional ML detector becomes non-practical.
Adaptive Hierarchical Key Structure Generation for Key Management in Wireless Sensor Networks using A*

Wireless Sensor networks have a wide spectrum of civil and military applications that call for secure communication such as the terrorist tracking, target surveillance in hostile environments. For the secure communication in these application areas, we propose a method for generating a hierarchical key structure for the efficient group key management. In this paper, we apply A* algorithm in generating a hierarchical key structure by considering the history data of the ratio of addition and eviction of sensor nodes in a location where sensor nodes are deployed. Thus generated key tree structure provides an efficient way of managing the group key in terms of energy consumption when addition and eviction event occurs. A* algorithm tries to minimize the number of messages needed for group key management by the history data. The experimentation with the tree shows efficiency of the proposed method.

Making Computer Learn Color
Color categorization is shared among members in a society. This allows communication of color, especially when using natural language such as English. Hence sociable robot, to live coexist with human in human society, must also have the shared color categorization. To achieve this, many works have been done relying on modeling of human color perception and mathematical complexities. In contrast, in this work, the computer as brain of the robot learns color categorization through interaction with humans without much mathematical complexities.
Evaluation Method for Information Security Levels of CIIP (Critical Information Infrastructure Protection)
As the information age matures, major social infrastructures such as communication, finance, military and energy, have become ever more dependent on information communication systems. And since these infrastructures are connected to the Internet, electronic intrusions such as hacking and viruses have become a new security threat. Especially, disturbance or neutralization of a major social infrastructure can result in extensive material damage and social disorder. To address this issue, many nations around the world are researching and developing various techniques and information security policies as a government-wide effort to protect their infrastructures from newly emerging threats. This paper proposes an evaluation method for information security levels of CIIP (Critical Information Infrastructure Protection), which can enhance the security level of critical information infrastructure by checking the current security status and establish security measures accordingly to protect infrastructures effectively.
Domain-based Key Management Scheme for Active Network
Active network was developed to solve the problem of the current sharing-based network–difficulty in applying new technology, service or standard, and duplicated operation at several protocol layers. Active network can transport the packet loaded with the executable codes, which enables to change the state of the network node. However, if the network node is placed in the sharing-based network, security and safety issues should be resolved. To satisfy this requirement, various security aspects are required such as authentication, authorization, confidentiality and integrity. Among these security components, the core factor is the encryption key. As a result, this study is designed to propose the scheme that manages the encryption key, which is used to provide security of the comprehensive active directory, based on the domain.
Fuzzy Shortest Paths Approximation for Solving the Fuzzy Steiner Tree Problem in Graphs
In this paper, we deal with the Steiner tree problem (STP) on a graph in which a fuzzy number, instead of a real number, is assigned to each edge. We propose a modification of the shortest paths approximation based on the fuzzy shortest paths (FSP) evaluations. Since a fuzzy min operation using the extension principle leads to nondominated solutions, we propose another approach to solving the FSP using Cheng's centroid point fuzzy ranking method.
Movement Analysis in Parkinson's Disease

We analyze hand dexterity in Parkinson-s disease patients (PD) and control subjects using a natural manual transport task (moving an object from one place to another). Eight PD patients and ten control subjects performed the task repeatedly at maximum speed both in OFF and ON medicated status. The movement parameters and the grip and load forces were recorded by a single optoelectronic camera and force transducers built in the especially designed object. Using the force and velocity signals, ten subsequent phases of the transport movement were defined and their durations were measured. The outline of 3D optical measurement is presented to obtain more precise movement trajectory.

Utilizing Dutch Auction in an Agent-based Model E-commerce System
Recently, we have presented an initial implementation of a model agent-based e-commerce system, which utilized a simple price negotiation mechanism–English Auction. In this note we discuss how a Dutch Auction involving multiple units of a product can be included in our system. We present UML diagrams of agents involved in price negotiations and briefly discuss rule-based mechanism exemplifying Dutch Auction.
Agent-Based Simulation of Simulating Anticipatory Systems – Classification

The present paper is oriented to classification and application of agent technique in simulation of anticipatory systems, namely those that use simulation models for the aid of anticipation. The main ideas root in the fact that the best way for description of computer simulation models is the technique of describing the simulated system itself (and the translation into the computer code is provided as automatic), and that the anticipation itself is often nested.

An Edit-Distance Algorithm to Detect Correlated Attacks in Distributed Systems
Intrusion detection systems (IDS)are crucial components of the security mechanisms of today-s computer systems. Existing research on intrusion detection has focused on sequential intrusions. However, intrusions can also be formed by concurrent interactions of multiple processes. Some of the intrusions caused by these interactions cannot be detected using sequential intrusion detection methods. Therefore, there is a need for a mechanism that views the distributed system as a whole. L-BIDS (Lattice-Based Intrusion Detection System) is proposed to address this problem. In the L-BIDS framework, a library of intrusions and distributed traces are represented as lattices. Then these lattices are compared in order to detect intrusions in the distributed traces.
Health Assessment of Electronic Products using Mahalanobis Distance and Projection Pursuit Analysis
With increasing complexity in electronic systems there is a need for system level anomaly detection and fault isolation. Anomaly detection based on vector similarity to a training set is used in this paper through two approaches, one the preserves the original information, Mahalanobis Distance (MD), and the other that compresses the data into its principal components, Projection Pursuit Analysis. These methods have been used to detect deviations in system performance from normal operation and for critical parameter isolation in multivariate environments. The study evaluates the detection capability of each approach on a set of test data with known faults against a baseline set of data representative of such “healthy" systems.
Baseline Performance of Notebook Computer under Various Environmental and Usage Conditions for Prognostics
A study was conducted to formally characterize notebook computer performance under various environmental and usage conditions. Software was developed to collect data from the operating system of the computer. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance parameters- variations, trends, and correlations, as well as the extreme value they can attain in various usage and environmental conditions. An automated software script was written to simulate user activity. The variability of each performance parameter was addressed by establishing the empirical relationship between performance parameters. These equations were presented as baseline estimates for performance parameters, which can be used to detect system deviations from normal operation and for prognostic assessment. The effect of environmental factors, including different power sources, ambient temperatures, humidity, and usage, on performance parameters of notebooks was studied.
Noise Removal from Surface Respiratory EMG Signal
The aim of this study was to remove the two principal noises which disturb the surface electromyography signal (Diaphragm). These signals are the electrocardiogram ECG artefact and the power line interference artefact. The algorithm proposed focuses on a new Lean Mean Square (LMS) Widrow adaptive structure. These structures require a reference signal that is correlated with the noise contaminating the signal. The noise references are then extracted : first with a noise reference mathematically constructed using two different cosine functions; 50Hz (the fundamental) function and 150Hz (the first harmonic) function for the power line interference and second with a matching pursuit technique combined to an LMS structure for the ECG artefact estimation. The two removal procedures are attained without the use of supplementary electrodes. These techniques of filtering are validated on real records of surface diaphragm electromyography signal. The performance of the proposed methods was compared with already conducted research results.
Mechanical Modeling Issues in Optimization of Dynamic Behavior of RF MEMS Switches
This paper details few mechanical modeling and design issues of RF MEMS switches. We concentrate on an electrostatically actuated broad side series switch; surface micromachined with a crab leg membrane. The same results are extended to any complex structure. With available experimental data and fabrication results, we present the variation in dynamic performance and compliance of the switch with reference to few design issues, which we find are critical in deciding the dynamic behavior of the switch, without compromise on the RF characteristics. The optimization of pull in voltage, transient time and resonant frequency with regard to these critical design parameters are also presented.
Integrated Energy-Aware Mechanism for MANETs using On-demand Routing
Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) are multi-hop wireless networks in which all nodes cooperatively maintain network connectivity. In such a multi-hop wireless network, every node may be required to perform routing in order to achieve end-to-end communication among nodes. These networks are energy constrained as most ad hoc mobile nodes today operate with limited battery power. Hence, it is important to minimize the energy consumption of the entire network in order to maximize the lifetime of ad hoc networks. In this paper, a mechanism involving the integration of load balancing approach and transmission power control approach is introduced to maximize the life-span of MANETs. The mechanism is applied on Ad hoc On-demand Vector (AODV) protocol to make it as energy aware AODV (EA_AODV). The simulation is carried out using GloMoSim2.03 simulator. The results show that the proposed mechanism reduces the average required transmission energy per packet compared to the standard AODV.
Method for Determining the Probing Points for Efficient Measurement of Freeform Surface

In inspection and workpiece localization, sampling point data is an important issue. Since the devices for sampling only sample discrete points, not the completely surface, sampling size and location of the points will be taken into consideration. In this paper a method is presented for determining the sampled points size and location for achieving efficient sampling. Firstly, uncertainty analysis of the localization parameters is investigated. A localization uncertainty model is developed to predict the uncertainty of the localization process. Using this model the minimum size of the sampled points is predicted. Secondly, based on the algebra theory an eigenvalue-optimal optimization is proposed. Then a freeform surface is used in the simulation. The proposed optimization is implemented. The simulation result shows its effectivity.

Inverse Problem Methodology for the Measurement of the Electromagnetic Parameters Using MLP Neural Network
This paper presents an approach which is based on the use of supervised feed forward neural network, namely multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network and finite element method (FEM) to solve the inverse problem of parameters identification. The approach is used to identify unknown parameters of ferromagnetic materials. The methodology used in this study consists in the simulation of a large number of parameters in a material under test, using the finite element method (FEM). Both variations in relative magnetic permeability and electrical conductivity of the material under test are considered. Then, the obtained results are used to generate a set of vectors for the training of MLP neural network. Finally, the obtained neural network is used to evaluate a group of new materials, simulated by the FEM, but not belonging to the original dataset. Noisy data, added to the probe measurements is used to enhance the robustness of the method. The reached results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach, and encourage future works on this subject.
PmSPARQL: Extended SPARQL for Multi-paradigm Path Extraction

In the last few years, the Semantic Web gained scientific acceptance as a means of relationships identification in knowledge base, widely known by semantic association. Query about complex relationships between entities is a strong requirement for many applications in analytical domains. In bioinformatics for example, it is critical to extract exchanges between proteins. Currently, the widely known result of such queries is to provide paths between connected entities from data graph. However, they do not always give good results while facing the user need by the best association or a set of limited best association, because they only consider all existing paths but ignore the path evaluation. In this paper, we present an approach for supporting association discovery queries. Our proposal includes (i) a query language PmSPRQL which provides a multiparadigm query expressions for association extraction and (ii) some quantification measures making easy the process of association ranking. The originality of our proposal is demonstrated by a performance evaluation of our approach on real world datasets.

Performance Evaluation of Powder Metallurgy Electrode in Electrical Discharge Machining of AISI D2 Steel Using Taguchi Method

In this paper an attempt has been made to correlate the usefulness of electrodes made through powder metallurgy (PM) in comparison with conventional copper electrode during electric discharge machining. Experimental results are presented on electric discharge machining of AISI D2 steel in kerosene with copper tungsten (30% Cu and 70% W) tool electrode made through powder metallurgy (PM) technique and Cu electrode. An L18 (21 37) orthogonal array of Taguchi methodology was used to identify the effect of process input factors (viz. current, duty cycle and flushing pressure) on the output factors {viz. material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (SR)}. It was found that CuW electrode (made through PM) gives high surface finish where as the Cu electrode is better for higher material removal rate.

Modeling Parametric Vibration of Multistage Gear Systems as a Tool for Design Optimization
This work presents a numerical model developed to simulate the dynamics and vibrations of a multistage tractor gearbox. The effect of time varying mesh stiffness, time varying frictional torque on the gear teeth, lateral and torsional flexibility of the shafts and flexibility of the bearings were included in the model. The model was developed by using the Lagrangian method, and it was applied to study the effect of three design variables on the vibration and stress levels on the gears. The first design variable, module, had little effect on the vibration levels but a higher module resulted to higher bending stress levels. The second design variable, pressure angle, had little effect on the vibration levels, but had a strong effect on the stress levels on the pinion of a high reduction ratio gear pair. A pressure angle of 25o resulted to lower stress levels for a pinion with 14 teeth than a pressure angle of 20o. The third design variable, contact ratio, had a very strong effect on both the vibration levels and bending stress levels. Increasing the contact ratio to 2.0 reduced both the vibration levels and bending stress levels significantly. For the gear train design used in this study, a module of 2.5 and contact ratio of 2.0 for the various meshes was found to yield the best combination of low vibration levels and low bending stresses. The model can therefore be used as a tool for obtaining the optimum gear design parameters for a given multistage spur gear train.
Optimization Approaches for a Complex Dairy Farm Simulation Model
This paper describes the optimization of a complex dairy farm simulation model using two quite different methods of optimization, the Genetic algorithm (GA) and the Lipschitz Branch-and-Bound (LBB) algorithm. These techniques have been used to improve an agricultural system model developed by Dexcel Limited, New Zealand, which describes a detailed representation of pastoral dairying scenarios and contains an 8-dimensional parameter space. The model incorporates the sub-models of pasture growth and animal metabolism, which are themselves complex in many cases. Each evaluation of the objective function, a composite 'Farm Performance Index (FPI)', requires simulation of at least a one-year period of farm operation with a daily time-step, and is therefore computationally expensive. The problem of visualization of the objective function (response surface) in high-dimensional spaces is also considered in the context of the farm optimization problem. Adaptations of the sammon mapping and parallel coordinates visualization are described which help visualize some important properties of the model-s output topography. From this study, it is found that GA requires fewer function evaluations in optimization than the LBB algorithm.
Development of Mathematical Model for Overall Oxygen Transfer Coefficient of an Aerator and Comparison with CFD Modeling
The value of overall oxygen transfer Coefficient (KLa), which is the best measure of oxygen transfer in water through aeration, is obtained by a simple approach, which sufficiently explains the utility of the method to eliminate the discrepancies due to inaccurate assumption of saturation dissolved oxygen concentration. The rate of oxygen transfer depends on number of factors like intensity of turbulence, which in turns depends on the speed of rotation, size, and number of blades, diameter and immersion depth of the rotor, and size and shape of aeration tank, as well as on physical, chemical, and biological characteristic of water. An attempt is made in this paper to correlate the overall oxygen transfer Coefficient (KLa), as an independent parameter with other influencing parameters mentioned above. It has been estimated that the simulation equation developed predicts the values of KLa and power with an average standard error of estimation of 0.0164 and 7.66 respectively and with R2 values of 0.979 and 0.989 respectively, when compared with experimentally determined values. The comparison of this model is done with the model generated using Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and both the models were found to be in good agreement with each other.
Investigation on Performance and Emission Characteristics of CI Engine Fuelled with Producer Gas and Esters of Hingan (Balanites)Oil in Dual Fuel Mode

Partial combustion of biomass in the gasifier generates producer gas that can be used for heating purposes and as supplementary or sole fuel in internal combustion engines. In this study, the virgin biomass obtained from hingan shell is used as the feedstock for gasifier to generate producer gas. The gasifier-engine system is operated on diesel and on esters of vegetable oil of hingan in liquid fuel mode operation and then on liquid fuel and producer gas combination in dual fuel mode operation. The performance and emission characteristics of the CI engine is analyzed by running the engine in liquid fuel mode operation and in dual fuel mode operation at different load conditions with respect to maximum diesel savings in the dual fuel mode operation. It was observed that specific energy consumption in the dual fuel mode of operation is found to be in the higher side at all load conditions. The brake thermal efficiency of the engine using diesel or hingan oil methyl ester (HOME) is higher than that of dual fuel mode operation. A diesel replacement in the tune of 60% in dual fuel mode is possible with the use of hingan shell producer gas. The emissions parameters such CO, HC, NOx, CO2 and smoke are higher in the case of dual fuel mode of operation as compared to that of liquid fuel mode.

Robust Adaptive Vibration Control with Application to a Robot Beam
This paper presents the adaptive control scheme with sliding mode compensator for vibration control problem in the presence of disturbance. The dynamic model of the flexible cantilever beam using finite element modeling is derived. The adaptive control with sliding mode compensator using output feedback for output tracking is developed to reject the external disturbance, and to improve the tracking performance. Satisfactory simulation results verify that the effectiveness of adaptive control scheme with sliding mode compensator.
Optimization of the Characteristic Straight Line Method by a “Best Estimate“ of Observed, Normal Orthometric Elevation Differences

In this paper, to optimize the “Characteristic Straight Line Method" which is used in the soil displacement analysis, a “best estimate" of the geodetic leveling observations has been achieved by taking in account the concept of 'Height systems'. This concept has been discussed in detail and consequently the concept of “height". In landslides dynamic analysis, the soil is considered as a mosaic of rigid blocks. The soil displacement has been monitored and analyzed by using the “Characteristic Straight Line Method". Its characteristic components have been defined constructed from a “best estimate" of the topometric observations. In the measurement of elevation differences, we have used the most modern leveling equipment available. Observational procedures have also been designed to provide the most effective method to acquire data. In addition systematic errors which cannot be sufficiently controlled by instrumentation or observational techniques are minimized by applying appropriate corrections to the observed data: the level collimation correction minimizes the error caused by nonhorizontality of the leveling instrument's line of sight for unequal sight lengths, the refraction correction is modeled to minimize the refraction error caused by temperature (density) variation of air strata, the rod temperature correction accounts for variation in the length of the leveling rod' s Invar/LO-VAR® strip which results from temperature changes, the rod scale correction ensures a uniform scale which conforms to the international length standard and the introduction of the concept of the 'Height systems' where all types of height (orthometric, dynamic, normal, gravity correction, and equipotential surface) have been investigated. The “Characteristic Straight Line Method" is slightly more convenient than the “Characteristic Circle Method". It permits to evaluate a displacement of very small magnitude even when the displacement is of an infinitesimal quantity. The inclination of the landslide is given by the inverse of the distance reference point O to the “Characteristic Straight Line". Its direction is given by the bearing of the normal directed from point O to the Characteristic Straight Line (Fig..6). A “best estimate" of the topometric observations was used to measure the elevation of points carefully selected, before and after the deformation. Gross errors have been eliminated by statistical analyses and by comparing the heights within local neighborhoods. The results of a test using an area where very interesting land surface deformation occurs are reported. Monitoring with different options and qualitative comparison of results based on a sufficient number of check points are presented.

Finite Element Application to Estimate Inservice Material Properties using Miniature Specimen
This paper presents a method for determining the uniaxial tensile properties such as Young-s modulus, yield strength and the flow behaviour of a material in a virtually non-destructive manner. To achieve this, a new dumb-bell shaped miniature specimen has been designed. This helps in avoiding the removal of large size material samples from the in-service component for the evaluation of current material properties. The proposed miniature specimen has an advantage in finite element modelling with respect to computational time and memory space. Test fixtures have been developed to enable the tension tests on the miniature specimen in a testing machine. The studies have been conducted in a chromium (H11) steel and an aluminum alloy (AR66). The output from the miniature test viz. load-elongation diagram is obtained and the finite element simulation of the test is carried out using a 2D plane stress analysis. The results are compared with the experimental results. It is observed that the results from the finite element simulation corroborate well with the miniature test results. The approach seems to have potential to predict the mechanical properties of the materials, which could be used in remaining life estimation of the various in-service structures.
Finding Pareto Optimal Front for the Multi-Mode Time, Cost Quality Trade-off in Project Scheduling
Project managers are the ultimate responsible for the overall characteristics of a project, i.e. they should deliver the project on time with minimum cost and with maximum quality. It is vital for any manager to decide a trade-off between these conflicting objectives and they will be benefited of any scientific decision support tool. Our work will try to determine optimal solutions (rather than a single optimal solution) from which the project manager will select his desirable choice to run the project. In this paper, the problem in project scheduling notated as (1,T|cpm,disc,mu|curve:quality,time,cost) will be studied. The problem is multi-objective and the purpose is finding the Pareto optimal front of time, cost and quality of a project (curve:quality,time,cost), whose activities belong to a start to finish activity relationship network (cpm) and they can be done in different possible modes (mu) which are non-continuous or discrete (disc), and each mode has a different cost, time and quality . The project is constrained to a non-renewable resource i.e. money (1,T). Because the problem is NP-Hard, to solve the problem, a meta-heuristic is developed based on a version of genetic algorithm specially adapted to solve multi-objective problems namely FastPGA. A sample project with 30 activities is generated and then solved by the proposed method.
Instability Analysis of Laminated Composite Beams Subjected to Parametric Axial Load
The integral form of equations of motion of composite beams subjected to varying time loads are discretized using a developed finite element model. The model consists of a straight five node twenty-two degrees of freedom beam element. The stability analysis of the beams is studied by solving the matrix form characteristic equations of the system. The principle of virtual work and the first order shear deformation theory are employed to analyze the beams with large deformation and small strains. The regions of dynamic instability of the beam are determined by solving the obtained Mathieu form of differential equations. The effects of nonconservative loads, shear stiffness, and damping parameters on stability and response of the beams are examined. Several numerical calculations are presented to compare the results with data reported by other researchers.
Kinematic Modeling and Workspace Analysis of a Spatial Cable Suspended Robot as Incompletely Restrained Positioning Mechanism
This article proposes modeling, simulation and kinematic and workspace analysis of a spatial cable suspended robot as incompletely Restrained Positioning Mechanism (IRPM). These types of robots have six cables equal to the number of degrees of freedom. After modeling, the kinds of workspace are defined then an statically reachable combined workspace for different geometric structures of fixed and moving platform is obtained. This workspace is defined as the situations of reference point of the moving platform (center of mass) which under external forces such as weight and with ignorance of inertial effects, the moving platform should be in static equilibrium under conditions that length of all cables must not be exceeded from the maximum value and all of cables must be at tension (they must have non-negative tension forces). Then the effect of various parameters such as the size of moving platform, the size of fixed platform, geometric configuration of robots, magnitude of applied forces and moments to moving platform on workspace of these robots with different geometric configuration are investigated. Obtained results should be effective in employing these robots under different conditions of applied wrench for increasing the workspace volume.
Effect of Different Configurations of Mechanical Aerators on Oxygen Transfer and Aeration Efficiency with respect to Power Consumption
This paper examines the use of mechanical aerator for oxidation-ditch process. The rotor, which controls the aeration, is the main component of the aeration process. Therefore, the objective of this study is to find out the variations in overall oxygen transfer coefficient (KLa) and aeration efficiency (AE) for different configurations of aerator by varying the parameters viz. speed of aerator, depth of immersion, blade tip angles so as to yield higher values of KLa and AE. Six different configurations of aerator were developed and fabricated in the laboratory and were tested for abovementioned parameters. The curved blade rotor (CBR) emerged as a potential aerator with blade tip angle of 47°. The mathematical models are developed for predicting the behaviour of CBR w.r.t kLa and power. In laboratory studies, the optimum value of KLa and AE were observed to be 10.33 h-1 and 2.269 kg O2/ kWh.
Fast and Efficient On-Chip Interconnection Modeling for High Speed VLSI Systems
Timing driven physical design, synthesis, and optimization tools need efficient closed-form delay models for estimating the delay associated with each net in an integrated circuit (IC) design. The total number of nets in a modern IC design has increased dramatically and exceeded millions. Therefore efficient modeling of interconnection is needed for high speed IC-s. This paper presents closed–form expressions for RC and RLC interconnection trees in current mode signaling, which can be implemented in VLSI design tool. These analytical model expressions can be used for accurate calculation of delay after the design clock tree has been laid out and the design is fully routed. Evaluation of these analytical models is several orders of magnitude faster than simulation using SPICE.
Information Dissemination System (IDS) Based E-Learning in Agricultural of Iran (Perception of Iranian Extension Agents)

The purpose of the study reported here was designing Information Dissemination System (IDS) based E-learning in agricultural of Iran. A questionnaire was developed to designing Information Dissemination System. The questionnaire was distributed to 96 extension agents who work for Management of Extension and Farming System of Khuzestan province of Iran. Data collected were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Appropriate statistical procedures for description (frequencies, percent, means, and standard deviations) were used. In this study there was a significant relationship between the age , IT skill and knowledge, years of extension work, the extend of information seeking motivation, level of job satisfaction and level of education with use of information technology by extension agent. According to extension agents five factors were ranked respectively as five top essential items to designing Information Dissemination System (IDS) based E-learning in agricultural of Iran. These factors include: 1) Establish communication between farmers, coordinators (extension agents), agricultural experts, research centers, and community by information technology. 2) The communication between all should be mutual. 3) The information must be based farmers need. 4) Internet used as a facility to transfer the advanced agricultural information to the farming community. 5) Farmers can be illiterate and speak a local and they are not expected to use the system directly. Knowledge produced by the agricultural scientist must be transformed in to computer understandable presentation. To designing Information Dissemination System, electronic communication, in the agricultural society and rural areas must be developed. This communication must be mutual between all factors.

Automatically Generated and Marked E-Learning Exercises for Logistics Cost Accounting
This paper presents the concept and realisation of an e-learning tool that provides predefined or automatically generated exercises concerning logistics cost accounting. Students may practise where and whenever they like to via the Internet. Their solutions are marked automatically by the tool while considering consecutive faults and without any intervention of lecturers.
Animated Versus Static User Interfaces: A Study of Mathsigner™
In this paper we report a study aimed at determining the effects of animation on usability and appeal of educational software user interfaces. Specifically, the study compares 3 interfaces developed for the Mathsigner™ program: a static interface, an interface with highlighting/sound feedback, and an interface that incorporates five Disney animation principles. The main objectives of the comparative study were to: (1) determine which interface is the most effective for the target users of Mathsigner™ (e.g., children ages 5-11), and (2) identify any Gender and Age differences in using the three interfaces. To accomplish these goals we have designed an experiment consisting of a cognitive walkthrough and a survey with rating questions. Sixteen children ages 7-11 participated in the study, ten males and six females. Results showed no significant interface effect on user task performance (e.g., task completion time and number of errors); however, interface differences were seen in rating of appeal, with the animated interface rated more 'likeable' than the other two. Task performance and rating of appeal were not affected significantly by Gender or Age of the subjects.
The Role of Gender and Age on Students- Perceptions towards Online Education Case Study: Sakarya University, Vocational High School
The aim of this study is to find out and analyze the role of gender and age on the perceptions of students to the distant online program offered by Vocational High School in Sakarya University. The research is based on a questionnaire as a mean of data collection method to find out the role of age and gender on the student-s perceptions toward online education, and the study progressed through finding relationships between the variables used in the data collection instrument. The findings of the analysis revealed that although the students registered to the online program by will, they preferred the traditional face-to-face education due to the difficulty of the nonverbal communication, their incompetence of using the technology required, and their belief in traditional face-toface learning more than online education. Regarding gender, the results showed that the female students have a better perception of the online education as opposed to the male students. Regarding age, the results showed that the older the students are the more is their preference towards attending face-toface classes.
Interactive Methods of Design Education as the Principles of Social Implications of Modern Communities
The term interactive education indicates the meaning related with multidisciplinary aspects of distance education following contemporary means around a common basis with different functional requirements. The aim of this paper is to reflect the new techniques in education with the new methods and inventions. These methods are better supplied by interactivity. The integration of interactive facilities in the discipline of education with distance learning is not a new concept but in addition the usage of these methods on design issue is newly being adapted to design education. In this paper the general approach of this method and after the analysis of different samples, the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches are being identified. The method of this paper is to evaluate the related samples and then analyzing the main hypothesis. The main focus is to mention the formation processes of this education. Technological developments in education should be filtered around the necessities of the design education and the structure of the system could then be formed or renewed. The conclusion indicates that interactive methods of education in design issue is a meaning capturing not only technical and computational intelligence aspects but also aesthetical and artistic approaches coming together around the same purpose.
Analysing the Elementary Science and Technology Coursebook and Student Workbook in Terms of Constructivism

The curriculum of the primary school science course was redesigned on the basis of constructivism in 2005-2006 academic years, in Turkey. In this context, the name of this course has been changed as “Science and Technology"; and both content and course books, students workbooks for this course have been redesigned in light of constructivism. The aim of this study is to determine whether the Science and Technology course books and student work books for primary school 5th grade are appropriate for the constructivism by evaluating them in terms of the fundamental principles of constructivism. In this study, out of qualitative research methods, documentation technique (i.e. document analysis) is applied; while selecting samples, criterion-sampling is used out of purposeful sampling techniques. When the Science and Technology course book and workbook for the 5th grade in primary education are examined, it is seen that both books complete each other in certain areas. Consequently, it can be claimed that in spite of some inadequate and missing points in the course book and workbook of the primary school Science and Technology course for the 5th grade students, these books are attempted to be designed in terms of the principles of constructivism. To overcome the inadequacies in the books, it can be suggested to redesign them. In addition to them, not to ignore the technology dimension of the course, the activities that encourage the students to prepare projects using technology cycle should be included.

Collaborative Professional Education for e-Teaching in Networked Schools
Networked schools have become a feature of education systems in countries that seek to provide learning opportunities in schools located beyond major centres of population. The internet and e-learning have facilitated the development of virtual educational structures that complement traditional schools, encouraging collaborative teaching and learning to proceed. In rural New Zealand and in the Atlantic Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, e-learning is able to provide new ways of organizing teaching, learning and the management of educational opportunities. However, the future of e-teaching and e-learning in networked schools depends on the development of professional education programs that prepare teachers for collaborative teaching and learning environments in which both virtual and traditional face to face instruction co-exist.
Critical Issues Affecting the Engagement by Staff in Professional Development for E-Learning: Findings from a Research Project within the Context of a National Tertiary Education Sector

This paper focuses on issues of engagement by staff in professional development related to the delivery of e-learning. The paper reports on findings drawn from a New Zealand research project which is producing a sector-wide framework for professional development in tertiary e-learning. The research findings indicate that staff engaged in e-learning in tertiary institutions is not making the most effective use of the professional development opportunities available to them; rather they seem to gain their knowledge and support from a variety of informal means. This is despite an emphasis on the provision of professional development opportunities by both Government Policies and Institutions themselves. The conclusion drawn from the findings is that institutional approaches to professional development for e-learning do not yet fully reflect the demands and constraints that working in a digital context impose.

Learning Style and Learner Satisfaction in a Course Delivery Context

This paper describes the results and implications of a correlational study of learning styles and learner satisfaction. The relationship of these empirical concepts was examined in the context of traditional versus e-blended modes of course delivery in an introductory graduate research course. Significant results indicated that the visual side of the visual-verbal dimension of students- learning style(s) was positively correlated to satisfaction with themselves as learners in an e-blended course delivery mode and negatively correlated to satisfaction with the classroom environment in the context of a traditional classroom course delivery mode.

Bureau Management Technologies and Information Systems in Developing Countries
This study focuses on bureau management technologies and information systems in developing countries. Developing countries use such systems which facilitate executive and organizational functions through the utilization of bureau management technologies and provide the executive staff with necessary information. The concepts of data and information differ from each other in developing countries, and thus the concepts of data processing and information processing are different. Symbols represent ideas, objects, figures, letters and numbers. Data processing system is an integrated system which deals with the processing of the data related to the internal and external environment of the organization in order to make decisions, create plans and develop strategies; it goes without saying that this system is composed of both human beings and machines. Information is obtained through the acquisition and the processing of data. On the other hand, data are raw communicative messages. Within this framework, data processing equals to producing plausible information out of raw data. Organizations in developing countries need to obtain information relevant to them because rapid changes in the organizational arena require rapid access to accurate information. The most significant role of the directors and managers who work in the organizational arena is to make decisions. Making a correct decision is possible only when the directors and managers are equipped with sound ideas and appropriate information. Therefore, acquisition, organization and distribution of information gain significance. Today-s organizations make use of computer-assisted “Management Information Systems" in order to obtain and distribute information. Decision Support System which is closely related to practice is an information system that facilitates the director-s task of making decisions. Decision Support System integrates human intelligence, information technology and software in order to solve the complex problems. With the support of the computer technology and software systems, Decision Support System produces information relevant to the decision to be made by the director and provides the executive staff with supportive ideas about the decision. Artificial Intelligence programs which transfer the studies and experiences of the people to the computer are called expert systems. An expert system stores expert information in a limited area and can solve problems by deriving rational consequences. Bureau management technologies and information systems in developing countries create a kind of information society and information economy which make those countries have their places in the global socio-economic structure and which enable them to play a reasonable and fruitful role; therefore it is of crucial importance to make use of information and management technologies in order to work together with innovative and enterprising individuals and it is also significant to create “scientific policies" based on information and technology in the fields of economy, politics, law and culture.
A Business Intelligence System Design Based on ASP Platform

The Informational Infrastructures of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises are relatively poor, there are serious shortages of capitals which can be invested in informatization construction, computer hardware and software resources, and human resources. To address the informatization issue in small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises, and enable them to the application of advanced management thinking and enhance their competitiveness, the paper establish a manufacturing-oriented small and medium-sized enterprises informatization platform based on the ASP business intelligence technology, which effectively improves the scientificity of enterprises decision and management informatization.

Using Radial Basis Function Neural Networks to Calibrate Water Quality Model
Modern managements of water distribution system (WDS) need water quality models that are able to accurately predict the dynamics of water quality variations within the distribution system environment. Before water quality models can be applied to solve system problems, they should be calibrated. Although former researchers use GA solver to calibrate relative parameters, it is difficult to apply on the large-scale or medium-scale real system for long computational time. In this paper a new method is designed which combines both macro and detailed model to optimize the water quality parameters. This new combinational algorithm uses radial basis function (RBF) metamodeling as a surrogate to be optimized for the purpose of decreasing the times of time-consuming water quality simulation and can realize rapidly the calibration of pipe wall reaction coefficients of chlorine model of large-scaled WDS. After two cases study this method is testified to be more efficient and promising, and deserve to generalize in the future.
Performance Analysis of Parallel Client-Server Model Versus Parallel Mobile Agent Model
Mobile agent has motivated the creation of a new methodology for parallel computing. We introduce a methodology for the creation of parallel applications on the network. The proposed Mobile-Agent parallel processing framework uses multiple Javamobile Agents. Each mobile agent can travel to the specified machine in the network to perform its tasks. We also introduce the concept of master agent, which is Java object capable of implementing a particular task of the target application. Master agent is dynamically assigns the task to mobile agents. We have developed and tested a prototype application: Mobile Agent Based Parallel Computing. Boosted by the inherited benefits of using Java and Mobile Agents, our proposed methodology breaks the barriers between the environments, and could potentially exploit in a parallel manner all the available computational resources on the network. This paper elaborates performance issues of a mobile agent for parallel computing.
Sorting Primitives and Genome Rearrangementin Bioinformatics: A Unified Perspective
Bioinformatics and computational biology involve the use of techniques including applied mathematics, informatics, statistics, computer science, artificial intelligence, chemistry, and biochemistry to solve biological problems usually on the molecular level. Research in computational biology often overlaps with systems biology. Major research efforts in the field include sequence alignment, gene finding, genome assembly, protein structure alignment, protein structure prediction, prediction of gene expression and proteinprotein interactions, and the modeling of evolution. Various global rearrangements of permutations, such as reversals and transpositions,have recently become of interest because of their applications in computational molecular biology. A reversal is an operation that reverses the order of a substring of a permutation. A transposition is an operation that swaps two adjacent substrings of a permutation. The problem of determining the smallest number of reversals required to transform a given permutation into the identity permutation is called sorting by reversals. Similar problems can be defined for transpositions and other global rearrangements. In this work we perform a study about some genome rearrangement primitives. We show how a genome is modelled by a permutation, introduce some of the existing primitives and the lower and upper bounds on them. We then provide a comparison of the introduced primitives.
Block Sorting: A New Characterization and a New Heuristic
The Block Sorting problem is to sort a given permutation moving blocks. A block is defined as a substring of the given permutation, which is also a substring of the identity permutation. Block Sorting has been proved to be NP-Hard. Until now two different 2-Approximation algorithms have been presented for block sorting. These are the best known algorithms for Block Sorting till date. In this work we present a different characterization of Block Sorting in terms of a transposition cycle graph. Then we suggest a heuristic, which we show to exhibit a 2-approximation performance guarantee for most permutations.
A Novel Impulse Detector for Filtering of Highly Corrupted Images
As the performance of the filtering system depends upon the accuracy of the noise detection scheme, in this paper, we present a new scheme for impulse noise detection based on two levels of decision. In this scheme in the first stage we coarsely identify the corrupted pixels and in the second stage we finally decide whether the pixel under consideration is really corrupt or not. The efficacy of the proposed filter has been confirmed by extensive simulations.
An Improved Switching Median filter for Uniformly Distributed Impulse Noise Removal
The performance of an image filtering system depends on its ability to detect the presence of noisy pixels in the image. Most of the impulse detection schemes assume the presence of salt and pepper noise in the images and do not work satisfactorily in case of uniformly distributed impulse noise. In this paper, a new algorithm is presented to improve the performance of switching median filter in detection of uniformly distributed impulse noise. The performance of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by the results obtained from computer simulations on various images.
Quantitative Study for Exchange of Gases from Open Sewer Channel to Atmosphere
In this communication a quantitative modeling approach is applied to construct model for the exchange of gases from open sewer channel to the atmosphere. The data for the exchange of gases of the open sewer channel for the year January 1979 to December 2006 is utilized for the construction of the model. The study reveals that stream flow of the open sewer channel exchanges the toxic gases continuously with time varying scale. We find that the quantitative modeling approach is more parsimonious model for these exchanges. The usual diagnostic tests are applied for the model adequacy. This model is beneficial for planner and managerial bodies for the improvement of implemented policies to overcome future environmental problems.
Easy Shopping by Electronic Credit
In this paper we suggest a method for setting electronic credits for the customers. In this method banks and market-sites help each other to make doing large shopping through internet so easy. By developing this system, the people who have less money to buy most of the things they want, become able to buy all of them just through a credit. This credit is given by market-sites through a banking control on it. The method suggested can stop being imprisoned because of banking debts.
A Robust Watermarking using Blind Source Separation
In this paper, we present a robust and secure algorithm for watermarking, the watermark is first transformed into the frequency domain using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Then the entire DWT coefficient except the LL (Band) discarded, these coefficients are permuted and encrypted by specific mixing. The encrypted coefficients are inserted into the most significant spectral components of the stego-image using a chaotic system. This technique makes our watermark non-vulnerable to the attack (like compression, and geometric distortion) of an active intruder, or due to noise in the transmission link.
Real Time Approach for Data Placement in Wireless Sensor Networks

The issue of real-time and reliable report delivery is extremely important for taking effective decision in a real world mission critical Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) based application. The sensor data behaves differently in many ways from the data in traditional databases. WSNs need a mechanism to register, process queries, and disseminate data. In this paper we propose an architectural framework for data placement and management. We propose a reliable and real time approach for data placement and achieving data integrity using self organized sensor clusters. Instead of storing information in individual cluster heads as suggested in some protocols, in our architecture we suggest storing of information of all clusters within a cell in the corresponding base station. For data dissemination and action in the wireless sensor network we propose to use Action and Relay Stations (ARS). To reduce average energy dissipation of sensor nodes, the data is sent to the nearest ARS rather than base station. We have designed our architecture in such a way so as to achieve greater energy savings, enhanced availability and reliability.

Optimal Placement of Processors based on Effective Communication Load
This paper presents a new technique for the optimum placement of processors to minimize the total effective communication load under multi-processor communication dominated environment. This is achieved by placing heavily loaded processors near each other and lightly loaded ones far away from one another in the physical grid locations. The results are mathematically proved for the Algorithms are described.
eTax Filing and Service Quality: The Case of the Revenue Online Service

This paper describes an ongoing study into the quality of service provided by the Irish Revenue Commisioners- online tax filing and collection system. The Irish Revenue On-Line Service (ROS) site has won several awards. In this study, a version of the widely use SERVQUAL measuring instrument, adapted for use with online services, has been modified for the specific case of ROS. In this paper, the theory behind this instrument is set out, the particular problems of evaluating revenue collecting online are examined and the rationale for this approach is explained.

A Study on Multi-Agent Behavior in a Soccer Game Domain
There have been many games developing simulation of soccer games. Many of these games have been designed with highly realistic features to attract more users. Many have also incorporated better artificial intelligent (AI) similar to that in a real soccer game. One of the challenging issues in a soccer game is the cooperation, coordination and negotiation among distributed agents in a multi-agent system. This paper focuses on the incorporation of multi-agent technique in a soccer game domain. The better the cooperation of a multi-agent team, the more intelligent the game will be. Thus, past studies were done on the robotic soccer game because of the better multi-agent system implementation. From this study, a better approach and technique of multi-agent behavior could be select to improve the author-s 2D online soccer game.
Proposing a Conceptual Model of Customer Knowledge Management: A Study of CKM Tools in British Dotcoms

Although current competitive challenges induced by today-s digital economy place their main emphasis on organizational knowledge, customer knowledge has been overlooked. On the other hand, the business community has finally begun to realize the important role customer knowledge can play in the organizational boundaries of the corporate arena. As a result, there is an emerging market for the tools and utilities whose objective is to provide the intelligence for knowledge sharing between the businesses and their customers. In this paper, we present a conceptual model of customer knowledge management by identifying and analyzing the existing tools in the market. The focus will be upon the emerging British dotcom industry whose customer based B2C behavior has been an influential part of the knowledge based intelligence tools in existence today.

Enhanced Traveling Salesman Problem Solving by Genetic Algorithm Technique (TSPGA)

The well known NP-complete problem of the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) is coded in genetic form. A software system is proposed to determine the optimum route for a Traveling Salesman Problem using Genetic Algorithm technique. The system starts from a matrix of the calculated Euclidean distances between the cities to be visited by the traveling salesman and a randomly chosen city order as the initial population. Then new generations are then created repeatedly until the proper path is reached upon reaching a stopping criterion. This search is guided by a solution evaluation function.

EPR Hiding in Medical Images for Telemedicine
Medical image data hiding has strict constrains such as high imperceptibility, high capacity and high robustness. Achieving these three requirements simultaneously is highly cumbersome. Some works have been reported in the literature on data hiding, watermarking and stegnography which are suitable for telemedicine applications. None is reliable in all aspects. Electronic Patient Report (EPR) data hiding for telemedicine demand it blind and reversible. This paper proposes a novel approach to blind reversible data hiding based on integer wavelet transform. Experimental results shows that this scheme outperforms the prior arts in terms of zero BER (Bit Error Rate), higher PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio), and large EPR data embedding capacity with WPSNR (Weighted Peak Signal to Noise Ratio) around 53 dB, compared with the existing reversible data hiding schemes.
3D Dynamic Representation System for the Human Head
The human head representations usually are based on the morphological – structural components of a real model. Over the time became more and more necessary to achieve full virtual models that comply very rigorous with the specifications of the human anatomy. Still, making and using a model perfectly fitted with the real anatomy is a difficult task, because it requires large hardware resources and significant times for processing. That is why it is necessary to choose the best compromise solution, which keeps the right balance between the details perfection and the resources consumption, in order to obtain facial animations with real-time rendering. We will present here the way in which we achieved such a 3D system that we intend to use as a base point in order to create facial animations with real-time rendering, used in medicine to find and to identify different types of pathologies.
Methods for Data Selection in Medical Databases: The Binary Logistic Regression -Relations with the Calculated Risks
The medical studies often require different methods for parameters selection, as a second step of processing, after the database-s designing and filling with information. One common task is the selection of fields that act as risk factors using wellknown methods, in order to find the most relevant risk factors and to establish a possible hierarchy between them. Different methods are available in this purpose, one of the most known being the binary logistic regression. We will present the mathematical principles of this method and a practical example of using it in the analysis of the influence of 10 different psychiatric diagnostics over 4 different types of offences (in a database made from 289 psychiatric patients involved in different types of offences). Finally, we will make some observations about the relation between the risk factors hierarchy established through binary logistic regression and the individual risks, as well as the results of Chi-squared test. We will show that the hierarchy built using the binary logistic regression doesn-t agree with the direct order of risk factors, even if it was naturally to assume this hypothesis as being always true.
Evolutionary Decision Trees and Software Metrics for Module Defects Identification
Software metric is a measure of some property of a piece of software or its specification. The aim of this paper is to present an application of evolutionary decision trees in software engineering in order to classify the software modules that have or have not one or more reported defects. For this some metrics are used for detecting the class of modules with defects or without defects.
Performance Analysis of Load Balancing Algorithms
Load balancing is the process of improving the performance of a parallel and distributed system through a redistribution of load among the processors [1] [5]. In this paper we present the performance analysis of various load balancing algorithms based on different parameters, considering two typical load balancing approaches static and dynamic. The analysis indicates that static and dynamic both types of algorithm can have advancements as well as weaknesses over each other. Deciding type of algorithm to be implemented will be based on type of parallel applications to solve. The main purpose of this paper is to help in design of new algorithms in future by studying the behavior of various existing algorithms.
Implementation of Watch Dog Timer for Fault Tolerant Computing on Cluster Server
In today-s new technology era, cluster has become a necessity for the modern computing and data applications since many applications take more time (even days or months) for computation. Although after parallelization, computation speeds up, still time required for much application can be more. Thus, reliability of the cluster becomes very important issue and implementation of fault tolerant mechanism becomes essential. The difficulty in designing a fault tolerant cluster system increases with the difficulties of various failures. The most imperative obsession is that the algorithm, which avoids a simple failure in a system, must tolerate the more severe failures. In this paper, we implemented the theory of watchdog timer in a parallel environment, to take care of failures. Implementation of simple algorithm in our project helps us to take care of different types of failures; consequently, we found that the reliability of this cluster improves.
A System of Automatic Speech Recognition based on the Technique of Temporal Retiming
We report in this paper the procedure of a system of automatic speech recognition based on techniques of the dynamic programming. The technique of temporal retiming is a technique used to synchronize between two forms to compare. We will see how this technique is adapted to the field of the automatic speech recognition. We will expose, in a first place, the theory of the function of retiming which is used to compare and to adjust an unknown form with a whole of forms of reference constituting the vocabulary of the application. Then we will give, in the second place, the various algorithms necessary to their implementation on machine. The algorithms which we will present were tested on part of the corpus of words in Arab language Arabdic-10 [4] and gave whole satisfaction. These algorithms are effective insofar as we apply them to the small ones or average vocabularies.
Speech Recognition Using Scaly Neural Networks
This research work is aimed at speech recognition using scaly neural networks. A small vocabulary of 11 words were established first, these words are “word, file, open, print, exit, edit, cut, copy, paste, doc1, doc2". These chosen words involved with executing some computer functions such as opening a file, print certain text document, cutting, copying, pasting, editing and exit. It introduced to the computer then subjected to feature extraction process using LPC (linear prediction coefficients). These features are used as input to an artificial neural network in speaker dependent mode. Half of the words are used for training the artificial neural network and the other half are used for testing the system; those are used for information retrieval. The system components are consist of three parts, speech processing and feature extraction, training and testing by using neural networks and information retrieval. The retrieve process proved to be 79.5-88% successful, which is quite acceptable, considering the variation to surrounding, state of the person, and the microphone type.
Online Learning: Custom Design to Promote Learning for Multiple Disciplines

Today-s Wi Fi generation utilize the latest technology in their daily lives. Instructors at National University, the second largest non profit private institution of higher learning in California, are incorporating these new tools to modify their Online class formats to better accommodate these new skills in their distance education delivery modes. The University provides accelerated learning in a one-course per month format both Onsite and Online. Since there has been such a significant increase in Online classes over the past three years, and it is expected to grow even more over the over the next five years, Instructors cannot afford to maintain the status quo and not take advantage of these new options. It is at the discretion of the instructors which accessory they use and how comfortable and familiar they are with the technology. This paper explores the effects and summarizes students- comments of some of these new technological options which have been recently provided in order to make students- online learning experience more exciting and meaningful.

Towards Design of Context-Aware Sensor Grid Framework for Agriculture
This paper is to present context-aware sensor grid framework for agriculture and its design challenges. Use of sensor networks in the domain of agriculture is not new. However, due to the unavailability of any common framework, solutions that are developed in this domain are location, environment and problem dependent. Keeping the need of common framework for agriculture, Context-Aware Sensor Grid Framework is proposed. It will be helpful in developing solutions for majority of the problems related to irrigation, pesticides spray, use of fertilizers, regular monitoring of plot and yield etc. due to the capability of adjusting according to location and environment. The proposed framework is composed of three layer architecture including context-aware application layer, grid middleware layer and sensor network layer.
Modeling User Behaviour by Planning
A model of user behaviour based automated planning is introduced in this work. The behaviour of users of web interactive systems can be described in term of a planning domain encapsulating the timed actions patterns representing the intended user profile. The user behaviour recognition is then posed as a planning problem where the goal is to parse a given sequence of user logs of the observed activities while reaching a final state. A general technique for transforming a timed finite state automata description of the behaviour into a numerical parameter planning model is introduced. Experimental results show that the performance of a planning based behaviour model is effective and scalable for real world applications. A major advantage of the planning based approach is to represent in a single automated reasoning framework problems of plan recognitions, plan synthesis and plan optimisation.
A Logic Based Framework for Planning for Mobile Agents
The objective of the paper is twofold. First, to develop a formal framework for planning for mobile agents. A logical language based on a temporal logic is proposed that can express a type of tasks which often arise in network management. Second, to design a planning algorithm for such tasks. The aim of this paper is to study the importance of finding plans for mobile agents. Although there has been a lot of research in mobile agents, not much work has been done to incorporate planning ideas for such agents. This paper makes an attempt in this direction. A theoretical study of finding plans for mobile agents is undertaken. A planning algorithm (based on the paradigm of mobile computing) is proposed and its space, time, and communication complexity is analyzed. The algorithm is illustrated by working out an example in detail.
Flagging Critical Components to Prevent Transient Faults in Real-Time Systems

This paper proposes the use of metrics in design space exploration that highlight where in the structure of the model and at what point in the behaviour, prevention is needed against transient faults. Previous approaches to tackle transient faults focused on recovery after detection. Almost no research has been directed towards preventive measures. But in real-time systems, hard deadlines are performance requirements that absolutely must be met and a missed deadline constitutes an erroneous action and a possible system failure. This paper proposes the use of metrics to assess the system design to flag where transient faults may have significant impact. These tools then allow the design to be changed to minimize that impact, and they also flag where particular design techniques – such as coding of communications or memories – need to be applied in later stages of design.

Multi-view Description of Real-Time Systems- Architecture
Real-time embedded systems should benefit from component-based software engineering to handle complexity and deal with dependability. In these systems, applications should not only be logically correct but also behave within time windows. However, in the current component based software engineering approaches, a few of component models handles time properties in a manner that allows efficient analysis and checking at the architectural level. In this paper, we present a meta-model for component-based software description that integrates timing issues. To achieve a complete functional model of software components, our meta-model focuses on four functional aspects: interface, static behavior, dynamic behavior, and interaction protocol. With each aspect we have explicitly associated a time model. Such a time model can be used to check a component-s design against certain properties and to compute the timing properties of component assemblies.
A Reversible CMOS AD / DA Converter Implemented with Pseudo Floating-Gate
Reversible logic is becoming more and more prominent as the technology sets higher demands on heat, power, scaling and stability. Reversible gates are able at any time to "undo" the current step or function. Multiple-valued logic has the advantage of transporting and evaluating higher bits each clock cycle than binary. Moreover, we demonstrate in this paper, combining these disciplines we can construct powerful multiple-valued reversible logic structures. In this paper a reversible block implemented by pseudo floatinggate can perform AD-function and a DA-function as its reverse application.
Introducing a Platform for Encryption Algorithms
In this paper, we introduce a novel platform encryption method, which modify its keys and random number generators step by step during encryption algorithms. According to complexity of the proposed algorithm, it was safer than any other method.
On Bounding Jayanti's Distributed Mutual Exclusion Algorithm

Jayanti-s algorithm is one of the best known abortable mutual exclusion algorithms. This work is an attempt to overcome an already known limitation of the algorithm while preserving its all important properties and elegance. The limitation is that the token number used to assign process identification number to new incoming processes is unbounded. We have used a suitably adapted alternative data structure, in order to completely eliminate the use of token number, in the algorithm.

A Fault Tolerant Token-based Algorithm for Group Mutual Exclusion in Distributed Systems
The group mutual exclusion (GME) problem is a variant of the mutual exclusion problem. In the present paper a token-based group mutual exclusion algorithm, capable of handling transient faults, is proposed. The algorithm uses the concept of dynamic request sets. A time out mechanism is used to detect the token loss; also, a distributed scheme is used to regenerate the token. The worst case message complexity of the algorithm is n+1. The maximum concurrency and forum switch complexity of the algorithm are n and min (n, m) respectively, where n is the number of processes and m is the number of groups. The algorithm also satisfies another desirable property called smooth admission. The scheme can also be adapted to handle the extended group mutual exclusion problem.
Experiments on Element and Document Statistics for XML Retrieval
This paper presents an information retrieval model on XML documents based on tree matching. Queries and documents are represented by extended trees. An extended tree is built starting from the original tree, with additional weighted virtual links between each node and its indirect descendants allowing to directly reach each descendant. Therefore only one level separates between each node and its indirect descendants. This allows to compare the user query and the document with flexibility and with respect to the structural constraints of the query. The content of each node is very important to decide weither a document element is relevant or not, thus the content should be taken into account in the retrieval process. We separate between the structure-based and the content-based retrieval processes. The content-based score of each node is commonly based on the well-known Tf × Idf criteria. In this paper, we compare between this criteria and another one we call Tf × Ief. The comparison is based on some experiments into a dataset provided by INEX1 to show the effectiveness of our approach on one hand and those of both weighting functions on the other.
Recognition-based Segmentation in Persian Character Recognition
Optical character recognition of cursive scripts presents a number of challenging problems in both segmentation and recognition processes in different languages, including Persian. In order to overcome these problems, we use a newly developed Persian word segmentation method and a recognition-based segmentation technique to overcome its segmentation problems. This method is robust as well as flexible. It also increases the system-s tolerances to font variations. The implementation results of this method on a comprehensive database show a high degree of accuracy which meets the requirements for commercial use. Extended with a suitable pre and post-processing, the method offers a simple and fast framework to develop a full OCR system.
A Study of the Hand-Hold Impact on the EM Interaction of a Cellular Handset and a Human
This paper investigates the impact of the hand-hold positions on both antenna performance and the specific absorption rate (SAR) induced in the user-s head. A cellular handset with external antenna operating at GSM-900 frequency is modeled and simulated using a finite difference time-domain (FDTD)-based platform SEMCAD-X. A specific anthropomorphic mannequin (SAM) is adopted to simulate the user-s head, whereas a semirealistic CAD-model of three-tissues is designed to simulate the user-s hand. The results show that in case of the handset in hand close to head at different positions; the antenna total efficiency gets reduced to (14.5% - 5.9%) at cheek-position and to (27.5% to 11.8%) at tilt-position. The peak averaged SAR1g values in head close to handset without hand, are 4.67 W/Kg and 2.66 W/Kg at cheek and tilt-position, respectively. Due to the presence of hand, the SAR1g in head gets reduced to (3.67-3.31 W/Kg) at cheek-position and to (1.84-1.64 W/Kg) at tilt-position, depending on the hand-hold position.
Modeling and Analysis of a Cruise Control System
This paper examines the modeling and analysis of a cruise control system using a Petri net based approach, task graphs, invariant analysis and behavioral properties. It shows how the structures used can be verified and optimized.
A Low Voltage High Linearity CMOS Gilbert Cell Using Charge Injection Method
A 2.4GHz (RF) down conversion Gilbert Cell mixer, implemented in a 0.18-μm CMOS technology with a 1.8V supply, is presented. Current bleeding (charge injection) technique has been used to increase the conversion gain and the linearity of the mixer. The proposed mixer provides 10.75 dB conversion gain ( C G ) with 14.3mw total power consumption. The IIP3 and 1-dB compression point of the mixer are 8dbm and -4.6dbm respectively, at 300 MHz IF frequencies. Comparing the current design against the conventional mixer design, demonstrates better performance in the conversion gain, linearity, noise figure and port-to-port isolation.
Ensembling Adaptively Constructed Polynomial Regression Models
The approach of subset selection in polynomial regression model building assumes that the chosen fixed full set of predefined basis functions contains a subset that is sufficient to describe the target relation sufficiently well. However, in most cases the necessary set of basis functions is not known and needs to be guessed – a potentially non-trivial (and long) trial and error process. In our research we consider a potentially more efficient approach – Adaptive Basis Function Construction (ABFC). It lets the model building method itself construct the basis functions necessary for creating a model of arbitrary complexity with adequate predictive performance. However, there are two issues that to some extent plague the methods of both the subset selection and the ABFC, especially when working with relatively small data samples: the selection bias and the selection instability. We try to correct these issues by model post-evaluation using Cross-Validation and model ensembling. To evaluate the proposed method, we empirically compare it to ABFC methods without ensembling, to a widely used method of subset selection, as well as to some other well-known regression modeling methods, using publicly available data sets.
Development of Machinable Ellipses by NURBS Curves
Owning to the high-speed feed rate and ultra spindle speed have been used in modern machine tools, the tool-path generation plays a key role in the successful application of a High-Speed Machining (HSM) system. Because of its importance in both high-speed machining and tool-path generation, approximating a contour by NURBS format is a potential function in CAD/CAM/CNC systems. It is much more convenient to represent an ellipse by parametric form than to connect points laboriously determined in a CNC system. A new approximating method based on optimum processes and NURBS curves of any degree to the ellipses is presented in this study. Such operations can be the foundation of tool-radius compensation interpolator of NURBS curves in CNC system. All operating processes for a CAD tool is presented and demonstrated by practical models.
A Study on the Application of TRIZ to CAD/CAM System
This study created new graphical icons and operating functions in a CAD/CAM software system by analyzing icons in some of the popular systems, such as AutoCAD, AlphaCAM, Mastercam and the 1st edition of LiteCAM. These software systems all focused on geometric design and editing, thus how to transmit messages intuitively from icon itself to users is an important function of graphical icons. The primary purpose of this study is to design innovative icons and commands for new software. This study employed the TRIZ method, an innovative design method, to generate new concepts systematically. Through literature review, it then investigated and analyzed the relationship between TRIZ and idea development. Contradiction Matrix and 40 Principles were used to develop an assisting tool suitable for icon design in software development. We first gathered icon samples from the selected CAD/CAM systems. Then grouped these icons by meaningful functions, and compared useful and harmful properties. Finally, we developed new icons for new software systems in order to avoid intellectual property problem.
Roller Guide Design and Manufacturing for Spatial Cylindrical Cams
This paper was aimed at developing a computer aided design and manufacturing system for spatial cylindrical cams. In the proposed system, a milling tool with a diameter smaller than that of the roller, instead of the standard cutter for traditional machining process, was used to generate the tool path for spatial cams. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, a multi-axis machining simulation software was further used to simulate the practical milling operation of spatial cams. It was observed from computer simulation that the tool path of small-sized cutter were within the motion range of a standard cutter, no occurrence of overcutting. Examination of a finished cam component clearly verifies the accuracy of the tool path generated for small-sized milling tool. It is believed that the use of small-sized cutter for the machining of the spatial cylindrical cams can generate a better surface morphology with higher accuracy. The improvement in efficiency and cost for the manufacturing of the spatial cylindrical cam can be expected through the proposed method.
Using the PGAS Programming Paradigm for Biological Sequence Alignment on a Chip Multi-Threading Architecture
The Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming paradigm offers ease-of-use in expressing parallelism through a global shared address space while emphasizing performance by providing locality awareness through the partitioning of this address space. Therefore, the interest in PGAS programming languages is growing and many new languages have emerged and are becoming ubiquitously available on nearly all modern parallel architectures. Recently, new parallel machines with multiple cores are designed for targeting high performance applications. Most of the efforts have gone into benchmarking but there are a few examples of real high performance applications running on multicore machines. In this paper, we present and evaluate a parallelization technique for implementing a local DNA sequence alignment algorithm using a PGAS based language, UPC (Unified Parallel C) on a chip multithreading architecture, the UltraSPARC T1.
Optimal Power Allocation for the Proposed Asymmetric Turbo Code for 3G Systems

We proposed a new class of asymmetric turbo encoder for 3G systems that performs well in both “water fall" and “error floor" regions in [7]. In this paper, a modified (optimal) power allocation scheme for the different bits of new class of asymmetric turbo encoder has been investigated to enhance the performance. The simulation results and performance bound for proposed asymmetric turbo code with modified Unequal Power Allocation (UPA) scheme for the frame length, N=400, code rate, r=1/3 with Log-MAP decoder over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel are obtained and compared with the system with typical UPA and without UPA. The performance tests are extended over AWGN channel for different frame size to verify the possibility of implementation of the modified UPA scheme for the proposed asymmetric turbo code. From the performance results, it is observed that the proposed asymmetric turbo code with modified UPA performs better than the system without UPA and with typical UPA and it provides a coding gain of 0.4 to 0.52dB.

A PIM (Processor-In-Memory) for Computer Graphics : Data Partitioning and Placement Schemes
The demand for higher performance graphics continues to grow because of the incessant desire towards realism. And, rapid advances in fabrication technology have enabled us to build several processor cores on a single die. Hence, it is important to develop single chip parallel architectures for such data-intensive applications. In this paper, we propose an efficient PIM architectures tailored for computer graphics which requires a large number of memory accesses. We then address the two important tasks necessary for maximally exploiting the parallelism provided by the architecture, namely, partitioning and placement of graphic data, which affect respectively load balances and communication costs. Under the constraints of uniform partitioning, we develop approaches for optimal partitioning and placement, which significantly reduce search space. We also present heuristics for identifying near-optimal placement, since the search space for placement is impractically large despite our optimization. We then demonstrate the effectiveness of our partitioning and placement approaches via analysis of example scenes; simulation results show considerable search space reductions, and our heuristics for placement performs close to optimal – the average ratio of communication overheads between our heuristics and the optimal was 1.05. Our uniform partitioning showed average load-balance ratio of 1.47 for geometry processing and 1.44 for rasterization, which is reasonable.
Unsteady Boundary Layer Flow over a Stretching Sheet in a Micropolar Fluid
Unsteady boundary layer flow of an incompressible micropolar fluid over a stretching sheet when the sheet is stretched in its own plane is studied in this paper. The stretching velocity is assumed to vary linearly with the distance along the sheet. Two equal and opposite forces are impulsively applied along the x-axis so that the sheet is stretched, keeping the origin fixed in a micropolar fluid. The transformed unsteady boundary layer equations are solved numerically using the Keller-box method for the whole transient from the initial state to final steady-state flow. Numerical results are obtained for the velocity and microrotation distributions as well as the skin friction coefficient for various values of the material parameter K. It is found that there is a smooth transition from the small-time solution to the large-time solution.
Efficient Pipelined Hardware Implementation of RIPEMD-160 Hash Function
In this paper an efficient implementation of Ripemd- 160 hash function is presented. Hash functions are a special family of cryptographic algorithms, which is used in technological applications with requirements for security, confidentiality and validity. Applications like PKI, IPSec, DSA, MAC-s incorporate hash functions and are used widely today. The Ripemd-160 is emanated from the necessity for existence of very strong algorithms in cryptanalysis. The proposed hardware implementation can be synthesized easily for a variety of FPGA and ASIC technologies. Simulation results, using commercial tools, verified the efficiency of the implementation in terms of performance and throughput. Special care has been taken so that the proposed implementation doesn-t introduce extra design complexity; while in parallel functionality was kept to the required levels.
Design and Implementation of Cricket-based Location Tracking System
In this paper, we present a novel approach to location system under indoor environment. The key idea of our work is accurate distance estimation with cricket-based location system using A* algorithm. We also use magnetic sensor for detecting obstacles in indoor environment. Finally, we suggest how this system can be used in various applications such as asset tracking and monitoring.
Concerns Regarding the Adoption of the Model Driven Architecture in the Development of Safety Critical Avionics Applications
Safety Critical hard Real-Time Systems are ever present in the avionics industry. The Model Driven Architecture (MDA) offers different levels of model abstraction and generation. This paper discusses our concerns relating to model development and generation when using the MDA approach in the avionics industry. These concerns are based on our experience when looking into adopting the MDA as part of avionics systems development. We place emphasis on transformations between model types and discuss possible benefits of adopting an MDA approach as part of the software development life cycle.
Inferring Hierarchical Pronunciation Rules from a Phonetic Dictionary

This work presents a new phonetic transcription system based on a tree of hierarchical pronunciation rules expressed as context-specific grapheme-phoneme correspondences. The tree is automatically inferred from a phonetic dictionary by incrementally analyzing deeper context levels, eventually representing a minimum set of exhaustive rules that pronounce without errors all the words in the training dictionary and that can be applied to out-of-vocabulary words. The proposed approach improves upon existing rule-tree-based techniques in that it makes use of graphemes, rather than letters, as elementary orthographic units. A new linear algorithm for the segmentation of a word in graphemes is introduced to enable outof- vocabulary grapheme-based phonetic transcription. Exhaustive rule trees provide a canonical representation of the pronunciation rules of a language that can be used not only to pronounce out-of-vocabulary words, but also to analyze and compare the pronunciation rules inferred from different dictionaries. The proposed approach has been implemented in C and tested on Oxford British English and Basic English. Experimental results show that grapheme-based rule trees represent phonetically sound rules and provide better performance than letter-based rule trees.

Suitability of Requirements Abstraction Model (RAM) Requirements for High-Level System Testing

The Requirements Abstraction Model (RAM) helps in managing abstraction in requirements by organizing them at four levels (product, feature, function and component). The RAM is adaptable and can be tailored to meet the needs of the various organizations. Because software requirements are an important source of information for developing high-level tests, organizations willing to adopt the RAM model need to know the suitability of the RAM requirements for developing high-level tests. To investigate this suitability, test cases from twenty randomly selected requirements were developed, analyzed and graded. Requirements were selected from the requirements document of a Course Management System, a web based software system that supports teachers and students in performing course related tasks. This paper describes the results of the requirements document analysis. The results show that requirements at lower levels in the RAM are suitable for developing executable tests whereas it is hard to develop from requirements at higher levels.

Phenomenological and Theoretical Analysis of Relativistic Temperature Transformation and Relativistic Entropy
There are three possible effects of Special Theory of Relativity (STR) on a thermodynamic system. Planck and Einstein looked upon this process as isobaric; on the other hand Ott saw it as an adiabatic process. However plenty of logical reasons show that the process is isotherm. Our phenomenological consideration demonstrates that the temperature is invariant with Lorenz transformation. In that case process is isotherm, so volume and pressure are Lorentz covariant. If the process is isotherm the Boyles law is Lorentz invariant. Also equilibrium constant and Gibbs energy, activation energy, enthalpy entropy and extent of the reaction became Lorentz invariant.
Inconsistency Discovery in Multiple State Diagrams
In this article, we introduce a new approach for analyzing UML designs to detect the inconsistencies between multiple state diagrams and sequence diagrams. The Super State Analysis (SSA) identifies the inconsistencies in super states, single step transitions, and sequences. Because SSA considers multiple UML state diagrams, it discovers inconsistencies that cannot be discovered when considering only a single UML state diagram. We have introduced a transition set that captures relationship information that is not specifiable in UML diagrams. The SSA model uses the transition set to link transitions of multiple state diagrams together. The analysis generates three different sets automatically. These sets are compared to the provided sets to detect the inconsistencies. SSA identifies five types of inconsistencies: impossible super states, unreachable super states, illegal transitions, missing transitions, and illegal sequences.
Pin type Clamping Attachment for Remote Setup of Machining Process
Sharing the manufacturing facility through remote operation and monitoring of a machining process is challenge for effective use the production facility. Several automation tools in term of hardware and software are necessary for successfully remote operation of a machine. This paper presents a prototype of workpiece holding attachment for remote operation of milling process by self configuration the workpiece setup. The prototype is designed with mechanism to reorient the work surface into machining spindle direction with high positioning accuracy. Variety of parts geometry is hold by attachment to perform single setup machining. Pin type with array pattern additionally clamps the workpiece surface from two opposite directions for increasing the machining rigidity. Optimum pins configuration for conforming the workpiece geometry with minimum deformation is determined through hybrid algorithms, Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). Prototype with intelligent optimization technique enables to hold several variety of workpiece geometry which is suitable for machining low of repetitive production in remote operation.
Elastic-Plastic Transition in a Thin Rotating Disc with Inclusion
Stresses for the elastic-plastic transition and fully plastic state have been derived for a thin rotating disc with inclusion and results have been discussed numerically and depicted graphically. It has been observed that the rotating disc with inclusion and made of compressible material requires lesser angular speed to yield at the internal surface whereas it requires higher percentage increase in angular speed to become fully plastic as compare to disc made of incompressible material.
Creep Transition in a Thin Rotating Disc Having Variable Density with Inclusion
Creep stresses and strain rates have been obtained for a thin rotating disc having variable density with inclusion by using Seth-s transition theory. The density of the disc is assumed to vary radially, i.e. ( ) 0 ¤ü ¤ü r/b m - = ; ¤ü 0 and m being real positive constants. It has been observed that a disc, whose density increases radially, rotates at higher angular speed, thus decreasing the possibility of a fracture at the bore, whereas for a disc whose density decreases radially, the possibility of a fracture at the bore increases.
Modeling of Kepler-Poinsot Solid Using Isomorphic Polyhedral Graph
This paper presents an interactive modeling system of uniform polyhedra using the isomorphic graphs. Especially, Kepler-Poinsot solids are formed by modifications of dodecahedron and icosahedron.
Impact of the Existence of One-Way Functionson the Conceptual Difficulties of Quantum Measurements
One-way functions are functions that are easy to compute but hard to invert. Their existence is an open conjecture; it would imply the existence of intractable problems (i.e. NP-problems which are not in the P complexity class). If true, the existence of one-way functions would have an impact on the theoretical framework of physics, in particularly, quantum mechanics. Such aspect of one-way functions has never been shown before. In the present work, we put forward the following. We can calculate the microscopic state (say, the particle spin in the z direction) of a macroscopic system (a measuring apparatus registering the particle z-spin) by the system macroscopic state (the apparatus output); let us call this association the function F. The question is: can we compute the function F in the inverse direction? In other words, can we compute the macroscopic state of the system through its microscopic state (the preimage F -1)? In the paper, we assume that the function F is a one-way function. The assumption implies that at the macroscopic level the Schrödinger equation becomes unfeasible to compute. This unfeasibility plays a role of limit of the validity of the linear Schrödinger equation.
Boundary Effect on the Onset of Marangoni Convection with Internal Heat Generation
The onset of Marangoni convection in a horizontal fluid layer with internal heat generation overlying a solid layer heated from below is studied. The upper free surface of a fluid is nondeformable and the bottom boundary are rigid and no-slip. The resulting eigenvalue problem is solved exactly. The critical values of the Marangoni numbers for the onset of Marangoni convection are calculated and the latter is found to be critically dependent on the internal heating, depth ratio and conductivity ratio. The effects of the thermal conductivity and the thickness of the solid plate on the onset of convective instability with internal heating are studied in detail.
Decision Tree for Competing Risks Survival Probability in Breast Cancer Study
Competing risks survival data that comprises of more than one type of event has been used in many applications, and one of these is in clinical study (e.g. in breast cancer study). The decision tree method can be extended to competing risks survival data by modifying the split function so as to accommodate two or more risks which might be dependent on each other. Recently, researchers have constructed some decision trees for recurrent survival time data using frailty and marginal modelling. We further extended the method for the case of competing risks. In this paper, we developed the decision tree method for competing risks survival time data based on proportional hazards for subdistribution of competing risks. In particular, we grow a tree by using deviance statistic. The application of breast cancer data is presented. Finally, to investigate the performance of the proposed method, simulation studies on identification of true group of observations were executed.
Embedded Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta –Nystrom Method Order 5(4) for the Integration of Special Second Order ODEs
In this paper a new embedded Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta Nystrom fourth order in fifth order method for solving special second order initial value problems is derived. A standard set of test problems are tested upon and comparisons on the numerical results are made when the same set of test problems are reduced to first order systems and solved using the existing embedded diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta method. The results suggests the superiority of the new method.
Ginzburg-Landau Model : an Amplitude Evolution Equation for Shallow Wake Flows
Linear and weakly nonlinear analysis of shallow wake flows is presented in the present paper. The evolution of the most unstable linear mode is described by the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation (CGLE). The coefficients of the CGLE are calculated numerically from the solution of the corresponding linear stability problem for a one-parametric family of shallow wake flows. It is shown that the coefficients of the CGLE are not so sensitive to the variation of the base flow profile.
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