Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 188

Face Recognition: A Literature Review
The task of face recognition has been actively researched in recent years. This paper provides an up-to-date review of major human face recognition research. We first present an overview of face recognition and its applications. Then, a literature review of the most recent face recognition techniques is presented. Description and limitations of face databases which are used to test the performance of these face recognition algorithms are given. A brief summary of the face recognition vendor test (FRVT) 2002, a large scale evaluation of automatic face recognition technology, and its conclusions are also given. Finally, we give a summary of the research results.
The Estimate Rate of Permanent Flow of a Liquid Simulating Blood by Doppler Effect
To improve the characterization of blood flows, we propose a method which makes it possible to use the spectral analysis of the Doppler signals. Our calculation induces a reasonable approximation, the error made on estimated speed reflects the fact that speed depends on the flow conditions as well as on measurement parameters like the bore and the volume flow rate. The estimate of the Doppler signal frequency enables us to determine the maximum Doppler frequencie Fd max as well as the maximum flow speed. The results show that the difference between the estimated frequencies ( Fde ) and the Doppler frequencies ( Fd ) is small, this variation tends to zero for important θ angles and it is proportional to the diameter D. The description of the speed of friction and the coefficient of friction justify the error rate obtained.
Integrating E-learning Environments with Computational Intelligence Assessment Agents
In this contribution an innovative platform is being presented that integrates intelligent agents in legacy e-learning environments. It introduces the design and development of a scalable and interoperable integration platform supporting various assessment agents for e-learning environments. The agents are implemented in order to provide intelligent assessment services to computational intelligent techniques such as Bayesian Networks and Genetic Algorithms. The utilization of new and emerging technologies like web services allows integrating the provided services to any web based legacy e-learning environment.
Time Comparative Simulator for Distributed Process Scheduling Algorithms
In any distributed systems, process scheduling plays a vital role in determining the efficiency of the system. Process scheduling algorithms are used to ensure that the components of the system would be able to maximize its utilization and able to complete all the processes assigned in a specified period of time. This paper focuses on the development of comparative simulator for distributed process scheduling algorithms. The objectives of the works that have been carried out include the development of the comparative simulator, as well as to implement a comparative study between three distributed process scheduling algorithms; senderinitiated, receiver-initiated and hybrid sender-receiver-initiated algorithms. The comparative study was done based on the Average Waiting Time (AWT) and Average Turnaround Time (ATT) of the processes involved. The simulation results show that the performance of the algorithms depends on the number of nodes in the system.
Certain Subordination Results For A Class Of Analytic Functions Defined By The Generalized Integral Operator
We obtain several interesting subordination results for a class of analytic functions defined by using a generalized integral operator.
Evolutionary Dynamics on Small-World Networks
We study how the outcome of evolutionary dynamics on graphs depends on a randomness on the graph structure. We gradually change the underlying graph from completely regular (e.g. a square lattice) to completely random. We find that the fixation probability increases as the randomness increases; nevertheless, the increase is not significant and thus the fixation probability could be estimated by the known formulas for underlying regular graphs.
Rheological Characterisation of Collagen Gels from Marine Resources of Black Sea and Chlohexidine Salt for using in Dental Medicine
In the paper we presented the possibility of application collagen gels with active principle-s from marine algae extract and chlorhexidine salt in dental medicine. The hydro-alcoholic extracts from marine algae have been used as they have been obtained. The extracts from marine algae and chlorhexidine salt (digluconate) are incorporated in type I non-denatured fibrillar collagen matrixes. In order to obtain therapeutic effects at nanostructure level, it is important to know the rheological characteristics of the relevant mixtures of collagen gels and extracts from marine algae selected for use. In this survey we have studied mixtures made of non-denatured fibrillar collagen hydro-gels where different concentrations of marine algae have been incorporated. Based on the data obtained for the shearing tensions, we have traced the rheograms – the diagrams for shearing tensions depending on the shearing speed values – from which we have calculated the apparent viscosities as ratios between shearing tension and speed values, which have been figured in relation to the shearing speed values, with a view to levelling dependency.
Production of As Isotopes in the Interaction of natGe with 14-30 MeV Protons

Cross sections of As radionuclides in the interaction of natGe with 14-30 MeV protons have been deduced by off-line y-ray spectroscopy to find optimal reaction channels leading to radiotracers for positron emission tomography. The experimental results were compared with the previous results and those estimated by the compound nucleus reaction model.

Noise Reduction in Image Sequences using an Effective Fuzzy Algorithm
In this paper, we propose a novel spatiotemporal fuzzy based algorithm for noise filtering of image sequences. Our proposed algorithm uses adaptive weights based on a triangular membership functions. In this algorithm median filter is used to suppress noise. Experimental results show when the images are corrupted by highdensity Salt and Pepper noise, our fuzzy based algorithm for noise filtering of image sequences, are much more effective in suppressing noise and preserving edges than the previously reported algorithms such as [1-7]. Indeed, assigned weights to noisy pixels are very adaptive so that they well make use of correlation of pixels. On the other hand, the motion estimation methods are erroneous and in highdensity noise they may degrade the filter performance. Therefore, our proposed fuzzy algorithm doesn-t need any estimation of motion trajectory. The proposed algorithm admissibly removes noise without having any knowledge of Salt and Pepper noise density.
Fractional Delay FIR Filters Design with Enhanced Differential Evolution
Fractional delay FIR filters design method based on the differential evolution algorithm is presented. Differential evolution is an evolutionary algorithm for solving a global optimization problems in the continuous search space. In the proposed approach, an evolutionary algorithm is used to determine the coefficients of a fractional delay FIR filter based on the Farrow structure. Basic differential evolution is enhanced with a restricted mating technique, which improves the algorithm performance in terms of convergence speed and obtained solution. Evolutionary optimization is carried out by minimizing an objective function which is based on the amplitude response and phase delay errors. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm leads to a reduction in the amplitude response and phase delay errors relative to those achieved with the Least-Squares method.
Evaluation on the Viability of Combined Heat and Power with Different Distributed Generation Technologies for Various Bindings in Japan

This paper has examined the energy consumption characteristics in six different buildings including apartments, offices, commercial buildings, hospitals, hotels and educational facilities. Then 5-hectare (50000m2) development site for respective building-s type has been assumed as case study to evaluate the introduction effect of Combined Heat and Power (CHP). All kinds of CHP systems with different distributed generation technologies including Gas Turbine (GT), Gas Engine (GE), Diesel Engine (DE), Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC), have been simulated by using HEATMAP, CHP system analysis software. And their primary energy utilization efficiency, energy saving ratio and CO2 reduction ratio have evaluated and compared respectively. The results can be summarized as follows: Various buildings have their special heat to power ratio characteristics. Matching the heat to power ratio demanded from an individual building with that supplied from a CHP system is very important. It is necessary to select a reasonable distributed generation technologies according to the load characteristics of various buildings. Distributed generation technologies with high energy generating efficiency and low heat to power ratio, like SOFC and PEFC is more reasonable selection for Building Combined Heat and Power (BCHP). CHP system is an attractive option for hotels, hospitals and apartments in Japan. The users can achieve high energy saving and environmental benefit by introducing a CHP systems. In others buildings, especially like commercial buildings and offices, the introduction of CHP system is unreasonable.

A Water Reuse System in Wetland Paddy Supports the Growing Industrial Water Needs
A water reuse system in wetland paddy was simulated to supply water for industrial in this paper. A two-tank model was employed to represent the return flow of the wetland paddy.Historical data were performed for parameter estimation and model verification. With parameters estimated from the data, the model was then used to simulate a reasonable return flow rate from the wetland paddy. The simulation results show that the return flow ratio was 11.56% in the first crop season and 35.66% in the second crop season individually; the difference may result from the heavy rainfall in the second crop season. Under the existent pond with surplus active capacity, the water reuse ratio was 17.14%, and the water supplementary ratio was 21.56%. However, the pattern of rainfall, the active capacity of the pond, and the rate of water treatment limit the volume of reuse water. Increasing the irrigation water, dredging the depth of pond before rainy season and enlarging the scale of module are help to develop water reuse system to support for the industrial water use around wetland paddy.
Energy Consumptions of Different Building Heating Systems for Various Meteorological Regions of Iran: A Comparison Study

To simulate heating systems in buildings, a research oriented computer code has been developed in Sharif University of Technology in Iran where the climate, existing heating equipment in buildings, consumer behavior and their interactions are considered for simulating energy consumption in conventional systems such as heaters, radiators and fan-coils. In order to validate the computer code, the available data of five buildings was used and the computed consumed energy was compared with the estimated energy extracted from monthly bills. The initial heating system was replaced by the alternative system and the effect of this change was observed on the energy consumption. As a result, the effect of changing heating equipment on energy consumption was investigated in different climates. Changing heater to radiator renders energy conservation up to 50% in all climates and changing radiator to fan-coil decreases energy consumption in climates with cold and dry winter.

Fingerprint Compression Using Multiwavelets
Large volumes of fingerprints are collected and stored every day in a wide range of applications, including forensics, access control etc. It is evident from the database of Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) which contains more than 70 million finger prints. Compression of this database is very important because of this high Volume. The performance of existing image coding standards generally degrades at low bit-rates because of the underlying block based Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) scheme. Over the past decade, the success of wavelets in solving many different problems has contributed to its unprecedented popularity. Due to implementation constraints scalar wavelets do not posses all the properties which are needed for better performance in compression. New class of wavelets called 'Multiwavelets' which posses more than one scaling filters overcomes this problem. The objective of this paper is to develop an efficient compression scheme and to obtain better quality and higher compression ratio through multiwavelet transform and embedded coding of multiwavelet coefficients through Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees algorithm (SPIHT) algorithm. A comparison of the best known multiwavelets is made to the best known scalar wavelets. Both quantitative and qualitative measures of performance are examined for Fingerprints.
Reversible, Embedded and Highly Scalable Image Compression System
In this work a new method for low complexity image coding is presented, that permits different settings and great scalability in the generation of the final bit stream. This coding presents a continuous-tone still image compression system that groups loss and lossless compression making use of finite arithmetic reversible transforms. Both transformation in the space of color and wavelet transformation are reversible. The transformed coefficients are coded by means of a coding system in depending on a subdivision into smaller components (CFDS) similar to the bit importance codification. The subcomponents so obtained are reordered by means of a highly configure alignment system depending on the application that makes possible the re-configure of the elements of the image and obtaining different importance levels from which the bit stream will be generated. The subcomponents of each importance level are coded using a variable length entropy coding system (VBLm) that permits the generation of an embedded bit stream. This bit stream supposes itself a bit stream that codes a compressed still image. However, the use of a packing system on the bit stream after the VBLm allows the realization of a final highly scalable bit stream from a basic image level and one or several improvement levels.
Reducing the False Rejection Rate of Iris Recognition Using Textural and Topological Features
This paper presents a novel iris recognition system using 1D log polar Gabor wavelet and Euler numbers. 1D log polar Gabor wavelet is used to extract the textural features, and Euler numbers are used to extract topological features of the iris. The proposed decision strategy uses these features to authenticate an individual-s identity while maintaining a low false rejection rate. The algorithm was tested on CASIA iris image database and found to perform better than existing approaches with an overall accuracy of 99.93%.
Spectral Analysis of Speech: A New Technique
ICA which is generally used for blind source separation problem has been tested for feature extraction in Speech recognition system to replace the phoneme based approach of MFCC. Applying the Cepstral coefficients generated to ICA as preprocessing has developed a new signal processing approach. This gives much better results against MFCC and ICA separately, both for word and speaker recognition. The mixing matrix A is different before and after MFCC as expected. As Mel is a nonlinear scale. However, cepstrals generated from Linear Predictive Coefficient being independent prove to be the right candidate for ICA. Matlab is the tool used for all comparisons. The database used is samples of ISOLET.
Combining Color and Layout Features for the Identification of Low-resolution Documents
This paper proposes a method, combining color and layout features, for identifying documents captured from lowresolution handheld devices. On one hand, the document image color density surface is estimated and represented with an equivalent ellipse and on the other hand, the document shallow layout structure is computed and hierarchically represented. The combined color and layout features are arranged in a symbolic file, which is unique for each document and is called the document-s visual signature. Our identification method first uses the color information in the signatures in order to focus the search space on documents having a similar color distribution, and finally selects the document having the most similar layout structure in the remaining search space. Finally, our experiment considers slide documents, which are often captured using handheld devices.
A New Approach to Face Recognition Using Dual Dimension Reduction
In this paper a new approach to face recognition is presented that achieves double dimension reduction, making the system computationally efficient with better recognition results and out perform common DCT technique of face recognition. In pattern recognition techniques, discriminative information of image increases with increase in resolution to a certain extent, consequently face recognition results change with change in face image resolution and provide optimal results when arriving at a certain resolution level. In the proposed model of face recognition, initially image decimation algorithm is applied on face image for dimension reduction to a certain resolution level which provides best recognition results. Due to increased computational speed and feature extraction potential of Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), it is applied on face image. A subset of coefficients of DCT from low to mid frequencies that represent the face adequately and provides best recognition results is retained. A tradeoff between decimation factor, number of DCT coefficients retained and recognition rate with minimum computation is obtained. Preprocessing of the image is carried out to increase its robustness against variations in poses and illumination level. This new model has been tested on different databases which include ORL , Yale and EME color database.
Adaptive Filtering of Heart Rate Signals for an Improved Measure of Cardiac Autonomic Control
In order to provide accurate heart rate variability indices of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, the low frequency and high frequency components of an RR heart rate signal must be adequately separated. This is not always possible by just applying spectral analysis, as power from the high and low frequency components often leak into their adjacent bands. Furthermore, without the respiratory spectra it is not obvious that the low frequency component is not another respiratory component, which can appear in the lower band. This paper describes an adaptive filter, which aids the separation of the low frequency sympathetic and high frequency parasympathetic components from an ECG R-R interval signal, enabling the attainment of more accurate heart rate variability measures. The algorithm is applied to simulated signals and heart rate and respiratory signals acquired from an ambulatory monitor incorporating single lead ECG and inductive plethysmography sensors embedded in a garment. The results show an improvement over standard heart rate variability spectral measurements.
A Fuzzy Model and Tool to Analyze SIVD Diseases Using TMS

The paper proposes a methodology to process the signals coming from the Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in order to identify the pathology and evaluate the therapy to treat the patients affected by demency diseases. In particular, a fuzzy model is developed to identify the demency of the patients affected by Subcortical Ischemic Vascular Dementia and to measure the positive effect, if any, of a repetitive TMS on their motor performances. A tool is also presented to support the mentioned analysis.

Classification of Non Stationary Signals Using Ben Wavelet and Artificial Neural Networks

The automatic classification of non stationary signals is an important practical goal in several domains. An essential classification task is to allocate the incoming signal to a group associated with the kind of physical phenomena producing it. In this paper, we present a modular system composed by three blocs: 1) Representation, 2) Dimensionality reduction and 3) Classification. The originality of our work consists in the use of a new wavelet called "Ben wavelet" in the representation stage. For the dimensionality reduction, we propose a new algorithm based on the random projection and the principal component analysis.

Artificial Neural Networks and Multi-Class Support Vector Machines for Classifying Magnetic Measurements in Tokamak Reactors
This paper is mainly concerned with the application of a novel technique of data interpretation for classifying measurements of plasma columns in Tokamak reactors for nuclear fusion applications. The proposed method exploits several concepts derived from soft computing theory. In particular, Artificial Neural Networks and Multi-Class Support Vector Machines have been exploited to classify magnetic variables useful to determine shape and position of the plasma with a reduced computational complexity. The proposed technique is used to analyze simulated databases of plasma equilibria based on ITER geometry configuration. As well as demonstrating the successful recovery of scalar equilibrium parameters, we show that the technique can yield practical advantages compared with earlier methods.
Trace Emergence of Ants- Traffic Flow, based upon Exclusion Process
Biological evolution has generated a rich variety of successful solutions; from nature, optimized strategies can be inspired. One interesting example is the ant colonies, which are able to exhibit a collective intelligence, still that their dynamic is simple. The emergence of different patterns depends on the pheromone trail, leaved by the foragers. It serves as positive feedback mechanism for sharing information. In this paper, we use the dynamic of TASEP as a model of interaction at a low level of the collective environment in the ant-s traffic flow. This work consists of modifying the movement rules of particles “ants" belonging to the TASEP model, so that it adopts with the natural movement of ants. Therefore, as to respect the constraints of having no more than one particle per a given site, and in order to avoid collision within a bidirectional circulation, we suggested two strategies: decease strategy and waiting strategy. As a third work stage, this is devoted to the study of these two proposed strategies- stability. As a final work stage, we applied the first strategy to the whole environment, in order to get to the emergence of traffic flow, which is a way of learning.
Emotional Learning based Intelligent Robust Adaptive Controller for Stable Uncertain Nonlinear Systems
In this paper a new control strategy based on Brain Emotional Learning (BEL) model has been introduced. A modified BEL model has been proposed to increase the degree of freedom, controlling capability, reliability and robustness, which can be implemented in real engineering systems. The performance of the proposed BEL controller has been illustrated by applying it on different nonlinear uncertain systems, showing very good adaptability and robustness, while maintaining stability.
Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithm in Telecommunications Network Planning
The main goal of this work is to propose a way for combined use of two nontraditional algorithms by solving topological problems on telecommunications concentrator networks. The algorithms suggested are the Simulated Annealing algorithm and the Genetic Algorithm. The Algorithm of Simulated Annealing unifies the well known local search algorithms. In addition - Simulated Annealing allows acceptation of moves in the search space witch lead to decisions with higher cost in order to attempt to overcome any local minima obtained. The Genetic Algorithm is a heuristic approach witch is being used in wide areas of optimization works. In the last years this approach is also widely implemented in Telecommunications Networks Planning. In order to solve less or more complex planning problem it is important to find the most appropriate parameters for initializing the function of the algorithm.
A State Aggregation Approach to Singularly Perturbed Markov Reward Processes
In this paper, we propose a single sample path based algorithm with state aggregation to optimize the average rewards of singularly perturbed Markov reward processes (SPMRPs) with a large scale state spaces. It is assumed that such a reward process depend on a set of parameters. Differing from the other kinds of Markov chain, SPMRPs have their own hierarchical structure. Based on this special structure, our algorithm can alleviate the load in the optimization for performance. Moreover, our method can be applied on line because of its evolution with the sample path simulated. Compared with the original algorithm applied on these problems of general MRPs, a new gradient formula for average reward performance metric in SPMRPs is brought in, which will be proved in Appendix, and then based on these gradients, the schedule of the iteration algorithm is presented, which is based on a single sample path, and eventually a special case in which parameters only dominate the disturbance matrices will be analyzed, and a precise comparison with be displayed between our algorithm with the old ones which is aim to solve these problems in general Markov reward processes. When applied in SPMRPs, our method will approach a fast pace in these cases. Furthermore, to illustrate the practical value of SPMRPs, a simple example in multiple programming in computer systems will be listed and simulated. Corresponding to some practical model, physical meanings of SPMRPs in networks of queues will be clarified.
Human Body Configuration using Bayesian Model
In this paper we present a novel approach for human Body configuration based on the Silhouette. We propose to address this problem under the Bayesian framework. We use an effective Model based MCMC (Markov Chain Monte Carlo) method to solve the configuration problem, in which the best configuration could be defined as MAP (maximize a posteriori probability) in Bayesian model. This model based MCMC utilizes the human body model to drive the MCMC sampling from the solution space. It converses the original high dimension space into a restricted sub-space constructed by the human model and uses a hybrid sampling algorithm. We choose an explicit human model and carefully select the likelihood functions to represent the best configuration solution. The experiments show that this method could get an accurate configuration and timesaving for different human from multi-views.
Automatic Authentication of Handwritten Documents via Low Density Pixel Measurements
We introduce an effective approach for automatic offline au- thentication of handwritten samples where the forgeries are skillfully done, i.e., the true and forgery sample appearances are almost alike. Subtle details of temporal information used in online verification are not available offline and are also hard to recover robustly. Thus the spatial dynamic information like the pen-tip pressure characteristics are considered, emphasizing on the extraction of low density pixels. The points result from the ballistic rhythm of a genuine signature which a forgery, however skillful that may be, always lacks. Ten effective features, including these low density points and den- sity ratio, are proposed to make the distinction between a true and a forgery sample. An adaptive decision criteria is also derived for better verification judgements.
W3-Miner: Mining Weighted Frequent Subtree Patterns in a Collection of Trees
Mining frequent tree patterns have many useful applications in XML mining, bioinformatics, network routing, etc. Most of the frequent subtree mining algorithms (i.e. FREQT, TreeMiner and CMTreeMiner) use anti-monotone property in the phase of candidate subtree generation. However, none of these algorithms have verified the correctness of this property in tree structured data. In this research it is shown that anti-monotonicity does not generally hold, when using weighed support in tree pattern discovery. As a result, tree mining algorithms that are based on this property would probably miss some of the valid frequent subtree patterns in a collection of trees. In this paper, we investigate the correctness of anti-monotone property for the problem of weighted frequent subtree mining. In addition we propose W3-Miner, a new algorithm for full extraction of frequent subtrees. The experimental results confirm that W3-Miner finds some frequent subtrees that the previously proposed algorithms are not able to discover.
Approaches and Schemes for Storing DTDIndependent XML Data in Relational Databases
The volume of XML data exchange is explosively increasing, and the need for efficient mechanisms of XML data management is vital. Many XML storage models have been proposed for storing XML DTD-independent documents in relational database systems. Benchmarking is the best way to highlight pros and cons of different approaches. In this study, we use a common benchmarking scheme, known as XMark to compare the most cited and newly proposed DTD-independent methods in terms of logical reads, physical I/O, CPU time and duration. We show the effect of Label Path, extracting values and storing in another table and type of join needed for each method-s query answering.
Capacity Enhancement in Wireless Networks using Directional Antennas
One of the biggest drawbacks of the wireless environment is the limited bandwidth. However, the users sharing this limited bandwidth have been increasing considerably. SDMA technique which entails using directional antennas allows to increase the capacity of a wireless network by separating users in the medium. In this paper, it has been presented how the capacity can be enhanced while the mean delay is reduced by using directional antennas in wireless networks employing TDMA/FDD MAC. Computer modeling and simulation of the wireless system studied are realized using OPNET Modeler. Preliminary simulation results are presented and the performance of the model using directional antennas is evaluated and compared consistently with the one using omnidirectional antennas.
An Innovative Fuzzy Decision Making Based Genetic Algorithm
Several researchers have proposed methods about combination of Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Fuzzy Logic (the use of GA to obtain fuzzy rules and application of fuzzy logic in optimization of GA). In this paper, we suggest a new method in which fuzzy decision making is used to improve the performance of genetic algorithm. In the suggested method, we determine the alleles that enhance the fitness of chromosomes and try to insert them to the next generation. In this algorithm we try to present an innovative vaccination in the process of reproduction in genetic algorithm, with considering the trade off between exploration and exploitation.
Low Computational Image Compression Scheme based on Absolute Moment Block Truncation Coding
In this paper we have proposed three and two stage still gray scale image compressor based on BTC. In our schemes, we have employed a combination of four techniques to reduce the bit rate. They are quad tree segmentation, bit plane omission, bit plane coding using 32 visual patterns and interpolative bit plane coding. The experimental results show that the proposed schemes achieve an average bit rate of 0.46 bits per pixel (bpp) for standard gray scale images with an average PSNR value of 30.25, which is better than the results from the exiting similar methods based on BTC.
Theoretical Analysis of Capacities in Dynamic Spatial Multiplexing MIMO Systems
In this paper, we investigate the study of techniques for scheduling users for resource allocation in the case of multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) packet transmission systems. In these systems, transmit antennas are assigned to one user or dynamically to different users using spatial multiplexing. The allocation of all transmit antennas to one user cannot take full advantages of multi-user diversity. Therefore, we developed the case when resources are allocated dynamically. At each time slot users have to feed back their channel information on an uplink feedback channel. Channel information considered available in the schedulers is the zero forcing (ZF) post detection signal to interference plus noise ratio. Our analysis study concerns the round robin and the opportunistic schemes. In this paper, we present an overview and a complete capacity analysis of these schemes. The main results in our study are to give an analytical form of system capacity using the ZF receiver at the user terminal. Simulations have been carried out to validate all proposed analytical solutions and to compare the performance of these schemes.
Performance Analysis of MT Evaluation Measures and Test Suites
Many measures have been proposed for machine translation evaluation (MTE) while little research has been done on the performance of MTE methods. This paper is an effort for MTE performance analysis. A general frame is proposed for the description of the MTE measure and the test suite, including whether the automatic measure is consistent with human evaluation, whether different results from various measures or test suites are consistent, whether the content of the test suite is suitable for performance evaluation, the degree of difficulty of the test suite and its influence on the MTE, the relationship of MTE result significance and the size of the test suite, etc. For a better clarification of the frame, several experiment results are analyzed relating human evaluation, BLEU evaluation, and typological MTE. A visualization method is introduced for better presentation of the results. The study aims for aid in construction of test suite and method selection in MTE practice.
A New Ridge Orientation based Method of Computation for Feature Extraction from Fingerprint Images
An important step in studying the statistics of fingerprint minutia features is to reliably extract minutia features from the fingerprint images. A new reliable method of computation for minutiae feature extraction from fingerprint images is presented. A fingerprint image is treated as a textured image. An orientation flow field of the ridges is computed for the fingerprint image. To accurately locate ridges, a new ridge orientation based computation method is proposed. After ridge segmentation a new method of computation is proposed for smoothing the ridges. The ridge skeleton image is obtained and then smoothed using morphological operators to detect the features. A post processing stage eliminates a large number of false features from the detected set of minutiae features. The detected features are observed to be reliable and accurate.
Alternative Methods to Rank the Impact of Object Oriented Metrics in Fault Prediction Modeling using Neural Networks
The aim of this paper is to rank the impact of Object Oriented(OO) metrics in fault prediction modeling using Artificial Neural Networks(ANNs). Past studies on empirical validation of object oriented metrics as fault predictors using ANNs have focused on the predictive quality of neural networks versus standard statistical techniques. In this empirical study we turn our attention to the capability of ANNs in ranking the impact of these explanatory metrics on fault proneness. In ANNs data analysis approach, there is no clear method of ranking the impact of individual metrics. Five ANN based techniques are studied which rank object oriented metrics in predicting fault proneness of classes. These techniques are i) overall connection weights method ii) Garson-s method iii) The partial derivatives methods iv) The Input Perturb method v) the classical stepwise methods. We develop and evaluate different prediction models based on the ranking of the metrics by the individual techniques. The models based on overall connection weights and partial derivatives methods have been found to be most accurate.
Energy Conscious Builder Design Pattern with C# and Intermediate Language
Design Patterns have gained more and more acceptances since their emerging in software development world last decade and become another de facto standard of essential knowledge for Object-Oriented Programming developers nowadays. Their target usage, from the beginning, was for regular computers, so, minimizing power consumption had never been a concern. However, in this decade, demands of more complicated software for running on mobile devices has grown rapidly as the much higher performance portable gadgets have been supplied to the market continuously. To get along with time to market that is business reason, the section of software development for power conscious, battery, devices has shifted itself from using specific low-level languages to higher level ones. Currently, complicated software running on mobile devices are often developed by high level languages those support OOP concepts. These cause the trend of embracing Design Patterns to mobile world. However, using Design Patterns directly in software development for power conscious systems is not recommended because they were not originally designed for such environment. This paper demonstrates the adapted Design Pattern for power limitation system. Because there are numerous original design patterns, it is not possible to mention the whole at once. So, this paper focuses only in creating Energy Conscious version of existing regular "Builder Pattern" to be appropriated for developing low power consumption software.
Modified Vector Quantization Method for Image Compression
A low bit rate still image compression scheme by compressing the indices of Vector Quantization (VQ) and generating residual codebook is proposed. The indices of VQ are compressed by exploiting correlation among image blocks, which reduces the bit per index. A residual codebook similar to VQ codebook is generated that represents the distortion produced in VQ. Using this residual codebook the distortion in the reconstructed image is removed, thereby increasing the image quality. Our scheme combines these two methods. Experimental results on standard image Lena show that our scheme can give a reconstructed image with a PSNR value of 31.6 db at 0.396 bits per pixel. Our scheme is also faster than the existing VQ variants.
Optimal Power Allocation to Diversity Branches of Cooperative MISO Sensor Networks
In the context of sensor networks, where every few dB saving counts, the novel node cooperation schemes are reviewed where MIMO techniques play a leading role. These methods could be treated as joint approach for designing physical layer of their communication scenarios. Then we analyzed the BER performance of transmission diversity schemes under a general fading channel model and proposed a power allocation strategy to the transmitting sensor nodes. This approach is then compared to an equal-power assignment method and its performance enhancement is verified by the simulation. Another key point of the contribution lies in the combination of optimal power allocation and sensor nodes- cooperation in a transmission diversity regime (MISO). Numerical results are given through figures to demonstrate the optimality and efficiency of proposed combined approach.
A Robust Image Watermarking Scheme using Image Moment Normalization
Multimedia security is an incredibly significant area of concern. A number of papers on robust digital watermarking have been presented, but there are no standards that have been defined so far. Thus multimedia security is still a posing problem. The aim of this paper is to design a robust image-watermarking scheme, which can withstand a different set of attacks. The proposed scheme provides a robust solution integrating image moment normalization, content dependent watermark and discrete wavelet transformation. Moment normalization is useful to recover the watermark even in case of geometrical attacks. Content dependent watermarks are a powerful means of authentication as the data is watermarked with its own features. Discrete wavelet transforms have been used as they describe image features in a better manner. The proposed scheme finds its place in validating identification cards and financial instruments.
High Quality Speech Coding using Combined Parametric and Perceptual Modules

A novel approach to speech coding using the hybrid architecture is presented. Advantages of parametric and perceptual coding methods are utilized together in order to create a speech coding algorithm assuring better signal quality than in traditional CELP parametric codec. Two approaches are discussed. One is based on selection of voiced signal components that are encoded using parametric algorithm, unvoiced components that are encoded perceptually and transients that remain unencoded. The second approach uses perceptual encoding of the residual signal in CELP codec. The algorithm applied for precise transient selection is described. Signal quality achieved using the proposed hybrid codec is compared to quality of some standard speech codecs.

Robust Camera Calibration using Discrete Optimization
Camera calibration is an indispensable step for augmented reality or image guided applications where quantitative information should be derived from the images. Usually, a camera calibration is obtained by taking images of a special calibration object and extracting the image coordinates of projected calibration marks enabling the calculation of the projection from the 3d world coordinates to the 2d image coordinates. Thus such a procedure exhibits typical steps, including feature point localization in the acquired images, camera model fitting, correction of distortion introduced by the optics and finally an optimization of the model-s parameters. In this paper we propose to extend this list by further step concerning the identification of the optimal subset of images yielding the smallest overall calibration error. For this, we present a Monte Carlo based algorithm along with a deterministic extension that automatically determines the images yielding an optimal calibration. Finally, we present results proving that the calibration can be significantly improved by automated image selection.
A Nonoblivious Image Watermarking System Based on Singular Value Decomposition and Texture Segmentation
In this paper, a robust digital image watermarking scheme for copyright protection applications using the singular value decomposition (SVD) is proposed. In this scheme, an entropy masking model has been applied on the host image for the texture segmentation. Moreover, the local luminance and textures of the host image are considered for watermark embedding procedure to increase the robustness of the watermarking scheme. In contrast to all existing SVD-based watermarking systems that have been designed to embed visual watermarks, our system uses a pseudo-random sequence as a watermark. We have tested the performance of our method using a wide variety of image processing attacks on different test images. A comparison is made between the results of our proposed algorithm with those of a wavelet-based method to demonstrate the superior performance of our algorithm.
Dynamic Load Balancing Strategy for Grid Computing

Workload and resource management are two essential functions provided at the service level of the grid software infrastructure. To improve the global throughput of these software environments, workloads have to be evenly scheduled among the available resources. To realize this goal several load balancing strategies and algorithms have been proposed. Most strategies were developed in mind, assuming homogeneous set of sites linked with homogeneous and fast networks. However for computational grids we must address main new issues, namely: heterogeneity, scalability and adaptability. In this paper, we propose a layered algorithm which achieve dynamic load balancing in grid computing. Based on a tree model, our algorithm presents the following main features: (i) it is layered; (ii) it supports heterogeneity and scalability; and, (iii) it is totally independent from any physical architecture of a grid.

A Computationally Efficient Design for Prototype Filters of an M-Channel Cosine Modulated Filter Bank
The paper discusses a computationally efficient method for the design of prototype filters required for the implementation of an M-band cosine modulated filter bank. The prototype filter is formulated as an optimum interpolated FIR filter. The optimum interpolation factor requiring minimum number of multipliers is used. The model filter as well as the image suppressor will be designed using the Kaiser window. The method will seek to optimize a single parameter namely cutoff frequency to minimize the distortion in the overlapping passband.
Deterministic Method to Assess Kalman Filter Passive Ranging Solution Reliability
For decades, the defense business has been plagued by not having a reliable, deterministic method to know when the Kalman filter solution for passive ranging application is reliable for use by the fighter pilot. This has made it hard to accurately assess when the ranging solution can be used for situation awareness and weapons use. To date, we have used ad hoc rules-of-thumb to assess when we think the estimate of the Kalman filter standard deviation on range is reliable. A reliable algorithm has been developed at BAE Systems Electronics & Integrated Solutions that monitors the Kalman gain matrix elements – and a patent is pending. The “settling" of the gain matrix elements relates directly to when we can assess the time when the passive ranging solution is within the 10 percent-of-truth value. The focus of the paper is on surface-based passive ranging – but the method is applicable to airborne targets as well.
Energy Efficiency of Adaptive-Rate Medium Access Control Protocols for Sensor Networks
Energy efficient protocol design is the aim of current researches in the area of sensor networks where limited power resources impose energy conservation considerations. In this paper we care for Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols and after an extensive literature review, two adaptive schemes are discussed. Of them, adaptive-rate MACs which were introduced for throughput enhancement show the potency to save energy, even more than adaptive-power schemes. Then we propose an allocation algorithm for getting accurate and reliable results. Through a simulation study we validated our claim and showed the power saving of adaptive-rate protocols.
An Approach for a Bidding Process Knowledge Capitalization
Preparation and negotiation of innovative and future projects can be characterized as a strategic-type decision situation, involving many uncertainties and an unpredictable environment. We will focus in this paper on the bidding process. It includes cooperative and strategic decisions. Our approach for bidding process knowledge capitalization is aimed at information management in project-oriented organizations, based on the MUSIC (Management and Use of Co-operative Information Systems) model. We will show how to capitalize the company strategic knowledge and also how to organize the corporate memory. The result of the adopted approach is improvement of corporate memory quality.
A Fast Adaptive Content-based Retrieval System of Satellite Images Database using Relevance Feedback
In this paper, we present a system for content-based retrieval of large database of classified satellite images, based on user's relevance feedback (RF).Through our proposed system, we divide each satellite image scene into small subimages, which stored in the database. The modified radial basis functions neural network has important role in clustering the subimages of database according to the Euclidean distance between the query feature vector and the other subimages feature vectors. The advantage of using RF technique in such queries is demonstrated by analyzing the database retrieval results.
Space Time Processing with Adaptive STBC-OFDM Systems
In this paper, Optimum adaptive loading algorithms are applied to multicarrier system with Space-Time Block Coding (STBC) scheme associated with space-time processing based on singular-value decomposition (SVD) of the channel matrix over Rayleigh fading channels. SVD method has been employed in MIMO-OFDM system in order to overcome subchannel interference. Chaw-s and Compello-s algorithms have been implemented to obtain a bit and power allocation for each subcarrier assuming instantaneous channel knowledge. The adaptive loaded SVD-STBC scheme is capable of providing both full-rate and full-diversity for any number of transmit antennas. The effectiveness of these techniques has demonstrated through the simulation of an Adaptive loaded SVDSTBC system, and the comparison shown that the proposed algorithms ensure better performance in the case of MIMO.
A Semi-Fragile Signature based Scheme for Ownership Identification and Color Image Authentication

In this paper, a novel scheme is proposed for ownership identification and authentication using color images by deploying Cryptography and Digital Watermarking as underlaying technologies. The former is used to compute the contents based hash and the latter to embed the watermark. The host image that will claim to be the rightful owner is first transformed from RGB to YST color space exclusively designed for watermarking based applications. Geometrically YS ÔèÑ T and T channel corresponds to the chrominance component of color image, therefore suitable for embedding the watermark. The T channel is divided into 4×4 nonoverlapping blocks. The size of block is important for enhanced localization, security and low computation. Each block along with ownership information is then deployed by SHA160, a one way hash function to compute the content based hash, which is always unique and resistant against birthday attack instead of using MD5 that may raise the condition i.e. H(m)=H(m'). The watermark payload varies from block to block and computed by the variance factorα . The quality of watermarked images is quite high both subjectively and objectively. Our scheme is blind, computationally fast and exactly locates the tampered region.

A Fragile Watermarking Scheme for Color Image Authentication

In this paper, a fragile watermarking scheme is proposed for color image specified object-s authentication. The color image is first transformed from RGB to YST color space, suitable for watermarking the color media. The T channel corresponds to the chrominance component of a color image andYS ÔèÑ T , therefore selected for embedding the watermark. The T channel is first divided into 2×2 non-overlapping blocks and the two LSBs are set to zero. The object that is to be authenticated is also divided into 2×2 nonoverlapping blocks and each block-s intensity mean is computed followed by eight bit encoding. The generated watermark is then embedded into T channel randomly selected 2×2 block-s LSBs using 2D-Torus Automorphism. Selection of block size is paramount for exact localization and recovery of work. The proposed scheme is blind, efficient and secure with ability to detect and locate even minor tampering applied to the image with full recovery of original work. The quality of watermarked media is quite high both subjectively and objectively. The technique is suitable for class of images with format such as gif, tif or bitmap.

A Semi-Fragile Watermarking Scheme for Color Image Authentication

In this paper, a semi-fragile watermarking scheme is proposed for color image authentication. In this particular scheme, the color image is first transformed from RGB to YST color space, suitable for watermarking the color media. Each channel is divided into 4×4 non-overlapping blocks and its each 2×2 sub-block is selected. The embedding space is created by setting the two LSBs of selected sub-block to zero, which will hold the authentication and recovery information. For verification of work authentication and parity bits denoted by 'a' & 'p' are computed for each 2×2 subblock. For recovery, intensity mean of each 2×2 sub-block is computed and encoded upto six to eight bits depending upon the channel selection. The size of sub-block is important for correct localization and fast computation. For watermark distribution 2DTorus Automorphism is implemented using a private key to have a secure mapping of blocks. The perceptibility of watermarked image is quite reasonable both subjectively and objectively. Our scheme is oblivious, correctly localizes the tampering and able to recovery the original work with probability of near one.

Embedded Semi-Fragile Signature Based Scheme for Ownership Identification and Color Image Authentication with Recovery

In this paper, a novel scheme is proposed for Ownership Identification and Color Image Authentication by deploying Cryptography & Digital Watermarking. The color image is first transformed from RGB to YST color space exclusively designed for watermarking. Followed by color space transformation, each channel is divided into 4×4 non-overlapping blocks with selection of central 2×2 sub-blocks. Depending upon the channel selected two to three LSBs of each central 2×2 sub-block are set to zero to hold the ownership, authentication and recovery information. The size & position of sub-block is important for correct localization, enhanced security & fast computation. As YS ÔèÑ T so it is suitable to embed the recovery information apart from the ownership and authentication information, therefore 4×4 block of T channel along with ownership information is then deployed by SHA160 to compute the content based hash that is unique and invulnerable to birthday attack or hash collision instead of using MD5 that may raise the condition i.e. H(m)=H(m'). For recovery, intensity mean of 4x4 block of each channel is computed and encoded upto eight bits. For watermark embedding, key based mapping of blocks is performed using 2DTorus Automorphism. Our scheme is oblivious, generates highly imperceptible images with correct localization of tampering within reasonable time and has the ability to recover the original work with probability of near one.

Automatic Discrimimation of the Modes of Permanent Flow of a Liquid Simulating Blood
In order to be able to automatically differentiate between two modes of permanent flow of a liquid simulating blood, it was imperative to put together a data bank. Thus, the acquisition of the various amplitude spectra of the Doppler signal of this liquid in laminar flow and other spectra in turbulent flow enabled us to establish an automatic difference between the two modes. According to the number of parameters and their nature, a comparative study allowed us to choose the best classifier.
Using Emotional Learning in Rescue Simulation Environment
RoboCup Rescue simulation as a large-scale Multi agent system (MAS) is one of the challenging environments for keeping coordination between agents to achieve the objectives despite sensing and communication limitations. The dynamicity of the environment and intensive dependency between actions of different kinds of agents make the problem more complex. This point encouraged us to use learning-based methods to adapt our decision making to different situations. Our approach is utilizing reinforcement leaning. Using learning in rescue simulation is one of the current ways which has been the subject of several researches in recent years. In this paper we present an innovative learning method implemented for Police Force (PF) Agent. This method can cope with the main difficulties that exist in other learning approaches. Different methods used in the literature have been examined. Their drawbacks and possible improvements have led us to the method proposed in this paper which is fast and accurate. The Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller (BELBIC) is our solution for learning in this environment. BELBIC is a physiologically motivated approach based on a computational model of amygdale and limbic system. The paper presents the results obtained by the proposed approach, showing the power of BELBIC as a decision making tool in complex and dynamic situation.
Using Automated Database Reverse Engineering for Database Integration
One important problem in today organizations is the existence of non-integrated information systems, inconsistency and lack of suitable correlations between legacy and modern systems. One main solution is to transfer the local databases into a global one. In this regards we need to extract the data structures from the legacy systems and integrate them with the new technology systems. In legacy systems, huge amounts of a data are stored in legacy databases. They require particular attention since they need more efforts to be normalized, reformatted and moved to the modern database environments. Designing the new integrated (global) database architecture and applying the reverse engineering requires data normalization. This paper proposes the use of database reverse engineering in order to integrate legacy and modern databases in organizations. The suggested approach consists of methods and techniques for generating data transformation rules needed for the data structure normalization.
Detection, Tracking and Classification of Vehicles and Aircraft based on Magnetic Sensing Technology
Existing ground movement surveillance technologies at airports are subjected to limitations due to shadowing effects or multiple reflections. Therefore, there is a strong demand for a new sensing technology, which will be cost effective and will provide detection of non-cooperative targets under any weather conditions. This paper aims to present a new intelligent system, developed within the framework of the EC-funded ISMAEL project, which is based on a new magnetic sensing technology and provides detection, tracking and automatic classification of targets moving on the airport surface. The system is currently being installed at two European airports. Initial experimental results under real airport traffic demonstrate the great potential of the proposed system.
Periodicity for a Food Chain Model with Functional Responses on Time Scales
With the help of coincidence degree theory, sufficient conditions for existence of periodic solutions for a food chain model with functional responses on time scales are established.
On Suborbital Graphs of the Congruence Subgroup r 0(N)
In this paper we examine some properties of suborbital graphs for the congruence subgroup r 0 (N) . Then we give necessary and sufficient conditions for graphs to have triangels.
On Generalizing Rough Set Theory via using a Filter
The theory of rough sets is generalized by using a filter. The filter is induced by binary relations and it is used to generalize the basic rough set concepts. The knowledge representations and processing of binary relations in the style of rough set theory are investigated.
The Game of Synchronized Triomineering and Synchronized Tridomineering
In synchronized games players make their moves simultaneously rather than alternately. Synchronized Triomineering and Synchronized Tridomineering are respectively the synchronized versions of Triomineering and Tridomineering, two variants of a classic two-player combinatorial game called Domineering. Experimental results for small m × n boards (with m + n ≤ 12 for Synchronized Triomineering and m + n ≤ 10 for Synchronized Tridomineering) and some theoretical results for general k×n boards (with k = 3, 4, 5 for Synchronized Triomineering and k = 3 for Synchronized Tridomineering) are presented. Future research is indicated.
Solving Fully Fuzzy Linear Systems by use of a Certain Decomposition of the Coefficient Matrix
In this paper, we give a certain decomposition of the coefficient matrix of the fully fuzzy linear system (FFLS) to obtain a simple algorithm for solving these systems. The new algorithm can solve FFLS in a smaller computing process. We will illustrate our method by solving some examples.
Modelling of Electron States in Quantum -Wire Systems - Influence of Stochastic Effects on the Confining Potential

In this work, we address theoretically the influence of red and white Gaussian noise for electronic energies and eigenstates of cylindrically shaped quantum dots. The stochastic effect can be imagined as resulting from crystal-growth statistical fluctuations in the quantum-dot material composition. In particular we obtain analytical expressions for the eigenvalue shifts and electronic envelope functions in the k . p formalism due to stochastic variations in the confining band-edge potential. It is shown that white noise in the band-edge potential leaves electronic properties almost unaffected while red noise may lead to changes in state energies and envelopefunction amplitudes of several percentages. In the latter case, the ensemble-averaged envelope function decays as a function of distance. It is also shown that, in a stochastic system, constant ensembleaveraged envelope functions are the only bounded solutions for the infinite quantum-wire problem and the energy spectrum is completely discrete. In other words, the infinite stochastic quantum wire behaves, ensemble-averaged, as an atom.

Some Characterizations of Isotropic Curves In the Euclidean Space
The curves, of which the square of the distance between the two points equal to zero, are called minimal or isotropic curves [4]. In this work, first, necessary and sufficient conditions to be a Pseudo Helix, which is a special case of such curves, are presented. Thereafter, it is proven that an isotropic curve-s position vector and pseudo curvature satisfy a vector differential equation of fourth order. Additionally, In view of solution of mentioned equation, position vector of pseudo helices is obtained.
Contributions to Differential Geometry of Pseudo Null Curves in Semi-Euclidean Space
In this paper, first, a characterization of spherical Pseudo null curves in Semi-Euclidean space is given. Then, to investigate position vector of a pseudo null curve, a system of differential equation whose solution gives the components of the position vector of a pseudo null curve on the Frenet axis is established by means of Frenet equations. Additionally, in view of some special solutions of mentioned system, characterizations of some special pseudo null curves are presented.
A Method to Calculate Frenet Apparatus of the Curves in Euclidean-5 Space
In this paper, a method to calculate Frenet Apparatus of the curves in five dimensional Euclidean space is presented.
Simulation of a Multi-Component Transport Model for the Chemical Reaction of a CVD-Process

In this paper we present discretization and decomposition methods for a multi-component transport model of a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. CVD processes are used to manufacture deposition layers or bulk materials. In our transport model we simulate the deposition of thin layers. The microscopic model is based on the heavy particles, which are derived by approximately solving a linearized multicomponent Boltzmann equation. For the drift-process of the particles we propose diffusionreaction equations as well as for the effects of heat conduction. We concentrate on solving the diffusion-reaction equation with analytical and numerical methods. For the chemical processes, modelled with reaction equations, we propose decomposition methods and decouple the multi-component models to simpler systems of differential equations. In the numerical experiments we present the computational results of our proposed models.

A Reduced-Bit Multiplication Algorithm for Digital Arithmetic

A reduced-bit multiplication algorithm based on the ancient Vedic multiplication formulae is proposed in this paper. Both the Vedic multiplication formulae, Urdhva tiryakbhyam and Nikhilam, are first discussed in detail. Urdhva tiryakbhyam, being a general multiplication formula, is equally applicable to all cases of multiplication. It is applied to the digital arithmetic and is shown to yield a multiplier architecture which is very similar to the popular array multiplier. Due to its structure, it leads to a high carry propagation delay in case of multiplication of large numbers. Nikhilam Sutra, on the other hand, is more efficient in the multiplication of large numbers as it reduces the multiplication of two large numbers to that of two smaller numbers. The framework of the proposed algorithm is taken from this Sutra and is further optimized by use of some general arithmetic operations such as expansion and bit-shifting to take advantage of bit-reduction in multiplication. We illustrate the proposed algorithm by reducing a general 4x4-bit multiplication to a single 2 x 2-bit multiplication operation.

The Number of Rational Points on Elliptic Curves and Circles over Finite Fields
In elliptic curve theory, number of rational points on elliptic curves and determination of these points is a fairly important problem. Let p be a prime and Fp be a finite field and k ∈ Fp. It is well known that which points the curve y2 = x3 + kx has and the number of rational points of on Fp. Consider the circle family x2 + y2 = r2. It can be interesting to determine common points of these two curve families and to find the number of these common points. In this work we study this problem.
New Classes of Salagean type Meromorphic Harmonic Functions

In this paper, a necessary and sufficient coefficient are given for functions in a class of complex valued meromorphic harmonic univalent functions of the form f = h + g using Salagean operator. Furthermore, distortion theorems, extreme points, convolution condition and convex combinations for this family of meromorphic harmonic functions are obtained.

A Global Condition for the Triviality of an Almost Split Quaternionic Structure on Split Complex Manifolds
Let M be an almost split quaternionic manifold on which its almost split quaternionic structure is defined by a three dimensional subbundle V of ( T M) T (M) * Ôèù and {F,G,H} be a local basis for V . Suppose that the (global) (1, 2) tensor field defined[V ,V ]is defined by [V,V ] = [F,F]+[G,G] + [H,H], where [,] denotes the Nijenhuis bracket. In ref. [7], for the almost split-hypercomplex structureH = J α,α =1,2,3, and the Obata connection ÔêçH vanishes if and only if H is split-hypercomplex. In this study, we give a prof, in particular, prove that if either M is a split quaternionic Kaehler manifold, or if M is a splitcomplex manifold with almost split-complex structure F , then the vanishing [V ,V ] is equivalent to that of all the Nijenhuis brackets of {F,G,H}. It follows that the bundle V is trivial if and only if [V ,V ] = 0 .
Fuzzy Ideals in Near-subtraction Semigroups

In this paper,we introduce a notion of fuzzy ideals in near-subtraction semigroups and study their related properties.

N-Sun Decomposition of Complete, Complete Bipartite and Some Harary Graphs
Graph decompositions are vital in the study of combinatorial design theory. A decomposition of a graph G is a partition of its edge set. An n-sun graph is a cycle Cn with an edge terminating in a vertex of degree one attached to each vertex. In this paper, we define n-sun decomposition of some even order graphs with a perfect matching. We have proved that the complete graph K2n, complete bipartite graph K2n, 2n and the Harary graph H4, 2n have n-sun decompositions. A labeling scheme is used to construct the n-suns.
Public Key Cryptosystem based on Number Theoretic Transforms
In this paper a Public Key Cryptosystem is proposed using the number theoretic transforms (NTT) over a ring of integer modulo a composite number. The key agreement is similar to ElGamal public key algorithm. The security of the system is based on solution of multivariate linear congruence equations and discrete logarithm problem. In the proposed cryptosystem only fixed numbers of multiplications are carried out (constant complexity) and hence the encryption and decryption can be done easily. At the same time, it is very difficult to attack the cryptosystem, since the cipher text is a sequence of integers which are interrelated. The system provides authentication also. Using Mathematica version 5.0 the proposed algorithm is justified with a numerical example.
New Curriculum Approach in Teaching Network Security Subjects for ICT Courses in Malaysia
This paper discusses a curriculum approach that will give emphasis on practical portions of teaching network security subjects in information and communication technology courses. As we are well aware, the need to use a practice and application oriented approach in education is paramount. Research on active learning and cooperative groups have shown that students grasps more and have more tendency towards obtaining and realizing soft skills like leadership, communication and team work as opposed to the more traditional theory and exam based teaching and learning. While this teaching and learning paradigm is relatively new in Malaysia, it has been practiced widely in the West. This paper examines a certain approach whereby students learning wireless security are divided into and work in small and manageable groups where there will be 2 teams which consist of black hat and white hat teams. The former will try to find and expose vulnerabilities in a wireless network while the latter will try their best to prevent such attacks on their wireless networks using hardware, software, design and enforcement of security policy and etc. This paper will try to show that the approach taken plus the use of relevant and up to date software and hardware and with suitable environment setting will hopefully expose students to a more fruitful outcome in terms of understanding of concepts, theories and their motivation to learn.
The Proof of Two Conjectures Related to Pell-s Equation x2 −Dy2 = ± 4
Let D ≠ 1 be a positive non-square integer. In this paper are given the proofs for two conjectures related to Pell-s equation x2 -Dy2 = ± 4, proposed by A. Tekcan.
Flow Acoustics in Solid-Fluid Structures

The governing two-dimensional equations of a heterogeneous material composed of a fluid (allowed to flow in the absence of acoustic excitations) and a crystalline piezoelectric cubic solid stacked one-dimensionally (along the z direction) are derived and special emphasis is given to the discussion of acoustic group velocity for the structure as a function of the wavenumber component perpendicular to the stacking direction (being the x axis). Variations in physical parameters with y are neglected assuming infinite material homogeneity along the y direction and the flow velocity is assumed to be directed along the x direction. In the first part of the paper, the governing set of differential equations are derived as well as the imposed boundary conditions. Solutions are provided using Hamilton-s equations for the wavenumber vs. frequency as a function of the number and thickness of solid layers and fluid layers in cases with and without flow (also the case of a position-dependent flow in the fluid layer is considered). In the first part of the paper, emphasis is given to the small-frequency case. Boundary conditions at the bottom and top parts of the full structure are left unspecified in the general solution but examples are provided for the case where these are subject to rigid-wall conditions (Neumann boundary conditions in the acoustic pressure). In the second part of the paper, emphasis is given to the general case of larger frequencies and wavenumber-frequency bandstructure formation. A wavenumber condition for an arbitrary set of consecutive solid and fluid layers, involving four propagating waves in each solid region, is obtained again using the monodromy matrix method. Case examples are finally discussed.

A Hyperbolic Characterization of Projective Klingenberg Planes
In this paper, the notion of Hyperbolic Klingenberg plane is introduced via a set of axioms like as Affine Klingenberg planes and Projective Klingenberg planes. Models of such planes are constructed by deleting a certain number m of equivalence classes of lines from a Projective Klingenberg plane. In the finite case, an upper bound for m is established and some combinatoric properties are investigated.
The Pell Equation x2 − (k2 − k)y2 = 2t
Let k, t, d be arbitrary integers with k ≥ 2, t ≥ 0 and d = k2 - k. In the first section we give some preliminaries from Pell equations x2 - dy2 = 1 and x2 - dy2 = N, where N be any fixed positive integer. In the second section, we consider the integer solutions of Pell equations x2 - dy2 = 1 and x2 - dy2 = 2t. We give a method for the solutions of these equations. Further we derive recurrence relations on the solutions of these equations
Promoting University Community's Creative Citizenry

Being creative in an educational environment, such as in the university, has many times been downplayed by bureaucracy, human inadequacy and physical hindrance. These factors control, stifle and subsequently condemn this natural phenomenon which is normally exuded by the tertiary community. If taken in a positive light, creativity has always led to many new discoveries and inventions. These creations are then gradually developed for the university reputation and achievements, in all fields of studies from the sciences to the humanities. This paper attempts to explore, through more than twenty years of observation, issues that stifle the university citizenry – academicians and students- – creativity. It also scrutinizes how enhancement of such creativity can be further supported by bureaucracy simplicity, encouraging and developing human potential and constructing uncompromising physical infrastructure and administrative support. These ideals – all of which can help to promote creativity, increases the productivity of the university community in aspects of teaching, research, publication, innovation and commercialization; be it at national as well as at international arena for the good of human and societal growth and development. This discursive presentation hopes to address another issue on promoting university community creativity through several deliverables which require cooperation from every quarter of the institution so that being creative continues to be promoted for sustainable human capital growth and development of the country, if not, the global community.

A Hyper-Domain Image Watermarking Method based on Macro Edge Block and Wavelet Transform for Digital Signal Processor

In order to protect original data, watermarking is first consideration direction for digital information copyright. In addition, to achieve high quality image, the algorithm maybe can not run on embedded system because the computation is very complexity. However, almost nowadays algorithms need to build on consumer production because integrator circuit has a huge progress and cheap price. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm which efficient inserts watermarking on digital image and very easy to implement on digital signal processor. In further, we select a general and cheap digital signal processor which is made by analog device company to fit consumer application. The experimental results show that the image quality by watermarking insertion can achieve 46 dB can be accepted in human vision and can real-time execute on digital signal processor.

FILMS based ANC System – Evaluation and Practical Implementation
This paper describes the implementation and testing of a multichannel active noise control system (ANCS) based on the filtered-inverse LMS (FILMS) algorithm. The FILMS algorithm is derived from the well-known filtered-x LMS (FXLMS) algorithm with the aim to improve the rate of convergence of the multichannel FXLMS algorithm and to reduce its computational load. Laboratory setup and techniques used to implement this system efficiently are described in this paper. Experiments performed in order to test the performance of the FILMS algorithm are discussed and the obtained results presented.
Exact Solution of Some Helical Flows of Newtonian Fluids
This paper deals with the helical flow of a Newtonian fluid in an infinite circular cylinder, due to both longitudinal and rotational shear stress. The velocity field and the resulting shear stress are determined by means of the Laplace and finite Hankel transforms and satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions. For large times, these solutions reduce to the well-known steady-state solutions.
Spectroscopic and SEM Investigation of TCPP in Titanium Matrix

Titanium gels doped with water-soluble cationic porphyrin were synthesized by the sol–gel polymerization of Ti (OC4H9)4. In this work we investigate the spectroscopic properties along with SEM images of tetra carboxyl phenyl porphyrin when incorporated into porous matrix produced by the sol–gel technique.

Numerical Simulation of Inviscid Transient Flows in Shock Tube and its Validations

The aim of this paper is to develop a new two dimensional time accurate Euler solver for shock tube applications. The solver was developed to study the performance of a newly built short-duration hypersonic test facility at Universiti Tenaga Nasional “UNITEN" in Malaysia. The facility has been designed, built, and commissioned for different values of diaphragm pressure ratios in order to get wide range of Mach number. The developed solver uses second order accurate cell-vertex finite volume spatial discretization and forth order accurate Runge-Kutta temporal integration and it is designed to simulate the flow process for similar driver/driven gases (e.g. air-air as working fluids). The solver is validated against analytical solution and experimental measurements in the high speed flow test facility. Further investigations were made on the flow process inside the shock tube by using the solver. The shock wave motion, reflection and interaction were investigated and their influence on the performance of the shock tube was determined. The results provide very good estimates for both shock speed and shock pressure obtained after diaphragm rupture. Also detailed information on the gasdynamic processes over the full length of the facility is available. The agreements obtained have been reasonable.

Study of Kinetics Incorporation of Ag with TCPP
The Kinetics formation of labile Complex Ag (I) tetra (p-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin, was investigated at 25oC and I=0.1M (NaNO3). By spectrophotometric titration, the composition ratio of the complex was established to be 2:1 (Ag : H2TCPP). The equilibrium constant, K, was found to be log 10-6.53. Binding of the first Ag (I) was found to be rate determining step with rate constant, k1= 4.67×102 . A plausible mechanism is discussed. We discus theoretically why Ag(I)2TCPP is unstable.
Neural Network Based Determination of Splice Junctions by ROC Analysis
Gene, principal unit of inheritance, is an ordered sequence of nucleotides. The genes of eukaryotic organisms include alternating segments of exons and introns. The region of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) within a gene containing instructions for coding a protein is called exon. On the other hand, non-coding regions called introns are another part of DNA that regulates gene expression by removing from the messenger Ribonucleic acid (RNA) in a splicing process. This paper proposes to determine splice junctions that are exon-intron boundaries by analyzing DNA sequences. A splice junction can be either exon-intron (EI) or intron exon (IE). Because of the popularity and compatibility of the artificial neural network (ANN) in genetic fields; various ANN models are applied in this research. Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP), Radial Basis Function (RBF) and Generalized Regression Neural Networks (GRNN) are used to analyze and detect the splice junctions of gene sequences. 10-fold cross validation is used to demonstrate the accuracy of networks. The real performances of these networks are found by applying Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis.
Equilibrium, Kinetics and Thermodynamic Studies for Adsorption of Hg (II) on Palm Shell Powder
Palm shell obtained from coastal part of southern India was studied for the removal for the adsorption of Hg (II) ions. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of pH, concentration of Hg (II) ions, time, temperature and adsorbent dose. Maximum removal was seen in the range pH 4.0- pH 7.0. The palm shell powder used as adsorbent was characterized for its surface area, SEM, PXRD, FTIR, ion exchange capacity, moisture content, and bulk density, soluble content in water and acid and pH. The experimental results were analyzed using Langmuir I, II, III, IV and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The batch sorption kinetics was studied for the first order reversible reaction, pseudo first order; pseudo second order reaction and the intra-particle diffusion reaction. The biomass was successfully used for removal Hg (II) from synthetic and industrial effluents and the technique appears industrially applicable and viable.
Laser Surface Hardening Considering Coupled Thermoelasticity using an Eulerian Formulations
Thermoelastic temperature, displacement, and stress in heat transfer during laser surface hardening are solved in Eulerian formulation. In Eulerian formulations the heat flux is fixed in space and the workpiece is moved through a control volume. In the case of uniform velocity and uniform heat flux distribution, the Eulerian formulations leads to a steady-state problem, while the Lagrangian formulations remains transient. In Eulerian formulations the reduction to a steady-state problem increases the computational efficiency. In this study also an analytical solution is developed for an uncoupled transient heat conduction equation in which a plane slab is heated by a laser beam. The thermal result of the numerical model is compared with the result of this analytical model. Comparing the results shows numerical solution for uncoupled equations are in good agreement with the analytical solution.
Lower Bound of Time Span Product for a General Class of Signals in Fractional Fourier Domain

Fractional Fourier Transform is a generalization of the classical Fourier Transform which is often symbolized as the rotation in time- frequency plane. Similar to the product of time and frequency span which provides the Uncertainty Principle for the classical Fourier domain, there has not been till date an Uncertainty Principle for the Fractional Fourier domain for a generalized class of finite energy signals. Though the lower bound for the product of time and Fractional Fourier span is derived for the real signals, a tighter lower bound for a general class of signals is of practical importance, especially for the analysis of signals containing chirps. We hence formulate a mathematical derivation that gives the lower bound of time and Fractional Fourier span product. The relation proves to be utmost importance in taking the Fractional Fourier Transform with adaptive time and Fractional span resolutions for a varied class of complex signals.

An Efficient Hamiltonian for Discrete Fractional Fourier Transform
Fractional Fourier Transform, which is a generalization of the classical Fourier Transform, is a powerful tool for the analysis of transient signals. The discrete Fractional Fourier Transform Hamiltonians have been proposed in the past with varying degrees of correlation between their eigenvectors and Hermite Gaussian functions. In this paper, we propose a new Hamiltonian for the discrete Fractional Fourier Transform and show that the eigenvectors of the proposed matrix has a higher degree of correlation with the Hermite Gaussian functions. Also, the proposed matrix is shown to give better Fractional Fourier responses with various transform orders for different signals.
Illumination Invariant Face Recognition using Supervised and Unsupervised Learning Algorithms
In this paper, a comparative study of application of supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms on illumination invariant face recognition has been carried out. The supervised learning has been carried out with the help of using a bi-layered artificial neural network having one input, two hidden and one output layer. The gradient descent with momentum and adaptive learning rate back propagation learning algorithm has been used to implement the supervised learning in a way that both the inputs and corresponding outputs are provided at the time of training the network, thus here is an inherent clustering and optimized learning of weights which provide us with efficient results.. The unsupervised learning has been implemented with the help of a modified Counterpropagation network. The Counterpropagation network involves the process of clustering followed by application of Outstar rule to obtain the recognized face. The face recognition system has been developed for recognizing faces which have varying illumination intensities, where the database images vary in lighting with respect to angle of illumination with horizontal and vertical planes. The supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms have been implemented and have been tested exhaustively, with and without application of histogram equalization to get efficient results.
Investigation of the Electronic Properties of Au/methyl-red/Ag Surface type Schottky Diode by Current-Voltage Method

In this paper, fabrication and study of electronic properties of Au/methyl-red/Ag surface type Schottky diode by current-voltage (I-V) method has been reported. The I-V characteristics of the Schottky diode showed the good rectifying behavior. The values of ideality factor n and barrier height b of Au/methyl-red/Ag Schottky diode were calculated from the semi-log I-V characteristics and by using the Cheung functions. From semi-log current-voltage characteristics the values of n and b were found 1.93 and 0.254 eV, respectively, while by using Cheung functions their values were calculated 1.89 and 0.26 eV, respectively. The effect of series resistance was also analyzed by Cheung functions. The series resistance RS values were determined from dV/d(lnI)–I and H(I)–I graphs and were found to be 1.1 k and 1.3 k, respectively.

Increase in Solar Thermal Energy Storage by using a Hybrid Energy Storage System
The intermittent nature of solar energy and the energy requirements of buildings necessitate the storage of thermal energy. In this paper a hybrid system of storing solar energy has been analyzed. Adding a LHS medium to a commercial solar water heater, the required energy for heating a small room was obtained in addition to preparing hot water. In other words, the suggested hybrid storage system consists of two tanks: a water tank as a SHS medium; and a paraffin tank as a LHS medium. A computing program was used to find the optimized time schedule of charging the storage tanks during each day, according to the solar radiation conditions. The results show that the use of such system can improve the capability of energy gathering comparing to the individual water storage tank during the cold months of the year. Of course, because of the solar radiation angles and shorten daylight in December & January, the performance will be the same as the simple solar water heaters (in the northern hemisphere). But the extra energy stored in November, February, March & April, can be useful for heating a small room for 3 hours during the cold days.
Hydrodynamic Force on Acoustically Driven Bubble in Sulfuric Acid
Using a force balanced translational-radial dynamics, phase space of the moving single bubble sonoluminescence (m- SBSL) in 85% wt sulfuric acid has been numerically calculated. This phase space is compared with that of single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) in pure water which has been calculated by using the mere radial dynamics. It is shown that in 85% wt sulfuric acid, in a general agreement with experiment, the bubble-s positional instability threshold lays under the shape instability threshold. At the onset of spatial instability of moving sonoluminescing (SL) bubble in 85% wt sulfuric acid, temporal effects of the hydrodynamic force on the bubble translational-radial dynamics have been investigated. The appearance of non-zero history force on the moving SL bubble is because of proper condition which was produced by high viscosity of acid. Around the moving bubble collapse due to the rapid contraction of the bubble wall, the inertial based added mass force overcomes the viscous based history force and induces acceleration on the bubble translational motion.
Organizational Commitment of Anadolu University Open Education Faculty Students
Distance education program is a dimension of contemporary and new education technologies. Concepts and applications in this field are the results of a series of educational demands and developments in various communication and education technologies. Distance education applications have some conceptual bases. These are creating new education opportunities, realizing work-education unity, getting democratic in education, lifelong education, tendency to individual matters, effective use of institutions, integration of technology and education, tendency to individual and social needs, taking three dimensional integration as the main principle (publishing, printed materials and face to face education), reaching maximum mass, individual and mass education integrity and education demand and financial matters balance. Economics, Business Administration and Open Education faculties, which have been giving education within Anadolu University since 1982 in Turkey, are carrying on education with nearly 1.000.000 students. The aim of this study is to determine organizational commitment levels of students who have been studying at Anadolu University Economics, Business Administration and Open Education faculties in the scope of affective, continuance and nominative commitment in Allen&Meyer model. In the study, organizational commitment of the Economics, Business Administration and Open Education faculty students, who are receiving education by means of distance education, to their faculties is dealt after introducing Anadolu University Distance Education system which gives higher education via distance education method in Turkey. In order to increase the success level of faculties it is required for students to have high level of organizational commitment to their faculties. A questionnaire has been applied by using “Organizational Commitment Scale", developed by Meyer&Allen to determine organizational commitments of Economics, Business Administration and Open Education students. Organizational commitment is dealt with as affective, continuance and nominative commitment. The questionnaire was applied face to face to randomly chosen 500 students living in Eskişehir and the data was downloaded to the computer by using SPSS program and the results were analyzed in terms of demographic features (gender, age, marital status, years of study, work and income level) of students by using frequency test, ttest and ANOVA test. As a result of these analyses, when the comments of Open Education Faculty students on levels of affective, continuance and nominative commitment to their faculties were examined, it has been revealed that continuance commitment level has the highest rate. Among the female participants; continuance commitment is high in the age range of 30-40, for normative commitment it is 17-22. However no dominant age range was defined for affective commitment. Regarding the marital status; continuance commitment average is higher among married participants; but nominative affective commitment average is higher among single participants. As to the years of study, affective and continuance commitment is higher among senior students while normative commitment is higher among junior students. Moreover; in terms of continuance, affective and normative commitment, those who do not work and have low income have higher level of all there commitment types than those who work and have relatively high income.
Role of Acoustic Pressure on the Dynamics of Moving Single-Bubble Sonoluminescence
Role of acoustic driving pressure on the translational-radial dynamics of a moving single bubble sonoluminescence (m-SBSL) has been numerically investigated. The results indicate that increase in the amplitude of the driving pressure leads to increase in the bubble peak temperature. The length and the shape of the trajectory of the bubble depends on the acoustic pressure and because of the spatially dependence of the radial dynamics of the moving bubble, its peak temperature varies during the acoustical pulses. The results are in good agreement with the experimental reports on m-SBSL.
Performance Analysis of Learning Automata-Based Routing Algorithms in Sparse Graphs
A number of routing algorithms based on learning automata technique have been proposed for communication networks. How ever, there has been little work on the effects of variation of graph scarcity on the performance of these algorithms. In this paper, a comprehensive study is launched to investigate the performance of LASPA, the first learning automata based solution to the dynamic shortest path routing, across different graph structures with varying scarcities. The sensitivity of three main performance parameters of the algorithm, being average number of processed nodes, scanned edges and average time per update, to variation in graph scarcity is reported. Simulation results indicate that the LASPA algorithm can adapt well to the scarcity variation in graph structure and gives much better outputs than the existing dynamic and fixed algorithms in terms of performance criteria.
Program Camouflage: A Systematic Instruction Hiding Method for Protecting Secrets
This paper proposes an easy-to-use instruction hiding method to protect software from malicious reverse engineering attacks. Given a source program (original) to be protected, the proposed method (1) takes its modified version (fake) as an input, (2) differences in assembly code instructions between original and fake are analyzed, and, (3) self-modification routines are introduced so that fake instructions become correct (i.e., original instructions) before they are executed and that they go back to fake ones after they are executed. The proposed method can add a certain amount of security to a program since the fake instructions in the resultant program confuse attackers and it requires significant effort to discover and remove all the fake instructions and self-modification routines. Also, this method is easy to use (with little effort) because all a user (who uses the proposed method) has to do is to prepare a fake source code by modifying the original source code.
Disparity Estimation for Objects of Interest
An algorithm for estimating the disparity of objects of interest is proposed. This algorithm uses image shifting and overlapping area to estimate the disparity value; thereby depth of the objects of interest can be obtained. The algorithm is able to perform at different levels of accuracy. However, as the accuracy increases the processing speed decreases. The algorithm is tested with static stereo images and sequence of stereo images. The experimental results are presented in this paper.
Player Number Localization and Recognition in Soccer Video using HSV Color Space and Internal Contours

Detection of player identity is challenging task in sport video content analysis. In case of soccer video player number recognition is effective and precise solution. Jersey numbers can be considered as scene text and difficulties in localization and recognition appear due to variations in orientation, size, illumination, motion etc. This paper proposed new method for player number localization and recognition. By observing hue, saturation and value for 50 different jersey examples we noticed that most often combination of low and high saturated pixels is used to separate number and jersey region. Image segmentation method based on this observation is introduced. Then, novel method for player number localization based on internal contours is proposed. False number candidates are filtered using area and aspect ratio. Before OCR processing extracted numbers are enhanced using image smoothing and rotation normalization.

A New Method for Detection of Artificial Objects and Materials from Long Distance Environmental Images
The article presents a new method for detection of artificial objects and materials from images of the environmental (non-urban) terrain. Our approach uses the hue and saturation (or Cb and Cr) components of the image as the input to the segmentation module that uses the mean shift method. The clusters obtained as the output of this stage have been processed by the decision-making module in order to find the regions of the image with the significant possibility of representing human. Although this method will detect various non-natural objects, it is primarily intended and optimized for detection of humans; i.e. for search and rescue purposes in non-urban terrain where, in normal circumstances, non-natural objects shouldn-t be present. Real world images are used for the evaluation of the method.
Proposing Enterprise Wide Information Systems Business Performance Model
Enterprise Wide Information Systems (EWIS) implementation involves the entire business and will require changes throughout the firm. Because of the scope, complexity and continuous nature of ERP, the project-based approach to managing the implementation process resulted in failure rates of between 60% and 80%. In recent years ERP systems have received much attention. The organizational relevance and risk of ERP projects make it important for organizations to focus on ways to make ERP implementation successful. Once these systems are in place, however, their performance depends on the identified macro variables viz. 'Business Process', 'Decision Making' and 'Individual / Group working'. The questionnaire was designed and administered. The responses from 92 organizations were compiled. The relationship of these variables with EWIS performance is analyzed using inferential statistical measurements. The study helps to understand the performance of model presented. The study suggested in keeping away from the calamities and thereby giving the necessary competitive edge. Whenever some discrepancy is identified during the process of performance appraisal care has to be taken to draft necessary preventive measures. If all these measures are taken care off then the EWIS performance will definitely deliver the results.
Dust Storm Prediction Using ANNs Technique (A Case Study: Zabol City)
Dust storms are one of the most costly and destructive events in many desert regions. They can cause massive damages both in natural environments and human lives. This paper is aimed at presenting a preliminary study on dust storms, as a major natural hazard in arid and semi-arid regions. As a case study, dust storm events occurred in Zabol city located in Sistan Region of Iran was analyzed to diagnose and predict dust storms. The identification and prediction of dust storm events could have significant impacts on damages reduction. Present models for this purpose are complicated and not appropriate for many areas with poor-data environments. The present study explores Gamma test for identifying inputs of ANNs model, for dust storm prediction. Results indicate that more attempts must be carried out concerning dust storms identification and segregate between various dust storm types.
An Off-the-Shelf Scheme for Dependable Grid Systems Using Virtualization
Recently, grid computing has been widely focused on the science, industry, and business fields, which are required a vast amount of computing. Grid computing is to provide the environment that many nodes (i.e., many computers) are connected with each other through a local/global network and it is available for many users. In the environment, to achieve data processing among nodes for any applications, each node executes mutual authentication by using certificates which published from the Certificate Authority (for short, CA). However, if a failure or fault has occurred in the CA, any new certificates cannot be published from the CA. As a result, a new node cannot participate in the gird environment. In this paper, an off-the-shelf scheme for dependable grid systems using virtualization techniques is proposed and its implementation is verified. The proposed approach using the virtualization techniques is to restart an application, e.g., the CA, if it has failed. The system can tolerate a failure or fault if it has occurred in the CA. Since the proposed scheme is implemented at the application level easily, the cost of its implementation by the system builder hardly takes compared it with other methods. Simulation results show that the CA in the system can recover from its failure or fault.
A New Fast Skin Color Detection Technique
Skin color can provide a useful and robust cue for human-related image analysis, such as face detection, pornographic image filtering, hand detection and tracking, people retrieval in databases and Internet, etc. The major problem of such kinds of skin color detection algorithms is that it is time consuming and hence cannot be applied to a real time system. To overcome this problem, we introduce a new fast technique for skin detection which can be applied in a real time system. In this technique, instead of testing each image pixel to label it as skin or non-skin (as in classic techniques), we skip a set of pixels. The reason of the skipping process is the high probability that neighbors of the skin color pixels are also skin pixels, especially in adult images and vise versa. The proposed method can rapidly detect skin and non-skin color pixels, which in turn dramatically reduce the CPU time required for the protection process. Since many fast detection techniques are based on image resizing, we apply our proposed pixel skipping technique with image resizing to obtain better results. The performance evaluation of the proposed skipping and hybrid techniques in terms of the measured CPU time is presented. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods achieve better result than the relevant classic method.
A Comparison of Real Valued Transforms for Image Compression
In this paper we present simulation results for the application of a bandwidth efficient algorithm (mapping algorithm) to an image transmission system. This system considers three different real valued transforms to generate energy compact coefficients. First results are presented for gray scale and color image transmission in the absence of noise. It is seen that the system performs its best when discrete cosine transform is used. Also the performance of the system is dominated more by the size of the transform block rather than the number of coefficients transmitted or the number of bits used to represent each coefficient. Similar results are obtained in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise. The varying values of the bit error rate have very little or no impact on the performance of the algorithm. Optimum results are obtained for the system considering 8x8 transform block and by transmitting 15 coefficients from each block using 8 bits.
Analysis of a WDM System for Tanzania
Internet infrastructures in most places of the world have been supported by the advancement of optical fiber technology, most notably wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system. Optical technology by means of WDM system has revolutionized long distance data transport and has resulted in high data capacity, cost reductions, extremely low bit error rate, and operational simplification of the overall Internet infrastructure. This paper analyses and compares the system impairments, which occur at data transmission rates of 2.5Gb/s and 10 Gb/s per wavelength channel in our proposed optical WDM system for Internet infrastructure in Tanzania. The results show that the data transmission rate of 2.5 Gb/s has minimum system impairments compared with a rate of 10 Gb/s per wavelength channel, and achieves a sufficient system performance to provide a good Internet access service.
A Web Services based Architecture for NGN Services Delivery
The notion of Next Generation Network (NGN) is based on the Network Convergence concept which refers to integration of services (such as IT and communication services) over IP layer. As the most popular implementation of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), Web Services technology is known to be the base for service integration. In this paper, we present a platform to deliver communication services as web services. We also implement a sample service to show the simplicity of making composite web and communication services using this platform. A Service Logic Execution Environment (SLEE) is used to implement the communication services. The proposed architecture is in agreement with Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and also can be integrated to an Enterprise Service Bus to make a base for NGN Service Delivery Platform (SDP).
Study and Enhancement of Flash Evaporation Desalination Utilizing the Ocean Thermocline and Discharged heat
This paper reports on the results of experimental investigations of flash evaporation from superheated jet issues vertically upward from a round straight nozzle of 81.3 mm diameter. For the investigated range of jet superheat degree and velocity, it was shown that flash evaporation enhances with initial temperature increase. Due to the increase of jet inertia and subsequently the delay of jet shattering, increase of jet velocity was found to result in increase of evaporation "delay period". An empirical equation predicts the jet evaporation completion height was developed, this equation is thought to be useful in designing the flash evaporation chamber. In attempts for enhancement of flash evaporation, use of steel wire mesh located at short distance downstream was found effective with no consequent pressure drop.
Digital Filter for Cochlear Implant Implemented on a Field- Programmable Gate Array
The advent of multi-million gate Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) with hardware support for multiplication opens an opportunity to recreate a significant portion of the front end of a human cochlea using this technology. In this paper we describe the implementation of the cochlear filter and show that it is entirely suited to a single device XC3S500 FPGA implementation .The filter gave a good fit to real time data with efficiency of hardware usage.
A New Condition for Conflicting Bifuzzy Sets Based On Intuitionistic Evaluation
Fuzzy sets theory affirmed that the linguistic value for every contraries relation is complementary. It was stressed in the intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFS) that the conditions for contraries relations, which are the fuzzy values, cannot be greater than one. However, complementary in two contradict phenomena are not always true. This paper proposes a new idea condition for conflicting bifuzzy sets by relaxing the condition of intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Here, we will critically forward examples using triangular fuzzy number in formulating a new condition for conflicting bifuzzy sets (CBFS). Evaluation of positive and negative in conflicting phenomena were calculated concurrently by relaxing the condition in IFS. The hypothetical illustration showed the applicability of the new condition in CBFS for solving non-complement contraries intuitionistic evaluation. This approach can be applied to any decision making where conflicting is very much exist.
A Cognitive Model for Frequency Signal Classification
This article presents the development of a neural network cognitive model for the classification and detection of different frequency signals. The basic structure of the implemented neural network was inspired on the perception process that humans generally make in order to visually distinguish between high and low frequency signals. It is based on the dynamic neural network concept, with delays. A special two-layer feedforward neural net structure was successfully implemented, trained and validated, to achieve minimum target error. Training confirmed that this neural net structure descents and converges to a human perception classification solution, even when far away from the target.
Kinetic, Thermodynamic and Process Modeling of Synthesis of UV Curable Glyceryl and Neopentyl Glycol Acrylates
Curing of paints by exposure to UV radiations is emerging as one of the best film forming technique as an alternative to traditional solvent borne oxidative and thermal curing coatings. The composition and chemistry of UV curable coatings and role of multifunctional and monofunctional monomers, oligomers, and photoinitiators have been discussed. The limitations imposed by thermodynamic equilibrium and tendency for acrylic double bond polymerizations during synthesis of multifunctional acrylates have been presented. Aim of present investigation was thus to explore the reaction variables associated with synthesis of multifunctional acrylates. Zirconium oxychloride was evaluated as catalyst against regular acid functional catalyst. The catalyzed synthesis of glyceryl acrylate and neopentyl glycol acrylate was conducted by variation of following reaction parameters: two different reactant molar ratios- 1:4 and 1:6; catalyst usage in % by moles on polyol- 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 and two different reaction temperatures- 45 and 75 0C. The reaction was monitored by determination of acid value and hydroxy value at regular intervals, besides TLC, HPLC, and FTIR analysis of intermediates and products. On the basis of determination of reaction progress over 1-60 hrs, the esterification reaction was observed to follow 2nd order kinetics with rate constant varying from 1*10-4 to 7*10-4. The thermal and catalytic components of second order rate constant and energy of activation were also determined. Uses of these kinetic and thermodynamic parameters in design of reactor for manufacture of multifunctional acrylate ester have been presented. The synthesized multifunctional acrylates were used to formulate and apply UV curable clear coat followed by determination of curing characteristics and mechanical properties of cured film. The overall curing rates less than 05 min. were easily attained indicating economical viability of radiation curable system due to faster production schedules
Effects of Photovoltaic System Introduction in Detached Houses with All-Electrified Residential Equipment in Japan
In this paper, in order to investigate the effects of photovoltaic system introduction to detached houses in Japan, two kinds of works were done. Firstly, the hourly generation amount of a 4.2kW photovoltaic system were simulated in 46 cities to investigate the potential of the system in different regions in Japan using a simulation model of photovoltaic system. Secondly, based on the simulated electricity generation amount, the energy saving, the environmental and the economic effect of the photovoltaic system were examined from hourly to annual timescales, based upon calculations of typical electricity, heating, cooling and hot water supply load profiles for Japanese dwellings. The above analysis was carried out using a standard year-s hourly weather data for the different city provided by the Expanded AMeDAS Weather Data issued by AIJ (Architectural Institute of Japan).
Probability and Instruction Effects in Syllogistic Conditional Reasoning
The main aim of this study was to examine whether people understand indicative conditionals on the basis of syntactic factors or on the basis of subjective conditional probability. The second aim was to investigate whether the conditional probability of q given p depends on the antecedent and consequent sizes or derives from inductive processes leading to establish a link of plausible cooccurrence between events semantically or experientially associated. These competing hypotheses have been tested through a 3 x 2 x 2 x 2 mixed design involving the manipulation of four variables: type of instructions (“Consider the following statement to be true", “Read the following statement" and condition with no conditional statement); antecedent size (high/low); consequent size (high/low); statement probability (high/low). The first variable was between-subjects, the others were within-subjects. The inferences investigated were Modus Ponens and Modus Tollens. Ninety undergraduates of the Second University of Naples, without any prior knowledge of logic or conditional reasoning, participated in this study. Results suggest that people understand conditionals in a syntactic way rather than in a probabilistic way, even though the perception of the conditional probability of q given p is at least partially involved in the conditionals- comprehension. They also showed that, in presence of a conditional syllogism, inferences are not affected by the antecedent or consequent sizes. From a theoretical point of view these findings suggest that it would be inappropriate to abandon the idea that conditionals are naturally understood in a syntactic way for the idea that they are understood in a probabilistic way.
Linguistic, Pragmatic and Evolutionary Factors in Wason Selection Task
In two studies we tested the hypothesis that the appropriate linguistic formulation of a deontic rule – i.e. the formulation which clarifies the monadic nature of deontic operators - should produce more correct responses than the conditional formulation in Wason selection task. We tested this assumption by presenting a prescription rule and a prohibition rule in conditional vs. proper deontic formulation. We contrasted this hypothesis with two other hypotheses derived from social contract theory and relevance theory. According to the first theory, a deontic rule expressed in terms of cost-benefit should elicit a cheater detection module, sensible to mental states attributions and thus able to discriminate intentional rule violations from accidental rule violations. We tested this prevision by distinguishing the two types of violations. According to relevance theory, performance in selection task should improve by increasing cognitive effect and decreasing cognitive effort. We tested this prevision by focusing experimental instructions on the rule vs. the action covered by the rule. In study 1, in which 480 undergraduates participated, we tested these predictions through a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 (type of the rule x rule formulation x type of violation x experimental instructions) between-subjects design. In study 2 – carried out by means of a 2 x 2 (rule formulation x type of violation) between-subjects design - we retested the hypothesis of rule formulation vs. the cheaterdetection hypothesis through a new version of selection task in which intentional vs. accidental rule violations were better discriminated. 240 undergraduates participated in this study. Results corroborate our hypothesis and challenge the contrasting assumptions. However, they show that the conditional formulation of deontic rules produces a lower performance than what is reported in literature.
Sustainable Development in Disaster Affected Rural Areas: The Case of Dinar Villages
Post-disaster reconstruction projects offer opportunities to facilitate physical, social and economic development and to reduce future hazard vulnerability long after the disasters. Sustainability of post-disaster reconstruction project conducted in the villages of Dinar following the 1995 earthquake was investigated in this paper. Officials of the Government who were involved in the project were interviewed. Besides, two field surveys were done in 12 villages of Dinar in winter months of 2008. Beneficiaries were interviewed and physical, socio-cultural and economic impacts of the reconstruction were examined. The research revealed that the postdisaster reconstruction project has negative aspects from the point view of sustainability. The physical, socio-cultural and economic factors were not considered during decision making process of the project.
Numerical Investigation of the Thermal Separation in a Vortex Tube

This work has been carried out in order to provide an understanding of the physical behaviors of the flow variation of pressure and temperature in a vortex tube. A computational fluid dynamics model is used to predict the flow fields and the associated temperature separation within a Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube. The CFD model is a steady axisymmetric model (with swirl) that utilizes the standard k-ε turbulence model. The second–order numerical schemes, was used to carry out all the computations. Vortex tube with a circumferential inlet stream and an axial (cold) outlet stream and a circumferential (hot) outlet stream was considered. Performance curves (temperature separation versus cold outlet mass fraction) were obtained for a specific vortex tube with a given inlet mass flow rate. Simulations have been carried out for varying amounts of cold outlet mass flow rates. The model results have a good agreement with experimental data.

Design of Thermal Control Subsystem for TUSAT Telecommunication Satellite
TUSAT is a prospective Turkish Communication Satellite designed for providing mainly data communication and broadcasting services through Ku-Band and C-Band channels. Thermal control is a vital issue in satellite design process. Therefore, all satellite subsystems and equipments should be maintained in the desired temperature range from launch to end of maneuvering life. The main function of the thermal control is to keep the equipments and the satellite structures in a given temperature range for various phases and operating modes of spacecraft during its lifetime. This paper describes the thermal control design which uses passive and active thermal control concepts. The active thermal control is based on heaters regulated by software via thermistors. Alternatively passive thermal control composes of heat pipes, multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets, radiators, paints and surface finishes maintaining temperature level of the overall carrier components within an acceptable value. Thermal control design is supported by thermal analysis using thermal mathematical models (TMM).
Fabrication and Study of Nickel Phthalocyanine based Surface Type Capacitive Sensors
Thin films of Nickel phthalocynine (NiPc) of different thicknesses (100, 150 and 200 nm) were deposited by thermal evaporator on glass substrates with preliminary deposited aluminum electrodes to form Al/NiPc/Al surface-type capacitive humidity sensors. The capacitance-humidity relationships of the sensors were investigated at humidity levels from 35 to 90% RH. It was observed that the capacitance value increases nonlinearly with increasing humidity level. All measurements were taken at room temperature.
Comparative Analysis of Transient-Fault Tolerant Schemes for Network on Chips

Network on a chip (NoC) has been proposed as a viable solution to counter the inefficiency of buses in the current VLSI on-chip interconnects. However, as the silicon chip accommodates more transistors, the probability of transient faults is increasing, making fault tolerance a key concern in scaling chips. In packet based communication on a chip, transient failures can corrupt the data packet and hence, undermine the accuracy of data communication. In this paper, we present a comparative analysis of transient fault tolerant techniques including end-to-end, node-by-node, and stochastic communication based on flooding principle.

Inhibition Kinetic Determination of Trace Amounts of Ruthenium(III) by the Spectrophotometric method with Rhodamine B in Micellar Medium
A new, simple and highly sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of trace amounts of Ru(III) in the range of 0.06-20 ng/ml .The method is based on the inhibitory effect of ruthenium(III) on the oxidation of Rhodamine B by bromate in acidic and micellar medium. The reaction was monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decreasing in absorbance of Rhodamine B at 554 nm with a fixedtime method..The limit of detection is 0.04 ng/ml Ru(III).The relative standard deviation of 5 and 10 ng/ml Ru(III) was 2.3 and 2.7 %, respectively. The method was applied to the determination of ruthenium in real water samples
How Social Network Structure Affects the Dynamics of Evolution of Cooperation?
The existence of many biological systems, especially human societies, is based on cooperative behavior [1, 2]. If natural selection favors selfish individuals, then what mechanism is at work that we see so many cooperative behaviors? One answer is the effect of network structure. On a graph, cooperators can evolve by forming network bunches [2, 3, 4]. In a research, Ohtsuki et al used the idea of iterated prisoners- dilemma on a graph to model an evolutionary game. They showed that the average number of neighbors plays an important role in determining whether cooperation is the ESS of the system or not [3]. In this paper, we are going to study the dynamics of evolution of cooperation in a social network. We show that during evolution, the ratio of cooperators among individuals with fewer neighbors to cooperators among other individuals is greater than unity. The extent to which the fitness function depends on the payoff of the game determines this ratio.
Using Field Indices of Rill and Gully in order to Erosion Estimating and Sediment Analysis (Case Study: Menderjan Watershed in Isfahan Province, Iran)
Today, incorrect use of lands and land use changes, excessive grazing, no suitable using of agricultural farms, plowing on steep slopes, road construct, building construct, mine excavation etc have been caused increasing of soil erosion and sediment yield. For erosion and sediment estimation one can use statistical and empirical methods. This needs to identify land unit map and the map of effective factors. However, these empirical methods are usually time consuming and do not give accurate estimation of erosion. In this study, we applied GIS techniques to estimate erosion and sediment of Menderjan watershed at upstream Zayandehrud river in center of Iran. Erosion faces at each land unit were defined on the basis of land use, geology and land unit map using GIS. The UTM coordinates of each erosion type that showed more erosion amounts such as rills and gullies were inserted in GIS using GPS data. The frequency of erosion indicators at each land unit, land use and their sediment yield of these indices were calculated. Also using tendency analysis of sediment yield changes in watershed outlet (Menderjan hydrometric gauge station), was calculated related parameters and estimation errors. The results of this study according to implemented watershed management projects can be used for more rapid and more accurate estimation of erosion than traditional methods. These results can also be used for regional erosion assessment and can be used for remote sensing image processing.
Six Sigma Process and its Impact on the Organizational Productivity

The six sigma method is a project-driven management approach to improve the organization-s products, services, and processes by continually reducing defects in the organization. Understanding the key features, obstacles, and shortcomings of the six sigma method allows organizations to better support their strategic directions, and increasing needs for coaching, mentoring, and training. It also provides opportunities to better implement six sigma projects. The purpose of this paper is the survey of six sigma process and its impact on the organizational productivity. So I have studied key concepts , problem solving process of six sigmaas well as the survey of important fields such as: DMAIC, six sigma and productivity applied programme, and other advantages of six sigma. In the end of this paper, present research conclusions. (direct and positive relation between six sigma and productivity)

Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Chemical Reduction Method and Their Antibacterial Activity

Silver nanoparticles were prepared by chemical reduction method. Silver nitrate was taken as the metal precursor and hydrazine hydrate as a reducing agent. The formation of the silver nanoparticles was monitored using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed the formation of silver nanopart├¡cles by exhibing the typical surface plasmon absorption maxima at 418-420 nm from the UV–Vis spectrum. Comparison of theoretical (Mie light scattering theory) and experimental results showed that diameter of silver nanoparticles in colloidal solution is about 60 nm. We have used energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and, UV–Vis spectroscopy to characterize the nanoparticles obtained. The energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) of the nanoparticles dispersion confirmed the presence of elemental silver signal no peaks of other impurity were detected. The average size and morphology of silver nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM photographs indicate that the nanopowders consist of well dispersed agglomerates of grains with a narrow size distribution (40 and 60 nm), whereas the radius of the individual particles are between 10 and 20 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles have been structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission high-energy electron diffraction (HEED). The peaks in the XRD pattern are in good agreement with the standard values of the face-centered-cubic form of metallic silver (ICCD-JCPDS card no. 4-0787) and no peaks of other impurity crystalline phases were detected. Additionally, the antibacterial activity of the nanopart├¡culas dispersion was measured by Kirby-Bauer method. The nanoparticles of silver showed high antimicrobial and bactericidal activity against gram positive bacteria such as Escherichia Coli, Pseudimonas aureginosa and staphylococcus aureus which is a highly methicillin resistant strain.

A Framework for Identifying the Critical Factors Affecting the Decision to Adopt and Use Inter-Organizational Information Systems
The importance of inter-organizational system (IOS) has been increasingly recognized by organizations. However, IOS adoption has proved to be difficult and, at this stage, why this is so is not fully uncovered. In practice, benefits have often remained concentrated, primarily accruing to the dominant party, resulting in low rates of adoption and usage, and often culminating in the failure of the IOS. The main research question is why organizations initiate or join IOS and what factors influence their adoption and use levels. This paper reviews the literature on IOS adoption and proposes a theoretical framework in order to identify the critical factors to capture a complete picture of IOS adoption. With our proposed critical factors, we are able to investigate their relative contributions to IOS adoption decisions. We obtain findings that suggested that there are five groups of factors that significantly affect the adoption and use decision of IOS in the Supply Chain Management (SCM) context: 1) interorganizational context, 2) organizational context, 3) technological context, 4) perceived costs, and 5) perceived benefits.
Experimental Measurements of the Mean Flow Field in Wide-Angled Diffusers: A Data Bank Contribution
Due to adverse pressure gradient along the diverging walls of wide-angled diffusers, the attached flow separates from one wall and remains attached permanently to the other wall in a process called stalling. Stalled diffusers render the whole fluid flow system, in which they are part of, very inefficient. There is then an engineering need to try to understand the whole process of diffuser stall if any meaningful attempts to improve on diffuser efficiency are to be made. In this regard, this paper provides a data bank contribution for the mean flow-field in wide-angled diffusers where the complete velocity and static pressure fields, and pressure recovery data for diffusers in the fully stalled flow regime are experimentally measured. The measurements were carried out at Reynolds numbers between 1.07×105 and 2.14×105 based on inlet hydraulic diameter and centreline velocity for diffusers whose divergence angles were between 30Ôùª and 50Ôùª. Variation of Reynolds number did not significantly affect the velocity and static pressure profiles. The wall static pressure recovery was found to be more sensitive to changes in the Reynolds number. By increasing the velocity from 10 m/s to 20 m/s, the wall static pressure recovery increased by 8.31%. However, as the divergence angle was increased, a similar increase in the Reynolds number resulted in a higher percentage increase in pressure recovery. Experimental results showed that regardless of the wall to which the flow was attached, both the velocity and pressure fields were replicated with discrepancies below 2%.
Self-adaptation of Ontologies to Folksonomies in Semantic Web

Ontologies and tagging systems are two different ways to organize the knowledge present in the current Web. In this paper we propose a simple method to model folksonomies, as tagging systems, with ontologies. We show the scalability of the method using real data sets. The modeling method is composed of a generic ontology that represents any folksonomy and an algorithm to transform the information contained in folksonomies to the generic ontology. The method allows representing folksonomies at any instant of time.

Regularization of the Trajectories of Dynamical Systems by Adjusting Parameters
A gradient learning method to regulate the trajectories of some nonlinear chaotic systems is proposed. The method is motivated by the gradient descent learning algorithms for neural networks. It is based on two systems: dynamic optimization system and system for finding sensitivities. Numerical results of several examples are presented, which convincingly illustrate the efficiency of the method.
A Comparative Study of SVM Classifiers and Artificial Neural Networks Application for Rolling Element Bearing Fault Diagnosis using Wavelet Transform Preprocessing
Effectiveness of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifiers for fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings are presented in this paper. The characteristic features of vibration signals of rotating driveline that was run in its normal condition and with faults introduced were used as input to ANN and SVM classifiers. Simple statistical features such as standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis etc. of the time-domain vibration signal segments along with peaks of the signal and peak of power spectral density (PSD) are used as features to input the ANN and SVM classifier. The effect of preprocessing of the vibration signal by Discreet Wavelet Transform (DWT) prior to feature extraction is also studied. It is shown from the experimental results that the performance of SVM classifier in identification of bearing condition is better then ANN and pre-processing of vibration signal by DWT enhances the effectiveness of both ANN and SVM classifier
Rheodynamic Lubrication of a Rectangular Squeeze Film Bearing with an Exponential Curvature Variation using Bingham Lubricants
The present work deals with analyses of the effects of bearing curvature and non-Newtonian characteristics on the load capacity of an exponential rectangular squeeze film bearing using Bingham fluids as lubricants. Bingham fluids are characterized by an yield value and hence the formation of a “rigid" core in the region between the plates is justified. The flow is confined to the region between the core and the plates. The shape of the core has been identified through numerical means. Further, numerical solutions for the pressure distribution and load carrying capacity of the bearing for various values of Bingham number and curvature parameter have been obtained. The effects of bearing curvature and non-Newtonian characteristics of the lubricant on the bearing performances have been discussed.
Physical Conserved Quantities for the Axisymmetric Liquid, Free and Wall Jets

A systematic way to derive the conserved quantities for the axisymmetric liquid jet, free jet and wall jet using conservation laws is presented. The flow in axisymmetric jets is governed by Prandtl-s momentum boundary layer equation and the continuity equation. The multiplier approach is used to construct a basis of conserved vectors for the system of two partial differential equations for the two velocity components. The basis consists of two conserved vectors. By integrating the corresponding conservation laws across the jet and imposing the boundary conditions, conserved quantities are derived for the axisymmetric liquid and free jet. The multiplier approach applied to the third-order partial differential equation for the stream function yields two local conserved vectors one of which is a non-local conserved vector for the system. One of the conserved vectors gives the conserved quantity for the axisymmetric free jet but the conserved quantity for the wall jet is not obtained from the second conserved vector. The conserved quantity for the axisymmetric wall jet is derived from a non-local conserved vector of the third-order partial differential equation for the stream function. This non-local conserved vector for the third-order partial differential equation for the stream function is obtained by using the stream function as multiplier.

Group Invariant Solutions for Radial Jet Having Finite Fluid Velocity at Orifice

The group invariant solution for Prandtl-s boundary layer equations for an incompressible fluid governing the flow in radial free, wall and liquid jets having finite fluid velocity at the orifice are investigated. For each jet a symmetry is associated with the conserved vector that was used to derive the conserved quantity for the jet elsewhere. This symmetry is then used to construct the group invariant solution for the third-order partial differential equation for the stream function. The general form of the group invariant solution for radial jet flows is derived. The general form of group invariant solution and the general form of the similarity solution which was obtained elsewhere are the same.

Computational Simulation of Imploding Current Sheath Trajectory at the Radial Phase of Plasma Focus Performance
When the shock front (SF) hits the central electrode axis of plasma focus device, a reflected shock wave moves radially outwards. The current sheath (CS) results from ionization of filled gas between two electrodes continues to compress inwards until it hits the out-going reflected shock front. In this paper the Lagrangian equations are solved for a parabolic shock trajectory yielding a first and second approximation for the CS path. To determine the accuracy of the approximation, the same problem is solved for a straight shock.
Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction in OFDM Systems using Huffman Coding
In this paper we proposed the use of Huffman coding to reduce the PAR of an OFDM system as a distortionless scrambling technique, and we utilize the amount saved in the total bit rate by the Huffman coding to send the encoding table for accurate decoding at the receiver without reducing the effective throughput. We found that the use of Huffman coding reduces the PAR by about 6 dB. Also we have investigated the effect of PAR reduction due to Huffman coding through testing the spectral spreading and the inband distortion due to HPA with different IBO values. We found a complete match of our expectation from the proposed solution with the obtained simulation results.
CFD Modeling of PROX Microreactor for Fuel Processing
In order to investigate a PROX microreactor performance, two-dimensional modeling of the reacting flow between two parallel plates is performed through a finite volume method using an improved SIMPLE algorithm. A three-step surface kinetics including hydrogen oxidation, carbon monoxide oxidation and water-gas shift reaction is applied for a Pt-Fe/γ-Al2O3 catalyst and operating temperatures of about 100ºC. Flow pattern, pressure field, temperature distribution, and mole fractions of species are found in the whole domain for all cases. Also, the required reactive length for removing carbon monoxide from about 2% to less than 10 ppm is found. Furthermore, effects of hydraulic diameter, wall temperature, and inlet mole fraction of air and water are investigated by considering carbon monoxide selectivity and conversion. It is found that air and water addition may improve the performance of the microreactor in carbon monoxide removal in such operating conditions; this is in agreement with the pervious published results.
Urban Floods and Importance of Them in Cities Security Planning (Case Study: Dominant Watershed on Zavvareh City)
Development of cities and villages, agricultural farms and industrial regions in abutment and/or in the course of streams and rivers or in prone flood lands has been caused more notations in hydrology problems and city planning topics. In order to protection of cities against of flood damages, embankment construction is a desired and scientific method. The cities that located in arid zones may damage by floods periodically. Zavvareh city in Ardestan township(Isfahan province) with 7704 people located in Ardestan plain that has been damaged by floods that have flowed from dominant mountainous watersheds in past years with regard to return period. In this study, according to flowed floods toward Zavvareh city, was attempt to plan suitable hydraulic structures such as canals, bridges and collectors in order to collection, conduction and depletion of city surface runoff.
Transcritical CO2 Heat Pump Simulation Model and Validation for Simultaneous Cooling and Heating
In the present study, a steady-state simulation model has been developed to evaluate the system performance of a transcritical carbon dioxide heat pump system for simultaneous water cooling and heating. Both the evaporator (including both two-phase and superheated zone) and gas cooler models consider the highly variable heat transfer characteristics of CO2 and pressure drop. The numerical simulation model of transcritical CO2 heat pump has been validated by test data obtained from experiments on the heat pump prototype. Comparison between the test results and the model prediction for system COP variation with compressor discharge pressure shows a modest agreement with a maximum deviation of 15% and the trends are fairly similar. Comparison for other operating parameters also shows fairly similar deviation between the test results and the model prediction. Finally, the simulation results are presented to study the effects of operating parameters such as, temperature of heat exchanger fluid at the inlet, discharge pressure, compressor speed on system performance of CO2 heat pump, suitable in a dairy plant where simultaneous cooling at 4oC and heating at 73oC are required. Results show that good heat transfer properties of CO2 for both two-phase and supercritical region and efficient compression process contribute a lot for high system COPs.
A Reproduction of Boundary Conditions in Three-Dimensional Continuous Casting Problem

The paper discusses a 3D numerical solution of the inverse boundary problem for a continuous casting process of alloy. The main goal of the analysis presented within the paper was to estimate heat fluxes along the external surface of the ingot. The verified information on these fluxes was crucial for a good design of a mould, effective cooling system and generally the whole caster. In the study an enthalpy-porosity technique implemented in Fluent package was used for modeling the solidification process. In this method, the phase change interface was determined on the basis of the liquid fraction approach. In inverse procedure the sensitivity analysis was applied for retrieving boundary conditions. A comparison of the measured and retrieved values showed a high accuracy of the computations. Additionally, the influence of the accuracy of measurements on the estimated heat fluxes was also investigated.

Introducing an Image Processing Base Idea for Outdoor Children Caring
In this paper application of artificial intelligence for baby and children caring is studied. Then a new idea for injury prevention and safety announcement is presented by using digital image processing. The paper presents the structure of the proposed system. The system determines the possibility of the dangers for children and babies in yards, gardens and swimming pools or etc. In the presented idea, multi camera System is used and receiver videos are processed to find the hazardous areas then the entrance of children and babies in the determined hazardous areas are analyzed. In this condition the system does the programmed action capture, produce alarm or tone or send message.
PIIN Suppression Using Random Diagonal Code for Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical CDMA System
A new code for spectral-amplitude coding optical code-division multiple-access system is proposed called Random diagonal (RD) code. This code is constructed using code segment and data segment. One of the important properties of this code is that the cross correlation at data segment is always zero, which means that Phase Intensity Induced Noise (PIIN) is reduced. For the performance analysis, the effects of phase-induced intensity noise, shot noise, and thermal noise are considered simultaneously. Bit-error rate (BER) performance is compared with Hadamard and Modified Frequency Hopping (MFH) codes. It is shown that the system using this new code matrices not only suppress PIIN, but also allows larger number of active users compare with other codes. Simulation results shown that using point to point transmission with three encoded channels, RD code has better BER performance than other codes, also its found that at 0 dbm PIIN noise are 10-10 and 10-11 for RD and MFH respectively.
Finding Sparse Features in Face Detection Using Genetic Algorithms
Although Face detection is not a recent activity in the field of image processing, it is still an open area for research. The greatest step in this field is the work reported by Viola and its recent analogous is Huang et al. Both of them use similar features and also similar training process. The former is just for detecting upright faces, but the latter can detect multi-view faces in still grayscale images using new features called 'sparse feature'. Finding these features is very time consuming and inefficient by proposed methods. Here, we propose a new approach for finding sparse features using a genetic algorithm system. This method requires less computational cost and gets more effective features in learning process for face detection that causes more accuracy.
Design of Non-Blocking and Rearrangeable Modified Banyan Network with Electro-Optic MZI Switching Elements
Banyan networks are really attractive for serving as the optical switching architectures due to their unique properties of small depth and absolute signal loss uniformity. The fact has been established that the limitations of blocking nature and the nonavailability of proper connections due to non-rearrangeable property can be easily ruled out using electro-optic MZI switches as basic switching elements. Combination of the horizontal expansion and vertical stacking of optical banyan networks is an appropriate scheme for constructing non-blocking banyan-based optical switching networks. The interconnected banyan switching fabrics (IBSF) have been considered and analyzed to best serve the purpose of optical switching with electro-optic MZI basic elements. The cross/bar state interchange for the switches has been facilitated by appropriate voltage switching or the by the switching of operating wavelength. The paper is dedicated to the modification of the basic switching element being used as well as the architecture of the switching network.
Soccer Video Edition Using a Multimodal Annotation
In this paper, we present an approach for soccer video edition using a multimodal annotation. We propose to associate with each video sequence of a soccer match a textual document to be used for further exploitation like search, browsing and abstract edition. The textual document contains video meta data, match meta data, and match data. This document, generated automatically while the video is analyzed, segmented and classified, can be enriched semi automatically according to the user type and/or a specialized recommendation system.
A Novel Plausible Deniability Scheme in Secure Steganography
The goal of steganography is to avoid drawing suspicion to the transmission of a hidden message. If suspicion is raised, steganography may fail. The success of steganography depends on the secrecy of the action. If steganography is detected, the system will fail but data security depends on the robustness of the applied algorithm. In this paper, we propose a novel plausible deniability scheme in steganography by using a diversionary message and encrypt it with a DES-based algorithm. Then, we compress the secret message and encrypt it by the receiver-s public key along with the stego key and embed both messages in a carrier using an embedding algorithm. It will be demonstrated how this method can support plausible deniability and is robust against steganalysis.
Sustainable Water Utilization in Arid Region of Iran by Qanats
To make use of the limited amounts of water in arid region, the Iranians developed man-made underground water channels called qanats (kanats) .In fact, qanats may be considered as the first long-distance water transfer system. Qanats are an ancient water transfer system found in arid regions wherein groundwater from mountainous areas, aquifers and sometimes from rivers, was brought to points of re-emergence such as an oasis, through one or more underground tunnels. The tunnels, many of which were kilometers in length, had designed for slopes to provide gravitational flow. The tunnels allowed water to drain out to the surface by gravity to supply water to lower and flatter agricultural land. Qanats have been an ancient, sustainable system facilitating the harvesting of water for centuries in Iran, and more than 35 additional countries of the world such as India, Arabia, Egypt, North Africa, Spain and even to New world. There are about 22000 qanats in Iran with 274000 kilometers of underground conduits all built by manual labor. The amount of water of the usable qanats of Iran produce is altogether 750 to 1000 cubic meter per second. The longest chain of qanat is situated in Gonabad region in Khorasan province. It is 70 kilometers long. Qanats are renewable water supply systems that have sustained agricultural settlement on the Iranian plateau for millennia. The great advantages of Qanats are no evaporation during transit, little seepage , no raising of the water- table and no pollution in the area surrounding the conduits. Qanat systems have a profound influence on the lives of the water users in Iran, and conform to Iran-s climate. Qanat allows those living in a desert environment adjacent to a mountain watershed to create a large oasis in an otherwise stark environment. This paper explains qanats structure designs, their history, objectives causing their creation, construction materials, locations and their importance in different times, as well as their present sustainable role in Iran.
Throughput Analysis over Power Line Communication Channel in an Electric Noisy Scenario
Powerline Communications –PLC– as an alternative method for broadband networking, has the advantage of transmitting over channels already used for electrical distribution or even transmission. But these channels have been not designed with usual wired channels requirements for broadband applications such as stable impedance or known attenuation, and the network have to reject noises caused by electrical appliances that share the same channel. Noise control standards are difficult to complain or simply do not exist on Latin-American environments. This paper analyzes PLC throughput for home connectivity by probing noisy channel scenarios in a PLC network and the statistical results are shown.
A New Scheme for Improving the Quality of Service in Heterogeneous Wireless Network for Data Stream Sending
In this paper, we first consider the quality of service problems in heterogeneous wireless networks for sending the video data, which their problem of being real-time is pronounced. At last, we present a method for ensuring the end-to-end quality of service at application layer level for adaptable sending of the video data at heterogeneous wireless networks. To do this, mechanism in different layers has been used. We have used the stop mechanism, the adaptation mechanism and the graceful degrade at the application layer, the multi-level congestion feedback mechanism in the network layer and connection cutting off decision mechanism in the link layer. At the end, the presented method and the achieved improvement is simulated and presented in the NS-2 software.
Hybrid Association Control Scheme and Load Balancing in Wireless LANs
This paper presents a hybrid association control scheme that can maintain load balancing among access points in the wireless LANs and can satisfy the quality of service requirements of the multimedia traffic applications. The proposed model is mathematically described as a linear programming model. Simulation study and analysis were conducted in order to demonstrate the performance of the proposed hybrid load balancing and association control scheme. Simulation results shows that the proposed scheme outperforms the other schemes in term of the percentage of blocking and the quality of the data transfer rate providing to the multimedia and real-time applications.
Reliability Optimization for 3G Cellular Access Networks
This paper address the network reliability optimization problem in the optical access network design for the 3G cellular systems. We presents a novel 0-1 integer programming model for designing optical access network topologies comprised of multi-rings with common-edge in order to guarantee always-on services. The results show that the proposed model yields access network topologies with the optimal reliablity and satisfies both network cost limitations and traffic demand requirements.
The Micro Ecosystem Restoration Mechanism Applied for Feasible Research of Lakes Eutrophication Enhancement
The technique of inducing micro ecosystem restoration is one of aquatic ecology engineering methods used to retrieve the polluted water. Batch scale study, pilot plant study, and field study were carried out to observe the eutrophication using the Inducing Ecology Restorative Symbiosis Agent (IERSA) consisting mainly degraded products by using lactobacillus, saccharomycete, and phycomycete. The results obtained from the experiments of the batch scale and pilot plant study allowed us to development the parameters for the field study. A pond, 5 m to the outlet of a lake, with an area of 500 m2 and depth of 0.6-1.2 m containing about 500 tons of water was selected as a model. After the treatment with 10 mg IERSA/L water twice a week for 70 days, the micro restoration mechanisms consisted of three stages (i.e., restoration, impact maintenance, and ecology recovery experiment after impact). The COD, TN, TKN, and chlorophyll a were reduced significantly in the first week. Although the unexpected heavy rain and contaminate from sewage system might slow the ecology restoration. However, the self-cleaning function continued and the chlorophyll a reduced for 50% in one month. In the 4th week, amoeba, paramecium, rotifer, and red wriggle worm reappeared, and the number of fish flies appeared up to1000 fish fries/m3. Those results proved that inducing restorative mechanism can be applied to improve the eutrophication and to control the growth of algae in the lakes by gaining the selfcleaning through inducing and competition of microbes. The situation for growth of fishes also can reach an excellent result due to the improvement of water quality.
Fuzzy Clustering of Locations for Degree of Accident Proneness based on Vehicle User Perceptions
The rapid urbanization of cities has a bane in the form road accidents that cause extensive damage to life and limbs. A number of location based factors are enablers of road accidents in the city. The speed of travel of vehicles is non-uniform among locations within a city. In this study, the perception of vehicle users is captured on a 10-point rating scale regarding the degree of variation in speed of travel at chosen locations in the city. The average rating is used to cluster locations using fuzzy c-means clustering and classify them as low, moderate and high speed of travel locations. The high speed of travel locations can be classified proactively to ensure that accidents do not occur due to the speeding of vehicles at such locations. The advantage of fuzzy c-means clustering is that a location may be a part of more than one cluster to a varying degree and this gives a better picture about the location with respect to the characteristic (speed of travel) being studied.
Location Update Cost Analysis of Mobile IPv6 Protocols
Mobile IP has been developed to provide the continuous information network access to mobile users. In IP-based mobile networks, location management is an important component of mobility management. This management enables the system to track the location of mobile node between consecutive communications. It includes two important tasks- location update and call delivery. Location update is associated with signaling load. Frequent updates lead to degradation in the overall performance of the network and the underutilization of the resources. It is, therefore, required to devise the mechanism to minimize the update rate. Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) and Hierarchical MIPv6 (HMIPv6) have been the potential candidates for deployments in mobile IP networks for mobility management. HMIPv6 through studies has been shown with better performance as compared to MIPv6. It reduces the signaling overhead traffic by making registration process local. In this paper, we present performance analysis of MIPv6 and HMIPv6 using an analytical model. Location update cost function is formulated based on fluid flow mobility model. The impact of cell residence time, cell residence probability and user-s mobility is investigated. Numerical results are obtained and presented in graphical form. It is shown that HMIPv6 outperforms MIPv6 for high mobility users only and for low mobility users; performance of both the schemes is almost equivalent to each other.
Estimation of Broadcast Probability in Wireless Adhoc Networks
Most routing protocols (DSR, AODV etc.) that have been designed for wireless adhoc networks incorporate the broadcasting operation in their route discovery scheme. Probabilistic broadcasting techniques have been developed to optimize the broadcast operation which is otherwise very expensive in terms of the redundancy and the traffic it generates. In this paper we have explored percolation theory to gain a different perspective on probabilistic broadcasting schemes which have been actively researched in the recent years. This theory has helped us estimate the value of broadcast probability in a wireless adhoc network as a function of the size of the network. We also show that, operating at those optimal values of broadcast probability there is at least 25-30% reduction in packet regeneration during successful broadcasting.
Landfill Gas Monitoring at Borehole Wells using an Autonomous Environmental Monitoring System
An autonomous environmental monitoring system (Smart Landfill) has been constructed for the quantitative measurement of the components of landfill gas found at borehole wells at the perimeter of landfill sites. The main components of landfill gas are the greenhouse gases, methane and carbon dioxide and have been monitored in the range 0-5 % volume. This monitoring system has not only been tested in the laboratory but has been deployed in multiple field trials and the data collected successfully compared with on-site monitors. This success shows the potential of this system for application in environments where reliable gas monitoring is crucial.
Issues in Spectral Source Separation Techniques for Plant-wide Oscillation Detection and Diagnosis
In the last few years, three multivariate spectral analysis techniques namely, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) have emerged as effective tools for oscillation detection and isolation. While the first method is used in determining the number of oscillatory sources, the latter two methods are used to identify source signatures by formulating the detection problem as a source identification problem in the spectral domain. In this paper, we present a critical drawback of the underlying linear (mixing) model which strongly limits the ability of the associated source separation methods to determine the number of sources and/or identify the physical source signatures. It is shown that the assumed mixing model is only valid if each unit of the process gives equal weighting (all-pass filter) to all oscillatory components in its inputs. This is in contrast to the fact that each unit, in general, acts as a filter with non-uniform frequency response. Thus, the model can only facilitate correct identification of a source with a single frequency component, which is again unrealistic. To overcome this deficiency, an iterative post-processing algorithm that correctly identifies the physical source(s) is developed. An additional issue with the existing methods is that they lack a procedure to pre-screen non-oscillatory/noisy measurements which obscure the identification of oscillatory sources. In this regard, a pre-screening procedure is prescribed based on the notion of sparseness index to eliminate the noisy and non-oscillatory measurements from the data set used for analysis.
A MATLAB Simulink Library for Transient Flow Simulation of Gas Networks
An efficient transient flow simulation for gas pipelines and networks is presented. The proposed transient flow simulation is based on the transfer function models and MATLABSimulink. The equivalent transfer functions of the nonlinear governing equations are derived for different types of the boundary conditions. Next, a MATLAB-Simulink library is developed and proposed considering any boundary condition type. To verify the accuracy and the computational efficiency of the proposed simulation, the results obtained are compared with those of the conventional finite difference schemes (such as TVD, method of lines, and other finite difference implicit and explicit schemes). The effects of the flow inertia and the pipeline inclination are incorporated in this simulation. It is shown that the proposed simulation has a sufficient accuracy and it is computationally more efficient than the other methods.
Reduced Order Modeling of Natural Gas Transient Flow in Pipelines
A reduced order modeling approach for natural gas transient flow in pipelines is presented. The Euler equations are considered as the governing equations and solved numerically using the implicit Steger-Warming flux vector splitting method. Next, the linearized form of the equations is derived and the corresponding eigensystem is obtained. Then, a few dominant flow eigenmodes are used to construct an efficient reduced-order model. A well-known test case is presented to demonstrate the accuracy and the computational efficiency of the proposed method. The results obtained are in good agreement with those of the direct numerical method and field data. Moreover, it is shown that the present reduced-order model is more efficient than the conventional numerical techniques for transient flow analysis of natural gas in pipelines.
Analytical Solution for Compressible Gas Flow Inside a Two-Dimensional Poiseuille Flow in Microchannels with Constant Heat Flux Including the Creeping Effect
To achieve reliable solutions, today-s numerical and experimental activities need developing more accurate methods and utilizing expensive facilities, respectfully in microchannels. The analytical study can be considered as an alternative approach to alleviate the preceding difficulties. Among the analytical solutions, those with high robustness and low complexities are certainly more attractive. The perturbation theory has been used by many researchers to analyze microflows. In present work, a compressible microflow with constant heat flux boundary condition is analyzed. The flow is assumed to be fully developed and steady. The Mach and Reynolds numbers are also assumed to be very small. For this case, the creeping phenomenon may have some effect on the velocity profile. To achieve robustness solution it is assumed that the flow is quasi-isothermal. In this study, the creeping term which appears in the slip boundary condition is formulated by different mathematical formulas. The difference between this work and the previous ones is that the creeping term is taken into account and presented in non-dimensionalized form. The results obtained from perturbation theory are presented based on four non-dimensionalized parameters including the Reynolds, Mach, Prandtl and Brinkman numbers. The axial velocity, normal velocity and pressure profiles are obtained. Solutions for velocities and pressure for two cases with different Br numbers are compared with each other and the results show that the effect of creeping phenomenon on the velocity profile becomes more important when Br number is less than O(ε).
Analysis of an Electrical Transformer: A Bond Graph Approach
Bond graph models of an electrical transformer including the nonlinear saturation are presented. These models determine the relation between self and mutual inductances, and the leakage and magnetizing inductances of power transformers with two and three windings using the properties of a bond graph. The modelling and analysis using this methodology to three phase power transformers or transformers with internal incipient faults can be extended.
Analysis of a Hydroelectric Plant connected to Electrical Power System in the Physical Domain
A bond graph model of a hydroelectric plant is proposed. In order to analyze the system some structural properties of a bond graph are used. The structural controllability of the hydroelctric plant is described. Also, the steady state of the state variables applying the bond graph in a derivative causality assignment is obtained. Finally, simulation results of the system are shown.
Effect of Amplitude and Mean Angle of Attack on Wake of an Oscillating Airfoil
The unsteady wake of an EPPLER 361 airfoil in pitching motion has been investigated in a subsonic wind tunnel by hot-wire anemometry. The airfoil was given the pitching motion about the one-quarter chord axis at reduced frequency of 0182. Streamwise mean velocity profiles (wake profiles) were investigated at several vertically aligned points behind the airfoil at one-quarter chord downstream distance from trailing edge. Oscillation amplitude and mean angle of attack were varied to determine the effects on wake profiles. When the maximum dynamic angle of attack was below the static stall angle of attack, weak effects on wake were found by increasing oscillation amplitude and mean angle of attack. But, for higher angles of attack strong unsteady effects were appeared on the wake.
Subcritical Water Extraction of Mannitol from Olive Leaves
Subcritical water extraction was investigated as a novel and alternative technology in the food and pharmaceutical industry for the separation of Mannitol from olive leaves and its results was compared with those of Soxhlet extraction. The effects of temperature, pressure, and flow rate of water and also momentum and mass transfer dimensionless variables such as Reynolds and Peclet Numbers on extraction yield and equilibrium partition coefficient were investigated. The 30-110 bars, 60-150°C, and flow rates of 0.2-2 mL/min were the water operating conditions. The results revealed that the highest Mannitol yield was obtained at 100°C and 50 bars. However, extraction of Mannitol was not influenced by the variations of flow rate. The mathematical modeling of experimental measurements was also investigated and the model is capable of predicting the experimental measurements very well. In addition, the results indicated higher extraction yield for the subcritical water extraction in contrast to Soxhlet method.
Performance Analysis of Chrominance Red and Chrominance Blue in JPEG
While compressing text files is useful, compressing still image files is almost a necessity. A typical image takes up much more storage than a typical text message and without compression images would be extremely clumsy to store and distribute. The amount of information required to store pictures on modern computers is quite large in relation to the amount of bandwidth commonly available to transmit them over the Internet and applications. Image compression addresses the problem of reducing the amount of data required to represent a digital image. Performance of any image compression method can be evaluated by measuring the root-mean-square-error & peak signal to noise ratio. The method of image compression that will be analyzed in this paper is based on the lossy JPEG image compression technique, the most popular compression technique for color images. JPEG compression is able to greatly reduce file size with minimal image degradation by throwing away the least “important" information. In JPEG, both color components are downsampled simultaneously, but in this paper we will compare the results when the compression is done by downsampling the single chroma part. In this paper we will demonstrate more compression ratio is achieved when the chrominance blue is downsampled as compared to downsampling the chrominance red in JPEG compression. But the peak signal to noise ratio is more when the chrominance red is downsampled as compared to downsampling the chrominance blue in JPEG compression. In particular we will use the hats.jpg as a demonstration of JPEG compression using low pass filter and demonstrate that the image is compressed with barely any visual differences with both methods.
Convective Heat Transfer Enhancement in an Enclosure with Fin Utilizing Nano Fluids
The objective of the present work is to conduct investigations leading to a more complete explanation of single phase natural convective heat transfer in an enclosure with fin utilizing nano fluids. The nano fluid used, which is composed of Aluminum oxide nano particles in suspension of Ethylene glycol, is provided at various volume fractions. The study is carried out numerically for a range of Rayleigh numbers, fin heights and aspect ratio. The flow and temperature distributions are taken to be two-dimensional. Regions with the same velocity and temperature distributions are identified as symmetry of sections. One half of such a rectangular region is chosen as the computational domain taking into account the symmetry about the fin. Transport equations are modeled by a stream functionvorticity formulation and are solved numerically by finite-difference schemes. Comparisons with previously published works on the basis of special cases are done. Results are presented in the form of streamline, vector and isotherm plots as well as the variation of local Nusselt number along the fin under different conditions.
Energy Fields as Alternative Cures for Viral Diseases
As days go by, we hear more and more about HIV, Ebola, Bird Flu and other dreadful viruses which were unknown a few decades ago. In both detecting and fighting viral diseases ordinary methods have come across some basic and important difficulties. Vaccination is by a sense introduction of the virus to the immune system before the occurrence of the real case infection. It is very successful against some viruses (e.g. Poliomyelitis), while totally ineffective against some others (e.g. HIV or Hepatitis-C). On the other hand, Anti-virus drugs are mostly some tools to control and not to cure a viral disease. This could be a good motivation to try alternative treatments. In this study, some key features of possible physical-based alternative treatments for viral diseases are presented. Electrification of body parts or fluids (especially blood) with micro electric signals with adjusted current or frequency is also studied. The main approach of this study is to find a suitable energy field, with appropriate parameters that are able to kill or deactivate viruses. This would be a lengthy, multi-disciplinary research which needs the contribution of virology, physics, and signal processing experts. It should be mentioned that all the claims made by alternative cures researchers must be tested carefully and are not advisable at the time being.
Binarization of Text Region based on Fuzzy Clustering and Histogram Distribution in Signboards
In this paper, we present a novel approach to accurately detect text regions including shop name in signboard images with complex background for mobile system applications. The proposed method is based on the combination of text detection using edge profile and region segmentation using fuzzy c-means method. In the first step, we perform an elaborate canny edge operator to extract all possible object edges. Then, edge profile analysis with vertical and horizontal direction is performed on these edge pixels to detect potential text region existing shop name in a signboard. The edge profile and geometrical characteristics of each object contour are carefully examined to construct candidate text regions and classify the main text region from background. Finally, the fuzzy c-means algorithm is performed to segment and detected binarize text region. Experimental results show that our proposed method is robust in text detection with respect to different character size and color and can provide reliable text binarization result.
Ontology Population via NLP Techniques in Risk Management
In this paper we propose an NLP-based method for Ontology Population from texts and apply it to semi automatic instantiate a Generic Knowledge Base (Generic Domain Ontology) in the risk management domain. The approach is semi-automatic and uses a domain expert intervention for validation. The proposed approach relies on a set of Instances Recognition Rules based on syntactic structures, and on the predicative power of verbs in the instantiation process. It is not domain dependent since it heavily relies on linguistic knowledge. A description of an experiment performed on a part of the ontology of the PRIMA1 project (supported by the European community) is given. A first validation of the method is done by populating this ontology with Chemical Fact Sheets from Environmental Protection Agency2. The results of this experiment complete the paper and support the hypothesis that relying on the predicative power of verbs in the instantiation process improves the performance.
Curing Time Effect on Behavior of Cement Treated Marine Clay
Cement stabilization has been widely used for improving the strength and stiffness of soft clayey soils. Cement treated soil specimens used to investigate the stress-strain behaviour in the laboratory study are usually cured for 7 days. This paper examines the effects of curing time on the strength and stress strain behaviour of cement treated marine clay under triaxial loading condition. Laboratory-prepared cement treated Singapore marine clay with different mix proportion S-C-W (soil solid-cement solid-water) and curing time (7 days to 180 days) was investigated through conducting unconfined compressive strength test and triaxial test. The results show that the curing time has a significant effect on the unconfined compressive strength u q , isotropic compression behaviour and stress strain behaviour. Although the primary yield loci of the cement treated soil specimens with the same mix proportion expand with curing time, they are very narrowly banded and have nearly the same shape after being normalized by isotropic compression primary stress ' py p . The isotropic compression primary yield stress ' py p was shown to be linearly related to unconfined compressive strength u q for specimens with different curing time and mix proportion. The effect of curing time on the hardening behaviour will diminish with consolidation stress higher than isotropic compression primary yield stress but its damping rate is dependent on the cement content.
Multi-Font Farsi/Arabic Isolated Character Recognition Using Chain Codes
Nowadays, OCR systems have got several applications and are increasingly employed in daily life. Much research has been done regarding the identification of Latin, Japanese, and Chinese characters. However, very little investigation has been performed regarding Farsi/Arabic characters recognition. Probably the reason is difficulty and complexity of those characters identification compared to the others and limitation of IT activities in Farsi and Arabic speaking countries. In this paper, a technique has been employed to identify isolated Farsi/Arabic characters. A chain code based algorithm along with other significant peculiarities such as number and location of dots and auxiliary parts, and the number of holes existing in the isolated character has been used in this study to identify Farsi/Arabic characters. Experimental results show the relatively high accuracy of the method developed when it is tested on several standard Farsi fonts.
Thermodynamic Analysis of Activated Carbon- CO2 based Adsorption Cooling Cycles
Heat powered solid sorption is a feasible alternative to electrical vapor compression refrigeration systems. In this paper, activated carbon (powder type Maxsorb and fiber type ACF-A10)- CO2 based adsorption cooling cycles are studied using the pressuretemperature- concentration (P-T-W) diagram. The specific cooling effect (SCE) and the coefficient of performance (COP) of these two cooling systems are simulated for the driving heat source temperatures ranging from 30 ºC to 90 ºC in terms of different cooling load temperatures with a cooling source temperature of 25 ºC. It is found from the present analysis that Maxsorb-CO2 couple shows higher cooling capacity and COP. The maximum COPs of Maxsorb-CO2 and ACF(A10)-CO2 based cooling systems are found to be 0.15 and 0.083, respectively. The main innovative feature of this cooling cycle is the ability to utilize low temperature waste heat or solar energy using CO2 as the refrigerant, which is one of the best alternative for applications where flammability and toxicity are not allowed.
The role of pH on Cr(VI) Reduction and Removal by Arthrobacter Viscosus
Arthrobacter viscosus biomass was used for Cr(VI) biosorption. The effect of pH on Cr(VI) reduction and removal from aqueous solution was studied in the range of 1-4. The Cr(VI) removal involves both redox reaction and adsorption of metal ions on biomass surface. The removal rate of Cr(VI) was enhanced by very acid conditions, while higher solution pH values favored the removal of total chromium. The best removal efficiency and uptake were reached at pH 4, 72.5 % and 12.6 mgCr/gbiomass, respectively.
Investigation of Heavy Metals Uptake by Vegetable Crops from Metal-Contaminated Soil
The use of sewage sludge and effluents from wastewater treatment plants for irrigation of agricultural lands is on the rise particularly in peri-urban areas of developing countries. The reuse of nutrients and organic matter in treated wastewater and sewage sludge via land application is a desirable goal. However, trace or heavy metals present in sludge pose the risk of human or phytotoxicity from land application. Long-term use of sewage sludge, heavy metals can accumulate to phytotoxic levels and results in reduced plants growth and/or enhanced metal concentrations in plants, which consumed by animals then enter the food chain. In this research, the amount of heavy metals was measured in plants irrigated with wastewater and sludge application. For this purpose, three pilots were made in a Shush treatment plant in south of Tehran. Three plants species, spinach, lettuce and radish were selected and planted in the pilots.First pilot was irrigated just with wastewater of treatment plant and second pilot was irrigated with wastewater and sludge application .Third pilot was irrigated with simulated heavy metals solution equal 50 years of irrigation. The results indicate that the average of amount of heavy metals Pb, Cd in three plant species in first pilot were lower than permissible limits .In second pilot, Cadmium accumulations are high in three species plants and more than the standard limits. Concentration of Cd , Pb have exceed their permitted limits in plants in third pilot . It was concluded that the use of wastewater and sludge application in agricultural lands enriched soils with heavy metals to concentrations that may pose potential environmental and health risks in the long-term.
Heavy Metals Transport in the Soil Profiles under the Application of Sludge and Wastewater
Heavy metal transfer in soil profiles is a major environmental concern because even slow transport through the soil may eventually lead to deterioration of groundwater quality. The use of sewage sludge and effluents from wastewater treatment plants for irrigation of agricultural lands is on the rise particularly in peri-urban area of developing countries. In this study soil samples under sludge application and wastewater irrigation were studied and soil samples were collected in the soil profiles from the surface to 100 cm in depth. For this purpose, three plots were made in a treatment plant in south of Tehran-Iran. First plot was irrigated just with effluent from wastewater treatment plant, second plot with simulated heavy metals concentration equal 50 years irrigation and in third plot sewage sludge and effluent was used. Trace metals concentration (Cd, Cu) were determined for soil samples. The results indicate movement of metals was observed, but the most concentration of metals was found in topsoil samples. The most of Cadmium concentration was measured in the topsoil of plot 3, 4.5mg/kg and Maximum cadmium movement was observed in 0-20 cm. The most concentration of copper was 27.76mg/kg, and maximum percolation in 0-20 cm. Metals (Cd, Cu) were measured in leached water. Preferential flow and metal complexation with soluble organic apparently allow leaching of heavy metals.
Event Monitoring Web Services for Heterogeneous Information Systems
Heterogeneity has to be taken into account when integrating a set of existing information sources into a distributed information system that are nowadays often based on Service- Oriented Architectures (SOA). This is also particularly applicable to distributed services such as event monitoring, which are useful in the context of Event Driven Architectures (EDA) and Complex Event Processing (CEP). Web services deal with this heterogeneity at a technical level, also providing little support for event processing. Our central thesis is that such a fully generic solution cannot provide complete support for event monitoring; instead, source specific semantics such as certain event types or support for certain event monitoring techniques have to be taken into account. Our core result is the design of a configurable event monitoring (Web) service that allows us to trade genericity for the exploitation of source specific characteristics. It thus delivers results for the areas of SOA, Web services, CEP and EDA.
Evolutionary Query Optimization for Heterogeneous Distributed Database Systems
Due to new distributed database applications such as huge deductive database systems, the search complexity is constantly increasing and we need better algorithms to speedup traditional relational database queries. An optimal dynamic programming method for such high dimensional queries has the big disadvantage of its exponential order and thus we are interested in semi-optimal but faster approaches. In this work we present a multi-agent based mechanism to meet this demand and also compare the result with some commonly used query optimization algorithms.
Numerical Simulation of Interfacial Flow with Volume-Of-Fluid Method

In this article, various models of surface tension force (CSF, CSS and PCIL) for interfacial flows have been applied to dynamic case and the results were compared. We studied the Kelvin- Helmholtz instabilities, which are produced by shear at the interface between two fluids with different physical properties. The velocity inlet is defined as a sinusoidal perturbation. When gravity and surface tension are taking into account, we observe the development of the Instability for a critic value of the difference of velocity of the both fluids. The VOF Model enables to simulate Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability as dynamic case.

Towards the Use of Renewable Energy Sources in the Home
The paper presents the results of the European EIE project “Realising the potential for small scale renewable energy sources in the home – Kyotointhehome". The project's global aim is to inform and educate teachers, students and their families so that they can realise the need and can assess the potential for energy efficiency (EE) measures and renewable energy sources (RES) in their homes. The project resources were translated and trialled by 16 partners in 10 European countries. A web-based methodology which will enable families to assess how RES can be incorporated into energy efficient homes was accomplished. The web application “KYOTOINHOME" will help the citizens to identify what they can do to help their community meet the Kyoto target for greenhouse gas reductions and prevent global warming. This application provides useful information on how the citizens can use renewable energy sources in their home to provide space heating and cooling, hot water and electricity. A methodology for assessing heat loss in a dwelling and application of heat pump system was elaborated and will be implemented this year. For schools, we developed a set of practical activities concerned with preventing climate change through using renewable energy sources. Complementary resources will also developed in the Romanian research project “Romania Contribution to the European Targets Regarding the Development of Renewable Energy Sources" - PROMES.
Groundwater Quality and the Sources of Pollution in Baghan Watershed, Iran
The protection of groundwater resources is the great important many semiarid and arid environments. Baghan watershed is located in the north of Kangan in the Boshehr province in Iran. The groundwater resources have a vital role in supplying agricultural, drinking, domestic and industrial water demand in Baghan watershed. For our investigation into the water quality we collected 30 samples to chemical and physical analysis. The result showed the marl and evaporation deposits that contain anhydrite and gypsum is the main source of groundwater pollution, and one part of the groundwater was polluted by oil and gas industrial. Another part of the groundwater was contaminated by urban waste water. The electrical conductivity and captions and anions increased around of towns and gas refinery. Although the negative impact of untreated domestic wastewater is relatively low but the results showed strongly the negative impact of wastewater refinery is very considerable. This negative impact increased in downstream due to shallow aquifer. Additionally, the agents that adversely affect the quality of groundwater come from a variety of sources, including geology, domestic wastewater and the Jam refinery in Baghan watershed.
Removal of Heavy Metals from Rainwater in Batch Reactors with Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB)
The main objective of this research was to investigate the biosorption capacity for biofilms of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) to remove heavy metals, such as Zn, Pb and Cd from rainwater using laboratory-scale reactors containing mixed support media. Evidence showed that biosorption had contributed to removal of heavy metals including Zn, Pb and Cd in presence of SRB and SRB were also found in the aqueous samples from reactors. However, the SRB and specific families (Desulfobacteriaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae) were found mainly in the biomass samples taken from all reactors at the end of the experiment. EDX-analysis of reactor solids at end of experiment showed that heavy metals Zn, Pb and Cd had also accumulated in these precipitates.
Nanocrystalline Mg-3%Al Alloy: its Synthesis and Investigation of its Tensile Behavior
The tensile properties of Mg-3%Al nanocrystalline alloys were investigated at different test environment. Bulk nanocrystalline samples of these alloy was successfully prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) followed by cold compaction, sintering, and hot extrusion process. The crystal size of the consolidated milled sample was calculated by X-Ray line profile analysis. The deformation mechanism and microstructural characteristic at different test condition was discussed extensively. At room temperature, relatively lower value of activation volume (AV) and higher value of strain rate sensitivity (SRS) suggests that new rate controlling mechanism accommodating plastic flow in the present nanocrystalline sample. The deformation behavior and the microstructural character of the present samples were discussed in details.
Reservoir Operating by Ant Colony Optimization for Continuous Domains (ACOR) Case Study: Dez Reservoir

A direct search approach to determine optimal reservoir operating is proposed with ant colony optimization for continuous domains (ACOR). The model is applied to a system of single reservoir to determine the optimum releases during 42 years of monthly steps. A disadvantage of ant colony based methods and the ACOR in particular, refers to great amount of computer run time consumption. In this study a highly effective procedure for decreasing run time has been developed. The results are compared to those of a GA based model.

Numerical Prediction of NOX in the Exhaust of a Compression Ignition Engine
For numerical prediction of the NOX in the exhaust of a compression ignition engine a model was developed by considering the parameter equivalence ratio. This model was validated by comparing the predicted results of NOX with experimental ones. The ultimate aim of the work was to access the applicability, robustness and performance of the improved NOX model against other NOX models.
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