Development of A Jacobean Model for A 4-Axes Indigenously Developed SCARA System
This paper deals with the development of a Jacobean model for a 4-axes indigenously developed scara robot arm in the laboratory. This model is used to study the relation between the velocities and the forces in the robot while it is doing the pick and place operation.
Recognition and Reconstruction of Partially Occluded Objects
A new automatic system for the recognition and re¬construction of resealed and/or rotated partially occluded objects is presented. The objects to be recognized are described by 2D views and each view is occluded by several half-planes. The whole object views and their visible parts (linear cuts) are then stored in a database. To establish if a region R of an input image represents an object possibly occluded, the system generates a set of linear cuts of R and compare them with the elements in the database. Each linear cut of R is associated to the most similar database linear cut. R is recognized as an instance of the object 0 if the majority of the linear cuts of R are associated to a linear cut of views of 0. In the case of recognition, the system reconstructs the occluded part of R and determines the scale factor and the orientation in the image plane of the recognized object view. The system has been tested on two different datasets of objects, showing good performance both in terms of recognition and reconstruction accuracy.
Model Order Reduction of Linear Time Variant High Speed VLSI Interconnects using Frequency Shift Technique
Accurate modeling of high speed RLC interconnects
has become a necessity to address signal integrity issues in current
VLSI design. To accurately model a dispersive system of interconnects
at higher frequencies; a full-wave analysis is required.
However, conventional circuit simulation of interconnects with full
wave models is extremely CPU expensive. We present an algorithm
for reducing large VLSI circuits to much smaller ones with similar
input-output behavior. A key feature of our method, called Frequency
Shift Technique, is that it is capable of reducing linear time-varying
systems. This enables it to capture frequency-translation and sampling
behavior, important in communication subsystems such as mixers,
RF components and switched-capacitor filters. Reduction is obtained
by projecting the original system described by linear differential
equations into a lower dimension. Experiments have been carried out
using Cadence Design Simulator cwhich indicates that the proposed
technique achieves more % reduction with less CPU time than the
other model order reduction techniques existing in literature. We
also present applications to RF circuit subsystems, obtaining size
reductions and evaluation speedups of orders of magnitude with
insignificant loss of accuracy.
Estimation of Attenuation and Phase Delay in Driving Voltage Waveform of an Ultra-High-Speed Image Sensor by Dimensional Analysis
We present an explicit expression to estimate driving voltage attenuation through RC networks representation of an ultrahigh- speed image sensor. Elmore delay metric for a fundamental RC chain is employed as the first-order approximation. By application of dimensional analysis to SPICE simulation data, we found a simple expression that significantly improves the accuracy of the approximation. Estimation error of the resultant expression for uniform RC networks is less than 2%. Similarly, another simple closed-form model to estimate 50 % delay through fundamental RC networks is also derived with sufficient accuracy. The framework of this analysis can be extended to address delay or attenuation issues of other VLSI structures.
Productivity and Performance of Barangays: The Case of the Heritage City of Vigan, Philippines
This study assessed the productivity and performance of the barangays in the Heritage City of Vigan in terms of the barangays- resource requirements, management of resources, produced goods and services, and outcomes of service delivery. The descriptive research design was used in the study employing the input-process-output-outcomes model. Findings of this study showed that the barangays were strong in terms of resource requirements which enabled them to produce goods and services. The barangays were also strong in terms of management of resources in development planning. They also showed great potential along fiscal administration, and had a moderately high capability in organization and management. However, the barangays appeared to be most wanting in the area of barangay legislation, but they were strong in community mobilization and they had strong linkages with POs, NGOs and educational institutions. In the delivery of social services, the barangays favored the maintenance of day care centers. However, the barangays seem to be weak in the delivery of economic services. They fared well along providing protective services such as in establishing a Barangay Disaster Coordinating Council and organizing a group of Barangay Tanod. In terms of environmental services, the barangays performed garbage collection and disposal; however, garbage still found their way in the streets in some barangays. The services delivered had effected an improved status of the barangays. However, the barangays are still facing some problems.
The Roles of Community Based Telecenters in Bridging the Digital Divide in Rural Malaysia
Malaysia is aggressive in promoting the usage of ICT
to its mass population through the support by the government
policies and programs targeting the general population. However,
with the uneven distribution of the basic telecommunication
infrastructure between the urban and rural area, cost for being
“interconnected" that is considered high among the poorer rural
population and the lack of local contents that suit the rural population
needs or lifestyles, it is still a challenge for Malaysia to achieve its
Vision 2020 Agenda moving the nation towards an information
society by the year 2020. Among the existing programs that have
been carried out by the government to encourage the usage of ICT by
the rural population is “Kedaikom", a community telecenter with the
general aim is to engage the community to get exposed and to use the
ICT, encouraging the diffusion of the ICT technology to the rural
population. The research investigated by using a questionnaire
survey of how Kedaikom, as a community telecenter could play a
role in encouraging the rural or underserved community to use the
ICT. The result from the survey has proven that the community
telecenter could bridge the digital divide between the underserved
rural population and the well-accessed urban population in Malaysia.
More of the rural population, especially from the younger generation
and those with higher educational background are using the
community telecenter to be connected to the ICT.
Blind Spot Area Tracking Solution Using 1x12 POF-Based Optical Couplers
Optical 1x12 fused-taper-twisted polymer optical fiber (POF) couplers has been fabricated by a perform technique. Characterization of the coupler which proposed to be used in passive night vision application to tracking a blind sport area was reported. During the development process of fused-taper-twisted POF couplers was carried out, red LED fully utilized to be injected into the couplers to test the quality of fabricated couplers. Some characterization parameters, such as optical output power, POFs attenuation characteristics and power losses on the network were observed. The maximum output power efficiency of the coupler is about 40%, but it can be improved gradually through experience and practice.
The Effects of Work Values, Work-Value Congruence and Work Centrality on Organizational Citizenship Behavior
The aim of this study is to test the “work values"
inventory developed by Tevruz and Turgut and to utilize the concept
in a model, which aims to create a greater understanding of the work
experience. In the study multiple effects of work values, work-value
congruence and work centrality on organizational citizenship
behavior are examined. In this respect, it is hypothesized that work
values and work-value congruence predict organizational citizenship
behavior through work centrality. Work-goal congruence test, Tevruz
and Turgut-s work values inventory are administered along with
Kanungo-s work centrality and Podsakoff et al.-s  organizational
citizenship behavior test to employees working in Turkish SME-s.
The study validated that Tevruz and Turgut-s work values inventory
and the work-value congruence test were reliable and could be used
for future research. The study revealed the mediating role of work
centrality only for the relationship of work values and the
responsibility dimension of citizenship behavior. Most important, this
study brought in an important concept, work-value congruence,
which enables a better understanding of work values and their
relation to various attitudinal variables.
Propagation Model for a Mass-Mailing Worm with Mailing List
Mass-mail type worms have threatened to become a large problem for the Internet. Although many researchers have analyzed such worms, there are few studies that consider worm propagation via mailing lists. In this paper, we present a mass-mailing type worm propagation model including the mailing list effect on the propagation. We study its propagation by simulation with a real e¬mail social network model. We show that the impact of the mailing list on the mass-mail worm propagation is significant, even if the mailing list is not large.
EMOES: Eye Motion and Ocular Expression Simulator
We introduce, a new interactive 3D simulation system of ocular motion and expressions suitable for: (1) character animation applications to game design, film production, HCI (Human Computer Interface), conversational animated agents, and virtual reality; (2) medical applications (ophthalmic neurological and muscular pathologies: research and education); and (3) real time simulation of unconscious cognitive and emotional responses (for use, e.g., in psychological research). The system is comprised of: (1) a physiologically accurate parameterized 3D model of the eyes, eyelids, and eyebrow regions; and (2) a prototype device for realtime control of eye motions and expressions, including unconsciously produced expressions, for application as in (1), (2), and (3) above. The 3D eye simulation system, created using state-of-the-art computer animation technology and 'optimized' for use with an interactive and web deliverable platform, is, to our knowledge, the most advanced/realistic available so far for applications to character animation and medical pedagogy.
Shunt Power Active Filter Control under NonIdeal Voltages Conditions
In this paper, we propose the Modified Synchronous Detection (MSD) Method for determining the reference compensating currents of the shunt active power filter under non sinusoidal voltages conditions. For controlling the inverter switching we used the PI regulator. The numerical simulation results, using Power System Blockset Toolbox PSB of Matlab, from a complete structure, are presented and discussed.
Computational Intelligence Techniques and Agents- Technology in E-learning Environments
In this contribution a newly developed e-learning environment is presented, which incorporates Intelligent Agents and Computational Intelligence Techniques. The new e-learning environment is constituted by three parts, the E-learning platform Front-End, the Student Questioner Reasoning and the Student Model Agent. These parts are distributed geographically in dispersed computer servers, with main focus on the design and development of these subsystems through the use of new and emerging technologies. These parts are interconnected in an interoperable way, using web services for the integration of the subsystems, in order to enhance the user modelling procedure and achieve the goals of the learning process.
Design and Implementation of an Intelligent System for Detection of Hazardous Gases using PbPc Sensor Array
The voltage/current characteristics and the effect of
NO2 gas on the electrical conductivity of a PbPc gas sensor array is
investigated. The gas sensor is manufactured using vacuum
deposition of gold electrodes on sapphire substrate with the leadphathalocyanine
vacuum sublimed on the top of the gold electrodes.
Two versions of the PbPc gas sensor array are investigated. The
tested types differ in the gap sizes between the deposited gold
electrodes. The sensors are tested at different temperatures to account
for conductivity changes as the molecular adsorption/desorption rate
is affected by heat. The obtained results found to be encouraging as
the sensors shoed stability and sensitivity towards low concentration
of applied NO2 gas.
Group Key Management Protocols: A Novel Taxonomy
Group key management is an important functional
building block for any secure multicast architecture.
Thereby, it has been extensively studied in the literature.
In this paper we present relevant group key management
protocols. Then, we compare them against some pertinent
Query Optimization Techniques for XML Databases
Over the past few years, XML (eXtensible Mark-up
Language) has emerged as the standard for information
representation and data exchange over the Internet. This paper
provides a kick-start for new researches venturing in XML databases
field. We survey the storage representation for XML document,
review the XML query processing and optimization techniques with
respect to the particular storage instance. Various optimization
technologies have been developed to solve the query retrieval and
updating problems. Towards the later year, most researchers
proposed hybrid optimization techniques. Hybrid system opens the
possibility of covering each technology-s weakness by its strengths.
This paper reviews the advantages and limitations of optimization
Robust Digital Cinema Watermarking
With the advent of digital cinema and digital
broadcasting, copyright protection of video data has been one of the
most important issues.
We present a novel method of watermarking for video image data
based on the hardware and digital wavelet transform techniques and
name it as “traceable watermarking" because the watermarked data is
constructed before the transmission process and traced after it has been
received by an authorized user.
In our method, we embed the watermark to the lowest part of each
image frame in decoded video by using a hardware LSI.
Digital Cinema is an important application for traceable
watermarking since digital cinema system makes use of watermarking
technology during content encoding, encryption, transmission,
decoding and all the intermediate process to be done in digital cinema
systems. The watermark is embedded into the randomly selected
movie frames using hash functions.
Embedded watermark information can be extracted from the
decoded video data. For that, there is no need to access original movie
data. Our experimental results show that proposed traceable
watermarking method for digital cinema system is much better than the
convenient watermarking techniques in terms of robustness, image
quality, speed, simplicity and robust structure.
A Fast Neural Algorithm for Serial Code Detection in a Stream of Sequential Data
In recent years, fast neural networks for object/face detection have been introduced based on cross correlation in the frequency domain between the input matrix and the hidden weights of neural networks. In our previous papers [3,4], fast neural networks for certain code detection was introduced. It was proved in  that for fast neural networks to give the same correct results as conventional neural networks, both the weights of neural networks and the input matrix must be symmetric. This condition made those fast neural networks slower than conventional neural networks. Another symmetric form for the input matrix was introduced in [1-9] to speed up the operation of these fast neural networks. Here, corrections for the cross correlation equations (given in [13,15,16]) to compensate for the symmetry condition are presented. After these corrections, it is proved mathematically that the number of computation steps required for fast neural networks is less than that needed by classical neural networks. Furthermore, there is no need for converting the input data into symmetric form. Moreover, such new idea is applied to increase the speed of neural networks in case of processing complex values. Simulation results after these corrections using MATLAB confirm the theoretical computations.
Fuzzy Neuro Approach to Busbar Protection; Design and Implementation
This paper presents a new approach for busbar protection with stable operation of current transformer during saturation, using fuzzy neuro and symmetrical components theory. This technique uses symmetrical components of current signals to learn the hidden relationship existing in the input patterns. Simulation studies are preformed and the influence of changing system parameters such as inception fault and source impedance is studied. Details of the design procedure and the results of performance studies with the proposed relay are given in the paper. An analysis of the performance of the proposed technique during ct saturation conditions is presented. The performance of the technique was investigated for a variety of operating conditions and for several busbar configurations. Data generated by EMTDC simulations of model power systems were used in the investigations. The results indicate that the proposed technique is stable during ct saturation conditions.
Detection and Correction of Ectopic Beats for HRV Analysis Applying Discrete Wavelet Transforms
The clinical usefulness of heart rate variability is
limited to the range of Holter monitoring software available. These
software algorithms require a normal sinus rhythm to accurately
acquire heart rate variability (HRV) measures in the frequency
domain. Premature ventricular contractions (PVC) or more
commonly referred to as ectopic beats, frequent in heart failure,
hinder this analysis and introduce ambiguity. This investigation
demonstrates an algorithm to automatically detect ectopic beats by
analyzing discrete wavelet transform coefficients. Two techniques
for filtering and replacing the ectopic beats from the RR signal are
compared. One technique applies wavelet hard thresholding
techniques and another applies linear interpolation to replace ectopic
cycles. The results demonstrate through simulation, and signals
acquired from a 24hr ambulatory recorder, that these techniques can
accurately detect PVC-s and remove the noise and leakage effects
produced by ectopic cycles retaining smooth spectra with the
minimum of error.
Transformer Top-Oil Temperature Modeling and Simulation
The winding hot-spot temperature is one of the most
critical parameters that affect the useful life of the power
transformers. The winding hot-spot temperature can be calculated as
function of the top-oil temperature that can estimated by using the
ambient temperature and transformer loading measured data. This
paper proposes the estimation of the top-oil temperature by using a
method based on Least Squares Support Vector Machines approach.
The estimated top-oil temperature is compared with measured data of
a power transformer in operation. The results are also compared with
methods based on the IEEE Standard C57.91-1995/2000 and
Artificial Neural Networks. It is shown that the Least Squares
Support Vector Machines approach presents better performance than
the methods based in the IEEE Standard C57.91-1995/2000 and
artificial neural networks.
Stabilization of the Lorenz Chaotic Equations by Fuzzy Controller
In this paper, a fuzzy controller is designed for
stabilization of the Lorenz chaotic equations. A simple Mamdani
inference method is used for this purpose. This method is very simple
and applicable for complex chaotic systems and it can be
implemented easily. The stability of close loop system is investigated
by the Lyapunov stabilization criterion. A Lyapunov function is
introduced and the global stability is proven. Finally, the
effectiveness of this method is illustrated by simulation results and it
is shown that the performance of the system is improved.
Determining Cluster Boundaries Using Particle Swarm Optimization
Self-organizing map (SOM) is a well known data reduction technique used in data mining. Data visualization can reveal structure in data sets that is otherwise hard to detect from raw data alone. However, interpretation through visual inspection is prone to errors and can be very tedious. There are several techniques for the automatic detection of clusters of code vectors found by SOMs, but they generally do not take into account the distribution of code vectors; this may lead to unsatisfactory clustering and poor definition of cluster boundaries, particularly where the density of data points is low. In this paper, we propose the use of a generic particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm for finding cluster boundaries directly from the code vectors obtained from SOMs. The application of our method to unlabeled call data for a mobile phone operator demonstrates its feasibility. PSO algorithm utilizes U-matrix of SOMs to determine cluster boundaries; the results of this novel automatic method correspond well to boundary detection through visual inspection of code vectors and k-means algorithm.
A Fuzzy Logic Based Navigation of a Mobile Robot
One of the long standing challenging aspect in mobile robotics is the ability to navigate autonomously, avoiding modeled and unmodeled obstacles especially in crowded and unpredictably changing environment. A successful way of structuring the navigation task in order to deal with the problem is within behavior based navigation approaches. In this study, Issues of individual behavior design and action coordination of the behaviors will be addressed using fuzzy logic. A layered approach is employed in this work in which a supervision layer based on the context makes a decision as to which behavior(s) to process (activate) rather than processing all behavior(s) and then blending the appropriate ones, as a result time and computational resources are saved.
Affine Radial Basis Function Neural Networks for the Robust Control of Hyperbolic Distributed Parameter Systems
In this work, a radial basis function (RBF) neural network is developed for the identification of hyperbolic distributed parameter systems (DPSs). This empirical model is based only on process input-output data and used for the estimation of the controlled variables at specific locations, without the need of online solution of partial differential equations (PDEs). The nonlinear model that is obtained is suitably transformed to a nonlinear state space formulation that also takes into account the model mismatch. A stable robust control law is implemented for the attenuation of external disturbances. The proposed identification and control methodology is applied on a long duct, a common component of thermal systems, for a flow based control of temperature distribution. The closed loop performance is significantly improved in comparison to existing control methodologies.
Towards Growing Self-Organizing Neural Networks with Fixed Dimensionality
The competitive learning is an adaptive process in
which the neurons in a neural network gradually become sensitive to
different input pattern clusters. The basic idea behind the Kohonen-s
Self-Organizing Feature Maps (SOFM) is competitive learning.
SOFM can generate mappings from high-dimensional signal spaces
to lower dimensional topological structures. The main features of this
kind of mappings are topology preserving, feature mappings and
probability distribution approximation of input patterns. To overcome
some limitations of SOFM, e.g., a fixed number of neural units and a
topology of fixed dimensionality, Growing Self-Organizing Neural
Network (GSONN) can be used. GSONN can change its topological
structure during learning. It grows by learning and shrinks by
forgetting. To speed up the training and convergence, a new variant
of GSONN, twin growing cell structures (TGCS) is presented here.
This paper first gives an introduction to competitive learning, SOFM
and its variants. Then, we discuss some GSONN with fixed
dimensionality, which include growing cell structures, its variants
and the author-s model: TGCS. It is ended with some testing results
comparison and conclusions.
Graphical Programming of Programmable Logic Controllers -Case Study for a Punching Machine-
The Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) plays a
vital role in automation and process control. Grafcet is used for
representing the control logic, and traditional programming
languages are used for describing the pure algorithms. Grafcet is used
for dividing the process to be automated in elementary sequences that
can be easily implemented. Each sequence represent a step that has
associated actions programmed using textual or graphical languages
after case. The programming task is simplified by using a set of
subroutines that are used in several steps. The paper presents an
example of implementation for a punching machine for sheets and
plates. The use the graphical languages the programming of a
complex sequential process is a necessary solution. The state of
Grafcet can be used for debugging and malfunction determination.
The use of the method combined with a set of knowledge acquisition
for process application reduces the downtime of the machine and
improve the productivity.
Double Reduction of Ada-ECATNet Representation using Rewriting Logic
One major difficulty that faces developers of
concurrent and distributed software is analysis for concurrency based
faults like deadlocks. Petri nets are used extensively in the
verification of correctness of concurrent programs. ECATNets  are
a category of algebraic Petri nets based on a sound combination of
algebraic abstract types and high-level Petri nets. ECATNets have
'sound' and 'complete' semantics because of their integration in
rewriting logic  and its programming language Maude .
Rewriting logic is considered as one of very powerful logics in terms
of description, verification and programming of concurrent systems.
We proposed in  a method for translating Ada-95 tasking
programs to ECATNets formalism (Ada-ECATNet). In this paper,
we show that ECATNets formalism provides a more compact
translation for Ada programs compared to the other approaches based
on simple Petri nets or Colored Petri nets (CPNs). Such translation
doesn-t reduce only the size of program, but reduces also the number
of program states. We show also, how this compact Ada-ECATNet
may be reduced again by applying reduction rules on it. This double
reduction of Ada-ECATNet permits a considerable minimization of
the memory space and run time of corresponding Maude program.
Application of Artificial Neural Network for Predicting Maintainability Using Object-Oriented Metrics
Importance of software quality is increasing leading to development of new sophisticated techniques, which can be used in constructing models for predicting quality attributes. One such technique is Artificial Neural Network (ANN). This paper examined the application of ANN for software quality prediction using Object- Oriented (OO) metrics. Quality estimation includes estimating maintainability of software. The dependent variable in our study was maintenance effort. The independent variables were principal components of eight OO metrics. The results showed that the Mean Absolute Relative Error (MARE) was 0.265 of ANN model. Thus we found that ANN method was useful in constructing software quality model.
Neuro-Fuzzy Network Based On Extended Kalman Filtering for Financial Time Series
The neural network's performance can be measured by efficiency and accuracy. The major disadvantages of neural network approach are that the generalization capability of neural networks is often significantly low, and it may take a very long time to tune the weights in the net to generate an accurate model for a highly complex and nonlinear systems. This paper presents a novel Neuro-fuzzy architecture based on Extended Kalman filter. To test the performance and applicability of the proposed neuro-fuzzy model, simulation study of nonlinear complex dynamic system is carried out. The proposed method can be applied to an on-line incremental adaptive learning for the prediction of financial time series. A benchmark case studie is used to demonstrate that the proposed model is a superior neuro-fuzzy modeling technique.
Day Type Identification for Algerian Electricity Load using Kohonen Maps
Short term electricity demand forecasts are required
by power utilities for efficient operation of the power grid. In a
competitive market environment, suppliers and large consumers also
require short term forecasts in order to estimate their energy
requirements in advance. Electricity demand is influenced (among
other things) by the day of the week, the time of year and special
periods and/or days such as Ramadhan, all of which must be
identified prior to modelling. This identification, known as day-type
identification, must be included in the modelling stage either by
segmenting the data and modelling each day-type separately or by
including the day-type as an input. Day-type identification is the
main focus of this paper. A Kohonen map is employed to identify the
separate day-types in Algerian data.
Manifold Analysis by Topologically Constrained Isometric Embedding
We present a new algorithm for nonlinear dimensionality reduction that consistently uses global information, and that enables understanding the intrinsic geometry of non-convex manifolds. Compared to methods that consider only local information, our method appears to be more robust to noise. Unlike most methods that incorporate global information, the proposed approach automatically handles non-convexity of the data manifold. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithm and compare it to state-of-the-art methods on synthetic as well as real data.
Designing FIR Filters with Polynomial Approach
This paper discusses a method for designing
the Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters based on polynomial
Stabilization and Observation of Attitude Control Systems for Micro Satellites
In this paper, we are interested in attitude control of a satellite, which using wheels of reaction, by state feedback. First, we develop a method allowing us to put the control and its integral in the state-feedback form. Then, by using the theorem of Gronwall- Bellman, we put the sufficient conditions so that the nonlinear system modeling the satellite is stabilisable and observed by state feedback.
Fuzzy Logic Approach to Robust Regression Models of Uncertain Medical Categories
Dichotomization of the outcome by a single cut-off point is an important part of various medical studies. Usually the relationship between the resulted dichotomized dependent variable and explanatory variables is analyzed with linear regression, probit regression or logistic regression. However, in many real-life situations, a certain cut-off point dividing the outcome into two groups is unknown and can be specified only approximately, i.e. surrounded by some (small) uncertainty. It means that in order to have any practical meaning the regression model must be robust to this uncertainty. In this paper, we show that neither the beta in the linear regression model, nor its significance level is robust to the small variations in the dichotomization cut-off point. As an alternative robust approach to the problem of uncertain medical categories, we propose to use the linear regression model with the fuzzy membership function as a dependent variable. This fuzzy membership function denotes to what degree the value of the underlying (continuous) outcome falls below or above the dichotomization cut-off point. In the paper, we demonstrate that the linear regression model of the fuzzy dependent variable can be insensitive against the uncertainty in the cut-off point location. In the paper we present the modeling results from the real study of low hemoglobin levels in infants. We systematically test the robustness of the binomial regression model and the linear regression model with the fuzzy dependent variable by changing the boundary for the category Anemia and show that the behavior of the latter model persists over a quite wide interval.
Authentication in Multi-Hop Wireless Mesh Networks
Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are an emerging
technology for last-mile broadband access. In WMNs, similar to ad
hoc networks, each user node operates not only as a host but also as a
router. User packets are forwarded to and from an Internet-connected
gateway in multi-hop fashion. The WMNs can be integrated with
other networking technologies i.e. ad hoc networks, to implement a
smooth network extension. The meshed topology provides good
reliability and scalability, as well as low upfront investments. Despite
the recent start-up surge in WMNs, much research remains to be
done in standardizing the functional parameters of WMNs to fully
exploit their full potential. An edifice of the security concerns of
these networks is authentication of a new client joining an integrated
ad hoc network and such a scenario will require execution of a multihop
authentication technique. Our endeavor in this paper is to
introduce a secure authentication technique, with light over-heads
that can be conveniently implemented for the ad-hoc nodes forming
clients of an integrated WMN, thus facilitating their inter-operability.
Scalable Deployment and Configuration of High-Performance Virtual Clusters
Virtualization and high performance computing have been discussed from a performance perspective in recent publications. We present and discuss a flexible and efficient approach to the management of virtual clusters. A virtual machine management tool is extended to function as a fabric for cluster deployment and management. We show how features such as saving the state of a running cluster can be used to avoid disruption. We also compare our approach to the traditional methods of cluster deployment and present benchmarks which illustrate the efficiency of our approach.
An Angioplasty Intervention Simulator with a Specific Virtual Environment
One of the essential requirements of a realistic
surgical simulator is to reproduce haptic sensations due to the
interactions in the virtual environment. However, the interaction need
to be performed in real-time, since a delay between the user action
and the system reaction reduces the immersion sensation. In this
paper, a prototype of a coronary stent implant simulator is present;
this system allows real-time interactions with an artery by means of a
specific haptic device. To improve the realism of the simulation, the
building of the virtual environment is based on real patients- images
and a Web Portal is used to search in the geographically remote
medical centres a virtual environment with specific features in terms
of pathology or anatomy. The functional architecture of the system
defines several Medical Centres in which virtual environments built
from the real patients- images and related metadata with specific
features in terms of pathology or anatomy are stored. The searched
data are downloaded from the Medical Centre to the Training Centre
provided with a specific haptic device and with the software
necessary both to manage the interaction in the virtual environment.
After the integration of the virtual environment in the simulation
system it is possible to perform training on the specific surgical
New Design Constraints of FIR Filter on Magnitude and Phase of Error Function
Exchange algorithm with constraints on magnitude and phase error separately in new way is presented in this paper. An important feature of the algorithms presented in this paper is that they allow for design constraints which often arise in practical filter design problems. Meeting required minimum stopband attenuation or a maximum deviation from the desired magnitude and phase responses in the passbands are common design constraints that can be handled by the methods proposed here. This new algorithm may have important advantages over existing technique, with respect to the speed and stability of convergence, memory requirement and low ripples.
Design of Domain-Specific Software Systems with Parametric Code Templates
Domain-specific languages describe specific solutions to problems in the application domain. Traditionally they form a solution composing black-box abstractions together. This, usually, involves non-deep transformations over the target model. In this paper we argue that it is potentially powerful to operate with grey-box abstractions to build a domain-specific software system. We present parametric code templates as grey-box abstractions and conceptual tools to encapsulate and manipulate these templates. Manipulations introduce template-s merging routines and can be defined in a generic way. This involves reasoning mechanisms at the code templates level. We introduce the concept of Neurath Modelling Language (NML) that operates with parametric code templates and specifies a visualisation mapping mechanism for target models. Finally we provide an example of calculating a domain-specific software system with predefined NML elements.
Interoperability in Component Based Software Development
The ability of information systems to operate in conjunction with each other encompassing communication protocols, hardware, software, application, and data compatibility layers. There has been considerable work in industry on the development of component interoperability models, such as CORBA, (D)COM and JavaBeans. These models are intended to reduce the complexity of software development and to facilitate reuse of off-the-shelf components. The focus of these models is syntactic interface specification, component packaging, inter-component communications, and bindings to a runtime environment. What these models lack is a consideration of architectural concerns – specifying systems of communicating components, explicitly representing loci of component interaction, and exploiting architectural styles that provide well-understood global design solutions. The development of complex business applications is now focused on an assembly of components available on a local area network or on the net. These components must be localized and identified in terms of available services and communication protocol before any request. The first part of the article introduces the base concepts of components and middleware while the following sections describe the different up-todate models of communication and interaction and the last section shows how different models can communicate among themselves.
User Interface Oriented Application Development (UIOAD)
A fast and efficient model of application development called user interface oriented application development (UIOAD) is proposed. This approach introduces a convenient way for users to develop a platform independent client-server application.
Unit Testing with Déjà-Vu Objects
In this paper we introduce a new unit test technique
called déjà-vu object. Déjà-vu objects replace real objects used by
classes under test, allowing the execution of isolated unit tests. A
déjà-vu object is able to observe and record the behaviour of a real
object during real sessions, and to replace it during unit tests,
returning previously recorded results. Consequently déjà-vu object
technique can be useful when a bottom-up development and testing
strategy is adopted. In this case déjà-vu objects can increase test
portability and test source code readability. At the same time they
can reduce the time spent by programmers to develop test code and
the risk of incompatibility during the switching between déjà-vu and
Algorithm for Reconstructing 3D-Binary Matrix with Periodicity Constraints from Two Projections
We study the problem of reconstructing a three dimensional binary matrices whose interiors are only accessible through few projections. Such question is prominently motivated by the demand in material science for developing tool for reconstruction of crystalline structures from their images obtained by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Various approaches have been suggested to reconstruct 3D-object (crystalline structure) by reconstructing slice of the 3D-object. To handle the ill-posedness of the problem, a priori information such as convexity, connectivity and periodicity are used to limit the number of possible solutions. Formally, 3Dobject (crystalline structure) having a priory information is modeled by a class of 3D-binary matrices satisfying a priori information. We consider 3D-binary matrices with periodicity constraints, and we propose a polynomial time algorithm to reconstruct 3D-binary matrices with periodicity constraints from two orthogonal projections.
A Novel In-Place Sorting Algorithm with O(n log z) Comparisons and O(n log z) Moves
In-place sorting algorithms play an important role in many fields such as very large database systems, data warehouses, data mining, etc. Such algorithms maximize the size of data that can be processed in main memory without input/output operations. In this paper, a novel in-place sorting algorithm is presented. The algorithm comprises two phases; rearranging the input unsorted array in place, resulting segments that are ordered relative to each other but whose elements are yet to be sorted. The first phase requires linear time, while, in the second phase, elements of each segment are sorted inplace in the order of z log (z), where z is the size of the segment, and O(1) auxiliary storage. The algorithm performs, in the worst case, for an array of size n, an O(n log z) element comparisons and O(n log z) element moves. Further, no auxiliary arithmetic operations with indices are required. Besides these theoretical achievements of this algorithm, it is of practical interest, because of its simplicity. Experimental results also show that it outperforms other in-place sorting algorithms. Finally, the analysis of time and space complexity, and required number of moves are presented, along with the auxiliary storage requirements of the proposed algorithm.
Improvement of the Quality of Internet Service Based On an Internet Exchange Point (IXP)
Internet is without any doubt the fastest and effective mean of communication making it possible to reach a great number of people in the world. It draws its base from exchange points. Indeed exchange points are used to inter-connect various Internet suppliers and operators in order to allow them to exchange traffic and it is with these interconnections that Internet made its great strides. They thus make it possible to limit the traffic delivered via the operators of transits. This limitation allows a significant improvement of the quality of service, a reduction in the latency time just as a reduction of the cost of connection for the final subscriber. Through this article we will show how the installation of an IXP allows an improvement and a diversification of the services just as a reduction of the Internet connection costs.
Extended Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for the Non Co-Operating Nodes in Mobile Adhoc Networks
In this paper, a new approach based on the extent of
friendship between the nodes is proposed which makes the nodes to
co-operate in an ad hoc environment. The extended DSR protocol is
tested under different scenarios by varying the number of malicious
nodes and node moving speed. It is also tested varying the number of
nodes in simulation used. The result indicates the achieved
throughput by extended DSR is greater than the standard DSR and
indicates the percentage of malicious drops over total drops are less
in the case of extended DSR than the standard DSR.
Verifying X.509 Certificates on Smart Cards
This paper presents a smart-card applet that is able to
verify X.509 certificates and to use the public key contained in the
certificate for verifying digital signatures that have been created
using the corresponding private key, e.g. for the purpose of authenticating
the certificate owner against the card. The approach has been
implemented as an operating prototype on Java cards.
An UML Statechart Diagram-Based MM-Path Generation Approach for Object-Oriented Integration Testing
MM-Path, an acronym for Method/Message Path, describes the dynamic interactions between methods in object-oriented systems. This paper discusses the classifications of MM-Path, based on the characteristics of object-oriented software. We categorize it according to the generation reasons, the effect scope and the composition of MM-Path. A formalized representation of MM-Path is also proposed, which has considered the influence of state on response method sequences of messages. .Moreover, an automatic MM-Path generation approach based on UML Statechart diagram has been presented, and the difficulties in identifying and generating MM-Path can be solved. . As a result, it provides a solid foundation for further research on test cases generation based on MM-Path.
Density Clustering Based On Radius of Data (DCBRD)
Clustering algorithms are attractive for the task of class identification in spatial databases. However, the application to large spatial databases rises the following requirements for clustering algorithms: minimal requirements of domain knowledge to determine the input parameters, discovery of clusters with arbitrary shape and good efficiency on large databases. The well-known clustering algorithms offer no solution to the combination of these requirements. In this paper, a density based clustering algorithm (DCBRD) is presented, relying on a knowledge acquired from the data by dividing the data space into overlapped regions. The proposed algorithm discovers arbitrary shaped clusters, requires no input parameters and uses the same definitions of DBSCAN algorithm. We performed an experimental evaluation of the effectiveness and efficiency of it, and compared this results with that of DBSCAN. The results of our experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is significantly efficient in discovering clusters of arbitrary shape and size.
A Semantic Recommendation Procedure for Electronic Product Catalog
To overcome the product overload of Internet
shoppers, we introduce a semantic recommendation procedure which
is more efficient when applied to Internet shopping malls. The
suggested procedure recommends the semantic products to the
customers and is originally based on Web usage mining, product
classification, association rule mining, and frequently purchasing.
We applied the procedure to the data set of MovieLens Company for
performance evaluation, and some experimental results are provided.
The experimental results have shown superior performance in
terms of coverage and precision.
Acquiring Contour Following Behaviour in Robotics through Q-Learning and Image-based States
In this work a visual and reactive contour following
behaviour is learned by reinforcement. With artificial vision the
environment is perceived in 3D, and it is possible to avoid obstacles
that are invisible to other sensors that are more common in mobile
robotics. Reinforcement learning reduces the need for intervention in
behaviour design, and simplifies its adjustment to the environment,
the robot and the task. In order to facilitate its generalisation to other
behaviours and to reduce the role of the designer, we propose a
regular image-based codification of states. Even though this is much
more difficult, our implementation converges and is robust. Results
are presented with a Pioneer 2 AT on a Gazebo 3D simulator.
Detection and Classification of Faults on Parallel Transmission Lines Using Wavelet Transform and Neural Network
The protection of parallel transmission lines has been a challenging task due to mutual coupling between the adjacent circuits of the line. This paper presents a novel scheme for detection and classification of faults on parallel transmission lines. The proposed approach uses combination of wavelet transform and neural network, to solve the problem. While wavelet transform is a powerful mathematical tool which can be employed as a fast and very effective means of analyzing power system transient signals, artificial neural network has a ability to classify non-linear relationship between measured signals by identifying different patterns of the associated signals. The proposed algorithm consists of time-frequency analysis of fault generated transients using wavelet transform, followed by pattern recognition using artificial neural network to identify the type of the fault. MATLAB/Simulink is used to generate fault signals and verify the correctness of the algorithm. The adaptive discrimination scheme is tested by simulating different types of fault and varying fault resistance, fault location and fault inception time, on a given power system model. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme for fault diagnosis is able to classify all the faults on the parallel transmission line rapidly and correctly.
Chattering Phenomenon Supression of Buck Boost DC-DC Converter with Fuzzy Sliding Modes Control
This paper proposes a Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control (FSMC) as a control strategy for Buck-Boost DC-DC converter. The proposed fuzzy controller specifies changes in the control signal based on the knowledge of the surface and the surface change to satisfy the sliding mode stability and attraction conditions. The performances of the proposed fuzzy sliding controller are compared to those obtained by a classical sliding mode controller. The satisfactory simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed control law which reduces the chattering phenomenon. Moreover, the obtained results prove the robustness of the proposed control law against variation of the load resistance and the input voltage of the studied converter.
A High Performance Technique in Harmonic Omitting Based on Predictive Current Control of a Shunt Active Power Filter
The perfect operation of common Active Filters is depended on accuracy of identification system distortion. Also, using a suitable method in current injection and reactive power compensation, leads to increased filter performance. Due to this fact, this paper presents a method based on predictive current control theory in shunt active filter applications. The harmonics of the load current is identified by using o–d–q reference frame on load current and eliminating the DC part of d–q components. Then, the rest of these components deliver to predictive current controller as a Threephase reference current by using Park inverse transformation. System is modeled in discreet time domain. The proposed method has been tested using MATLAB model for a nonlinear load (with Total Harmonic Distortion=20%). The simulation results indicate that the proposed filter leads to flowing a sinusoidal current (THD=0.15%) through the source. In addition, the results show that the filter tracks the reference current accurately.
Adaptive Notch Filter for Harmonic Current Mitigation
This paper presents an effective technique for harmonic current mitigation using an adaptive notch filter (ANF) to estimate current harmonics. The proposed filter consists of multiple units of ANF connected in parallel structure; each unit is governed by two ordinary differential equations. The frequency estimation is carried out based on the output of these units. The simulation and experimental results show the ability of the proposed tracking scheme to accurately estimate harmonics. The proposed filter was implemented digitally in TMS320F2808 and used in the control of hybrid active power filter (HAPF). The theoretical expectations are verified and demonstrated experimentally.
Fault Classification of Double Circuit Transmission Line Using Artificial Neural Network
This paper addresses the problems encountered by conventional distance relays when protecting double-circuit transmission lines. The problems arise principally as a result of the mutual coupling between the two circuits under different fault conditions; this mutual coupling is highly nonlinear in nature. An adaptive protection scheme is proposed for such lines based on application of artificial neural network (ANN). ANN has the ability to classify the nonlinear relationship between measured signals by identifying different patterns of the associated signals. One of the key points of the present work is that only current signals measured at local end have been used to detect and classify the faults in the double circuit transmission line with double end infeed. The adaptive protection scheme is tested under a specific fault type, but varying fault location, fault resistance, fault inception angle and with remote end infeed. An improved performance is experienced once the neural network is trained adequately, which performs precisely when faced with different system parameters and conditions. The entire test results clearly show that the fault is detected and classified within a quarter cycle; thus the proposed adaptive protection technique is well suited for double circuit transmission line fault detection & classification. Results of performance studies show that the proposed neural network-based module can improve the performance of conventional fault selection algorithms.
Control of Commutation of SR Motor Using Its Magnetic Characteristics and Back-of-Core Saturation Effects
The control of commutation of switched reluctance
(SR) motor has nominally depended on a physical position detector.
The physical rotor position sensor limits robustness and increases
size and inertia of the SR drive system. The paper describes a method
to overcome these limitations by using magnetization characteristics
of the motor to indicate rotor and stator teeth overlap status. The
method is using active current probing pulses of same magnitude that
is used to simulate flux linkage in the winding being probed. A
microprocessor is used for processing magnetization data to deduce
rotor-stator teeth overlap status and hence rotor position. However,
the back-of-core saturation and mutual coupling introduces overlap
detection errors, hence that of commutation control. This paper
presents the concept of the detection scheme and the effects of backof
Classification of Acoustic Emission Based Partial Discharge in Oil Pressboard Insulation System Using Wavelet Analysis
Insulation used in transformer is mostly oil pressboard insulation. Insulation failure is one of the major causes of catastrophic failure of transformers. It is established that partial discharges (PD) cause insulation degradation and premature failure of insulation. Online monitoring of PDs can reduce the risk of catastrophic failure of transformers. There are different techniques of partial discharge measurement like, electrical, optical, acoustic, opto-acoustic and ultra high frequency (UHF). Being non invasive and non interference prone, acoustic emission technique is advantageous for online PD measurement. Acoustic detection of p.d. is based on the retrieval and analysis of mechanical or pressure signals produced by partial discharges. Partial discharges are classified according to the origin of discharges. Their effects on insulation deterioration are different for different types. This paper reports experimental results and analysis for classification of partial discharges using acoustic emission signal of laboratory simulated partial discharges in oil pressboard insulation system using three different electrode systems. Acoustic emission signal produced by PD are detected by sensors mounted on the experimental tank surface, stored on an oscilloscope and fed to computer for further analysis. The measured AE signals are analyzed using discrete wavelet transform analysis and wavelet packet analysis. Energy distribution in different frequency bands of discrete wavelet decomposed signal and wavelet packet decomposed signal is calculated. These analyses show a distinct feature useful for PD classification. Wavelet packet analysis can sort out any misclassification arising out of DWT in most cases.
Induction Motor Design with Limited Harmonic Currents Using Particle Swarm Optimization
This paper presents an optimal design of poly-phase induction motor using Quadratic Interpolation based Particle Swarm Optimization (QI-PSO). The optimization algorithm considers the efficiency, starting torque and temperature rise as objective function (which are considered separately) and ten performance related items including harmonic current as constraints. The QI-PSO algorithm was implemented on a test motor and the results are compared with the Simulated Annealing (SA) technique, Standard Particle Swarm Optimization (SPSO), and normal design. Some benchmark problems are used for validating QI-PSO. From the test results QI-PSO gave better results and more suitable to motor-s design optimization. Cµ code is used for implementing entire algorithms.
ANN Models for Microstrip Line Synthesis and Analysis
Microstrip lines, widely used for good reason, are
broadband in frequency and provide circuits that are compact and
light in weight. They are generally economical to produce since they
are readily adaptable to hybrid and monolithic integrated circuit (IC)
fabrication technologies at RF and microwave frequencies. Although,
the existing EM simulation models used for the synthesis and
analysis of microstrip lines are reasonably accurate, they are
computationally intensive and time consuming. Neural networks
recently gained attention as fast and flexible vehicles to microwave
modeling, simulation and optimization. After learning and
abstracting from microwave data, through a process called training,
neural network models are used during microwave design to provide
instant answers to the task learned.This paper presents simple and
accurate ANN models for the synthesis and analysis of Microstrip
lines to more accurately compute the characteristic parameters and
the physical dimensions respectively for the required design
A Hybrid Fuzzy AGC in a Competitive Electricity Environment
This paper presents a new Hybrid Fuzzy (HF) PID type controller based on Genetic Algorithms (GA-s) for solution of the Automatic generation Control (AGC) problem in a deregulated electricity environment. In order for a fuzzy rule based control system to perform well, the fuzzy sets must be carefully designed. A major problem plaguing the effective use of this method is the difficulty of accurately constructing the membership functions, because it is a computationally expensive combinatorial optimization problem. On the other hand, GAs is a technique that emulates biological evolutionary theories to solve complex optimization problems by using directed random searches to derive a set of optimal solutions. For this reason, the membership functions are tuned automatically using a modified GA-s based on the hill climbing method. The motivation for using the modified GA-s is to reduce fuzzy system effort and take large parametric uncertainties into account. The global optimum value is guaranteed using the proposed method and the speed of the algorithm-s convergence is extremely improved, too. This newly developed control strategy combines the advantage of GA-s and fuzzy system control techniques and leads to a flexible controller with simple stricture that is easy to implement. The proposed GA based HF (GAHF) controller is tested on a threearea deregulated power system under different operating conditions and contract variations. The results of the proposed GAHF controller are compared with those of Multi Stage Fuzzy (MSF) controller, robust mixed H2/H∞ and classical PID controllers through some performance indices to illustrate its robust performance for a wide range of system parameters and load changes.
Determination of Regimes of the Equivalent Generator Based On Projective Geometry: The Generalized Equivalent Generator
Requirements that should be met when determining the regimes of circuits with variable elements are formulated. The interpretation of the variations in the regimes, based on projective geometry, enables adequate expressions for determining and comparing the regimes to be derived. It is proposed to use as the parameters of a generalized equivalent generator of an active two-pole with changeable resistor such load current and voltage which provide the current through this resistor equal to zero.
Simulation of a Boost PFC Converter with Electro Magnetic Interference Filter
This paper deals with the simulation of a Boost Power Factor Correction (PFC) Converter with Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI) Filter. The diode rectifier with output capacitor gives poor power factor. The Boost Converter of PFC Circuit is analyzed and then simulated with diode rectifier. The Boost PFC Converter with EMI Filter is simulated for resistive load. The power factor is improved using the proposed converter.
Artificial Intelligence Techniques Applications for Power Disturbances Classification
Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods are increasingly being used for problem solving. This paper concerns using AI-type learning machines for power quality problem, which is a problem of general interest to power system to provide quality power to all appliances. Electrical power of good quality is essential for proper operation of electronic equipments such as computers and PLCs. Malfunction of such equipment may lead to loss of production or disruption of critical services resulting in huge financial and other losses. It is therefore necessary that critical loads be supplied with electricity of acceptable quality. Recognition of the presence of any disturbance and classifying any existing disturbance into a particular type is the first step in combating the problem. In this work two classes of AI methods for Power quality data mining are studied: Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs). We show that SVMs are superior to ANNs in two critical respects: SVMs train and run an order of magnitude faster; and SVMs give higher classification accuracy.
An Optimal Load Shedding Approach for Distribution Networks with DGs considering Capacity Deficiency Modelling of Bulked Power Supply
This paper discusses a genetic algorithm (GA) based optimal load shedding that can apply for electrical distribution networks with and without dispersed generators (DG). Also, the proposed method has the ability for considering constant and variable capacity deficiency caused by unscheduled outages in the bulked generation and transmission system of bulked power supply. The genetic algorithm (GA) is employed to search for the optimal load shedding strategy in distribution networks considering DGs in two cases of constant and variable modelling of bulked power supply of distribution networks. Electrical power distribution systems have a radial network and unidirectional power flows. With the advent of dispersed generations, the electrical distribution system has a locally looped network and bidirectional power flows. Therefore, installed DG in the electrical distribution systems can cause operational problems and impact on existing operational schemes. Introduction of DGs in electrical distribution systems has introduced many new issues in operational and planning level. Load shedding as one of operational issue has no exempt. The objective is to minimize the sum of curtailed load and also system losses within the frame-work of system operational and security constraints. The proposed method is tested on a radial distribution system with 33 load points for more practical applications.
A New Hybrid Optimization Method for Optimum Distribution Capacitor Planning
This work presents a new algorithm based on a combination of fuzzy (FUZ), Dynamic Programming (DP), and Genetic Algorithm (GA) approach for capacitor allocation in distribution feeders. The problem formulation considers two distinct objectives related to total cost of power loss and total cost of capacitors including the purchase and installation costs. The novel formulation is a multi-objective and non-differentiable optimization problem. The proposed method of this article uses fuzzy reasoning for sitting of capacitors in radial distribution feeders, DP for sizing and finally GA for finding the optimum shape of membership functions which are used in fuzzy reasoning stage. The proposed method has been implemented in a software package and its effectiveness has been verified through a 9-bus radial distribution feeder for the sake of conclusions supports. A comparison has been done among the proposed method of this paper and similar methods in other research works that shows the effectiveness of the proposed method of this paper for solving optimum capacitor planning problem.
A Pipelined FSBM Hardware Architecture for HTDV-H.26x
In MPEG and H.26x standards, to eliminate the
temporal redundancy we use motion estimation. Given that the
motion estimation stage is very complex in terms of computational
effort, a hardware implementation on a re-configurable circuit is
crucial for the requirements of different real time multimedia
applications. In this paper, we present hardware architecture for
motion estimation based on "Full Search Block Matching" (FSBM)
algorithm. This architecture presents minimum latency, maximum
throughput, full utilization of hardware resources such as embedded
memory blocks, and combining both pipelining and parallel
processing techniques. Our design is described in VHDL language,
verified by simulation and implemented in a Stratix II
EP2S130F1020C4 FPGA circuit. The experiment result show that the
optimum operating clock frequency of the proposed design is 89MHz
which achieves 160M pixels/sec.
Effect of Non Uniformity Factors and Assignment Factors on Errors in Charge Simulation Method with Point Charge Model
Charge Simulation Method (CSM) is one of the very widely used numerical field computation technique in High Voltage (HV) engineering. The high voltage fields of varying non uniformities are encountered in practice. CSM programs being case specific, the simulation accuracies heavily depend on the user (programmers) experience. Here is an effort to understand CSM errors and evolve some guidelines to setup accurate CSM models, relating non uniformities with assignment factors. The results are for the six-point-charge model of sphere-plane gap geometry. Using genetic algorithm (GA) as tool, optimum assignment factors at different non uniformity factors for this model have been evaluated and analyzed. It is shown that the symmetrically placed six-point-charge models can be good enough to set up CSM programs with potential errors less than 0.1% when the field non uniformity factor is greater than 2.64 (field utilization factor less than 52.76%).
Optimal Location of Multi Type Facts Devices for Multiple Contingencies Using Particle Swarm Optimization
In deregulated operating regime power system security is an issue that needs due thoughtfulness from researchers in the horizon of unbundling of generation and transmission. Electric power systems are exposed to various contingencies. Network contingencies often contribute to overloading of branches, violation of voltages and also leading to problems of security/stability. To maintain the security of the systems, it is desirable to estimate the effect of contingencies and pertinent control measurement can be taken on to improve the system security. This paper presents the application of particle swarm optimization algorithm to find the optimal location of multi type FACTS devices in a power system in order to eliminate or alleviate the line over loads. The optimizations are performed on the parameters, namely the location of the devices, their types, their settings and installation cost of FACTS devices for single and multiple contingencies. TCSC, SVC and UPFC are considered and modeled for steady state analysis. The selection of UPFC and TCSC suitable location uses the criteria on the basis of improved system security. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested for IEEE 6 bus and IEEE 30 bus test systems.
Investigating the Impact of Wind Speed on Active and Reactive Power Penetration to the Distribution Network
Wind power is among the most actively developing distributed generation (DG) technology. Majority of the wind power based DG technologies employ wind turbine induction generators (WTIG) instead of synchronous generators, for the technical advantages like: reduced size, increased robustness, lower cost, and increased electromechanical damping. However, dynamic changes of wind speed make the amount of active/reactive power injected/drawn to a WTIG embedded distribution network highly variable. This paper analyzes the effect of wind speed changes on the active and reactive power penetration to the wind energy embedded distribution network. Four types of wind speed changes namely; constant, linear change, gust change and random change of wind speed are considered in the analysis. The study is carried out by three-phase, non-linear, dynamic simulation of distribution system component models. Results obtained from the investigation are presented and discussed.
Robust Power System Stabilizer Design Using Particle Swarm Optimization Technique
Power system stabilizers (PSS) are now routinely used in the industry to damp out power system oscillations. In this paper, particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique is applied to design a robust power system stabilizer (PSS). The design problem of the proposed controller is formulated as an optimization problem and PSO is employed to search for optimal controller parameters. By minimizing the time-domain based objective function, in which the deviation in the oscillatory rotor speed of the generator is involved; stability performance of the system is improved. The non-linear simulation results are presented under wide range of operating conditions; disturbances at different locations as well as for various fault clearing sequences to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller and their ability to provide efficient damping of low frequency oscillations. Further, all the simulations results are compared with a conventionally designed power system stabilizer to show the superiority of the proposed design approach.
Hardware Stream Cipher Based On LFSR and Modular Division Circuit
Proposal for a secure stream cipher based on Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSR) is presented here. In this method, shift register structure used for polynomial modular division is combined with LFSR keystream generator to yield a new keystream generator with much higher periodicity. Security is brought into this structure by using the Boolean function to combine state bits of the LFSR keystream generator and taking the output through the Boolean function. This introduces non-linearity and security into the structure in a way similar to the Non-linear filter generator. The security and throughput of the suggested stream cipher is found to be much greater than the known LFSR based structures for the same key length.
A high Speed 8 Transistor Full Adder Design Using Novel 3 Transistor XOR Gates
The paper proposes the novel design of a 3T XOR gate combining complementary CMOS with pass transistor logic. The design has been compared with earlier proposed 4T and 6T XOR gates and a significant improvement in silicon area and power-delay product has been obtained. An eight transistor full adder has been designed using the proposed three-transistor XOR gate and its performance has been investigated using 0.15um and 0.35um technologies. Compared to the earlier designed 10 transistor full adder, the proposed adder shows a significant improvement in silicon area and power delay product. The whole simulation has been carried out using HSPICE.
Tuning of PV Array Layout Configurations for Maximum Power Delivery
In this paper, an approach for finding optimized
layouts for connecting PV units delivering maximum array output
power is suggested. The approach is based on considering the
different varying parameters of PV units that might be extracted from
a general two-diode model. These are mainly, solar irradiation,
reverse saturation currents, ideality factors, series and shunt
resistances in addition to operating temperature. The approach has
been tested on 19 possible 2×3 configurations and allowed to
determine the optimized configurations as well as examine the effects
of the different units- parameters on the maximum output power.
Thus, using this approach, standard arrays with n×m units can be
configured for maximum generated power and allows designing PV
based systems having reduced surfaces to fit specific required power,
as it is the case for solar cars and other mobile systems.
130 nm CMOS Mixer and VCO for 2.4 GHz Low-power Wireless Personal Area Networks
This paper describes a 2.4 GHz passive switch mixer
and a 5/2.5 GHz voltage-controlled negative Gm oscillator (VCO)
with an inversion-mode MOS varactor. Both circuits are implemented
using a 1P8M 0.13 μm process. The switch mixer has an input
referred 1 dB compression point of -3.89 dBm and a conversion
gain of -0.96 dB when the local oscillator power is +2.5 dBm.
The VCO consumes only 1.75 mW, while drawing 1.45 mA from a
1.2 V supply voltage. In order to reduce the passives size, the VCO
natural oscillation frequency is 5 GHz. A clocked CMOS divideby-
two circuit is used for frequency division and quadrature phase
generation. The VCO has a -109 dBc/Hz phase noise at 1 MHz
frequency offset and a 2.35-2.5 GHz tuning range (after the frequency
division), thus complying with ZigBee requirements.
Fuel Economy and Stability Enhancement of the Hybrid Vehicles by Using Electrical Machines on Non-Driven Wheels
Using electrical machine in conventional vehicles, also called hybrid vehicles, has become a promising control scheme that enables some manners for fuel economy and driver assist for better stability. In this paper, vehicle stability control, fuel economy and Driving/Regeneration braking for a 4WD hybrid vehicle is investigated by using an electrical machine on each non-driven wheels. In front wheels driven vehicles, fuel economy and regenerative braking can be obtained by summing torques applied on rear wheels. On the other hand, unequal torques applied to rear wheels provides enhanced safety and path correction in steering. In this paper, a model with fourteen degrees of freedom is considered for vehicle body, tires and, suspension systems. Thereafter, powertrain subsystems are modeled. Considering an electrical machine on each rear wheel, a fuzzy controller is designed for each driving, braking, and stability conditions. Another fuzzy controller recognizes the vehicle requirements between the driving/regeneration and stability modes. Intelligent vehicle control to multi objective operation and forward simulation are the paper advantages. For reaching to these aims, power management control and yaw moment control will be done by three fuzzy controllers. Also, the above mentioned goals are weighted by another fuzzy sub-controller base on vehicle dynamic. Finally, Simulations performed in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment show that the proposed structure can enhance the vehicle performance in different modes effectively.
Solving an Extended Resource Leveling Problem with Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms
We introduce an extended resource leveling model that abstracts real life projects that consider specific work ranges for each resource. Contrary to traditional resource leveling problems this model considers scarce resources and multiple objectives: the minimization of the project makespan and the leveling of each resource usage over time. We formulate this model as a multiobjective optimization problem and we propose a multiobjective genetic algorithm-based solver to optimize it. This solver consists in a two-stage process: a main stage where we obtain non-dominated solutions for all the objectives, and a postprocessing stage where we seek to specifically improve the resource leveling of these solutions. We propose an intelligent encoding for the solver that allows including domain specific knowledge in the solving mechanism. The chosen encoding proves to be effective to solve leveling problems with scarce resources and multiple objectives. The outcome of the proposed solvers represent optimized trade-offs (alternatives) that can be later evaluated by a decision maker, this multi-solution approach represents an advantage over the traditional single solution approach. We compare the proposed solver with state-of-art resource leveling methods and we report competitive and performing results.
Individual Learning and Collaborative Knowledge Building with Shared Digital Artifacts
The development of Internet technology in recent years has led to a more active role of users in creating Web content. This has significant effects both on individual learning and collaborative knowledge building. This paper will present an integrative framework model to describe and explain learning and knowledge building with shared digital artifacts on the basis of Luhmann-s systems theory and Piaget-s model of equilibration. In this model, knowledge progress is based on cognitive conflicts resulting from incongruities between an individual-s prior knowledge and the information which is contained in a digital artifact. Empirical support for the model will be provided by 1) applying it descriptively to texts from Wikipedia, 2) examining knowledge-building processes using a social network analysis, and 3) presenting a survey of a series of experimental laboratory studies.
The Effect of Ageing Treatment of Aluminum Alloys for Fuselage Structure-Light Aircraft
As the material used for fuselage structure must
possess low density, high strength to weight ratio, the selection of
appropriate materials for fuselage structure is one of the most
important tasks. Aluminum metal itself is soft and low in strength. It
can be made stronger by giving proper combination of suitable alloy
addition, mechanical treatment and thermal treatment. The usual
thermal treatment given to aluminum alloys is called age-hardening
or precipitation hardening. In this paper, the studies are carried out on
7075 aluminum alloy which is how to improve strength level for
fuselage structure. The marked effect of the strength on the ternary
alloy is clearly demonstrated at several ageing times and
temperatures. It is concluded that aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloy
can get the highest strength level in natural ageing.
Positive Analysis on Vulnerability, Information Security Incidents, and the Countermeasures of Japanese Internet Service Providers
This paper includes a positive analysis to quantitatively grasp the relationship among vulnerability, information security incidents, and the countermeasures by using data based on a 2007 questionnaire survey for Japanese ISPs (Internet Service Providers). To grasp the relationships, logistic regression analysis is used. The results clarify that there are relationships between information security incidents and the countermeasures. Concretely, there is a positive relationship between information security incidents and the number of information security systems introduced as well as a negative relationship between information security incidents and information security education. It is also pointed out that (especially, local) ISPs do not execute efficient information security countermeasures/ investment concerned with systems, and it is suggested that they should positively execute information security education. In addition, to further heighten the information security level of Japanese telecommunication infrastructure, the necessity and importance of the government to implement policy to support the countermeasures of ISPs is insisted.
Linear Instability of Wake-Shear Layers in Two-Phase Shallow Flows
Linear stability analysis of wake-shear layers in twophase
shallow flows is performed in the present paper. Twodimensional
shallow water equations are used in the analysis. It is
assumed that the fluid contains uniformly distributed solid particles.
No dynamic interaction between the carrier fluid and particles is
expected in the initial moment. The stability calculations are
performed for different values of the particle loading parameter and
two other parameters which characterize the velocity ratio and the
velocity deficit. The results show that the particle loading parameter
has a stabilizing effect on the flow while the increase in the velocity
ratio or in the velocity deficit destabilizes the flow.
Capacity and Performance Analysis of Space-Time Block Coded MIMO-OFDM Systems over Rician Fading Channel
This paper presents an analysis on the capacity and performance of MIMO-OFDM systems. The work is focused on the capacity of MIMO-OFDM systems over rician fading channel, in the case of the channel being known at the receiver only, which is more practical case of the channel. Simple expression for capacity is derived for the case of correlated rician fading. The performance of some MIMO-OFDM implementations with rician fading model is presented using an Alamouti coding scheme and Simulation results are obtained for both capacity and performance analysis.
Investigation of Tool Temperature and Surface Quality in Hot Machining of Hard-to-Cut Materials
Production of hard-to-cut materials with uncoated carbide cutting tools in turning, not only cause tool life reduction but also, impairs the product surface roughness. In this paper, influence of hot machining method were studied and presented in two cases. Case1-Workpiece surface roughness quality with constant cutting parameter and 300 ºC initial workpiece surface temperature. Case 2- Tool temperature variation when cutting with two speeds 78.5 (m/min) and 51 (m/min). The workpiece material and tool used in this study were AISI 1060 steel (45HRC) and uncoated carbide TNNM 120408-SP10(SANDVIK Coromant) respectively. A gas flam heating source was used to preheating of the workpiece surface up to 300 ºC, causing reduction of yield stress about 15%. Results obtained experimentally, show that the method used can considerably improved surface quality of the workpiece.
Emission Constrained Economic Dispatch for Hydrothermal Coordination
This paper presents an efficient emission constrained
economic dispatch algorithm that deals with nonlinear cost function
and constraints. It is then incorporated into the dynamic
programming based hydrothermal coordination program. The
program has been tested on a practical utility system having 32
thermal and 12 hydro generating units. Test results show that a slight
increase in production cost causes a substantial reduction in
Network Based Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems in IP-Level Security Protocols
IPsec has now become a standard information security
technology throughout the Internet society. It provides a well-defined
architecture that takes into account confidentiality, authentication,
integrity, secure key exchange and protection mechanism against
replay attack also. For the connectionless security services on packet
basis, IETF IPsec Working Group has standardized two extension
headers (AH&ESP), key exchange and authentication protocols. It is
also working on lightweight key exchange protocol and MIB's for
security management. IPsec technology has been implemented on
various platforms in IPv4 and IPv6, gradually replacing old
application-specific security mechanisms. IPv4 and IPv6 are not
directly compatible, so programs and systems designed to one
standard can not communicate with those designed to the other. We
propose the design and implementation of controlled Internet security
system, which is IPsec-based Internet information security system in
IPv4/IPv6 network and also we show the data of performance
measurement. With the features like improved scalability and
routing, security, ease-of-configuration, and higher performance of
IPv6, the controlled Internet security system provides consistent
security policy and integrated security management on IPsec-based
Internet security system.
Development of Low-cost OCDMA Encoder Based On Arrayed Waveguide Gratings(AWGs) and Optical Switches
This paper describes the development of a 16-ports optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) encoder prototype based on Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) and optical switches. It is potentially to provide a high security for data transmission due to all data will be transmitted in binary code form. The output signals from AWG are coded with a binary code that given to an optical switch before it signal modulate with the carrier and transmitted to the receiver. The 16-ports encoder used 16 double pole double throw (DPDT) toggle switches to control the polarization of voltage source from +5 V to -5 V for 16 optical switches. When +5 V is given, the optical switch will give code '1' and vice versa. The experimental results showed the insertion loss, crosstalk, uniformity, and optical signal-noise-ratio (OSNR) for the developed prototype are <12 dB, 9.77 dB, <1.63dB, and ≥20dB.
A Universal Model for Content-Based Image Retrieval
In this paper a novel approach for generalized image
retrieval based on semantic contents is presented. A combination of
three feature extraction methods namely color, texture, and edge
histogram descriptor. There is a provision to add new features in
future for better retrieval efficiency. Any combination of these
methods, which is more appropriate for the application, can be used
for retrieval. This is provided through User Interface (UI) in the
form of relevance feedback. The image properties analyzed in this
work are by using computer vision and image processing algorithms.
For color the histogram of images are computed, for texture cooccurrence
matrix based entropy, energy, etc, are calculated and for
edge density it is Edge Histogram Descriptor (EHD) that is found.
For retrieval of images, a novel idea is developed based on greedy
strategy to reduce the computational complexity. The entire system
was developed using AForge.Imaging (an open source product),
MATLAB .NET Builder, C#, and Oracle 10g. The system was tested
with Coral Image database containing 1000 natural images and
achieved better results.
Risk Factors in a Road Construction Site
The picture of a perfect road construction site is the one that utilizes conventional vertical road signs and a flagman to optimize the traffic flow with minimum hazel to the public. Former research has been carried out by Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) and Ministry of Works to further enhance smoothness in traffic operations and particularly in safety issues within work zones. This paper highlights on hazardous zones in a certain road construction or road maintenance site. Most cases show that the flagman falls into high risk of fatal accidents within work zone. Various measures have been taken by both the authorities and contractors to overcome such miseries, yet it-s impossible to eliminate the usage of a flagman since it is considered the best practice. With the implementation of new technologies in automating the traffic flow in road construction site, it is possible to eliminate the usage of a flagman. The intelligent traffic light system is designed to solve problems which contribute hazardous at road construction site and to be inline with the road safety regulation which is taken into granted.
Human Verification in a Video Surveillance System Using Statistical Features
A human verification system is presented in this
paper. The system consists of several steps: background subtraction,
thresholding, line connection, region growing, morphlogy, star
skelatonization, feature extraction, feature matching, and decision
making. The proposed system combines an advantage of star
skeletonization and simple statistic features. A correlation matching
and probability voting have been used for verification, followed by a
logical operation in a decision making stage. The proposed system
uses small number of features and the system reliability is
Characterization of Indoor Power Lines as Data Communication Channels Experimental Details and Results
In this paper, a multi-branch power line is modeled using ABCD matrix to show its worth as a communication channel. The model is simulated using MATLAB in an effort to investigate the effects of multiple loading, multipath, and those as a result of load mismatching. The channel transfer function is obtained and investigated using different cable lengths, and different number of bridge taps under given loading conditions.
Signal Generator Circuit Carrying Information as Embedded Features from Multi-Transducer Signals
A novel circuit for generating a signal embedded with
features about data from three sensors is presented. This suggested
circuit is making use of a resistance-to-time converter employing a
bridge amplifier, an integrator and a comparator. The second resistive
sensor (Rz) is transformed into duty cycle. Another bridge with
varying resistor, (Ry) in the feedback of an OP AMP is added in
series to change the amplitude of the resulting signal in a proportional
relationship while keeping the same frequency and duty cycle
representing proportional changes in resistors Rx and Rz already
mentioned. The resultant output signal carries three types of
information embedded as variations of its frequency, duty cycle and
Fatigue Failure of Structural Steel – Analysis Using Fracture Mechanics
Fatigue is the major threat in service of steel structure
subjected to fluctuating loads. With the additional effect of corrosion
and presence of weld joints the fatigue failure may become more
critical in structural steel. One of the apt examples of such structural
is the sailing ship. This is experiencing a constant stress due to
floating and a pulsating bending load due to the waves. This paper
describes an attempt to verify theory of fatigue in fracture mechanics
approach with experimentation to determine the constants of crack
growth curve. For this, specimen is prepared from the ship building
steel and it is subjected to a pulsating bending load with a known
defect. Fatigue crack and its nature is observed in this experiment.
Application of fracture mechanics approach in fatigue with a simple
practical experiment is conducted and constants of crack growth
equation are investigated.
Heat Exchanger Design
This paper is intended to assist anyone with some general technical experience, but perhaps limited specific knowledge of heat transfer equipment. A characteristic of heat exchanger design is the procedure of specifying a design, heat transfer area and pressure drops and checking whether the assumed design satisfies all requirements or not. The purpose of this paper is how to design the oil cooler (heat exchanger) especially for shell-and-tube heat exchanger which is the majority type of liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger. General design considerations and design procedure are also illustrated in this paper and a flow diagram is provided as an aid of design procedure. In design calculation, the MatLAB and AutoCAD software are used. Fundamental heat transfer concepts and complex relationships involved in such exchanger are also presented in this paper. The primary aim of this design is to obtain a high heat transfer rate without exceeding the allowable pressure drop. This computer program is highly useful to design the shell-and-tube type heat exchanger and to modify existing deign.
Effect of Distributed Generators on the Optimal Operation of Distribution Networks
This paper presents an approach for daily optimal operation of distribution networks considering Distributed Generators (DGs). Due to private ownership of DGs, a cost based compensation method is used to encourage DGs in active and reactive power generation. The objective function is summation of electrical energy generated by DGs and substation bus (main bus) in the next day. A genetic algorithm is used to solve the optimal operation problem. The approach is tested on an IEEE34 buses distribution feeder.
Distribution Feeder Reconfiguration Considering Distributed Generators
Recently, distributed generation technologies have received much attention for the potential energy savings and reliability assurances that might be achieved as a result of their widespread adoption. Fueling the attention have been the possibilities of international agreements to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, electricity sector restructuring, high power reliability requirements for certain activities, and concern about easing transmission and distribution capacity bottlenecks and congestion. So it is necessary that impact of these kinds of generators on distribution feeder reconfiguration would be investigated. This paper presents an approach for distribution reconfiguration considering Distributed Generators (DGs). The objective function is summation of electrical power losses A Tabu search optimization is used to solve the optimal operation problem. The approach is tested on a real distribution feeder.
Application of a New Hybrid Optimization Algorithm on Cluster Analysis
Clustering techniques have received attention in many areas including engineering, medicine, biology and data mining. The purpose of clustering is to group together data points, which are close to one another. The K-means algorithm is one of the most widely used techniques for clustering. However, K-means has two shortcomings: dependency on the initial state and convergence to local optima and global solutions of large problems cannot found with reasonable amount of computation effort. In order to overcome local optima problem lots of studies done in clustering. This paper is presented an efficient hybrid evolutionary optimization algorithm based on combining Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), called PSO-ACO, for optimally clustering N object into K clusters. The new PSO-ACO algorithm is tested on several data sets, and its performance is compared with those of ACO, PSO and K-means clustering. The simulation results show that the proposed evolutionary optimization algorithm is robust and suitable for handing data clustering.
A New Evolutionary Algorithm for Cluster Analysis
Clustering is a very well known technique in data mining. One of the most widely used clustering techniques is the kmeans algorithm. Solutions obtained from this technique depend on the initialization of cluster centers and the final solution converges to local minima. In order to overcome K-means algorithm shortcomings, this paper proposes a hybrid evolutionary algorithm based on the combination of PSO, SA and K-means algorithms, called PSO-SA-K, which can find better cluster partition. The performance is evaluated through several benchmark data sets. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms previous approaches, such as PSO, SA and K-means for partitional clustering problem.
Estimating Development Time of Software Projects Using a Neuro Fuzzy Approach
Software estimation accuracy is among the greatest
challenges for software developers. This study aimed at building and
evaluating a neuro-fuzzy model to estimate software projects
development time. The forty-one modules developed from ten
programs were used as dataset. Our proposed approach is compared
with fuzzy logic and neural network model and Results show that the
value of MMRE (Mean of Magnitude of Relative Error) applying
neuro-fuzzy was substantially lower than MMRE applying fuzzy
logic and neural network.
Study on the Production of Chromite Refractory Brick from Local Chromite Ore
Chromite is one of the principal ore of chromium in which the metal exists as a complex oxide (FeO.Cr2O3).The prepared chromite can be widely used as refractory in high temperature applications. This study describes the use of local chromite ore as refractory material. To study the feasibility of local chromite, chemical analysis and refractoriness are firstly measured. To produce chromite refractory brick, it is pressed under a press of 400 tons, dried and fired at 1580°C for fifty two hours. Then, the standard properties such as cold crushing strength, apparent porosity, apparent specific gravity, bulk density and water absorption that the chromite brick should possess were measured. According to the results obtained, the brick made by local chromite ore was suitable for use as refractory brick.
Empirical Statistical Modeling of Rainfall Prediction over Myanmar
One of the essential sectors of Myanmar economy is
agriculture which is sensitive to climate variation. The most
important climatic element which impacts on agriculture sector is
rainfall. Thus rainfall prediction becomes an important issue in
agriculture country. Multi variables polynomial regression (MPR)
provides an effective way to describe complex nonlinear input output
relationships so that an outcome variable can be predicted from the
other or others. In this paper, the modeling of monthly rainfall
prediction over Myanmar is described in detail by applying the
polynomial regression equation. The proposed model results are
compared to the results produced by multiple linear regression model
(MLR). Experiments indicate that the prediction model based on
MPR has higher accuracy than using MLR.
Exploring Self-Directed Learning Among Children
Self-directed learning (SDL) was developed initially
for adult learning. Guglielmino constructed a scale to measure SDL.
Recent researchers have applied this concept to children. Although
there are sufficient theoretical evidences to present the possibility of
applying this concept to children, empirical evidences were not
provided. This study aimed to examine the quality of SDL and
construct a scale to measure SDL among young children. A modified
scale of Guglielmino-s scale was constructed and piloted with 183
subjects of age 9. Findings suggest that the qualities of SDL in young
ages are apparently congruent with that of adults.
Study on a Nested Cartesian Grid Method
In this paper, the local grid refinement is focused by
using a nested grid technique. The Cartesian grid numerical method is
developed for simulating unsteady, viscous, incompressible flows
with complex immersed boundaries. A finite volume method is used in
conjunction with a two-step fractional-step procedure. The key aspects
that need to be considered in developing such a nested grid solver are
imposition of interface conditions on the inter-block and accurate
discretization of the governing equation in cells that are with the
inter-block as a control surface. A new interpolation procedure is
presented which allows systematic development of a spatial
discretization scheme that preserves the spatial accuracy of the
underlying solver. The present nested grid method has been tested by
two numerical examples to examine its performance in the two
dimensional problems. The numerical examples include flow past a
circular cylinder symmetrically installed in a Channel and flow past
two circular cylinders with different diameters. From the numerical
experiments, the ability of the solver to simulate flows with
complicated immersed boundaries is demonstrated and the nested grid
approach can efficiently speed up the numerical solutions.
Wormhole Attack Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks
The nature of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks
make them very attractive to attackers. One of the most popular and
serious attacks in wireless ad hoc networks is wormhole attack and
most proposed protocols to defend against this attack used
positioning devices, synchronized clocks, or directional antennas.
This paper analyzes the nature of wormhole attack and existing
methods of defending mechanism and then proposes round trip time
(RTT) and neighbor numbers based wormhole detection mechanism.
The consideration of proposed mechanism is the RTT between two
successive nodes and those nodes- neighbor number which is needed
to compare those values of other successive nodes. The identification
of wormhole attacks is based on the two faces. The first consideration
is that the transmission time between two wormhole attack affected
nodes is considerable higher than that between two normal neighbor
nodes. The second detection mechanism is based on the fact that by
introducing new links into the network, the adversary increases the
number of neighbors of the nodes within its radius. This system does
not require any specific hardware, has good performance and little
overhead and also does not consume extra energy. The proposed
system is designed in ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV)
routing protocol and analysis and simulations of the proposed system
are performed in network simulator (ns-2).
Effects of Mach Number and Angle of Attack on Mass Flow Rates and Entropy Gain in a Supersonic Inlet
A parametric study of a mixed-compression
supersonic inlet is performed and reported. The effects of inlet Mach
Numbers, varying from 4 to 10, and angle of attack, varying from 0
to 10, are reported for a constant inlet dynamic pressure. The paper
looked at the variations of mass flow rates through the inlet, gain in
entropy through the inlet, and the angles of the external oblique
shocks. The mass flow rates were found to decrease monotonically
with Mach numbers and increase with angle of attacks. On the other
hand the entropy gain through the inlet increased with increasing
Mach number and angle of attack. The variation in static pressure
was found to be identical from the inlet throat to the exit for Mach
number values higher than 6.
Creation of Economic and Social Value by Social Entrepreneurship for Sustainable Development
The ever growing sentiment of environmentalism across the globe has made many people think on the green lines. But most of such ideas halt short of implementation because of the short term economic viability issues with the concept of going green. In this paper we have tried to amalgamate the green concept with social entrepreneurship for solving a variety of issues faced by the society today. In addition the paper also tries to ensure that the short term economic viability does not act as a deterrent. The paper comes up three sustainable models of social entrepreneurship which tackle a wide assortment of issues such as nutrition problem, land problems, pollution problems and employment problems. The models described fall under the following heads: - Spirulina cultivation: The model addresses nutrition, land and employment issues. It deals with cultivation of a blue green alga called Spirulina which can be used as a very nutritious food. Also, the implementation of this model would bring forth employment to the poor people of the area. - Biocomposites: The model comes up with various avenues in which biocomposites can be used in an economically sustainable manner. This model deals with the environmental concerns and addresses the depletion of natural resources. - Packaging material from empty fruit bunches (EFB) of oil palm: This one deals with air and land pollution. It is intended to be a substitute for packaging materials made from Styrofoam and plastics which are non-biodegradable. It takes care of the biodegradability and land pollution issues. It also reduces air pollution as the empty fruit bunches are not incinerated. All the three models are sustainable and do not deplete the natural resources any further. This paper explains each of the models in detail and deals with the operational/manufacturing procedures and cost analysis while also throwing light on the benefits derived and sustainability aspects.
A Modified Speech Enhancement Using Adaptive Gain Equalizer with Non linear Spectral Subtraction for Robust Speech Recognition
In this paper we present an enhanced noise reduction method for robust speech recognition using Adaptive Gain Equalizer with Non linear Spectral Subtraction. In Adaptive Gain Equalizer method (AGE), the input signal is divided into a number of subbands that are individually weighed in time domain, in accordance to the short time Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) in each subband estimation at every time instant. Instead of focusing on suppression the noise on speech enhancement is focused. When analysis was done under various noise conditions for speech recognition, it was found that Adaptive Gain Equalizer method algorithm has an obvious failing point for a SNR of -5 dB, with inadequate levels of noise suppression for SNR less than this point. This work proposes the implementation of AGE when coupled with Non linear Spectral Subtraction (AGE-NSS) for robust speech recognition. The experimental result shows that out AGE-NSS performs the AGE when SNR drops below -5db level.
A Joint Routing-Scheduling Approach for Throughput Optimization in WMNs
Wireless Mesh Networking is a promising proposal
for broadband data transmission in a large area with low cost and
acceptable QoS. These features- trade offs in WMNs is a hot research
field nowadays. In this paper a mathematical optimization framework
has been developed to maximize throughput according to upper
bound delay constraints. IEEE 802.11 based infrastructure
backhauling mode of WMNs has been considered to formulate the
MINLP optimization problem. Proposed method gives the full
routing and scheduling procedure in WMN in order to obtain
A Fast Sign Localization System Using Discriminative Color Invariant Segmentation
Building intelligent traffic guide systems has been an
interesting subject recently. A good system should be able to observe
all important visual information to be able to analyze the context of
the scene. To do so, signs in general, and traffic signs in particular,
are usually taken into account as they contain rich information to
these systems. Therefore, many researchers have put an effort on
sign recognition field. Sign localization or sign detection is the most
important step in the sign recognition process. This step filters out
non informative area in the scene, and locates candidates in later
steps. In this paper, we apply a new approach in detecting sign
locations using a new color invariant model. Experiments are carried
out with different datasets introduced in other works where authors
claimed the difficulty in detecting signs under unfavorable imaging
conditions. Our method is simple, fast and most importantly it gives
a high detection rate in locating signs.
Fingerprint Verification System Using Minutiae Extraction Technique
Most fingerprint recognition techniques are based on minutiae matching and have been well studied. However, this technology still suffers from problems associated with the handling of poor quality impressions. One problem besetting fingerprint matching is distortion. Distortion changes both geometric position and orientation, and leads to difficulties in establishing a match among multiple impressions acquired from the same finger tip. Marking all the minutiae accurately as well as rejecting false minutiae is another issue still under research. Our work has combined many methods to build a minutia extractor and a minutia matcher. The combination of multiple methods comes from a wide investigation into research papers. Also some novel changes like segmentation using Morphological operations, improved thinning, false minutiae removal methods, minutia marking with special considering the triple branch counting, minutia unification by decomposing a branch into three terminations, and matching in the unified x-y coordinate system after a two-step transformation are used in the work.
A Study of Gaps in CBMIR Using Different Methods and Prospective
In recent years, rapid advances in software and hardware in the field of information technology along with a digital imaging revolution in the medical domain facilitate the generation and storage of large collections of images by hospitals and clinics. To search these large image collections effectively and efficiently poses significant technical challenges, and it raises the necessity of constructing intelligent retrieval systems. Content-based Image Retrieval (CBIR) consists of retrieving the most visually similar images to a given query image from a database of images. Medical CBIR (content-based image retrieval) applications pose unique challenges but at the same time offer many new opportunities. On one hand, while one can easily understand news or sports videos, a medical image is often completely incomprehensible to untrained eyes.
Software Effort Estimation Using Soft Computing Techniques
Various models have been derived by studying large number of completed software projects from various organizations and applications to explore how project sizes mapped into project effort. But, still there is a need to prediction accuracy of the models. As Neuro-fuzzy based system is able to approximate the non-linear function with more precision. So, Neuro-Fuzzy system is used as a soft computing approach to generate model by formulating the relationship based on its training. In this paper, Neuro-Fuzzy technique is used for software estimation modeling of on NASA software project data and performance of the developed models are compared with the Halstead, Walston-Felix, Bailey-Basili and Doty Models mentioned in the literature.
Comparative Analysis of the Software Effort Estimation Models
Accurate software cost estimates are critical to both
developers and customers. They can be used for generating request
for proposals, contract negotiations, scheduling, monitoring and
control. The exact relationship between the attributes of the effort
estimation is difficult to establish. A neural network is good at
discovering relationships and pattern in the data. So, in this paper a
comparative analysis among existing Halstead Model, Walston-Felix
Model, Bailey-Basili Model, Doty Model and Neural Network
Based Model is performed. Neural Network has outperformed the
other considered models. Hence, we proposed Neural Network
system as a soft computing approach to model the effort estimation
of the software systems.
Satisfying and Frustrating Aspects of ICT Teaching: A Comparison Based On Self-Efficacy
The purpose of this study was to determine the most satisfying and frustrating aspects of ICT (Information and Communications Technologies) teaching in Turkish schools. Another aim was to compare these aspects based-on ICT teachers- selfefficacy. Participants were 119 ICT teachers from different geographical areas of Turkey. Participants were asked to list salient satisfying and frustrating aspects of ICT teaching, and to fill out the Self-Efficacy Scale for ICT Teachers. Results showed that the high self-efficacy teachers listed more positive and negative aspects of ICT teaching then did the low self-efficacy teachers. The satisfying aspects of ICT teaching were the dynamic nature of ICT subject, higher student interest, having opportunity to help other subject teachers, and lecturing in well-equipped labs, whereas the most frequently cited frustrating aspects of ICT teaching were ICT-related extra works of schools and colleagues, shortages of hardware and technical problems, indifferent students, insufficient teaching time, and the status of ICT subject in school curriculum. This information could be useful in redesigning ICT teachers- roles and responsibilities as well as job environment in schools.
Intelligent Multi-Agent Middleware for Ubiquitous Home Networking Environments
The next stage of the home networking environment is
supposed to be ubiquitous, where each piece of material is equipped
with an RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tag. To fully support
the ubiquitous environment, home networking middleware should be
able to recommend home services based on a user-s interests and
efficiently manage information on service usage profiles for the users.
Therefore, USN (Ubiquitous Sensor Network) technology, which
recognizes and manages a appliance-s state-information (location,
capabilities, and so on) by connecting RFID tags is considered. The
Intelligent Multi-Agent Middleware (IMAM) architecture was
proposed to intelligently manage the mobile RFID-based home
networking and to automatically supply information about home
services that match a user-s interests. Evaluation results for
personalization services for IMAM using Bayesian-Net and Decision
Trees are presented.
A Study on the Secure ebXML Transaction Models
ebXML (Electronic Business using eXtensible
Markup Language) is an e-business standard, sponsored by
UN/CEFACT and OASIS, which enables enterprises to exchange
business messages, conduct trading relationships, communicate
data in common terms and define and register business
processes. While there is tremendous e-business value in the
ebXML, security remains an unsolved problem and one of the
largest barriers to adoption. XML security technologies emerging
recently have extensibility and flexibility suitable for security
implementation such as encryption, digital signature, access
control and authentication.
In this paper, we propose ebXML business transaction models
that allow trading partners to securely exchange XML based
business transactions by employing XML security technologies.
We show how each XML security technology meets the ebXML
standard by constructing the test software and validating messages
between the trading partners.
Dynamic Modeling of Tow Flexible Link Manipulators
Modeling and vibration of a flexible link manipulator
with tow flexible links and rigid joints are investigated which can
include an arbitrary number of flexible links. Hamilton principle and
finite element approach is proposed to model the dynamics of
flexible manipulators. The links are assumed to be deflection due to
bending. The association between elastic displacements of links is
investigated, took into account the coupling effects of elastic motion
and rigid motion. Flexible links are treated as Euler-Bernoulli beams
and the shear deformation is thus abandoned. The dynamic behavior
due to flexibility of links is well demonstrated through numerical
simulation. The rigid-body motion and elastic deformations are
separated by linearizing the equations of motion around the rigid
body reference path. Simulation results are shown on for both
position and force trajectory tracking tasks in the presence of varying
parameters and unknown dynamics remarkably well. The proposed
method can be used in both dynamic simulation and controller
An Experimental Method for Measuring Clamping Force in Bolted Connections and Effect of Bolt Threads Lubrication on Its Value
In this paper, the details of an experimental method to measure the clamping force value at bolted connections due to application of wrenching torque to tighten the nut have been presented. A simplified bolted joint including a holed plate with a single bolt was considered to carry out the experiments. This method was designed based on Hooke-s law by measuring compressive axial strain of a steel bush placed between the nut and the plate. In the experimental procedure, the values of clamping force were calculated for seven different levels of applied torque, and this process was repeated three times for each level of the torque. Moreover, the effect of lubrication of threads on the clamping value was studied using the same method. In both conditions (dry and lubricated threads), relation between the torque and the clamping force have been displayed in graphs.
Query Algebra for Semistuctured Data
With the tremendous growth of World Wide Web
(WWW) data, there is an emerging need for effective information
retrieval at the document level. Several query languages such as
XML-QL, XPath, XQL, Quilt and XQuery are proposed in recent
years to provide faster way of querying XML data, but they still lack of
generality and efficiency. Our approach towards evolving a framework
for querying semistructured documents is based on formal query
algebra. Two elements are introduced in the proposed framework:
first, a generic and flexible data model for logical representation of
semistructured data and second, a set of operators for the manipulation
of objects defined in the data model. In additional to accommodating
several peculiarities of semistructured data, our model offers novel
features such as bidirectional paths for navigational querying and
partitions for data transformation that are not available in other
The Role of Periodic Vortex Shedding in Heat Transfer Enhancement for Transient Pulsatile Flow Inside Wavy Channels
Periodic vortex shedding in pulsating flow inside wavy
channel and the effect it has on heat transfer are studied using the
finite volume method. A sinusoidally-varying component is superimposed
on a uniform flow inside a sinusoidal wavy channel and
the effects on the Nusselt number is analyzed. It was found that a
unique optimum value of the pulsation frequency, represented by the
Strouhal number, exists for Reynolds numbers ranging from 125 to
1000. Results suggest that the gain in heat transfer is related to the
process of vortex formation, movement about the troughs of the wavy
channel, and subsequent ejection/destruction through the converging
section. Heat transfer is the highest when the frequencies of the
pulsation and vortex formation approach being in-phase. Analysis of
Strouhal number effect on Nu over a period of pulsation substantiates
the proposed physical mechanism for enhancement. The effect of
changing the amplitude of pulsation is also presented over a period
of pulsation, showing a monotonic increase in heat transfer with
increasing amplitude. The 60% increase in Nusselt number suggests
that sinusoidal fluid pulsation can an effective method for enhancing
heat transfer in laminar, wavy-channel flows.
Shadow Detection for Increased Accuracy of Privacy Enhancing Methods in Video Surveillance Edge Devices
Shadow detection is still considered as one of the
potential challenges for intelligent automated video surveillance
systems. A pre requisite for reliable and accurate detection and
tracking is the correct shadow detection and classification. In such a
landscape of conditions, privacy issues add more and more
complexity and require reliable shadow detection.
In this work the intertwining between security, accuracy,
reliability and privacy is analyzed and, accordingly, a novel
architecture for Privacy Enhancing Video Surveillance (PEVS) is
introduced. Shadow detection and masking are dealt with through the
combination of two different approaches simultaneously. This results
in a unique privacy enhancement, without affecting security.
Subsequently, the methodology was employed successfully in a
large-scale wireless video surveillance system; privacy relevant
information was stored and encrypted on the unit, without
transferring it over an un-trusted network.
Optimizing Turning Parameters for Cylindrical Parts Using Simulated Annealing Method
In this paper, a simulated annealing algorithm has been developed to optimize machining parameters in turning operation on cylindrical workpieces. The turning operation usually includes several passes of rough machining and a final pass of finishing. Seven different constraints are considered in a non-linear model where the goal is to achieve minimum total cost. The weighted total cost consists of machining cost, tool cost and tool replacement cost. The computational results clearly show that the proposed optimization procedure has considerably improved total operation cost by optimally determining machining parameters.
Hot-Spot Blob Merging for Real-Time Image Segmentation
One of the major, difficult tasks in automated video
surveillance is the segmentation of relevant objects in the scene.
Current implementations often yield inconsistent results on average
from frame to frame when trying to differentiate partly occluding
objects. This paper presents an efficient block-based segmentation
algorithm which is capable of separating partly occluding objects and
detecting shadows. It has been proven to perform in real time with a
maximum duration of 47.48 ms per frame (for 8x8 blocks on a
720x576 image) with a true positive rate of 89.2%. The flexible
structure of the algorithm enables adaptations and improvements with
little effort. Most of the parameters correspond to relative differences
between quantities extracted from the image and should therefore not
depend on scene and lighting conditions. Thus presenting a
performance oriented segmentation algorithm which is applicable in
all critical real time scenarios.
An Empirical Model to Calculate the Threads Stripping of a Bolt Installed in a Tapped Part
To determine the length of engagement threads of a bolt installed in a tapped part in order to avoid the threads stripping remains a very current problem in the design of the thread assemblies. It does not exist a calculation method formalized for the cases where the bolt is screwed directly in a ductile material. In this article, we study the behavior of the threads stripping of a loaded assembly by using a modelling by finite elements and a rupture criterion by damage. This modelling enables us to study the different parameters likely to influence the behavior of this bolted connection. We study in particular, the influence of couple of materials constituting the connection, of the bolt-s diameter and the geometrical characteristics of the tapped part, like the external diameter and the length of engagement threads. We established an experiments design to know the most significant parameters. That enables us to propose a simple expression making possible to calculate the resistance of the threads whatever the metallic materials of the bolt and the tapped part. We carried out stripping tests in order to validate our model. The estimated results are very close to those obtained by the tests.
Effectiveness of Cellular Phone with Active RFID Tag for Evacuation - The Case of Evacuation from the Underground Shopping Mall of Tenjin
The underground shopping mall has the constructional
problem of the fire evacuation. Also, the people sometimes lose their
direction and information of current time in the mall. If the
emergencies such as terrorist explosions or gas explosions are
happened, they have to go out soon. Under such circumstances, inside
of the mall has high risk for life. In this research, the authors propose a
way that he/she can go out from the underground shopping mall
quickly. If the narrow exits are discovered by using active RFID
(Radio Frequency Identification) tags and using cellular phones, they
can evacuate as soon as possible. To verify this hypothesis, the authors
design the model and carry out the agent-based simulation. They treat,
as a case study, the Tenjin mall in Fukuoka Prefecture in Japan. The
result of the simulation is that the case of the pedestrian with using
active RFID tags and cellular phones reduced the amount of time to
spend on the evacuation. Even if the diffusion of RFID tags and
cellular phones was not perfect, they could show the effectiveness of
reducing the time of evacuation.
Sliding-Mode Control of Synchronous Reluctance Motor
This paper presents a controller design technique for
Synchronous Reluctance Motor to improve its dynamic performance
with fast response and high accuracy. The sliding mode control is the
most attractive and suitable method to use for this purpose, since it is
simple in design and for its insensitivity to parameter variations or
external disturbances. When this method implemented it yields fast
dynamic response without overshoot and a zero steady-state error.
The current loop control with decentralized sliding mode is presented
in this paper. The mathematical model for the synchronous machine,
the inverter and the controller is developed. The stability of the
sliding mode controller is analyzed. Simulation of synchronous
reluctance motor and the controller with PWM-inverter has been
curried out, using the SIMULINK software package of MATLAB.
Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the
A Face-to-Face Education Support System Capable of Lecture Adaptation and Q&A Assistance Based On Probabilistic Inference
Keys to high-quality face-to-face education are ensuring flexibility in the way lectures are given, and providing care and responsiveness to learners. This paper describes a face-to-face education support system that is designed to raise the satisfaction of learners and reduce the workload on instructors. This system consists of a lecture adaptation assistance part, which assists instructors in adapting teaching content and strategy, and a Q&A assistance part, which provides learners with answers to their questions. The core component of the former part is a “learning achievement map", which is composed of a Bayesian network (BN). From learners- performance in exercises on relevant past lectures, the lecture adaptation assistance part obtains information required to adapt appropriately the presentation of the next lecture. The core component of the Q&A assistance part is a case base, which accumulates cases consisting of questions expected from learners and answers to them. The Q&A assistance part is a case-based search system equipped with a search index which performs probabilistic inference. A prototype face-to-face education support system has been built, which is intended for the teaching of Java programming, and this approach was evaluated using this system. The expected degree of understanding of each learner for a future lecture was derived from his or her performance in exercises on past lectures, and this expected degree of understanding was used to select one of three adaptation levels. A model for determining the adaptation level most suitable for the individual learner has been identified. An experimental case base was built to examine the search performance of the Q&A assistance part, and it was found that the rate of successfully finding an appropriate case was 56%.
Efficient Mean Shift Clustering Using Exponential Integral Kernels
This paper presents a highly efficient algorithm for detecting and tracking humans and objects in video surveillance sequences. Mean shift clustering is applied on backgrounddifferenced image sequences. For efficiency, all calculations are performed on integral images. Novel corresponding exponential integral kernels are introduced to allow the application of nonuniform kernels for clustering, which dramatically increases robustness without giving up the efficiency of the integral data structures. Experimental results demonstrating the power of this approach are presented.
DQ Analysis of 3D Natural Convection in an Inclined Cavity Using an Velocity-Vorticity Formulation
In this paper, the differential quadrature method is applied to simulate natural convection in an inclined cubic cavity using velocity-vorticity formulation. The numerical capability of the present algorithm is demonstrated by application to natural convection in an inclined cubic cavity. The velocity Poisson equations, the vorticity transport equations and the energy equation are all solved as a coupled system of equations for the seven field variables consisting of three velocities, three vorticities and temperature. The coupled equations are simultaneously solved by imposing the vorticity definition at boundary without requiring the explicit specification of the vorticity boundary conditions. Test results obtained for an inclined cubic cavity with different angle of inclinations for Rayleigh number equal to 103, 104, 105 and 106 indicate that the present coupled solution algorithm could predict the benchmark results for temperature and flow fields. Thus, it is convinced that the present formulation is capable of solving coupled Navier-Stokes equations effectively and accurately.
Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability and Gas-Particle Interaction of Contoured Shock-Tube Flows: A Numerical Study
In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is utilized to characterize a prototype biolistic delivery system, the biomedical device based on the contoured-shock-tube design (CST), with the aim at investigating shocks induced flow instabilities within the contoured shock tube. The shock/interface interactions, the growth of perturbation at an interface between two fluids of different density are interrogated. The key features of the gas dynamics and gas-particle interaction are discussed
Web Service Architecture for Computer-Adaptive Testing on e-Learning
This paper proposes a Web service and serviceoriented
architecture (SOA) for a computer-adaptive testing (CAT)
process on e-learning systems. The proposed architecture is
developed to solve an interoperability problem of the CAT process by
using Web service. The proposed SOA and Web service define all
services needed for the interactions between systems in order to
deliver items and essential data from Web service to the CAT Webbased
application. These services are implemented in a XML-based
architecture, platform independence and interoperability between the
Web service and CAT Web-based applications.
Measuring Heterogeneous Traffic Density
Traffic Density provides an indication of the level of
service being provided to the road users. Hence, there is a need to
study the traffic flow characteristics with specific reference to
density in detail. When the length and speed of the vehicles in a
traffic stream vary significantly, the concept of occupancy, rather
than density, is more appropriate to describe traffic concentration.
When the concept of occupancy is applied to heterogeneous traffic
condition, it is necessary to consider the area of the road space and
the area of the vehicles as the bases. Hence, a new concept named,
'area-occupancy' is proposed here. It has been found that the
estimated area-occupancy gives consistent values irrespective of
change in traffic composition.
Numerical Study of Microscale Gas Flow-Separation Using Explicit Finite Volume Method
Pressure driven microscale gas flow-separation has
been investigated by solving the compressible Navier-Stokes (NS)
system of equations. A two dimensional explicit finite volume (FV)
compressible flow solver has been developed using modified
advection upwind splitting methods (AUSM+) with no-slip/first
order Maxwell-s velocity slip conditions to predict the flowseparation
behavior in microdimensions. The effects of scale-factor
of the flow geometry and gas species on the microscale gas flowseparation
have been studied in this work. The intensity of flowseparation
gets reduced with the decrease in scale of the flow
geometry. In reduced dimension, flow-separation may not at all be
present under similar flow conditions compared to the larger flow
geometry. The flow-separation patterns greatly depend on the
properties of the medium under similar flow conditions.
Theoretical Investigation of the Instantaneous Folding Force during the First Fold Creation in a Square Column
In this paper, a theoretical formula is presented to
predict the instantaneous folding force of the first fold creation in a
square column under axial loading. Calculations are based on analysis
of “Basic Folding Mechanism" introduced by Wierzbicki and
Abramowicz. For this purpose, the sum of dissipated energy rate under
bending around horizontal and inclined hinge lines and dissipated
energy rate under extensional deformations are equated to the work rate
of the external force on the structure. Final formula obtained in this
research, reasonably predicts the instantaneous folding force of the first
fold creation versus folding distance and folding angle and also predicts
the instantaneous folding force instead of the average value. Finally,
according to the calculated theoretical relation, instantaneous folding
force of the first fold creation in a square column was sketched
versus folding distance and was compared to the experimental results
which showed a good correlation.
Multipath Routing Sensor Network for Finding Crack in Metallic Structure Using Fuzzy Logic
For collecting data from all sensor nodes, some
changes in Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol is proposed. At
each hop level, route-ranking technique is used for distributing
packets to different selected routes dynamically. For calculating rank
of a route, different parameters like: delay, residual energy and
probability of packet loss are used. A hybrid topology of
DMPR(Disjoint Multi Path Routing) and MMPR(Meshed Multi Path
Routing) is formed, where braided topology is used in different
faulty zones of network. For reducing energy consumption, variant
transmission ranges is used instead of fixed transmission range. For
reducing number of packet drop, a fuzzy logic inference scheme is
used to insert different types of delays dynamically. A rule based
system infers membership function strength which is used to
calculate the final delay amount to be inserted into each of the node
at different clusters.
In braided path, a proposed 'Dual Line ACK Link'scheme is
proposed for sending ACK signal from a damaged node or link to a
parent node to ensure that any error in link or any node-failure
message may not be lost anyway. This paper tries to design the
theoretical aspects of a model which may be applied for collecting
data from any large hanging iron structure with the help of wireless
sensor network. But analyzing these data is the subject of material
science and civil structural construction technology, that part is out
of scope of this paper.
Stock Price Forecast by Using Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System
In this research, the researchers have managed to
design a model to investigate the current trend of stock price of the
"IRAN KHODRO corporation" at Tehran Stock Exchange by
utilizing an Adaptive Neuro - Fuzzy Inference system. For the Longterm
Period, a Neuro-Fuzzy with two Triangular membership
functions and four independent Variables including trade volume,
Dividend Per Share (DPS), Price to Earning Ratio (P/E), and also
closing Price and Stock Price fluctuation as an dependent variable are
selected as an optimal model. For the short-term Period, a neureo –
fuzzy model with two triangular membership functions for the first
quarter of a year, two trapezoidal membership functions for the
Second quarter of a year, two Gaussian combination membership
functions for the third quarter of a year and two trapezoidal
membership functions for the fourth quarter of a year were selected
as an optimal model for the stock price forecasting. In addition, three
independent variables including trade volume, price to earning ratio,
closing Stock Price and a dependent variable of stock price
fluctuation were selected as an optimal model. The findings of the
research demonstrate that the trend of stock price could be forecasted
with the lower level of error.
Recovering Artifacts from Legacy Systems Using Pattern Matching
Modernizing legacy applications is the key issue facing IT managers today because there's enormous pressure on organizations to change the way they run their business to meet the new requirements. The importance of software maintenance and reengineering is forever increasing. Understanding the architecture of existing legacy applications is the most critical issue for maintenance and reengineering. The artifacts recovery can be facilitated with different recovery approaches, methods and tools. The existing methods provide static and dynamic set of techniques for extracting architectural information, but are not suitable for all users in different domains. This paper presents a simple and lightweight pattern extraction technique to extract different artifacts from legacy systems using regular expression pattern specifications with multiple language support. We used our custom-built tool DRT to recover artifacts from existing system at different levels of abstractions. In order to evaluate our approach a case study is conducted.
Performance Characteristics of a Closed Circuit Cooling Tower with Multi Path
The experimental thermal performance of two heat
exchangers in closed-wet cooling tower (CWCT) was investigated in
this study. The test sections are heat exchangers which have multi path
that is used as the entrance of cooling water and are consisting of
bare-type copper tubes between 15.88mm and 19.05mm. The process
fluids are the cooling water that flows from top part of heat exchanger
to bottom side in the inner side of tube, and spray water that flows
gravitational direction in the outer side of it. Air contacts its outer side
of that as it counterflows. Heat and mass transfer coefficients and
cooling capacity were calculated with variations of process fluids,
multi path and different diameter tubes to figure out the performance
of characteristics of CWCT.
The main results were summarized as follows: The results show this
experiment is reliable with values of heat and mass transfer
coefficients comparing to values of correlations. Heat and mass
transfer coefficients and cooling capacity of two paths are higher than
these with one path using 15.88 and 19.05mm tubes. Cooling capacity
per unit volume with 15.88mm tube using one and two paths are
higher than 19.05mm tube due to increase of surface area per unit
Agent-based Framework for Energy Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless sensor networks are consisted of hundreds or
thousands of small sensors that have limited resources.
Energy-efficient techniques are the main issue of wireless sensor
networks. This paper proposes an energy efficient agent-based
framework in wireless sensor networks. We adopt biologically
inspired approaches for wireless sensor networks. Agent operates
automatically with their behavior policies as a gene. Agent aggregates
other agents to reduce communication and gives high priority to nodes
that have enough energy to communicate. Agent behavior policies are
optimized by genetic operation at the base station. Simulation results
show that our proposed framework increases the lifetime of each node.
Each agent selects a next-hop node with neighbor information and
behavior policies. Our proposed framework provides self-healing,
self-configuration, self-optimization properties to sensor nodes.
Optimal One Bit Time Reversal For UWB Impulse Radio In Multi-User Wireless Communications
In this paper, with the purpose of further reducing the
complexity of the system, while keeping its temporal and spatial
focusing performance, we investigate the possibility of using optimal
one bit time reversal (TR) system for impulse radio ultra wideband
multi-user wireless communications. The results show that, by optimally
selecting the number of used taps in the pre-filter the optimal
one bit TR system can outperform the full one bit TR system. In
some cases, the temporal and spatial focusing performance of the
optimal one bit TR system appears to be compatible with that of the
original TR system. This is a significant result as the overhead cost
is much lower than it is required in the original TR system.
Spatial Structure and Spatial Impacts of the Jakarta Metropolitan Area: A Southeast Asian EMR Perspective
This paper investigates the spatial structure of employment in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area (JMA), with reference to the concept of the Southeast Asian extended metropolitan region (EMR). A combination of factor analysis and local Getis-Ord (Gi*) hot-spot analysis is used to identify clusters of employment in the region, including those of the urban and agriculture sectors. Spatial statistical analysis is further used to probe the spatial association of identified employment clusters with their surroundings on several dimensions, including the spatial association between the central business district (CBD) in Jakarta city on employment density in the region, the spatial impacts of urban expansion on population growth and the degree of urban-rural interaction. The degree of spatial interaction for the whole JMA is measured by the patterns of commuting trips destined to the various employment clusters. Results reveal the strong role of the urban core of Jakarta, and the regional CBD, as the centre for mixed job sectors such as retail, wholesale, services and finance. Manufacturing and local government services, on the other hand, form corridors radiating out of the urban core, reaching out to the agriculture zones in the fringes. Strong associations between the urban expansion corridors and population growth, and urban-rural mix, are revealed particularly in the eastern and western parts of JMA. Metropolitan wide commuting patterns are focussed on the urban core of Jakarta and the CBD, while relatively local commuting patterns are shown to be prevalent for the employment corridors.
The Minimum PAPR Code for OFDM Systems
In this paper, a block code to minimize the peak-toaverage
power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division
multiplexing (OFDM) signals is proposed. It is shown that cyclic
shift and codeword inversion cause not change to peak envelope
power. The encoding rule for the proposed code comprises of
searching for a seed codeword, shifting the register elements, and
determining codeword inversion, eliminating the look-up table for
one-to-one correspondence between the source and the coded data.
Simulation results show that OFDM systems with the proposed code
always have the minimum PAPR.
On the Quality of Internet Users- Behavioral Patterns in Using Different Sites and Its Impact on Taboos of Marriage: A Survey among Undergraduate Students in Mashhad City in Iran
Regarding the multi-media property of internet and the facilities that can be provided for the users, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the users- behavioral patterns and the impact of internet on taboos of marriage. For this purpose a survey technique on the sample size amounted 403 students of governmental guidance schools of city of Mashhad in country of Iran were considered. The results showed, the process of using various internet environments depends on the degree of the users- familiarity with these sites. In order to clarify the effects of the Internet on the taboos of marriage, the non – internet parameters also considered to be controlled. The ttest held among the internet users and non-users, indicated that internet users possess lower taboos of marriage. Extraction of the effects of internet via considering the effects of non-internet parameters, indicate that addiction to the internet, creating a cordial atmosphere, emotional communication, and message attractive factors have significant effects on the family's traditional values.
Automatic Detection of Syllable Repetition in Read Speech for Objective Assessment of Stuttered Disfluencies
Automatic detection of syllable repetition is one of the
important parameter in assessing the stuttered speech objectively.
The existing method which uses artificial neural network (ANN)
requires high levels of agreement as prerequisite before attempting to
train and test ANNs to separate fluent and nonfluent. We propose
automatic detection method for syllable repetition in read speech for
objective assessment of stuttered disfluencies which uses a novel
approach and has four stages comprising of segmentation, feature
extraction, score matching and decision logic. Feature extraction is
implemented using well know Mel frequency Cepstra coefficient
(MFCC). Score matching is done using Dynamic Time Warping
(DTW) between the syllables. The Decision logic is implemented by
Perceptron based on the score given by score matching. Although
many methods are available for segmentation, in this paper it is done
manually. Here the assessment by human judges on the read speech
of 10 adults who stutter are described using corresponding method
and the result was 83%.
Entrepreneurial Characteristics and Attitude of Pineapple Growers
Nagaland, the 16th state of India in order of
statehood, is situated between 25° 6' and 27° 4' latitude north and
between 93º 20' E and 95º 15' E longitude of equator in the North
Eastern part of the India. Endowed with varied topography, soil and
agro climatic conditions it is known for its potentiality to grow all
most all kinds of horticultural crops. Pineapple being grown since
long organically by default is one of the most promising crops of the
state with emphasis being laid for commercialization by the
government of Nagaland. In light of commercialization, globalization
and scope of setting small-scale industries, a research study was
undertaken to examine the socio-economic and personal
characteristics, entrepreneurial characteristics and attitude of the
pineapple growers towards improved package of practices of
pineapple cultivation. The study was conducted in Medziphema
block of Dimapur district of the Nagaland state of India following ex
post facto research design. Ninety pineapple growers were selected
from four different villages of Medziphema block based on
proportionate random selection procedure. Findings of the study
revealed that majority of the respondents had medium level of
entrepreneurial characteristics in terms of knowledge level, risk
orientation, self confidence, management orientation, farm decision
making ability and leadership ability and most of them had
favourable attitude towards improved package of practices of
pineapple cultivation. The variables age, education, farm size, risk
orientation, management orientation and sources of information
utilized were found important to influence the attitude of the
respondents. The study revealed that favourable attitude and
entrepreneurial characteristics of the pineapple cultivators might be
harnessed for increased production of pineapple in the state thereby
bringing socio economic upliftment of the marginal and small-scale
Determination of Adequate Fuzzy Inequalities for their Usage in Fuzzy Query Languages
Although the usefulness of fuzzy databases has been
pointed out in several works, they are not fully developed in numerous
domains. A task that is mostly disregarded and which is the topic
of this paper is the determination of suitable inequalities for fuzzy
sets in fuzzy query languages. This paper examines which kinds
of fuzzy inequalities exist at all. Afterwards, different procedures
are presented that appear theoretically appropriate. By being applied
to various examples, their strengths and weaknesses are revealed.
Furthermore, an algorithm for an efficient computation of the selected
fuzzy inequality is shown.
Choosing R-tree or Quadtree Spatial DataIndexing in One Oracle Spatial Database System to Make Faster Showing Geographical Map in Mobile Geographical Information System Technology
The latest Geographic Information System (GIS)
technology makes it possible to administer the spatial components of
daily “business object," in the corporate database, and apply suitable
geographic analysis efficiently in a desktop-focused application. We
can use wireless internet technology for transfer process in spatial
data from server to client or vice versa. However, the problem in
wireless Internet is system bottlenecks that can make the process of
transferring data not efficient. The reason is large amount of spatial
data. Optimization in the process of transferring and retrieving data,
however, is an essential issue that must be considered. Appropriate
decision to choose between R-tree and Quadtree spatial data indexing
method can optimize the process. With the rapid proliferation of
these databases in the past decade, extensive research has been
conducted on the design of efficient data structures to enable fast
spatial searching. Commercial database vendors like Oracle have also
started implementing these spatial indexing to cater to the large and
diverse GIS. This paper focuses on the decisions to choose R-tree
and quadtree spatial indexing using Oracle spatial database in mobile
GIS application. From our research condition, the result of using
Quadtree and R-tree spatial data indexing method in one single
spatial database can save the time until 42.5%.
A Qualitative Evaluation of an Instrument for Measuring the Influence of Factors Affecting Use of Business-to-Employee (B2E) Portals
B2E portals represent a new class of web-based
information technologies which many organisations are introducing
in recent years to stay in touch with their distributed workforces and
enable them to perform value added activities for organisations.
However, actual usage of these emerging systems (measured using
suitable instruments) has not been reported in the contemporary
scholarly literature. We argue that many of the instruments to
measure usage of various types of IT-enabled information systems
are not directly applicable for B2E portals because they were
developed for the context of traditional mainframe and PC-based
information systems. It is therefore important to develop a new
instrument for web-based portal technologies aimed at employees. In
this article, we report on the development and initial qualitative
evaluation of an instrument that seeks to operationaise a set of
independent factors affecting the usage of portals by employees. The
proposed instrument is useful to IT/e-commerce researchers and
practitioners alike as it enhances their confidence in predicting
employee usage of portals in organisations.
Use of Persuasive Technology to Change End-Users- IT Security Aware Behaviour: A Pilot Study
Persuasive technology has been applied in marketing,
health, environmental conservation, safety and other domains and is
found to be quite effective in changing people-s attitude and
behaviours. This research extends the application domains of
persuasive technology to information security awareness and uses a
theory-driven approach to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based
program developed based on the principles of persuasive technology
to improve the information security awareness of end users. The
findings confirm the existence of a very strong effect of the webbased
program in raising users- attitude towards information security
aware behavior. This finding is useful to the IT researchers and
practitioners in developing appropriate and effective education
strategies for improving the information security attitudes for endusers.
Optimal Control Strategy for High Performance EV Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
The controllable electrical loss which consists of the
copper loss and iron loss can be minimized by the optimal control of
the armature current vector. The control algorithm of current vector
minimizing the electrical loss is proposed and the optimal current
vector can be decided according to the operating speed and the load
conditions. The proposed control algorithm is applied to the
experimental PM motor drive system and this paper presents a
modern approach of speed control for permanent magnet
synchronous motor (PMSM) applied for Electric Vehicle using a
nonlinear control. The regulation algorithms are based on the
feedback linearization technique. The direct component of the current
is controlled to be zero which insures the maximum torque operation.
The near unity power factor operation is also achieved. More over,
among EV-s motor electric propulsion features, the energy efficiency
is a basic characteristic that is influenced by vehicle dynamics and
system architecture. For this reason, the EV dynamics are taken into
Effects of Temperature on Resilient Modulus of Dense Asphalt Mixtures Incorporating Steel Slag Subjected to Short Term Oven Ageing
As the resources for naturally occurring aggregates
diminished at an ever increasing rate, researchers are keen to utilize
recycled materials in road construction in harmony with sustainable
development. Steel slag, a waste product from the steel making
industry, is one of the recycled materials reported to exhibit great
potential to replace naturally occurring aggregates in asphalt
mixtures. This paper presents the resilient modulus properties of
steel slag asphalt mixtures subjected to short term oven ageing
(STOA). The resilient modulus test was carried out to evaluate the
stiffness of asphalt mixtures at 10ºC, 25ºC and 40ºC. Previous
studies showed that stiffness changes in asphalt mixture played an
important role in inflicting pavement distress particularly cracking
and rutting that are common at low and high temperatures
respectively. Temperature was found to significantly influence the
resilient modulus of asphalt mixes. The resilient modulus of the
asphalt specimens tested decreased by more than 90% when the test
temperature increased from 10°C to 40°C.
Spatial Planning as an Approach to Achieve Sustainable Development in Historic Cities
Sustainable development is a concept which was
originated in Burtland commission in 1978. Although this concept
was born with environmental aspects, it is penetrated in all areas
rapidly, turning into a dominate view of planning. Concentrating on
future generation issue, especially when talking about heritage has a
long story. Each approach with all of its characteristics illustrates
differences in planning, hence planning always reflects the dominate
idea of its age. This paper studies sustainable development in
planning for historical cities with the aim of finding ways to deal
with heritage in planning for historical cities in Iran. Through this, it
will be illustrated how challenges between sustainable concept and
heritage could be concluded in planning.
Consequently, the paper will emphasize on:
Sustainable development in city planning
Trends regarding heritage
Challenges due to planning for historical cities in Iran
For the first two issues, documentary method regarding the
sustainable development and heritage literature is considered. As the
next step focusing on Iranian historical cities require considering the
urban planning and management structure and identifying the main
challenges related to heritage, so analyzing challenges regarding
heritage is considered. As the result it would be illustrated that key
issue in such planning is active conservation to improve and use the
potential of heritage while it's continues conservation is guaranteed.
By emphasizing on the planning system in Iran it will be obvious that
some reforms are needed in this system and its way of relating with
heritage. The main weakness in planning for historical cities in Iran
is the lack of independent city management. Without this factor
achieving active conservation as the main factor of sustainable
development would not be possible.
Consideration a Novel Manner for Data Sending Quality in Heterogeneous Radio Networks
In real-time networks a large number of application programs are relying on video data and heterogeneous data transmission techniques. The aim of this research is presenting a method for end-to-end vouch quality service in surface applicationlayer for sending video data in comparison form in wireless heterogeneous networks. This method tries to improve the video sending over the wireless heterogeneous networks with used techniques in surface layer, link and application. The offered method is showing a considerable improvement in quality observing by user. In addition to this, other specifications such as shortage of data load that had require to resending and limited the relation period length to require time for second data sending, help to be used the offered method in the wireless devices that have a limited energy. The presented method and the achieved improvement is simulated and presented in the NS-2 software.
Key Based Text Watermarking of E-Text Documents in an Object Based Environment Using Z-Axis for Watermark Embedding
Data hiding into text documents itself involves pretty
complexities due to the nature of text documents. A robust text
watermarking scheme targeting an object based environment is
presented in this research. The heart of the proposed solution
describes the concept of watermarking an object based text document
where each and every text string is entertained as a separate object
having its own set of properties. Taking advantage of the z-ordering
of objects watermark is applied with the z-axis letting zero fidelity
disturbances to the text. Watermark sequence of bits generated
against user key is hashed with selected properties of given
document, to determine the bit sequence to embed. Bits are
embedded along z-axis and the document has no fidelity issues when
printed, scanned or photocopied.
Marangoni Convection in a Fluid Layer with Internal Heat Generation
In this paper we use classical linear stability theory
to investigate the effects of uniform internal heat generation on the
onset of Marangoni convection in a horizontal layer of fluid heated
from below. We use a analytical technique to obtain the close form
analytical expression for the onset of Marangoni convection when
the lower boundary is conducting with free-slip condition. We show
that the effect of increasing the internal heat generation is always to
destabilize the layer.
Towards a New Methodology for Developing Web-Based Systems
Web-based systems have become increasingly
important due to the fact that the Internet and the World Wide Web
have become ubiquitous, surpassing all other technological
developments in our history. The Internet and especially companies
websites has rapidly evolved in their scope and extent of use, from
being a little more than fixed advertising material, i.e. a "web
presences", which had no particular influence for the company's
business, to being one of the most essential parts of the company's
Traditional software engineering approaches with process models
such as, for example, CMM and Waterfall models, do not work very
well since web system development differs from traditional
development. The development differs in several ways, for example,
there is a large gap between traditional software engineering designs
and concepts and the low-level implementation model, many of the
web based system development activities are business oriented (for
example web application are sales-oriented, web application and
intranets are content-oriented) and not engineering-oriented.
This paper aims to introduce Increment Iterative extreme
Programming (IIXP) methodology for developing web based
systems. In difference to the other existence methodologies, this
methodology is combination of different traditional and modern
software engineering and web engineering principles.
Detection of Moving Images Using Neural Network
Motion detection is a basic operation in the selection of significant segments of the video signals. For an effective Human Computer Intelligent Interaction, the computer needs to recognize the motion and track the moving object. Here an efficient neural network system is proposed for motion detection from the static background. This method mainly consists of four parts like Frame Separation, Rough Motion Detection, Network Formation and Training, Object Tracking. This paper can be used to verify real time detections in such a way that it can be used in defense applications, bio-medical applications and robotics. This can also be used for obtaining detection information related to the size, location and direction of motion of moving objects for assessment purposes. The time taken for video tracking by this Neural Network is only few seconds.
Visualizing Transit Through a Web Based Geographic Information System
Currently in many major cities, public transit schedules
are disseminated through lists of routes, grids of stop times and
static maps. This paper describes a web based geographic information
system which disseminates the same schedule information through
intuitive GIS techniques. Using data from Calgary, Canada, an map
based interface has been created to allow users to see routes, stops and
moving buses all at once. Zoom and pan controls as well as satellite
imagery allows users to apply their personal knowledge about the
local geography to achieve faster, and more pertinent transit results.
Using asynchronous requests to web services, users are immersed
in an application where buses and stops can be added and removed
interactively, without the need to wait for responses to HTTP requests.
Introduce the FWA in the Band 3300-3400 MHz
This paper gives a study about forging solution to
deploy the fixed wireless access (FWA) in the band 3300-3400MHz
instead of 3400-3600MHz to eschew the harmful interference
between from the FWA towards fixed satellite services receiver
presented in this band. The impact of FWA services toward the FSS
and the boundaries of spectrum emission mask had been considered
to calculate the possible Guard band required in this case. In
addition, supplementary separation distance added to improve the
coexistence between the two adjacent bands. Simulation had been
done using Matlab software base on ITU models reliance on the most
popular specification used for the tropical weather countries. Review
the current problem of interference between two systems and some
mitigation techniques which adopted in Malaysia as a case study is a
part of this research.
Evaluation on Recent Committed Crypt Analysis Hash Function
This paper describes the study of cryptographic hash functions, one of the most important classes of primitives used in recent techniques in cryptography. The main aim is the development of recent crypt analysis hash function. We present different approaches to defining security properties more formally and present basic attack on hash function. We recall Merkle-Damgard security properties of iterated hash function. The Main aim of this paper is the development of recent techniques applicable to crypt Analysis hash function, mainly from SHA family. Recent proposed attacks an MD5 & SHA motivate a new hash function design. It is designed not only to have higher security but also to be faster than SHA-256. The performance of the new hash function is at least 30% better than that of SHA-256 in software. And it is secure against any known cryptographic attacks on hash functions.
Study on Extraction of Lanthanum Oxide from Monazite Concentrate
Lanthanum oxide is to be recovered from monazite,
which contains about 13.44% lanthanum oxide. The principal
objective of this study is to be able to extract lanthanum oxide from
monazite of Moemeik Myitsone Area. The treatment of monazite in
this study involves three main steps; extraction of lanthanum
hydroxide from monazite by using caustic soda, digestion with nitric
acid and precipitation with ammonium hydroxide and calcination of
lanthanum oxalate to lanthanum oxide.
Integral Operators Related to Problems of Interface Dynamics
This research work is concerned with the eigenvalue problem for the integral operators which are obtained by linearization of a nonlocal evolution equation. The purpose of section II.A is to describe the nature of the problem and the objective of the project. The problem is related to the “stable solution" of the evolution equation which is the so-called “instanton" that describe the interface between two stable phases. The analysis of the instanton and its asymptotic behavior are described in section II.C by imposing the Green function and making use of a probability kernel. As a result , a classical Theorem which is important for an instanton is proved. Section III devoted to a study of the integral operators related to interface dynamics which concern the analysis of the Cauchy problem for the evolution equation with initial data close to different phases and different regions of space.
Study on Extraction of Niobium Oxide from Columbite–Tantalite Concentrate
The principal objective of this study is to be able to
extract niobium oxide from columbite-tantalite concentrate of Thayet
Kon Area in Nay Phi Taw. It is recovered from columbite-tantalite
concentrate which contains 19.29 % Nb2O5.The recovery of niobium
oxide from columbite-tantalite concentrate can be divided into three
main sections, namely, digestion of the concentrate, recovery from
the leached solution and precipitation and calcinations. The
concentrate was digested with hydrofluoric acid and sulfuric acid. Of
the various parameters that effect acidity and time were studied. In
the recovery section solvent extraction process using methyl isobutyl
ketone was investigated. Ammonium hydroxide was used as a
precipitating agent and the precipitate was later calcined. The
percentage of niobium oxide is 74%.
Interactive PTZ Camera Control System Using Wii Remote and Infrared Sensor Bar
This paper proposes an alternative control mechanism
for an interactive Pan/Tilt/Zoom (PTZ) camera control system.
Instead of using a mouse or a joystick, the proposed mechanism
utilizes a Nintendo Wii remote and infrared (IR) sensor bar. The Wii
remote has buttons that allows the user to control the movement of a
PTZ camera through Bluetooth connectivity. In addition, the Wii
remote has a built-in motion sensor that allows the user to give
control signals to the PTZ camera through pitch and roll movement.
A stationary IR sensor bar, placed at some distance away opposite the
Wii remote, enables the detection of yaw movement. In addition, the
Wii remote-s built-in IR camera has the ability to detect its spatial
position, and thus generates a control signal when the user moves the
Wii remote. Some experiments are carried out and their performances
are compared with an industry-standard PTZ joystick.
Quranic Braille System
This article concerned with the translation of Quranic
verses to Braille symbols, by using Visual basic program. The
system has the ability to translate the special vibration for the Quran.
This study limited for the (Noun + Scoon) vibrations. It builds on an
existing translation system that combines a finite state machine with
left and right context matching and a set of translation rules. This
allows to translate the Arabic language from text to Braille symbols
after detect the vibration for the Quran verses.
A Novel Slip Correction Factor for Spherical Aerosol Particles
A 3D simulation study for an incompressible
slip flow around a spherical aerosol particle was performed.
The full Navier-Stokes equations were solved and the velocity
jump at the gas-particle interface was treated numerically by
imposition of the slip boundary condition. Analytical solution
to the Stokesian slip flow past a spherical particle was used as
a benchmark for code verification, and excellent agreement
was achieved. The Simulation results showed that in addition
to the Knudsen number, the Reynolds number affects the slip
correction factor. Thus, the Cunningham-based slip corrections
must be augmented by the inclusion of the effect of
Reynolds number for application to Lagrangian tracking of
fine particles. A new expression for the slip correction factor
as a function of both Knudsen number and Reynolds number
Clustering Based Formulation for Short Term Load Forecasting
A clustering based technique has been developed and implemented for Short Term Load Forecasting, in this article. Formulation has been done using Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) as an objective function. Data Matrix and cluster size are optimization variables. Model designed, uses two temperature variables. This is compared with six input Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) and Fuzzy Inference Neural Network (FINN) for the data of the same system, for same time period. The fuzzy inference system has the network structure and the training procedure of a neural network which initially creates a rule base from existing historical load data. It is observed that the proposed clustering based model is giving better forecasting accuracy as compared to the other two methods. Test results also indicate that the RBFNN can forecast future loads with accuracy comparable to that of proposed method, where as the training time required in the case of FINN is much less.
Domineering is a classic two-player combinatorial
game usually played on a rectangular board. Three-player Domineering
is the three-player version of Domineering played on a three
dimensional board. Experimental results are presented for x×y ×z
boards with x + y + z < 10 and x, y, z ≥ 2. Also, some theoretical
results are shown for 2 × 2 × n board with n even and n ≥ 4.
A Data Mining Model for Detecting Financial and Operational Risk Indicators of SMEs
In this paper, a data mining model to SMEs for detecting financial and operational risk indicators by data mining is presenting. The identification of the risk factors by clarifying the relationship between the variables defines the discovery of knowledge from the financial and operational variables. Automatic and estimation oriented information discovery process coincides the definition of data mining. During the formation of model; an easy to understand, easy to interpret and easy to apply utilitarian model that is far from the requirement of theoretical background is targeted by the discovery of the implicit relationships between the data and the identification of effect level of every factor. In addition, this paper is based on a project which was funded by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK).
Novel Security Strategy for Real Time Digital Videos
Now a days video data embedding approach is a very challenging and interesting task towards keeping real time video data secure. We can implement and use this technique with high-level applications. As the rate-distortion of any image is not confirmed, because the gain provided by accurate image frame segmentation are balanced by the inefficiency of coding objects of arbitrary shape, with a lot factors like losses that depend on both the coding scheme and the object structure. By using rate controller in association with the encoder one can dynamically adjust the target bitrate. This paper discusses about to keep secure videos by mixing signature data with negligible distortion in the original video, and to keep steganographic video as closely as possible to the quality of the original video. In this discussion we propose the method for embedding the signature data into separate video frames by the use of block Discrete Cosine Transform. These frames are then encoded by real time encoding H.264 scheme concepts. After processing, at receiver end recovery of original video and the signature data is proposed.
CFD Simulation and Validation of Flap Type Wave-Maker
A general purpose viscous flow solver Ansys CFX
was used to solve the unsteady three-dimensional (3D) Reynolds
Averaged Navier-Stokes Equation (RANSE) for simulating a 3D
numerical viscous wave tank. A flap-type wave generator was
incorporated in the computational domain to generate the desired
incident waves. Authors have made effort to study the physical
behaviors of Flap type wave maker with governing parameters.
Dependency of the water fill depth, Time period of oscillations and
amplitude of oscillations of flap were studied. Effort has been made
to establish relations between parameters. A validation study was
also carried out against CFD methodology with wave maker theory.
It has been observed that CFD results are in good agreement with
theoretical results. Beaches of different slopes were introduced to
damp the wave, so that it should not cause any reflection from
boundary. As a conclusion this methodology can simulate the
experimental wave-maker for regular wave generation for different
wave length and amplitudes.
Understanding E-Learning Satisfaction in the Context of University Teachers
The present study was designed to test the influence
of confirmed expectations, perceived usefulness and perceived
competence on e-learning satisfaction among university teachers. A
questionnaire was completed by 125 university teachers from 12
different universities in Norway. We found that 51% of the variance
in university teachers- satisfaction with e-learning could be explained
by the three proposed antecedents. Perceived usefulness seems to be
the most important predictor of teachers- satisfaction with e-learning.
Design and Construction of Microcontroller-Based Telephone Exchange System
This paper demonstrates design and construction of
microcontroller-based telephone exchange system and the aims of
this paper is to study telecommunication, connection with
PIC16F877A and DTMF MT8870D. In microcontroller system, PIC
16F877 microcontroller is used to control the call processing. Dial
tone, busy tone and ring tone are provided during call progress.
Instead of using ready made tone generator IC, oscillator based tone
generator is used. The results of this telephone exchange system are
perfect for homes and small businesses needing the extensions. It
requires the phone operation control system, the analog interface
circuit and the switching circuit. This exchange design will contain
It is the best low cost, good quality telephone exchange for today-s
telecommunication needs. It offers the features available in much
more expensive PBX units without using high-priced phones. It is for
long distance telephone services.
News Media in Arab Societies
The paper examines the theories of media, dominant
effects and critical and cultural theories that are used to examine
media and society issues, and then apply the theories to explore the
current situation of news media in Arab societies. The research is
meant to explore the nature of media in the Arab world and the way
that modern technologies have changed the nature of the Arab public
sphere. It considers the role of an open press in promoting a more
democratic society, while recognizing the unique qualities of an Arab
The Effects of Media Campaigns on Different Cultures
The paper examines the Most public relations spots
and advertisements dealing with drugs. For this reason, public service
advertisements show Americans in activities with drugs and alcohol.
The way that the advertisements are produced, viewers from the
Middle East say these ads are not for them. They recognize the ads as
strictly for Americans trying to overcome their problems with drugs
and alcohol. Also, this paper explores the development of the
advertisements which are ineffective in other cultures like the Islamic
because the limited scope of the message does not have a major
effect on the Islamic beliefs and practices.
Improved Power Spectrum Estimation for RR-Interval Time Series
The RR interval series is non-stationary and unevenly
spaced in time. For estimating its power spectral density (PSD) using
traditional techniques like FFT, require resampling at uniform
intervals. The researchers have used different interpolation
techniques as resampling methods. All these resampling methods
introduce the low pass filtering effect in the power spectrum. The
lomb transform is a means of obtaining PSD estimates directly from
irregularly sampled RR interval series, thus avoiding resampling. In
this work, the superiority of Lomb transform method has been
established over FFT based approach, after applying linear and
cubicspline interpolation as resampling methods, in terms of
reproduction of exact frequency locations as well as the relative
magnitudes of each spectral component.
Design Optimization for Efficient Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers
The exact gain shape profile of erbium doped fiber
amplifiers (EDFA`s) are depends on fiber length and Er3 ion
densities. This paper optimized several of erbium doped fiber
parameters to obtain high performance characteristic at pump
wavelengths of λp= 980 nm and λs= 1550 nm for three different
pump powers. The maximum gain obtained for pump powers (10, 30
and 50mw) is nearly (19, 30 and 33 dB) at optimizations. The
required numerical aperture NA to obtain maximum gain becomes
less when pump power increased. The amplifier gain is increase
when Er+3doped near the center of the fiber core. The simulation has
been done by using optisystem 5.0 software (CAD for Photonics, a
license product of a Canadian based company) at 2.5 Gbps.
Forecasting the Istanbul Stock Exchange National 100 Index Using an Artificial Neural Network
Many studies have shown that Artificial Neural
Networks (ANN) have been widely used for forecasting financial
markets, because of many financial and economic variables are nonlinear,
and an ANN can model flexible linear or non-linear
relationship among variables.
The purpose of the study was to employ an ANN models to
predict the direction of the Istanbul Stock Exchange National 100
Indices (ISE National-100).
As a result of this study, the model forecast the direction of the
ISE National-100 to an accuracy of 74, 51%.
Enhanced Ant Colony Based Algorithm for Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Network
Mobile Ad hoc network consists of a set of mobile
nodes. It is a dynamic network which does not have fixed topology.
This network does not have any infrastructure or central
administration, hence it is called infrastructure-less network. The
change in topology makes the route from source to destination as
dynamic fixed and changes with respect to time. The nature of
network requires the algorithm to perform route discovery, maintain
route and detect failure along the path between two nodes . This
paper presents the enhancements of ARA  to improve the
performance of routing algorithm. ARA  finds route between
nodes in mobile ad-hoc network. The algorithm is on-demand source
initiated routing algorithm. This is based on the principles of swarm
intelligence. The algorithm is adaptive, scalable and favors load
balancing. The improvements suggested in this paper are handling of
loss ants and resource reservation.
Environmental Responsibility and Firm Performance: Evidence from Nigeria
The objective of this paper is to establish a possible relationship between sustainable business practice and firm performance. Using a field survey methodology, a sample of sixty manufacturing companies in Nigeria was studied. The firms were categorised into two groups, environmentally 'responsible' and 'irresponsible' firms. An investigation was undertaken into the possible relationship between firm performance and three selected indicators of sustainable business practice: employee health and safety (EHS), waste management (WM), and community development (CD), common within the 30 'responsible' firms. Findings from empirical results reveal that the sustainable practices of the 'responsible' firms are significantly related with firm performance. In addition, sustainable practices are inversely related with fines and penalties. The paper concludes that, within the Nigerian setting at least, sustainability affects corporate performance and sustainability may be a possible tool for corporate conflict resolution as evidenced in the reduction of fines, penalties and compensations. The paper therefore recommends research into the relationship between sustainability and conflict management.
Research of Dynamic Location Referencing Method Based On Intersection and Link Partition
Dynamic location referencing method is an important technology to shield map differences. These method references objects of the road network by utilizing condensed selection of its real-world geographic properties stored in a digital map database, which overcomes the defections existing in pre-coded location referencing methods. The high attributes completeness requirements and complicated reference point selection algorithm are the main problems of recent researches. Therefore, a dynamic location referencing algorithm combining intersection points selected at the extremities compulsively and road link points selected according to link partition principle was proposed. An experimental system based on this theory was implemented. The tests using Beijing digital map database showed satisfied results and thus verified the feasibility and practicability of this method.
An Analysis of Acoustic Function and Navier-Stokes Equations in Aerodynamic
Acoustic function plays an important role in
aerodynamic mechanical engineering. It can classify the kind of
air-vehicle such as subsonic or supersonic. Acoustic velocity
relates with velocity and Mach number. Mach number relates
again acoustic stability or instability condition. Mach number
plays an important role in growth or decay in energy system.
Acoustic is a function of temperature and temperature is directly
proportional to pressure. If we control the pressure, we can control
acoustic function. To get pressure stability condition, we apply
Microwave Drying System with High-Tech Phase Controller: A Modified Applicator
Microwave energy can be used for drying purpose. It is unique process. It is distinctly different from conventional drying process. It is advantageous over conventional drying / heating processes. When microwave energy is used for drying purpose, the process can be accelerated with a better control to achieve uniform heating, more conversion efficiency, selective drying and ultimately improved product quality of the output. Also, less floor space and compact system are the added advantages. Existing low power microwave drying system is to be modified with suitable applicator. Appropriate sensors are to be used to measure parameters like moisture, temperature, weight of sample. Suitable high tech controller is to be used to control microwave power continuously from minimum to maximum. Phase - controller, cycle - controller and PWM - controller are some of the advanced power control techniques. It has been proposed to work on turmeric using high-tech phase controller to control the microwave power conveniently. The drying of turmeric with microwave energy employing phase controller gives better results as formulated in this paper and hence new approach of processing turmeric will open future doors of profit making to allied industries and the farmers.