Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 176

176
5725
Routing Capability and Blocking Analysis of Dynamic ROADM Optical Networks (Category - II) for Dynamic Traffic
Abstract:
Reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers (ROADMs) can be classified into three categories based on their underlying switching technologies. Category I consists of a single large optical switch; category II is composed of a number of small optical switches aligned in parallel; and category III has a single optical switch and only one wavelength being added/dropped. In this paper, to evaluate the wavelength-routing capability of ROADMs of category-II in dynamic optical networks,the dynamic traffic models are designed based on Bernoulli, Poisson distributions for smooth and regular types of traffic. Through Analytical and Simulation results, the routing power of cat-II of ROADM networks for two traffic models are determined.
175
8485
Low Voltage Squarer Using Floating Gate MOSFETs
Abstract:
A new low-voltage floating gate MOSFET (FGMOS) based squarer using square law characteristic of the FGMOS is proposed in this paper. The major advantages of the squarer are simplicity, rail-to-rail input dynamic range, low total harmonic distortion, and low power consumption. The proposed circuit is biased without body effect. The circuit is designed and simulated using SPICE in 0.25μm CMOS technology. The squarer is operated at the supply voltages of ±0.75V . The total harmonic distortion (THD) for the input signal 0.75Vpp at 25 KHz, and maximum power consumption were found to be less than 1% and 319μW respectively.
174
13451
Low Power and Less Area Architecture for Integer Motion Estimation
Abstract:

Full search block matching algorithm is widely used for hardware implementation of motion estimators in video compression algorithms. In this paper we are proposing a new architecture, which consists of a 2D parallel processing unit and a 1D unit both working in parallel. The proposed architecture reduces both data access power and computational power which are the main causes of power consumption in integer motion estimation. It also completes the operations with nearly the same number of clock cycles as compared to a 2D systolic array architecture. In this work sum of absolute difference (SAD)-the most repeated operation in block matching, is calculated in two steps. The first step is to calculate the SAD for alternate rows by a 2D parallel unit. If the SAD calculated by the parallel unit is less than the stored minimum SAD, the SAD of the remaining rows is calculated by the 1D unit. Early termination, which stops avoidable computations has been achieved with the help of alternate rows method proposed in this paper and by finding a low initial SAD value based on motion vector prediction. Data reuse has been applied to the reference blocks in the same search area which significantly reduced the memory access.

173
916
Network State Classification based on the Statistical properties of RTT for an Adaptive Multi-State Proactive Transport Protocol for Satellite based Networks
Abstract:
This paper attempts to establish the fact that Multi State Network Classification is essential for performance enhancement of Transport protocols over Satellite based Networks. A model to classify Multi State network condition taking into consideration both congestion and channel error is evolved. In order to arrive at such a model an analysis of the impact of congestion and channel error on RTT values has been carried out using ns2. The analysis results are also reported in the paper. The inference drawn from this analysis is used to develop a novel statistical RTT based model for multi state network classification. An Adaptive Multi State Proactive Transport Protocol consisting of Proactive Slow Start, State based Error Recovery, Timeout Action and Proactive Reduction is proposed which uses the multi state network state classification model. This paper also confirms through detail simulation and analysis that a prior knowledge about the overall characteristics of the network helps in enhancing the performance of the protocol over satellite channel which is significantly affected due to channel noise and congestion. The necessary augmentation of ns2 simulator is done for simulating the multi state network classification logic. This simulation has been used in detail evaluation of the protocol under varied levels of congestion and channel noise. The performance enhancement of this protocol with reference to established protocols namely TCP SACK and Vegas has been discussed. The results as discussed in this paper clearly reveal that the proposed protocol always outperforms its peers and show a significant improvement in very high error conditions as envisaged in the design of the protocol.
172
4338
DACS3:Embedding Individual Ant Behavior in Ant Colony System
Abstract:
Ants are fascinating creatures that demonstrate the ability to find food and bring it back to their nest. Their ability as a colony, to find paths to food sources has inspired the development of algorithms known as Ant Colony Systems (ACS). The principle of cooperation forms the backbone of such algorithms, commonly used to find solutions to problems such as the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). Ants communicate to each other through chemical substances called pheromones. Modeling individual ants- ability to manipulate this substance can help an ACS find the best solution. This paper introduces a Dynamic Ant Colony System with threelevel updates (DACS3) that enhance an existing ACS. Experiments were conducted to observe single ant behavior in a colony of Malaysian House Red Ants. Such behavior was incorporated into the DACS3 algorithm. We benchmark the performance of DACS3 versus DACS on TSP instances ranging from 14 to 100 cities. The result shows that the DACS3 algorithm can achieve shorter distance in most cases and also performs considerably faster than DACS.
171
9947
Pattern Matching Based on Regular Tree Grammars
Authors:
Abstract:

Pattern matching based on regular tree grammars have been widely used in many areas of computer science. In this paper, we propose a pattern matcher within the framework of code generation, based on a generic and a formalized approach. According to this approach, parsers for regular tree grammars are adapted to a general pattern matching solution, rather than adapting the pattern matching according to their parsing behavior. Hence, we first formalize the construction of the pattern matches respective to input trees drawn from a regular tree grammar in a form of the so-called match trees. Then, we adopt a recently developed generic parser and tightly couple its parsing behavior with such construction. In addition to its generality, the resulting pattern matcher is characterized by its soundness and efficient implementation. This is demonstrated by the proposed theory and by the derived algorithms for its implementation. A comparison with similar and well-known approaches, such as the ones based on tree automata and LR parsers, has shown that our pattern matcher can be applied to a broader class of grammars, and achieves better approximation of pattern matches in one pass. Furthermore, its use as a machine code selector is characterized by a minimized overhead, due to the balanced distribution of the cost computations into static ones, during parser generation time, and into dynamic ones, during parsing time.

170
12580
Cable Tension Control and Analysis of Reel Transparency for 6-DOF Haptic Foot Platform on a Cable-Driven Locomotion Interface
Abstract:
A Cable-Driven Locomotion Interface provides a low inertia haptic interface and is used as a way of enabling the user to walk and interact with virtual surfaces. These surfaces generate Cartesian wrenches which must be optimized for each motorized reel in order to reproduce a haptic sensation in both feet. However, the use of wrench control requires a measure of the cable tensions applied to the moving platform. The latter measure may be inaccurate if it is based on sensors located near the reel. Moreover, friction hysteresis from the reel moving parts needs to be compensated for with an evaluation of low angular velocity of the motor shaft. Also, the pose of the platform is not known precisely due to cable sagging and mechanical deformation. This paper presents a non-ideal motorized reel design with its corresponding control strategy that aims at overcoming the aforementioned issues. A transfert function of the reel based on frequency responses in function of cable tension and cable length is presented with an optimal adaptative PIDF controller. Finally, an hybrid position/tension control is discussed with an analysis of the stability for achieving a complete functionnality of the haptic platform.
169
3883
Quality of Groundwater in the Shallow Aquifers of a Paddy Dominated Agricultural River Basin, Kerala, India
Abstract:

Groundwater is an essential and vital component of our life support system. The groundwater resources are being utilized for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes. There is growing concern on deterioration of groundwater quality due to geogenic and anthropogenic activities. Groundwater, being a fragile must be carefully managed to maintain its purity within standard limits. So, quality assessment and management are to be carried out hand-in-hand to have a pollution free environment and for a sustainable use. In order to assess the quality for consumption by human beings and for use in agriculture, the groundwater from the shallow aquifers (dug well) in the Palakkad and Chittur taluks of Bharathapuzha river basin - a paddy dominated agricultural basin (order=8th; L= 209 Km; Area = 6186 Km2), Kerala, India, has been selected. The water samples (n= 120) collected for various seasons, viz., monsoon-MON (August, 2005), postmonsoon-POM (December, 2005) and premonsoon-PRM (April, 2006), were analyzed for important physico-chemical attributes. Spatial and temporal variation of attributes do exist in the study area, and based on major cations and anions, different hydrochemical facies have been identified. Using Gibbs'diagram, rock dominance has been identified as the mechanism controlling groundwater chemistry. Further, the suitability of water for irrigation was determined by analyzing salinity hazard indicated by sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC) and sodium percent (%Na). Finally, stress zones in the study area were delineated using Arc GIS spatial analysis and various management options were recommended to restore the ecosystem.

168
6784
Improving Multi-storey Building Sensor Network with an External Hub
Abstract:
Monitoring and automatic control of building environment is a crucial application of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) in which maximizing network lifetime is a key challenge. Previous research into the performance of a network in a building environment has been concerned with radio propagation within a single floor. We investigate the link quality distribution to obtain full coverage of signal strength in a four-storey building environment, experimentally. Our results indicate that the transitional region is of particular concern in wireless sensor network since it accommodates high variance unreliable links. The transitional region in a multi-storey building is mainly due to the presence of reinforced concrete slabs at each storey and the fac┬©ade which obstructs the radio signal and introduces an additional absorption term to the path loss.
167
11827
Effect of Cyclotron Resonance Frequencies in Particles Due to AC and DC Electromagnetic Fields
Abstract:
A fundamental model consisting of charged particles moving in free space exposed to alternating and direct current (ACDC) electromagnetic fields is analyzed. Effects of charged particles initial position and initial velocity to cyclotron resonance frequency are observed. Strong effects are observed revealing that effects of electric and magnetic fields on a charged particle in free space varies with the initial conditions. This indicates the frequency where maximum displacement occur can be changed. At this frequency the amplitude of oscillation of the particle displacement becomes unbounded.
166
13372
On the Mathematical Structure and Algorithmic Implementation of Biochemical Network Models
Authors:
Abstract:

Modeling and simulation of biochemical reactions is of great interest in the context of system biology. The central dogma of this re-emerging area states that it is system dynamics and organizing principles of complex biological phenomena that give rise to functioning and function of cells. Cell functions, such as growth, division, differentiation and apoptosis are temporal processes, that can be understood if they are treated as dynamic systems. System biology focuses on an understanding of functional activity from a system-wide perspective and, consequently, it is defined by two hey questions: (i) how do the components within a cell interact, so as to bring about its structure and functioning? (ii) How do cells interact, so as to develop and maintain higher levels of organization and functions? In recent years, wet-lab biologists embraced mathematical modeling and simulation as two essential means toward answering the above questions. The credo of dynamics system theory is that the behavior of a biological system is given by the temporal evolution of its state. Our understanding of the time behavior of a biological system can be measured by the extent to which a simulation mimics the real behavior of that system. Deviations of a simulation indicate either limitations or errors in our knowledge. The aim of this paper is to summarize and review the main conceptual frameworks in which models of biochemical networks can be developed. In particular, we review the stochastic molecular modelling approaches, by reporting the principal conceptualizations suggested by A. A. Markov, P. Langevin, A. Fokker, M. Planck, D. T. Gillespie, N. G. van Kampfen, and recently by D. Wilkinson, O. Wolkenhauer, P. S. Jöberg and by the author.

165
10191
Adsorption of Lead(II) and Cadmium(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption on Activated Carbon Prepared from Cashew Nut Shells
Abstract:

Cashew nut shells were converted into activated carbon powders using KOH activation plus CO2 gasification at 1027 K. The increase both of impregnation ratio and activation time, there was swiftly the development of mesoporous structure with increasing of mesopore volume ratio from 20-28% and 27-45% for activated carbon with ratio of KOH per char equal to 1 and 4, respectively. Activated carbon derived from KOH/char ratio equal to 1 and CO2 gasification time from 20 to 150 minutes were exhibited the BET surface area increasing from 222 to 627 m2.g-1. And those were derived from KOH/char ratio of 4 with activation time from 20 to 150 minutes exhibited high BET surface area from 682 to 1026 m2.g-1. The adsorption of Lead(II) and Cadmium(II) ion was investigated. This adsorbent exhibited excellent adsorption for Lead(II) and Cadmium(II) ion. Maximum adsorption presented at 99.61% at pH 6.5 and 98.87% at optimum conditions. The experimental data was calculated from Freundlich isotherm and Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum capacity of Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions was found to be 28.90 m2.g-1 and 14.29 m2.g-1, respectively.

164
5864
On the Existence and Global Attractivity of Solutions of a Functional Integral Equation
Abstract:

Using the concept of measure of noncompactness, we present some results concerning the existence, uniform local attractivity and global attractivity of solutions for a functional integral equation. Our results improve and extend some previous known results and based on weaker conditions. Some examples which show that our results are applicable when the previous results are inapplicable are also included.

163
2810
Hardiness vs Alienation Personality Construct Essentially Explains Burnout Proclivity and Erroneous Computer Entry Problems in Rural Hellenic Hospital Labs
Abstract:

Erroneous computer entry problems [here: 'e'errors] in hospital labs threaten the patients-–health carers- relationship, undermining the health system credibility. Are e-errors random, and do lab professionals make them accidentally, or may they be traced through meaningful determinants? Theories on internal causality of mistakes compel to seek specific causal ascriptions of hospital lab eerrors instead of accepting some inescapability. Undeniably, 'To Err is Human'. But in view of rapid global health organizational changes, e-errors are too expensive to lack in-depth considerations. Yet, that efunction might supposedly be entrenched in the health carers- job description remains under dispute – at least for Hellenic labs, where e-use falls behind generalized(able) appreciation and application. In this study: i) an empirical basis of a truly high annual cost of e-errors at about €498,000.00 per rural Hellenic hospital was established, hence interest in exploring the issue was sufficiently substantiated; ii) a sample of 270 lab-expert nurses, technicians and doctors were assessed on several personality, burnout and e-error measures, and iii) the hypothesis that the Hardiness vs Alienation personality construct disposition explains resistance vs proclivity to e-errors was tested and verified: Hardiness operates as a resilience source in the encounter of high pressures experienced in the hospital lab, whereas its 'opposite', i.e., Alienation, functions as a predictor, not only of making e-errors, but also of leading to burn-out. Implications for apt interventions are discussed.

162
14390
Determination of Measurement Uncertainty in Extracting of Forming Limit Diagrams
Abstract:
In this research, Forming Limit Diagrams for supertension sheet metals which are using in automobile industry have been obtained. The exerted strains to sheet metals have been measured with four different methods and the errors of each method have also been represented. These methods have been compared with together and the most efficient and economic way of extracting of the exerted strains to sheet metals has been introduced. In this paper total error and uncertainty of FLD extraction procedures have been derived. Determination of the measurement uncertainty in extracting of FLD has a great importance in design and analysis of the sheet metal forming process.
161
4916
Performance of Histogram-Based Skin Colour Segmentation for Arms Detection in Human Motion Analysis Application
Abstract:
Arms detection is one of the fundamental problems in human motion analysis application. The arms are considered as the most challenging body part to be detected since its pose and speed varies in image sequences. Moreover, the arms are usually occluded with other body parts such as the head and torso. In this paper, histogram-based skin colour segmentation is proposed to detect the arms in image sequences. Six different colour spaces namely RGB, rgb, HSI, TSL, SCT and CIELAB are evaluated to determine the best colour space for this segmentation procedure. The evaluation is divided into three categories, which are single colour component, colour without luminance and colour with luminance. The performance is measured using True Positive (TP) and True Negative (TN) on 250 images with manual ground truth. The best colour is selected based on the highest TN value followed by the highest TP value.
160
5152
WLAN Positioning Based on Joint TOA and RSS Characteristics
Abstract:
WLAN Positioning has been presented by many approaches in literatures using the characteristics of Received Signal Strength (RSS), Time of Arrival (TOA) or Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA), Angle of Arrival (AOA) and cell ID. Among these, RSS approach is the simplest method to implement because there is no need of modification on both access points and client devices whereas its accuracy is terrible due to physical environments. For TOA or TDOA approach, the accuracy is quite acceptable but most researches have to modify either software or hardware on existing WLAN infrastructure. The scales of modifications are made on only access card up to the changes in protocol of WLAN. Hence, it is an unattractive approach to use TOA or TDOA for positioning system. In this paper, the new concept of merging both RSS and TOA positioning techniques is proposed. In addition, the method to achieve TOA characteristic for positioning WLAN user without any extra modification necessarily appended in the existing system is presented. The measurement results confirm that the proposed technique using both RSS and TOA characteristics provides better accuracy than using only either RSS or TOA approach.
159
10443
Mitigation of ISI for Next Generation Wireless Channels in Outdoor Vehicular Environments
Abstract:
In order to accommodate various multimedia services, next generation wireless networks are characterized by very high transmission bit rates. Thus, in such systems and networks, the received signal is not only limited by noise but - especially with increasing symbols rate often more significantly by the intersymbol interference (ISI) caused by the time dispersive radio channels such as those are used in this work. This paper deals with the study of the performance of detector for high bit rate transmission on some worst case models of frequency selective fading channels for outdoor mobile radio environments. This paper deals with a number of different wireless channels with different power profiles and different number of resolvable paths. All the radio channels generated in this paper are for outdoor vehicular environments with Doppler spread of 100 Hz. A carrier frequency of 1800 MHz is used and all the channels used in this work are such that they are useful for next generation wireless systems. Schemes for mitigation of ISI with adaptive equalizers of different types have been investigated and their performances have been investigated in terms of BER measured as a function of SNR.
158
9615
MIMO Broadcast Scheduling for Weighted Sum-rate Maximization
Abstract:

Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) is one of the most important communication techniques that allow wireless systems to achieve higher data rate. To overcome the practical difficulties in implementing Dirty Paper Coding (DPC), various suboptimal MIMO Broadcast (MIMO-BC) scheduling algorithms are employed which choose the best set of users among all the users. In this paper we discuss such a sub-optimal MIMO-BC scheduling algorithm which employs antenna selection at the receiver side. The channels for the users considered here are not Identical and Independent Distributed (IID) so that users at the receiver side do not get equal opportunity for communication. So we introduce a method of applying weights to channels of the users which are not IID in such a way that each of the users gets equal opportunity for communication. The effect of weights on overall sum-rate achieved by the system has been investigated and presented.

157
5107
Fast Dummy Sequence Insertion Method for PAPR Reduction in WiMAX Systems
Abstract:
In literatures, many researches proposed various methods to reduce PAPR (Peak to Average Power Ratio). Among those, DSI (Dummy Sequence Insertion) is one of the most attractive methods for WiMAX systems because it does not require side information transmitted along with user data. However, the conventional DSI methods find dummy sequence by performing an iterative procedure until achieving PAPR under a desired threshold. This causes a significant delay on finding dummy sequence and also effects to the overall performances in WiMAX systems. In this paper, the new method based on DSI is proposed by finding dummy sequence without the need of iterative procedure. The fast DSI method can reduce PAPR without either delays or required side information. The simulation results confirm that the proposed method is able to carry out PAPR performances as similar to the other methods without any delays. In addition, the simulations of WiMAX system with adaptive modulations are also investigated to realize the use of proposed methods on various fading schemes. The results suggest the WiMAX designers to modify a new Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) criteria for adaptation.
156
3493
Discrete Polyphase Matched Filtering-based Soft Timing Estimation for Mobile Wireless Systems
Abstract:

In this paper we present a soft timing phase estimation (STPE) method for wireless mobile receivers operating in low signal to noise ratios (SNRs). Discrete Polyphase Matched (DPM) filters, a Log-maximum a posterior probability (MAP) and/or a Soft-output Viterbi algorithm (SOVA) are combined to derive a new timing recovery (TR) scheme. We apply this scheme to wireless cellular communication system model that comprises of a raised cosine filter (RCF), a bit-interleaved turbo-coded multi-level modulation (BITMM) scheme and the channel is assumed to be memory-less. Furthermore, no clock signals are transmitted to the receiver contrary to the classical data aided (DA) models. This new model ensures that both the bandwidth and power of the communication system is conserved. However, the computational complexity of ideal turbo synchronization is increased by 50%. Several simulation tests on bit error rate (BER) and block error rate (BLER) versus low SNR reveal that the proposed iterative soft timing recovery (ISTR) scheme outperforms the conventional schemes.

155
14413
Design of Digital IIR filters with the Advantages of Model Order Reduction Technique
Abstract:
In this paper, a new model order reduction phenomenon is introduced at the design stage of linear phase digital IIR filter. The complexity of a system can be reduced by adopting the model order reduction method in their design. In this paper a mixed method of model order reduction is proposed for linear IIR filter. The proposed method employs the advantages of factor division technique to derive the reduced order denominator polynomial and the reduced order numerator is obtained based on the resultant denominator polynomial. The order reduction technique is used to reduce the delay units at the design stage of IIR filter. The validity of the proposed method is illustrated with design example in frequency domain and stability is also examined with help of nyquist plot.
154
11694
Compact Model of Dual-Drain MAGFETs Simulation
Abstract:
This work offers a study of new simple compact model of dual-drain Magnetic Field Effect Transistor (MAGFET) including geometrical effects and biasing dependency. An explanation of the sensitivity is investigated, involving carrier deflection as the dominant operating principle. Finally, model verification with simulation results is introduced to ensure that acceptable error of 2% is achieved.
153
15530
A Performance Comparison of Golay and Reed-Muller Coded OFDM Signal for Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction
Abstract:
Multicarrier transmission system such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a promising technique for high bit rate transmission in wireless communication systems. OFDM is a spectrally efficient modulation technique that can achieve high speed data transmission over multipath fading channels without the need for powerful equalization techniques. A major drawback of OFDM is the high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of the transmit signal which can significantly impact the performance of the power amplifier. In this paper we have compared the PAPR reduction performance of Golay and Reed-Muller coded OFDM signal. From our simulation it has been found that the PAPR reduction performance of Golay coded OFDM is better than the Reed-Muller coded OFDM signal. Moreover, for the optimum PAPR reduction performance, code configuration for Golay and Reed-Muller codes has been identified.
152
9093
A Fair Non-transfer Exchange Protocol
Abstract:
Network exchange is now widely used. However, it still cannot avoid the problems evolving from network exchange. For example. A buyer may not receive the order even if he/she makes the payment. For another example, the seller possibly get nothing even when the merchandise is sent. Some studies about the fair exchange have proposed protocols for the design of efficiency and exploited the signature property to specify that two parties agree on the exchange. The information about purchased item and price are disclosed in this way. This paper proposes a new fair network payment protocol with off-line trusted third party. The proposed protocol can protect the buyers- purchase message from being traced. In addition, the proposed protocol can meet the proposed requirements. The most significant feature is Non-transfer property we achieved.
151
709
Joint Microstatistic Multiuser Detection and Cancellation of Nonlinear Distortion Effects for the Uplink of MC-CDMA Systems Using Golay Codes
Abstract:
The study in this paper underlines the importance of correct joint selection of the spreading codes for uplink of multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) at the transmitter side and detector at the receiver side in the presence of nonlinear distortion due to high power amplifier (HPA). The bit error rate (BER) of system for different spreading sequences (Walsh code, Gold code, orthogonal Gold code, Golay code and Zadoff-Chu code) and different kinds of receivers (minimum mean-square error receiver (MMSE-MUD) and microstatistic multi-user receiver (MSF-MUD)) is compared by means of simulations for MC-CDMA transmission system. Finally, the results of analysis will show, that the application of MSF-MUD in combination with Golay codes can outperform significantly the other tested spreading codes and receivers for all mostly used models of HPA.
150
13048
Hardware Description Language Design of Σ-Δ Fractional-N Phase-Locked Loop for Wireless Applications
Abstract:

This paper discusses a systematic design of a Σ-Δ fractional-N Phase-Locked Loop based on HDL behavioral modeling. The proposed design consists in describing the mixed behavior of this PLL architecture starting from the specifications of each building block. The HDL models of critical PLL blocks have been described in VHDL-AMS to predict the different specifications of the PLL. The effect of different noise sources has been efficiently introduced to study the PLL system performances. The obtained results are compared with transistor-level simulations to validate the effectiveness of the proposed models for wireless applications in the frequency range around 2.45 GHz.

149
7709
Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical CDMA: Performance Analysis of PIIN Reduction Using VC Code Family
Abstract:

Multi-user interference (MUI) is the main reason of system deterioration in the Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC-OCDMA) system. MUI increases with the number of simultaneous users, resulting into higher probability bit rate and limits the maximum number of simultaneous users. On the other hand, Phase induced intensity noise (PIIN) problem which is originated from spontaneous emission of broad band source from MUI severely limits the system performance should be addressed as well. Since the MUI is caused by the interference of simultaneous users, reducing the MUI value as small as possible is desirable. In this paper, an extensive study for the system performance specified by MUI and PIIN reducing is examined. Vectors Combinatorial (VC) codes families are adopted as a signature sequence for the performance analysis and a comparison with reported codes is performed. The results show that, when the received power increases, the PIIN noise for all the codes increases linearly. The results also show that the effect of PIIN can be minimized by increasing the code weight leads to preserve adequate signal to noise ratio over bit error probability. A comparison study between the proposed code and the existing codes such as Modified frequency hopping (MFH), Modified Quadratic- Congruence (MQC) has been carried out.

Keywords:
148
1523
Effect of Channel Estimation on Capacity of MIMO System Employing Circular or Linear Receiving Array Antennas
Abstract:
This paper reports on investigations into capacity of a Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) wireless communication system employing a uniform linear array (ULA) at the transmitter and either a uniform linear array (ULA) or a uniform circular array (UCA) antenna at the receiver. The transmitter is assumed to be surrounded by scattering objects while the receiver is postulated to be free from scattering objects. The Laplacian distribution of angle of arrival (AOA) of a signal reaching the receiver is postulated. Calculations of the MIMO system capacity are performed for two cases without and with the channel estimation errors. For estimating the MIMO channel, the scaled least square (SLS) and minimum mean square error (MMSE) methods are considered.
147
9850
Pipelined Control-Path Effects on Area and Performance of a Wormhole-Switched Network-on-Chip
Abstract:
This paper presents design trade-off and performance impacts of the amount of pipeline phase of control path signals in a wormhole-switched network-on-chip (NoC). The numbers of the pipeline phase of the control path vary between two- and one-cycle pipeline phase. The control paths consist of the routing request paths for output selection and the arbitration paths for input selection. Data communications between on-chip routers are implemented synchronously and for quality of service, the inter-router data transports are controlled by using a link-level congestion control to avoid lose of data because of an overflow. The trade-off between the area (logic cell area) and the performance (bandwidth gain) of two proposed NoC router microarchitectures are presented in this paper. The performance evaluation is made by using a traffic scenario with different number of workloads under 2D mesh NoC topology using a static routing algorithm. By using a 130-nm CMOS standard-cell technology, our NoC routers can be clocked at 1 GHz, resulting in a high speed network link and high router bandwidth capacity of about 320 Gbit/s. Based on our experiments, the amount of control path pipeline stages gives more significant impact on the NoC performance than the impact on the logic area of the NoC router.
146
12624
An Energy-Latency-Efficient MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:
Because nodes are usually battery-powered, the energy presents a very scarce resource in wireless sensor networks. For this reason, the design of medium access control had to take energy efficiency as one of its hottest concerns. Accordingly, in order to improve the energy performance of MAC schemes in wireless sensor networks, several ways can be followed. In fact, some researchers try to limit idle listening while others focus on mitigating overhearing (i.e. a node can hear a packet which is destined to another node) or reducing the number of the used control packets. We, in this paper, propose a new hybrid MAC protocol termed ELE-MAC (i.e. Energy Latency Efficient MAC). The ELE-MAC major design goals are energy and latency efficiencies. It adopts less control packets than SMAC in order to preserve energy. We carried out ns- 2 simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol. Thus, our simulation-s results prove the ELE-MAC energy efficiency. Additionally, our solution performs statistically the same or better latency characteristic compared to adaptive SMAC.
145
7584
Low Complexity Multi Mode Interleaver Core for WiMAX with Support for Convolutional Interleaving
Abstract:
A hardware efficient, multi mode, re-configurable architecture of interleaver/de-interleaver for multiple standards, like DVB, WiMAX and WLAN is presented. The interleavers consume a large part of silicon area when implemented by using conventional methods as they use memories to store permutation patterns. In addition, different types of interleavers in different standards cannot share the hardware due to different construction methodologies. The novelty of the work presented in this paper is threefold: 1) Mapping of vital types of interleavers including convolutional interleaver onto a single architecture with flexibility to change interleaver size; 2) Hardware complexity for channel interleaving in WiMAX is reduced by using 2-D realization of the interleaver functions; and 3) Silicon cost overheads reduced by avoiding the use of small memories. The proposed architecture consumes 0.18mm2 silicon area for 0.12μm process and can operate at a frequency of 140 MHz. The reduced complexity helps in minimizing the memory utilization, and at the same time provides strong support to on-the-fly computation of permutation patterns.
144
9932
A New Performance Characterization of Transient Analysis Method
Abstract:

This paper proposes a new performance characterization for the test strategy intended for second order filters denominated Transient Analysis Method (TRAM). We evaluate the ability of the addressed test strategy for detecting deviation faults under simultaneous statistical fluctuation of the non-faulty parameters. For this purpose, we use Monte Carlo simulations and a fault model that considers as faulty only one component of the filter under test while the others components adopt random values (within their tolerance band) obtained from their statistical distributions. The new data reported here show (for the filters under study) the presence of hard-to-test components and relatively low fault coverage values for small deviation faults. These results suggest that the fault coverage value obtained using only nominal values for the non-faulty components (the traditional evaluation of TRAM) seem to be a poor predictor of the test performance.

143
9149
Symbolic Analysis of Large Circuits Using Discrete Wavelet Transform
Abstract:
Symbolic Circuit Analysis (SCA) is a technique used to generate the symbolic expression of a network. It has become a well-established technique in circuit analysis and design. The symbolic expression of networks offers excellent way to perform frequency response analysis, sensitivity computation, stability measurements, performance optimization, and fault diagnosis. Many approaches have been proposed in the area of SCA offering different features and capabilities. Numerical Interpolation methods are very common in this context, especially by using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The aim of this paper is to present a method for SCA that depends on the use of Wavelet Transform (WT) as a mathematical tool to generate the symbolic expression for large circuits with minimizing the analysis time by reducing the number of computations.
142
5400
Improvement of Bit-Error-Rate in Optical Fiber Receivers
Abstract:
In this paper, a post processing scheme is suggested for improvement of Bit Error-Rate (BER) in optical fiber transmission receivers. The developed scheme has been tested on optical fiber systems operating with a non-return-to-zero (NRZ) format at transmission rates of up to 10Gbps. The transmission system considered is based on well known transmitters and receivers blocks operating at wavelengths in the region of 1550 nm using a standard single mode fiber. Performance of improved detected signals has been evaluated via the analysis of quality factor and computed bit error rates. Numerical simulations have shown a noticeable improvement of the system BER after implementation of the suggested post processing operation on the detected electrical signals.
141
10247
Effect of Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction on the Multicarrier Communication System Performance Parameters
Abstract:
Multicarrier transmission system such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a promising technique for high bit rate transmission in wireless communication system. OFDM is a spectrally efficient modulation technique that can achieve high speed data transmission over multipath fading channels without the need for powerful equalization techniques. However the price paid for this high spectral efficiency and less intensive equalization is low power efficiency. OFDM signals are very sensitive to nonlinear effects due to the high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR), which leads to the power inefficiency in the RF section of the transmitter. This paper investigates the effect of PAPR reduction on the performance parameter of multicarrier communication system. Performance parameters considered are power consumption of Power Amplifier (PA) and Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC), power amplifier efficiency, SNR of DAC and BER performance of the system. From our analysis it is found that irrespective of PAPR reduction technique being employed, the power consumption of PA and DAC reduces and power amplifier efficiency increases due to reduction in PAPR. Moreover, it has been shown that for a given BER performance the requirement of Input-Backoff (IBO) reduces with reduction in PAPR.
140
3108
Optimum Time Coordination of Overcurrent Relays using Two Phase Simplex Method
Abstract:
Overcurrent (OC) relays are the major protection devices in a distribution system. The operating time of the OC relays are to be coordinated properly to avoid the mal-operation of the backup relays. The OC relay time coordination in ring fed distribution networks is a highly constrained optimization problem which can be stated as a linear programming problem (LPP). The purpose is to find an optimum relay setting to minimize the time of operation of relays and at the same time, to keep the relays properly coordinated to avoid the mal-operation of relays. This paper presents two phase simplex method for optimum time coordination of OC relays. The method is based on the simplex algorithm which is used to find optimum solution of LPP. The method introduces artificial variables to get an initial basic feasible solution (IBFS). Artificial variables are removed using iterative process of first phase which minimizes the auxiliary objective function. The second phase minimizes the original objective function and gives the optimum time coordination of OC relays.
139
14015
Hysteresis Modulation Based Sliding Mode Control for Positive Output Elementary Super Lift Luo Converter
Abstract:
The Object of this paper is to design and analyze a Hysteresis modulation based sliding mode control (HMSMC) for positive output elementary super lift Luo converter (POESLLC), which is the start-of-the-art DC-DC converter. The positive output elementary super lift Luo converter performs the voltage conversion from positive source voltage to positive load voltage. This paper proposes a HMSMC capable of providing the good steady state and dynamic performance compared to conventional controllers. Dynamic equations describing the positive output elementary super lift luo converter are derived by using state space average method. The simulation model of the positive output elementary super lift Luo converter with its control circuit is implemented in Matlab/Simulink. The HMSMC for positive output elementary super lift Luo converter is tested for line changes, load changes and also for components variations.
138
9926
A Convenient Model for I-V Characteristic of a Solar Cell Generator as an Active Two-Pole with Self-Limitation of Current
Abstract:

A convenient and physically sound mathematical model of the external or I - V characteristic of solar cells generators is presented in this paper. This model is compared with the traditional model of p-n junction. The direct analytical calculation of load regime leads to a quadratic equation, which is importantly to simplify the calculations in the real time.

137
13533
IPSO Based UPFC Robust Output Feedback Controllers for Damping of Low Frequency Oscillations
Abstract:

On the basis of the linearized Phillips-Herffron model of a single-machine power system, a novel method for designing unified power flow controller (UPFC) based output feedback controller is presented. The design problem of output feedback controller for UPFC is formulated as an optimization problem according to with the time domain-based objective function which is solved by iteration particle swarm optimization (IPSO) that has a strong ability to find the most optimistic results. To ensure the robustness of the proposed damping controller, the design process takes into account a wide range of operating conditions and system configurations. The simulation results prove the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method in terms of a high performance power system. The simulation study shows that the designed controller by Iteration PSO performs better than Classical PSO in finding the solution.

136
5517
The Invariant Properties of Two-Port Circuits
Abstract:

Application of projective geometry to the theory of two-ports and cascade circuits with a load change is considered. The equations linking the input and output of a two-port are interpreted as projective transformations which have the invariant as a cross-ratio of four points. This invariant has place for all regime parameters in all parts of a cascade circuit. This approach allows justifying the definition of a regime and its change, to calculate a circuit without explicitly finding the aparameters, to transmit accurately an analogue signal through the unstable two-port.

135
6897
Two New Low Power High Performance Full Adders with Minimum Gates
Abstract:
with increasing circuits- complexity and demand to use portable devices, power consumption is one of the most important parameters these days. Full adders are the basic block of many circuits. Therefore reducing power consumption in full adders is very important in low power circuits. One of the most powerconsuming modules in full adders is XOR/XNOR circuit. This paper presents two new full adders based on two new logic approaches. The proposed logic approaches use one XOR or XNOR gate to implement a full adder cell. Therefore, delay and power will be decreased. Using two new approaches and two XOR and XNOR gates, two new full adders have been implemented in this paper. Simulations are carried out by HSPICE in 0.18μm bulk technology with 1.8V supply voltage. The results show that the ten-transistors proposed full adder has 12% less power consumption and is 5% faster in comparison to MB12T full adder. 9T is more efficient in area and is 24% better than similar 10T full adder in term of power consumption. The main drawback of the proposed circuits is output threshold loss problem.
134
14888
STLF Based on Optimized Neural Network Using PSO
Abstract:

The quality of short term load forecasting can improve the efficiency of planning and operation of electric utilities. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are employed for nonlinear short term load forecasting owing to their powerful nonlinear mapping capabilities. At present, there is no systematic methodology for optimal design and training of an artificial neural network. One has often to resort to the trial and error approach. This paper describes the process of developing three layer feed-forward large neural networks for short-term load forecasting and then presents a heuristic search algorithm for performing an important task of this process, i.e. optimal networks structure design. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used to develop the optimum large neural network structure and connecting weights for one-day ahead electric load forecasting problem. PSO is a novel random optimization method based on swarm intelligence, which has more powerful ability of global optimization. Employing PSO algorithms on the design and training of ANNs allows the ANN architecture and parameters to be easily optimized. The proposed method is applied to STLF of the local utility. Data are clustered due to the differences in their characteristics. Special days are extracted from the normal training sets and handled separately. In this way, a solution is provided for all load types, including working days and weekends and special days. The experimental results show that the proposed method optimized by PSO can quicken the learning speed of the network and improve the forecasting precision compared with the conventional Back Propagation (BP) method. Moreover, it is not only simple to calculate, but also practical and effective. Also, it provides a greater degree of accuracy in many cases and gives lower percent errors all the time for STLF problem compared to BP method. Thus, it can be applied to automatically design an optimal load forecaster based on historical data.

133
14102
A Sub-mW Low Noise Amplifier for Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:
A 1.2 V, 0.61 mA bias current, low noise amplifier (LNA) suitable for low-power applications in the 2.4 GHz band is presented. Circuit has been implemented, laid out and simulated using a UMC 130 nm RF-CMOS process. The amplifier provides a 13.3 dB power gain a noise figure NF< 2.28 dB and a 1-dB compression point of -15.69 dBm, while dissipating 0.74 mW. Such performance make this design suitable for wireless sensor networks applications such as ZigBee.
132
5272
Hybrid Prefix Adder Architecture for Minimizing the Power Delay Product
Abstract:
Parallel Prefix addition is a technique for improving the speed of binary addition. Due to continuing integrating intensity and the growing needs of portable devices, low-power and highperformance designs are of prime importance. The classical parallel prefix adder structures presented in the literature over the years optimize for logic depth, area, fan-out and interconnect count of logic circuits. In this paper, a new architecture for performing 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit Parallel Prefix addition is proposed. The proposed prefix adder structures is compared with several classical adders of same bit width in terms of power, delay and number of computational nodes. The results reveal that the proposed structures have the least power delay product when compared with its peer existing Prefix adder structures. Tanner EDA tool was used for simulating the adder designs in the TSMC 180 nm and TSMC 130 nm technologies.
131
14463
Evaluation of Power Factor Corrected AC - DC Converters and Controllers to meet UPS Performance Index
Abstract:
Harmonic pollution and low power factor in power systems caused by power converters have been of great concern. To overcome these problems several converter topologies using advanced semiconductor devices and control schemes have been proposed. This investigation is to identify a low cost, small size, efficient and reliable ac to dc converter to meet the input performance index of UPS. The performance of single phase and three phase ac to dc converter along with various control techniques are studied and compared. The half bridge converter topology with linear current control is identified as most suitable. It is simple, energy efficient because of single switch power loss and transformer-less operation of UPS. The results are validated practically using a prototype built using IGBT and analog controller. The performance for both single and three-phase system is verified. Digital implementation of closed loop control achieves higher reliability. Its cost largely depends on chosen bit precision. The minimal bit precision for optimum converter performance is identified as 16-bit with fixed-point operation. From the investigation and practical implementation it is concluded that half bridge ac – dc converter along with digital linear controller meets the performance index of UPS for single and three phase systems.
130
10008
Micropower Fuzzy Linguistic-Hedges Circuit in Current-Mode Approach
Authors:
Abstract:

In this paper, based on a novel synthesis, a set of new simplified circuit design to implement the linguistic-hedge operations for adjusting the fuzzy membership function set is presented. The circuits work in current-mode and employ floating-gate MOS (FGMOS) transistors that operate in weak inversion region. Compared to the other proposed circuits, these circuits feature severe reduction of the elements number, low supply voltage (0.7V), low power consumption (<200nW), immunity from body effect and wide input dynamic range (>60dB). In this paper, a set of fuzzy linguistic hedge circuits, including absolutely, very, much more, more, plus minus, more or less and slightly, has been implemented in 0.18 mm CMOS process. Simulation results by Hspice confirm the validity of the proposed design technique and show high performance of the circuits.

129
5195
Recursive Least Squares Adaptive Filter a better ISI Compensator
Abstract:

Inter-symbol interference if not taken care off may cause severe error at the receiver and the detection of signal becomes difficult. An adaptive equalizer employing Recursive Least Squares algorithm can be a good compensation for the ISI problem. In this paper performance of communication link in presence of Least Mean Square and Recursive Least Squares equalizer algorithm is analyzed. A Model of communication system having Quadrature amplitude modulation and Rician fading channel is implemented using MATLAB communication block set. Bit error rate and number of errors is evaluated for RLS and LMS equalizer algorithm, due to change in Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and fading component gain in Rician fading Channel.

128
9269
Effects of Double Delta Doping on Millimeter and Sub-millimeter Wave Response of Two-Dimensional Hot Electrons in GaAs Nanostructures
Abstract:
Carrier mobility has become the most important characteristic of high speed low dimensional devices. Due to development of very fast switching semiconductor devices, speed of computer and communication equipment has been increasing day by day and will continue to do so in future. As the response of any device depends on the carrier motion within the devices, extensive studies of carrier mobility in the devices has been established essential for the growth in the field of low dimensional devices. Small-signal ac transport of degenerate two-dimensional hot electrons in GaAs quantum wells is studied here incorporating deformation potential acoustic, polar optic and ionized impurity scattering in the framework of heated drifted Fermi-Dirac carrier distribution. Delta doping is considered in the calculations to investigate the effects of double delta doping on millimeter and submillimeter wave response of two dimensional hot electrons in GaAs nanostructures. The inclusion of delta doping is found to enhance considerably the two dimensional electron density which in turn improves the carrier mobility (both ac and dc) values in the GaAs quantum wells thereby providing scope of getting higher speed devices in future.
127
15094
A Novel VLSI Architecture of Hybrid Image Compression Model based on Reversible Blockade Transform
Abstract:
Image compression can improve the performance of the digital systems by reducing time and cost in image storage and transmission without significant reduction of the image quality. Furthermore, the discrete cosine transform has emerged as the new state-of-the art standard for image compression. In this paper, a hybrid image compression technique based on reversible blockade transform coding is proposed. The technique, implemented over regions of interest (ROIs), is based on selection of the coefficients that belong to different transforms, depending on the coefficients is proposed. This method allows: (1) codification of multiple kernals at various degrees of interest, (2) arbitrary shaped spectrum,and (3) flexible adjustment of the compression quality of the image and the background. No standard modification for JPEG2000 decoder was required. The method was applied over different types of images. Results show a better performance for the selected regions, when image coding methods were employed for the whole set of images. We believe that this method is an excellent tool for future image compression research, mainly on images where image coding can be of interest, such as the medical imaging modalities and several multimedia applications. Finally VLSI implementation of proposed method is shown. It is also shown that the kernal of Hartley and Cosine transform gives the better performance than any other model.
126
10914
A New Approach to Design Low Power Continues-Time Sigma-Delta Modulators
Authors:
Abstract:

This paper presents the design of a low power second-order continuous-time sigma-delta modulator for low power applications. The loop filter of this modulator has been implemented based on the nonlinear transconductance-capacitor (Gm-C) by employing current-mode technique. The nonlinear transconductance uses floating gate MOS (FG-MOS) transistors that operate in weak inversion region. The proposed modulator features low power consumption (<80uW), low supply voltage (1V) and 62dB dynamic range. Simulation results by HSPICE confirm that it is very suitable for low power biomedical instrumentation designs.

125
8381
Efficient Large Numbers Karatsuba-Ofman Multiplier Designs for Embedded Systems
Abstract:
Long number multiplications (n ≥ 128-bit) are a primitive in most cryptosystems. They can be performed better by using Karatsuba-Ofman technique. This algorithm is easy to parallelize on workstation network and on distributed memory, and it-s known as the practical method of choice. Multiplying long numbers using Karatsuba-Ofman algorithm is fast but is highly recursive. In this paper, we propose different designs of implementing Karatsuba-Ofman multiplier. A mixture of sequential and combinational system design techniques involving pipelining is applied to our proposed designs. Multiplying large numbers can be adapted flexibly to time, area and power criteria. Computationally and occupation constrained in embedded systems such as: smart cards, mobile phones..., multiplication of finite field elements can be achieved more efficiently. The proposed designs are compared to other existing techniques. Mathematical models (Area (n), Delay (n)) of our proposed designs are also elaborated and evaluated on different FPGAs devices.
124
12692
Design of Ultra Fast Polymer Electro-Optic waveguide Switch for Intelligent Optical Networks
Abstract:

Traditional optical networks are gradually evolving towards intelligent optical networks due to the need for faster bandwidth provisioning, protection and restoration of the network that can be accomplished with devices like optical switch, add drop multiplexer and cross connects. Since dense wavelength multiplexing forms the physical layer for intelligent optical networking, the roll of high speed all optical switch is important. This paper analyzes such an ultra-high speed polymer electro-optic switch. The performances of the 2x2 optical waveguide switch with rectangular, triangular and trapezoidal grating profiles on various device parameters are analyzed. The simulation result shows that trapezoidal grating is the optimized structure which has the coupling length of 81μm and switching voltage of 11V for the operating wavelength of 1550nm. The switching time for this proposed switch is 0.47 picosecond. This makes the proposed switch to be an important element in the intelligent optical network.

123
8699
Optimal and Generalized Multiple Descriptions Image Coding Transform in the Wavelet Domain
Abstract:

In this paper we propose a Multiple Description Image Coding(MDIC) scheme to generate two compressed and balanced rates descriptions in the wavelet domain (Daubechies biorthogonal (9, 7) wavelet) using pairwise correlating transform optimal and application method for Generalized Multiple Description Coding (GMDC) to image coding in the wavelet domain. The GMDC produces statistically correlated streams such that lost streams can be estimated from the received data. Our performance test shown that the proposed method gives more improvement and good quality of the reconstructed image when the wavelet coefficients are normalized by Gaussian Scale Mixture (GSM) model then the Gaussian one ,.

122
7940
Improved Approximation to the Derivative of a Digital Signal Using Wavelet Transforms for Crosstalk Analysis
Abstract:
The information revealed by derivatives can help to better characterize digital near-end crosstalk signatures with the ultimate goal of identifying the specific aggressor signal. Unfortunately, derivatives tend to be very sensitive to even low levels of noise. In this work we approximated the derivatives of both quiet and noisy digital signals using a wavelet-based technique. The results are presented for Gaussian digital edges, IBIS Model digital edges, and digital edges in oscilloscope data captured from an actual printed circuit board. Tradeoffs between accuracy and noise immunity are presented. The results show that the wavelet technique can produce first derivative approximations that are accurate to within 5% or better, even under noisy conditions. The wavelet technique can be used to calculate the derivative of a digital signal edge when conventional methods fail.
121
14379
Soliton Interaction in Birefringent Fibers with Third-Order Dispersion
Abstract:

Propagation of solitons in single-mode birefringent fibers is considered under the presence of third-order dispersion (TOD). The behavior of two neighboring solitons and their interaction is investigated under the presence of third-order dispersion with different group velocity dispersion (GVD) parameters. It is found that third-order dispersion makes the resultant soliton to deviate from its ideal position and increases the interaction between adjacent soliton pulses. It is also observed that this deviation due to third-order dispersion is considerably small when the optical pulse propagates at wavelengths relatively far from the zerodispersion. Modified coupled nonlinear Schrödinger-s equations (CNLSE) representing the propagation of optical pulse in single mode fiber with TOD are solved using split-step Fourier algorithm. The results presented in this paper reveal that the third-order dispersion can substantially increase the interaction between the solitons, but large group velocity dispersion reduces the interaction between neighboring solitons.

120
9233
Specialization-based parallel Processing without Memo-trees
Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework for constructing correct parallel processing programs based on Equivalent Transformation Framework (ETF). ETF regards computation as In the framework, a problem-s domain knowledge and a query are described in definite clauses, and computation is regarded as transformation of the definite clauses. Its meaning is defined by a model of the set of definite clauses, and the transformation rules generated must preserve meaning. We have proposed a parallel processing method based on “specialization", a part of operation in the transformations, which resembles substitution in logic programming. The method requires “Memo-tree", a history of specialization to maintain correctness. In this paper we proposes the new method for the specialization-base parallel processing without Memo-tree.

119
13786
Extending E-learning systems based on Clause-Rule model
Abstract:
E-Learning systems are used by many learners and teachers. The developer is developing the e-Learning system. However, the developer cannot do system construction to satisfy all of users- demands. We discuss a method of constructing e-Learning systems where learners and teachers can design, try to use, and share extending system functions that they want to use; which may be nally added to the system by system managers.
118
5310
A General Framework for Modeling Replicated Real-Time Database
Abstract:

There are many issues that affect modeling and designing real-time databases. One of those issues is maintaining consistency between the actual state of the real-time object of the external environment and its images as reflected by all its replicas distributed over multiple nodes. The need to improve the scalability is another important issue. In this paper, we present a general framework to design a replicated real-time database for small to medium scale systems and maintain all timing constrains. In order to extend the idea for modeling a large scale database, we present a general outline that consider improving the scalability by using an existing static segmentation algorithm applied on the whole database, with the intent to lower the degree of replication, enables segments to have individual degrees of replication with the purpose of avoiding excessive resource usage, which all together contribute in solving the scalability problem for DRTDBS.

117
5514
An Automated Method to Segment and Classify Masses in Mammograms
Abstract:
Mammography is the most effective procedure for an early diagnosis of the breast cancer. Nowadays, people are trying to find a way or method to support as much as possible to the radiologists in diagnosis process. The most popular way is now being developed is using Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) system to process the digital mammograms and prompt the suspicious region to radiologist. In this paper, an automated CAD system for detection and classification of massive lesions in mammographic images is presented. The system consists of three processing steps: Regions-Of- Interest detection, feature extraction and classification. Our CAD system was evaluated on Mini-MIAS database consisting 322 digitalized mammograms. The CAD system-s performance is evaluated using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) and Freeresponse ROC (FROC) curves. The archived results are 3.47 false positives per image (FPpI) and sensitivity of 85%.
116
8398
A Kernel Classifier using Linearised Bregman Iteration
Abstract:
In this paper we introduce a novel kernel classifier based on a iterative shrinkage algorithm developed for compressive sensing. We have adopted Bregman iteration with soft and hard shrinkage functions and generalized hinge loss for solving l1 norm minimization problem for classification. Our experimental results with face recognition and digit classification using SVM as the benchmark have shown that our method has a close error rate compared to SVM but do not perform better than SVM. We have found that the soft shrinkage method give more accuracy and in some situations more sparseness than hard shrinkage methods.
115
3153
A Comparative Study of Page Ranking Algorithms for Information Retrieval
Abstract:
This paper gives an introduction to Web mining, then describes Web Structure mining in detail, and explores the data structure used by the Web. This paper also explores different Page Rank algorithms and compare those algorithms used for Information Retrieval. In Web Mining, the basics of Web mining and the Web mining categories are explained. Different Page Rank based algorithms like PageRank (PR), WPR (Weighted PageRank), HITS (Hyperlink-Induced Topic Search), DistanceRank and DirichletRank algorithms are discussed and compared. PageRanks are calculated for PageRank and Weighted PageRank algorithms for a given hyperlink structure. Simulation Program is developed for PageRank algorithm because PageRank is the only ranking algorithm implemented in the search engine (Google). The outputs are shown in a table and chart format.
114
14359
Capacity of Overloaded DS-CDMA System on Rayleigh Fading Channel with Timing Error
Authors:
Abstract:
The number of users supported in a DS-CDMA cellular system is typically less than spreading factor (N), and the system is said to be underloaded. Overloading is a technique to accommodate more number of users than the spreading factor N. In O/O overloading scheme, the first set is assigned to the N synchronous users and the second set is assigned to the additional synchronous users. An iterative multistage soft decision interference cancellation (SDIC) receiver is used to remove high level of interference between the two sets. Performance is evaluated in terms of the maximum number acceptable users so that the system performance is degraded slightly compared to the single user performance at a specified BER. In this paper, the capacity of CDMA based O/O overloading scheme is evaluated with SDIC receiver. It is observed that O/O scheme using orthogonal Gold codes provides 25% channel overloading (N=64) for synchronous DS-CDMA system on an AWGN channel in the uplink at a BER of 1e-5.For a Rayleigh faded channel, the critical capacity is 40% at a BER of 5e-5 assuming synchronous users. But in practical systems, perfect chip timing is very difficult to maintain in the uplink.. We have shown that the overloading performance reduces to 11% for a timing synchronization error of 0.02Tc for a BER of 1e-5.
113
14013
Comparative Study of Ant Colony and Genetic Algorithms for VLSI Circuit Partitioning
Abstract:

This paper presents a comparative study of Ant Colony and Genetic Algorithms for VLSI circuit bi-partitioning. Ant colony optimization is an optimization method based on behaviour of social insects [27] whereas Genetic algorithm is an evolutionary optimization technique based on Darwinian Theory of natural evolution and its concept of survival of the fittest [19]. Both the methods are stochastic in nature and have been successfully applied to solve many Non Polynomial hard problems. Results obtained show that Genetic algorithms out perform Ant Colony optimization technique when tested on the VLSI circuit bi-partitioning problem.

112
645
Adaptive Distributed Genetic Algorithms and Its VLSI Design
Abstract:
This paper presents a dynamic adaptation scheme for the frequency of inter-deme migration in distributed genetic algorithms (GA), and its VLSI hardware design. Distributed GA, or multi-deme-based GA, uses multiple populations which evolve concurrently. The purpose of dynamic adaptation is to improve convergence performance so as to obtain better solutions. Through simulation experiments, we proved that our scheme achieves better performance than fixed frequency migration schemes.
111
2558
Wood Species Recognition System
Abstract:
The proposed system identifies the species of the wood using the textural features present in its barks. Each species of a wood has its own unique patterns in its bark, which enabled the proposed system to identify it accurately. Automatic wood recognition system has not yet been well established mainly due to lack of research in this area and the difficulty in obtaining the wood database. In our work, a wood recognition system has been designed based on pre-processing techniques, feature extraction and by correlating the features of those wood species for their classification. Texture classification is a problem that has been studied and tested using different methods due to its valuable usage in various pattern recognition problems, such as wood recognition, rock classification. The most popular technique used for the textural classification is Gray-level Co-occurrence Matrices (GLCM). The features from the enhanced images are thus extracted using the GLCM is correlated, which determines the classification between the various wood species. The result thus obtained shows a high rate of recognition accuracy proving that the techniques used in suitable to be implemented for commercial purposes.
110
12497
Word Base Line Detection in Handwritten Text Recognition Systems
Abstract:

An approach is offered for more precise definition of base lines- borders in handwritten cursive text and general problems of handwritten text segmentation have also been analyzed. An offered method tries to solve problems arose in handwritten recognition with specific slant or in other words, where the letters of the words are not on the same vertical line. As an informative features, some recognition systems use ascending and descending parts of the letters, found after the word-s baseline detection. In such recognition systems, problems in baseline detection, impacts the quality of the recognition and decreases the rate of the recognition. Despite other methods, here borders are found by small pieces containing segmentation elements and defined as a set of linear functions. In this method, separate borders for top and bottom border lines are found. At the end of the paper, as a result, azerbaijani cursive handwritten texts written in Latin alphabet by different authors has been analyzed.

109
8269
Scenario Recognition in Modern Building Automation
Abstract:
Modern building automation needs to deal with very different types of demands, depending on the use of a building and the persons acting in it. To meet the requirements of situation awareness in modern building automation, scenario recognition becomes more and more important in order to detect sequences of events and to react to them properly. We present two concepts of scenario recognition and their implementation, one based on predefined templates and the other applying an unsupervised learning algorithm using statistical methods. Implemented applications will be described and their advantages and disadvantages will be outlined.
108
2685
Application of PSO Technique for Seismic Control of Tall Building
Abstract:

In recent years, tuned mass damper (TMD) control systems for civil engineering structures have attracted considerable attention. This paper emphasizes on the application of particle swarm application (PSO) to design and optimize the parameters of the TMD control scheme for achieving the best results in the reduction of the building response under earthquake excitations. The Integral of the Time multiplied Absolute value of the Error (ITAE) based on relative displacement of all floors in the building is taken as a performance index of the optimization criterion. The problem of robustly TMD controller design is formatted as an optimization problem based on the ITAE performance index to be solved using the PSO technique which has a story ability to find the most optimistic results. An 11- story realistic building, located in the city of Rasht, Iran is considered as a test system to demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed method. The results analysis through the time-domain simulation and some performance indices reveals that the designed PSO based TMD controller has an excellent capability in reduction of the seismically excited example building.

107
15960
Intelligent Neural Network Based STLF
Abstract:

Short-Term Load Forecasting (STLF) plays an important role for the economic and secure operation of power systems. In this paper, Continuous Genetic Algorithm (CGA) is employed to evolve the optimum large neural networks structure and connecting weights for one-day ahead electric load forecasting problem. This study describes the process of developing three layer feed-forward large neural networks for load forecasting and then presents a heuristic search algorithm for performing an important task of this process, i.e. optimal networks structure design. The proposed method is applied to STLF of the local utility. Data are clustered due to the differences in their characteristics. Special days are extracted from the normal training sets and handled separately. In this way, a solution is provided for all load types, including working days and weekends and special days. We find good performance for the large neural networks. The proposed methodology gives lower percent errors all the time. Thus, it can be applied to automatically design an optimal load forecaster based on historical data.

106
13360
A Bionic Approach to Dynamic, Multimodal Scene Perception and Interpretation in Buildings
Abstract:
Today, building automation is advancing from simple monitoring and control tasks of lightning and heating towards more and more complex applications that require a dynamic perception and interpretation of different scenes occurring in a building. Current approaches cannot handle these newly upcoming demands. In this article, a bionically inspired approach for multimodal, dynamic scene perception and interpretation is presented, which is based on neuroscientific and neuro-psychological research findings about the perceptual system of the human brain. This approach bases on data from diverse sensory modalities being processed in a so-called neuro-symbolic network. With its parallel structure and with its basic elements being information processing and storing units at the same time, a very efficient method for scene perception is provided overcoming the problems and bottlenecks of classical dynamic scene interpretation systems.
105
6439
Local Curvelet Based Classification Using Linear Discriminant Analysis for Face Recognition
Abstract:
In this paper, an efficient local appearance feature extraction method based the multi-resolution Curvelet transform is proposed in order to further enhance the performance of the well known Linear Discriminant Analysis(LDA) method when applied to face recognition. Each face is described by a subset of band filtered images containing block-based Curvelet coefficients. These coefficients characterize the face texture and a set of simple statistical measures allows us to form compact and meaningful feature vectors. The proposed method is compared with some related feature extraction methods such as Principal component analysis (PCA), as well as Linear Discriminant Analysis LDA, and independent component Analysis (ICA). Two different muti-resolution transforms, Wavelet (DWT) and Contourlet, were also compared against the Block Based Curvelet-LDA algorithm. Experimental results on ORL, YALE and FERET face databases convince us that the proposed method provides a better representation of the class information and obtains much higher recognition accuracies.
104
9987
Automatic Lip Contour Tracking and Visual Character Recognition for Computerized Lip Reading
Abstract:
Computerized lip reading has been one of the most actively researched areas of computer vision in recent past because of its crime fighting potential and invariance to acoustic environment. However, several factors like fast speech, bad pronunciation, poor illumination, movement of face, moustaches and beards make lip reading difficult. In present work, we propose a solution for automatic lip contour tracking and recognizing letters of English language spoken by speakers using the information available from lip movements. Level set method is used for tracking lip contour using a contour velocity model and a feature vector of lip movements is then obtained. Character recognition is performed using modified k nearest neighbor algorithm which assigns more weight to nearer neighbors. The proposed system has been found to have accuracy of 73.3% for character recognition with speaker lip movements as the only input and without using any speech recognition system in parallel. The approach used in this work is found to significantly solve the purpose of lip reading when size of database is small.
103
15775
A Multiple-State Based Power Control for Multi-Radio Multi-Channel Wireless Mesh Networks
Abstract:

Multi-Radio Multi-Channel (MRMC) systems are key to power control problems in wireless mesh networks (WMNs). In this paper, we present asynchronous multiple-state based power control for MRMC WMNs. First, WMN is represented as a set of disjoint Unified Channel Graphs (UCGs). Second, each network interface card (NIC) or radio assigned to a unique UCG adjusts transmission power using predicted multiple interaction state variables (IV) across UCGs. Depending on the size of queue loads and intra- and inter-channel states, each NIC optimizes transmission power locally and asynchronously. A new power selection MRMC unification protocol (PMMUP) is proposed that coordinates interactions among radios. The efficacy of the proposed method is investigated through simulations.

102
1528
Improving Packet Latency of Video Sensor Networks
Abstract:
Video sensor networks operate on stringent requirements of latency. Packets have a deadline within which they have to be delivered. Violation of the deadline causes a packet to be treated as lost and the loss of packets ultimately affects the quality of the application. Network latency is typically a function of many interacting components. In this paper, we propose ways of reducing the forwarding latency of a packet at intermediate nodes. The forwarding latency is caused by a combination of processing delay and queueing delay. The former is incurred in order to determine the next hop in dynamic routing. We show that unless link failures in a very specific and unlikely pattern, a vast majority of these lookups are redundant. To counter this we propose source routing as the routing strategy. However, source routing suffers from issues related to scalability and being impervious to network dynamics. We propose solutions to counter these and show that source routing is definitely a viable option in practical sized video networks. We also propose a fast and fair packet scheduling algorithm that reduces queueing delay at the nodes. We support our claims through extensive simulation on realistic topologies with practical traffic loads and failure patterns.
101
8321
Hybrid Color-Texture Space for Image Classification
Abstract:

This work presents an approach for the construction of a hybrid color-texture space by using mutual information. Feature extraction is done by the Laws filter with SVM (Support Vectors Machine) as a classifier. The classification is applied on the VisTex database and a SPOT HRV (XS) image representing two forest areas in the region of Rabat in Morocco. The result of classification obtained in the hybrid space is compared with the one obtained in the RGB color space.

100
8896
A Balanced Cost Cluster-Heads Selection Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:
This paper focuses on reducing the power consumption of wireless sensor networks. Therefore, a communication protocol named LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) is modified. We extend LEACHs stochastic cluster-head selection algorithm by a modifying the probability of each node to become cluster-head based on its required energy to transmit to the sink. We present an efficient energy aware routing algorithm for the wireless sensor networks. Our contribution consists in rotation selection of clusterheads considering the remoteness of the nodes to the sink, and then, the network nodes residual energy. This choice allows a best distribution of the transmission energy in the network. The cluster-heads selection algorithm is completely decentralized. Simulation results show that the energy is significantly reduced compared with the previous clustering based routing algorithm for the sensor networks.
99
7678
A Serializability Condition for Multi-step Transactions Accessing Ordered Data
Abstract:
In mobile environments, unspecified numbers of transactions arrive in continuous streams. To prove correctness of their concurrent execution a method of modelling an infinite number of transactions is needed. Standard database techniques model fixed finite schedules of transactions. Lately, techniques based on temporal logic have been proposed as suitable for modelling infinite schedules. The drawback of these techniques is that proving the basic serializability correctness condition is impractical, as encoding (the absence of) conflict cyclicity within large sets of transactions results in prohibitively large temporal logic formulae. In this paper, we show that, under certain common assumptions on the graph structure of data items accessed by the transactions, conflict cyclicity need only be checked within all possible pairs of transactions. This results in formulae of considerably reduced size in any temporal-logic-based approach to proving serializability, and scales to arbitrary numbers of transactions.
98
15895
Robust Semi-Blind Digital Image Watermarking Technique in DT-CWT Domain
Abstract:
In this paper a new robust digital image watermarking algorithm based on the Complex Wavelet Transform is proposed. This technique embeds different parts of a watermark into different blocks of an image under the complex wavelet domain. To increase security of the method, two chaotic maps are employed, one map is used to determine the blocks of the host image for watermark embedding, and another map is used to encrypt the watermark image. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
97
15248
Feeder Reconfiguration for Loss Reduction in Unbalanced Distribution System Using Genetic Algorithm
Abstract:
This paper presents an efficient approach to feeder reconfiguration for power loss reduction and voltage profile imprvement in unbalanced radial distribution systems (URDS). In this paper Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to obtain solution for reconfiguration of radial distribution systems to minimize the losses. A forward and backward algorithm is used to calculate load flows in unbalanced distribution systems. By simulating the survival of the fittest among the strings, the optimum string is searched by randomized information exchange between strings by performing crossover and mutation. Results have shown that proposed algorithm has advantages over previous algorithms The proposed method is effectively tested on 19 node and 25 node unbalanced radial distribution systems.
96
8582
Distributed Generator Placement and Sizing in Unbalanced Radial Distribution System
Abstract:
To minimize power losses, it is important to determine the location and size of local generators to be placed in unbalanced power distribution systems. On account of some inherent features of unbalanced distribution systems, such as radial structure, large number of nodes, a wide range of X/R ratios, the conventional techniques developed for the transmission systems generally fail on the determination of optimum size and location of distributed generators (DGs). This paper presents a simple method for investigating the problem of contemporaneously choosing best location and size of DG in three-phase unbalanced radial distribution system (URDS) for power loss minimization and to improve the voltage profile of the system. Best location of the DG is determined by using voltage index analysis and size of DG is computed by variational technique algorithm according to available standard size of DGs. This paper presents the results of simulations for 25-bus and IEEE 37- bus Unbalanced Radial Distribution system.
95
10828
Power System Security Assessment using Binary SVM Based Pattern Recognition
Abstract:
Power System Security is a major concern in real time operation. Conventional method of security evaluation consists of performing continuous load flow and transient stability studies by simulation program. This is highly time consuming and infeasible for on-line application. Pattern Recognition (PR) is a promising tool for on-line security evaluation. This paper proposes a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based binary classification for static and transient security evaluation. The proposed SVM based PR approach is implemented on New England 39 Bus and IEEE 57 Bus systems. The simulation results of SVM classifier is compared with the other classifier algorithms like Method of Least Squares (MLS), Multi- Layer Perceptron (MLP) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) classifiers.
94
441
Studies on Determination of the Optimum Distance Between the Tmotes for Optimum Data Transfer in a Network with WLL Capability
Abstract:

Using mini modules of Tmotes, it is possible to automate a small personal area network. This idea can be extended to large networks too by implementing multi-hop routing. Linking the various Tmotes using Programming languages like Nesc, Java and having transmitter and receiver sections, a network can be monitored. It is foreseen that, depending on the application, a long range at a low data transfer rate or average throughput may be an acceptable trade-off. To reduce the overall costs involved, an optimum number of Tmotes to be used under various conditions (Indoor/Outdoor) is to be deduced. By analyzing the data rates or throughputs at various locations of Tmotes, it is possible to deduce an optimal number of Tmotes for a specific network. This paper deals with the determination of optimum distances to reduce the cost and increase the reliability of the entire sensor network with Wireless Local Loop (WLL) capability.

93
7531
Optimal Design of UPFC Based Damping Controller Using Iteration PSO
Abstract:

This paper presents a novel approach for tuning unified power flow controller (UPFC) based damping controller in order to enhance the damping of power system low frequency oscillations. The design problem of damping controller is formulated as an optimization problem according to the eigenvalue-based objective function which is solved using iteration particle swarm optimization (IPSO). The effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated through eigenvalue analysis and nonlinear time-domain simulation studies under a wide range of loading conditions. The simulation study shows that the designed controller by IPSO performs better than CPSO in finding the solution. Moreover, the system performance analysis under different operating conditions show that the δE based controller is superior to the mB based controller.

92
12536
Multi-Objective Fuzzy Model in Optimal Sitingand Sizing of DG for Loss Reduction
Abstract:

This paper presents a possibilistic (fuzzy) model in optimal siting and sizing of Distributed Generation (DG) for loss reduction and improve voltage profile in power distribution system. Multi-objective problem is developed in two phases. In the first one, the set of non-dominated planning solutions is obtained (with respect to the objective functions of fuzzy economic cost, and exposure) using genetic algorithm. In the second phase, one solution of the set of non-dominated solutions is selected as optimal solution, using a suitable max-min approach. This method can be determined operation-mode (PV or PQ) of DG. Because of considering load uncertainty in this paper, it can be obtained realistic results. The whole process of this method has been implemented in the MATLAB7 environment with technical and economic consideration for loss reduction and voltage profile improvement. Through numerical example the validity of the proposed method is verified.

91
348
Conventional and Fuzzy Logic Controllers at Generator Location for Low Frequency Oscillation Damping
Abstract:
This paper investigates and compares performance of various conventional and fuzzy logic based controllers at generator locations for oscillation damping. Performance of combination of conventional and fuzzy logic based controllers also studied by comparing overshoot on the active power deviation response for a small disturbance and damping ratio of the critical mode. Fuzzy logic based controllers can not be modeled in the state space form to get the eigenvalues and corresponding damping ratios of various modes of generators and controllers. Hence, a new method based on tracing envelop of time domain waveform is also presented and used in the paper for comparing performance of controllers. The paper also shows that if the fuzzy based controllers designed separately combining them could not lead to a better performance.
90
8266
A Nodal Transmission Pricing Model based on Newly Developed Expressions of Real and Reactive Power Marginal Prices in Competitive Electricity Markets
Abstract:

In competitive electricity markets all over the world, an adoption of suitable transmission pricing model is a problem as transmission segment still operates as a monopoly. Transmission pricing is an important tool to promote investment for various transmission services in order to provide economic, secure and reliable electricity to bulk and retail customers. The nodal pricing based on SRMC (Short Run Marginal Cost) is found extremely useful by researchers for sending correct economic signals. The marginal prices must be determined as a part of solution to optimization problem i.e. to maximize the social welfare. The need to maximize the social welfare subject to number of system operational constraints is a major challenge from computation and societal point of views. The purpose of this paper is to present a nodal transmission pricing model based on SRMC by developing new mathematical expressions of real and reactive power marginal prices using GA-Fuzzy based optimal power flow framework. The impacts of selecting different social welfare functions on power marginal prices are analyzed and verified with results reported in literature. Network revenues for two different power systems are determined using expressions derived for real and reactive power marginal prices in this paper.

89
10313
Solving the Economic Dispatch Problem by Using Differential Evolution
Abstract:
This paper proposes an application of the differential evolution (DE) algorithm for solving the economic dispatch problem (ED). Furthermore, the regenerating population procedure added to the conventional DE in order to improve escaping the local minimum solution. To test performance of DE algorithm, three thermal generating units with valve-point loading effects is used for testing. Moreover, investigating the DE parameters is presented. The simulation results show that the DE algorithm, which had been adjusted parameters, is better convergent time than other optimization methods.
88
6367
LFC Design of a Deregulated Power System with TCPS Using PSO
Abstract:

In the LFC problem, the interconnections among some areas are the input of disturbances, and therefore, it is important to suppress the disturbances by the coordination of governor systems. In contrast, tie-line power flow control by TCPS located between two areas makes it possible to stabilize the system frequency oscillations positively through interconnection, which is also expected to provide a new ancillary service for the further power systems. Thus, a control strategy using controlling the phase angle of TCPS is proposed for provide active control facility of system frequency in this paper. Also, the optimum adjustment of PID controller's parameters in a robust way under bilateral contracted scenario following the large step load demands and disturbances with and without TCPS are investigated by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), that has a strong ability to find the most optimistic results. This newly developed control strategy combines the advantage of PSO and TCPS and has simple stricture that is easy to implement and tune. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy a three-area restructured power system is considered as a test system under different operating conditions and system nonlinearities. Analysis reveals that the TCPS is quite capable of suppressing the frequency and tie-line power oscillations effectively as compared to that obtained without TCPS for a wide range of plant parameter changes, area load demands and disturbances even in the presence of system nonlinearities.

87
6610
Fuzzy Logic Control of Static Var Compensator for Power System Damping
Abstract:
Static Var Compensator (SVC) is a shunt type FACTS device which is used in power system primarily for the purpose of voltage and reactive power control. In this paper, a fuzzy logic based supplementary controller for Static Var Compensator (SVC) is developed which is used for damping the rotor angle oscillations and to improve the transient stability of the power system. Generator speed and the electrical power are chosen as input signals for the Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC). The effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed control is demonstrated with Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) system and multimachine system (WSCC System) which show improvement over the use of a fixed parameter controller.
86
9756
Enhanced Genetic Algorithm Approach for Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow Including FACTS Devices
Abstract:
This paper presents a genetic algorithm based approach for solving security constrained optimal power flow problem (SCOPF) including FACTS devices. The optimal location of FACTS devices are identified using an index called overload index and the optimal values are obtained using an enhanced genetic algorithm. The optimal allocation by the proposed method optimizes the investment, taking into account its effects on security in terms of the alleviation of line overloads. The proposed approach has been tested on IEEE-30 bus system to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for solving the SCOPF problem.
85
5504
Application of Soft Computing Methods for Economic Dispatch in Power Systems
Abstract:

Economic dispatch problem is an optimization problem where objective function is highly non linear, non-convex, non-differentiable and may have multiple local minima. Therefore, classical optimization methods may not converge or get trapped to any local minima. This paper presents a comparative study of four different evolutionary algorithms i.e. genetic algorithm, bacteria foraging optimization, ant colony optimization and particle swarm optimization for solving the economic dispatch problem. All the methods are tested on IEEE 30 bus test system. Simulation results are presented to show the comparative performance of these methods.

84
2376
Measurement Scheme Improving for State Estimation Using Stochastic Tabu Search
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper proposes the stochastic tabu search (STS) for improving the measurement scheme for power system state estimation. If the original measured scheme is not observable, the additional measurements with minimum number of measurements are added into the system by STS so that there is no critical measurement pair. The random bit flipping and bit exchanging perturbations are used for generating the neighborhood solutions in STS. The Pδ observable concept is used to determine the network observability. Test results of 10 bus, IEEE 14 and 30 bus systems are shown that STS can improve the original measured scheme to be observable without critical measurement pair. Moreover, the results of STS are superior to deterministic tabu search (DTS) in terms of the best solution hit.
83
939
Minimization of Power Loss in Distribution Networks by Different Techniques
Abstract:
Accurate loss minimization is the critical component for efficient electrical distribution power flow .The contribution of this work presents loss minimization in power distribution system through feeder restructuring, incorporating DG and placement of capacitor. The study of this work was conducted on IEEE distribution network and India Electricity Board benchmark distribution system. The executed experimental result of Indian system is recommended to board and implement practically for regulated stable output.
82
13354
Statistical Analysis of Different Configurations of Hybrid Doped Fiber Amplifiers
Abstract:
Wavelength multiplexing (WDM) technology along with optical amplifiers is used for optical communication systems in S-band, C-band and L-band. To improve the overall system performance Hybrid amplifiers consisting of cascaded TDFA and EDFA with different gain bandwidths are preferred for long haul wavelength multiplexed optical communication systems. This paper deals with statistical analysis of different configuration of hybrid amplifier i.e. analysis of TDFA-EDFA configuration and EDFA – TDFA configuration. In this paper One-Way ANOVA method is used for statistical analysis.
81
13570
Robust Face Recognition Using Eigen Faces and Karhunen-Loeve Algorithm
Abstract:
The current research paper is an implementation of Eigen Faces and Karhunen-Loeve Algorithm for face recognition. The designed program works in a manner where a unique identification number is given to each face under trial. These faces are kept in a database from where any particular face can be matched and found out of the available test faces. The Karhunen –Loeve Algorithm has been implemented to find out the appropriate right face (with same features) with respect to given input image as test data image having unique identification number. The procedure involves usage of Eigen faces for the recognition of faces.
80
14943
Algorithm Design and Performance Evaluation of Equivalent CMOS Model
Abstract:
This work is a proposed model of CMOS for which the algorithm has been created and then the performance evaluation of this proposition has been done. In this context, another commonly used model called ZSTT (Zero Switching Time Transient) model is chosen to compare all the vital features and the results for the Proposed Equivalent CMOS are promising. In the end, the excerpts of the created algorithm are also included
79
3288
Face Recognition Using Eigen face Coefficients and Principal Component Analysis
Abstract:
Face Recognition is a field of multidimensional applications. A lot of work has been done, extensively on the most of details related to face recognition. This idea of face recognition using PCA is one of them. In this paper the PCA features for Feature extraction are used and matching is done for the face under consideration with the test image using Eigen face coefficients. The crux of the work lies in optimizing Euclidean distance and paving the way to test the same algorithm using Matlab which is an efficient tool having powerful user interface along with simplicity in representing complex images.
78
10117
Biometric Methods and Implementation of Algorithms
Abstract:
Biometric measures of one kind or another have been used to identify people since ancient times, with handwritten signatures, facial features, and fingerprints being the traditional methods. Of late, Systems have been built that automate the task of recognition, using these methods and newer ones, such as hand geometry, voiceprints and iris patterns. These systems have different strengths and weaknesses. This work is a two-section composition. In the starting section, we present an analytical and comparative study of common biometric techniques. The performance of each of them has been viewed and then tabularized as a result. The latter section involves the actual implementation of the techniques under consideration that has been done using a state of the art tool called, MATLAB. This tool aids to effectively portray the corresponding results and effects.
77
2897
Performance Analysis of Cellular Wireless Network by Queuing Priority Handoff calls
Abstract:
In this paper, a mathematical model is proposed to estimate the dropping probabilities of cellular wireless networks by queuing handoff instead of reserving guard channels. Usually, prioritized handling of handoff calls is done with the help of guard channel reservation. To evaluate the proposed model, gamma inter-arrival and general service time distributions have been considered. Prevention of some of the attempted calls from reaching to the switching center due to electromagnetic propagation failure or whimsical user behaviour (missed call, prepaid balance etc.), make the inter-arrival time of the input traffic to follow gamma distribution. The performance is evaluated and compared with that of guard channel scheme.
76
4865
Bounds on Reliability of Parallel Computer Interconnection Systems
Abstract:
The evaluation of residual reliability of large sized parallel computer interconnection systems is not practicable with the existing methods. Under such conditions, one must go for approximation techniques which provide the upper bound and lower bound on this reliability. In this context, a new approximation method for providing bounds on residual reliability is proposed here. The proposed method is well supported by two algorithms for simulation purpose. The bounds on residual reliability of three different categories of interconnection topologies are efficiently found by using the proposed method
75
334
Assamese Numeral Corpus for Speech Recognition using Cooperative ANN Architecture
Abstract:
Speech corpus is one of the major components in a Speech Processing System where one of the primary requirements is to recognize an input sample. The quality and details captured in speech corpus directly affects the precision of recognition. The current work proposes a platform for speech corpus generation using an adaptive LMS filter and LPC cepstrum, as a part of an ANN based Speech Recognition System which is exclusively designed to recognize isolated numerals of Assamese language- a major language in the North Eastern part of India. The work focuses on designing an optimal feature extraction block and a few ANN based cooperative architectures so that the performance of the Speech Recognition System can be improved.
74
7244
Fuzzy Logic Speed Controller for Direct Vector Control of Induction Motor
Abstract:
This paper presents a new method for the implementation of a direct rotor flux control (DRFOC) of induction motor (IM) drives. It is based on the rotor flux components regulation. The d and q axis rotor flux components feed proportional integral (PI) controllers. The outputs of which are the target stator voltages (vdsref and vqsref). While, the synchronous speed is depicted at the output of rotor speed controller. In order to accomplish variable speed operation, conventional PI like controller is commonly used. These controllers provide limited good performances over a wide range of operations even under ideal field oriented conditions. An alternate approach is to use the so called fuzzy logic controller. The overall investigated system is implemented using dSpace system based on digital signal processor (DSP). Simulation and experimental results have been presented for a one kw IM drives to confirm the validity of the proposed algorithms.
73
14126
Bi-lingual Handwritten Character and Numeral Recognition using Multi-Dimensional Recurrent Neural Networks (MDRNN)
Abstract:
The key to the continued success of ANN depends, considerably, on the use of hybrid structures implemented on cooperative frame-works. Hybrid architectures provide the ability to the ANN to validate heterogeneous learning paradigms. This work describes the implementation of a set of Distributed and Hybrid ANN models for Character Recognition applied to Anglo-Assamese scripts. The objective is to describe the effectiveness of Hybrid ANN setups as innovative means of neural learning for an application like multilingual handwritten character and numeral recognition.
72
1985
Elimination of Redundant Links in Web Pages– Mathematical Approach
Abstract:
With the enormous growth on the web, users get easily lost in the rich hyper structure. Thus developing user friendly and automated tools for providing relevant information without any redundant links to the users to cater to their needs is the primary task for the website owners. Most of the existing web mining algorithms have concentrated on finding frequent patterns while neglecting the less frequent one that are likely to contain the outlying data such as noise, irrelevant and redundant data. This paper proposes new algorithm for mining the web content by detecting the redundant links from the web documents using set theoretical(classical mathematics) such as subset, union, intersection etc,. Then the redundant links is removed from the original web content to get the required information by the user..
71
7416
The Association of Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 Gene -1612 5A/6A Polymorphism with Susceptibility to Coronary Artery Stenosis in an Iranian Population
Abstract:
Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) is key member of the MMP family, and is known to be present in coronary atherosclerotic. Several studies have demonstrated that MMP-3 5A/6A polymorphism modify each transcriptional activity in allele specific manner. We hypothesized that this polymorphism may play a role as risk factor for development of coronary stenosis. The aim of our study was to estimate MMP-3 (5A/6A) gene polymorphism on interindividual variability in risk for coronary stenosis in an Iranian population.DNA was extracted from white blood cells and genotypes were obtained from coronary stenosis cases (n=95) and controls (n=100) by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. Significant differences between cases and controls were observed for MMP3 genotype frequencies (X2=199.305, p< 0.001); the 6A allele was less frequently seen in the control group, compared to the disease group (85.79 vs. 78%, 6A/6A+5A/6A vs. 5A/5A, P≤0.001). These data imply the involvement of -1612 5A/6A polymorphism in coronary stenosis, and suggest that probably the 6A/6A MMP-3 genotype is a genetic susceptibility factor for coronary stenosis.
70
3569
Qualification and Provisioning of xDSL Broadband Lines using a GIS Approach
Abstract:

In this paper is presented a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach in order to qualify and monitor the broadband lines in efficient way. The methodology used for interpolation is the Delaunay Triangular Irregular Network (TIN). This method is applied for a case study in ISP Greece monitoring 120,000 broadband lines.

69
6789
Texture Based Weed Detection Using Multi Resolution Combined Statistical and Spatial Frequency (MRCSF)
Abstract:
Texture classification is a trendy and a catchy technology in the field of texture analysis. Textures, the repeated patterns, have different frequency components along different orientations. Our work is based on Texture Classification and its applications. It finds its applications in various fields like Medical Image Classification, Computer Vision, Remote Sensing, Agricultural Field, and Textile Industry. Weed control has a major effect on agriculture. A large amount of herbicide has been used for controlling weeds in agriculture fields, lawns, golf courses, sport fields, etc. Random spraying of herbicides does not meet the exact requirement of the field. Certain areas in field have more weed patches than estimated. So, we need a visual system that can discriminate weeds from the field image which will reduce or even eliminate the amount of herbicide used. This would allow farmers to not use any herbicides or only apply them where they are needed. A machine vision precision automated weed control system could reduce the usage of chemicals in crop fields. In this paper, an intelligent system for automatic weeding strategy Multi Resolution Combined Statistical & spatial Frequency is used to discriminate the weeds from the crops and to classify them as narrow, little and broad weeds.
68
7118
Anthropomorphism in Robotics Engineering for Disabled People
Abstract:
In its attempt to offer new ways into autonomy for a large population of disabled people, assistive technology has largely been inspired by robotics engineering. Recent human-like robots carry new hopes that it seems to us necessary to analyze by means of a specific theory of anthropomorphism. We propose to distinguish a functional anthropomorphism which is the one of actual wheelchairs from a structural anthropomorphism based on a mimicking of human physiological systems. If functional anthropomorphism offers the main advantage of eliminating the physiological systems interdependence issue, the highly link between the robot for disabled people and their human-built environment would lead to privilege in the future the anthropomorphic structural way. In this future framework, we highlight a general interdependence principle : any partial or local structural anthropomorphism generates new anthropomorphic needs due to the physiological systems interdependency, whose effects can be evaluated by means of specific anthropomorphic criterions derived from a set theory-based approach of physiological systems.
67
8853
Knowledge Acquisition for the Construction of an Evolving Ontology: Application to Augmented Surgery
Abstract:
This work concerns the evolution and the maintenance of an ontological resource in relation with the evolution of the corpus of texts from which it had been built. The knowledge forming a text corpus, especially in dynamic domains, is in continuous evolution. When a change in the corpus occurs, the domain ontology must evolve accordingly. Most methods manage ontology evolution independently from the corpus from which it is built; in addition, they treat evolution just as a process of knowledge addition, not considering other knowledge changes. We propose a methodology for managing an evolving ontology from a text corpus that evolves over time, while preserving the consistency and the persistence of this ontology. Our methodology is based on the changes made on the corpus to reflect the evolution of the considered domain - augmented surgery in our case. In this context, the results of text mining techniques, as well as the ARCHONTE method slightly modified, are used to support the evolution process.
66
9226
Portfolio Management: A Fuzzy Set Based Approach to Monitoring Size to Maximize Return and Minimize Risk
Abstract:
Fuzzy logic can be used when knowledge is incomplete or when ambiguity of data exists. The purpose of this paper is to propose a proactive fuzzy set- based model for reacting to the risk inherent in investment activities relative to a complete view of portfolio management. Fuzzy rules are given where, depending on the antecedents, the portfolio size may be slightly or significantly decreased or increased. The decision maker considers acceptable bounds on the proportion of acceptable risk and return. The Fuzzy Controller model allows learning to be achieved as 1) the firing strength of each rule is measured, 2) fuzzy output allows rules to be updated, and 3) new actions are recommended as the system continues to loop. An extension is given to the fuzzy controller that evaluates potential financial loss before adjusting the portfolio. An application is presented that illustrates the algorithm and extension developed in the paper.
65
7900
An Ontology Abstract Machine
Abstract:
As more people from non-technical backgrounds are becoming directly involved with large-scale ontology development, the focal point of ontology research has shifted from the more theoretical ontology issues to problems associated with the actual use of ontologies in real-world, large-scale collaborative applications. Recently the National Science Foundation funded a large collaborative ontology development project for which a new formal ontology model, the Ontology Abstract Machine (OAM), was developed to satisfy some unique functional and data representation requirements. This paper introduces the OAM model and the related algorithms that enable maintenance of an ontology that supports node-based user access. The successful software implementation of the OAM model and its subsequent acceptance by a large research community proves its validity and its real-world application value.
64
15802
An Improved Genetic Algorithm to Solve the Traveling Salesman Problem
Abstract:

The Genetic Algorithm (GA) is one of the most important methods used to solve many combinatorial optimization problems. Therefore, many researchers have tried to improve the GA by using different methods and operations in order to find the optimal solution within reasonable time. This paper proposes an improved GA (IGA), where the new crossover operation, population reformulates operation, multi mutation operation, partial local optimal mutation operation, and rearrangement operation are used to solve the Traveling Salesman Problem. The proposed IGA was then compared with three GAs, which use different crossover operations and mutations. The results of this comparison show that the IGA can achieve better results for the solutions in a faster time.

63
10230
Sparse Networks-Based Speedup Technique for Proteins Betweenness Centrality Computation
Abstract:
The study of proteomics reached unexpected levels of interest, as a direct consequence of its discovered influence over some complex biological phenomena, such as problematic diseases like cancer. This paper presents the latest authors- achievements regarding the analysis of the networks of proteins (interactome networks), by computing more efficiently the betweenness centrality measure. The paper introduces the concept of betweenness centrality, and then describes how betweenness computation can help the interactome net- work analysis. Current sequential implementations for the between- ness computation do not perform satisfactory in terms of execution times. The paper-s main contribution is centered towards introducing a speedup technique for the betweenness computation, based on modified shortest path algorithms for sparse graphs. Three optimized generic algorithms for betweenness computation are described and implemented, and their performance tested against real biological data, which is part of the IntAct dataset.
62
2619
A Group Based Fuzzy MCDM for Selecting Knowledge Portal System
Abstract:
Despite of many scholars and practitioners recognize the knowledge management implementation in an organizations but insufficient attention has been paid by researchers to select suitable knowledge portal system (KPS) selection. This study develops a Multi Criteria Decision making model based on the fuzzy VIKOR approach to help organizations in selecting KPS. The suitable portal is the critical influential factors on the success of knowledge management (KM) implementation in an organization.
61
15241
A Condition Rating System for Wastewater Treatment Plants Infrastructures
Abstract:
Statistics Canada stated that the wastewater treatment facilities in most provinces are aging and passes 63% of their useful life in 2007 the highest ratio among public infrastructure assets. Currently, there is no standard condition rating system for wastewater treatment plants that give a specific rating index that describe the physical integrity of different infrastructure elements in the treatment plant and its environmental performance. The main objective of this study is to develop a condition-rating index for wastewater treatment plants mainly activated sludge systems. The proposed WWTP CRI, is based on dividing the treatment plant into its three treatment phases; primary phase, secondary phase and the tertiary phase. The condition-rating index will reflect the infrastructures state for each phase, mainly tanks, pipes, blowers and pumps.
60
12138
Contamination of Organochlorine Pesticides in Nest Soil, Egg, and Blood of the Snail-eating Turtle (Malayemys macrocephala) from the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand
Abstract:
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are known to be persistent and bioaccumulative toxicants that may cause reproductive impairments in wildlife as well as human. The current study uses the snail-eating turtle Malayemys macrocephala, a long-lived animal commonly distribute in rice field habitat in central part of Thailand, as a sentinel to monitor OCP contamination in environment. The nest soil, complete clutch of eggs, and blood of the turtle were collected from agricultural areas in the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand during the nesting season of 2007-2008. The novel methods for tissue extraction by an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE, for egg) and liquid-liquid extraction (for blood) have been developed. The nineteen OCP residues were analyzed by gas chromatography with micro-electron captured detector (GC-μECD). The validated methods have met requirements of the AOAC standard. The results indicated that significant amounts of OCPs are still contaminated in nest soil and eggs of the turtle even though the OCPs had been banned in this area for many years. This suggested the potential risk to health of wildlife as well as human in the area.
59
500
Internet Governance based on Multiple-Stakeholders: Opportunities, Issues and Developments
Abstract:
The Internet is the global data communications infrastructure based on the interconnection of both public and private networks using protocols that implement Internetworking on a global scale. Hence the control of protocol and infrastructure development, resource allocation and network operation are crucial and interlinked aspects. Internet Governance is the hotly debated and contentious subject that refers to the global control and operation of key Internet infrastructure such as domain name servers and resources such as domain names. It is impossible to separate technical and political positions as they are interlinked. Furthermore the existence of a global market, transparency and competition impact upon Internet Governance and related topics such as network neutrality and security. Current trends and developments regarding Internet governance with a focus on the policy-making process, security and control have been observed to evaluate current and future implications on the Internet. The multi stakeholder approach to Internet Governance discussed in this paper presents a number of opportunities, issues and developments that will affect the future direction of the Internet. Internet operation, maintenance and advisory organisations such as the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) or the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) are currently in the process of formulating policies for future Internet Governance. Given the controversial nature of the issues at stake and the current lack of agreement it is predicted that institutional as well as market governance will remain present for the network access and content.
58
10136
Modeling Stress-Induced Regulatory Cascades with Artificial Neural Networks
Abstract:

Yeast cells live in a constantly changing environment that requires the continuous adaptation of their genomic program in order to sustain their homeostasis, survive and proliferate. Due to the advancement of high throughput technologies, there is currently a large amount of data such as gene expression, gene deletion and protein-protein interactions for S. Cerevisiae under various environmental conditions. Mining these datasets requires efficient computational methods capable of integrating different types of data, identifying inter-relations between different components and inferring functional groups or 'modules' that shape intracellular processes. This study uses computational methods to delineate some of the mechanisms used by yeast cells to respond to environmental changes. The GRAM algorithm is first used to integrate gene expression data and ChIP-chip data in order to find modules of coexpressed and co-regulated genes as well as the transcription factors (TFs) that regulate these modules. Since transcription factors are themselves transcriptionally regulated, a three-layer regulatory cascade consisting of the TF-regulators, the TFs and the regulated modules is subsequently considered. This three-layer cascade is then modeled quantitatively using artificial neural networks (ANNs) where the input layer corresponds to the expression of the up-stream transcription factors (TF-regulators) and the output layer corresponds to the expression of genes within each module. This work shows that (a) the expression of at least 33 genes over time and for different stress conditions is well predicted by the expression of the top layer transcription factors, including cases in which the effect of up-stream regulators is shifted in time and (b) identifies at least 6 novel regulatory interactions that were not previously associated with stress-induced changes in gene expression. These findings suggest that the combination of gene expression and protein-DNA interaction data with artificial neural networks can successfully model biological pathways and capture quantitative dependencies between distant regulators and downstream genes.

57
8455
Injection Forging of Splines Using Numerical and Experimental Study
Abstract:
Injection forging is a Nett-shape manufacturing process in which one or two punches move axially causing a radial flow into a die cavity in a form which is prescribed by the exitgeometry, such as pulley, flanges, gears and splines on a shaft. This paper presents an experimental and numerical study of the injection forging of splines in terms of load requirement and material flow. Three dimensional finite element analyses are used to investigate the effect of some important parameters in this process. The experiment has been carried out using solid commercial lead billets with two different billet diameters and four different dies.
56
8920
Mathematical Modeling of Machining Parameters in Electrical Discharge Machining of FW4 Welded Steel
Abstract:
FW4 is a newly developed hot die material widely used in Forging Dies manufacturing. The right selection of the machining conditions is one of the most important aspects to take into consideration in the Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) of FW4. In this paper an attempt has been made to develop mathematical models for relating the Material Removal Rate (MRR), Tool Wear Ratio (TWR) and surface roughness (Ra) to machining parameters (current, pulse-on time and voltage). Furthermore, a study was carried out to analyze the effects of machining parameters in respect of listed technological characteristics. The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicate that the proposed mathematical models, can adequately describe the performance within the limits of the factors being studied.
55
7796
A Study on the Quality of Hexapod Machine Tool's Workspace
Abstract:
One of the main concerns about parallel mechanisms is the presence of singular points within their workspaces. In singular positions the mechanism gains or loses one or several degrees of freedom. It is impossible to control the mechanism in singular positions. Therefore, these positions have to be avoided. This is a vital need especially in computer controlled machine tools designed and manufactured on the basis of parallel mechanisms. This need has to be taken into consideration when selecting design parameters. A prerequisite to this is a thorough knowledge about the effect of design parameters and constraints on singularity. In this paper, quality condition index was introduced as a criterion for evaluating singularities of different configurations of a hexapod mechanism obtainable by different design parameters. It was illustrated that this method can effectively be employed to obtain the optimum configuration of hexapod mechanism with the aim of avoiding singularity within the workspace. This method was then employed to design the hexapod table of a CNC milling machine.
54
3380
The Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration of Workpiece in Electrical Discharge Machining of AISIH13 Tool Steel
Abstract:

In the present work, a study has been made on the combination of the electrical discharge machining (EDM) with ultrasonic vibrations to improve the machining efficiency. In experiments the graphite used as tool electrode and material of workpiece was AISIH13 tool steel. The parameters such as discharge peak current and pulse duration were changed to explore their effect on the material removal rate (MRR), relative tool wear ratio (TWR) and surface roughness. From the experimental result it can be seen that ultrasonic vibration of the workpiece can significantly reduces the inactive pulses and improves the stability of process. It was found that ultrasonic assisted EDM (US-EDM) is effective in attaining a high material removal rate (MRR) in finishing regime.

53
3672
Modeling of Surface Roughness in Vibration Cutting by Artificial Neural Network
Abstract:
Development of artificial neural network (ANN) for prediction of aluminum workpieces' surface roughness in ultrasonicvibration assisted turning (UAT) has been the subject of the present study. Tool wear as the main cause of surface roughness was also investigated. ANN was trained through experimental data obtained on the basis of full factorial design of experiments. Various influential machining parameters were taken into consideration. It was illustrated that a multilayer perceptron neural network could efficiently model the surface roughness as the response of the network, with an error less than ten percent. The performance of the trained network was verified by further experiments. The results of UAT were compared with the results of conventional turning experiments carried out with similar machining parameters except for the vibration amplitude whence considerable reduction was observed in the built-up edge and the surface roughness.
52
2263
Identifying the Kinematic Parameters of Hexapod Machine Tool
Abstract:
Hexapod Machine Tool (HMT) is a parallel robot mostly based on Stewart platform. Identification of kinematic parameters of HMT is an important step of calibration procedure. In this paper an algorithm is presented for identifying the kinematic parameters of HMT using inverse kinematics error model. Based on this algorithm, the calibration procedure is simulated. Measurement configurations with maximum observability are decided as the first step of this algorithm for a robust calibration. The errors occurring in various configurations are illustrated graphically. It has been shown that the boundaries of the workspace should be searched for the maximum observability of errors. The importance of using configurations with sufficient observability in calibrating hexapod machine tools is verified by trial calibration with two different groups of randomly selected configurations. One group is selected to have sufficient observability and the other is in disregard of the observability criterion. Simulation results confirm the validity of the proposed identification algorithm.
51
13677
A Generic, Functionally Comprehensive Approach to Maintaining an Ontology as a Relational Database
Abstract:
An ontology is a data model that represents a set of concepts in a given field and the relationships among those concepts. As the emphasis on achieving a semantic web continues to escalate, ontologies for all types of domains increasingly will be developed. These ontologies may become large and complex, and as their size and complexity grows, so will the need for multi-user interfaces for ontology curation. Herein a functionally comprehensive, generic approach to maintaining an ontology as a relational database is presented. Unlike many other ontology editors that utilize a database, this approach is entirely domain-generic and fully supports Webbased, collaborative editing including the designation of different levels of authorization for users.
50
4777
Aerodynamics and Optimization of Airfoil Under Ground Effect
Abstract:
The Prediction of aerodynamic characteristics and shape optimization of airfoil under the ground effect have been carried out by integration of computational fluid dynamics and the multiobjective Pareto-based genetic algorithm. The main flow characteristics around an airfoil of WIG craft are lift force, lift-to-drag ratio and static height stability (H.S). However, they show a strong trade-off phenomenon so that it is not easy to satisfy the design requirements simultaneously. This difficulty can be resolved by the optimal design. The above mentioned three characteristics are chosen as the objective functions and NACA0015 airfoil is considered as a baseline model in the present study. The profile of airfoil is constructed by Bezier curves with fourteen control points and these control points are adopted as the design variables. For multi-objective optimization problems, the optimal solutions are not unique but a set of non-dominated optima and they are called Pareto frontiers or Pareto sets. As the results of optimization, forty numbers of non- dominated Pareto optima can be obtained at thirty evolutions.
49
536
Use of Bayesian Network in Information Extraction from Unstructured Data Sources
Abstract:
This paper applies Bayesian Networks to support information extraction from unstructured, ungrammatical, and incoherent data sources for semantic annotation. A tool has been developed that combines ontologies, machine learning, and information extraction and probabilistic reasoning techniques to support the extraction process. Data acquisition is performed with the aid of knowledge specified in the form of ontology. Due to the variable size of information available on different data sources, it is often the case that the extracted data contains missing values for certain variables of interest. It is desirable in such situations to predict the missing values. The methodology, presented in this paper, first learns a Bayesian network from the training data and then uses it to predict missing data and to resolve conflicts. Experiments have been conducted to analyze the performance of the presented methodology. The results look promising as the methodology achieves high degree of precision and recall for information extraction and reasonably good accuracy for predicting missing values.
48
7331
CAD Based Predictive Models of the Undeformed Chip Geometry in Drilling
Abstract:
Twist drills are geometrical complex tools and thus various researchers have adopted different mathematical and experimental approaches for their simulation. The present paper acknowledges the increasing use of modern CAD systems and using the API (Application Programming Interface) of a CAD system, drilling simulations are carried out. The developed DRILL3D software routine, creates parametrically controlled tool geometries and using different cutting conditions, achieves the generation of solid models for all the relevant data involved (drilling tool, cut workpiece, undeformed chip). The final data derived, consist a platform for further direct simulations regarding the determination of cutting forces, tool wear, drilling optimizations etc.
47
13326
The Determination of Rating Points of Objects with Qualitative Characteristics and their Usagein Decision Making Problems
Abstract:
The paper presents the method developed to assess rating points of objects with qualitative indexes. The novelty of the method lies in the fact that the authors use linguistic scales that allow to formalize the values of the indexes with the help of fuzzy sets. As a result it is possible to operate correctly with dissimilar indexes on the unified basis and to get stable final results. The obtained rating points are used in decision making based on fuzzy expert opinions.
46
3046
Validation of Automation Systems using Temporal Logic Model Checking and Groebner Bases
Abstract:

Validation of an automation system is an important issue. The goal is to check if the system under investigation, modeled by a Petri net, never enters the undesired states. Usually, tools dedicated to Petri nets such as DESIGN/CPN are used to make reachability analysis. The biggest problem with this approach is that it is impossible to generate the full occurence graph of the system because it is too large. In this paper, we show how computational methods such as temporal logic model checking and Groebner bases can be used to verify the correctness of the design of an automation system. We report our experimental results with two automation systems: the Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) system and the traffic light system. Validation of these two systems ranged from 10 to 30 seconds on a PC depending on the optimizing parameters.

45
5793
Information Extraction from Unstructured and Ungrammatical Data Sources for Semantic Annotation
Abstract:
The internet has become an attractive avenue for global e-business, e-learning, knowledge sharing, etc. Due to continuous increase in the volume of web content, it is not practically possible for a user to extract information by browsing and integrating data from a huge amount of web sources retrieved by the existing search engines. The semantic web technology enables advancement in information extraction by providing a suite of tools to integrate data from different sources. To take full advantage of semantic web, it is necessary to annotate existing web pages into semantic web pages. This research develops a tool, named OWIE (Ontology-based Web Information Extraction), for semantic web annotation using domain specific ontologies. The tool automatically extracts information from html pages with the help of pre-defined ontologies and gives them semantic representation. Two case studies have been conducted to analyze the accuracy of OWIE.
44
4370
A Study on the Heading of Spur Gears: Numerical Analysis and Experiments
Abstract:
In this study, the precision heading process of spur gears has been investigated by means of numerical analysis. The effect of some parameters such as teeth number and module on the forming force and material flow were presented. The simulation works were performed rigid-plastic finite element method using DEFORM 3D software. In order to validate the estimated numerical results, they were compared with those obtained experimentally during heading of spur gear using lead as a model material. Results showed that the optimum number of gear teeth is between 10 to 20, that is because of being the specific pressure in its minimum value.
43
9974
Exploring Dimensionality, Systematic Mutations and Number of Contacts in Simple HP ab-initio Protein Folding Using a Blackboard-based Agent Platform
Abstract:
A computational platform is presented in this contribution. It has been designed as a virtual laboratory to be used for exploring optimization algorithms in biological problems. This platform is built on a blackboard-based agent architecture. As a test case, the version of the platform presented here is devoted to the study of protein folding, initially with a bead-like description of the chain and with the widely used model of hydrophobic and polar residues (HP model). Some details of the platform design are presented along with its capabilities and also are revised some explorations of the protein folding problems with different types of discrete space. It is also shown the capability of the platform to incorporate specific tools for the structural analysis of the runs in order to understand and improve the optimization process. Accordingly, the results obtained demonstrate that the ensemble of computational tools into a single platform is worthwhile by itself, since experiments developed on it can be designed to fulfill different levels of information in a self-consistent fashion. By now, it is being explored how an experiment design can be useful to create a computational agent to be included within the platform. These inclusions of designed agents –or software pieces– are useful for the better accomplishment of the tasks to be developed by the platform. Clearly, while the number of agents increases the new version of the virtual laboratory thus enhances in robustness and functionality.
42
11245
LMI Approach to Regularization and Stabilization of Linear Singular Systems: The Discrete-time Case
Authors:
Abstract:

Sufficient linear matrix inequalities (LMI) conditions for regularization of discrete-time singular systems are given. Then a new class of regularizing stabilizing controllers is discussed. The proposed controllers are the sum of predictive and memoryless state feedbacks. The predictive controller aims to regularizing the singular system while the memoryless state feedback is designed to stabilize the resulting regularized system. A systematic procedure is given to calculate the controller gains through linear matrix inequalities.

41
13799
Computational Identification of Bacterial Communities
Abstract:

Stable bacterial polymorphism on a single limiting resource may appear if between the evolved strains metabolic interactions take place that allow the exchange of essential nutrients [8]. Towards an attempt to predict the possible outcome of longrunning evolution experiments, a network based on the metabolic capabilities of homogeneous populations of every single gene knockout strain (nodes) of the bacterium E. coli is reconstructed. Potential metabolic interactions (edges) are allowed only between strains of different metabolic capabilities. Bacterial communities are determined by finding cliques in this network. Growth of the emerged hypothetical bacterial communities is simulated by extending the metabolic flux balance analysis model of Varma et al [2] to embody heterogeneous cell population growth in a mutual environment. Results from aerobic growth on 10 different carbon sources are presented. The upper bounds of the diversity that can emerge from single-cloned populations of E. coli such as the number of strains that appears to metabolically differ from most strains (highly connected nodes), the maximum clique size as well as the number of all the possible communities are determined. Certain single gene deletions are identified to consistently participate in our hypothetical bacterial communities under most environmental conditions implying a pattern of growth-condition- invariant strains with similar metabolic effects. Moreover, evaluation of all the hypothetical bacterial communities under growth on pyruvate reveals heterogeneous populations that can exhibit superior growth performance when compared to the performance of the homogeneous wild-type population.

40
9582
A Performance Appraisal of Neural Networks Developed for Response Prediction across Heterogeneous Domains
Abstract:
Deciding the numerous parameters involved in designing a competent artificial neural network is a complicated task. The existence of several options for selecting an appropriate architecture for neural network adds to this complexity, especially when different applications of heterogeneous natures are concerned. Two completely different applications in engineering and medical science were selected in the present study including prediction of workpiece's surface roughness in ultrasonic-vibration assisted turning and papilloma viruses oncogenicity. Several neural network architectures with different parameters were developed for each application and the results were compared. It was illustrated in this paper that some applications such as the first one mentioned above are apt to be modeled by a single network with sufficient accuracy, whereas others such as the second application can be best modeled by different expert networks for different ranges of output. Development of knowledge about the essentials of neural networks for different applications is regarded as the cornerstone of multidisciplinary network design programs to be developed as a means of reducing inconsistencies and the burden of the user intervention.
39
3278
A study of Cancer-related MicroRNAs through Expression Data and Literature Search
Abstract:
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that hybridize to mRNAs and induce either translation repression or mRNA cleavage. Recently, it has been reported that miRNAs could possibly play an important role in human diseases. By integrating miRNA target genes, cancer genes, miRNA and mRNA expression profiles information, a database is developed to link miRNAs to cancer target genes. The database provides experimentally verified human miRNA target genes information, including oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. In addition, fragile sites information for miRNAs, and the strength of the correlation of miRNA and its target mRNA expression level for nine tissue types are computed, which serve as an indicator for suggesting miRNAs could play a role in human cancer. The database is freely accessible at http://ppi.bioinfo.asia.edu.tw/mirna_target/index.html.
38
1776
SATA: A Web Based Scheduling Support System
Abstract:
Developing a university course schedule is difficult. This is due to the limitations in the resources available. The process is made even harder with different faculties or departments having different ways of stating their schedule requirements. The person in charge of taking the schedule requirements and turning them into a proper course schedule is not only burden with the task of allocating the appropriate classes and time to lecturers and students, they also need to understand the schedule requirements. Therefore a scheduling support system named SATA is developed to assist ICRESS in the course scheduling process. SATA has been put to use for several semesters and the results have been encouraging. It won a bronze medal in the 2008 Invention, Innovation and Design competition (IID-08) and has been submitted to be patented in October 2008
37
7368
Connectivity Characteristic of Transcription Factor
Abstract:
Transcription factors are a group of proteins that helps for interpreting the genetic information in DNA. Protein-protein interactions play a major role in the execution of key biological functions of a cell. These interactions are represented in the form of a graph with nodes and edges. Studies have showed that some nodes have high degree of connectivity and such nodes, known as hub nodes, are the inevitable parts of the network. In the present paper a method is proposed to identify hub transcription factor proteins using sequence information. On a complete data set of transcription factor proteins available from the APID database, the proposed method showed an accuracy of 77%, sensitivity of 79% and specificity of 76%.
36
9120
Exploring the Combinatorics of Motif Alignments Foraccurately Computing E-values from P-values
Abstract:

In biological and biomedical research motif finding tools are important in locating regulatory elements in DNA sequences. There are many such motif finding tools available, which often yield position weight matrices and significance indicators. These indicators, p-values and E-values, describe the likelihood that a motif alignment is generated by the background process, and the expected number of occurrences of the motif in the data set, respectively. The various tools often estimate these indicators differently, making them not directly comparable. One approach for comparing motifs from different tools, is computing the E-value as the product of the p-value and the number of possible alignments in the data set. In this paper we explore the combinatorics of the motif alignment models OOPS, ZOOPS, and ANR, and propose a generic algorithm for computing the number of possible combinations accurately. We also show that using the wrong alignment model can give E-values that significantly diverge from their true values.

35
4387
Active Power Filter dimensioning Using a Hysteresis Current Controller
Abstract:
This paper aims to give a full study of the dynamic behavior of a mono-phase active power filter. First, the principle of the parallel active power filter will be introduced. Then, a dimensioning procedure for all its components will be explained in detail, such as the input filter, the current and voltage controllers. This active power filter is simulated using OrCAD program showing the validity of the theoretical study.
34
12740
Efficient Real-time Remote Data Propagation Mechanism for a Component-Based Approach to Distributed Manufacturing
Abstract:

Manufacturing Industries face a crucial change as products and processes are required to, easily and efficiently, be reconfigurable and reusable. In order to stay competitive and flexible, situations also demand distribution of enterprises globally, which requires implementation of efficient communication strategies. A prototype system called the “Broadcaster" has been developed with an assumption that the control environment description has been engineered using the Component-based system paradigm. This prototype distributes information to a number of globally distributed partners via an adoption of the circular-based data processing mechanism. The work highlighted in this paper includes the implementation of this mechanism in the domain of the manufacturing industry. The proposed solution enables real-time remote propagation of machine information to a number of distributed supply chain client resources such as a HMI, VRML-based 3D views and remote client instances regardless of their distribution nature and/ or their mechanisms. This approach is presented together with a set of evaluation results. Authors- main concentration surrounds the reliability and the performance metric of the adopted approach. Performance evaluation is carried out in terms of the response times taken to process the data in this domain and compared with an alternative data processing implementation such as the linear queue mechanism. Based on the evaluation results obtained, authors justify the benefits achieved from this proposed implementation and highlight any further research work that is to be carried out.

33
4085
Semi-Automatic Trend Detection in Scholarly Repository Using Semantic Approach
Abstract:
Currently WWW is the first solution for scholars in finding information. But, analyzing and interpreting this volume of information will lead to researchers overload in pursuing their research. Trend detection in scientific publication retrieval systems helps scholars to find relevant, new and popular special areas by visualizing the trend of input topic. However, there are few researches on trend detection in scientific corpora while their proposed models do not appear to be suitable. Previous works lack of an appropriate representation scheme for research topics. This paper describes a method that combines Semantic Web and ontology to support advance search functions such as trend detection in the context of scholarly Semantic Web system (SSWeb).
32
3464
The Index of Sustainable Functionality: An Application for Measuring Sustainability
Abstract:

The index of sustainable functionality (ISF) is an adaptive, multi-criteria technique that is used to measure sustainability; it is a concept that can be transposed to many regions throughout the world. An ISF application of the Southern Regional Organisation of Councils (SouthROC) in South East Queensland (SEQ) – the fastest growing region in Australia – indicated over a 25 year period an increase of over 10% level of functionality from 58.0% to 68.3%. The ISF of SouthROC utilised methodologies that derived from an expert panel based approach. The overall results attained an intermediate level of functionality which amounted to related concerns of economic progress and lack of social awareness. Within the region, a solid basis for future testing by way of measured changes and developed trends can be established. In this regard as management tool, the ISF record offers support for regional sustainability practice and decision making alike. This research adaptively analyses sustainability – a concept that is lacking throughout much of the academic literature and any reciprocal experimentation. This lack of knowledge base has been the emphasis of where future sustainability research can grow from and prove useful in rapidly growing regions. It is the intentions of this research to help further develop the notions of index-based quantitative sustainability.

31
738
A Materialized Approach to the Integration of XML Documents: the OSIX System
Abstract:
The data exchanged on the Web are of different nature from those treated by the classical database management systems; these data are called semi-structured data since they do not have a regular and static structure like data found in a relational database; their schema is dynamic and may contain missing data or types. Therefore, the needs for developing further techniques and algorithms to exploit and integrate such data, and extract relevant information for the user have been raised. In this paper we present the system OSIX (Osiris based System for Integration of XML Sources). This system has a Data Warehouse model designed for the integration of semi-structured data and more precisely for the integration of XML documents. The architecture of OSIX relies on the Osiris system, a DL-based model designed for the representation and management of databases and knowledge bases. Osiris is a viewbased data model whose indexing system supports semantic query optimization. We show that the problem of query processing on a XML source is optimized by the indexing approach proposed by Osiris.
30
958
Bioinformatics Profiling of Missense Mutations
Abstract:
The ability to distinguish missense nucleotide substitutions that contribute to harmful effect from those that do not is a difficult problem usually accomplished through functional in vivo analyses. In this study, instead current biochemical methods, the effects of missense mutations upon protein structure and function were assayed by means of computational methods and information from the databases. For this order, the effects of new missense mutations in exon 5 of PTEN gene upon protein structure and function were examined. The gene coding for PTEN was identified and localized on chromosome region 10q23.3 as the tumor suppressor gene. The utilization of these methods were shown that c.319G>A and c.341T>G missense mutations that were recognized in patients with breast cancer and Cowden disease, could be pathogenic. This method could be use for analysis of missense mutation in others genes.
29
1642
Non-Polynomial Spline Solution of Fourth-Order Obstacle Boundary-Value Problems
Abstract:
In this paper we use quintic non-polynomial spline functions to develop numerical methods for approximation to the solution of a system of fourth-order boundaryvalue problems associated with obstacle, unilateral and contact problems. The convergence analysis of the methods has been discussed and shown that the given approximations are better than collocation and finite difference methods. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the applications of these methods, and to compare the computed results with other known methods.
28
1403
Analysis of Phosphate in Wastewater Using an Autonomous Microfluidics-Based Analyser
Abstract:
A portable sensor for the analysis of phosphate in aqueous samples has been developed. The sensor incorporates microfluidic technology, colorimetric detection, and wireless communications into a compact and rugged portable device. The detection method used is the molybdenum yellow method, in which a phosphate-containing sample is mixed with a reagent containing ammonium metavanadate and ammonium molybdate in an acidic medium. A yellow-coloured compound is generated and the absorption of this compound is measured using a light emitting diode (LED) light source and a photodiode detector. The absorption is directly proportional to the phosphate concentration in the original sample. In this paper we describe the application of this phosphate sensor to the analysis of wastewater at a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Co. Kildare, Ireland.
27
4921
MiSense Hierarchical Cluster-Based Routing Algorithm (MiCRA) for Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:
Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are currently receiving significant attention due to their unlimited potential. These networks are used for various applications, such as habitat monitoring, automation, agriculture, and security. The efficient nodeenergy utilization is one of important performance factors in wireless sensor networks because sensor nodes operate with limited battery power. In this paper, we proposed the MiSense hierarchical cluster based routing algorithm (MiCRA) to extend the lifetime of sensor networks and to maintain a balanced energy consumption of nodes. MiCRA is an extension of the HEED algorithm with two levels of cluster heads. The performance of the proposed protocol has been examined and evaluated through a simulation study. The simulation results clearly show that MiCRA has a better performance in terms of lifetime than HEED. Indeed, MiCRA our proposed protocol can effectively extend the network lifetime without other critical overheads and performance degradation. It has been noted that there is about 35% of energy saving for MiCRA during the clustering process and 65% energy savings during the routing process compared to the HEED algorithm.
26
6980
Contaminated Soil Remediation with Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidation
Abstract:
The hydrogen peroxide treatment was able to remediate chlorophenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, diesel and transformer oil contaminated soil. Chemical treatment of contaminants adsorbed in peat resulted in lower contaminants- removal and required higher addition of chemicals than the treatment of contaminants in sand. The hydrogen peroxide treatment was found to be feasible for soil remediation at natural soil pH. Contaminants in soil could degrade with the addition of hydrogen peroxide only indicating the ability of transition metals ions and minerals of these metals presented in soil to catalyse the reaction of hydrogen peroxide decomposition.
25
781
Improvement of Lipase Catalytic Properties by Immobilization in Hybrid Matrices
Abstract:
Lipases are enzymes particularly amenable for immobilization by entrapment methods, as they can work equally well in aqueous or non-conventional media and long-time stability of enzyme activity and enantioselectivity is needed to elaborate more efficient bioprocesses. The improvement of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Amano AK) lipase characteristics was investigated by optimizing the immobilization procedure in hybrid organic-inorganic matrices using ionic liquids as additives. Ionic liquids containing a more hydrophobic alkyl group in the cationic moiety are beneficial for the activity of immobilized lipase. Silanes with alkyl- or aryl nonhydrolizable groups used as precursors in combination with tetramethoxysilane could generate composites with higher enantioselectivity compared to the native enzyme in acylation reactions of secondary alcohols. The optimal effect on both activity and enantioselectivity was achieved for the composite made from octyltrimethoxysilane and tetramethoxysilane at 1:1 molar ratio (60% increase of total activity following immobilization and enantiomeric ratio of 30). Ionic liquids also demonstrated valuable properties as reaction media for the studied reactions, comparable with the usual organic solvent, hexane.
24
6805
Defects in Open Source Software: The Role of Online Forums
Abstract:
Free and open source software is gaining popularity at an unprecedented rate of growth. Organizations despite some concerns about the quality have been using them for various purposes. One of the biggest concerns about free and open source software is post release software defects and their fixing. Many believe that there is no appropriate support available to fix the bugs. On the contrary some believe that due to the active involvement of internet user in online forums, they become a major source of communicating the identification and fixing of defects in open source software. The research model of this empirical investigation establishes and studies the relationship between open source software defects and online public forums. The results of this empirical study provide evidence about the realities of software defects myths of open source software. We used a dataset consist of 616 open source software projects covering a broad range of categories to study the research model of this investigation. The results of this investigation show that online forums play a significant role identifying and fixing the defects in open source software.
23
588
Mobile Communications Client Server System for Stock Exchange e-Services Access
Abstract:
Using mobile Internet access technologies and eservices, various economic agents can efficiently offer their products or services to a large number of clients. With the support of mobile communications networks, the clients can have access to e-services, anywhere and anytime. This is a base to establish a convergence of technological and financial interests of mobile operators, software developers, mobile terminals producers and e-content providers. In this paper, a client server system is presented, using 3G, EDGE, mobile terminals, for Stock Exchange e-services access.
22
14854
Loop Heat Pipe: Simple Thermodynamic
Abstract:
The LHP is a two-phase device with extremely high effective thermal conductivity that utilizes the thermodynamic pressure difference to circulate a cooling fluid. A thermodynamics analytical model is developed to explore different parameters effects on a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP).. The effects of pipe length, pipe diameter, condenser temperature, and heat load are reported. As pipe length increases and/or pipe diameter decreases, a higher temperature is expected in the evaporator.
21
8793
Three-phases Model of the Induction Machine Taking Account the Stator Faults
Abstract:
In this work we present the modelling of the induction machine, taking into consideration the stator defects of the induction machine. It is based on the theory of electromagnetic coupling of electrical circuits. In fact, for the modelling of stationary defects such as short circuit between turns in the same phase, we introduce only in the matrix the coefficients of resistance and inductance of stator and in the mutual inductance stator-rotor. These coefficients take account the number of turns in short-circuit deducted from the total number of turns in the same phase; in this way we obtain the number of useful turns. In addition, all these faults involved, will be used for the creation of the database that will be used to develop an automated system failures of the induction machine.
20
12570
Clustering Unstructured Text Documents Using Fading Function
Abstract:
Clustering unstructured text documents is an important issue in data mining community and has a number of applications such as document archive filtering, document organization and topic detection and subject tracing. In the real world, some of the already clustered documents may not be of importance while new documents of more significance may evolve. Most of the work done so far in clustering unstructured text documents overlooks this aspect of clustering. This paper, addresses this issue by using the Fading Function. The unstructured text documents are clustered. And for each cluster a statistics structure called Cluster Profile (CP) is implemented. The cluster profile incorporates the Fading Function. This Fading Function keeps an account of the time-dependent importance of the cluster. The work proposes a novel algorithm Clustering n-ary Merge Algorithm (CnMA) for unstructured text documents, that uses Cluster Profile and Fading Function. Experimental results illustrating the effectiveness of the proposed technique are also included.
19
8777
Vector Control Using Series Iron Loss Model of Induction, Motors and Power Loss Minimization
Abstract:
The iron loss is a source of detuning in vector controlled induction motor drives if the classical rotor vector controller is used for decoupling. In fact, the field orientation will not be satisfied and the output torque will not truck the reference torque mostly used by Loss Model Controllers (LMCs). In addition, this component of loss, among others, may be excessive if the vector controlled induction motor is driving light loads. In this paper, the series iron loss model is used to develop a vector controller immune to iron loss effect and then an LMC to minimize the total power loss using the torque generated by the speed controller.
18
10227
An Experimental Study on the Effect of EGR and Engine Speed on CO and HC Emissions of Dual Fuel HCCI Engine
Abstract:
In this study, effects of EGR on CO and HC emissions of a dual fuel HCCI-DI engine are investigated. Tests were conducted on a single-cylinder variable compression ratio (VCR) diesel engine with compression ratio of 17.5. Premixed gasoline is provided by a carburetor connected to intake manifold and equipped with a screw to adjust premixed air-fuel ratio, and diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinder through an injector at pressure of 250 bars. A heater placed at inlet manifold is used to control the intake charge temperature. Optimal intake charge temperature was 110-115ºC due to better formation of a homogeneous mixture causing HCCI combustion. Timing of diesel fuel injection has a great effect on stratification of in-cylinder charge in HCCI combustion. Experiments indicated 35 BTDC as the optimum injection timing. Coolant temperature was maintained 50ºC during the tests. Results show that increasing engine speed at a constant EGR rate leads to increase in CO and UHC emissions due to the incomplete combustion caused by shorter combustion duration and less homogeneous mixture. Results also show that increasing EGR reduces the amount of oxygen and leads to incomplete combustion and therefore increases CO emission due to lower combustion temperature. HC emission also increases as a result of lower combustion temperatures.
17
3534
An Experimental Study on the Effect of Premixed and Equivalence Ratios on CO and HC Emissions of Dual Fuel HCCI Engine
Abstract:
In this study, effects of premixed and equivalence ratios on CO and HC emissions of a dual fuel HCCI engine are investigated. Tests were conducted on a single-cylinder engine with compression ratio of 17.5. Premixed gasoline is provided by a carburetor connected to intake manifold and equipped with a screw to adjust premixed air-fuel ratio, and diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinder through an injector at pressure of 250 bars. A heater placed at inlet manifold is used to control the intake charge temperature. Optimal intake charge temperature results in better HCCI combustion due to formation of a homogeneous mixture, therefore, all tests were carried out over the optimum intake temperature of 110-115 ºC. Timing of diesel fuel injection has a great effect on stratification of in-cylinder charge and plays an important role in HCCI combustion phasing. Experiments indicated 35 BTDC as the optimum injection timing. Varying the coolant temperature in a range of 40 to 70 ºC, better HCCI combustion was achieved at 50 ºC. Therefore, coolant temperature was maintained 50 ºC during all tests. Simultaneous investigation of effective parameters on HCCI combustion was conducted to determine optimum parameters resulting in fast transition to HCCI combustion. One of the advantages of the method studied in this study is feasibility of easy and fast transition of typical diesel engine to a dual fuel HCCI engine. Results show that increasing premixed ratio, while keeping EGR rate constant, increases unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions due to quenching phenomena and trapping of premixed fuel in crevices, but CO emission decreases due to increase in CO to CO2 reactions.
16
5042
Toward an Efficient Framework for Designing, Developing, and Using Secure Mobile Applications
Abstract:

Nowadays, people are going more and more mobile, both in terms of devices and associated applications. Moreover, services that these devices are offering are getting wider and much more complex. Even though actual handheld devices have considerable computing power, their contexts of utilization are different. These contexts are affected by the availability of connection, high latency of wireless networks, battery life, size of the screen, on-screen or hard keyboard, etc. Consequently, development of mobile applications and their associated mobile Web services, if any, should follow a concise methodology so they will provide a high Quality of Service. The aim of this paper is to highlight and discuss main issues to consider when developing mobile applications and mobile Web services and then propose a framework that leads developers through different steps and modules toward development of efficient and secure mobile applications. First, different challenges in developing such applications are elicited and deeply discussed. Second, a development framework is presented with different modules addressing each of these challenges. Third, the paper presents an example of a mobile application, Eivom Cinema Guide, which benefits from following our development framework.

15
10723
An Aggregate Production Planning Model for Brass Casting Industry in Fuzzy Environment
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a fuzzy aggregate production planning (APP) model for blending problem in a brass factory which is the problem of computing optimal amounts of raw materials for the total production of several types of brass in a period. The model has deterministic and imprecise parameters which follows triangular possibility distributions. The brass casting APP model can not always be solved by using common approaches used in the literature. Therefore a mathematical model is presented for solving this problem. In the proposed model, the Lai and Hwang-s fuzzy ranking concept is relaxed by using one constraint instead of three constraints. An application of the brass casting APP model in a brass factory shows that the proposed model successfully solves the multi-blend problem in casting process and determines the optimal raw material purchasing policies.
14
2923
A Practical Solution of a Plant Pipes Monitoring System Using Bio-mimetic Robots
Abstract:
There has been a growing interest in the field of bio-mimetic robots that resemble the shape of an insect or an aquatic animal, among many others. One bio-mimetic robot serves the purpose of exploring pipelines, spotting any troubled areas or malfunctions and reporting its data. Moreover, the robot is able to prepare for and react to any abnormal routes in the pipeline. In order to move effectively inside a pipeline, the robot-s movement will resemble that of a lizard. When situated in massive pipelines with complex routes, the robot places fixed sensors in several important spots in order to complete its monitoring. This monitoring task is to prevent a major system failure by preemptively recognizing any minor or partial malfunctions. Areas uncovered by fixed sensors are usually impossible to provide real-time observation and examination, and thus are dependant on periodical offline monitoring. This paper provides the Monitoring System that is able to monitor the entire area of pipelines–with and without fixed sensors–by using the bio-mimetic robot.
13
12581
Level of Service Based Methodology for Municipal Infrastructure Management
Abstract:
Development of levels of service in municipal context is a flexible vehicle to assist in performing quality-cost trade-off analysis for municipal services. This trade-off depends on the willingness of a community to pay as well as on the condition of the assets. Community perspective of the performance of an asset from service point of view may be quite different from the municipality perspective of the performance of the same asset from condition point of view. This paper presents a three phased level of service based methodology for water mains that consists of :1)development of an Analytical Hierarchy model of level of service 2) development of Fuzzy Weighted Sum model of water main condition index and 3) deriving a Fuzzy logic based function that maps level of service to asset condition index. This mapping will assist asset managers in quantifying condition improvement requirement to meet service goals and to make more informed decisions on interventions and relayed priorities.
12
7602
An Owl Ontology for Commonkads Template Knowledge Models
Abstract:
This paper gives an overview of how an OWL ontology has been created to represent template knowledge models defined in CML that are provided by CommonKADS. CommonKADS is a mature knowledge engineering methodology which proposes the use of template knowledge model for knowledge modelling. The aim of developing this ontology is to present the template knowledge model in a knowledge representation language that can be easily understood and shared in the knowledge engineering community. Hence OWL is used as it has become a standard for ontology and also it already has user friendly tools for viewing and editing.
11
6490
A Distributed Cognition Framework to Compare E-Commerce Websites Using Data Envelopment Analysis
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper presents an approach based on the adoption of a distributed cognition framework and a non parametric multicriteria evaluation methodology (DEA) designed specifically to compare e-commerce websites from the consumer/user viewpoint. In particular, the framework considers a website relative efficiency as a measure of its quality and usability. A website is modelled as a black box capable to provide the consumer/user with a set of functionalities. When the consumer/user interacts with the website to perform a task, he/she is involved in a cognitive activity, sustaining a cognitive cost to search, interpret and process information, and experiencing a sense of satisfaction. The degree of ambiguity and uncertainty he/she perceives and the needed search time determine the effort size – and, henceforth, the cognitive cost amount – he/she has to sustain to perform his/her task. On the contrary, task performing and result achievement induce a sense of gratification, satisfaction and usefulness. In total, 9 variables are measured, classified in a set of 3 website macro-dimensions (user experience, site navigability and structure). The framework is implemented to compare 40 websites of businesses performing electronic commerce in the information technology market. A questionnaire to collect subjective judgements for the websites in the sample was purposely designed and administered to 85 university students enrolled in computer science and information systems engineering undergraduate courses.
10
4491
Context Aware Lightweight Energy Efficient Framework
Abstract:
Context awareness is a capability whereby mobile computing devices can sense their physical environment and adapt their behavior accordingly. The term context-awareness, in ubiquitous computing, was introduced by Schilit in 1994 and has become one of the most exciting concepts in early 21st-century computing, fueled by recent developments in pervasive computing (i.e. mobile and ubiquitous computing). These include computing devices worn by users, embedded devices, smart appliances, sensors surrounding users and a variety of wireless networking technologies. Context-aware applications use context information to adapt interfaces, tailor the set of application-relevant data, increase the precision of information retrieval, discover services, make the user interaction implicit, or build smart environments. For example: A context aware mobile phone will know that the user is currently in a meeting room, and reject any unimportant calls. One of the major challenges in providing users with context-aware services lies in continuously monitoring their contexts based on numerous sensors connected to the context aware system through wireless communication. A number of context aware frameworks based on sensors have been proposed, but many of them have neglected the fact that monitoring with sensors imposes heavy workloads on ubiquitous devices with limited computing power and battery. In this paper, we present CALEEF, a lightweight and energy efficient context aware framework for resource limited ubiquitous devices.
9
9441
Construction Of Decentralized Lifetime Maximizing Tree for Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:
To meet the demands of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) where data are usually aggregated at a single source prior to transmitting to any distant user, there is a need to establish a tree structure inside any given event region. In this paper , a novel technique to create one such tree is proposed .This tree preserves the energy and maximizes the lifetime of event sources while they are constantly transmitting for data aggregation. The term Decentralized Lifetime Maximizing Tree (DLMT) is used to denote this tree. DLMT features in nodes with higher energy tend to be chosen as data aggregating parents so that the time to detect the first broken tree link can be extended and less energy is involved in tree maintenance. By constructing the tree in such a way, the protocol is able to reduce the frequency of tree reconstruction, minimize the amount of data loss ,minimize the delay during data collection and preserves the energy.
8
136
Reciprocating Compressor Optimum Design and Manufacturing with Respect to Performance, Reliability and Cost
Authors:
Abstract:

Reciprocating compressors are flexible to handle wide capacity and condition swings, offer a very efficient method of compressing almost any gas mixture in wide range of pressure, can generate high head independent of density, and have numerous applications and wide power ratings. These make them vital component in various units of industrial plants. In this paper optimum reciprocating compressor configuration regarding interstage pressures, low suction pressure, non-lubricated cylinder, speed of machine, capacity control system, compressor valve, lubrication system, piston rod coating, cylinder liner material, barring device, pressure drops, rod load, pin reversal, discharge temperature, cylinder coolant system, performance, flow, coupling, special tools, condition monitoring (including vibration, thermal and rod drop monitoring), commercial points, delivery and acoustic conditions are presented.

7
2695
Promising Immobilization of Cadmium and Lead inside Ca-rich Glass-ceramics
Abstract:
Considering toxicity of heavy metals and their accumulation in domestic wastes, immobilization of lead and cadmium is envisaged inside glass-ceramics. We particularly focused this work on calcium-rich phases embedded in a glassy matrix. Glass-ceramics were synthesized from glasses doped with 12 wt% and 16 wt% of PbO or CdO. They were observed and analyzed by Electron MicroProbe Analysis (EMPA) and Analytical Scanning Electron Microscopy (ASEM). Structural characterization of the samples was performed by powder XRay Diffraction. Diopside crystals of CaMgSi2O6 composition are shown to incorporate significant amounts of cadmium (up to 9 wt% of CdO). Two new crystalline phases are observed with very high Cd or Pb contents: about 40 wt% CdO for the cadmiumrich phase and near 60 wt% PbO for the lead-rich phase. We present complete chemical and structural characterization of these phases. They represent a promising way for the immobilization of toxic elements like Cd or Pb since glass ceramics are known to propose a “double barrier" protection (metal-rich crystals embedded in a glass matrix) against metal release in the environment.
6
9107
Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Cement Manufactured with Artificial Pozzolan (Waste Brick)
Abstract:
The effect of artificial pozzolan (waste brick) on the physico-chemical properties of cement manufactured was investigated. The waste brick is generated by the manufacture of bricks. It was used in the proportions of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by mass of cement to study its effect on the physico-chemical properties of cement incorporating artificial pozzolan. The physicochemical properties of cement at anhydrous state and the hydrated state (chemical composition, specific weight, fineness, consistency of the cement paste and setting times) were studied. The experimental results obtained show that the quantity of pozzolanic admixture (waste brick) of cement manufactured is the principal parameter who influences on the variation of the physico-chemical properties of the cement tested.
5
6446
Experimental Investigation of the Maximum Axial Force in the Folding Process of Aluminum Square Columns
Abstract:

In this paper, a semi empirical formula is presented based on the experimental results to predict the first pick (maximum force) value in the instantaneous folding force- axial distance diagram of a square column. To achieve this purpose, the maximum value of the folding force was assumed to be a function of the average folding force. Using the experimental results, the maximum value of the force necessary to initiate the first fold in a square column was obtained with respect to the geometrical quantities and material properties. Finally, the results obtained from the semi empirical relation in this paper, were compared to the experimental results which showed a good correlation.

4
11666
Design and Analysis of Gauge R&R Studies: Making Decisions Based on ANOVA Method
Abstract:
In a competitive production environment, critical decision making are based on data resulted by random sampling of product units. Efficiency of these decisions depends on data quality and also their reliability scale. This point leads to the necessity of a reliable measurement system. Therefore, the conjecture process and analysing the errors contributes to a measurement system known as Measurement System Analysis (MSA). The aim of this research is on determining the necessity and assurance of extensive development in analysing measurement systems, particularly with the use of Repeatability and Reproducibility Gages (GR&R) to improve physical measurements. Nowadays in productive industries, repeatability and reproducibility gages released so well but they are not applicable as well as other measurement system analysis methods. To get familiar with this method and gain a feedback in improving measurement systems, this survey would be on “ANOVA" method as the most widespread way of calculating Repeatability and Reproducibility (R&R).
3
14712
Gravitational and Centrifugal Forces in the Nut-Kerr-Newman Space-Time
Abstract:
Nayak et al have discussed in detail the inertial forces such as Gravitational, Coriolis-Lense-Thirring and Centrifugal forces in the Kerr-Newman Space-time in the Kerr-Newman Space-time. The main theme of this paper is to study the Gravitational and Centrifugal forces in the NUT-Kerr-Newman Space-time.
2
7888
Increase of Error Detection Effectiveness in the Data Transmission Channels with Pulse-Amplitude Modulation
Abstract:
In this paper an approaches for increasing the effectiveness of error detection in computer network channels with Pulse-Amplitude Modulation (PAM) has been proposed. Proposed approaches are based on consideration of special feature of errors, which are appearances in line with PAM. The first approach consists of CRC modification specifically for line with PAM. The second approach is base of weighted checksums using. The way for checksum components coding has been developed. It has been shown that proposed checksum modification ensure superior digital data control transformation reliability for channels with PAM in compare to CRC.
1
5596
Statistics of Exon Lengths in Animals, Plants, Fungi, and Protists
Abstract:

Eukaryotic protein-coding genes are interrupted by spliceosomal introns, which are removed from the RNA transcripts before translation into a protein. The exon-intron structures of different eukaryotic species are quite different from each other, and the evolution of such structures raises many questions. We try to address some of these questions using statistical analysis of whole genomes. We go through all the protein-coding genes in a genome and study correlations between the net length of all the exons in a gene, the number of the exons, and the average length of an exon. We also take average values of these features for each chromosome and study correlations between those averages on the chromosomal level. Our data show universal features of exon-intron structures common to animals, plants, and protists (specifically, Arabidopsis thaliana, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Cryptococcus neoformans, Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Oryza sativa, and Plasmodium falciparum). We have verified linear correlation between the number of exons in a gene and the length of a protein coded by the gene, while the protein length increases in proportion to the number of exons. On the other hand, the average length of an exon always decreases with the number of exons. Finally, chromosome clustering based on average chromosome properties and parameters of linear regression between the number of exons in a gene and the net length of those exons demonstrates that these average chromosome properties are genome-specific features.

Vol:11 No:10 2017Vol:11 No:09 2017Vol:11 No:08 2017Vol:11 No:07 2017Vol:11 No:06 2017Vol:11 No:05 2017Vol:11 No:04 2017Vol:11 No:03 2017Vol:11 No:02 2017Vol:11 No:01 2017
Vol:10 No:12 2016Vol:10 No:11 2016Vol:10 No:10 2016Vol:10 No:09 2016Vol:10 No:08 2016Vol:10 No:07 2016Vol:10 No:06 2016Vol:10 No:05 2016Vol:10 No:04 2016Vol:10 No:03 2016Vol:10 No:02 2016Vol:10 No:01 2016
Vol:9 No:12 2015Vol:9 No:11 2015Vol:9 No:10 2015Vol:9 No:09 2015Vol:9 No:08 2015Vol:9 No:07 2015Vol:9 No:06 2015Vol:9 No:05 2015Vol:9 No:04 2015Vol:9 No:03 2015Vol:9 No:02 2015Vol:9 No:01 2015
Vol:8 No:12 2014Vol:8 No:11 2014Vol:8 No:10 2014Vol:8 No:09 2014Vol:8 No:08 2014Vol:8 No:07 2014Vol:8 No:06 2014Vol:8 No:05 2014Vol:8 No:04 2014Vol:8 No:03 2014Vol:8 No:02 2014Vol:8 No:01 2014
Vol:7 No:12 2013Vol:7 No:11 2013Vol:7 No:10 2013Vol:7 No:09 2013Vol:7 No:08 2013Vol:7 No:07 2013Vol:7 No:06 2013Vol:7 No:05 2013Vol:7 No:04 2013Vol:7 No:03 2013Vol:7 No:02 2013Vol:7 No:01 2013
Vol:6 No:12 2012Vol:6 No:11 2012Vol:6 No:10 2012Vol:6 No:09 2012Vol:6 No:08 2012Vol:6 No:07 2012Vol:6 No:06 2012Vol:6 No:05 2012Vol:6 No:04 2012Vol:6 No:03 2012Vol:6 No:02 2012Vol:6 No:01 2012
Vol:5 No:12 2011Vol:5 No:11 2011Vol:5 No:10 2011Vol:5 No:09 2011Vol:5 No:08 2011Vol:5 No:07 2011Vol:5 No:06 2011Vol:5 No:05 2011Vol:5 No:04 2011Vol:5 No:03 2011Vol:5 No:02 2011Vol:5 No:01 2011
Vol:4 No:12 2010Vol:4 No:11 2010Vol:4 No:10 2010Vol:4 No:09 2010Vol:4 No:08 2010Vol:4 No:07 2010Vol:4 No:06 2010Vol:4 No:05 2010Vol:4 No:04 2010Vol:4 No:03 2010Vol:4 No:02 2010Vol:4 No:01 2010
Vol:3 No:12 2009Vol:3 No:11 2009Vol:3 No:10 2009Vol:3 No:09 2009Vol:3 No:08 2009Vol:3 No:07 2009Vol:3 No:06 2009Vol:3 No:05 2009Vol:3 No:04 2009Vol:3 No:03 2009Vol:3 No:02 2009Vol:3 No:01 2009
Vol:2 No:12 2008Vol:2 No:11 2008Vol:2 No:10 2008Vol:2 No:09 2008Vol:2 No:08 2008Vol:2 No:07 2008Vol:2 No:06 2008Vol:2 No:05 2008Vol:2 No:04 2008Vol:2 No:03 2008Vol:2 No:02 2008Vol:2 No:01 2008
Vol:1 No:12 2007Vol:1 No:11 2007Vol:1 No:10 2007Vol:1 No:09 2007Vol:1 No:08 2007Vol:1 No:07 2007Vol:1 No:06 2007Vol:1 No:05 2007Vol:1 No:04 2007Vol:1 No:03 2007Vol:1 No:02 2007Vol:1 No:01 2007