Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 152

152
3346
Electricity Consumption Prediction Model using Neuro-Fuzzy System
Abstract:

In this paper the development of neural network based fuzzy inference system for electricity consumption prediction is considered. The electricity consumption depends on number of factors, such as number of customers, seasons, type-s of customers, number of plants, etc. It is nonlinear process and can be described by chaotic time-series. The structure and algorithms of neuro-fuzzy system for predicting future values of electricity consumption is described. To determine the unknown coefficients of the system, the supervised learning algorithm is used. As a result of learning, the rules of neuro-fuzzy system are formed. The developed system is applied for predicting future values of electricity consumption of Northern Cyprus. The simulation of neuro-fuzzy system has been performed.

151
12142
The Effect of Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus on Physicochemical, Proteolysis, and Antioxidant Activity in Yogurt
Abstract:
Yogurt is a coagulated milk product obtained from the lactic acid fermentation by the action of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The additions of fruits into milk may enhance the taste and the therapeutical values of milk products. However fruits also may change the fermentation behaviour. In this present study, the changes in physicochemical, the peptide concentration, total phenolics content and the antioxidant potential of yogurt upon the addition of Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus (white and red dragon fruit) were investigated. Fruits enriched yogurt (10%, 20%, 30% w/w) were prepared and the pH, TTA, syneresis measurement, peptide concentration, total phenolics content and DPPH antioxidant inhibition percentage were determined. Milk fermentation rate was enhanced in red dragon fruit yogurt for all doses (-0.3606 - -0.4126 pH/h) while only white dragon fruit yogurt with 20% and 30% (w/w) composition showed increment in fermentation rate (-0.3471 - -0.3609 pH/h) compared to plain yogurt (-0.3369pH/h). All dragon fruit enriched yogurts generally showed lower pH readings (pH 3.95 - 4.03) compared to plain yogurt (pH 4.05). Both fruit yogurts showed a higher lactic acid percentage (1.14-1.23%) compared to plain yogurt (1.08%). Significantly higher syneresis percentage (57.19 - 70.32%) compared to plain yogurt (52.93%) were seen in all fruit enriched yogurts. The antioxidant activity of plain yogurt (19.16%) was enhanced by the presence of white and red dragon fruit (24.97- 45.74%). All fruit enriched yogurt showed an increment in total phenolic content (36.44 - 64.43mg/ml) compared to plain yogurt (20.25mg/ml). However, the addition of white and red dragon fruit did not enhance the proteolysis of milk during fermentation. Therefore, it could be concluded that the addition of white and red dragon fruit into yogurt enhanced the milk fermentation rate, lactic acid content, syneresis percentage, antioxidant activity, and total phenolics content in yogurt.
150
2012
Nutrients Removal from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent using Eichhornia Crassipes
Abstract:
Water hyacinth has been used in aquatic systems for wastewater purification in many years worldwide. The role of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) species in polishing nitrate and phosphorus concentration from municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent by phytoremediation method was evaluated. The objective of this project is to determine the removal efficiency of water hyacinth in polishing nitrate and phosphorus, as well as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia. Water hyacinth is considered as the most efficient aquatic plant used in removing vast range of pollutants such as organic matters, nutrients and heavy metals. Water hyacinth, also referred as macrophytes, were cultivated in the treatment house in a reactor tank of approximately 90(L) x 40(W) x 25(H) in dimension and built with three compartments. Three water hyacinths were placed in each compartments and water sample in each compartment were collected in every two days. The plant observation was conducted by weight measurement, plant uptake and new young shoot development. Water hyacinth effectively removed approximately 49% of COD, 81% of ammonia, 67% of phosphorus and 92% of nitrate. It also showed significant growth rate at starting from day 6 with 0.33 shoot/day and they kept developing up to 0.38 shoot/day at the end of day 24. From the studies conducted, it was proved that water hyacinth is capable of polishing the effluent of municipal wastewater which contains undesirable amount of nitrate and phosphorus concentration.
149
1653
Development of a Non-invasive System to Measure the Thickness of the Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Layer for Human
Abstract:
To measure the thickness of the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, a non-invasive optical measurement system (λ=1300 nm) is introduced. Animal and human subjects are used for the experiments. The results of human subjects are compared with the data of ultrasound device measurements, and a high correlation (r=0.94 for n=11) is observed. There are two modes in the corresponding signals measured by the optical system, which can be explained by two-layered and three-layered tissue models. If the target tissue is thinner than the critical thickness, detected data using diffuse reflectance method follow the three-layered tissue model, so the data increase as the thickness increases. On the other hand, if the target tissue is thicker than the critical thickness, the data follow the two-layered tissue model, so they decrease as the thickness increases.
148
7713
Network Application Identification Based on Communication Characteristics of Application Messages
Abstract:
A person-to-person information sharing is easily realized by P2P networks in which servers are not essential. Leakage of information, which are caused by malicious accesses for P2P networks, has become a new social issues. To prevent information leakage, it is necessary to detect and block traffics of P2P software. Since some P2P softwares can spoof port numbers, it is difficult to detect the traffics sent from P2P softwares by using port numbers. It is more difficult to devise effective countermeasures for detecting the software because their protocol are not public. In this paper, a discriminating method of network applications based on communication characteristics of application messages without port numbers is proposed. The proposed method is based on an assumption that there can be some rules about time intervals to transmit messages in application layer and the number of necessary packets to send one message. By extracting the rule from network traffic, the proposed method can discriminate applications without port numbers.
147
1572
The Effection of Different Culturing Proportion of Deep Sea Water(DSW) to Surface Sea Water(SSW) in Reductive Ability and Phenolic Compositions of Sargassum Cristaefolium
Abstract:
Characterized as rich mineral substances, low temperature, few bacteria, and stability with numerous implementation aspects on aquaculture, food, drinking, and leisure, the deep sea water (DSW) development has become a new industry in the world. It has been report that marine algae contain various biologically active compounds. This research focued on the affections in cultivating Sagrassum cristaefolium with different concentration of deep sea water(DSW) and surface sea water(SSW). After two and four weeks, the total phenolic contents were compared in Sagrassum cristaefolium culturing with different ways, and the reductive activity of them was also be tried with potassium ferricyanide. Those fresh seaweeds were dried with oven and were ground to powder. Progressively, the marine algae we cultured was extracted by water under the condition with heating them at 90Ôäâ for 1hr.The total phenolic contents were be executed using Folin–Ciocalteu method. The results were explaining as follows: the highest total phenolic contents and the best reductive ability of all could be observed on the 1/4 proportion of DSW to SSW culturing in two weeks. Furthermore, the 1/2 proportion of DSW to SSW also showed good reductive ability and plentiful phenolic compositions. Finally, we confirmed that difference proportion of DSW and SSW is the major point relating to ether the total phenolic components or the reductive ability in the Sagrassum cristaefolium. In the future, we will use this way to mass production the marine algae or other micro algae on industry applications.
146
11876
A Quantitative Study on Japanese Internet User's Awareness to Information Security: Necessity and Importance of Education and Policy
Abstract:

In this paper, the authors examine whether or not there Institute for Information and Communications Policy shows are differences of Japanese Internet users awareness to information security based on individual attributes by using analysis of variance based on non-parametric method. As a result, generally speaking, it is found that Japanese Internet users' awareness to information security is different by individual attributes. Especially, the authors verify that the users who received the information security education would have rather higher recognition concerning countermeasures than other users including self-educated users. It is suggested that the information security education should be enhanced so that the users may appropriately take the information security countermeasures. In addition, the information security policy such as carrying out "e- net caravan" and "information security seminars" are effective in improving the users' awareness on the information security in Japan.

145
8385
An Improvement of PDLZW implementation with a Modified WSC Updating Technique on FPGA
Abstract:
In this paper, an improvement of PDLZW implementation with a new dictionary updating technique is proposed. A unique dictionary is partitioned into hierarchical variable word-width dictionaries. This allows us to search through dictionaries in parallel. Moreover, the barrel shifter is adopted for loading a new input string into the shift register in order to achieve a faster speed. However, the original PDLZW uses a simple FIFO update strategy, which is not efficient. Therefore, a new window based updating technique is implemented to better classify the difference in how often each particular address in the window is referred. The freezing policy is applied to the address most often referred, which would not be updated until all the other addresses in the window have the same priority. This guarantees that the more often referred addresses would not be updated until their time comes. This updating policy leads to an improvement on the compression efficiency of the proposed algorithm while still keep the architecture low complexity and easy to implement.
144
5201
A Combined Fuzzy Decision Making Approach to Supply Chain Risk Assessment
Abstract:

Many firms implemented various initiatives such as outsourced manufacturing which could make a supply chain (SC) more vulnerable to various types of disruptions. So managing risk has become a critical component of SC management. Different types of SC vulnerability management methodologies have been proposed for managing SC risk, most offer only point-based solutions that deal with a limited set of risks. This research aims to reinforce SC risk management by proposing an integrated approach. SC risks are identified and a risk index classification structure is created. Then we develop a SC risk assessment approach based on the analytic network process (ANP) and the VIKOR methods under the fuzzy environment where the vagueness and subjectivity are handled with linguistic terms parameterized by triangular fuzzy numbers. By using FANP, risks weights are calculated and then inserted to the FVIKOR to rank the SC members and find the most risky partner.

143
12449
Bayesian Online Learning of Corresponding Points of Objects with Sequential Monte Carlo
Abstract:
This paper presents an online method that learns the corresponding points of an object from un-annotated grayscale images containing instances of the object. In the first image being processed, an ensemble of node points is automatically selected which is matched in the subsequent images. A Bayesian posterior distribution for the locations of the nodes in the images is formed. The likelihood is formed from Gabor responses and the prior assumes the mean shape of the node ensemble to be similar in a translation and scale free space. An association model is applied for separating the object nodes and background nodes. The posterior distribution is sampled with Sequential Monte Carlo method. The matched object nodes are inferred to be the corresponding points of the object instances. The results show that our system matches the object nodes as accurately as other methods that train the model with annotated training images.
142
1761
Hand Gesture Recognition Based on Combined Features Extraction
Abstract:
Hand gesture is an active area of research in the vision community, mainly for the purpose of sign language recognition and Human Computer Interaction. In this paper, we propose a system to recognize alphabet characters (A-Z) and numbers (0-9) in real-time from stereo color image sequences using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). Our system is based on three main stages; automatic segmentation and preprocessing of the hand regions, feature extraction and classification. In automatic segmentation and preprocessing stage, color and 3D depth map are used to detect hands where the hand trajectory will take place in further step using Mean-shift algorithm and Kalman filter. In the feature extraction stage, 3D combined features of location, orientation and velocity with respected to Cartesian systems are used. And then, k-means clustering is employed for HMMs codeword. The final stage so-called classification, Baum- Welch algorithm is used to do a full train for HMMs parameters. The gesture of alphabets and numbers is recognized using Left-Right Banded model in conjunction with Viterbi algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate that, our system can successfully recognize hand gestures with 98.33% recognition rate.
141
5120
Face Detection using Variance based Haar-Like feature and SVM
Abstract:
This paper proposes a new approach to perform the problem of real-time face detection. The proposed method combines primitive Haar-Like feature and variance value to construct a new feature, so-called Variance based Haar-Like feature. Face in image can be represented with a small quantity of features using this new feature. We used SVM instead of AdaBoost for training and classification. We made a database containing 5,000 face samples and 10,000 non-face samples extracted from real images for learning purposed. The 5,000 face samples contain many images which have many differences of light conditions. And experiments showed that face detection system using Variance based Haar-Like feature and SVM can be much more efficient than face detection system using primitive Haar-Like feature and AdaBoost. We tested our method on two Face databases and one Non-Face database. We have obtained 96.17% of correct detection rate on YaleB face database, which is higher 4.21% than that of using primitive Haar-Like feature and AdaBoost.
140
9081
Enhanced Parallel-Connected Comb Filter Method for Multiple Pitch Estimation
Abstract:
This paper presents an improvement method of the multiple pitch estimation algorithm using comb filters. Conventionally the pitch was estimated by using parallel -connected comb filters method (PCF). However, PCF has problems which often fail in the pitch estimation when there is the fundamental frequency of higher tone near harmonics of lower tone. Therefore the estimation is assigned to a wrong note when shared frequencies happen. This issue often occurs in estimating octave 3 or more. Proposed method, for solving the problem, estimates the pitch with every harmonic instead of every octave. As a result, our method reaches the accuracy of more than 80%.
139
1074
A Comparison of Deterministic and Probabilistic Methods for Determining the Required Amount of Spinning Reserve
Abstract:
In an electric power system, spinning reserve requirements can be determined by using deterministic and/or probabilistic measures. Although deterministic methods are usual in many systems, application of probabilistic methods becomes increasingly important in the new environment of the electric power utility industry. This is because of the increased uncertainty associated with competition. In this paper 1) a new probabilistic method is presented which considers the reliability of transmission system in a simplified manner and 2) deterministic and probabilistic methods are compared. The studied methods are applied to the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS).
138
2613
Wireless Sensor Networks for Swiftlet Farms Monitoring
Abstract:
This paper provides an in-depth study of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) application to monitor and control the swiftlet habitat. A set of system design is designed and developed that includes the hardware design of the nodes, Graphical User Interface (GUI) software, sensor network, and interconnectivity for remote data access and management. System architecture is proposed to address the requirements for habitat monitoring. Such applicationdriven design provides and identify important areas of further work in data sampling, communications and networking. For this monitoring system, a sensor node (MTS400), IRIS and Micaz radio transceivers, and a USB interfaced gateway base station of Crossbow (Xbow) Technology WSN are employed. The GUI of this monitoring system is written using a Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench (LabVIEW) along with Xbow Technology drivers provided by National Instrument. As a result, this monitoring system is capable of collecting data and presents it in both tables and waveform charts for further analysis. This system is also able to send notification message by email provided Internet connectivity is available whenever changes on habitat at remote sites (swiftlet farms) occur. Other functions that have been implemented in this system are the database system for record and management purposes; remote access through the internet using LogMeIn software. Finally, this research draws a conclusion that a WSN for monitoring swiftlet habitat can be effectively used to monitor and manage swiftlet farming industry in Sarawak.
137
11015
Effect of the Internet on Social Capital
Abstract:

Internet access is a vital part of the modern world and an important tool in the education of our children. It is present in schools, homes and even shopping malls. Mastering the use of the internet is likely to be an important skill for those entering the job markets of the future. An internet user can be anyone he or she wants to be in an online chat room, or play thrilling and challenging games against other players from all corners of the globe. It seems at present time (or near future) for many people relationships in the real world may be neglected as those in the virtual world increase in importance. Internet is provided a fast mode of transportation caused freedom from family bonds and mixing with different cultures and new communities. This research is an attempt to study effect of Internet on Social capital. For this purpose a survey technique on the sample size amounted 168 students of Payame Noor University of Kermanshah city in country of Iran were considered. Degree of social capital is moderate. With the help of the Multi-variable Regression, variables of Iranian message attractive, Interest to internet with effect of positive and variable Creating a cordial atmosphere with negative effect be significant.

136
10987
The Use of Minor Setups in an EPQ Model with Constrained Production Period Length
Abstract:
Extensive research has been devoted to economic production quantity (EPQ) problem. However, no attention has been paid to problems where production period length is constrained. In this paper, we address the problem of deciding the optimal production quantity and the number of minor setups within each cycle, in which, production period length is constrained but a minor setup is possible for pass the constraint. A mathematical model is developed and Iterated Local Search (ILS) is proposed to solve this problem. Finally, solution procedure illustrated with a numerical example and results are analyzed.
135
12633
Investigation and Congestion Management to Solvethe Over-Load Problem of Shiraz Substation in FREC
Abstract:

In this paper, the transformers over-load problem of Shiraz substation in Fars Regional Electric Company (FREC) is investigated for a period of three years plan. So the suggestions for using phase shifting transformer (PST) and unified power flow controller (UPFC) in order to solve this problem are examined in details and finally, some economical and practical designs will be given in order to solve the related problems. Practical consideration and using the basic and fundamental concept of powers in transmission lines in order to find the economical design are the main advantages of this research. The simulation results of the integrated overall system with different designs compare them base on economical and practical aspects to solve the over-load and loss-reduction.

134
15625
Classification and Resolving Urban Problems by Means of Fuzzy Approach
Abstract:

Urban problems are problems of organized complexity. Thus, many models and scientific methods to resolve urban problems are failed. This study is concerned with proposing of a fuzzy system driven approach for classification and solving urban problems. The proposed study investigated mainly the selection of the inputs and outputs of urban systems for classification of urban problems. In this research, five categories of urban problems, respect to fuzzy system approach had been recognized: control, polytely, optimizing, open and decision making problems. Grounded Theory techniques were then applied to analyze the data and develop new solving method for each category. The findings indicate that the fuzzy system methods are powerful processes and analytic tools for helping planners to resolve urban complex problems. These tools can be successful where as others have failed because both incorporate or address uncertainty and risk; complexity and systems interacting with other systems.

133
12462
Identification of Anaerobic Microorganisms for Converting Kitchen Waste to Biogas
Abstract:
Anaerobic digestion process is one of the alternative methods to convert organic waste into methane gas which is a fuel and energy source. Activities of various kinds of microorganisms are the main factor for anaerobic digestion which produces methane gas. Therefore, in this study a modified Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) with working volume of 50 liters was designed to identify the microorganisms through biogas production. The mixture of 75% kitchen waste and 25% sewage sludge was used as substrate. Observations on microorganisms in the ABR showed that there exists a small amount of protozoa (5%) and fungi (2%) in the system, but almost 93% of the microorganism population consists of bacteria. It is definitely clear that bacteria are responsible for anaerobic biodegradation of kitchen waste. Results show that in the acidification zone of the ABR (front compartments of reactor) fast growing bacteria capable of growth at high substrate levels and reduced pH was dominant. A shift to slower growing scavenging bacteria that grow better at higher pH was occurring towards the end of the reactor. Due to the ability of activity in acetate environment the percentages of Methanococcus, Methanosarcina and Methanotrix were higher than other kinds of methane former in the system.
132
2836
A Supply Chain Perspective of RFID Systems
Authors:
Abstract:
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) initially introduced during WW-II, has revolutionized the world with its numerous benefits and plethora of implementations in diverse areas ranging from manufacturing to agriculture to healthcare to hotel management. This work reviews the current research in this area with emphasis on applications for supply chain management and to develop a taxonomic framework to classify literature which will enable swift and easy content analysis and also help identify areas for future research.
131
6613
Detection of Linkages Between Extreme Flow Measures and Climate Indices
Abstract:

Large scale climate signals and their teleconnections can influence hydro-meteorological variables on a local scale. Several extreme flow and timing measures, including high flow and low flow measures, from 62 hydrometric stations in Canada are investigated to detect possible linkages with several large scale climate indices. The streamflow data used in this study are derived from the Canadian Reference Hydrometric Basin Network and are characterized by relatively pristine and stable land-use conditions with a minimum of 40 years of record. A composite analysis approach was used to identify linkages between extreme flow and timing measures and climate indices. The approach involves determining the 10 highest and 10 lowest values of various climate indices from the data record. Extreme flow and timing measures for each station were examined for the years associated with the 10 largest values and the years associated with the 10 smallest values. In each case, a re-sampling approach was applied to determine if the 10 values of extreme flow measures differed significantly from the series mean. Results indicate that several stations are impacted by the large scale climate indices considered in this study. The results allow the determination of any relationship between stations that exhibit a statistically significant trend and stations for which the extreme measures exhibit a linkage with the climate indices.

130
3393
Mining Sequential Patterns Using Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm
Abstract:
Mining Sequential Patterns in large databases has become an important data mining task with broad applications. It is an important task in data mining field, which describes potential sequenced relationships among items in a database. There are many different algorithms introduced for this task. Conventional algorithms can find the exact optimal Sequential Pattern rule but it takes a long time, particularly when they are applied on large databases. Nowadays, some evolutionary algorithms, such as Particle Swarm Optimization and Genetic Algorithm, were proposed and have been applied to solve this problem. This paper will introduce a new kind of hybrid evolutionary algorithm that combines Genetic Algorithm (GA) with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to mine Sequential Pattern, in order to improve the speed of evolutionary algorithms convergence. This algorithm is referred to as SP-GAPSO.
129
2688
In Silico Analysis of Pax6 Interacting Proteins Indicates Missing Molecular Links in Development of Brain and Associated Disease
Abstract:

The PAX6, a transcription factor, is essential for the morphogenesis of the eyes, brain, pituitary and pancreatic islets. In rodents, the loss of Pax6 function leads to central nervous system defects, anophthalmia, and nasal hypoplasia. The haplo-insufficiency of Pax6 causes microphthalmia, aggression and other behavioral abnormalities. It is also required in brain patterning and neuronal plasticity. In human, heterozygous mutation of Pax6 causes loss of iris [aniridia], mental retardation and glucose intolerance. The 3- deletion in Pax6 leads to autism and aniridia. The phenotypes are variable in peneterance and expressivity. However, mechanism of function and interaction of PAX6 with other proteins during development and associated disease are not clear. It is intended to explore interactors of PAX6 to elucidated biology of PAX6 function in the tissues where it is expressed and also in the central regulatory pathway. This report describes In-silico approaches to explore interacting proteins of PAX6. The models show several possible proteins interacting with PAX6 like MITF, SIX3, SOX2, SOX3, IPO13, TRIM, and OGT. Since the Pax6 is a critical transcriptional regulator and master control gene of eye and brain development it might be interacting with other protein involved in morphogenesis [TGIF, TGF, Ras etc]. It is also presumed that matricelluar proteins [SPARC, thrombospondin-1 and osteonectin etc] are likely to interact during transport and processing of PAX6 and are somewhere its cascade. The proteins involved in cell survival and cell proliferation can also not be ignored.

128
15270
Avoiding Catastrophic Forgetting by a Dual-Network Memory Model Using a Chaotic Neural Network
Abstract:

In neural networks, when new patterns are learned by a network, the new information radically interferes with previously stored patterns. This drawback is called catastrophic forgetting or catastrophic interference. In this paper, we propose a biologically inspired neural network model which overcomes this problem. The proposed model consists of two distinct networks: one is a Hopfield type of chaotic associative memory and the other is a multilayer neural network. We consider that these networks correspond to the hippocampus and the neocortex of the brain, respectively. Information given is firstly stored in the hippocampal network with fast learning algorithm. Then the stored information is recalled by chaotic behavior of each neuron in the hippocampal network. Finally, it is consolidated in the neocortical network by using pseudopatterns. Computer simulation results show that the proposed model has much better ability to avoid catastrophic forgetting in comparison with conventional models.

127
2552
Accurate Dimensional Measurement of 3D Round Holes Based on Stereo Vision
Abstract:

This paper present an effective method to accurately reconstruct and measure the 3D curve edges of small industrial parts based on stereo vision. To effectively fit the curve of the measured parts using a series of line segments in the images, a strategy from coarse to fine is employed based on multi-scale curve fitting. After reconstructing the 3D curve of a hole through a curved surface, its axis is adjusted so that it is parallel to the Z axis with least squares error and the dimensions of the hole can be calculated on the XY plane easily. Experimental results show that the presented method can accurately measure the dimensions of round holes through a curved surface.

126
10471
Geochemistry of Tektites from Hainan Island and Northeast Thailand
Abstract:
Twenty seven tektites from the Wenchang area, Hainan province (south China) and five tektites from the Khon Kaen area (northeast Thailand) were analyzed for major and trace element contents and Rb-Sr isotopic compositions. All the samples studied are splash-form tektites. Tektites of this study are characterized by high SiO2 contents ranging from 71.95 to 74.07 wt% which is consistent with previously published analyses of Australasian tektites. The trace element ratios Ba/Rb (avg. 3.89), Th/Sm (avg. 2.40), Sm/Sc (avg. 0.45), Th/Sc (avg. 0.99) and the rare earth elements (REE) contents of tektites of this study are similar to the average upper continental crust. Based on the chemical composition, it is suggested that tektites in this study are derived from similar parental material and are similar to the post-Archean upper crustal rocks. The major and trace element abundances of tektites analyzed indicate that the parental material of tektites may be a terrestrial sedimentary deposit. The tektites from the Wenchang area, Hainan Island have high positive εSr(0) values-ranging from 184.5~196.5 which indicate that the parental material for these tektites have similar Sr isotopic compositions to old terrestrial sedimentary rocks and they were not dominantly derived from recent young sediments (such as soil or loess). Based on Rb-Sr isotopic data, it has been suggested by Blum (1992) [1]that the depositional age of sedimentary target materials is close to 170Ma (Jurassic). According to the model suggested by Ho and Chen (1996)[2], mixing calculations for various amounts and combinations of target rocks have been carried out. We consider that the best fit for tektites from the Wenchang area is a mixture of 47% shale, 23% sandstone, 25% greywacke and 5% quartzite, and the other tektites from Khon Kaen area is a mixture of 46% shale, 2% sandstone, 20% greywacke and 32% quartzite.
125
11517
Modular Hybrid Robots for Safe Human-Robot Interaction
Abstract:

The paper considers a novel modular and intrinsically safe redundant robotic system with biologically inspired actuators (pneumatic artificial muscles and rubber bellows actuators). Similarly to the biological systems, the stiffness of the internal parallel modules, representing 2 DOF joints in the serial robotic chains, is controlled by co-activation of opposing redundant actuator groups in the null-space of the module Jacobian, without influencing the actual robot position. The decoupled position/stiffness control allows the realization of variable joint stiffness according to different force-displacement relationships. The variable joint stiffness, as well as limited pneumatic muscle/bellows force ability, ensures internal system safety that is crucial for development of human-friendly robots intended for human-robot collaboration. The initial experiments with the system prototype demonstrate the capabilities of independently, simultaneously controlling both joint (Cartesian) motion and joint stiffness. The paper also presents the possible industrial applications of snake-like robots built using the new modules.

124
14995
A New Definition of the Intrinsic Mode Function
Abstract:

This paper makes a detailed analysis regarding the definition of the intrinsic mode function and proves that Condition 1 of the intrinsic mode function can really be deduced from Condition 2. Finally, an improved definition of the intrinsic mode function is given.

123
6923
Power of Involvement over Rewards for Retention Likelihood in IT Professionals
Abstract:
Retention in the IT profession is critical for organizations to stay competitive and operate reliably in the dynamic business environment. Most organizations rely on compensation and rewards as primary tools to enhance retention of employees. In this quantitative survey-based study conducted at a large global bank, we analyze the perceptions of 575 information technology (IT) software professionals in India and Malaysia and find that fairness of rewards has very little impact on retention likelihood. It is far more important to actively involve employees in organizational activities. In addition, our findings indicate that involvement is far more important than information flow: the typical organizational communication to keep employees informed.
122
15518
Optimization of the Nutrient Supplients for Cellulase Production with the Basal Medium Palm Oil Mill Effluent
Abstract:

A statistical optimization was studied to design a media composition to produce optimum cellulolytic enzyme where palm oil mill effluent (POME) as a basal medium and filamentous fungus, Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30 were used in the liquid state bioconversion(LSB). 2% (w/v) total suspended solid, TSS, of the POME supplemented with 1% (w/v) cellulose, 0.5%(w/v) peptone and 0.02% (v/v) Tween 80 was estimated to produce the optimum CMCase activity of 18.53 U/ml through the statistical analysis followed by the faced centered central composite design(FCCCD). The probability values of cellulose (<0.0011) and peptone (0.0021) indicated the significant effect on the production of cellulase with the determination coefficient (R2) of 0.995.

121
14500
Evaluation of a Bio-Mechanism by Graphed Static Equilibrium Forces
Abstract:

The unique structural configuration found in human foot allows easy walking. Similar movement is hard to imitate even for an ape. It is obvious that human ambulation relates to the foot structure itself. Suppose the bones are represented as vertices and the joints as edges. This leads to the development of a special graph that represents human foot. On a footprint there are point-ofcontacts which have contact with the ground. It involves specific vertices. Theoretically, for an ideal ambulation, these points provide reactions onto the ground or the static equilibrium forces. They are arranged in sequence in form of a path. The ambulating footprint follows this path. Having the human foot graph and the path crossbred, it results in a representation that describes the profile of an ideal ambulation. This profile cites the locations where the point-of-contact experience normal reaction forces. It highlights the significant of these points.

120
12215
Linear Cryptanalysis for a Chaos-Based Stream Cipher
Abstract:

Linear cryptanalysis methods are rarely used to improve the security of chaotic stream ciphers. In this paper, we apply linear cryptanalysis to a chaotic stream cipher which was designed by strictly using the basic design criterion of cryptosystem – confusion and diffusion. We show that this well-designed chaos-based stream cipher is still insecure against distinguishing attack. This distinguishing attack promotes the further improvement of the cipher.

119
13412
Research on the Correlation of the Fluctuating Density Gradient of the Compressible Flows
Authors:
Abstract:
This work is to study a roll of the fluctuating density gradient in the compressible flows for the computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A new anisotropy tensor with the fluctuating density gradient is introduced, and is used for an invariant modeling technique to model the turbulent density gradient correlation equation derived from the continuity equation. The modeling equation is decomposed into three groups: group proportional to the mean velocity, and that proportional to the mean strain rate, and that proportional to the mean density. The characteristics of the correlation in a wake are extracted from the results by the two dimensional direct simulation, and shows the strong correlation with the vorticity in the wake near the body. Thus, it can be concluded that the correlation of the density gradient is a significant parameter to describe the quick generation of the turbulent property in the compressible flows.
118
11643
Analysis of Partially Shaded PV Modules Using Piecewise Linear Parallel Branches Model
Abstract:

This paper presents an equivalent circuit model based on piecewise linear parallel branches (PLPB) to study solar cell modules which are partially shaded. The PLPB model can easily be used in circuit simulation software such as the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP). This PLPB model allows the user to simulate several different configurations of solar cells, the influence of partial shadowing on a single or multiple cells, the influence of the number of solar cells protected by a bypass diode and the effect of the cell connection configuration on partial shadowing.

117
15487
Data Placement in Heterogeneous Storage of Short Videos
Abstract:
The overall service performance of I/O intensive system depends mainly on workload on its storage system. In heterogeneous storage environment where storage elements from different vendors with different capacity and performance are put together, workload should be distributed according to storage capability. This paper addresses data placement issue in short video sharing website. Workload contributed by a video is estimated by the number of views and life time span of existing videos in same category. Experiment was conducted on 42,000 video titles in six weeks. Result showed that the proposed algorithm distributed workload and maintained balance better than round robin and random algorithms.
116
14629
Adaptive Multi-Camera Shooting System Based on Dynamic Workflow in a Compact Studio
Abstract:

We developed a multi-camera control system that a (one) cameraman can operate several cameras at a compact studio. we analyzed a workflow of a cameraman of some program shootings with two cameras and clarified their heavy tasks. The system based on a dynamic workflow which adapts a program progressing and recommends of cameraman. we perform the automation of multicamera controls by modeling of studio environment and perform automatic camera adjustment for suitable angle of view with face detection. Our experiment at a real program shooting showed that one cameraman can carry out the task of shooting sufficiently.

115
12286
A New Traffic Pattern Matching for DDoS Traceback Using Independent Component Analysis
Abstract:

Recently, Denial of Service(DoS) attacks and Distributed DoS(DDoS) attacks which are stronger form of DoS attacks from plural hosts have become security threats on the Internet. It is important to identify the attack source and to block attack traffic as one of the measures against these attacks. In general, it is difficult to identify them because information about the attack source is falsified. Therefore a method of identifying the attack source by tracing the route of the attack traffic is necessary. A traceback method which uses traffic patterns, using changes in the number of packets over time as criteria for the attack traceback has been proposed. The traceback method using the traffic patterns can trace the attack by matching the shapes of input traffic patterns and the shape of output traffic pattern observed at a network branch point such as a router. The traffic pattern is a shapes of traffic and unfalsifiable information. The proposed trace methods proposed till date cannot obtain enough tracing accuracy, because they directly use traffic patterns which are influenced by non-attack traffics. In this paper, a new traffic pattern matching method using Independent Component Analysis(ICA) is proposed.

114
8454
Achieving Fair Share Objectives via Goal-Oriented Parallel Computer Job Scheduling Policies
Abstract:

Fair share is one of the scheduling objectives supported on many production systems. However, fair share has been shown to cause performance problems for some users, especially the users with difficult jobs. This work is focusing on extending goaloriented parallel computer job scheduling policies to cover the fair share objective. Goal-oriented parallel computer job scheduling policies have been shown to achieve good scheduling performances when conflicting objectives are required. Goal-oriented policies achieve such good performance by using anytime combinatorial search techniques to find a good compromised schedule within a time limit. The experimental results show that the proposed goal-oriented parallel computer job scheduling policy (namely Tradeofffs( Tw:avgX)) achieves good scheduling performances and also provides good fair share performance.

113
12559
Effect of Groove Location on the Dynamic Characteristics of Multiple Axial Groove Water Lubricated Journal Bearing
Abstract:

The stability characteristics of water lubricated journal bearings having three axial grooves are obtained theoretically. In this lubricant (water) is fed under pressure from one end of the bearing, through the 3-axial grooves (groove angles may vary). These bearings can use the process fluid as the lubricant, as in the case of feed water pumps. The Reynolds equation is solved numerically by the finite difference method satisfying the boundary conditions. The stiffness and damping coefficient for various bearing number and eccentricity ratios, assuming linear pressure drop along the groove, shows that smaller groove angles better results.

112
12776
Face Reconstruction and Camera Pose Using Multi-dimensional Descent
Abstract:

This paper aims to propose a novel, robust, and simple method for obtaining a human 3D face model and camera pose (position and orientation) from a video sequence. Given a video sequence of a face recorded from an off-the-shelf digital camera, feature points used to define facial parts are tracked using the Active- Appearance Model (AAM). Then, the face-s 3D structure and camera pose of each video frame can be simultaneously calculated from the obtained point correspondences. This proposed method is primarily based on the combined approaches of Gradient Descent and Powell-s Multidimensional Minimization. Using this proposed method, temporarily occluded point including the case of self-occlusion does not pose a problem. As long as the point correspondences displayed in the video sequence have enough parallax, these missing points can still be reconstructed.

111
5347
View-Point Insensitive Human Pose Recognition using Neural Network and CUDA
Abstract:
Although lots of research work has been done for human pose recognition, the view-point of cameras is still critical problem of overall recognition system. In this paper, view-point insensitive human pose recognition is proposed. The aims of the proposed system are view-point insensitivity and real-time processing. Recognition system consists of feature extraction module, neural network and real-time feed forward calculation. First, histogram-based method is used to extract feature from silhouette image and it is suitable for represent the shape of human pose. To reduce the dimension of feature vector, Principle Component Analysis(PCA) is used. Second, real-time processing is implemented by using Compute Unified Device Architecture(CUDA) and this architecture improves the speed of feed-forward calculation of neural network. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach with experiments on real environment.
110
4503
Fast 3D Collision Detection Algorithm using 2D Intersection Area
Abstract:

There are many researches to detect collision between real object and virtual object in 3D space. In general, these techniques are need to huge computing power. So, many research and study are constructed by using cloud computing, network computing, and distribute computing. As a reason of these, this paper proposed a novel fast 3D collision detection algorithm between real and virtual object using 2D intersection area. Proposed algorithm uses 4 multiple cameras and coarse-and-fine method to improve accuracy and speed performance of collision detection. In the coarse step, this system examines the intersection area between real and virtual object silhouettes from all camera views. The result of this step is the index of virtual sensors which has a possibility of collision in 3D space. To decide collision accurately, at the fine step, this system examines the collision detection in 3D space by using the visual hull algorithm. Performance of the algorithm is verified by comparing with existing algorithm. We believe proposed algorithm help many other research, study and application fields such as HCI, augmented reality, intelligent space, and so on.

109
6291
Image Retrieval: Techniques, Challenge, and Trend
Abstract:
This paper attempts to discuss the evolution of the retrieval techniques focusing on development, challenges and trends of the image retrieval. It highlights both the already addressed and outstanding issues. The explosive growth of image data leads to the need of research and development of Image Retrieval. However, Image retrieval researches are moving from keyword, to low level features and to semantic features. Drive towards semantic features is due to the problem of the keywords which can be very subjective and time consuming while low level features cannot always describe high level concepts in the users- mind.
108
9064
A Voltage Based Maximum Power Point Tracker for Low Power and Low Cost Photovoltaic Applications
Abstract:

This paper describes the design of a voltage based maximum power point tracker (MPPT) for photovoltaic (PV) applications. Of the various MPPT methods, the voltage based method is considered to be the simplest and cost effective. The major disadvantage of this method is that the PV array is disconnected from the load for the sampling of its open circuit voltage, which inevitably results in power loss. Another disadvantage, in case of rapid irradiance variation, is that if the duration between two successive samplings, called the sampling period, is too long there is a considerable loss. This is because the output voltage of the PV array follows the unchanged reference during one sampling period. Once a maximum power point (MPP) is tracked and a change in irradiation occurs between two successive samplings, then the new MPP is not tracked until the next sampling of the PV array voltage. This paper proposes an MPPT circuit in which the sampling interval of the PV array voltage, and the sampling period have been shortened. The sample and hold circuit has also been simplified. The proposed circuit does not utilize a microcontroller or a digital signal processor and is thus suitable for low cost and low power applications.

107
1574
Object Tracking using MACH filter and Optical Flow in Cluttered Scenes and Variable Lighting Conditions
Abstract:
Vision based tracking problem is solved through a combination of optical flow, MACH filter and log r-θ mapping. Optical flow is used for detecting regions of movement in video frames acquired under variable lighting conditions. The region of movement is segmented and then searched for the target. A template is used for target recognition on the segmented regions for detecting the region of interest. The template is trained offline on a sequence of target images that are created using the MACH filter and log r-θ mapping. The template is applied on areas of movement in successive frames and strong correlation is seen for in-class targets. Correlation peaks above a certain threshold indicate the presence of target and the target is tracked over successive frames.
106
13433
Independent Design of Multi-loop PI/PID Controllers for Multi-delay Processes
Abstract:

The interactions between input/output variables are a very common phenomenon encountered in the design of multi-loop controllers for interacting multivariable processes, which can be a serious obstacle for achieving a good overall performance of multiloop control system. To overcome this impediment, the decomposed dynamic interaction analysis is proposed by decomposing the multiloop control system into a set of n independent SISO systems with the corresponding effective open-loop transfer function (EOTF) within the dynamic interactions embedded explicitly. For each EOTF, the reduced model is independently formulated by using the proposed reduction design strategy, and then the paired multi-loop proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is derived quite simply and straightforwardly by using internal model control (IMC) theory. This design method can easily be implemented for various industrial processes because of its effectiveness. Several case studies are considered to demonstrate the superior of the proposed method.

105
14308
Matching Facial Images using Age Related Morphing Changes
Abstract:

Each year many people are reported missing in most of the countries in the world owing to various reasons. Arrangements have to be made to find these people after some time. So the investigating agencies are compelled to make out these people by using manpower. But in many cases, the investigations carried out to find out an absconding for a long time may not be successful. At a time like that it may be difficult to identify these people by examining their old photographs, because their facial appearance might have changed mainly due to the natural aging process. On some occasions in forensic medicine if a dead body is found, investigations should be held to make sure that this corpse belongs to the same person disappeared some time ago. With the passage of time the face of the person might have changed and there should be a mechanism to reveal the person-s identity. In order to make this process easy, we must guess and decide as to how he will look like by now. To address this problem this paper presents a way of synthesizing a facial image with the aging effects.

104
15130
A Thai to English Machine Translation System Using Thai LFG Tree Structure as Interlingua
Abstract:

Machine Translation (MT) between the Thai and English languages has been a challenging research topic in natural language processing. Most research has been done on English to Thai machine translation, but not the other way around. This paper presents a Thai to English Machine Translation System that translates a Thai sentence into interlingua of a Thai LFG tree using LFG grammar and a bottom up parser. The Thai LFG tree is then transformed into the corresponding English LFG tree by pattern matching and node transformation. Finally, an equivalent English sentence is created using structural information prescribed by the English LFG tree. Based on results of experiments designed to evaluate the performance of the proposed system, it can be stated that the system has been proven to be effective in providing a useful translation from Thai to English.

103
12481
Development of a Novel Low-Cost Flight Simulator for Pilot Training
Abstract:
A novel low-cost flight simulator with the development goals cost effectiveness and high performance has been realized for meeting the huge pilot training needs of airlines. The simulator consists of an aircraft dynamics model, a sophisticated designed low-profile electrical driven motion system with a subsided cabin, a mixed reality based semi-virtual cockpit system, a control loading system and some other subsystems. It shows its advantages over traditional flight simulator by its features achieved with open architecture, software solutions and low-cost hardware.
102
12618
Adaptive Fuzzy Control of Stewart Platform under Actuator Saturation
Abstract:

A novel adaptive fuzzy trajectory tracking algorithm of Stewart platform based motion platform is proposed to compensate path deviation and degradation of controller-s performance due to actuator torque limit. The algorithm can be divided into two parts: the real-time trajectory shaping part and the joint space adaptive fuzzy controller part. For a reference trajectory in task space whenever any of the actuators is saturated, the desired acceleration of the reference trajectory is modified on-line by using dynamic model of motion platform. Meanwhile an additional action with respect to the difference between the nominal and modified trajectories is utilized in the non-saturated region of actuators to reduce the path error. Using modified trajectory as input, the joint space controller incorporates compute torque controller, leg velocity observer and fuzzy disturbance observer with saturation compensation. It can ensure stability and tracking performance of controller in present of external disturbance and position only measurement. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of proposed control scheme.

101
6968
Motion Protection System Design for a Parallel Motion Platform
Abstract:
A motion protection system is designed for a parallel motion platform with subsided cabin. Due to its complex structure, parallel mechanism is easy to encounter interference problems including link length limits, joints limits and self-collision. Thus a virtual spring algorithm in operational space is developed for the motion protection system to avoid potential damages caused by interference. Simulation results show that the proposed motion protection system can effectively eliminate interference problems and ensure safety of the whole motion platform.
100
541
Artificial Neural Network with Steepest Descent Backpropagation Training Algorithm for Modeling Inverse Kinematics of Manipulator
Abstract:

Inverse kinematics analysis plays an important role in developing a robot manipulator. But it is not too easy to derive the inverse kinematic equation of a robot manipulator especially robot manipulator which has numerous degree of freedom. This paper describes an application of Artificial Neural Network for modeling the inverse kinematics equation of a robot manipulator. In this case, the robot has three degree of freedoms and the robot was implemented for drilling a printed circuit board. The artificial neural network architecture used for modeling is a multilayer perceptron networks with steepest descent backpropagation training algorithm. The designed artificial neural network has 2 inputs, 2 outputs and varies in number of hidden layer. Experiments were done in variation of number of hidden layer and learning rate. Experimental results show that the best architecture of artificial neural network used for modeling inverse kinematics of is multilayer perceptron with 1 hidden layer and 38 neurons per hidden layer. This network resulted a RMSE value of 0.01474.

99
6576
Sustainable Solutions for Municipal Solid Waste Management in Thailand
Abstract:

General as well as the MSW management in Thailand is reviewed in this paper. Topics include the MSW generation, sources, composition, and trends. The review, then, moves to sustainable solutions for MSW management, sustainable alternative approaches with an emphasis on an integrated MSW management. Information of waste in Thailand is also given at the beginning of this paper for better understanding of later contents. It is clear that no one single method of MSW disposal can deal with all materials in an environmentally sustainable way. As such, a suitable approach in MSW management should be an integrated approach that could deliver both environmental and economic sustainability. With increasing environmental concerns, the integrated MSW management system has a potential to maximize the useable waste materials as well as produce energy as a by-product. In Thailand, the compositions of waste (86%) are mainly organic waste, paper, plastic, glass, and metal. As a result, the waste in Thailand is suitable for an integrated MSW management. Currently, the Thai national waste management policy starts to encourage the local administrations to gather into clusters to establish central MSW disposal facilities with suitable technologies and reducing the disposal cost based on the amount of MSW generated.

98
11156
Line Balancing in the Hard Disk Drive Process Using Simulation Techniques
Abstract:
Simulation model is an easy way to build up models to represent real life scenarios, to identify bottlenecks and to enhance system performance. Using a valid simulation model may give several advantages in creating better manufacturing design in order to improve the system performances. This paper presents result of implementing a simulation model to design hard disk drive manufacturing process by applying line balancing to improve both productivity and quality of hard disk drive process. The line balance efficiency showed 86% decrease in work in process, output was increased by an average of 80%, average time in the system was decreased 86% and waiting time was decreased 90%.
97
9255
Application of Ant Colony Optimization for Multi-objective Production Problems
Abstract:

This paper proposes a meta-heuristic called Ant Colony Optimization to solve multi-objective production problems. The multi-objective function is to minimize lead time and work in process. The problem is related to the decision variables, i.e.; distance and process time. According to decision criteria, the mathematical model is formulated. In order to solve the model an ant colony optimization approach has been developed. The proposed algorithm is parameterized by the number of ant colonies and the number of pheromone trails. One example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. The proposed formulations; Max-Min Ant system are then used to solve the problem and the results evaluate the performance and efficiency of the proposed algorithm using simulation.

96
13970
A Study of the Change of Damping Coefficient Regarding Minimum Displacement
Abstract:

This research proposes the change of damping coefficient regarding minimum displacement. From the mass with external forced and damper problem, when is the constant external forced transmitted to the understructure in the difference angle between 30 and 60 degrees. This force generates the vibration as general known; however, the objective of this problem is to have minimum displacement. As the angle is changed and the goal is the same; therefore, the damper of the system must be varied while keeping constant spring stiffness. The problem is solved by using nonlinear programming and the suitable changing of the damping coefficient is provided.

95
14528
Minimum Energy of a Prismatic Joint with out: Actuator: Application on RRP Robot
Abstract:

This research proposes the state of art on how to control or find the trajectory paths of the RRP robot when the prismatic joint is malfunction. According to this situation, the minimum energy of the dynamic optimization is applied. The RRP robot or similar systems have been used in many areas such as fire fighter truck, laboratory equipment and military truck for example a rocket launcher. In order to keep on task that assigned, the trajectory paths must be computed. Here, the open loop control is applied and the result of an example show the reasonable solution which can be applied to the controllable system.

94
4174
Modified Data Mining Approach for Defective Diagnosis in Hard Disk Drive Industry
Abstract:
Currently, slider process of Hard Disk Drive Industry become more complex, defective diagnosis for yield improvement becomes more complicated and time-consumed. Manufacturing data analysis with data mining approach is widely used for solving that problem. The existing mining approach from combining of the KMean clustering, the machine oriented Kruskal-Wallis test and the multivariate chart were applied for defective diagnosis but it is still be a semiautomatic diagnosis system. This article aims to modify an algorithm to support an automatic decision for the existing approach. Based on the research framework, the new approach can do an automatic diagnosis and help engineer to find out the defective factors faster than the existing approach about 50%.
93
11514
Research of Linear Camera Calibration Based on Planar Pattern
Abstract:
An important step in three-dimensional reconstruction and computer vision is camera calibration, whose objective is to estimate the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of each camera. In this paper, two linear methods based on the different planes are given. In both methods, the general plane is used to replace the calibration object with very good precision. In the first method, after controlling the camera to undergo five times- translation movements and taking pictures of the orthogonal planes, a set of linear constraints of the camera intrinsic parameters is then derived by means of homography matrix. The second method is to get all camera parameters by taking only one picture of a given radius circle. experiments on simulated data and real images,indicate that our method is reasonable and is a good supplement to camera calibration.
92
13897
Graphs with Metric Dimension Two-A Characterization
Abstract:

In this paper, we define distance partition of vertex set of a graph G with reference to a vertex in it and with the help of the same, a graph with metric dimension two (i.e. β (G) = 2 ) is characterized. In the process, we develop a polynomial time algorithm that verifies if the metric dimension of a given graph G is two. The same algorithm explores all metric bases of graph G whenever β (G) = 2 . We also find a bound for cardinality of any distance partite set with reference to a given vertex, when ever β (G) = 2 . Also, in a graph G with β (G) = 2 , a bound for cardinality of any distance partite set as well as a bound for number of vertices in any sub graph H of G is obtained in terms of diam H .

91
5213
Influence of Locus of Control and Job Involvement to Organizational Culture Applied by Employees on Bank X
Abstract:

As one of the big government bank, Bank X is paying attention its performance, so that it can compete. One of them is the existence of organizational culture which recognized with term TIPEC (Trust, Integrity, Professionalism, Costumer Focus, and Excellence). In application of organizational culture, it is needed the existence of employee involvement (job involvement). It can be influenced by various factors, such as Locus of Control. Related to above mentioned, the problems are how employee tendency of Locus of Control, how job involvement, how organizational culture applied by employees and how influence of Locus of Control and job involvement to the organizational culture applied by employees. Researchers collected data with questioner spreading, and respondents number of 30 people. After that, the data were analyzed with SPSS software constructively. The influence of Locus of Control and job involvement to the application of organizational culture was strong, i.e. 58.3%.

90
5319
A Comparative Study of Transient Flow through Cerebral Aneurysms using CFD
Abstract:
The recent advances in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be useful in observing the detailed hemodynamics in cerebral aneurysms for understanding not only their formation and rupture but also for clinical evaluation and treatment. However, important hemodynamic quantities are difficult to measure in vivo. In the present study, an approximate model of normal middle cerebral artery (MCA) along with two cases consisting broad and narrow saccular aneurysms are analyzed. The models are generated in ANSYS WORKBENCH and transient analysis is performed in ANSYS-CFX. The results obtained are compared for three cases and agree well with the available literature.
89
4484
A Competitiveness Analysis of the Convention Tourism of China's Macao Special Administrative Region
Abstract:

This paper explored the use of Importance- Performance Analysis in assessing the competitiveness of China-s Macao Special Administrative Region as a city for international conventions. Determinants of destination choice for convention tourists are grouped under three factors, namely the convention factor, the city factor and the tourism factor. Attributes of these three factors were studied through a survey with the convention participants and exhibitors of Macao SAR. Results indicate that the city boasts of strong traditional tourist attractions and infrastructure, but is deficient in specialized convention experts and promotion mechanisms. A reflection on the findings suggests that an urban city such as the Macao SAR can co-develop its the convention and the traditional tourism for a synergistic effect. With proper planning and co-ordination, both areas of the city-s tourism industry will grow as they feed off each other.

88
12530
A Matching Algorithm of Minutiae for Real Time Fingerprint Identification System
Abstract:

A lot of matching algorithms with different characteristics have been introduced in recent years. For real time systems these algorithms are usually based on minutiae features. In this paper we introduce a novel approach for feature extraction in which the extracted features are independent of shift and rotation of the fingerprint and at the meantime the matching operation is performed much more easily and with higher speed and accuracy. In this new approach first for any fingerprint a reference point and a reference orientation is determined and then based on this information features are converted into polar coordinates. Due to high speed and accuracy of this approach and small volume of extracted features and easily execution of matching operation this approach is the most appropriate for real time applications.

87
15778
Manipulation of Probiotics Fermentation of Yogurt by Cinnamon and Licorice: Effects on Yogurt Formation and Inhibition of Helicobacter Pylori Growth in vitro
Abstract:

Probiotic bacteria especially Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium exert suppressive effect on Helicobacter pylori. Cinnamon and licorice have been traditionally used for the treatment of gastric ulcer. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of herbs on yogurt fermentation, the level of probiotic bacteria in yogurt during 28 days storage and the effect of herbal yogurt on the growth of H. pylori in vitro. Cinnamon or licorice was mixed with milk and the mixture was fermented with probiotic bacteria to form herbal-yogurt. Changes of pH and total titratable acids were monitored and the viability of probiotic bacteria was evaluated during and after refrigerated storage. The in vitro inhibition of H. pylori growth was determined using agar diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. The presence of herbs did not affect the probiotic population during storage. There were no significant differences in pH and TTA between herbal-yogurts and plain-yogurt during fermentation and storage. Water extract of cinnamon-yogurt showed the highest inhibition effect (13.5mm) on H. pylori growth in comparison with licorice-yogurt (11.2mm). The present findings indicate cinnamon and licorice has bioactive components to decrease the growth of H. pylori.

86
13607
CFD Simulation of Fixed Bed Reactor in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis of GTL Technology
Abstract:

In this paper 2D Simulation of catalytic Fixed Bed Reactor in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis of GTL technology has been performed utilizing computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) has been used as feedstock. The reactor was modeled and the model equations were solved employing finite volume method. The model was validated against the experimental data reported in literature. The comparison showed a good agreement between simulation results and the experimental data. In addition, the model was applied to predict the concentration contours of the reactants and products along the length of reactor.

85
15759
Thermodynamic Equilibrium of Nitrogen Species Discharge: Comparison with Global Model
Abstract:
The equilibrium process of plasma nitrogen species by chemical kinetic reactions along various pressures is successfully investigated. The equilibrium process is required in industrial application to obtain the stable condition when heating up the material for having homogenous reaction. Nitrogen species densities is modeled by a continuity equation and extended Arrhenius form. These equations are used to integrate the change of density over the time. The integration is to acquire density and the reaction rate of each reaction where temperature and time dependence are imposed. A comparison is made with global model within pressure range of 1- 100mTorr and the temperature of electron is set to be higher than other nitrogen species. The results shows that the chemical kinetic model only agrees for high pressure because of no power imposed; while the global model considers the external power along the pressure range then the electron and nitrogen species give highly quantity densities by factor of 3 to 5.
84
6407
The Empirical Survey on the Effect of Using Media in Explosive Forming of Tubular Shells
Abstract:
The special and unique advantages of explosive forming, has developed its use in different industries. Considering the important influence of improving the current explosive forming techniques on increasing the efficiency and control over the explosive forming procedure, the effects of air and water as the energy-conveying medium, and also their differences will be illustrated in this paper. Hence, a large number of explosive forming tests have been conducted on two sizes of thin walled cylindrical shells by using air and water as the working medium. Comparative diagrams of the maximum radial deflection of work-pieces of the same size, as a function of the scaled distance, show that for the points with the same values of scaled distance, the maximum radial deformation caused by the under water explosive loading is 4 to 5 times more than the deflection of the shells under explosive forming, while using air. Results of this experimental research have also been compared with other studies which show that using water as the energy conveying media increases the efficiency up to 4.8 times. The effect of the media on failure modes of the shells, and the necking mechanism of the walls of the specimens, while being explosively loaded, are also discussed in this issue. Measuring the tested specimens shows that, the increase in the internal volume has been accompanied by necking of the walls, which finally results in the radial rupture of the structure.
83
2364
BER Performance of UWB Modulations through S-V Channel Model
Abstract:

BER analysis of Impulse Radio Ultra Wideband (IRUWB) pulse modulations over S-V channel model is proposed in this paper. The UWB pulse is Gaussian monocycle pulse modulated using Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) and Pulse Position Modulation (PPM). The channel model is generated from a modified S-V model. Bit-error rate (BER) is measured over several of bit rates. The result shows that all modulation are appropriate for both LOS and NLOS channel, but PAM gives better performance in bit rates and SNR. Moreover, as standard of speed has been given for UWB, the communication is appropriate with high bit rates in LOS channel.

82
15999
Improvement in Mechanical Behavior of Expulsion with Heat treated Thermite Welded Rail Steel
Abstract:
Thermite welding is mainly used in world. The reasons why the thermite welding method is widely used are that the equipment has good mobility and total working time of that is shorter than that of the enclosed arc welding method on site. Moreover, the operating skill, which required for thermite welding, is less than that of for enclosed arc welding. In the present research work, heat treatment and combined 'expulsion and heat treatment' techniques were used improve the mechanical properties and weldment structure. The specimens were cut in the transverse direction from expulsion with Heat treated and heat treated Thermite Welded rails. Specimens were prepared according to AWS standard and subjected to tensile test, Impact test and hardness and their results were tabulated. Microstructural analysis was carried out with the help of SEM. Then analyze to effect of heat treated and 'expulsion with heat treated' with the properties of their thermite welded rails. Compare the mechanical and microstructural properties of thermite welded rails between heat expulsion with heat treated and heat treated. Mechanical and microstructural response expulsion with heat treated thermite welded rail is higher value as compared to heat treatment.
81
9437
Skin Lesion Segmentation Using Color Channel Optimization and Clustering-based Histogram Thresholding
Abstract:
Automatic segmentation of skin lesions is the first step towards the automated analysis of malignant melanoma. Although numerous segmentation methods have been developed, few studies have focused on determining the most effective color space for melanoma application. This paper proposes an automatic segmentation algorithm based on color space analysis and clustering-based histogram thresholding, a process which is able to determine the optimal color channel for detecting the borders in dermoscopy images. The algorithm is tested on a set of 30 high resolution dermoscopy images. A comprehensive evaluation of the results is provided, where borders manually drawn by four dermatologists, are compared to automated borders detected by the proposed algorithm, applying three previously used metrics of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity and a new metric of similarity. By performing ROC analysis and ranking the metrics, it is demonstrated that the best results are obtained with the X and XoYoR color channels, resulting in an accuracy of approximately 97%. The proposed method is also compared with two state-of-theart skin lesion segmentation methods.
80
5479
Verification of Protocol Design using UML - SMV
Abstract:

In recent past, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) has become the de facto industry standard for object-oriented modeling of the software systems. The syntax and semantics rich UML has encouraged industry to develop several supporting tools including those capable of generating deployable product (code) from the UML models. As a consequence, ensuring the correctness of the model/design has become challenging and extremely important task. In this paper, we present an approach for automatic verification of protocol model/design. As a case study, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) design is verified for the property, “the CALLER will not converse with the CALLEE before the connection is established between them ". The SIP is modeled using UML statechart diagrams and the desired properties are expressed in temporal logic. Our prototype verifier “UML-SMV" is used to carry out the verification. We subjected an erroneous SIP model to the UML-SMV, the verifier could successfully detect the error (in 76.26ms) and generate the error trace.

79
11520
Grid-based Supervised Clustering - GBSC
Abstract:
This paper presents a supervised clustering algorithm, namely Grid-Based Supervised Clustering (GBSC), which is able to identify clusters of any shapes and sizes without presuming any canonical form for data distribution. The GBSC needs no prespecified number of clusters, is insensitive to the order of the input data objects, and is capable of handling outliers. Built on the combination of grid-based clustering and density-based clustering, under the assistance of the downward closure property of density used in bottom-up subspace clustering, the GBSC can notably reduce its search space to avoid the memory confinement situation during its execution. On two-dimension synthetic datasets, the GBSC can identify clusters with different shapes and sizes correctly. The GBSC also outperforms other five supervised clustering algorithms when the experiments are performed on some UCI datasets.
78
8842
Statistical Analysis of First Order Plus Dead-time System using Operational Matrix
Abstract:

To increase precision and reliability of automatic control systems, we have to take into account of random factors affecting the control system. Thus, operational matrix technique is used for statistical analysis of first order plus time delay system with uniform random parameter. Examples with deterministic and stochastic disturbance are considered to demonstrate the validity of the method. Comparison with Monte Carlo method is made to show the computational effectiveness of the method.

77
5116
Design of Angular Estimator of Inertial Sensor Using the Least Square Method
Abstract:

Since MEMS gyro sensors measure not angle of rotation but angular rate, an estimator is designed to estimate the angles in many applications. Gyro and accelerometer are used to improve estimating accuracy of the angle. This paper presents a method of finding filter coefficients of the well-known estimator which is to get rotation angles from gyro and accelerometer data. In order to verify the performance of our method, the estimated angle is compared with the encoder output in a rotary pendulum system.

76
8216
Control of a DC Servomotor Using Fuzzy Logic Sliding Mode Model Following Controller
Abstract:

A DC servomotor position control system using a Fuzzy Logic Sliding mode Model Following Control or FLSMFC approach is presented. The FLSMFC structure consists of an integrator and variable structure system. The integral control is introduced into it in order to eliminated steady state error due to step and ramp command inputs and improve control precision, while the fuzzy control would maintain the insensitivity to parameter variation and disturbances. The FLSMFC strategy is implemented and applied to a position control of a DC servomotor drives. Experimental results indicated that FLSMFC system performance with respect to the sensitivity to parameter variations is greatly reduced. Also, excellent control effects and avoids the chattering phenomenon.

75
11815
Application of Staining Intensity Correlation Analysis to Visualize Protein Colocalizationat a Cellular Level
Abstract:

Mutations of the telomeric copy of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene cause spinal muscular atrophy. A deletion of the Eef1a2 gene leads to lower motor neuron degeneration in wasted mice. Indirect evidences have been shown that the eEF1A protein family may interact with SMN, and our previous study showed that abnormalities of neuromuscular junctions in wasted mice were similar to those of Smn mutant mice. To determine potential colocalization between SMN and tissue-specific translation elongation factor 1A2 (eEF1A2), an immunochemical analysis of HeLa cells transfected with the plasmid pcDNA3.1(+)C-hEEF1A2- myc and a new quantitative test of colocalization by intensity correlation analysis (ICA) was used to explore the association of SMN and eEF1A2. Here the results showed that eEF1A2 redistributed from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in response to serum and epidermal growth factor. In the cytoplasm, compelling evidence showed that staining for myc-tagged eEF1A2 varied in synchrony with that for SMN, consistent with the formation of a SMN-eEF1A2 complex in the cytoplasm of HeLa cells. These findings suggest that eEF1A2 may colocalize with SMN in the cytoplasm and may be a component of the SMN complex. However, the limitation of the ICA method is an inability to resolve colocalization in components of small organelles such as the nucleus.

74
10460
Wasp Venom Peptides may play a role in the Pathogenesis of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis in Humans: A Structural Similarity Analysis
Abstract:
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) has been reported to develop after a hymenoptera sting, but its pathogenesis is not known in detail. Myelin basic protein (MBP)- specific T cells have been detected in the blood of patients with ADEM, and a proportion of these patients develop multiple sclerosis (MS). In an attempt to understand the mechanisms underlying ADEM, molecular mimicry between hymenoptera venom peptides and the human immunodominant MBP peptide was scrutinized, based on the sequence and structural similarities, whether it was the root of the disease. The results suggest that the three wasp venom peptides have low sequence homology with the human immunodominant MBP residues 85-99. Structural similarity analysis among the three venom peptides and the MS-related HLA-DR2b (DRA, DRB1*1501)-associated immunodominant MHC binding/TCR contact residues 88-93, VVHFFK showed that hyaluronidase residues 7-12, phospholipase A1 residues 98-103, and antigen 5 residues 109-114 showed a high degree of similarity 83.3%, 100%, and 83.3% respectively. In conclusion, some wasp venom peptides, particularly phospholipase A1, may potentially act as the molecular motifs of the human 3HLA-DR2b-associated immunodominant MBP88-93, and possibly present a mechanism for induction of wasp sting-associated ADEM.
73
2713
Fuzzy-Genetic Optimal Control for Four Degreeof Freedom Robotic Arm Movement
Abstract:
In this paper, we present optimal control for movement and trajectory planning for four degrees-of-freedom robot using Fuzzy Logic (FL) and Genetic Algorithms (GAs). We have evaluated using Fuzzy Logic (FL) and Genetic Algorithms (GAs) for four degree-of-freedom (4 DOF) robotics arm, Uncertainties like; Movement, Friction and Settling Time in robotic arm movement have been compensated using Fuzzy logic and Genetic Algorithms. The development of a fuzzy genetic optimization algorithm is presented and discussed. The result are compared only GA and Fuzzy GA. This paper describes genetic algorithms, which is designed to optimize robot movement and trajectory. Though the model represents is a general model for redundant structures and could represent any n-link structures. The result is a complete trajectory planning with Fuzzy logic and Genetic algorithms demonstrating the flexibility of this technique of artificial intelligence.
72
14456
A Genetic Algorithm Based Classification Approach for Finding Fault Prone Classes
Abstract:
Fault-proneness of a software module is the probability that the module contains faults. A correlation exists between the fault-proneness of the software and the measurable attributes of the code (i.e. the static metrics) and of the testing (i.e. the dynamic metrics). Early detection of fault-prone software components enables verification experts to concentrate their time and resources on the problem areas of the software system under development. This paper introduces Genetic Algorithm based software fault prediction models with Object-Oriented metrics. The contribution of this paper is that it has used Metric values of JEdit open source software for generation of the rules for the classification of software modules in the categories of Faulty and non faulty modules and thereafter empirically validation is performed. The results shows that Genetic algorithm approach can be used for finding the fault proneness in object oriented software components.
71
8310
Software Reengineering Tool for Traffic Accident Data
Abstract:
In today-s hip hop world where everyone is running short of time and works hap hazardly,the similar scene is common on the roads while in traffic.To do away with the fatal consequences of such speedy traffics on rushy lanes, a software to analyse and keep account of the traffic and subsequent conjestion is being used in the developed countries. This software has being implemented and used with the help of a suppprt tool called Critical Analysis Reporting Environment.There has been two existing versions of this tool.The current research paper involves examining the issues and probles while using these two practically. Further a hybrid architecture is proposed for the same that retains the quality and performance of both and is better in terms of coupling of components , maintainence and many other features.
70
9394
A Metric Framework for Analysis of Quality of Object Oriented Design
Abstract:
The impact of OO design on software quality characteristics such as defect density and rework by mean of experimental validation. Encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism, reusability, Data hiding and message-passing are the major attribute of an Object Oriented system. In order to evaluate the quality of an Object oriented system the above said attributes can act as indicators. The metrics are the well known quantifiable approach to express any attribute. Hence, in this paper we tried to formulate a framework of metrics representing the attributes of object oriented system. Empirical Data is collected from three different projects based on object oriented paradigms to calculate the metrics.
69
7292
A Technique for Execution of Written Values on Shared Variables
Abstract:
The current paper conceptualizes the technique of release consistency indispensable with the concept of synchronization that is user-defined. Programming model concreted with object and class is illustrated and demonstrated. The essence of the paper is phases, events and parallel computing execution .The technique by which the values are visible on shared variables is implemented. The second part of the paper consist of user defined high level synchronization primitives implementation and system architecture with memory protocols. There is a proposition of techniques which are core in deciding the validating and invalidating a stall page .
68
322
A Growing Natural Gas Approach for Evaluating Quality of Software Modules
Abstract:

The prediction of Software quality during development life cycle of software project helps the development organization to make efficient use of available resource to produce the product of highest quality. “Whether a module is faulty or not" approach can be used to predict quality of a software module. There are numbers of software quality prediction models described in the literature based upon genetic algorithms, artificial neural network and other data mining algorithms. One of the promising aspects for quality prediction is based on clustering techniques. Most quality prediction models that are based on clustering techniques make use of K-means, Mixture-of-Guassians, Self-Organizing Map, Neural Gas and fuzzy K-means algorithm for prediction. In all these techniques a predefined structure is required that is number of neurons or clusters should be known before we start clustering process. But in case of Growing Neural Gas there is no need of predetermining the quantity of neurons and the topology of the structure to be used and it starts with a minimal neurons structure that is incremented during training until it reaches a maximum number user defined limits for clusters. Hence, in this work we have used Growing Neural Gas as underlying cluster algorithm that produces the initial set of labeled cluster from training data set and thereafter this set of clusters is used to predict the quality of test data set of software modules. The best testing results shows 80% accuracy in evaluating the quality of software modules. Hence, the proposed technique can be used by programmers in evaluating the quality of modules during software development.

67
13930
Capsule-substrate Adhesion in the Presence of Osmosis by the Immersed Interface Method
Abstract:
A two-dimensional thin-walled capsule of a flexible semi-permeable membrane is adhered onto a rigid planar substrate under adhesive forces (derived from a potential function) in the presence of osmosis across the membrane. The capsule is immersed in a hypotonic and diluted binary solution of a non-electrolyte solute. The Stokes flow problem is solved by the immersed interface method (IIM) with equal viscosities for the enclosed and surrounding fluid of the capsule. The numerical results obtained are verified against two simplified theoretical solutions and the agreements are good. The osmotic inflation of the adhered capsule is studied as a function of the solute concentration field, hydraulic conductivity, and the initial capsule shape. Our findings indicate that the contact length shrinks in dimension as capsule inflates in the hypotonic medium, and the equilibrium contact length does not depend on the hydraulic conductivity of the membrane and the initial shape of the capsule.
66
1423
Numerical Analysis of a Centrifugal Fan for Improved Performance using Splitter Vanes
Abstract:
The flow field in a centrifugal fan is highly complex with flow reversal taking place on the suction side of impeller and diffuser vanes. Generally performance of the centrifugal fan could be enhanced by judiciously introducing splitter vanes so as to improve the diffusion process. An extensive numerical whole field analysis on the effect of splitter vanes placed in discrete regions of suspected separation points is possible using CFD. This paper examines the effect of splitter vanes corresponding to various geometrical locations on the impeller and diffuser. The analysis shows that the splitter vanes located near the diffuser exit improves the static pressure recovery across the diffusing domain to a larger extent. Also it is found that splitter vanes located at the impeller trailing edge and diffuser leading edge at the mid-span of the circumferential distance between the blades show a marginal improvement in the static pressure recovery across the fan. However, splitters provided near to the suction side of the impeller trailing edge (25% of the circumferential gap between the impeller blades towards the suction side), adversely affect the static pressure recovery of the fan.
65
250
Analysis of Stress Concentration and Deflectionin Isotropic and Orthotropic Rectangular Plates with Central Circular Hole under Transverse Static Loading
Abstract:
The distributions of stresses and deflection in rectangular isotropic and orthotropic plates with central circular hole under transverse static loading have been studied using finite element method. The aim of author is to analyze the effect of D/A ratio (where D is hole diameter and A is plate width) upon stress concentration factor (SCF) and deflection in isotropic and orthotropic plates under transverse static loading. The D/A ratio is varied from 0.01 to 0.9. The analysis is done for plates of isotropic and two different orthotropic materials. The results are obtained for three different boundary conditions. The variations of SCF and deflection with respect to D/A ratio are presented in graphical form and discussed. The finite element formulation is carried out in the analysis section of the ANSYS package.
64
5100
Real-time Target Tracking Using a Pan and Tilt Platform
Abstract:

In recent years, we see an increase of interest for efficient tracking systems in surveillance applications. Many of the proposed techniques are designed for static cameras environments. When the camera is moving, tracking moving objects become more difficult and many techniques fail to detect and track the desired targets. The problem becomes more complex when we want to track a specific object in real-time using a moving Pan and Tilt camera system to keep the target within the image. This type of tracking is of high importance in surveillance applications. When a target is detected at a certain zone, the possibility of automatically tracking it continuously and keeping it within the image until action is taken is very important for security personnel working in very sensitive sites. This work presents a real-time tracking system permitting the detection and continuous tracking of targets using a Pan and Tilt camera platform. A novel and efficient approach for dealing with occlusions is presented. Also a new intelligent forget factor is introduced in order to take into account target shape variations and avoid learning non desired objects. Tests conducted in outdoor operational scenarios show the efficiency and robustness of the proposed approach.

63
4327
Development of Face Surrogate for Impact Protection Design for Cyclist
Abstract:
Bicycle usage for exercise, recreation, and commuting to work in Australia shows that pedal cycling is the fourth most popular activity with 10.6% increase in participants between 2001 and 2007. As with other means of transport, accident and injury becomes common although mandatory bicycle helmet wearing has been introduced. The research aims to develop a face surrogate made of sandwich of rigid foam and rubber sheets to represent human facial bone under blunt impact. The facial surrogate will serve as an important test device for further development of facial-impact protection for cyclist. A test procedure was developed to simulate the energy of impact and record data to evaluate the effect of impact on facial bones. Drop tests were performed to establish a suitable combination of materials. It was found that the sandwich structure of rigid extruded-polystyrene foam (density of 40 kg/m3 with a pattern of 6-mm-holes), Neoprene rubber sponge, and Abrasaflex rubber backing, had impact characteristics comparable to that of human facial bone. In particular, the foam thickness of 30 mm and 25 mm was found suitable to represent human zygoma (cheekbone) and maxilla (upper-jaw bone), respectively.
62
16022
New Regression Model and I-Kaz Method for Online Cutting Tool Wear Monitoring
Abstract:
This study presents a new method for detecting the cutting tool wear based on the measured cutting force signals using the regression model and I-kaz method. The detection of tool wear was done automatically using the in-house developed regression model and 3D graphic presentation of I-kaz 3D coefficient during machining process. The machining tests were carried out on a CNC turning machine Colchester Master Tornado T4 in dry cutting condition, and Kistler 9255B dynamometer was used to measure the cutting force signals, which then stored and displayed in the DasyLab software. The progression of the cutting tool flank wear land (VB) was indicated by the amount of the cutting force generated. Later, the I-kaz was used to analyze all the cutting force signals from beginning of the cut until the rejection stage of the cutting tool. Results of the IKaz analysis were represented by various characteristic of I-kaz 3D coefficient and 3D graphic presentation. The I-kaz 3D coefficient number decreases when the tool wear increases. This method can be used for real time tool wear monitoring.
61
9968
Maintenance Management System for Upstream Operations in Oil and Gas Industry: Case Study
Abstract:

This paper explores the plant maintenance management system that has been used by giant oil and gas company in Malaysia. The system also called as PMMS used to manage the upstream operations for more than 100 plants of the case study company. Moreover, from the observations, focus group discussion with PMMS personnel and application through simulation (SAP R/3), the paper reviews the step-by-step approach and the elements that required for the PMMS. The findings show that the PMMS integrates the overall business strategy in upstream operations that consist of asset management, work management and performance management. In addition, PMMS roles are to help operations personnel organize and plan their daily activities, to improve productivity and reduce equipment downtime and to help operations management analyze the facilities and create performance, and to provide and maintain the operational effectiveness of the facilities.

60
733
Geovisualization of Tourist Activity Travel Patterns Using 3D GIS: An Empirical Study of Tamsui, Taiwan
Abstract:

The study of tourist activities and the mapping of their routes in space and time has become an important issue in tourism management. Here we represent space-time paths for the tourism industry by visualizing individual tourist activities and the paths followed using a 3D Geographic Information System (GIS). Considerable attention has been devoted to the measurement of accessibility to shopping, eating, walking and other services at the tourist destination. I turns out that GIS is a useful tool for studying the spatial behaviors of tourists in the area. The value of GIS is especially advantageous for space-time potential path area measures, especially for the accurate visualization of possible paths through existing city road networks. This study seeks to apply space-time concepts with a detailed street network map obtained from Google Maps to measure tourist paths both spatially and temporally. These paths are further determined based on data obtained from map questionnaires regarding the trip activities of 40 individuals. The analysis of the data makes it possible to determining the locations of the more popular paths. The results can be visualized using 3D GIS to show the areas and potential activity opportunities accessible to tourists during their travel time.

59
3815
Protein Secondary Structure Prediction Using Parallelized Rule Induction from Coverings
Abstract:
Protein 3D structure prediction has always been an important research area in bioinformatics. In particular, the prediction of secondary structure has been a well-studied research topic. Despite the recent breakthrough of combining multiple sequence alignment information and artificial intelligence algorithms to predict protein secondary structure, the Q3 accuracy of various computational prediction algorithms rarely has exceeded 75%. In a previous paper [1], this research team presented a rule-based method called RT-RICO (Relaxed Threshold Rule Induction from Coverings) to predict protein secondary structure. The average Q3 accuracy on the sample datasets using RT-RICO was 80.3%, an improvement over comparable computational methods. Although this demonstrated that RT-RICO might be a promising approach for predicting secondary structure, the algorithm-s computational complexity and program running time limited its use. Herein a parallelized implementation of a slightly modified RT-RICO approach is presented. This new version of the algorithm facilitated the testing of a much larger dataset of 396 protein domains [2]. Parallelized RTRICO achieved a Q3 score of 74.6%, which is higher than the consensus prediction accuracy of 72.9% that was achieved for the same test dataset by a combination of four secondary structure prediction methods [2].
58
8833
CFD Analysis of a Centrifugal Fan for Performance Enhancement using Converging Boundary Layer Suction Slots
Abstract:
Generally flow behavior in centrifugal fan is observed to be in a state of instability with flow separation zones on suction surface as well as near the front shroud. Overall performance of the diffusion process in a centrifugal fan could be enhanced by judiciously introducing the boundary layer suction slots. With easy accessibility of CFD as an analytical tool, an extensive numerical whole field analysis of the effect of boundary layer suction slots in discrete regions of suspected separation points is possible. This paper attempts to explore the effect of boundary layer suction slots corresponding to various geometrical locations on the impeller with converging configurations for the slots. The analysis shows that the converging suction slots located on the impeller blade about 25% from the trailing edge, significantly improves the static pressure recovery across the fan. Also it is found that Slots provided at a radial distance of about 12% from the leading and trailing edges marginally improve the static pressure recovery across the fan.
57
12036
Mobile Medical Operation Route Planning
Abstract:

Medical services are usually provided in hospitals; however, in developing country, some rural residences have fewer opportunities to access in healthcare services due to the limitation of transportation communication. Therefore, in Thailand, there are charitable organizations operating to provide medical treatments to these people by shifting the medical services to operation sites; this is commonly known as mobile medical service. Operation routing is important for the organization to reduce its transportation cost in order to focus more on other important activities; for instance, the development of medical apparatus. VRP is applied to solve the problem of high transportation cost of the studied organization with the searching techniques of saving algorithm to find the minimum total distance of operation route and satisfy available time constraints of voluntary medical staffs.

56
3515
Ultrasonic Echo Image Adaptive Watermarking Using the Just-Noticeable Difference Estimation
Abstract:

Most of the image watermarking methods, using the properties of the human visual system (HVS), have been proposed in literature. The component of the visual threshold is usually related to either the spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) or the visual masking. Especially on the contrast masking, most methods have not mention to the effect near to the edge region. Since the HVS is sensitive what happens on the edge area. This paper proposes ultrasound image watermarking using the visual threshold corresponding to the HVS in which the coefficients in a DCT-block have been classified based on the texture, edge, and plain area. This classification method enables not only useful for imperceptibility when the watermark is insert into an image but also achievable a robustness of watermark detection. A comparison of the proposed method with other methods has been carried out which shown that the proposed method robusts to blockwise memoryless manipulations, and also robust against noise addition.

55
13968
Role of GIS in Distribution Power Systems
Abstract:

With the prevalence of computer and development of information technology, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have long used for a variety of applications in electrical engineering. GIS are designed to support the analysis, management, manipulation and mapping of spatial data. This paper presents several usages of GIS in power utilities such as automated route selection for the construction of new power lines which uses a dynamic programming model for route optimization, load forecasting and optimizing planning of substation-s location and capacity with comprehensive algorithm which involves an accurate small-area electric load forecasting procedure and simulates the different cost functions of substations.

54
7573
Power System Contingency Analysis Using Multiagent Systems
Abstract:

The demand of the energy management systems (EMS) set forth by modern power systems requires fast energy management systems. Contingency analysis is among the functions in EMS which is time consuming. In order to handle this limitation, this paper introduces agent based technology in the contingency analysis. The main function of agents is to speed up the performance. Negotiations process in decision making is explained and the issue set forth is the minimization of the operating costs. The IEEE 14 bus system and its line outage have been used in the research and simulation results are presented.

53
13000
Syntax Sensitive and Language Independent Detection of Code Clones
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper proposes a new technique to detect code clones from the lexical and syntactic point of view, which is based on PALEX source code representation. The PALEX code contains the recorded parsing actions and also lexical formatting information including white spaces and comments. We can record a list of parsing actions (shift, reduce, and reading a token) during a compiling process after a compiler finishes analyzing the source code. The proposed technique has advantages for syntax sensitive approach and language independency.
52
10256
Integrating Context Priors into a Decision Tree Classification Scheme
Abstract:
Scene interpretation systems need to match (often ambiguous) low-level input data to concepts from a high-level ontology. In many domains, these decisions are uncertain and benefit greatly from proper context. This paper demonstrates the use of decision trees for estimating class probabilities for regions described by feature vectors, and shows how context can be introduced in order to improve the matching performance.
51
8739
Privacy Threats in RFID Group Proof Schemes
Abstract:
RFID tag is a small and inexpensive microchip which is capable of transmitting unique identifier through wireless network in a short distance. If a group of RFID tags can be scanned simultaneously by one reader, RFID Group proof could be generated. Group proof can be used in various applications, such as good management which is usually achieved using barcode system. A lot of RFID group proof schemes have been proposed by many researchers. In this paper, we introduce some existing group proof schemes and then analyze their vulnerabilities to the privacy. Moreover, we propose a new attack model, which threats the privacy of user by tracking tags in a group.
50
15690
Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control of an MR Mount for Vibration Attenuation
Abstract:
In this paper, an magnetorheological (MR) mount with fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC) is studied for vibration suppression when the system is subject to base excitations. In recent years, magnetorheological fluids are becoming a popular material in the field of the semi-active control. However, the dynamic equation of an MR mount is highly nonlinear and it is difficult to identify. FSMC provides a simple method to achieve vibration attenuation of the nonlinear system with uncertain disturbances. This method is capable of handling the chattering problem of sliding mode control effectively and the fuzzy control rules are obtained by using the Lyapunov stability theory. The numerical simulations using one-dimension and two-dimension FSMC show effectiveness of the proposed controller for vibration suppression. Further, the well-known skyhook control scheme and an adaptive sliding mode controller are also included in the simulation for comparison with the proposed FSMC.
49
6425
Adaptive Functional Projective Lag Synchronization of Lorenz System
Abstract:

This paper addresses functional projective lag synchronization of Lorenz system with four unknown parameters, where the output of the master system lags behind the output of the slave system proportionally. For this purpose, an adaptive control law is proposed to make the states of two identical Lorenz systems asymptotically synchronize up. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, a novel criterion is given for asymptotical stability of the null solution of an error dynamics. Finally, some numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of our results.

48
9139
Hybrid Optimization of Emission and Economic Dispatch by the Sigmoid Decreasing Inertia Weight Particle Swarm Optimization
Abstract:

This paper present an efficient and reliable technique of optimization which combined fuel cost economic optimization and emission dispatch using the Sigmoid Decreasing Inertia Weight Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (PSO) to reduce the cost of fuel and pollutants resulting from fuel combustion by keeping the output of generators, bus voltages, shunt capacitors and transformer tap settings within the security boundary. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been demonstrated on IEEE 30-bus system with six generating units. The results clearly show that the proposed algorithm gives better and faster speed convergence then linearly decreasing inertia weight.

47
9344
Practical Method for Digital Music Matching Robust to Various Sound Qualities
Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a practical digital music matching system that is robust to variation in sound qualities. The proposed system is subdivided into two parts: client and server. The client part consists of the input, preprocessing and feature extraction modules. The preprocessing module, including the music onset module, revises the value gap occurring on the time axis between identical songs of different formats. The proposed method uses delta-grouped Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) to extract music features that are robust to changes in sound quality. According to the number of sound quality formats (SQFs) used, a music server is constructed with a feature database (FD) that contains different sub feature databases (SFDs). When the proposed system receives a music file, the selection module selects an appropriate SFD from a feature database; the selected SFD is subsequently used by the matching module. In this study, we used 3,000 queries for matching experiments in three cases with different FDs. In each case, we used 1,000 queries constructed by mixing 8 SQFs and 125 songs. The success rate of music matching improved from 88.6% when using single a single SFD to 93.2% when using quadruple SFDs. By this experiment, we proved that the proposed method is robust to various sound qualities.

46
687
A Design and Implementation Model for Web Caching Using Server “URL Rewriting“
Abstract:

In order to make surfing the internet faster, and to save redundant processing load with each request for the same web page, many caching techniques have been developed to reduce latency of retrieving data on World Wide Web. In this paper we will give a quick overview of existing web caching techniques used for dynamic web pages then we will introduce a design and implementation model that take advantage of “URL Rewriting" feature in some popular web servers, e.g. Apache, to provide an effective approach of caching dynamic web pages.

45
15131
Video-based Face Recognition: A Survey
Abstract:
During the past several years, face recognition in video has received significant attention. Not only the wide range of commercial and law enforcement applications, but also the availability of feasible technologies after several decades of research contributes to the trend. Although current face recognition systems have reached a certain level of maturity, their development is still limited by the conditions brought about by many real applications. For example, recognition images of video sequence acquired in an open environment with changes in illumination and/or pose and/or facial occlusion and/or low resolution of acquired image remains a largely unsolved problem. In other words, current algorithms are yet to be developed. This paper provides an up-to-date survey of video-based face recognition research. To present a comprehensive survey, we categorize existing video based recognition approaches and present detailed descriptions of representative methods within each category. In addition, relevant topics such as real time detection, real time tracking for video, issues such as illumination, pose, 3D and low resolution are covered.
44
6996
Contourlet versus Wavelet Transform for a Robust Digital Image Watermarking Technique
Abstract:

In this paper, a watermarking algorithm that uses the wavelet transform with Multiple Description Coding (MDC) and Quantization Index Modulation (QIM) concepts is introduced. Also, the paper investigates the role of Contourlet Transform (CT) versus Wavelet Transform (WT) in providing robust image watermarking. Two measures are utilized in the comparison between the waveletbased and the contourlet-based methods; Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Normalized Cross-Correlation (NCC). Experimental results reveal that the introduced algorithm is robust against different attacks and has good results compared to the contourlet-based algorithm.

43
16014
Real Time Detection, Tracking and Recognition of Medication Intake
Abstract:

In this paper, the detection and tracking of face, mouth, hands and medication bottles in the context of medication intake monitoring with a camera is presented. This is aimed at recognizing medication intake for elderly in their home setting to avoid an inappropriate use. Background subtraction is used to isolate moving objects, and then, skin and bottle segmentations are done in the RGB normalized color space. We use a minimum displacement distance criterion to track skin color regions and the R/G ratio to detect the mouth. The color-labeled medication bottles are simply tracked based on the color space distance to their mean color vector. For the recognition of medication intake, we propose a three-level hierarchal approach, which uses activity-patterns to recognize the normal medication intake activity. The proposed method was tested with three persons, with different medication intake scenarios, and gave an overall precision of over 98%.

42
4782
Transformation of Vocal Characteristics: A Review of Literature
Abstract:
The transformation of vocal characteristics aims at modifying voice such that the intelligibility of aphonic voice is increased or the voice characteristics of a speaker (source speaker) to be perceived as if another speaker (target speaker) had uttered it. In this paper, the current state-of-the-art voice characteristics transformation methodology is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on voice transformation methodology and issues for improving the transformed speech quality in intelligibility and naturalness are discussed. In particular, it is suggested to use the modulation theory of speech as a base for research on high quality voice transformation. This approach allows one to separate linguistic, expressive, organic and perspective information of speech, based on an analysis of how they are fused when speech is produced. Therefore, this theory provides the fundamentals not only for manipulating non-linguistic, extra-/paralinguistic and intra-linguistic variables for voice transformation, but also for paving the way for easily transposing the existing voice transformation methods to emotion-related voice quality transformation and speaking style transformation. From the perspectives of human speech production and perception, the popular voice transformation techniques are described and classified them based on the underlying principles either from the speech production or perception mechanisms or from both. In addition, the advantages and limitations of voice transformation techniques and the experimental manipulation of vocal cues are discussed through examples from past and present research. Finally, a conclusion and road map are pointed out for more natural voice transformation algorithms in the future.
41
9291
On the outlier Detection in Nonlinear Regression
Abstract:
The detection of outliers is very essential because of their responsibility for producing huge interpretative problem in linear as well as in nonlinear regression analysis. Much work has been accomplished on the identification of outlier in linear regression, but not in nonlinear regression. In this article we propose several outlier detection techniques for nonlinear regression. The main idea is to use the linear approximation of a nonlinear model and consider the gradient as the design matrix. Subsequently, the detection techniques are formulated. Six detection measures are developed that combined with three estimation techniques such as the Least-Squares, M and MM-estimators. The study shows that among the six measures, only the studentized residual and Cook Distance which combined with the MM estimator, consistently capable of identifying the correct outliers.
40
11702
Integrating Computer Games with Mathematics Instruction in Elementary School- An Analysis of Motivation, Achievement, and Pupil-Teacher Interactions
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to explore the impacts of computer games on the mathematics instruction. First, the research designed and implemented the web-based games according to the content of existing textbook. And the researcher collected and analyzed the information related to the mathematics instruction integrating the computer games. In this study, the researcher focused on the learning motivation of mathematics, mathematics achievement, and pupil-teacher interactions in classroom. The results showed that students under instruction integrating computer games significantly improved in motivation and achievement. The teacher tended to use less direct teaching and provide more time for student-s active learning.
39
6039
A New Divide and Conquer Software Process Model
Abstract:
The software system goes through a number of stages during its life and a software process model gives a standard format for planning, organizing and running a project. The article presents a new software development process model named as “Divide and Conquer Process Model", based on the idea first it divides the things to make them simple and then gathered them to get the whole work done. The article begins with the backgrounds of different software process models and problems in these models. This is followed by a new divide and conquer process model, explanation of its different stages and at the end edge over other models is shown.
38
10015
An Enhanced Key Management Scheme Based on Key Infection in Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:
We propose an enhanced key management scheme based on Key Infection, which is lightweight scheme for tiny sensors. The basic scheme, Key Infection, is perfectly secure against node capture and eavesdropping if initial communications after node deployment is secure. If, however, an attacker can eavesdrop on the initial communications, they can take the session key. We use common neighbors for each node to generate the session key. Each node has own secret key and shares it with its neighbor nodes. Then each node can establish the session key using common neighbors- secret keys and a random number. Our scheme needs only a few communications even if it uses neighbor nodes- information. Without losing the lightness of basic scheme, it improves the resistance against eavesdropping on the initial communications more than 30%.
37
12031
A New Fuzzy DSS/ES for Stock Portfolio Selection using Technical and Fundamental Approaches in Parallel
Abstract:
A Decision Support System/Expert System for stock portfolio selection presented where at first step, both technical and fundamental data used to estimate technical and fundamental return and risk (1st phase); Then, the estimated values are aggregated with the investor preferences (2nd phase) to produce convenient stock portfolio. In the 1st phase, there are two expert systems, each of which is responsible for technical or fundamental estimation. In the technical expert system, for each stock, twenty seven candidates are identified and with using rough sets-based clustering method (RC) the effective variables have been selected. Next, for each stock two fuzzy rulebases are developed with fuzzy C-Mean method and Takai-Sugeno- Kang (TSK) approach; one for return estimation and the other for risk. Thereafter, the parameters of the rule-bases are tuned with backpropagation method. In parallel, for fundamental expert systems, fuzzy rule-bases have been identified in the form of “IF-THEN" rules through brainstorming with the stock market experts and the input data have been derived from financial statements; as a result two fuzzy rule-bases have been generated for all the stocks, one for return and the other for risk. In the 2nd phase, user preferences represented by four criteria and are obtained by questionnaire. Using an expert system, four estimated values of return and risk have been aggregated with the respective values of user preference. At last, a fuzzy rule base having four rules, treats these values and produce a ranking score for each stock which will lead to a satisfactory portfolio for the user. The stocks of six manufacturing companies and the period of 2003-2006 selected for data gathering.
36
8201
A Hybrid Technology for a Multiagent Consultation System in Obesity Domain
Abstract:

In this paper, the authors present architecture of a multi agent consultation system for obesity related problems, which hybrid the technology of an expert system (ES) and an intelligent agent (IA). The strength of the ES which is capable of pulling the expert knowledge is consulted and presented to the end user via the autonomous and friendly pushing environment of the intelligent agent.

35
3237
Crash Severity Modeling in Urban Highways Using Backward Regression Method
Abstract:
Identifying and classifying intersections according to severity is very important for implementation of safety related counter measures and effective models are needed to compare and assess the severity. Highway safety organizations have considered intersection safety among their priorities. In spite of significant advances in highways safety, the large numbers of crashes with high severities still occur in the highways. Investigation of influential factors on crashes enables engineers to carry out calculations in order to reduce crash severity. Previous studies lacked a model capable of simultaneous illustration of the influence of human factors, road, vehicle, weather conditions and traffic features including traffic volume and flow speed on the crash severity. Thus, this paper is aimed at developing the models to illustrate the simultaneous influence of these variables on the crash severity in urban highways. The models represented in this study have been developed using binary Logit Models. SPSS software has been used to calibrate the models. It must be mentioned that backward regression method in SPSS was used to identify the significant variables in the model. Consider to obtained results it can be concluded that the main factor in increasing of crash severity in urban highways are driver age, movement with reverse gear, technical defect of the vehicle, vehicle collision with motorcycle and bicycle, bridge, frontal impact collisions, frontal-lateral collisions and multi-vehicle crashes in urban highways which always increase the crash severity in urban highways.
34
8304
Study of Integrated Vehicle Image System Including LDW, FCW, and AFS
Abstract:

The objective of this research is to develop an advanced driver assistance system characterized with the functions of lane departure warning (LDW), forward collision warning (FCW) and adaptive front-lighting system (AFS). The system is mainly configured a CCD/CMOS camera to acquire the images of roadway ahead in association with the analysis made by an image-processing unit concerning the lane ahead and the preceding vehicles. The input image captured by a camera is used to recognize the lane and the preceding vehicle positions by image detection and DROI (Dynamic Range of Interesting) algorithms. Therefore, the system is able to issue real-time auditory and visual outputs of warning when a driver is departing the lane or driving too close to approach the preceding vehicle unwittingly so that the danger could be prevented from occurring. During the nighttime, in addition to the foregoing warning functions, the system is able to control the bending light of headlamp to provide an immediate light illumination when making a turn at a curved lane and adjust the level automatically to reduce the lighting interference against the oncoming vehicles driving in the opposite direction by the curvature of lane and the vanishing point estimations. The experimental results show that the integrated vehicle image system is robust to most environments such as the lane detection and preceding vehicle detection average accuracy performances are both above 90 %.

33
1307
CFD Simulation of Condensing Vapor Bubble using VOF Model
Abstract:

In this study, direct numerical simulation for the bubble condensation in the subcooled boiling flow was performed. The main goal was to develop the CFD modeling for the bubble condensation and to evaluate the accuracy of the VOF model with the developed CFD modeling. CFD modeling for the bubble condensation was developed by modeling the source terms in the governing equations of VOF model using UDF. In the modeling, the amount of condensation was determined using the interfacial heat transfer coefficient obtained from the bubble velocity, liquid temperature and bubble diameter every time step. To evaluate the VOF model using the CFD modeling for the bubble condensation, CFD simulation results were compared with SNU experimental results such as bubble volume and shape, interfacial area, bubble diameter and bubble velocity. Simulation results predicted well the behavior of the actual condensing bubble. Therefore, it can be concluded that the VOF model using the CFD modeling for the bubble condensation will be a useful computational fluid dynamics tool for analyzing the behavior of the condensing bubble in a wide range of the subcooled boiling flow.

32
8694
ECA-SCTP: Enhanced Cooperative ACK for SCTP Path Recovery in Concurrent Multiple Transfer
Abstract:
Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) has been proposed to provide reliable transport of real-time communications. Due to its attractive features, such as multi-streaming and multihoming, the SCTP is often expected to be an alternative protocol for TCP and UDP. In the original SCTP standard, the secondary path is mainly regarded as a redundancy. Recently, most of researches have focused on extending the SCTP to enable a host to send its packets to a destination over multiple paths simultaneously. In order to transfer packets concurrently over the multiple paths, the SCTP should be well designed to avoid unnecessary fast retransmission and the mis-estimation of congestion window size through the paths. Therefore, we propose an Enhanced Cooperative ACK SCTP (ECASCTP) to improve the path recovery efficiency of multi-homed host which is under concurrent multiple transfer mode. We evaluated the performance of our proposed scheme using ns-2 simulation in terms of cwnd variation, path recovery time, and goodput. Our scheme provides better performance in lossy and path asymmetric networks.
31
3154
Performance Study on Audio Codec and Session Transfer of Open Source VoIP applications
Abstract:

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) application or commonly known as softphone has been developing an increasingly large market in today-s telecommunication world and the trend is expected to continue with the enhancement of additional features. This includes leveraging on the existing presence services, location and contextual information to enable more ubiquitous and seamless communications. In this paper, we discuss the concept of seamless session transfer for real-time application such as VoIP and IPTV, and our prototype implementation of such concept on a selected open source VoIP application. The first part of this paper is about conducting performance evaluation and assessments across some commonly found open source VoIP applications that are Ekiga, Kphone, Linphone and Twinkle so as to identify one of them for implementing our design of seamless session transfer. Subjective testing has been carried out to evaluate the audio performance on these VoIP applications and rank them according to their Mean Opinion Score (MOS) results. The second part of this paper is to discuss on the performance evaluations of our prototype implementation of session transfer using Linphone.

30
13753
Socioculture and Cognitivist Perspectives on Language and Communication Barriers in Learning
Abstract:

It is believed that major account on language diversity must be taken in learning, and especially in learning using ICT. This paper-s objective is to exhibit language and communication barriers in learning, to approach the topic from socioculture and cognitivist perspectives, and to give exploratory solutions of handling such barriers. The review is mainly conducted by approaching the journal Computers & Education, but also an initially broad search was conducted. The results show that not much attention is paid on language and communication barriers in an immediate relation to learning using ICT. The results shows, inter alia, that language and communication barriers are caused because of not enough account is taken on both the individual-s background and the technology.

29
6974
Shoplifting in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Authors:
Abstract:
the research was conducted using the self report of shoplifters who apprehended in the supermarket while stealing. 943 shoplifters in three years were interviewed right after the stealing act and before calling the police. The aim of the study is to know the shoplifting characteristics in Saudi Arabia, including the trait of shoplifters and the situation of the supermarkets where the stealing takes place. The analysis based on the written information about each thief as the documentary research method. Descriptive statistics as well as some inferential statistics were employed. The result shows that there are differences between genders, age groups, occupations, time of the day, days of the week, months, way of stealing, individual or group of thieves and other supermarket situations in the type of items stolen, total price and the count of items. The result and the recommendation will serve as a guide for retailers where, when and who to look at to prevent shoplifting.
28
6164
Degree and the Effect of Order in the Family on Violence against Women (VAW)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study attempts to emphasize the factors relating to intra-family relationships (order point of view) on violence against the women, For this purpose a survey technique on the sample size amounted 100 women of married of city of Ilam in country of Iran were considered. For measurement of violence against the women , the CTS scaled has been used .violence against the women be measured in four dimension ( emotional violence, psycho violence, physical violence, neglect violence). highest violence was related to emotional violence and after are as follow respectively : physical violence and neglect violence. The results showed that women have experienced the violence more than once during the last year, degree of order in family is high. Explanation result indicated that the order variables in family including collective thinking, empathy and communal co-circumstance have significant effects on violence against the women. Via multiple regression analysis variables of empathy, religious tenet and education of husband had significant effect on violence against women. In other words relationships among family effect on violence in family.

27
12033
Optimization Method Based MPPT for Wind Power Generators
Abstract:

This paper proposes the method combining artificial neural network with particle swarm optimization (PSO) to implement the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) by controlling the rotor speed of the wind generator. With the measurements of wind speed, rotor speed of wind generator and output power, the artificial neural network can be trained and the wind speed can be estimated. The proposed control system in this paper provides a manner for searching the maximum output power of wind generator even under the conditions of varying wind speed and load impedance.

26
11678
Analysis of Long-Term File System Activities on Cluster Systems
Abstract:
I/O workload is a critical and important factor to analyze I/O pattern and to maximize file system performance. However to measure I/O workload on running distributed parallel file system is non-trivial due to collection overhead and large volume of data. In this paper, we measured and analyzed file system activities on two large-scale cluster systems which had TFlops level high performance computation resources. By comparing file system activities of 2009 with those of 2006, we analyzed the change of I/O workloads by the development of system performance and high-speed network technology.
25
6516
Adaptive Network Intrusion Detection Learning: Attribute Selection and Classification
Abstract:
In this paper, a new learning approach for network intrusion detection using naïve Bayesian classifier and ID3 algorithm is presented, which identifies effective attributes from the training dataset, calculates the conditional probabilities for the best attribute values, and then correctly classifies all the examples of training and testing dataset. Most of the current intrusion detection datasets are dynamic, complex and contain large number of attributes. Some of the attributes may be redundant or contribute little for detection making. It has been successfully tested that significant attribute selection is important to design a real world intrusion detection systems (IDS). The purpose of this study is to identify effective attributes from the training dataset to build a classifier for network intrusion detection using data mining algorithms. The experimental results on KDD99 benchmark intrusion detection dataset demonstrate that this new approach achieves high classification rates and reduce false positives using limited computational resources.
24
12309
A Servo Control System Using the Loop Shaping Design Procedure
Abstract:
This paper describes an expanded system for a servo system design by using the Loop Shaping Design Procedure (LSDP). LSDP is one of the H∞ design procedure. By conducting Loop Shaping with a compensator and robust stabilization to satisfy the index function, we get the feedback controller that makes the control system stable. In this paper, we propose an expanded system for a servo system design and apply to the DC motor. The proposed method performs well in the DC motor positioning control. It has no steady-state error in the disturbance response and it has robust stability.
23
11598
Discrete Modified Internal Model Control for a nth-order Plant with an Integrator and Dead-time
Abstract:
This paper deals with a design method of a discrete modified Internal Model Control (IMC) for a plant with an integrator and dead time. If there is a load disturbance in the input or output side of the plant, the proposed control system can eliminate the steady-state error caused by it. The disturbance compensator in this method is simple and its order is low regardless of that of a plant. The simulation studies show that the proposed method has superior performance for a load disturbance rejection and robustness.
22
5232
Two Stage Control Method Using a Disturbance Observer and a Kalman Filter
Abstract:

This paper describes the two stage control using a disturbance observer and a Kalman filter. The system feedback uses the estimated state when it controls the speed. After the change-over point, its feedback uses the controlled plant output when it controls the position. To change the system continually, a change-over point has to be determined pertinently, and the controlled plant input has to be adjusted by the addition of the appropriate value. The proposed method has noise-reduction effect. It changes the system continually, even if the controlled plant identification has the error. Although the conventional method needs a speed sensor, the proposed method does not need it. The proposed method has a superior robustness compared with the conventional two stage control.

21
1945
An Efficient Obstacle Detection Algorithm Using Colour and Texture
Abstract:

This paper presents a new classification algorithm using colour and texture for obstacle detection. Colour information is computationally cheap to learn and process. However in many cases, colour alone does not provide enough information for classification. Texture information can improve classification performance but usually comes at an expensive cost. Our algorithm uses both colour and texture features but texture is only needed when colour is unreliable. During the training stage, texture features are learned specifically to improve the performance of a colour classifier. The algorithm learns a set of simple texture features and only the most effective features are used in the classification stage. Therefore our algorithm has a very good classification rate while is still fast enough to run on a limited computer platform. The proposed algorithm was tested with a challenging outdoor image set. Test result shows the algorithm achieves a much better trade-off between classification performance and efficiency than a typical colour classifier.

20
10276
A Decision Support Model for Bank Branch Location Selection
Authors:
Abstract:
Location selection is one of the most important decision making process which requires to consider several criteria based on the mission and the strategy. This study-s object is to provide a decision support model in order to help the bank selecting the most appropriate location for a bank-s branch considering a case study in Turkey. The object of the bank is to select the most appropriate city for opening a branch among six alternatives in the South-Eastern of Turkey. The model in this study was consisted of five main criteria which are Demographic, Socio-Economic, Sectoral Employment, Banking and Trade Potential and twenty one subcriteria which represent the bank-s mission and strategy. Because of the multi-criteria structure of the problem and the fuzziness in the comparisons of the criteria, fuzzy AHP is used and for the ranking of the alternatives, TOPSIS method is used.
19
13045
International Financial Crises and the Political Economy of Financial Reforms in Turkey: 1994-2009
Abstract:

This study1 holds for the formation of international financial crisis and political factors for economic crisis in Turkey, are evaluated in chronological order. The international arena and relevant studies conducted in Turkey work in the literature are assessed. The main purpose of the study is to hold the linkage between the crises and political stability in Turkey in details, and to examine the position of Turkey in this regard. The introduction part follows the literature survey on the models explaining causes and results of the crises, the second part of the study. In the third part, the formations of the world financial crises are studied. The fourth part, financial crisis in Turkey in 1994, 2000, 2001 and 2008 are reviewed and their political reasons are analyzed. In the last part of the study the results and recommendations are held. Political administrations have laid the grounds for an economic crisis in Turkey. In this study, the emergence of an economic crisis in Turkey and the developments after the crisis are chronologically examined and an explanation is offered as to the cause and effect relationship between the political administration and economic equilibrium in the country. Economic crises can be characterized as follows: high prices of consumables, high interest rates, current account deficits, budget deficits, structural defects in government finance, rising inflation and fixed currency applications, rising government debt, declining savings rates and increased dependency on foreign capital stock. Entering into the conditions of crisis during a time when the exchange value of the country-s national currency was rising, speculative finance movements and shrinking of foreign currency reserves happened due to expectations for devaluation and because of foreign investors- resistance to financing national debt, and a financial risk occurs. During the February 2001 crisis and immediately following, devaluation and reduction of value occurred in Turkey-s stock market. While changing over to the system of floating exchange rates in the midst of this crisis, the effects of the crisis on the real economy are discussed in this study. Administered politics include financial reforms, such as the rearrangement of banking systems. These reforms followed with the provision of foreign financial support. There have been winners and losers in the imbalance of income distribution, which has recently become more evident in Turkey-s fragile economy.

18
15750
Implementation of an Improved Secure System Detection for E-passport by using EPC RFID Tags
Abstract:

Current proposals for E-passport or ID-Card is similar to a regular passport with the addition of tiny contactless integrated circuit (computer chip) inserted in the back cover, which will act as a secure storage device of the same data visually displayed on the photo page of the passport. In addition, it will include a digital photograph that will enable biometric comparison, through the use of facial recognition technology at international borders. Moreover, the e-passport will have a new interface, incorporating additional antifraud and security features. However, its problems are reliability, security and privacy. Privacy is a serious issue since there is no encryption between the readers and the E-passport. However, security issues such as authentication, data protection and control techniques cannot be embedded in one process. In this paper, design and prototype implementation of an improved E-passport reader is presented. The passport holder is authenticated online by using GSM network. The GSM network is the main interface between identification center and the e-passport reader. The communication data is protected between server and e-passport reader by using AES to encrypt data for protection will transferring through GSM network. Performance measurements indicate a 19% improvement in encryption cycles versus previously reported results.

17
4811
An ACO Based Algorithm for Distribution Networks Including Dispersed Generations
Abstract:

With Power system movement toward restructuring along with factors such as life environment pollution, problems of transmission expansion and with advancement in construction technology of small generation units, it is expected that small units like wind turbines, fuel cells, photovoltaic, ... that most of the time connect to the distribution networks play a very essential role in electric power industry. With increase in developing usage of small generation units, management of distribution networks should be reviewed. The target of this paper is to present a new method for optimal management of active and reactive power in distribution networks with regard to costs pertaining to various types of dispersed generations, capacitors and cost of electric energy achieved from network. In other words, in this method it-s endeavored to select optimal sources of active and reactive power generation and controlling equipments such as dispersed generations, capacitors, under load tapchanger transformers and substations in a way that firstly costs in relation to them are minimized and secondly technical and physical constraints are regarded. Because the optimal management of distribution networks is an optimization problem with continuous and discrete variables, the new evolutionary method based on Ant Colony Algorithm has been applied. The simulation results of the method tested on two cases containing 23 and 34 buses exist and will be shown at later sections.

16
11548
The Locker Problem with Empty Lockers
Abstract:

We consider a cooperative game played by n players against a referee. The players names are randomly distributed among n lockers, with one name per locker. Each player can open up to half the lockers and each player must find his name. Once the game starts the players may not communicate. It has been previously shown that, quite surprisingly, an optimal strategy exists for which the success probability is never worse than 1 − ln 2 ≈ 0.306. In this paper we consider an extension where the number of lockers is greater than the number of players, so that some lockers are empty. We show that the players may still win with positive probability even if there are a constant k number of empty lockers. We show that for each fixed probability p, there is a constant c so that the players can win with probability at least p if they are allowed to open cn lockers.

15
1625
High Level Synthesis of Kahn Process Networks(KPN) for Streaming Applications
Abstract:
Streaming Applications usually run in parallel or in series that incrementally transform a stream of input data. It poses a design challenge to break such an application into distinguishable blocks and then to map them into independent hardware processing elements. For this, there is required a generic controller that automatically maps such a stream of data into independent processing elements without any dependencies and manual considerations. In this paper, Kahn Process Networks (KPN) for such streaming applications is designed and developed that will be mapped on MPSoC. This is designed in such a way that there is a generic Cbased compiler that will take the mapping specifications as an input from the user and then it will automate these design constraints and automatically generate the synthesized RTL optimized code for specified application.
Keywords:
14
1827
Design, Development and Analysis of Automated Storage and Retrieval System with Single and Dual Command Dispatching using MATLAB
Abstract:
Automated material handling is given prime importance in the semi automated and automated facilities since it provides solution to the gigantic problems related to inventory and also support the latest philosophies like just in time production JIT and lean production. Automated storage and retrieval system is an antidote (if designed properly) to the facility sufferings like getting the right material , materials getting perished, long cycle times or many other similar kind of problems. A working model of automated storage and retrieval system (AS/RS) is designed and developed under the design parameters specified by Material Handling Industry of America (MHIA). Later on analysis was carried out to calculate the throughput and size of the machine. The possible implementation of this technology in local scenario is also discussed in this paper.
13
15485
Automated Optic Disc Detection in Retinal Images of Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy and Risk of Macular Edema
Abstract:

In this paper, a new automated methodology to detect the optic disc (OD) automatically in retinal images from patients with risk of being affected by Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and Macular Edema (ME) is presented. The detection procedure comprises two independent methodologies. On one hand, a location methodology obtains a pixel that belongs to the OD using image contrast analysis and structure filtering techniques and, on the other hand, a boundary segmentation methodology estimates a circular approximation of the OD boundary by applying mathematical morphology, edge detection techniques and the Circular Hough Transform. The methodologies were tested on a set of 1200 images composed of 229 retinographies from patients affected by DR with risk of ME, 431 with DR and no risk of ME and 540 images of healthy retinas. The location methodology obtained 98.83% success rate, whereas the OD boundary segmentation methodology obtained good circular OD boundary approximation in 94.58% of cases. The average computational time measured over the total set was 1.67 seconds for OD location and 5.78 seconds for OD boundary segmentation.

12
9518
Distance Transmission Line Protection Based on Radial Basis Function Neural Network
Abstract:

To determine the presence and location of faults in a transmission by the adaptation of protective distance relay based on the measurement of fixed settings as line impedance is achieved by several different techniques. Moreover, a fast, accurate and robust technique for real-time purposes is required for the modern power systems. The appliance of radial basis function neural network in transmission line protection is demonstrated in this paper. The method applies the power system via voltage and current signals to learn the hidden relationship presented in the input patterns. It is experiential that the proposed technique is competent to identify the particular fault direction more speedily. System simulations studied show that the proposed approach is able to distinguish the direction of a fault on a transmission line swiftly and correctly, therefore suitable for the real-time purposes.

11
12189
A Heuristics Approach for Fast Detecting Suspicious Money Laundering Cases in an Investment Bank
Abstract:
Today, money laundering (ML) poses a serious threat not only to financial institutions but also to the nation. This criminal activity is becoming more and more sophisticated and seems to have moved from the cliché of drug trafficking to financing terrorism and surely not forgetting personal gain. Most international financial institutions have been implementing anti-money laundering solutions (AML) to fight investment fraud. However, traditional investigative techniques consume numerous man-hours. Recently, data mining approaches have been developed and are considered as well-suited techniques for detecting ML activities. Within the scope of a collaboration project for the purpose of developing a new solution for the AML Units in an international investment bank, we proposed a data mining-based solution for AML. In this paper, we present a heuristics approach to improve the performance for this solution. We also show some preliminary results associated with this method on analysing transaction datasets.
10
8624
CFD Analysis on Aerodynamic Design Optimization of Wind Turbine Rotor Blades
Abstract:
Wind energy has been shown to be one of the most viable sources of renewable energy. With current technology, the low cost of wind energy is competitive with more conventional sources of energy such as coal. Most blades available for commercial grade wind turbines incorporate a straight span-wise profile and airfoil shaped cross sections. These blades are found to be very efficient at lower wind speeds in comparison to the potential energy that can be extracted. However as the oncoming wind speed increases the efficiency of the blades decreases as they approach a stall point. This paper explores the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the blades at higher wind speeds while maintaining efficiency at the lower wind speeds. The design intends to maintain efficiency at lower wind speeds by selecting the appropriate orientation and size of the airfoil cross sections based on a low oncoming wind speed and given constant rotation rate. The blades will be made more efficient at higher wind speeds by implementing a swept blade profile. Performance was investigated using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD).
9
12837
Probabilistic Bayesian Framework for Infrared Face Recognition
Abstract:

Face recognition in the infrared spectrum has attracted a lot of interest in recent years. Many of the techniques used in infrared are based on their visible counterpart, especially linear techniques like PCA and LDA. In this work, we introduce a probabilistic Bayesian framework for face recognition in the infrared spectrum. In the infrared spectrum, variations can occur between face images of the same individual due to pose, metabolic, time changes, etc. Bayesian approaches permit to reduce intrapersonal variation, thus making them very interesting for infrared face recognition. This framework is compared with classical linear techniques. Non linear techniques we developed recently for infrared face recognition are also presented and compared to the Bayesian face recognition framework. A new approach for infrared face extraction based on SVM is introduced. Experimental results show that the Bayesian technique is promising and lead to interesting results in the infrared spectrum when a sufficient number of face images is used in an intrapersonal learning process.

8
11024
Vortex-Induced Vibration Characteristics of an Elastic Circular Cylinder
Abstract:
A numerical simulation of vortex-induced vibration of a 2-dimensional elastic circular cylinder with two degree of freedom under the uniform flow is calculated when Reynolds is 200. 2-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with the space-time finite element method, the equation of the cylinder motion is solved with the new explicit integral method and the mesh renew is achieved by the spring moving mesh technology. Considering vortex-induced vibration with the low reduced damping parameter, the variety trends of the lift coefficient, the drag coefficient, the displacement of cylinder are analyzed under different oscillating frequencies of cylinder. The phenomena of locked-in, beat and phases-witch were captured successfully. The evolution of vortex shedding from the cylinder with time is discussed. There are very similar trends in characteristics between the results of the one degree of freedom cylinder model and that of the two degree of freedom cylinder model. The streamwise vibrations have a certain effect on the lateral vibrations and their characteristics.
7
8646
Robust Control Synthesis for an Unmanned Underwater Vehicle
Authors:
Abstract:

The control design for unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) is challenging due to the uncertainties in the complex dynamic modeling of the vehicle as well as its unstructured operational environment. To cope with these difficulties, a practical robust control is therefore desirable. The paper deals with the application of coefficient diagram method (CDM) for a robust control design of an autonomous underwater vehicle. The CDM is an algebraic approach in which the characteristic polynomial and the controller are synthesized simultaneously. Particularly, a coefficient diagram (comparable to Bode diagram) is used effectively to convey pertinent design information and as a measure of trade-off between stability, response speed and robustness. In the polynomial ring, Kharitonov polynomials are employed to analyze the robustness of the controller due to parametric uncertainties.

6
2456
Fuzzy Controller Design for TCSC to Improve Power Oscillations Damping
Abstract:
Series compensators have been used for many years, to increase the stability and load ability of transmission line. They compensate retarded or advanced volt drop of transmission lines by placing advanced or retarded voltage in series with them to compensate the effective reactance, which cause to increase load ability of transmission lines. In this paper, two method of fuzzy controller, based on power reference tracking and impedance reference tracking have been developed on TCSC controller in order to increase load ability and improving power oscillation damping of system. In these methods, fire angle of thyristors are determined directly through the special Rule-bases with the error and change of error as the inputs. The simulation results of two area four- machines power system show the good performance of power oscillation damping in system. Comparison of this method with classical PI controller shows the increasing speed of system response in power oscillation damping.
5
2308
Optimal Planning of Ground Grid Based on Particle Swam Algorithm
Abstract:
This paper presents an application of particle swarm optimization (PSO) to the grounding grid planning which compares to the application of genetic algorithm (GA). Firstly, based on IEEE Std.80, the cost function of the grounding grid and the constraints of ground potential rise, step voltage and touch voltage are constructed for formulating the optimization problem of grounding grid planning. Secondly, GA and PSO algorithms for obtaining optimal solution of grounding grid are developed. Finally, a case of grounding grid planning is shown the superiority and availability of the PSO algorithm and proposal planning results of grounding grid in cost and computational time.
4
4042
A Study of Grounding Grid Characteristics with Conductive Concrete
Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to improve electromagnetic characteristics on grounding grid by applying the conductive concrete. The conductive concrete in this study is under an extra high voltage (EHV, 345kV) system located in a high-tech industrial park or science park. Instead of surrounding soil of grounding grid, the application of conductive concrete can reduce equipment damage and body damage caused by switching surges. The focus of the two cases on the EHV distribution system in a high-tech industrial park is presented to analyze four soil material styles. By comparing several soil material styles, the study results have shown that the conductive concrete can effectively reduce the negative damages caused by electromagnetic transient. The adoption of the style of grounding grid located 1.0 (m) underground and conductive concrete located from the ground surface to 1.25 (m) underground can obviously improve the electromagnetic characteristics so as to advance protective efficiency.

3
7889
Neural Networks and Particle Swarm Optimization Based MPPT for Small Wind Power Generator
Abstract:
This paper proposes the method combining artificial neural network (ANN) with particle swarm optimization (PSO) to implement the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) by controlling the rotor speed of the wind generator. First, the measurements of wind speed, rotor speed of wind power generator and output power of wind power generator are applied to train artificial neural network and to estimate the wind speed. Second, the method mentioned above is applied to estimate and control the optimal rotor speed of the wind turbine so as to output the maximum power. Finally, the result reveals that the control system discussed in this paper extracts the maximum output power of wind generator within the short duration even in the conditions of wind speed and load impedance variation.
2
2778
Study on Discharge Current Phenomena of Epoxy Resin Insulator Specimen
Abstract:
This paper presents the experimental results of discharge current phenomena on various humidity, temperature, pressure and pollutant conditions of epoxy resin specimen. The leakage distance of specimen was 3 cm, that it was supplied by high voltage. The polluted condition was given with NaCl artificial pollutant. The conducted measurements were discharge current and applied voltage. The specimen was put in a hermetically sealed chamber, and the current waveforms were analyzed with FFT. The result indicated that on discharge condition, the fifth harmonics still had dominant, rather than third one. The third harmonics tent to be appeared on low pressure heavily polluted condition, and followed by high humidity heavily polluted condition. On the heavily polluted specimen, the peaks discharge current points would be high and more frequent. Nevertheless, the specimen still had capacitive property. Besides that, usually discharge current points were more frequent. The influence of low pressure was still dominant to be easier to discharge. The non-linear property would be appear explicitly on low pressure and heavily polluted condition.
1
11023
Semi-Lagrangian Method for Advection Equation on GPU in Unstructured R3 Mesh for Fluid Dynamics Application
Abstract:

Numerical integration of initial boundary problem for advection equation in 3 ℜ is considered. The method used is  conditionally stable semi-Lagrangian advection scheme with high order interpolation on unstructured mesh. In order to increase time step integration the BFECC method with limiter TVD correction is used. The method is adopted on parallel graphic processor unit environment using NVIDIA CUDA and applied in Navier-Stokes solver. It is shown that the calculation on NVIDIA GeForce 8800  GPU is 184 times faster than on one processor AMDX2 4800+ CPU. The method is extended to the incompressible fluid dynamics solver. Flow over a Cylinder for 3D case is compared to the experimental data.

Vol:11 No:10 2017Vol:11 No:09 2017Vol:11 No:08 2017Vol:11 No:07 2017Vol:11 No:06 2017Vol:11 No:05 2017Vol:11 No:04 2017Vol:11 No:03 2017Vol:11 No:02 2017Vol:11 No:01 2017
Vol:10 No:12 2016Vol:10 No:11 2016Vol:10 No:10 2016Vol:10 No:09 2016Vol:10 No:08 2016Vol:10 No:07 2016Vol:10 No:06 2016Vol:10 No:05 2016Vol:10 No:04 2016Vol:10 No:03 2016Vol:10 No:02 2016Vol:10 No:01 2016
Vol:9 No:12 2015Vol:9 No:11 2015Vol:9 No:10 2015Vol:9 No:09 2015Vol:9 No:08 2015Vol:9 No:07 2015Vol:9 No:06 2015Vol:9 No:05 2015Vol:9 No:04 2015Vol:9 No:03 2015Vol:9 No:02 2015Vol:9 No:01 2015
Vol:8 No:12 2014Vol:8 No:11 2014Vol:8 No:10 2014Vol:8 No:09 2014Vol:8 No:08 2014Vol:8 No:07 2014Vol:8 No:06 2014Vol:8 No:05 2014Vol:8 No:04 2014Vol:8 No:03 2014Vol:8 No:02 2014Vol:8 No:01 2014
Vol:7 No:12 2013Vol:7 No:11 2013Vol:7 No:10 2013Vol:7 No:09 2013Vol:7 No:08 2013Vol:7 No:07 2013Vol:7 No:06 2013Vol:7 No:05 2013Vol:7 No:04 2013Vol:7 No:03 2013Vol:7 No:02 2013Vol:7 No:01 2013
Vol:6 No:12 2012Vol:6 No:11 2012Vol:6 No:10 2012Vol:6 No:09 2012Vol:6 No:08 2012Vol:6 No:07 2012Vol:6 No:06 2012Vol:6 No:05 2012Vol:6 No:04 2012Vol:6 No:03 2012Vol:6 No:02 2012Vol:6 No:01 2012
Vol:5 No:12 2011Vol:5 No:11 2011Vol:5 No:10 2011Vol:5 No:09 2011Vol:5 No:08 2011Vol:5 No:07 2011Vol:5 No:06 2011Vol:5 No:05 2011Vol:5 No:04 2011Vol:5 No:03 2011Vol:5 No:02 2011Vol:5 No:01 2011
Vol:4 No:12 2010Vol:4 No:11 2010Vol:4 No:10 2010Vol:4 No:09 2010Vol:4 No:08 2010Vol:4 No:07 2010Vol:4 No:06 2010Vol:4 No:05 2010Vol:4 No:04 2010Vol:4 No:03 2010Vol:4 No:02 2010Vol:4 No:01 2010
Vol:3 No:12 2009Vol:3 No:11 2009Vol:3 No:10 2009Vol:3 No:09 2009Vol:3 No:08 2009Vol:3 No:07 2009Vol:3 No:06 2009Vol:3 No:05 2009Vol:3 No:04 2009Vol:3 No:03 2009Vol:3 No:02 2009Vol:3 No:01 2009
Vol:2 No:12 2008Vol:2 No:11 2008Vol:2 No:10 2008Vol:2 No:09 2008Vol:2 No:08 2008Vol:2 No:07 2008Vol:2 No:06 2008Vol:2 No:05 2008Vol:2 No:04 2008Vol:2 No:03 2008Vol:2 No:02 2008Vol:2 No:01 2008
Vol:1 No:12 2007Vol:1 No:11 2007Vol:1 No:10 2007Vol:1 No:09 2007Vol:1 No:08 2007Vol:1 No:07 2007Vol:1 No:06 2007Vol:1 No:05 2007Vol:1 No:04 2007Vol:1 No:03 2007Vol:1 No:02 2007Vol:1 No:01 2007