Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 169

Alternative to M-Estimates in Multisensor Data Fusion
To solve the problem of multisensor data fusion under non-Gaussian channel noise. The advanced M-estimates are known to be robust solution while trading off some accuracy. In order to improve the estimation accuracy while still maintaining the equivalent robustness, a two-stage robust fusion algorithm is proposed using preliminary rejection of outliers then an optimal linear fusion. The numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm is equivalent to the M-estimates in the case of uncorrelated local estimates and significantly outperforms the M-estimates when local estimates are correlated.
Combined Feature Based Hyperspectral Image Classification Technique Using Support Vector Machines

A spatial classification technique incorporating a State of Art Feature Extraction algorithm is proposed in this paper for classifying a heterogeneous classes present in hyper spectral images. The classification accuracy can be improved if and only if both the feature extraction and classifier selection are proper. As the classes in the hyper spectral images are assumed to have different textures, textural classification is entertained. Run Length feature extraction is entailed along with the Principal Components and Independent Components. A Hyperspectral Image of Indiana Site taken by AVIRIS is inducted for the experiment. Among the original 220 bands, a subset of 120 bands is selected. Gray Level Run Length Matrix (GLRLM) is calculated for the selected forty bands. From GLRLMs the Run Length features for individual pixels are calculated. The Principle Components are calculated for other forty bands. Independent Components are calculated for next forty bands. As Principal & Independent Components have the ability to represent the textural content of pixels, they are treated as features. The summation of Run Length features, Principal Components, and Independent Components forms the Combined Features which are used for classification. SVM with Binary Hierarchical Tree is used to classify the hyper spectral image. Results are validated with ground truth and accuracies are calculated.

Analyzing Multi-Labeled Data Based on the Roll of a Concept against a Semantic Range
Classifying data hierarchically is an efficient approach to analyze data. Data is usually classified into multiple categories, or annotated with a set of labels. To analyze multi-labeled data, such data must be specified by giving a set of labels as a semantic range. There are some certain purposes to analyze data. This paper shows which multi-labeled data should be the target to be analyzed for those purposes, and discusses the role of a label against a set of labels by investigating the change when a label is added to the set of labels. These discussions give the methods for the advanced analysis of multi-labeled data, which are based on the role of a label against a semantic range.
Web portal As A Knowledge Management System In The Universities

The development of Web has affected different aspects of our lives, such as communication, sharing knowledge, searching for jobs, social activities, etc. The web portal as a gateway in the World Wide Web is a starting point for people who are connecting to the Internet. The web portal as the type of knowledge management system provides a rich space to share and search information as well as communication services like free email or content provision for the users. This research aims to discover the university needs to the web portal as a necessary tool for students in the universities to help them in getting the required information. A survey was conducted to gather students' requirements which can be incorporated in to portal to be developed.

Dynamics In Production Processes

An increasingly dynamic and complex environment poses huge challenges to production enterprises, especially with regards to logistics. The Logistic Operating Curve Theory, developed at the Institute of Production Systems and Logistics (IFA) of the Leibniz University of Hanover, is a recognized approach to describing logistic interactions, nevertheless, it reaches its limits when it comes to the dynamic aspects. In order to facilitate a timely and optimal Logistic Positioning a method is developed for quickly and reliably identifying dynamic processing states.

Modeling Erosion Control in Oil Production Wells

The sand production problem has led researchers into making various attempts to understand the phenomenon. The generally accepted concept is that the occurrence of sanding is due to the in-situ stress conditions and the induced changes in stress that results in the failure of the reservoir sandstone during hydrocarbon production from wellbores. By using a hypothetical cased (perforated) well, an approach to the problem is presented here by using Finite Element numerical modelling techniques. In addition to the examination of the erosion problem, the influence of certain key parameters is studied in order to ascertain their effect on the failure and subsequent erosion process. The major variables investigated include: drawdown, perforation depth, and the erosion criterion. Also included is the determination of the optimal mud pressure for given operational and reservoir conditions. The improved understanding between parameters enables the choice of optimal values to minimize sanding during oil production.

A Comparison of Some Splines-Based Methods for the One-dimensional Heat Equation
In this paper, collocation based cubic B-spline and extended cubic uniform B-spline method are considered for solving one-dimensional heat equation with a nonlocal initial condition. Finite difference and θ-weighted scheme is used for time and space discretization respectively. The stability of the method is analyzed by the Von Neumann method. Accuracy of the methods is illustrated with an example. The numerical results are obtained and compared with the analytical solutions.
A Study on Removal of Toluidine Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption onto Neem Leaf Powder

Adsorption of Toluidine blue dye from aqueous solutions onto Neem Leaf Powder (NLP) has been investigated. The surface characterization of this natural material was examined by Particle size analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The effects of process parameters such as initial concentration, pH, temperature and contact duration on the adsorption capacities have been evaluated, in which pH has been found to be most effective parameter among all. The data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich for explaining the equilibrium characteristics of adsorption. And kinetic models like pseudo first- order, second-order model and Elovich equation were utilized to describe the kinetic data. The experimental data were well fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and pseudo second order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters, such as Free energy of adsorption (AG"), enthalpy change (AH') and entropy change (AS°) were also determined and evaluated.

Routing Algorithm for a Clustered Network

The Cluster Dimension of a network is defined as, which is the minimum cardinality of a subset S of the set of nodes having the property that for any two distinct nodes x and y, there exist the node Si, s2 (need not be distinct) in S such that ld(x,s1) — d(y, s1)1 > 1 and d(x,s2) < d(x,$) for all s E S — {s2}. In this paper, strictly non overlap¬ping clusters are constructed. The concept of LandMarks for Unique Addressing and Clustering (LMUAC) routing scheme is developed. With the help of LMUAC routing scheme, It is shown that path length (upper bound)PLN,d < PLD, Maximum memory space requirement for the networkMSLmuAc(Az) < MSEmuAc < MSH3L < MSric and Maximum Link utilization factor MLLMUAC(i=3) < MLLMUAC(z03) < M Lc

Grooved Linear Microstrip Patch Antenna Array
A simple impedance matching technique for inset feed grooved microstrip patch antenna based on the concept of coplanar waveguide feed line has been developed and investigated for a printed antenna at X-Band frequency of 10GHz. The proposed technique has been used in the design of Linear Grooved Microstrip patch antenna array. The characteristics of the antenna are determined in terms of Return loss, VSWR, gain, radiation pattern etc. The measured and simulated results presented are found to be in good agreement.
Long- term Irrigation with Dairy Factory Wastewater Influences Soil Quality

The effects of irrigation with dairy factory wastewater on soil properties were investigated at two sites that had received irrigation for > 60 years. Two adjoining paired sites that had never received DFE were also sampled as well as another seven fields from a wider area around the factory. In comparison with paired sites that had not received effluent, long-term wastewater irrigation resulted in an increase in pH, EC, extractable P, exchangeable Na and K and ESP. These changes were related to the use of phosphoric acid, NaOH and KOH as cleaning agents in the factory. Soil organic C content was unaffected by DFE irrigation but the size (microbial biomass C and N) and activity (basal respiration) of the soil microbial community were increased. These increases were attributed to regular inputs of soluble C (e.g. lactose) present as milk residues in the wastewater. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the soils data from all 11sites confirmed that the main effects of DFE irrigation were an increase in exchangeable Na, extractable P and microbial biomass C, an accumulation of soluble salts and a liming effect. PCA analysis of soil bacterial community structure, using PCR-DGGE of 16S rDNA fragments, generally separated individual sites from one another but did not group them according to irrigation history. Thus, whilst the size and activity of the soil microbial community were increased, the structure and diversity of the bacterial community remained unaffected.

An Information Theoretic Approach to Rescoring Peptides Produced by De Novo Peptide Sequencing
Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is the engine driving high-throughput protein identification. Protein mixtures possibly representing thousands of proteins from multiple species are treated with proteolytic enzymes, cutting the proteins into smaller peptides that are then analyzed generating MS/MS spectra. The task of determining the identity of the peptide from its spectrum is currently the weak point in the process. Current approaches to de novo sequencing are able to compute candidate peptides efficiently. The problem lies in the limitations of current scoring functions. In this paper we introduce the concept of proteome signature. By examining proteins and compiling proteome signatures (amino acid usage) it is possible to characterize likely combinations of amino acids and better distinguish between candidate peptides. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that a scoring function that considers amino acid usage patterns is better able to distinguish between candidate peptides. This in turn leads to higher accuracy in peptide prediction.
Formulation, Analysis and Validation of Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Modeling For Robotic Monipulators
This paper proposes a methodology for analysis of the dynamic behavior of a robotic manipulator in continuous time. Initially this system (nonlinear system) will be decomposed into linear submodels and analyzed in the context of the Linear and Parameter Varying (LPV) Systems. The obtained linear submodels, which represent the local dynamic behavior of the robotic manipulator in some operating points were grouped in a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy structure. The obtained fuzzy model was analyzed and validated through analog simulation, as universal approximator of the robotic manipulator.
Evaluation of the Displacement-Based and the Force-Based Adaptive Pushover Methods in Seismic Response Estimation of Irregular Buildings Considering Torsional Effects
Recent years, adaptive pushover methods have been developed for seismic analysis of structures. Herein, the accuracy of the displacement-based adaptive pushover (DAP) method, which is introduced by Antoniou and Pinho [2004], is evaluated for Irregular buildings. The results are compared to the force-based procedure. Both concrete and steel frame structures, asymmetric in plan and elevation are analyzed and also torsional effects are taking into the account. These analyses are performed using both near fault and far fault records. In order to verify the results, the Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA) is performed.
Serum Nitric Oxide and Sialic Acid: Possible Biochemical Markers for Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy

This study was designed to investigate the role of serum nitric oxide and sialic acid in the development of diabetic nephropathy as disease marker. Total 210 diabetic patients (age and sex matched) were selected followed by informed consent and divided into four groups (70 each) as I: control; II: diabetic; III: diabetic hypertensive; IV: diabetic nephropathy. The blood samples of all subjects were collected and analyzed for serum nitric oxide, sialic acid, fasting blood glucose, serum urea, creatinine, HbA1c and GFR. The BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, blood glucose, HbA1c and serum sialic acid levels were high (p<0.01) in group II as compared to control subjects. The higher levels (p<0.01) of BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, blood glucose, HbA1c, serum urea, creatinine and sialic acid were observed in group III and IV as compared to controls. Significantly low levels of GFR and serum nitric oxide (p<0.01) were observed in group III and IV as compared to controls. Results indicated that serum nitric oxide and sialic acid are the major biochemical indicators for micro and macrovascular complications of diabetes such as hypertension and nephropathy. These should be taken into account during screening procedures regarding identifications of the diabetic patients to get them rid of progressive renal impairment to ESRD.

Investigation of the Tattooed Skin by OCT
The intention of this lessons is to assess the probability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for biometric recognition. The OCT is the foundation on an optical signal acquisition and processing method and has the micrometer-resolution. In this study, we used the porcine skin for verifying the abovementioned means. The porcine tissue was sound acknowledged for structural and immunohistochemical similarity with human skin, so it could be suitable for pre-clinical trial as investigational specimen. For this reason, it was tattooed by the tattoo machine with the tattoo-pigment. We detected the pattern of the tattooed skin by the OCT according to needle speed. The result was consistent with the histology images. This result showed that the OCT was effective to examine the tattooed skin section noninvasively. It might be available to identify morphological changes inside the skin.
Security of Mobile Agent in Ad hoc Network using Threshold Cryptography

In a very simple form a Mobile Agent is an independent piece of code that has mobility and autonomy behavior. One of the main advantages of using Mobile Agent in a network is - it reduces network traffic load. In an, ad hoc network Mobile Agent can be used to protect the network by using agent based IDS or IPS. Besides, to deploy dynamic software in the network or to retrieve information from network nodes Mobile Agent can be useful. But in an ad hoc network the Mobile Agent itself needs some security. Security services should be guaranteed both for Mobile Agent and for Agent Server. In this paper to protect the Mobile Agent and Agent Server in an ad hoc network we have proposed a solution which is based on Threshold Cryptography, a new vibe in the cryptographic world where trust is distributed among multiple nodes in the network.

Cultural Effect on Using New Technologies

One of the main concerns in the Information Technology field is adoption with new technologies in organizations which may result in increasing the usage paste of these technologies.This study aims to look at the issue of culture-s role in accepting and using new technologies in organizations. The study examines the effect of culture on accepting and intention to use new technology in organizations. Studies show culture is one of the most important barriers in adoption new technologies. The model used for accepting and using new technology is Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), while for culture and dimensions a well-known theory by Hofsted was used. Results of the study show significant effect of culture on intention to use new technologies. All four dimensions of culture were tested to find the strength of relationship with behavioral intention to use new technologies. Findings indicate the important role of culture in the level of intention to use new technologies and different role of each dimension to improve adaptation process. The study suggests that transferring of new technologies efforts are most likely to be successful if the parties are culturally aligned.

Tri-Axis Receiver for Wireless Micro-Power Transmission
An innovative tri-axes micro-power receiver is proposed. The tri-axes micro-power receiver consists of two sets 3-D micro-solenoids and one set planar micro-coils in which iron core is embedded. The three sets of micro-coils are designed to be orthogonal to each other. Therefore, no matter which direction the flux is present along, the magnetic energy can be harvested and transformed into electric power. Not only dead space of receiving power is mostly reduced, but also transformation efficiency of electromagnetic energy to electric power can be efficiently raised. By employing commercial software, Ansoft Maxwell, the preliminary simulation results verify that the proposed micro-power receiver can efficiently pick up the energy transmitted by magnetic power source. As to the fabrication process, the isotropic etching technique is employed to micro-machine the inverse-trapezoid fillister so that the copper wire can be successfully electroplated. The adhesion between micro-coils and fillister is much enhanced.
Delay-Dependent Stability Criteria for Linear Time-Delay System of Neutral Type

This paper proposes improved delay-dependent stability conditions of the linear time-delay systems of neutral type. The proposed methods employ a suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii’s functional and a new form of the augmented system. New delay-dependent stability criteria for the systems are established in terms of Linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) which can be easily solved by various effective optimization algorithms. Numerical examples showed that the proposed method is effective and can provide less conservative results.

Determination of an Efficient Differentiation Pathway of Stem Cells Employing Predictory Neural Network Model
The stem cells have ability to differentiated themselves through mitotic cell division and various range of specialized cell types. Cellular differentiation is a way by which few specialized cell develops into more specialized.This paper studies the fundamental problem of computational schema for an artificial neural network based on chemical, physical and biological variables of state. By doing this type of study system could be model for a viable propagation of various economically important stem cells differentiation. This paper proposes various differentiation outcomes of artificial neural network into variety of potential specialized cells on implementing MATLAB version 2009. A feed-forward back propagation kind of network was created to input vector (five input elements) with single hidden layer and one output unit in output layer. The efficiency of neural network was done by the assessment of results achieved from this study with that of experimental data input and chosen target data. The propose solution for the efficiency of artificial neural network assessed by the comparatative analysis of “Mean Square Error" at zero epochs. There are different variables of data in order to test the targeted results.
Forecasting of Flash Floods over Wadi Watier –Sinai Peninsula Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model
Flash floods are considered natural disasters that can cause casualties and demolishing of infra structures. The problem is that flash floods, particularly in arid and semi arid zones, take place in very short time. So, it is important to forecast flash floods earlier to its events with a lead time up to 48 hours to give early warning alert to avoid or minimize disasters. The flash flood took place over Wadi Watier - Sinai Peninsula, in October 24th, 2008, has been simulated, investigated and analyzed using the state of the art regional weather model. The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model, which is a reliable short term forecasting tool for precipitation events, has been utilized over the study area. The model results have been calibrated with the real data, for the same date and time, of the rainfall measurements recorded at Sorah gauging station. The WRF model forecasted total rainfall of 11.6 mm while the real measured one was 10.8 mm. The calibration shows significant consistency between WRF model and real measurements results.
Determination of Seismic Wave of Consolidated Granite Rock in Penang Island: UltrasonicTesting Method Vs Seismic Refraction Method
In seismic survey, the information regarding the velocity of compression wave (Vp) as well as shear wave (Vs) are very useful especially during the seismic interpretation. Previous studies showed that both Vp and Vs determined by above methods are totally different with respect to each other but offered good approximation. In this study, both Vp and Vs of consolidated granite rock were studied by using ultrasonic testing method and seismic refraction method. In ultrasonic testing, two different condition of rock are used which is dry and wet. The differences between Vp and Vs getting by using ultrasonic testing and seismic refraction were investigated and studied. The effect of water content in granite rock towards the value of Vp and Vs during ultrasonic testing are also measured. Within this work, the tolerance of the differences between the velocity of seismic wave getting from ultrasonic testing and the velocity of seismic wave getting from seismic refraction are also measured and investigated.
On the AC-Side Interface Filter in Three-Phase Shunt Active Power Filter Systems
The proper selection of the AC-side passive filter interconnecting the voltage source converter to the power supply is essential to obtain satisfactory performances of an active power filter system. The use of the LCL-type filter has the advantage of eliminating the high frequency switching harmonics in the current injected into the power supply. This paper is mainly focused on analyzing the influence of the interface filter parameters on the active filtering performances. Some design aspects are pointed out. Thus, the design of the AC interface filter starts from transfer functions by imposing the filter performance which refers to the significant current attenuation of the switching harmonics without affecting the harmonics to be compensated. A Matlab/Simulink model of the entire active filtering system including a concrete nonlinear load has been developed to examine the system performances. It is shown that a gamma LC filter could accomplish the attenuation requirement of the current provided by converter. Moreover, the existence of an optimal value of the grid-side inductance which minimizes the total harmonic distortion factor of the power supply current is pointed out. Nevertheless, a small converter-side inductance and a damping resistance in series with the filter capacitance are absolutely needed in order to keep the ripple and oscillations of the current at the converter side within acceptable limits. The effect of change in the LCL-filter parameters is evaluated. It is concluded that good active filtering performances can be achieved with small values of the capacitance and converter-side inductance.
The Numerical Study of Low Level Jets Formation in South Eastern of Iran
The presence of cold air with the convergent topography of the Lut valley over the valley-s sloping terrain can generate Low Level Jets (LLJ). Moreover, the valley-parallel pressure gradients and northerly LLJ are produced as a result of the large-scale processes. In the numerical study the regional MM5 model was run leading to achieve an appropriate dynamical analysis of flows in the region for summer and winter. The results of this study show the presence of summer synoptical systems cause the formation of north-south pressure gradients in the valley which could be led to the blowing of winds with the velocity more than 14 ms-1 and vulnerable dust and wind storms lasting more than 120 days. Whereas the presence of cold air masses in the region in winter, cause the average speed of LLJs decrease. In this time downslope flows are noticeable in creating the night LLJs.
Performance Evaluation of Qos Parameters in Cognitive Radio Using Genetic Algorithm
The efficient use of available licensed spectrum is becoming more and more critical with increasing demand and usage of the radio spectrum. This paper shows how the use of spectrum as well as dynamic spectrum management can be effectively managed and spectrum allocation schemes in the wireless communication systems be implemented and used, in future. This paper would be an attempt towards better utilization of the spectrum. This research will focus on the decision-making process mainly, with an assumption that the radio environment has already been sensed and the QoS requirements for the application have been specified either by the sensed radio environment or by the secondary user itself. We identify and study the characteristic parameters of Cognitive Radio and use Genetic Algorithm for spectrum allocation. Performance evaluation is done using MATLAB toolboxes.
Circuit Breaker and Transformer Monitoring
Since large power transformers are the most expensive and strategically important components of any power generator and transmission system, their reliability is crucially important for the energy system operation. Also, Circuit breakers are very important elements in the power transmission line so monitoring the events gives a knowledgebase to determine time to the next maintenance. This paper deals with the introduction of the comparative method of the state estimation of transformers and Circuit breakers using continuous monitoring of voltage, current. This paper gives details a new method based on wavelet to apparatus insulation monitoring. In this paper to insulation monitoring of transformer, a new method based on wavelet transformation and neutral point analysis is proposed. Using the EMTP tools, fault in transformer winding and the detailed transformer winding model were simulated. The current of neutral point of winding was analyzed by wavelet transformation. It is shown that the neutral current of the transformer winding has useful information about fault in insulation of the transformer.
Fabrication of Autonomous Wheeled Mobile Robot for Industrial Applications Using Appropriate Technology

The autonomous mobile robot was designed and implemented which was capable of navigating in the industrial environments and did a job of picking objects from variable height and delivering it to another location following a predefined trajectory. In developing country like Bangladesh industrial robotics is not very prevalent yet, due to the high installation cost. The objective of this project was to develop an autonomous mobile robot for industrial application using the available resources in the local market at lower manufacturing cost. The mechanical system of the robot was comprised of locomotion, gripping and elevation system. Grippers were designed to grip objects of a predefined shape. Cartesian elevation system was designed for vertical movement of the gripper. PIC18F452 microcontroller was the brain of the control system. The prototype autonomous robot was fabricated for relatively lower load than the industry and the performance was tested in a virtual industrial environment created within the laboratory to realize the effectiveness.

Ammonia Removal from Nitrogenous Industrial Waste Water Using Iranian Natural Zeolite of Clinoptilolite Type
Ammonia nitrogen is one of the most hazardous water pollutants, discharging into water receptors through industrial effluents. Negative environmental impacts of such chemical species in hydrosphere include accelerated eutrophication, water toxicity and harming the aquatics. Natural zeolite clinoptilolite has very high selectivity & capacity for ammonium cation sorption. It occurs in high abundances and rich mines of this zeolite exist in different parts of Iran and thus are available more cheaply and with different sizing. The aim of this study is to investigate ammonia nitrogen removal over this natural sorbent from real samples of high polluted wastewater discharging from a fertilizer producing plant. The experimental results showed that this natural sorbent without even any pre treatment system & with the same particle size available in Iranian markets has still high capability & selectivity in ammonia nitrogen removal both in batch and continuous tests.
Comparative Studies on Vertical Stratification,Floristic Composition, and Woody Species Diversity of Subtropical Evergreen Broadleaf Forests Between the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, and South China

In order to compare vertical stratification, floristic composition, and woody species diversity of subtropical evergreen broadleaf forests between the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, and South China, tree censuses in a 400 m2 plot in Ishigaki Island and a 1225 m2 plot in Dinghushan Nature Reserve were performed. Both of the subtropical forests consisted of five vertical strata. The floristic composition of the Ishigaki forest was quite different from that of the Dinghushan forest in terms of similarity on a species level (Kuno-s similarity index r0 = 0.05). The values of Shannon-s index H' and Pielou-s index J ' tended to increase from the bottom stratum upward in both forests, except H' for the top stratum in the Ishigaki forest and the upper two strata in the Dinghushan forest. The woody species diversity in the Dinghushan forest (H'= 3.01 bit) was much lower than that in the Ishigaki forest (H'= 4.36 bit).

A New Controlling Parameter in Design of Above Knee Prosthesis
In this paper after reviewing some previous studies, in order to optimize the above knee prosthesis, beside the inertial properties a new controlling parameter is informed. This controlling parameter makes the prosthesis able to act as a multi behavior system when the amputee is opposing to different environments. This active prosthesis with the new controlling parameter can simplify the control of prosthesis and reduce the rate of energy consumption in comparison to recently presented similar prosthesis “Agonistantagonist active knee prosthesis". In this paper three models are generated, a passive, an active, and an optimized active prosthesis. Second order Taylor series is the numerical method in solution of the models equations and the optimization procedure is genetic algorithm. Modeling the prosthesis which comprises this new controlling parameter (SEP) during the swing phase represents acceptable results in comparison to natural behavior of shank. Reported results in this paper represent 3.3 degrees as the maximum deviation of models shank angle from the natural pattern. The natural gait pattern belongs to walking at the speed of 81 m/min.
Triboelectric Separation of Binary Plastic Mixture

This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the performance of a triboelectric separator of plastic mixtures used for recycling. The separator consists of four cylindrical electrodes. The principle behind the separation technique is based on the difference in the Coulomb force acting on the plastic particles after triboelectric charging. The separation of mixtures of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polystyrene (PS) using this method was studied. The effects of the triboelectric charging time and applied voltage on the separation efficiency were investigated. The experimental results confirm that it is possible to obtain a high purity and recovery rate for the initial compositions considered in this study.

A Constrained Clustering Algorithm for the Classification of Industrial Ores
In this paper a Pattern Recognition algorithm based on a constrained version of the k-means clustering algorithm will be presented. The proposed algorithm is a non parametric supervised statistical pattern recognition algorithm, i.e. it works under very mild assumptions on the dataset. The performance of the algorithm will be tested, togheter with a feature extraction technique that captures the information on the closed two-dimensional contour of an image, on images of industrial mineral ores.
Effect of Electromagnetic Fields on Structure and Pollen Grains Development in Chenopodium album L
The role of the pollen grain, with to the reproductive process of higher plants, is to deliver the spermatic cells to the embryo sac for egg fertilization. The aim of this project was study the effect of electromagnetic fields on structure and pollen grains development in Chenopodium album. Anthers of Chenopodium album L. were collected at different stages of development from control (without electromagnetic field) and plants grown at 10m from the field sources. Structure and development of pollen grains were studied and compared. The studying pollen structure by Light and Scanning electron microscopy showed that electromagnetic fields reduction of pollen grains number and male sterility, thus , in some anthers, pollen grains were attached together and deformed compared to control ones. The data presented suggest that prolonged exposures of plants to magnetic field may cause different biological effects at the cellular tissue and organ levels.
Throughput Enhancement in AUDTWMN Using Throwboxes – An Overview
Delay and Disruption Tolerant Networking is part of the Inter Planetary Internet with primary application being Deep Space Networks. Its Terrestrial form has interesting research applications such as Alagappa University Delay Tolerant Water Monitoring Network which doubles as test beds for improvising its routing scheme. DTNs depend on node mobility to deliver packets using a store-carry-and forward paradigm. Throwboxes are small and inexpensive stationary devices equipped with wireless interfaces and storage. We propose the use of Throwboxes to enhance the contact opportunities of the nodes and hence improve the Throughput. The enhancement is evaluated using Alunivdtnsim, a desktop simulator in C language and the results are graphically presented.
Digital Predistorter with Pipelined Architecture Using CORDIC Processors
In a wireless communication system, a predistorter(PD) is often employed to alleviate nonlinear distortions due to operating a power amplifier near saturation, thereby improving the system performance and reducing the interference to adjacent channels. This paper presents a new adaptive polynomial digital predistorter(DPD). The proposed DPD uses Coordinate Rotation Digital Computing(CORDIC) processors and PD process by pipelined architecture. It is simpler and faster than conventional adaptive polynomial DPD. The performance of the proposed DPD is proved by MATLAB simulation.
A Simple Qos Scheduler for Mobile Wimax
WiMAX is defined as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access by the WiMAX Forum, formed in June 2001 to promote conformance and interoperability of the IEEE 802.16 standard, officially known as WirelessMAN. The attractive features of WiMAX technology are very high throughput and Broadband Wireless Access over a long distance. A detailed simulation environment is demonstrated with the UGS, nrtPS and ertPS service classes for throughput, delay and packet delivery ratio for a mixed environment of fixed and mobile WiMAX. A simple mobility aspect is considered for the mobile WiMAX and the PMP mode of transmission is considered in TDD mode. The Network Simulator 2 (NS-2) is the tool which is used to simulate the WiMAX network scenario. A simple Priority Scheduler and Weighted Round Robin Schedulers are the WiMAX schedulers used in the research work
Design of Nonlinear Observer by Using Chebyshev Interpolation based on Formal Linearization
This paper discusses a design of nonlinear observer by a formal linearization method using an application of Chebyshev Interpolation in order to facilitate processes for synthesizing a nonlinear observer and to improve the precision of linearization. A dynamic nonlinear system is linearized with respect to a linearization function, and a measurement equation is transformed into an augmented linear one by the formal linearization method which is based on Chebyshev interpolation. To the linearized system, a linear estimation theory is applied and a nonlinear observer is derived. To show effectiveness of the observer design, numerical experiments are illustrated and they indicate that the design shows remarkable performances for nonlinear systems.
Effect of Preloading on the Contact Stress Distribution of a Dovetail Interface
This paper presents the influence of preloading on a) the contact tractions, b) slip levels and c) stresses at the dovetail blade-disc interface of an aero-engine through a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) modeling and analysis. The preloading is applied by an interference fit at the dovetail interface and the bulk loading is applied through the rotational speed of rotor. Preloading at the dovetail interface reduces the peak contact pressure developed due to bulk loading up to 35%, and reduces the peak contact pressure and stress difference between top and bottom contact edges. Increasing the level of preloading reduces the cyclic stress amplitude at the interface up to certain values of preload and as a consequence, an improvement in fatigue life could be expected. Fretting damage, due to vibration and wind milling effect during engine ground condition, can be minimized by preloading the dovetail interface.
A Worst Case Estimation of the Inspection Rate by a Berthing Policy in a Container Terminal
After the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001 in U.S., the container security issue got high attention, especially by U.S. government, which deployed a lot of measures to promote or improve security systems. U.S. government not only enhances its national security system, but allies with other countries against the potential terrorist attacks in the future. For example CSI (Container Security Initiative), it encourages foreign ports outside U.S. to become CSI ports as a part of U.S. anti-terrorism network. Although promotion of the security could partly reach the goal of anti-terrorism, that will influence the efficiency of container supply chain, which is the main concern when implementing the inspection measurements. This paper proposes a quick estimation methodology for an inspection service rate by a berth allocation heuristic such that the inspection activities will not affect the original container supply chain. Theoretical and simulation results show this approach is effective.
Design of Electromagnetic Drive Module for Micro-gyroscope

For micro-gyroscopes, the angular rate detection components have to oscillate forwards and backwards alternatively. An innovative design of micro-electromagnetic drive module is proposed to make a Π-type disc reciprocally and efficiently rotate within a certain of angular interval. Twelve Electromagnetic poles enclosing the thin disc are designed to provide the magnetic drive power. Isotropic etching technique is employed to fabricate the high-aspect-ratio trench, so that the contact angle of wire against trench can be increased and the potential defect of cavities and pores within the wire can be prevented. On the other hand, a Π-type thin disc is designed to conduct the pitch motion as an angular excitation, in addition to spinning, is exerted on the gyroscope. The efficacy of the micro-magnetic drive module is verified by the commercial software, Ansoft Maxewll. In comparison with the conventional planar windings in micro-scale systems, the magnetic drive force is increased by 150%.

A Study on the Effect of Valve Timing on the Combustion and Emission Characteristics for a 4-cylinder PCCI Diesel Engine
PCCI engines can reduce NOx and PM emissions simultaneously without sacrificing thermal efficiency, but a low combustion temperature resulting from early fuel injection, and ignition occurring prior to TDC, can cause higher THC and CO emissions and fuel consumption. In conclusion, it was found that the PCCI combustion achieved by the 2-stage injection strategy with optimized calibration factors (e.g. EGR rate, injection pressure, swirl ratio, intake pressure, injection timing) can reduce NOx and PM emissions simultaneously. This research works are expected to provide valuable information conducive to a development of an innovative combustion engine that can fulfill upcoming stringent emission standards.
TS Fuzzy Controller to Stochastic Systems
This paper proposes the analysis and design of robust fuzzy control to Stochastic Parametrics Uncertaint Linear systems. This system type to be controlled is partitioned into several linear sub-models, in terms of transfer function, forming a convex polytope, similar to LPV (Linear Parameters Varying) system. Once defined the linear sub-models of the plant, these are organized into fuzzy Takagi- Sugeno (TS) structure. From the Parallel Distributed Compensation (PDC) strategy, a mathematical formulation is defined in the frequency domain, based on the gain and phase margins specifications, to obtain robust PI sub-controllers in accordance to the Takagi- Sugeno fuzzy model of the plant. The main results of the paper are based on the robust stability conditions with the proposal of one Axiom and two Theorems.
Blind Image Deconvolution by Neural Recursive Function Approximation

This work explores blind image deconvolution by recursive function approximation based on supervised learning of neural networks, under the assumption that a degraded image is linear convolution of an original source image through a linear shift-invariant (LSI) blurring matrix. Supervised learning of neural networks of radial basis functions (RBF) is employed to construct an embedded recursive function within a blurring image, try to extract non-deterministic component of an original source image, and use them to estimate hyper parameters of a linear image degradation model. Based on the estimated blurring matrix, reconstruction of an original source image from a blurred image is further resolved by an annealed Hopfield neural network. By numerical simulations, the proposed novel method is shown effective for faithful estimation of an unknown blurring matrix and restoration of an original source image.

A Study on a Discrete Event Simulation Model for Availability Analysis of Weapon Systems
This paper discusses a discrete event simulation model for the availability analysis of weapon systems. This model incorporates missions, operational tasks and system reliability structures to analyze the availability of a weapon system. The proposed simulation model consists of 5 modules: Simulation Engine, Maintenance Organizations, System, its Mission Profile and RBD which are based on missions and operational tasks. Simulation Engine executes three kinds of discrete events in chronological order. The events are mission events generated by Mission Profile, failure events generated by System, and maintenance events executed by Maintenance Organization. Finally, this paper shows the case study of a system's availability analysis and mission reliability using the simulation model.
Dynamics Simulation Approach in Analyzing Pension Expenditure
Salary risk and demographic risk have been identified as main risks in analyzing pension expenditure particularly in Defined Benefit pension plan. Therefore, public pension plan in Malaysia is studied to analyze pension expenditure due to salary and demographic risk. Through the literature review and interview session with several officers in public sector, factors affecting pension expenditure are determined. Then, the inter-relationships between these factors are analyzed through causal loop diagram. The System Dynamics model is later developed using iThink software to show how demographic and salary changes affect the pension expenditure. Then, by using actual data, the impact of different policy scenarios on pension expenditure is analyzed. It is shown that dynamics simulation model of pension expenditure is useful to evaluate the impact of changes and policy decisions on risk particularly involving demographic and salary risk.
FPGA Based Longitudinal and Lateral Controller Implementation for a Small UAV

This paper presents implementation of attitude controller for a small UAV using field programmable gate array (FPGA). Due to the small size constrain a miniature more compact and computationally extensive; autopilot platform is needed for such systems. More over UAV autopilot has to deal with extremely adverse situations in the shortest possible time, while accomplishing its mission. FPGAs in the recent past have rendered themselves as fast, parallel, real time, processing devices in a compact size. This work utilizes this fact and implements different attitude controllers for a small UAV in FPGA, using its parallel processing capabilities. Attitude controller is designed in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The discrete version of this controller is implemented using pipelining followed by retiming, to reduce the critical path and thereby clock period of the controller datapath. Pipelined, retimed, parallel PID controller implementation is done using rapidprototyping and testing efficient development tool of “system generator", which has been developed by Xilinx for FPGA implementation. The improved timing performance enables the controller to react abruptly to any changes made to the attitudes of UAV.

Fluid Structure Interaction Induced by Liquid Slosh in Partly Filled Road Tankers
The liquid cargo contained in a partly-filled road tank vehicle is prone to dynamic slosh movement when subjected to external disturbances. The slosh behavior has been identified as a significant factor impairing the safety of liquid cargo transportation. The laboratory experiments have been conducted for analyzing fluid slosh in partly filled tanks. The experiment results measured under forced harmonic excitations reveal the three-dimensional nature of the fluid motion and coupling between the lateral and longitudinal fluid slosh at resonance. Several spectral components are observed for the transient slosh forces, which can be associated with the excitation, resonance, and beat frequencies. The peak slosh forces and moments in the vicinity of resonance are significantly larger than those of the equivalent rigid mass. Due to the nature of coupling between sloshing fluid and vehicle body, the issue of the dynamic fluid-structure interaction is essential in the analysis of tank-vehicle dynamics. A dynamic pitch plane model of a Tridem truck incorporated the fluid slosh dynamics is developed to analyze the fluid-vehicle interaction under the straight-line braking maneuvers. The results show that the vehicle responses are highly associated with the characteristics of fluid slosh force and moment.
Cubic Trigonometric B-Spline Applied to Linear Two-Point Boundary Value Problems of Order Two
Linear two-point boundary value problems of order two are solved using cubic trigonometric B-spline interpolation method (CTBIM). Cubic trigonometric B-spline is a piecewise function consisting of trigonometric equations. This method is tested on some problems and the results are compared with cubic B-spline interpolation method (CBIM) from the literature. CTBIM is found to approximate the solution slightly more accurately than CBIM if the problems are trigonometric.
Evaluation of Electronic Payment Systems Using Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Decision Making Approach
Global competitiveness has recently become the biggest concern of both manufacturing and service companies. Electronic commerce, as a key technology enables the firms to reach all the potential consumers from all over the world. In this study, we have presented commonly used electronic payment systems, and then we have shown the evaluation of these systems in respect to different criteria. The payment systems which are included in this research are the credit card, the virtual credit card, the electronic money, the mobile payment, the credit transfer and the debit instruments. We have realized a systematic comparison of these systems in respect to three main criteria: Technical, economical and social. We have conducted a fuzzy multi-criteria decision making procedure to deal with the multi-attribute nature of the problem. The subjectiveness and imprecision of the evaluation process are modeled using triangular fuzzy numbers.
Study on Distortion of Bi-Steel Concrete Beam
As an economic and safe structure, Bi-steel is widely used in reinforced concrete with less consumption of steel. In this paper, III Bi-steel concrete beam has been analyzed. Through careful observation and theoretical analysis, the new calculating formulae for structural rigidity and crack have been formulated for this Bi-steel concrete beam. And structural rigidity and the crack features have also been theoretically analyzed.
Biodegradation of Carbazole By a Promising Gram-Negative Bacterium
In the present work we report a gram negative bacterial isolate, from soil of a dye industry, with promising biorefining and bioremediation potential. This isolate (GBS.5) could utilize carbazole (nitrogen containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) as the sole source of nitrogen and carbon and utilize almost 98% of 3mM carbazole in 100 hours. The specific activity of our GBS.5 isolate for carbazole degradation at 30°C and pH 7.0 was found to be 11.36 μmol/min/g dry cell weight as compared to 10.4 μmol/min/g dry cell weight, the highest reported specific activity till date. The presence of car genes (the genes involved in denitrogenation of carbazole) was confirmed through PCR amplification.
Red Diode Laser in the Treatment of Epidermal Diseases in PDT
The process of laser absorption in the skin during laser irradiation was a critical point in medical application treatments. Delivery the correct amount of laser light is a critical element in photodynamic therapy (PDT). More amounts of laser light able to affect tissues in the skin and small amount not able to enhance PDT procedure in skin. The knowledge of the skin tone laser dependent distribution of 635 nm radiation and its penetration depth in skin is a very important precondition for the investigation of advantage laser induced effect in (PDT) in epidermis diseases (psoriasis). The aim of this work was to estimate an optimum effect of diode laser (635 nm) on the treatment of epidermis diseases in different color skin. Furthermore, it is to improve safety of laser in PDT in epidermis diseases treatment. Advanced system analytical program (ASAP) which is a new approach in investigating the PDT, dependent on optical properties of different skin color was used in present work. A two layered Realistic Skin Model (RSM); stratum corneum and epidermal with red laser (635 nm, 10 mW) were used for irradiative transfer to study fluence and absorbance in different penetration for various human skin colors. Several skin tones very fair, fair, light, medium and dark are used to irradiative transfer. This investigation involved the principles of laser tissue interaction when the skin optically injected by a red laser diode. The results demonstrated that the power characteristic of a laser diode (635 nm) can affect the treatment of epidermal disease in various color skins. Power absorption of the various human skins were recorded and analyzed in order to find the influence of the melanin in PDT treatment in epidermal disease. A two layered RSM show that the change in penetration depth in epidermal layer of the color skin has a larger effect on the distribution of absorbed laser in the skin; this is due to the variation of the melanin concentration for each color.
Design and Simulation of Air-Fuel Ratio Control System for Distributorless CNG Engine
This paper puts forward one kind of air-fuel ratio control method with PI controller. With the help of MATLAB/SIMULINK software, the mathematical model of air-fuel ratio control system for distributorless CNG engine is constructed. The objective is to maintain cylinder-to-cylinder air-fuel ratio at a prescribed set point, determined primarily by the state of the Three- Way-Catalyst (TWC), so that the pollutants in the exhaust are removed with the highest efficiency. The concurrent control of airfuel under transient conditions could be implemented by Proportional and Integral (PI) controller. The simulation result indicates that the control methods can easily eliminate the air/fuel maldistribution and maintain the air/fuel ratio at the stochiometry within minimum engine events.
Thermal Treatments and Characteristics Study On Unalloyed Structural (AISI 1140) Steel

The main emphasis of metallurgists has been to process the materials to obtain the balanced mechanical properties for the given application. One of the processing routes to alter the properties is heat treatment. Nearly 90% of the structural applications are related to the medium carbon an alloyed steels and hence are regarded as structural steels. The major requirement in the conventional steel is to improve workability, toughness, hardness and grain refinement. In this view, it is proposed to study the mechanical and tribological properties of unalloyed structural (AISI 1140) steel with different thermal (heat) treatments like annealing, normalizing, tempering and hardening and compared with as brought (cold worked) specimen. All heat treatments are carried out in atmospheric condition. Hardening treatment improves hardness of the material, a marginal decrease in hardness value with improved ductility is observed in tempering. Annealing and normalizing improve ductility of the specimen. Normalized specimen shows ultimate ductility. Hardened specimen shows highest wear resistance in the initial period of slide wear where as above 25KM of sliding distance, as brought steel dominates the hardened specimen. Both mild and severe wear regions are observed. Microstructural analysis shows the existence of pearlitic structure in normalized specimen, lath martensitic structure in hardened, pearlitic, ferritic structure in annealed specimen.

Implementing Adaptive Steganography by Exploring the Ycbcr Color Model Characteristics
Stegnography is a new way of secret communication the most widely used mechanism on account of its simplicity is the use of the least significant bit. We have used the least significant bit (2 LSB and 4 LSB) substitution method. Depending upon the characteristics of the individual portions of cover image we decide whether to use 2 LSB or 4 LSB thus it is an adaptive stegnography technique. We used one of the three channels to behave as indicator to indicate the presence of hidden data in other two channels. The module showed impressive results in terms of capacity to hide the data. In proposed method, instead of using RGB color space directly, YCbCr color space is used to make use of human visual system characteristic.
Analysis of Noise Level Effects on Signal-Averaged Electrocardiograms
Noise level has critical effects on the diagnostic performance of signal-averaged electrocardiogram (SAECG), because the true starting and end points of QRS complex would be masked by the residual noise and sensitive to the noise level. Several studies and commercial machines have used a fixed number of heart beats (typically between 200 to 600 beats) or set a predefined noise level (typically between 0.3 to 1.0 μV) in each X, Y and Z lead to perform SAECG analysis. However different criteria or methods used to perform SAECG would cause the discrepancies of the noise levels among study subjects. According to the recommendations of 1991 ESC, AHA and ACC Task Force Consensus Document for the use of SAECG, the determinations of onset and offset are related closely to the mean and standard deviation of noise sample. Hence this study would try to perform SAECG using consistent root-mean-square (RMS) noise levels among study subjects and analyze the noise level effects on SAECG. This study would also evaluate the differences between normal subjects and chronic renal failure (CRF) patients in the time-domain SAECG parameters. The study subjects were composed of 50 normal Taiwanese and 20 CRF patients. During the signal-averaged processing, different RMS noise levels were adjusted to evaluate their effects on three time domain parameters (1) filtered total QRS duration (fQRSD), (2) RMS voltage of the last QRS 40 ms (RMS40), and (3) duration of the low amplitude signals below 40 μV (LAS40). The study results demonstrated that the reduction of RMS noise level can increase fQRSD and LAS40 and decrease the RMS40, and can further increase the differences of fQRSD and RMS40 between normal subjects and CRF patients. The SAECG may also become abnormal due to the reduction of RMS noise level. In conclusion, it is essential to establish diagnostic criteria of SAECG using consistent RMS noise levels for the reduction of the noise level effects.
Application of Data Envelopment Analysis to Assess Quality Management Efficiency
This paper is aimed to give an illustration on the application of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) as a tool to assess Quality Management (QM) efficiency. A variant of DEA, slack based measure (SBM) is used for this purpose. From this study, it is found that DEA is suitable to measure QM efficiency and give improvement suggestions to the inefficient QM.
Adaptive Rfid Positioning System Using Signal Level Matrix
In this paper, we present a method named Signal Level Matrix (SLM) which can improve the accuracy and stability of active RFID indoor positioning system. Considering the accuracy and cost, we use uniform distribution mode to set up and separate the overlapped signal covering areas, in order to achieve preliminary location setting. Then, based on the proposed SLM concept and the characteristic of the signal strength value that attenuates as the distance increases, this system cross-examines the distribution of adjacent signals to locate the users more accurately. The experimental results indicate that the adaptive positioning method proposed in this paper could improve the accuracy and stability of the positioning system effectively and satisfyingly.
Simulation of PM10 Source Apportionment at An Urban Site in Southern Taiwan by a Gaussian Trajectory Model
This study applied the Gaussian trajectory transfer-coefficient model (GTx) to simulate the particulate matter concentrations and the source apportionments at Nanzih Air Quality Monitoring Station in southern Taiwan from November 2007 to February 2008. The correlation coefficient between the observed and the calculated daily PM10 concentrations is 0.5 and the absolute bias of the PM10 concentrations is 24%. The simulated PM10 concentrations matched well with the observed data. Although the emission rate of PM10 was dominated by area sources (58%), the results of source apportionments indicated that the primary sources for PM10 at Nanzih Station were point sources (42%), area sources (20%) and then upwind boundary concentration (14%). The obvious difference of PM10 source apportionment between episode and non-episode days was upwind boundary concentrations which contributed to 20% and 11% PM10 sources, respectively. The gas-particle conversion of secondary aerosol and long range transport played crucial roles on the PM10 contribution to a receptor.
Noise Estimation for Speech Enhancement in Non-Stationary Environments-A New Method
This paper presents a new method for estimating the nonstationary noise power spectral density given a noisy signal. The method is based on averaging the noisy speech power spectrum using time and frequency dependent smoothing factors. These factors are adjusted based on signal-presence probability in individual frequency bins. Signal presence is determined by computing the ratio of the noisy speech power spectrum to its local minimum, which is updated continuously by averaging past values of the noisy speech power spectra with a look-ahead factor. This method adapts very quickly to highly non-stationary noise environments. The proposed method achieves significant improvements over a system that uses voice activity detector (VAD) in noise estimation.
Measurement and Analysis of Temperature Effects on Box Girders of Continuous Rigid Frame Bridges
Researches on the general rules of temperature field changing and their effects on the bridge in construction are necessary. This paper investigated the rules of temperature field changing and its effects on bridge using onsite measurement and computational analysis. Guanyinsha Bridge was used as a case study in this research. The temperature field was simulated in analyses. The effects of certain boundary conditions such as sun radiance, wind speed, and model parameters such as heat factor and specific heat on temperature field are investigated. Recommended values for these parameters are proposed. The simulated temperature field matches the measured observations with high accuracy. At the same time, the stresses and deflections of the bridge computed with the simulated temperature field matches measured values too. As a conclusion, the temperature effect analysis of reinforced concrete box girder can be conducted directly based on the reliable weather data of the concerned area.
Enhancing Efficiency for Reducing Sugar from Cassava Bagasse by Pretreatment

Cassava bagasse is one of major biomass wastes in Thailand from starch processing industry, which contains high starch content of about 60%. The object of this study was to investigate the optimal condition for hydrothermally pretreating cassava baggasses with or without acid addition. The pretreated samples were measured reducing sugar yield directly or after enzymatic hydrolysis (alpha-amylase). In enzymatic hydrolysis, the highest reducing sugar content was obtained under hydrothermal conditions for at 125oC for 30 min. The result shows that pretreating cassava baggasses increased the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. For acid hydrolysis, pretreating cassava baggasses with sulfuric acid at 120oC for 60 min gave a maximum reducing sugar yield. In this study, sulfuric acid had a greater capacity for hydrolyzing cassava baggasses than phosphoric acid. In comparison, dilute acid hydrolysis to provide a higher yield of reducing sugar than the enzymatic hydrolysis combined hydrothermal pretreatment. However, enzymatic hydrolysis in a combination with hydrothermal pretreatment was an alternative to enhance efficiency reducing sugar production from cassava bagasse.

Using Finite Element Analysis on Dynamic Characteristics in a Micro Stepping Mill
For smaller mechatronic device, especially for micro Electronic system, a micro machining is a must. However, most investigations on vibration of a mill have been limited to the traditional type mill. In this article, vibration and dynamic characteristics of a micro mill were investigated in this study. The trend towards higher precision manufacturing technology requires producing miniaturized components. To improve micro-milled product quality, obtain a higher production rate and avoid milling breakage, the dynamic characteristics of micro milling must be studied. A stepped pre-twisted mill is used to simulate the micro mill. The finite element analysis is employed in this work. The flute length and diameter effects of the micro mill are considered. It is clear that the effects of micro mill shape parameters on vibration in a micro mill are significant.
Positive Solutions for a Class of Semipositone Discrete Boundary Value Problems with Two Parameters
In this paper, the existence, multiplicity and noexistence of positive solutions for a class of semipositone discrete boundary value problems with two parameters is studied by applying nonsmooth critical point theory and sub-super solutions method.
Hazards Assessment of Radon Exhalation Rate and Radium Content in the Soil Samples in Iraqi Kurdistan Using Passive and Active Detecting Methods
This study aims to assess the environmental hazards from radon exhalation rate in the soil samples in selected locations in Iraqi Kurdistan, using passive (CR-39NTDs) and active (RAD7) detecting method. Radon concentration, effective radium content and radon exhalation rate were estimated in soil samples that collected at the depth level of 30 cm inside 124 houses. The results show that the emanation rate for radon gas was variation from location to other, depending on the geological formation. Most health risks come from emanation of radon and its daughter due to its contribution for indoor radon, so the results showed that there is a linear relationship between the ratio of soil and indoor radon concentration (CSoil Rn222/ Cindoor Rn222) and the effective radium content in soil samples. The results show that radon concentration has high and low values in Hajyawa city and Er. Tyrawa Qr, respectively. A comparison between our results with that mentioned in international reports was done.
Springback Simulations of Monolithic and Layered Steels Used for Pressure Equipment
Carbon steel is used in boilers, pressure vessels, heat exchangers, piping, structural elements and other moderatetemperature service systems in which good strength and ductility are desired. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section II Part A (2004) provides specifications of ferrous materials for construction of pressure equipment, covering wide range of mechanical properties including high strength materials for power plants application. However, increased level of springback is one of the major problems in fabricating components of high strength steel using bending. Presented work discuss the springback simulations for five different steels (i.e. SA-36, SA-299, SA-515 grade 70, SA-612 and SA-724 grade B) using finite element analysis of air V-bending. Analytical springback simulations of hypothetical layered materials are presented. Result shows that; (i) combination of the material property parameters controls the springback, (ii) layer of the high ductility steel on the high strength steel greatly suppresses the springback.
Fundamental Concepts of Theory of Constraints: An Emerging Philosophy
Dr Eliyahu Goldratt has done the pioneering work in the development of Theory of Constraints. Since then, many more researchers around the globe are working to enhance this body of knowledge. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compile the salient features of this theory from the work done by Goldratt and other researchers. This paper will provide a good starting point to the potential researchers interested to work in Theory of Constraints. The paper will also help the practicing managers by clarifying their concepts on the theory and will facilitate its successful implementation in their working areas.
Simulation Study for Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols in Mobile Adhoc Network

Due to insufficient frequency band and tremendous growth of the mobile users, complex computation is needed for the use of resources. Long distance communication began with the introduction of telegraphs and simple coded pulses, which were used to transmit short messages. Since then numerous advances have rendered reliable transfer of information both easier and quicker. Wireless network refers to any type of computer network that is wireless, and is commonly associated with a telecommunications network whose interconnections between nodes is implemented without the use of wires. Wireless network can be broadly categorized in infrastructure network and infrastructure less network. Infrastructure network is one in which we have a base station to serve the mobile users and in the infrastructure less network is one in which no infrastructure is available to serve the mobile users this kind of networks are also known as mobile Adhoc networks. In this paper we have simulated the result for different scenarios with protocols like AODV and DSR; we simulated the result for throughput, delay and receiving traffic in the given scenario.

Re-Handling Operations in Small Container Terminal Operated by Reach Stackers
In this paper an average number of re-handlings analysis is proposed to solve the problem of finding bays configuration in small container terminal in Gliwice, Poland. Rehandlings in this terminal can be performed only by reachstackers. The goal of the heuristic is to plan the reachstacter moves in the terminal, assuming that the target containers are reached and the number of re-handings is minimized. The real situation requires also to take into account the model of the problem environment uncertainty caused by the fact that many containers are not delivered to the terminal on time, or can not be sent on scheduled time. To enable this, the heuristic uses some assumptions to simplify problem analysis.
Optimum Design of Pressure Vessel Subjected to Autofrettage Process
The effect of autofrettage process in strain hardened thick-walled pressure vessels has been investigated theoretically by finite element modeling. Equivalent von Mises stress is used as yield criterion to evaluate the optimum autofrettage pressure and the optimum radius of elastic-plastic junction. It has been observed that the optimum autofrettage pressure increases along with the working pressure. For two different working pressures, the effect of the ratio of outer to inner radius (b/a=k) value on the optimum autofrettage pressure is also noticed. The Optimum autofrettage pressure solely depends on K value rather than on the inner or outer radius. Furthermore, percentage reduction of von Mises stresses is compared for different working pressures and different k values. Maximum von Mises stress developed at different autofrettage pressure is equated for elastic perfectly plastic and elastic-plastic material with different slope of strain hardening segment. Cylinder material having higher slope of strain hardening segment provides better benedictions in the autofrettage process.
Investigation on the Feasibility of Composite Coil Spring for Automotive Applications
This paper demonstrates the feasibility of replacing the metal coil spring with the composite coil spring. Three different types of springs were made using glass fiber, carbon fiber and combination of glass fiber and carbon fiber. The objective of the study is to reduce the weight of the spring. According to the experimental results the spring rate of the carbon fiber spring is 34% more than the glass fiber spring and 45% more than the glass fiber/carbon fiber spring. The weight of the carbon fiber spring is 18% less than the glass fiber spring, 15% less than the Glass fiber/carbon fiber spring and 80% less than the steel spring.
Organization as System, Psychic Dynamism as Equilibration: A Conceptualization
Organizations are supposed to be systems and consequently require defining the notion of equilibrium within. However, organizations comprise people and unavoidably entail their irrational aspects. Then, the question is what is the organizational equilibrium and equilibrating mechanisms considering these aspects. Hence, some arguments are provided here to conceptualize human unconsciousness, irrationalities and consequent uncertainties within organizations in the form of a system of psychic dynamism. The assumption is this dynamism maintains the psychic balance of the organization through a psychodynamic point of view. The resultant conceptualization expected to promote the understanding of such aspects in different organizational settings by hypothesizing organizational equilibration from this perspective. As a result, the main expectation is, if it is known that how the organization equilibrates in this sense, we can explain and deal with such irrationalities and unconsciousness by rational and, of course conscious, planning and accomplishing.
Sensitivity Analysis in Power Systems Reliability Evaluation
In this paper sensitivity analysis is performed for reliability evaluation of power systems. When examining the reliability of a system, it is useful to recognize how results change as component parameters are varied. This knowledge helps engineers to understand the impact of poor data, and gives insight on how reliability can be improved. For these reasons, a sensitivity analysis can be performed. Finally, a real network was used for testing the presented method.
Feasibility Investigation of Near Infrared Spectrometry for Particle Size Estimation of Nano Structures
Determination of nano particle size is substantial since the nano particle size exerts a significant effect on various properties of nano materials. Accordingly, proposing non-destructive, accurate and rapid techniques for this aim is of high interest. There are some conventional techniques to investigate the morphology and grain size of nano particles such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Vibrational spectroscopy is utilized to characterize different compounds and applied for evaluation of the average particle size based on relationship between particle size and near infrared spectra [1,4] , but it has never been applied in quantitative morphological analysis of nano materials. So far, the potential application of nearinfrared (NIR) spectroscopy with its ability in rapid analysis of powdered materials with minimal sample preparation, has been suggested for particle size determination of powdered pharmaceuticals. The relationship between particle size and diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra in near infrared region has been applied to introduce a method for estimation of particle size. Back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) as a nonlinear model was applied to estimate average particle size based on near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra. Thirty five different nano TiO2 samples with different particle size were analyzed by DR-FTNIR spectrometry and the obtained data were processed by BP- ANN.
Comprehensive Characteristics of the Municipal Solid Waste Generated in the Faculty of Engineering, UKM
The main aims in this research are to study the solid waste generation in the Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment in the UKM and at the same time to determine composition and some of the waste characteristics likewise: moisture content, density, pH and C/N ratio. For this purpose multiple campaigns were conducted to collect the wastes produced in all hostels, faculties, offices and so on, during 24th of February till 2nd of March 2009, measure and investigate them with regard to both physical and chemical characteristics leading to highlight the necessary management policies. Research locations are Faculty of Engineering and the Canteen nearby that. From the result gained, the most suitable solid waste management solution will be proposed to UKM. The average solid waste generation rate in UKM is 203.38 kg/day. The composition of solid waste generated are glass, plastic, metal, aluminum, organic and inorganic waste and others waste. From the laboratory result, the average moisture content, density, pH and C/N ratio values from the solid waste generated are 49.74%, 165.1 kg/m3, 5.3, and 7:1 respectively. Since, the food waste (organic waste) were the most dominant component, around 62% from the total waste generated hence, the most suitable solid waste management solution is composting.
Identify Features and Parameters to Devise an Accurate Intrusion Detection System Using Artificial Neural Network

The aim of this article is to explain how features of attacks could be extracted from the packets. It also explains how vectors could be built and then applied to the input of any analysis stage. For analyzing, the work deploys the Feedforward-Back propagation neural network to act as misuse intrusion detection system. It uses ten types if attacks as example for training and testing the neural network. It explains how the packets are analyzed to extract features. The work shows how selecting the right features, building correct vectors and how correct identification of the training methods with nodes- number in hidden layer of any neural network affecting the accuracy of system. In addition, the work shows how to get values of optimal weights and use them to initialize the Artificial Neural Network.

Effect of Adaptation Gain on system Performance for Model Reference Adaptive Control Scheme using MIT Rule
Adaptive control involves modifying the control law used by the controller to cope with the fact that the parameters of the system being controlled change drastically due to change in environmental conditions or in system itself. This technique is based on the fundamental characteristic of adaptation of living organism. The adaptive control process is one that continuously and automatically measures the dynamic behavior of plant, compares it with the desired output and uses the difference to vary adjustable system parameters or to generate an actuating signal in such a way so that optimal performance can be maintained regardless of system changes. This paper deals with application of model reference adaptive control scheme in first order system. The rule which is used for this application is MIT rule. This paper also shows the effect of adaptation gain on the system performance. Simulation is done in MATLAB and results are discussed in detail.
Modeling of CO2 Removal from Gas Mixtureby 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) Using the Modified Kent Eisenberg Model
In this paper, the solubility of CO2 in AMP solution have been measured at temperature range of ( 293, 303 ,313,323) K.The amine concentration ranges studied are (2.0, 2.8, and 3.4) M. A solubility apparatus was used to measure the solubility of CO2 in AMP solution on samples of flue gases from Thermal and Central Power Plants of Esfahan Steel Company. The modified Kent Eisenberg model was used to correlate and predict the vapor-liquid equilibria of the (CO2 + AMP + H2O) system. The model predicted results are in good agreement with the experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements.
Efficient Electromagnetic Modeling of Dual-GateTransistor with Iterative Method using Auxiliary Sources
In this paper, an efficient wave concept iterative process (WCIP) with auxiliary Sources is presented for full wave investigation of an active microwave structure on micro strip technology. Good agreement between the experimental and simulation results is observed.
Development of Thermal Model by Performance Verification of Heat Pipe Subsystem for Electronic Cooling under Space Environment
Heat pipes are used to control the thermal problem for electronic cooling. It is especially difficult to dissipate heat to a heat sink in an environment in space compared to earth. For solving this problem, in this study, the Poiseuille (Po) number, which is the main measure of the performance of a heat pipe, is studied by CFD; then, the heat pipe performance is verified with experimental results. A heat pipe is then fabricated for a spatial environment, and an in-house code is developed. Further, a heat pipe subsystem, which consists of a heat pipe, MLI (Multi Layer Insulator), SSM (Second Surface Mirror), and radiator, is tested and correlated with the TMM (Thermal Mathematical Model) through a commercial code. The correlation results satisfy the 3K requirement, and the generated thermal model is verified for application to a spatial environment.
How Efficiency of Password Attack Based on a Keyboard
At present, dictionary attack has been the basic tool for recovering key passwords. In order to avoid dictionary attack, users purposely choose another character strings as passwords. According to statistics, about 14% of users choose keys on a keyboard (Kkey, for short) as passwords. This paper develops a framework system to attack the password chosen from Kkeys and analyzes its efficiency. Within this system, we build up keyboard rules using the adjacent and parallel relationship among Kkeys and then use these Kkey rules to generate password databases by depth-first search method. According to the experiment results, we find the key space of databases derived from these Kkey rules that could be far smaller than the password databases generated within brute-force attack, thus effectively narrowing down the scope of attack research. Taking one general Kkey rule, the combinations in all printable characters (94 types) with Kkey adjacent and parallel relationship, as an example, the derived key space is about 240 smaller than those in brute-force attack. In addition, we demonstrate the method's practicality and value by successfully cracking the access password to UNIX and PC using the password databases created
Improved Zero Text Watermarking Algorithm against Meaning Preserving Attacks
Internet is largely composed of textual contents and a huge volume of digital contents gets floated over the Internet daily. The ease of information sharing and re-production has made it difficult to preserve author-s copyright. Digital watermarking came up as a solution for copyright protection of plain text problem after 1993. In this paper, we propose a zero text watermarking algorithm based on occurrence frequency of non-vowel ASCII characters and words for copyright protection of plain text. The embedding algorithm makes use of frequency non-vowel ASCII characters and words to generate a specialized author key. The extraction algorithm uses this key to extract watermark, hence identify the original copyright owner. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm on text encountering meaning preserving attacks performed by five independent attackers.
Method of Moments for Analysis of Multiple Crack Interaction in an Isotropic Elastic Solid
The problem of N cracks interaction in an isotropic elastic solid is decomposed into a subproblem of a homogeneous solid without crack and N subproblems with each having a single crack subjected to unknown tractions on the two crack faces. The unknown tractions, namely pseudo tractions on each crack are expanded into polynomials with unknown coefficients, which have to be determined by the consistency condition, i.e. by the equivalence of the original multiple cracks interaction problem and the superposition of the N+1 subproblems. In this paper, Kachanov-s approach of average tractions is extended into the method of moments to approximately impose the consistence condition. Hence Kachanov-s method can be viewed as the zero-order method of moments. Numerical results of the stress intensity factors are presented for interactions of two collinear cracks, three collinear cracks, two parallel cracks, and three parallel cracks. As the order of moment increases, the accuracy of the method of moments improves.
Effect of Surface Stress on the Deformation around a Nanosized Elliptical Hole: a Finite Element Study
When the characteristic length of an elastic solid is down to the nanometer level, its deformation behavior becomes size dependent. Surface energy /surface stress have recently been applied to explain such dependency. In this paper, the effect of strain-independent surface stress on the deformation of an isotropic elastic solid containing a nanosized elliptical hole is studied by the finite element method. Two loading cases are considered, in the first case, hoop stress along the rim of the elliptical hole induced by pure surface stress is studied, in the second case, hoop stress around the elliptical opening under combined remote tension and surface stress is investigated. It has been shown that positive surface stress induces compressive hoop stress along the hole, and negative surface stress has opposite effect, maximum hoop stress occurs near the major semi-axes of the ellipse. Under combined loading of remote tension and surface stress, stress concentration around the hole can be either intensified or weakened depending on the sign of the surface stress.
Long-term Irrigation with Dairy Factory Wastewater Influences Soil Quality
The effects of irrigation with dairy factory wastewater on soil properties were investigated at two sites that had received irrigation for > 60 years. Two adjoining paired sites that had never received DFE were also sampled as well as another seven fields from a wider area around the factory. In comparison with paired sites that had not received effluent, long-term wastewater irrigation resulted in an increase in pH, EC, extractable P, exchangeable Na and K and ESP. These changes were related to the use of phosphoric acid, NaOH and KOH as cleaning agents in the factory. Soil organic C content was unaffected by DFE irrigation but the size (microbial biomass C and N) and activity (basal respiration) of the soil microbial community were increased. These increases were attributed to regular inputs of soluble C (e.g. lactose) present as milk residues in the wastewater. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the soils data from all 11sites confirmed that the main effects of DFE irrigation were an increase in exchangeable Na, extractable P and microbial biomass C, an accumulation of soluble salts and a liming effect. PCA analysis of soil bacterial community structure, using PCR-DGGE of 16S rDNA fragments, generally separated individual sites from one another but did not group them according to irrigation history. Thus, whilst the size and activity of the soil microbial community were increased, the structure and diversity of the bacterial community remained unaffected.
A Self-Consistent Scheme for Elastic-Plastic Asperity Contact

In this paper, a generalized self-consistent scheme, or “three phase model", is used to set up a micro-mechanics model for rough surface contact with randomly distributed asperities. The dimensionless average real pressure p is obtained as function of the ratio of the real contact area to the apparent contact area, 0 A / A r . Both elastic and plastic materials are considered, and the influence of the plasticity of material on p is discussed. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional rough surface contact problems are considered.

Forecasting e-Learning Efficiency by Using Artificial Neural Networks and a Balanced Score Card
Forecasting the values of the indicators, which characterize the effectiveness of performance of organizations is of great importance for their successful development. Such forecasting is necessary in order to assess the current state and to foresee future developments, so that measures to improve the organization-s activity could be undertaken in time. The article presents an overview of the applied mathematical and statistical methods for developing forecasts. Special attention is paid to artificial neural networks as a forecasting tool. Their strengths and weaknesses are analyzed and a synopsis is made of the application of artificial neural networks in the field of forecasting of the values of different education efficiency indicators. A method of evaluation of the activity of universities using the Balanced Scorecard is proposed and Key Performance Indicators for assessment of e-learning are selected. Resulting indicators for the evaluation of efficiency of the activity are proposed. An artificial neural network is constructed and applied in the forecasting of the values of indicators for e-learning efficiency on the basis of the KPI values.
Refined Buckling Analysis of Rectangular Plates Under Uniaxial and Biaxial Compression
In the traditional buckling analysis of rectangular plates the classical thin plate theory is generally applied, so neglecting the plating shear deformation. It seems quite clear that this method is not totally appropriate for the analysis of thick plates, so that in the following the two variable refined plate theory proposed by Shimpi (2006), that permits to take into account the transverse shear effects, is applied for the buckling analysis of simply supported isotropic rectangular plates, compressed in one and two orthogonal directions. The relevant results are compared with the classical ones and, for rectangular plates under uniaxial compression, a new direct expression, similar to the classical Bryan-s formula, is proposed for the Euler buckling stress. As the buckling analysis is a widely diffused topic for a variety of structures, such as ship ones, some applications for plates uniformly compressed in one and two orthogonal directions are presented and the relevant theoretical results are compared with those ones obtained by a FEM analysis, carried out by ANSYS, to show the feasibility of the presented method.
Buckling Analysis of Rectangular Plates under the Combined Action of Shear and Uniaxial Stresses
In the classical buckling analysis of rectangular plates subjected to the concurrent action of shear and uniaxial forces, the Euler shear buckling stress is generally evaluated separately, so that no influence on the shear buckling coefficient, due to the in-plane tensile or compressive forces, is taken into account. In this paper the buckling problem of simply supported rectangular plates, under the combined action of shear and uniaxial forces, is discussed from the beginning, in order to obtain new project formulas for the shear buckling coefficient that take into account the presence of uniaxial forces. Furthermore, as the classical expression of the shear buckling coefficient for simply supported rectangular plates is considered only a “rough" approximation, as the exact one is defined by a system of intersecting curves, the convergence and the goodness of the classical solution are analyzed, too. Finally, as the problem of the Euler shear buckling stress evaluation is a very important topic for a variety of structures, (e.g. ship ones), two numerical applications are carried out, in order to highlight the role of the uniaxial stresses on the plating scantling procedures and the goodness of the proposed formulas.
Particle Simulation of Rarefied Gas Flows witha Superimposed Wall Surface Temperature Gradient in Microgeometries
Rarefied gas flows are often occurred in micro electro mechanical systems and classical CFD could not precisely anticipate the flow and thermal behavior due to the high Knudsen number. Therefore, the heat transfer and the fluid dynamics characteristics of rarefied gas flows in both a two-dimensional simple microchannel and geometry similar to single Knudsen compressor have been investigated with a goal of increasing performance of a actual Knudsen compressor by using a particle simulation method. Thermal transpiration and thermal creep, which are rarefied gas dynamic phenomena, that cause movement of the flow from less to higher temperature is generated by using two different longitude temperature gradients (Linear, Step) along the walls of the flow microchannel. In this study the influence of amount of temperature gradient and governing pressure in various Knudsen numbers and length-to-height ratios have been examined.
Exploring the Potential of Phase Change Memories as an Alternative to DRAM Technology
Scalability poses a severe threat to the existing DRAM technology. The capacitors that are used for storing and sensing charge in DRAM are generally not scaled beyond 42nm. This is because; the capacitors must be sufficiently large for reliable sensing and charge storage mechanism. This leaves DRAM memory scaling in jeopardy, as charge sensing and storage mechanisms become extremely difficult. In this paper we provide an overview of the potential and the possibilities of using Phase Change Memory (PCM) as an alternative for the existing DRAM technology. The main challenges that we encounter in using PCM are, the limited endurance, high access latencies, and higher dynamic energy consumption than that of the conventional DRAM. We then provide an overview of various methods, which can be employed to overcome these drawbacks. Hybrid memories involving both PCM and DRAM can be used, to achieve good tradeoffs in access latency and storage density. We conclude by presenting, the results of these methods that makes PCM a potential replacement for the current DRAM technology.
Effect of Physical Contact (Hand-Holding) on Heart Rate Variability
Heart-s electric field can be measured anywhere on the surface of the body (ECG). When individuals touch, one person-s ECG signal can be registered in other person-s EEG and elsewhere on his body. Now, the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that physical contact (hand-holding) of two persons changes their heart rate variability. Subjects were sixteen healthy female (age: 20- 26) which divided into eight sets. In each sets, we had two friends that they passed intimacy test of J.sternberg. ECG of two subjects (each set) acquired for 5 minutes before hand-holding (as control group) and 5 minutes during they held their hands (as experimental group). Then heart rate variability signals were extracted from subjects' ECG and analyzed in linear feature space (time and frequency domain) and nonlinear feature space. Considering the results, we conclude that physical contact (hand-holding of two friends) increases parasympathetic activity, as indicate by increase SD1, SD1/SD2, HF and MF power (p
A Tubular Electrode for Radiofrequency Ablation Therapy
In the last two decades radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been considered a promising medical procedure for the treatment of primary and secondary malignancies. However, the needle-based electrodes so far developed for this kind of treatment are not suitable for the thermal ablation of tumors located in hollow organs like esophagus, colon or bile duct. In this work a tubular electrode solution is presented. Numerical and experimental analyses were performed to characterize the volume of the lesion induced. Results show that this kind of electrode is a feasible solution and numerical simulation might provide a tool for planning RFA procedure with some accuracy.
Design of Permanent Magnet Machines with Different Rotor Type

This paper presents design, analysis and comparison of the different rotor type permanent magnet machines. The presented machines are designed as having same geometrical dimensions and same materials for comparison. The main machine parameters of interior and exterior rotor type machines including eddy current effect, torque-speed characteristics and magnetic analysis are investigated using MAXWELL program. With this program, the components of the permanent magnet machines can be calculated with high accuracy. Six types of Permanent machines are compared with respect to their topology, size, magnetic field, air gap flux, voltage, torque, loss and efficiency. The analysis results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed machines design methodology. We believe that, this study will be a helpful resource in terms of examination and comparison of the basic structure and magnetic features of the PM (Permanent magnet) machines which have different rotor structure.

An Algorithm of Finite Capacity Material Requirement Planning System for Multi-stage Assembly Flow Shop
This paper aims to develop an algorithm of finite capacity material requirement planning (FCMRP) system for a multistage assembly flow shop. The developed FCMRP system has two main stages. The first stage is to allocate operations to the first and second priority work centers and also determine the sequence of the operations on each work center. The second stage is to determine the optimal start time of each operation by using a linear programming model. Real data from a factory is used to analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed FCMRP system and also to guarantee a practical solution to the user. There are five performance measures, namely, the total tardiness, the number of tardy orders, the total earliness, the number of early orders, and the average flow-time. The proposed FCMRP system offers an adjustable solution which is a compromised solution among the conflicting performance measures. The user can adjust the weight of each performance measure to obtain the desired performance. The result shows that the combination of FCMRP NP3 and EDD outperforms other combinations in term of overall performance index. The calculation time for the proposed FCMRP system is about 10 minutes which is practical for the planners of the factory.
Flexible Workplaces Fostering Knowledge Workers Informal Learning: The Flexible Office Case
Organizations face challenges supporting knowledge workers due to their particular requirements for an environment supportive of their self-guided learning activities which are important to increase their productivity and to develop creative solutions to non-routine problems. Face-to-face knowledge sharing remains crucial in spite of a large number of knowledge management instruments that aim at supporting a more impersonal transfer of knowledge. This paper first describes the main criteria for a conceptual and technical solution targeted at flexible management of office space that aims at assigning those knowledge workers to the same room that are most likely to thrive when being brought together thus enhancing their knowledge work productivity. The paper reflects on lessons learned from the implementation and operation of such a solution in a project-focused organization and derives several implications for future extensions that target to foster problem solving, informal learning and personal development.
The Role of Ga(Gallium)-flux and AlN(Aluminum Nitride) as the Interface Materials, between (Ga-face)GaN and (Siface)4H-SiC, through Molecular Dynamics Simulation
We report here, the results of molecular dynamics simulation of p-doped (Ga-face)GaN over n-doped (Siface)( 0001)4H-SiC hetero-epitaxial material system with one-layer each of Ga-flux and (Al-face)AlN, as the interface materials, in the form of, the total Density of States (DOS). It is found that the total DOS at the Fermi-level for the heavily p-doped (Ga-face)GaN and ndoped (Si-face)4H-SiC hetero-epitaxial system, with one layer of (Al-face)AlN as the interface material, is comparatively higher than that of the various cases studied, indicating that there could be good vertical conduction across the (Ga-face)GaN over (Si-face)(0001)4HSiC hetero-epitaxial material system.
Dynamic TDMA Slot Reservation Protocol for QoS Provisioning in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks
In this paper, we propose a dynamic TDMA slot reservation (DTSR) protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc networks. Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee plays a critically important role in such networks. We consider the problem of providing QoS guarantee to users as well as to maintain the most efficient use of scarce bandwidth resources. According to one hop neighboring information and the bandwidth requirement, our proposed protocol dynamically changes the frame length and the transmission schedule. A dynamic frame length expansion and shrinking scheme that controls the excessive increase of unassigned slots has been proposed. This method efficiently utilizes the channel bandwidth by assigning unused slots to new neighboring nodes and increasing the frame length when the number of slots in the frame is insufficient to support the neighboring nodes. It also shrinks the frame length when half of the slots in the frame of a node are empty. An efficient slot reservation protocol not only guarantees successful data transmissions without collisions but also enhance channel spatial reuse to maximize the system throughput. Our proposed scheme, which provides both QoS guarantee and efficient resource utilization, be employed to optimize the channel spatial reuse and maximize the system throughput. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed mechanism achieves desirable performance in multichannel multi-rate cognitive radio ad hoc networks.
An Assessment of Groundwater Crisis in Iran Case Study: Fars Province

Groundwater is one of the most important water resources in Fars province. Based on this study, 95 percent of the total annual water consumption in Fars is used for agriculture, whereas the percentages for domestic and industrial uses are 4 and 1 percent, respectively. Population growth, urban and industrial growth, and agricultural development in Fars have created a condition of water stress. In this province, farmers and other users are pumping groundwater faster than its natural replenishment rate, causing a continuous drop in groundwater tables and depletion of this resource. In this research variation of groundwater level , their effects and ways to help control groundwater levels in some plains of Fars were evaluated .Excessive exploitation of groundwater in Darab, Jahrom, Estahban, Arsanjan, Khir and Niriz plains of Fars caused the groundwater levels fall too fast or to unacceptable levels. The average drawdown of the water table in Arsanjan, Khir. Estahban and Niriz plain plains were 12,8, 9 and 6 meters during 16,11,11 and 13 years ago respectively. This not only reduces available water resources and well yields but also can saline water intrusion, reductions in river flow and in wetland areas , drying springs, and ground subsidence, considerable increase in pumping costs and a significant decline in crop yields as a result of the increasing salinity. Finally based on situation and condition of the aquifer some suggestions are recommended.

Investigating Feed Mix Problem Approaches: An Overview and Potential Solution

Feed is one of the factors which play an important role in determining a successful development of an aquaculture industry. It is always critical to produce the best aquaculture diet at a minimum cost in order to trim down the operational cost and gain more profit. However, the feed mix problem becomes increasingly difficult since many issues need to be considered simultaneously. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to review the current techniques used by nutritionist and researchers to tackle the issues. Additionally, this paper introduce an enhance algorithm which is deemed suitable to deal with all the issues arise. The proposed technique refers to Hybrid Genetic Algorithm which is expected to obtain the minimum cost diet for farmed animal, while satisfying nutritional requirements. Hybrid GA technique with artificial bee algorithm is expected to reduce the penalty function and provide a better solution for the feed mix problem.

The Link between Ergonomics and Occupational Diseases
Ergonomics is a useful tool for creating a healthy and safe workplace. The long-term action of harmful conditions on the health of workers is the emergence of occupational disease, and the firm-s increased compensation costs associated with these diseases, but is also the loss of time needed for educating and including new workers in the work process. The article deals with the link of ergonomics to occupational diseases, factors which influence these diseases. In the conclusion, a model is described to help reduce the risk of selected occupational diseases using ergonomic principles and knowledge.
Segmentation Free Nastalique Urdu OCR
The electronically available Urdu data is in image form which is very difficult to process. Printed Urdu data is the root cause of problem. So for the rapid progress of Urdu language we need an OCR systems, which can help us to make Urdu data available for the common person. Research has been carried out for years to automata Arabic and Urdu script. But the biggest hurdle in the development of Urdu OCR is the challenge to recognize Nastalique Script which is taken as standard for writing Urdu language. Nastalique script is written diagonally with no fixed baseline which makes the script somewhat complex. Overlap is present not only in characters but in the ligatures as well. This paper proposes a method which allows successful recognition of Nastalique Script.
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)Topographical Surface Characterization of Multilayer-Coated and Uncoated Carbide Inserts
In recent years, scanning probe atomic force microscopy SPM AFM has gained acceptance over a wide spectrum of research and science applications. Most fields focuses on physical, chemical, biological while less attention is devoted to manufacturing and machining aspects. The purpose of the current study is to assess the possible implementation of the SPM AFM features and its NanoScope software in general machining applications with special attention to the tribological aspects of cutting tool. The surface morphology of coated and uncoated as-received carbide inserts is examined, analyzed, and characterized through the determination of the appropriate scanning setting, the suitable data type imaging techniques and the most representative data analysis parameters using the MultiMode SPM AFM in contact mode. The NanoScope operating software is used to capture realtime three data types images: “Height", “Deflection" and “Friction". Three scan sizes are independently performed: 2, 6, and 12 μm with a 2.5 μm vertical range (Z). Offline mode analysis includes the determination of three functional topographical parameters: surface “Roughness", power spectral density “PSD" and “Section". The 12 μm scan size in association with “Height" imaging is found efficient to capture every tiny features and tribological aspects of the examined surface. Also, “Friction" analysis is found to produce a comprehensive explanation about the lateral characteristics of the scanned surface. Configuration of many surface defects and drawbacks has been precisely detected and analyzed.
Bandwidth Efficient Diversity Scheme Using STTC Concatenated With STBC: MIMO Systems
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are widely in use to improve quality, reliability of wireless transmission and increase the spectral efficiency. However in MIMO systems, multiple copies of data are received after experiencing various channel effects. The limitations on account of complexity due to number of antennas in case of conventional decoding techniques have been looked into. Accordingly we propose a modified sphere decoder (MSD-1) algorithm with lower complexity and give rise to system with high spectral efficiency. With the aim to increase signal diversity we apply rotated quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellation in multi dimensional space. Finally, we propose a new architecture involving space time trellis code (STTC) concatenated with space time block code (STBC) using MSD-1 at the receiver for improving system performance. The system gains have been verified with channel state information (CSI) errors.
An Interactive Tool for Teaching and Learning English at Upper Primary Level for Mauritius
E-learning refers to the specific kind of learning experienced within the domain of educational technology, which can be used in or out of the classroom. In this paper, we give an overview of an e-learning platform 'An Innovative Interactive and Online English Platform for Upper Primary Students' is an interactive web-based application which will serve as an aid to the primary school students in Mauritius. The objectives of this platform are to offer quality learning resources for the English subject at our primary level of education, encourage self-learning and hence promote e-learning. The platform developed consists of several interesting features, for example, the English Verb Conjugation tool, Negative Form tool, Interrogative Form tool and Close Test Generator. Thus, this learning platform will be useful at a time where our country is looking for an alternative to private tuition and also, looking forward to increase the pass rate.
An E-Learning Tool for The Self-Study of Mathematics for the CPE Examination
In this paper, we give an overview of an online elearning tool which has been developed for kids aged from nine to eleven years old in Mauritius for the self-study of Mathematics in order to prepare them for the CPE examination. The software does not intend to render obsolete the existing pedagogical approaches. Nowadays, the teaching-learning process is mainly focused towards the class-room model. Moreover, most of the e-learning platforms that exist are simply static ways of delivering resources using the internet. There is nearly no interaction between the learner and the tool. Our application will enable students to practice exercises online and also work out sample examination papers. Another interesting feature is that the kid will not have to wait for someone to correct the work as the correction will be done online and on the spot. Additional feedback is also provided for some exercises.
E-Education in Multicultural Setting: The Success of Mobile Learning

This paper explains how mobile learning assures sustainable e-education for multicultural group of students. This paper reports the impact of mobile learning on distance education in multicultural environment. The emergence of learning technologies through CD, internet, and mobile is increasingly adopted by distance institutes for quick delivery and cost-effective purposes. Their sustainability is conditioned by the structure of learners as well as the teaching community. The experimental study was conducted among the distant learners of Vinayaka Missions University located at Salem in India. Students were drawn from multicultural environment based on different languages, religions, class and communities. During the mobile learning sessions, the students, who are divided on language, religion, class and community, were dominated by play impulse rather than study anxiety or cultural inhibitions. This study confirmed that mobile learning improved the performance of the students despite their division based on region, language or culture. In other words, technology was able to transcend the relative deprivation in the multicultural groups. It also confirms sustainable e-education through mobile learning and cost-effective system of instruction. Mobile learning appropriates the self-motivation and play impulse of the young learners in providing sustainable e-education to multicultural social groups of students.

MIM: A Species Independent Approach for Classifying Coding and Non-Coding DNA Sequences in Bacterial and Archaeal Genomes
A number of competing methodologies have been developed to identify genes and classify DNA sequences into coding and non-coding sequences. This classification process is fundamental in gene finding and gene annotation tools and is one of the most challenging tasks in bioinformatics and computational biology. An information theory measure based on mutual information has shown good accuracy in classifying DNA sequences into coding and noncoding. In this paper we describe a species independent iterative approach that distinguishes coding from non-coding sequences using the mutual information measure (MIM). A set of sixty prokaryotes is used to extract universal training data. To facilitate comparisons with the published results of other researchers, a test set of 51 bacterial and archaeal genomes was used to evaluate MIM. These results demonstrate that MIM produces superior results while remaining species independent.
A Comparison of SVM-based Criteria in Evolutionary Method for Gene Selection and Classification of Microarray Data
An evolutionary method whose selection and recombination operations are based on generalization error-bounds of support vector machine (SVM) can select a subset of potentially informative genes for SVM classifier very efficiently [7]. In this paper, we will use the derivative of error-bound (first-order criteria) to select and recombine gene features in the evolutionary process, and compare the performance of the derivative of error-bound with the error-bound itself (zero-order) in the evolutionary process. We also investigate several error-bounds and their derivatives to compare the performance, and find the best criteria for gene selection and classification. We use 7 cancer-related human gene expression datasets to evaluate the performance of the zero-order and first-order criteria of error-bounds. Though both criteria have the same strategy in theoretically, experimental results demonstrate the best criterion for microarray gene expression data.
Performance Comparison between Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and PD-PID Controllers for a Nonlinear Inverted Pendulum System
The objective of this paper is to compare the time specification performance between conventional controller PID and modern controller SMC for an inverted pendulum system. The goal is to determine which control strategy delivers better performance with respect to pendulum-s angle and cart-s position. The inverted pendulum represents a challenging control problem, which continually moves toward an uncontrolled state. Two controllers are presented such as Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and Proportional- Integral-Derivatives (PID) controllers for controlling the highly nonlinear system of inverted pendulum model. Simulation study has been done in Matlab Mfile and simulink environment shows that both controllers are capable to control multi output inverted pendulum system successfully. The result shows that Sliding Mode Control (SMC) produced better response compared to PID control strategies and the responses are presented in time domain with the details analysis.
Trust Building Mechanisms for Electronic Business Networks and Their Relation to eSkills
Globalization, supported by information and communication technologies, changes the rules of competitiveness and increases the significance of information, knowledge and network cooperation. In line with this trend, the need for efficient trust-building tools has emerged. The absence of trust building mechanisms and strategies was identified within several studies. Through trust development, participation on e-business network and usage of network services will increase and provide to SMEs new economic benefits. This work is focused on effective trust building strategies development for electronic business network platforms. Based on trust building mechanism identification, the questionnairebased analysis of its significance and minimum level of requirements was conducted. In the paper, we are confirming the trust dependency on e-Skills which play crucial role in higher level of trust into the more sophisticated and complex trust building ICT solutions.
Coreless Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Stepdown Transformers for DC-DC Converter Applications
In this paper, multilayered coreless printed circuit board (PCB) step-down power transformers for DC-DC converter applications have been designed, manufactured and evaluated. A set of two different circular spiral step-down transformers were fabricated in the four layered PCB. These transformers have been modelled with the assistance of high frequency equivalent circuit and characterized with both sinusoidal and square wave excitation. This paper provides the comparative results of these two different transformers in terms of their resistances, self, leakage, mutual inductances, coupling coefficient and also their energy efficiencies. The operating regions for optimal performance of these transformers for power transfer applications are determined. These transformers were tested for the output power levels of about 30 Watts within the input voltage range of 12-50 Vrms. The energy efficiency for these step down transformers is observed to be in the range of 90%-97% in MHz frequency region.
Numerical Simulation of Cavitation and Aeration in Discharge Gated Tunnel of a Dam Based on the VOF Method
Cavitation, usually known as a destructive phenomenon, involves turbulent unsteady two-phase flow. Having such features, cavitating flows have been turned to a challenging topic in numerical studies and many researches are being done for better understanding of bubbly flows and proposing solutions to reduce its consequent destructive effects. Aeration may be regarded as an effective protection against cavitation erosion in many hydraulic structures, like gated tunnels. The paper concerns numerical simulation of flow in discharge gated tunnel of a dam using ing RNG k -ε model coupled with the volume of fluid (VOF) method and the zone which is susceptible of cavitation inception in the tunnel is predicted. In the second step, a vent is considered in the mentioned zone for aeration and the numerical simulation is done again to study the effects of aeration. The results show that aeration is an impressively useful method to exclude cavitation in mentioned tunnels.
A Cell-centered Diffusion Finite Volume Scheme and it's Application to Magnetic Flux Compression Generators

A cell-centered finite volume scheme for discretizing diffusion operators on distorted quadrilateral meshes has recently been designed and added to APMFCG to enable that code to be used as a tool for studying explosive magnetic flux compression generators. This paper describes this scheme. Comparisons with analytic results for 2-D test cases are presented, as well as 2-D results from a test of a "realistic" generator configuration.

Numerical Simulation of R410a-R23 and R404A-R508B Cascade Refrigeration System
Capacity and efficiency of any refrigerating system diminish rapidly as the difference between the evaporating and condensing temperature is increased by a reduction in the evaporator temperature. The single stage vapour compression refrigeration system using various refrigerants are limited to an evaporator temperature of -40 0C. Below temperature of -40 0C the either cascade refrigeration system or multi stage vapour compression system is employed. Present work describes thermal design of condenser (HTS), cascade condenser and evaporator (LTS) of R404A-R508B and R410A-R23 cascade refrigeration system. Heat transfer area of condenser, cascade condenser and evaporator for both systems are compared and the effect of condenser and evaporator temperature on heat-transfer area for both systems is studied under same operating condition. The results shows that the required heat-transfer area of condenser and cascade condenser for R410A-R23 cascade system is lower than the R404A-R508B cascade system but heat transfer area of evaporator is similar for both the system. The heat transfer area of condenser and cascade condenser decreases with increase in condenser temperature (Tc), whereas the heat transfer area of cascade condenser and evaporator increases with increase in evaporator temperature (Te).
'Drought Proofing' Australian Cities: Implications for Climate Change Adaptation and Sustainability

Urban water management in Australia faces increasing pressure to deal with the challenges of droughts, growing population and the climate change uncertainty. Addressing these challenges is an opportunity to incorporate the parallel goals of sustainable water management and climate change adaptation through holistic, non-technical means. This paper presents case studies from Perth and Sydney which show how despite robust adaptation plans and experience, recent efforts to 'drought proof' cities have focused on supply-side measures (i.e. desalination), rather than rethinking how water is used and managing demand. The trend towards desalination as a climate adaptation measure raises questions about the sustainability of urban water futures in Australia.

A Numerical Study of Single-phase Forced Convective Heat Transfer in Tube in Tube Heat Exchangers
Three dimensional simulations in tube in tube heat exchangers are investigated numerically in this study. In these simulations forced convective heat transfer and laminar flow of single-phase water are considered. In order to measure heat transfer parameters in these heat exchangers, FLUENT CFD Solver is used in this numerical method. For the purpose of creating geometry and exert boundary and initial conditions in the present model, finite volume method in Computational Fluid Dynamics is used in this study. In the present study, at each Z-location, variation of local temperatures, heat flux and Nusselt number at the whole tube is investigated in detail. Thereafter, averaged computational Nusselt number in this model is calculated. In addition, conceivable pressure drops have been obtained at each Z-location in this model. Then, pressure drop values in the present model are explored. Finally, all the numerical results for this kind of heat exchanger will be discussed precisely.
Toward an Open Network Business Approach

The aim of this paper is to propose a dynamic integrated approach, based on modularity concept and on the business ecosystem approach, that exploit different eBusiness services for SMEs under an open business network platform. The adoption of this approach enables firms to collaborate locally for delivering the best product/service to the customers as well as globally by accessing international markets, interrelate directly with the customers, create relationships and collaborate with worldwide actors. The paper will be structured as following: We will start by offering an overview of the state of the art of eBusiness platforms among SME of food and tourism firms and then we discuss the main drawbacks that characterize them. The digital business ecosystem approach and the modularity concept will be described as the theoretical ground in which our proposed integrated model is rooted. Finally, the proposed model along with a discussion of the main value creation potentialities it might create for SMEs will be presented.

Study of Base-Isolation Building System
In order to improve the effect of isolation structure, the principles and behaviours of the base-isolation system are studied, and the types and characteristics of the base-isolation are also discussed. Compared to the traditional aseismatic structures, the base isolation structures decrease the seismic response obviously: the total structural aseismatic value decreases to 1/4-1/32 and the seismic shear stress in the upper structure decreases to 1/14-1/23. In the huge seism, the structure can have an obvious aseismatic effect.
Application and Limitation of Parallel Modelingin Multidimensional Sequential Pattern
The goal of data mining algorithms is to discover useful information embedded in large databases. One of the most important data mining problems is discovery of frequently occurring patterns in sequential data. In a multidimensional sequence each event depends on more than one dimension. The search space is quite large and the serial algorithms are not scalable for very large datasets. To address this, it is necessary to study scalable parallel implementations of sequence mining algorithms. In this paper, we present a model for multidimensional sequence and describe a parallel algorithm based on data parallelism. Simulation experiments show good load balancing and scalable and acceptable speedup over different processors and problem sizes and demonstrate that our approach can works efficiently in a real parallel computing environment.
Adaptive Weighted Averaging Filter Using the Appropriate Number of Consecutive Frames
In this paper, we propose a novel adaptive spatiotemporal filter that utilizes image sequences in order to remove noise. The consecutive frames include: current, previous and next noisy frames. The filter proposed in this paper is based upon the weighted averaging pixels intensity and noise variance in image sequences. It utilizes the Appropriate Number of Consecutive Frames (ANCF) based on the noisy pixels intensity among the frames. The number of consecutive frames is adaptively calculated for each region in image and its value may change from one region to another region depending on the pixels intensity within the region. The weights are determined by a well-defined mathematical criterion, which is adaptive to the feature of spatiotemporal pixels of the consecutive frames. It is experimentally shown that the proposed filter can preserve image structures and edges under motion while suppressing noise, and thus can be effectively used in image sequences filtering. In addition, the AWA filter using ANCF is particularly well suited for filtering sequences that contain segments with abruptly changing scene content due to, for example, rapid zooming and changes in the view of the camera.
On Identity Disclosure Risk Measurement for Shared Microdata
Probability-based identity disclosure risk measurement may give the same overall risk for different anonymization strategy of the same dataset. Some entities in the anonymous dataset may have higher identification risks than the others. Individuals are more concerned about higher risks than the average and are more interested to know if they have a possibility of being under higher risk. A notation of overall risk in the above measurement method doesn-t indicate whether some of the involved entities have higher identity disclosure risk than the others. In this paper, we have introduced an identity disclosure risk measurement method that not only implies overall risk, but also indicates whether some of the members have higher risk than the others. The proposed method quantifies the overall risk based on the individual risk values, the percentage of the records that have a risk value higher than the average and how larger the higher risk values are compared to the average. We have analyzed the disclosure risks for different disclosure control techniques applied to original microdata and present the results.
Development of Circulating Support Environment of Multilingual Medical Communication using Parallel Texts for Foreign Patients
The need for multilingual communication in Japan has increased due to an increase in the number of foreigners in the country. When people communicate in their nonnative language, the differences in language prevent mutual understanding among the communicating individuals. In the medical field, communication between the hospital staff and patients is a serious problem. Currently, medical translators accompany patients to medical care facilities, and the demand for medical translators is increasing. However, medical translators cannot necessarily provide support, especially in cases in which round-the-clock support is required or in case of emergencies. The medical field has high expectations from information technology. Hence, a system that supports accurate multilingual communication is required. Despite recent advances in machine translation technology, it is very difficult to obtain highly accurate translations. We have developed a support system called M3 for multilingual medical reception. M3 provides support functions that aid foreign patients in the following respects: conversation, questionnaires, reception procedures, and hospital navigation; it also has a Q&A function. Users can operate M3 using a touch screen and receive text-based support. In addition, M3 uses accurate translation tools called parallel texts to facilitate reliable communication through conversations between the hospital staff and the patients. However, if there is no parallel text that expresses what users want to communicate, the users cannot communicate. In this study, we have developed a circulating support environment for multilingual medical communication using parallel texts. The proposed environment can circulate necessary parallel texts through the following procedure: (1) a user provides feedback about the necessary parallel texts, following which (2) these parallel texts are created and evaluated.
Effects of Sea Water Level Fluctuations on Seismic Response of Jacket Type Offshore Platforms
To understand the seismic behavior of the offshore structures, the dynamic interaction of the water-structure-soil should be assessed. In this regard the role of the water dynamic properties in magnifying or reducing of the effects of earthquake induced motions on offshore structures haven't been investigated in precise manner in available literature. In this paper the sea water level fluctuations effects on the seismic behavior of a sample of offshore structures has been investigated by emphasizing on the water-structure interaction phenomenon. For this purpose a two dimensional finite element model of offshore structures as well as surrounded water has been developed using ANSYS software. The effect of soil interaction with embedded pile foundation has been imposed by using a series of nonlinear springs in horizontal and vertical directions in soil-piles contact points. In the model, the earthquake induced motions have been applied on springs and consequently the motions propagated upward to the structure and surrounded water. As a result of numerical study, the horizontal deformations of the offshore deck as well as internal force and buckling coefficient in structural elements have been recorded and controlled with and without water presence. In part of study a parametric study has been accomplished on sea water level fluctuations and effect of this parameter has been studied on the aforementioned numerical results.
Capability Investigation of Carbon Sequestration in Two Species (Artemisia sieberi Besser and Stipabarbata Desf) Under Different Treatments of Vegetation Management (Saveh, Iran)
The rangelands, as one of the largest dynamic biomes in the world, have very capabilities. Regulation of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere, particularly carbon dioxide as the main these gases, is one of these cases. The attention to rangeland, as cheep and reachable resources to sequestrate the carbon dioxide, increases after the Industrial Revolution. Rangelands comprise the large parts of Iran as a steppic area. Rudshur (Saveh), as area index of steppic area, was selected under three sites include long-term exclosure, medium-term exclosure, and grazable area in order to the capable of carbon dioxide’s sequestration of dominated species. Canopy cover’s percentage of two dominated species (Artemisia sieberi Besser & Stipa barbata Desf) was determined via establishing of random 1 square meter plot. The sampling of above and below ground biomass style was obtained by complete random. After determination of ash percentage in the laboratory; conversion ratio of plant biomass to organic carbon was calculated by ignition method. Results of the paired t-test showed that the amount of carbon sequestration in above ground and underground biomass of Artemisia sieberi Besser & Stipa barbata Desf is different in three regions. It, of course, hasn’t any difference between under and surface ground’s biomass of Artemisia sieberi Besser in long-term exclosure. The independent t-test results indicate differences between underground biomass corresponding each other in the studied sites. Carbon sequestration in the Stipa barbata Desf was totally more than Artemisia sieberi Besser. Altogether, the average sequestration of the long-term exclosure was 5.842gr/m², the medium-term exclosure was 4.115gr/m², and grazable area was 5.975gr/m² so that there isn’t valuable statistical difference in term of total amount of carbon sequestration to three sites.
Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Polypropylene and High Density Polyethylene Matrix Composites Reinforced with Surface Modified Nano Sized TiO2 Particles
Plastics occupy wide place in the applications of automotive, electronics and house goods. Especially reinforced plastics become popular because of their high strength besides their advantages of low weight and easy manufacturability. In this study, mechanical and morphological properties of polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix composites reinforced with surface modified nano titan dioxide (TiO2) particles were investigated. Surface modification was made by coating the nano powders with maleic anhydride grafted styrene ethylene butylene styrene (SEBS-g-MA) and silane, respectively. After surface modification, PP/TiO2 and HDPE/TiO2 composites were obtained by using twin screw extruder at titan dioxide loading of 1 wt.%, 3 wt.% and 5 wt.%. Effects of surface modification were determined by thermal and morphological analysis. SEBS-g-MA provided bridging effect between TiO2 particles and polymer matrix while silane was effective as a dispersant. Depending on that, homogenous structures without agglomeration were obtained. Mechanical tests were performed on the injection moldings of the composites for obtaining the impact strength, tensile strength, stress at break, elongation and elastic modulus. Reinforced HDPE and PP moldings gave higher tensile strength and elastic modulus due to the rigid structure of TiO2. Slight increment was seen in stress at break. Elongation and impact strength decreased due to the stiffness of the nano titan dioxide.
Determination of Geometric Dimensions of a Double Sided Linear Switched Reluctance Motor
In this study, a double-sided linear switched reluctance motor (LSRM) drive was investigated as an alternative actuator for vertical linear transportation applications such as a linear elevator door, hospital and subway doors which move linearly and where accurate position control and rapid response is requested. A prototype sliding elevator door that is focused on a home elevator with LSRMs is designed. The motor has 6/4 poles, 3 phases, 8A, 24V, 250 W and 250 N pull forces. Air gap between rotor and translator poles of the designed motor and phase coil-s ideal inductance profile are obtained in compliance with the geometric dimensions. Operation and switching sections as motor and generator has been determined from the inductance profile.
Effect of Mode Loading on FCRG Plate with Double Through Crack at Hole
The knowledge of the nature of loading is very important in order to hold account on the total behavior such as vibration, shock, fatigue, etc. Fatigue present 90% of failure when loadings fatigues are very complex. In this paper a study of double through crack at hole for plate subjected to fatigue loading is presented. Various modes loading are studied where the applied load is the same one. The fatigue life is given where the effect of stress ratio is highlighted. This work is conducted on aluminum alloy 2024 T351 used for much aerospace and aeronautics applications. The fatigue crack growth behavior with constant amplitude is studied using the AFGROW code when Forman model is applied. The fatigue crack growth rate and fatigue life for different loading modes are compared with variation of others geometrical parameter such as thickness and dimensions of notch hole.
Effect of Cooling Rate on base Metals Recovery from Copper Matte Smelting Slags
Slag sample from copper smelting operation in a water jacket furnace from DRC plant was used. The study intends to determine the effect of cooling in the extraction of base metals. The cooling methods investigated were water quenching, air cooling and furnace cooling. The latter cooling ways were compared to the original as received slag. It was observed that, the cooling rate of the slag affected the leaching of base metals as it changed the phase distribution in the slag and the base metals distribution within the phases. It was also found that fast cooling of slag prevented crystallization and produced an amorphous phase that encloses the base metals. The amorphous slags from the slag dumps were more leachable in acidic medium (HNO3) which leached 46%Cu, 95% Co, 85% Zn, 92% Pb and 79% Fe with no selectivity at pH0, than in basic medium (NH4OH). The leachability was vice versa for the modified slags by quenching in water which leached 89%Cu with a high selectivity as metal extractions are less than 1% for Co, Zn, Pb and Fe at ambient temperature and pH12. For the crystallized slags, leaching of base metals increased with the increase of temperature from ambient temperature to 60°C and decreased at the higher temperature of 80°C due to the evaporation of the ammonia solution used for basic leaching, the total amounts of base metals that were leached in slow cooled slags were very low compared to the quenched slag samples.
Metallographic Analysis of Laser and Mechanically Formed HSLA Steel
This research was conducted to develop a correlation between microstructure of HSLA steel and the mechanical properties that occur as a result of both laser and mechanical forming processes of the metal. The technique of forming flat metals by applying laser beams is a relatively new concept in the manufacturing industry. However, the effects of laser energy on the stability of metal alloy phases have not yet been elucidated in terms of phase transformations and microhardness. In this work, CO2 laser source was used to irradiate the surface of a flat metal then the microstructure and microhardness of the metal were studied on the formed specimen. The extent to which the microstructure changed depended on the heat inputs of up to 1000 J/cm2 with cooling rates of about 4.8E+02 K/s. Experimental results revealed that the irradiated surface of a HSLA steel had transformed to austenitic structure during the heating process.
The Classification Model for Hard Disk Drive Functional Tests under Sparse Data Conditions
This paper proposed classification models that would be used as a proxy for hard disk drive (HDD) functional test equitant which required approximately more than two weeks to perform the HDD status classification in either “Pass" or “Fail". These models were constructed by using committee network which consisted of a number of single neural networks. This paper also included the method to solve the problem of sparseness data in failed part, which was called “enforce learning method". Our results reveal that the constructed classification models with the proposed method could perform well in the sparse data conditions and thus the models, which used a few seconds for HDD classification, could be used to substitute the HDD functional tests.
Determine of Constant Coefficients to RelateTotal Dissolved Solids to Electrical Conductivity
Salinity is a measure of the amount of salts in the water. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) as salinity parameter are often determined using laborious and time consuming laboratory tests, but it may be more appropriate and economical to develop a method which uses a more simple soil salinity index. Because dissolved ions increase salinity as well as conductivity, the two measures are related. The aim of this research was determine of constant coefficients for predicting of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) based on Electrical Conductivity (EC) with Statistics of Correlation coefficient, Root mean square error, Maximum error, Mean Bias error, Mean absolute error, Relative error and Coefficient of residual mass. For this purpose, two experimental areas (S1, S2) of Khuzestan province-IRAN were selected and four treatments with three replications by series of double rings were applied. The treatments were included 25cm, 50cm, 75cm and 100cm water application. The results showed the values 16.3 & 12.4 were the best constant coefficients for predicting of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) based on EC in Pilot S1 and S2 with correlation coefficient 0.977 & 0.997 and 191.1 & 106.1 Root mean square errors (RMSE) respectively.
Prediction of Soil Exchangeable Sodium Ratio Based on Soil Sodium Adsorption Ratio
Researchers have long had trouble in measurement of Exchangeable Sodium Ratio (ESR) at salt-affected soils. this parameter are often determined using laborious and time consuming laboratory tests, but it may be more appropriate and economical to develop a method which uses a more simple soil salinity index. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between exchangeable sodium ratio (ESR) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) in some salt-affected soils of Khuzestan plain. To this purpose, two experimental areas (S1, S2) of Khuzestan province-IRAN were selected and four treatments with three replications by series of double rings were applied. The treatments were included 25cm, 50cm, 75cm and 100cm water application. The statistical results of the study indicated that in order to predict soil ESR based on soil SAR the linear regression model ESR=0.2048+0.0066 SAR (R2=0.53) & ESR=0.0564+0.0171 SAR (R2=0.76) can be recommended in Pilot S1 and S2 respectively.
The Comparison Study of Harmonic Detection Methods for Shunt Active Power Filters
The paper deals with the comparison study of harmonic detection methods for a shunt active power filter. The %THD and the power factor value at the PCC point after compensation are considered for the comparison. There are three harmonic detection methods used in the paper that are synchronous reference frame method, synchronous detection method, and DQ axis with Fourier method. In addition, the ideal current source is used to represent the active power filter by assuming an infinitely fast controller action of the active power filter. The simulation results show that the DQ axis with Fourier method provides the minimum %THD after compensation compared with other methods. However, the power factor value at the PCC point after compensation is slightly lower than that of synchronous detection method.
Neurogenic Potential of Clitoria ternatea Aqueous Root Extract–A Basis for Enhancing Learning and Memory
The neurogenic potential of many herbal extracts used in Indian medicine is hitherto unknown. Extracts derived from Clitoria ternatea Linn have been used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine as an ingredient of “Medhya rasayana", consumed for improving memory and longevity in humans and also in treatment of various neurological disorders. Our earlier experimental studies with oral intubation of Clitoria ternatea aqueous root extract (CTR) had shown significant enhancement of learning and memory in postnatal and young adult Wistar rats. The present study was designed to elucidate the in vitro effects of 200ng/ml of CTR on proliferation, differentiation and growth of anterior subventricular zone neural stem cells (aSVZ NSC-s) derived from prenatal and postnatal rat pups. Results show significant increase in proliferation and growth of neurospheres and increase in the yield of differentiated neurons of aSVZ neural precursor cells (aSVZNPC-s) at 7 days in vitro when treated with 200ng/ml of CTR as compared to age matched control. Results indicate that CTR has growth promoting neurogenic effect on aSVZ neural stem cells and their survival similar to neurotrophic factors like Survivin, Neuregulin 1, FGF-2, BDNF possibly the basis for enhanced learning and memory.
Study the Efficacies of Green Manure Application as Chickpea Pre Plant
In order to Study the efficacy application of green manure as chickpea pre plant, field experiments were carried out in 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. In this research the effects of different strategies for soil fertilization were investigated on grain yield and yield component, minerals, organic compounds and cooking time of chickpea. Experimental units were arranged in splitsplit plots based on randomized complete blocks with three replications. Main plots consisted of (G1): establishing a mixed vegetation of Vicia panunica and Hordeum vulgare and (G2): control, as green manure levels. Also, five strategies for obtaining the base fertilizer requirement including (N1): 20 t.ha-1 farmyard manure; (N2): 10 t.ha-1 compost; (N3): 75 kg.ha-1 triple super phosphate; (N4): 10 t.ha-1 farmyard manure + 5 t.ha-1 compost and (N5): 10 t.ha-1 farmyard manure + 5 t.ha-1 compost + 50 kg.ha-1 triple super phosphate were considered in sub plots. Furthermoree four levels of biofertilizers consisted of (B1): Bacillus lentus + Pseudomonas putida; (B2): Trichoderma harzianum; (B3): Bacillus lentus + Pseudomonas putida + Trichoderma harzianum; and (B4): control (without biofertilizers) were arranged in sub-sub plots. Results showed that integrating biofertilizers (B3) and green manure (G1) produced the highest grain yield. The highest amounts of yield were obtained in G1×N5 interaction. Comparison of all 2-way and 3-way interactions showed that G1N5B3 was determined as the superior treatment. Significant increasing of N, P2O5, K2O, Fe and Mg content in leaves and grains emphasized on superiority of mentioned treatment because each one of these nutrients has an approved role in chlorophyll synthesis and photosynthesis abilities of the crops. The combined application of compost, farmyard manure and chemical phosphorus (N5) in addition to having the highest yield, had the best grain quality due to high protein, starch and total sugar contents, low crude fiber and reduced cooking time.
The Control of a Highly Nonlinear Two-wheels Balancing Robot: A Comparative Assessment between LQR and PID-PID Control Schemes
The research on two-wheels balancing robot has gained momentum due to their functionality and reliability when completing certain tasks. This paper presents investigations into the performance comparison of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and PID-PID controllers for a highly nonlinear 2–wheels balancing robot. The mathematical model of 2-wheels balancing robot that is highly nonlinear is derived. The final model is then represented in statespace form and the system suffers from mismatched condition. Two system responses namely the robot position and robot angular position are obtained. The performances of the LQR and PID-PID controllers are examined in terms of input tracking and disturbances rejection capability. Simulation results of the responses of the nonlinear 2–wheels balancing robot are presented in time domain. A comparative assessment of both control schemes to the system performance is presented and discussed.
Mobile Phone as a Tool for Data Collection in Field Research
The necessity of accurate and timely field data is shared among organizations engaged in fundamentally different activities, public services or commercial operations. Basically, there are three major components in the process of the qualitative research: data collection, interpretation and organization of data, and analytic process. Representative technological advancements in terms of innovation have been made in mobile devices (mobile phone, PDA-s, tablets, laptops, etc). Resources that can be potentially applied on the data collection activity for field researches in order to improve this process. This paper presents and discuss the main features of a mobile phone based solution for field data collection, composed of basically three modules: a survey editor, a server web application and a client mobile application. The data gathering process begins with the survey creation module, which enables the production of tailored questionnaires. The field workforce receives the questionnaire(s) on their mobile phones to collect the interviews responses and sending them back to a server for immediate analysis.
High Wire Act: the Perils, Pitfalls and Possibilities of Online Discussions
Online discussions are an important component of both blended and online courses. This paper examines the varieties of online discussions and the perils, pitfalls and possibilities of this rather new technological tool for enhanced learning. The discussion begins with possible perils and pitfalls inherent in this educational tool and moves to a consideration of the advantages of the varieties of online discussions feasible for use in teacher education programs.
Public Transport Prospective of People with Reduced Mobility in Hungary
To comply with the international human right legislation concerning the freedom of movement, transport systems are required to be made accessible in order that all citizens, regardless of their physical condition, have equal possibilities to use them. In Hungary, apparently there is a considerable default in the improvement of accessible public transport. This study is aiming to overview the current Hungarian situation and to reveal the reasons of the deficiency. The result shows that in spite of the relatively favourable juridical background linked to the accessibility needs and to the rights of persons with disabilities there is a strong delay in putting all in practice in the field of public transport. Its main reason is the lack of financial resource and referring to this the lack of creating mandatory regulations. In addition to this the proprietary rights related to public transport are also variable, which also limits the improvement possibilities. Consequently, first of all an accurate and detailed regulatory procedure is expected to change the present unfavourable situation and to create the conditions of the fast realization, which is already behind time.
The Effect of Geometry Dimensions on the Earthquake Response of the Finite Element Method
In this paper, the effect of width and height of the model on the earthquake response in the finite element method is discussed. For this purpose an earth dam as a soil structure under earthquake has been considered. Various dam-foundation models are analyzed by Plaxis, a finite element package for solving geotechnical problems. The results indicate considerable differences in the seismic responses.
The Ethics of Instream Flows: Science and Policy in Southern Alberta, Canada
Securing instream flows for aquatic ecosystems is critical for sustainable water management and the promotion of human and environmental health. Using a case study from the semiarid region of southern Alberta (Canada) this paper considers how the determination of instream flow standards requires judgments with respect to: (1) The relationship between instream flow indicators and assessments of overall environmental health; (2) The indicators used to determine adequate instream flows, and; (3) The assumptions underlying efforts to model instream flows given data constraints. It argues that judgments in each of these areas have an inherently ethical component because instream flows have direct effects on the water(s) available to meet obligations to humans and non-humans. The conclusion expands from the case study to generic issues regarding instream flows, the growing water ethics literature and prospects for linking science to policy.
Behavioral Modeling Accuracy for RF Power Amplifier with Memory Effects
In this paper, a system level behavioural model for RF power amplifier, which exhibits memory effects, and based on multibranch system is proposed. When higher order terms are included, the memory polynomial model (MPM) exhibits numerical instabilities. A set of memory orthogonal polynomial model (OMPM) is introduced to alleviate the numerical instability problem associated to MPM model. A data scaling and centring algorithm was applied to improve the power amplifier modeling accuracy. Simulation results prove that the numerical instability can be greatly reduced, as well as the model precision improved with nonlinear model.
Unsteady Aerodynamics of Multiple Airfoils in Configuration
A potential flow model is used to study the unsteady flow past two airfoils in configuration, each of which is suddenly set into motion. The airfoil bound vortices are modeled using lumped vortex elements and the wake behind the airfoil is modeled by discrete vortices. This consists of solving a steady state flow problem at each time-step where unsteadiness is incorporated through the “zero normal flow on a solid surface" boundary condition at every time instant. Additionally, along with the “zero normal flow on a solid surface" boundary condition Kelvin-s condition is used to compute the strength of the latest wake vortex shed from the trailing edge of the airfoil. Location of the wake vortices is updated at each time-step to get the wake shape at each time instant. Results are presented to show the effect of airfoil-airfoil interaction and airfoil-wake interaction on the aerodynamic characteristics of each airfoil.
A Novel Low Power Very Low Voltage High Performance Current Mirror

In this paper a novel high output impedance, low input impedance, wide bandwidth, very simple current mirror with input and output voltage requirements less than that of a simple current mirror is presented. These features are achieved with very simple structure avoiding extra large node impedances to ensure high bandwidth operation. The circuit's principle of operation is discussed and compared to simple and low voltage cascode (LVC) current mirrors. Such outstanding features of this current mirror as high output impedance ~384K, low input impedance~6.4, wide bandwidth~178MHz, low input voltage ~ 362mV, low output voltage ~ 38mV and low current transfer error ~4% (all at 50μA) makes it an outstanding choice for high performance applications. Simulation results in BSIM 0.35μm CMOS technology with HSPICE are given in comparison with simple, and LVC current mirrors to verify and validate the performance of the proposed current mirror.

A New Approach for Classifying Large Number of Mixed Variables
The issue of classifying objects into one of predefined groups when the measured variables are mixed with different types of variables has been part of interest among statisticians in many years. Some methods for dealing with such situation have been introduced that include parametric, semi-parametric and nonparametric approaches. This paper attempts to discuss on a problem in classifying a data when the number of measured mixed variables is larger than the size of the sample. A propose idea that integrates a dimensionality reduction technique via principal component analysis and a discriminant function based on the location model is discussed. The study aims in offering practitioners another potential tool in a classification problem that is possible to be considered when the observed variables are mixed and too large.
A ZVS Flyback DC-DC Converter using Multilayered Coreless Printed-Circuit Board(PCB) Step-down Power Transformer
The experimental and theoretical results of a ZVS (Zero Voltage Switching) isolated flyback DC-DC converter using multilayered coreless PCB step down 2:1 transformer are presented. The performance characteristics of the transformer are shown which are useful for the parameters extraction. The measured energy efficiency of the transformer is found to be more than 94% with the sinusoidal input voltage excitation. The designed flyback converter has been tested successfully upto the output power level of 10W, with a switching frequency in the range of 2.7MHz-4.3MHz. The input voltage of the converter is varied from 25V-40V DC. Frequency modulation technique is employed by maintaining constant off time to regulate the output voltage of the converter. The energy efficiency of the isolated flyback converter circuit under ZVS condition in the MHz frequency region is found to be approximately in the range of 72-84%. This paper gives the comparative results in terms of the energy efficiency of the hard switched and soft switched flyback converter in the MHz frequency region.
Preparation of Homogeneous Dense Composite of Zirconia and Alumina (ZTA)using Colloidal Filtration
Homogeneous composites of alumina and zirconia with a small amount of MgO (99%) were obtained for ZTA ceramic containing 0.05 wt% MgO in 1500 °C.
Steady State of Passive and Active Suspensions in the Physical Domain
The steady state response of bond graphs representing passive and active suspension is presented. A bond graph with preferred derivative causality assignment to get the steady state is proposed. A general junction structure of this bond graph is proposed. The proposed methodology to passive and active suspensions is applied.
CNC Wire-Cut Parameter Optimized Determination of the Stair Shape Workpiece
The objective of this research is parameters optimized of the stair shape workpiece which is cut by CNC Wire-Cut EDM (WEDW). The experiment material is SKD-11 steel of stair-shaped with variable height workpiece 10, 20, 30 and 40 mm. with the same 10 mm. thickness are cut by Sodick's CNC Wire-Cut EDM model AD325L. The experiments are designed by 3k full factorial experimental design at 3 level 2 factors and 9 experiments with 2 replicate. The selected two factor are servo voltage (SV) and servo feed rate (SF) and the response is cutting thickness error. The experiment is divided in two experiments. The first experiment determines the significant effective factor at confidential interval 95%. The SV factor is the significant effective factor from first result. In order to result smallest cutting thickness error of workpieces is 17 micron with the SV value is 46 volt. Also show that the lower SV value, the smaller different thickness error of workpiece. Then the second experiment is done to reduce different cutting thickness error of workpiece as small as possible by lower SV. The second experiment result show the significant effective factor at confidential interval 95% is the SV factor and the smallest cutting thickness error of workpieces reduce to 11 micron with the experiment SV value is 36 volt.
Pollution and Water Quality of the Beshar River
The Beshar River is one aquatic ecosystem,which is affected by pollutants. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of human activities on the water quality of the Beshar river. This river is approximately 190 km in length and situated at the geographical positions of 51° 20' to 51° 48' E and 30° 18' to 30° 52' N it is one of the most important aquatic ecosystems of Kohkiloye and Boyerahmad province next to the city of Yasuj in southern Iran. The Beshar river has been contaminated by industrial, agricultural and other activities in this region such as factories, hospitals, agricultural farms, urban surface runoff and effluent of wastewater treatment plants. In order to evaluate the effects of these pollutants on the quality of the Beshar river, five monitoring stations were selected along its course. The first station is located upstream of Yasuj near the Dehnow village; stations 2 to 4 are located east, south and west of city; and the 5th station is located downstream of Yasuj. Several water quality parameters were sampled. These include pH, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand (BOD), temperature, conductivity, turbidity, total dissolved solids and discharge or flow measurements. Water samples from the five stations were collected and analysed to determine the following physicochemical parameters: EC, pH, T.D.S, T.H, No2, DO, BOD5, COD during 2008 to 2009. The study shows that the BOD5 value of station 1 is at a minimum (1.5 ppm) and increases downstream from stations 2 to 4 to a maximum (7.2 ppm), and then decreases at station 5. The DO values of station 1 is a maximum (9.55 ppm), decreases downstream to stations 2 - 4 which are at a minimum (3.4 ppm), before increasing at station 5. The amount of BOD and TDS are highest at the 4th station and the amount of DO is lowest at this station, marking the 4th station as more highly polluted than the other stations. The physicochemical parameters improve at the 5th station due to pollutant degradation and dilution. Finally the point and nonpoint pollutant sources of Beshar river were determined and compared to the monitoring results.
IEEE 802.11 b and g WLAN Propagation Model using Power Density Measurements at ESPOL
This paper describes the development of a WLAN propagation model, using Spectral Analyzer measurements. The signal is generated by two Access Points (APs) on the base floor at the administrative Communication School of ESPOL building. In general, users do not have a Q&S reference about a wireless network; however, this depends on the level signal as a function of frequency, distance and other path conditions between receiver and transmitter. Then, power density of the signal decrease as it propagates through space and data transfer rate is affected. This document evaluates and implements empirical mathematical formulation for the characterization of WLAN radio wave propagation on two aisles of the building base floor.
GPS Navigator for Blind Walking in a Campus
We developed a GPS-based navigation device for the blind, with audio guidance in Thai language. The device is composed of simple and inexpensive hardware components. Its user interface is quite simple. It determines optimal routes to various landmarks in our university campus by using heuristic search for the next waypoints. We tested the device and made note of its limitations and possible extensions.
Effect of Anoxia on Root Growth and Grain Yield of Wheat Cultivars
Waterlogging reduces shoot and root growth and final yield of wheat. Waterlogged sites have a combination of low slope, high rainfall, heavy texture and low permeability. This study was aimed the importance of waterlogging on root growth and wheat yield. In order to study the effects of different waterlogging duration (0, 10, 20 and 30 days) at growth stages (1-leaf stage, tillering stage and stem elongation stage) on root growth of wheat cultivars (Chamran, Vee/Nac and Yavaroos), one pot experiment was carried out. The experiment was a factorial according to a RCBD with three replications. Results showed that root dry weight and total root length in the anthesis and grain ripening stages and biological and grain yields were significantly different between cultivars, growth stages and waterlogging durations. Vee/Nac was found superior with respect to other cultivars. Susceptibility to waterlogging at different growth stages for cultivars was 1-leaf stage > tillering stage > stem elongation stage. Under waterlogging treatments, grain and biological yields, were decreased 44.5 and 39.8%, respectively. Root length and root dry weight were reduced 55.1 and 45.2%, respectively, too. In this experiment, decrease at root growth because of waterlogging reduced grain and biological yields. Based on the results, even short period (10 days) of waterlogging had unrecoverable effects on the root growth and grain yield of wheat.
The Effects of Sowing Dates and Densities on Yield and Yield Components of Coriander(Coriandrum sativum L.)
Sowing date and density are two important factors in produce of coriander. A field experiment was conducted with treatments: sowing time (5 May, 20 May, 4 June and 19 June 2009) and plant density (10, 30, 50 and 70 plants m-2). The experimental plots were laid out in a factorial according to a RCBD with three replications. Results showed that the effect of sowing dates and densities were significant on grain yield and yield components, but interaction effects between sowing time and density were non significant for all of traits in this trial. At sowing times 5 May, 20 May, 4 June and 19 June, grain yield obtained 736.9, 837.8, 1003.1 and 1299.6 kg ha-1, respectively. At 10, 30, 50 and 70 plants m-2, grain yield were 794.9, 1031.0, 1092.3 and 959.3 kg ha-1, respectively. In this experiment, sowing at 19 June and 50 and 30 plants m-2 had the most grain yield.
Extraction Condition of Echinocactus grusonii
The optimal extraction condition of dried Echinocactus grusonii powder was studied. The three independent variables are raw material drying temperature, extraction temperature, and extraction time. The dependent variables are both yield percentage of crude extract and total phenolic quantification as gallic acid equivalent in crude extract. The experimental design was based on central composite design. Highest yield percentage of crude extract could get from extraction condition at raw material drying temperature at 60°C, extraction temperature at 15°C, and extraction time for 25 min °C. Moreover, the crude extract with highest phenolic occurred by extraction condition of raw material drying temperature at 60°C, extraction temperature at 35 °C, and extraction lasting 25 min.
Effects of Polluted Water on the Metallic Water Pipelines
Corrosion of metallic water pipelines buried below ground surface is a function of the nature of the surrounding soil and groundwater. This gives the importance of knowing the physical and chemical characteristics of the pipe-s surrounding environment. The corrosion of externally – unprotected metallic water pipelines, specially ductile iron pipes, in localities with aggressive soil conditions is becoming a significant problem. Anticorrosive protection for metallic water pipelines, their fittings and accessories is very important, because they may be attached by corrosion with time. The tendency of a metallic substrate to corrode is a function of the surface characteristics of the metal and of the metal/protective film interface, the physical, electrical and electrochemical properties of the film, and the nature of the environment in which the pipelines system is placed. In this work the authors have looked at corrosion problems of water pipelines and their control. The corrosive properties of groundwater and soil environments are reviewed, and parameters affecting corrosion are discussed. The purpose of this work is to provide guidelines for materials selection in water and soil environments, and how the water pipelines can be protected against metallic corrosion.
Research on the Layout of Ground Control Points in Plain area 1:10000 DLG Production Using POS Technique

POS (also been called DGPS/IMU) technique can obtain the Exterior Orientation Elements of aerial photo, so the triangulation and DLG production using POS can save large numbers of ground control points (GCP), and this will improve the produce efficiency of DLG and reduce the cost of collecting GCP. This paper mainly research on POS technique in production of 1:10 000 scale DLG on GCP distribution. We designed 23 kinds of ground control points distribution schemes, using integrated sensor direction method to do the triangulation experiments, based on the results of triangulation, we produce a map with the scale of 1:10 000 and test its accuracy. This paper put forward appropriate GCP distributing schemes by experiments and research above, and made preparations for the application of POS technique on photogrammetry 4D data production.

Application of Data Envelopment Analysis and Performance Indicators to Irrigation Systems in Thessaloniki Plain (Greece)
In this paper, a benchmarking framework is presented for the performance assessment of irrigations systems. Firstly, a data envelopment analysis (DEA) is applied to measure the technical efficiency of irrigation systems. This method, based on linear programming, aims to determine a consistent efficiency ranking of irrigation systems in which known inputs, such as water volume supplied and total irrigated area, and a given output corresponding to the total value of irrigation production are taken into account simultaneously. Secondly, in order to examine the irrigation efficiency in more detail, a cross – system comparison is elaborated using a performance indicators set selected by IWMI. The above methodologies were applied in Thessaloniki plain, located in Northern Greece while the results of the application are presented and discussed. The conjunctive use of DEA and performance indicators seems to be a very useful tool for efficiency assessment and identification of best practices in irrigation systems management.
Denoising by Spatial Domain Averaging for Wireless Local Area Network Terminal Localization
Terminal localization for indoor Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) is critical for the deployment of location-aware computing inside of buildings. A major challenge is obtaining high localization accuracy in presence of fluctuations of the received signal strength (RSS) measurements caused by multipath fading. This paper focuses on reducing the effect of the distance-varying noise by spatial filtering of the measured RSS. Two different survey point geometries are tested with the noise reduction technique: survey points arranged in sets of clusters and survey points uniformly distributed over the network area. The results show that the location accuracy improves by 16% when the filter is used and by 18% when the filter is applied to a clustered survey set as opposed to a straight-line survey set. The estimated locations are within 2 m of the true location, which indicates that clustering the survey points provides better localization accuracy due to superior noise removal.
Ultimate Load Capacity of the Cable Tower of Liede Bridge

The cable tower of Liede Bridge is a double-column curved-lever arched-beam portal framed structure. Being novel and unique in structure, its cable tower differs in complexity from traditional ones. This paper analyzes the ultimate load capacity of cable tower by adopting the finite element calculations and model tests which indicate that constitutive relations applied here give a better simulation of actual failure process of prestressed reinforced concrete. In vertical load, horizontal load and overloading tests, the stepped loading of the tower model is of linear relationship, and the test data has good repeatability. All suggests that the cable tower has good bearing capacity, rational design and high emergency capacity.

Internal Force State Recognition of Jiujiang Bridge Based on Cable Force-displacement Relationship

The nearly 21-year-old Jiujiang Bridge, which is suffering from uneven line shape, constant great downwarping of the main beam and cracking of the box girder, needs reinforcement and cable adjustment. It has undergone cable adjustment for twice with incomplete data. Therefore, the initial internal force state of the Jiujiang Bridge is identified as the key for the cable adjustment project. Based on parameter identification by means of static force test data, this paper suggests determining the initial internal force state of the cable-stayed bridge according to the cable force-displacement relationship parameter identification method. That is, upon measuring the displacement and the change in cable forces for twice, one can identify the parameters concerned by means of optimization. This method is applied to the cable adjustment, replacement and reinforcement project for the Jiujiang Bridge as a guidance for the cable adjustment and reinforcement project of the bridge.

Quantifying Landscape Connectivity: A GIS-based Approach
Landscape connectivity combines a description of the physical structure of the landscape with special species- response to that structure, which forms the theoretical background of applying landscape connectivity principles in the practices of landscape planning and design. In this study, a residential development project in the southern United States was used to explore the meaning of landscape connectivity and its application in town planning. The vast rural landscape in the southern United States is conspicuously characterized by the hedgerow trees or groves. The patchwork landscape of fields surrounded by high hedgerows is a traditional and familiar feature of the American countryside. Hedgerows are in effect linear strips of trees, groves, or woodlands, which are often critical habitats for wildlife and important for the visual quality of the landscape. Based on geographic information system (GIS) and statistical analysis (FRAGSTAT), this study attempts to quantify the landscape connectivity characterized by hedgerows in south Alabama where substantial areas of authentic hedgerow landscape are being urbanized due to the ever expanding real estate industry and high demand for new residential development. The results of this study shed lights on how to balance the needs of new urban development and biodiversity conservation by maintaining a higher level of landscape connectivity, thus will inform the design intervention.
On Uniqueness and Continuous Dependence in the Theory of Micropolar Thermoelastic Mixtures

This paper studies questions of continuous data dependence and uniqueness for solutions of initial boundary value problems in linear micropolar thermoelastic mixtures. Logarithmic convexity arguments are used to establish results with no definiteness assumptions upon the internal energy.

3D Network-on-Chip with on-Chip DRAM: An Empirical Analysis for Future Chip Multiprocessor

With the increasing number of on-chip components and the critical requirement for processing power, Chip Multiprocessor (CMP) has gained wide acceptance in both academia and industry during the last decade. However, the conventional bus-based onchip communication schemes suffer from very high communication delay and low scalability in large scale systems. Network-on-Chip (NoC) has been proposed to solve the bottleneck of parallel onchip communications by applying different network topologies which separate the communication phase from the computation phase. Observing that the memory bandwidth of the communication between on-chip components and off-chip memory has become a critical problem even in NoC based systems, in this paper, we propose a novel 3D NoC with on-chip Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) in which different layers are dedicated to different functionalities such as processors, cache or memory. Results show that, by using our proposed architecture, average link utilization has reduced by 10.25% for SPLASH-2 workloads. Our proposed design costs 1.12% less execution cycles than the traditional design on average.

Effect of Heat Treatment on the Portevin-Le Chatelier Effect of Al-2.5%Mg Alloy
An experimental study is presented on the effect of microstructural change on the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect behaviour of Al-2.5%Mg alloy. Tensile tests are performed on the as received and heat treated (at 400 ºC for 16 hours) samples for a wide range of strain rates. The serrations observed in the stress-time curve are investigated from statistical analysis point of view. Microstructures of the samples are characterized by optical metallography and X-ray diffraction. It is found that the excess vacancy generated due to heat treatment leads to decrease in the strain rate sensitivity and the increase in the number of stress drop occurrences per unit time during the PLC effect. The microstructural parameters like domain size, dislocation density have no appreciable effect on the PLC effect as far as the statistical behavior of the serrations is considered.
Gas Flow Rate Identification in Biomass Power Plants by Response Surface Method
The utilize of renewable energy sources becomes more crucial and fascinatingly, wider application of renewable energy devices at domestic, commercial and industrial levels is not only affect to stronger awareness but also significantly installed capacities. Moreover, biomass principally is in form of woods and converts to be energy for using by humans for a long time. Gasification is a process of conversion of solid carbonaceous fuel into combustible gas by partial combustion. Many gasified models have various operating conditions because the parameters kept in each model are differentiated. This study applied the experimental data including three inputs variables including biomass consumption; temperature at combustion zone and ash discharge rate and gas flow rate as only one output variable. In this paper, response surface methods were applied for identification of the gasified system equation suitable for experimental data. The result showed that linear model gave superlative results.
Optimization of R507A-R23 Cascade Refrigeration System using Genetic Algorithm

The present work deals with optimization of cascade refrigeration system using eco friendly refrigerants pair R507A and R23. R507A is azeotropic mixture composed of HFC refrigerants R125/R143a (50%/50% by wt.). R23 is a single component HFC refrigerant used as replacement to CFC refrigerant R13 in low temperature applications. These refrigerants have zero ozone depletion potential and are non-flammable. Optimization of R507AR23 cascade refrigeration system performance parameters such as minimum work required, refrigeration effect, coefficient of performance and exergetic efficiency was carried out in terms of eight operating parameters- combinations using Genetic Algorithm tool. The eight operating parameters include (1) low side evaporator temperature (2) high side condenser temperature (3) temperature difference in the cascade heat exchanger (4) low side condenser temperature (5) low side degree of subcooling (6) high side degree of subcooling (7) low side degree of superheating (8) high side degree of superheating. Results show that for minimum work system should operate at high temperature in low side evaporator, low temperature in high side condenser, low temperature difference in cascade condenser, high temperature in low side condenser and low degree of subcooling and superheating in both side. For maximum refrigeration effect system should operate at high temperature in low side evaporator, high temperature in high side condenser, high temperature difference in cascade condenser, low temperature in low side condenser and higher degree of subcooling in LT and HT side. For maximum coefficient of performance and exergetic efficiency, system should operate at high temperature in low side evaporator, low temperature in high side condenser, low temperature difference in cascade condenser, high temperature in low side condenser and higher degree of subcooling and superheating in low side of the system.

Vol:11 No:04 2017Vol:11 No:03 2017Vol:11 No:02 2017Vol:11 No:01 2017
Vol:10 No:12 2016Vol:10 No:11 2016Vol:10 No:10 2016Vol:10 No:09 2016Vol:10 No:08 2016Vol:10 No:07 2016Vol:10 No:06 2016Vol:10 No:05 2016Vol:10 No:04 2016Vol:10 No:03 2016Vol:10 No:02 2016Vol:10 No:01 2016
Vol:9 No:12 2015Vol:9 No:11 2015Vol:9 No:10 2015Vol:9 No:09 2015Vol:9 No:08 2015Vol:9 No:07 2015Vol:9 No:06 2015Vol:9 No:05 2015Vol:9 No:04 2015Vol:9 No:03 2015Vol:9 No:02 2015Vol:9 No:01 2015
Vol:8 No:12 2014Vol:8 No:11 2014Vol:8 No:10 2014Vol:8 No:09 2014Vol:8 No:08 2014Vol:8 No:07 2014Vol:8 No:06 2014Vol:8 No:05 2014Vol:8 No:04 2014Vol:8 No:03 2014Vol:8 No:02 2014Vol:8 No:01 2014
Vol:7 No:12 2013Vol:7 No:11 2013Vol:7 No:10 2013Vol:7 No:09 2013Vol:7 No:08 2013Vol:7 No:07 2013Vol:7 No:06 2013Vol:7 No:05 2013Vol:7 No:04 2013Vol:7 No:03 2013Vol:7 No:02 2013Vol:7 No:01 2013
Vol:6 No:12 2012Vol:6 No:11 2012Vol:6 No:10 2012Vol:6 No:09 2012Vol:6 No:08 2012Vol:6 No:07 2012Vol:6 No:06 2012Vol:6 No:05 2012Vol:6 No:04 2012Vol:6 No:03 2012Vol:6 No:02 2012Vol:6 No:01 2012
Vol:5 No:12 2011Vol:5 No:11 2011Vol:5 No:10 2011Vol:5 No:09 2011Vol:5 No:08 2011Vol:5 No:07 2011Vol:5 No:06 2011Vol:5 No:05 2011Vol:5 No:04 2011Vol:5 No:03 2011Vol:5 No:02 2011Vol:5 No:01 2011
Vol:4 No:12 2010Vol:4 No:11 2010Vol:4 No:10 2010Vol:4 No:09 2010Vol:4 No:08 2010Vol:4 No:07 2010Vol:4 No:06 2010Vol:4 No:05 2010Vol:4 No:04 2010Vol:4 No:03 2010Vol:4 No:02 2010Vol:4 No:01 2010
Vol:3 No:12 2009Vol:3 No:11 2009Vol:3 No:10 2009Vol:3 No:09 2009Vol:3 No:08 2009Vol:3 No:07 2009Vol:3 No:06 2009Vol:3 No:05 2009Vol:3 No:04 2009Vol:3 No:03 2009Vol:3 No:02 2009Vol:3 No:01 2009
Vol:2 No:12 2008Vol:2 No:11 2008Vol:2 No:10 2008Vol:2 No:09 2008Vol:2 No:08 2008Vol:2 No:07 2008Vol:2 No:06 2008Vol:2 No:05 2008Vol:2 No:04 2008Vol:2 No:03 2008Vol:2 No:02 2008Vol:2 No:01 2008
Vol:1 No:12 2007Vol:1 No:11 2007Vol:1 No:10 2007Vol:1 No:09 2007Vol:1 No:08 2007Vol:1 No:07 2007Vol:1 No:06 2007Vol:1 No:05 2007Vol:1 No:04 2007Vol:1 No:03 2007Vol:1 No:02 2007Vol:1 No:01 2007