Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 180

Existence of Solution for Four-Point Boundary Value Problems of Second-Order Impulsive Differential Equations (III)
In this paper, we study the existence of solution of the four-point boundary value problem for second-order differential equations with impulses by using Leray-Schauder theory:
A Note on Characterization of Regular Γ-Semigroups in terms of (∈,∈ ∨q)-Fuzzy Bi-ideal
The purpose of this note is to obtain some properties of (∈,∈ ∨q)- fuzzy bi-ideals in a Γ-semigroup in order to characterize regular and intra-regular Γ-semigroups.
The Giant Component in a Random Subgraph of a Weak Expander

In this paper, we investigate the appearance of the giant component in random subgraphs G(p) of a given large finite graph family Gn = (Vn, En) in which each edge is present independently with probability p. We show that if the graph Gn satisfies a weak isoperimetric inequality and has bounded degree, then the probability p under which G(p) has a giant component of linear order with some constant probability is bounded away from zero and one. In addition, we prove the probability of abnormally large order of the giant component decays exponentially. When a contact graph is modeled as Gn, our result is of special interest in the study of the spread of infectious diseases or the identification of community in various social networks.

A New Integer Programming Formulation for the Chinese Postman Problem with Time Dependent Travel Times
The Chinese Postman Problem (CPP) is one of the classical problems in graph theory and is applicable in a wide range of fields. With the rapid development of hybrid systems and model based testing, Chinese Postman Problem with Time Dependent Travel Times (CPPTDT) becomes more realistic than the classical problems. In the literature, we have proposed the first integer programming formulation for the CPPTDT problem, namely, circuit formulation, based on which some polyhedral results are investigated and a cutting plane algorithm is also designed. However, there exists a main drawback: the circuit formulation is only available for solving the special instances with all circuits passing through the origin. Therefore, this paper proposes a new integer programming formulation for solving all the general instances of CPPTDT. Moreover, the size of the circuit formulation is too large, which is reduced dramatically here. Thus, it is possible to design more efficient algorithm for solving the CPPTDT in the future research.
2n Almost Periodic Attractors for Cohen-Grossberg Neural Networks with Variable and Distribute Delays

In this paper, we investigate dynamics of 2n almost periodic attractors for Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (CGNNs) with variable and distribute time delays. By imposing some new assumptions on activation functions and system parameters, we split invariant basin of CGNNs into 2n compact convex subsets. Then the existence of 2n almost periodic solutions lying in compact convex subsets is attained due to employment of the theory of exponential dichotomy and Schauder-s fixed point theorem. Meanwhile, we derive some new criteria for the networks to converge toward these 2n almost periodic solutions and exponential attracting domains are also given correspondingly.

Existence and Exponential Stability of Almost Periodic Solution for Cohen-Grossberg SICNNs with Impulses

In this paper, based on the estimation of the Cauchy matrix of linear impulsive differential equations, by using Banach fixed point theorem and Gronwall-Bellman-s inequality, some sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence and exponential stability of almost periodic solution for Cohen-Grossberg shunting inhibitory cellular neural networks (SICNNs) with continuously distributed delays and impulses. An example is given to illustrate the main results.

Solving One-dimensional Hyperbolic Telegraph Equation Using Cubic B-spline Quasi-interpolation

In this paper, the telegraph equation is solved numerically by cubic B-spline quasi-interpolation .We obtain the numerical scheme, by using the derivative of the quasi-interpolation to approximate the spatial derivative of the dependent variable and a low order forward difference to approximate the temporal derivative of the dependent variable. The advantage of the resulting scheme is that the algorithm is very simple so it is very easy to implement. The results of numerical experiments are presented, and are compared with analytical solutions by calculating errors L2 and L∞ norms to confirm the good accuracy of the presented scheme.

Alternative Convergence Analysis for a Kind of Singularly Perturbed Boundary Value Problems

A kind of singularly perturbed boundary value problems is under consideration. In order to obtain its approximation, simple upwind difference discretization is applied. We use a moving mesh iterative algorithm based on equi-distributing of the arc-length function of the current computed piecewise linear solution. First, a maximum norm a posteriori error estimate on an arbitrary mesh is derived using a different method from the one carried out by Chen [Advances in Computational Mathematics, 24(1-4) (2006), 197-212.]. Then, basing on the properties of discrete Green-s function and the presented posteriori error estimate, we theoretically prove that the discrete solutions computed by the algorithm are first-order uniformly convergent with respect to the perturbation parameter ε.

Topological Properties of an Exponential Random Geometric Graph Process
In this paper we consider a one-dimensional random geometric graph process with the inter-nodal gaps evolving according to an exponential AR(1) process. The transition probability matrix and stationary distribution are derived for the Markov chains concerning connectivity and the number of components. We analyze the algorithm for hitting time regarding disconnectivity. In addition to dynamical properties, we also study topological properties for static snapshots. We obtain the degree distributions as well as asymptotic precise bounds and strong law of large numbers for connectivity threshold distance and the largest nearest neighbor distance amongst others. Both exact results and limit theorems are provided in this paper.
A New Method of Adaptation in Integrated Learning Environment

A new method of adaptation in a partially integrated learning environment that includes electronic textbook (ET) and integrated tutoring system (ITS) is described. The algorithm of adaptation is described in detail. It includes: establishment of Interconnections of operations and concepts; estimate of the concept mastering level (for all concepts); estimate of student-s non-mastering level on the current learning step of information on each page of ET; creation of a rank-order list of links to the e-manual pages containing information that require repeated work.

Approximations to the Distribution of the Sample Correlation Coefficient
Given a bivariate normal sample of correlated variables, (Xi, Yi), i = 1, . . . , n, an alternative estimator of Pearson’s correlation coefficient is obtained in terms of the ranges, |Xi − Yi|. An approximate confidence interval for ρX,Y is then derived, and a simulation study reveals that the resulting coverage probabilities are in close agreement with the set confidence levels. As well, a new approximant is provided for the density function of R, the sample correlation coefficient. A mixture involving the proposed approximate density of R, denoted by hR(r), and a density function determined from a known approximation due to R. A. Fisher is shown to accurately approximate the distribution of R. Finally, nearly exact density approximants are obtained on adjusting hR(r) by a 7th degree polynomial.
Efficient Solution for a Class of Markov Chain Models of Tandem Queueing Networks

We present a new numerical method for the computation of the steady-state solution of Markov chains. Theoretical analyses show that the proposed method, with a contraction factor α, converges to the one-dimensional null space of singular linear systems of the form Ax = 0. Numerical experiments are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, with applications to a class of interesting models in the domain of tandem queueing networks.

Positive Periodic Solutions in a Discrete Competitive System with the Effect of Toxic Substances

In this paper, a delayed competitive system with the effect of toxic substances is investigated. With the aid of differential equations with piecewise constant arguments, a discrete analogue of continuous non-autonomous delayed competitive system with the effect of toxic substances is proposed. By using Gaines and Mawhin,s continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, a easily verifiable sufficient condition for the existence of positive solutions of difference equations is obtained.

The Homotopy Analysis Method for Solving Discontinued Problems Arising in Nanotechnology

This paper applies the homotopy analysis method method to a nonlinear differential-difference equation arising in nanotechnology. Continuum hypothesis on nanoscales is invalid, and a differential-difference model is considered as an alternative approach to describing discontinued problems. Comparison of the approximate solution with the exact one reveals that the method is very effective.

Finite-time Stability Analysis of Fractional-order with Multi-state Time Delay

In this paper, the finite-time stabilization of a class of multi-state time delay of fractional-order system is proposed. First, we define finite-time stability with the fractional-order system. Second, by using Generalized Gronwall's approach and the methods of the inequality, we get some conditions of finite-time stability for the fractional system with multi-state delay. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the result.

On the Central Limit Theorems for Forward and Backward Martingales
Let {Xi}i≥1 be a martingale difference sequence with Xi = Si - Si-1. Under some regularity conditions, we show that (X2 1+· · ·+X2N n)-1/2SNn is asymptotically normal, where {Ni}i≥1 is a sequence of positive integer-valued random variables tending to infinity. In a similar manner, a backward (or reverse) martingale central limit theorem with random indices is provided.
Strong Limit Theorems for Dependent Random Variables
In This Article We establish moment inequality of dependent random variables,furthermore some theorems of strong law of large numbers and complete convergence for sequences of dependent random variables. In particular, independent and identically distributed Marcinkiewicz Law of large numbers are generalized to the case of m0-dependent sequences.
Very-high-Precision Normalized Eigenfunctions for a Class of Schrödinger Type Equations

We demonstrate that it is possible to compute wave function normalization constants for a class of Schr¨odinger type equations by an algorithm which scales linearly (in the number of eigenfunction evaluations) with the desired precision P in decimals.

Microbiological Contamination of Outdoor Air in Marine Durres's Harbour, Albania

Microbial air contamination of the outdoor air in Marine Durres-s Harbour (Durres, Albania) was estimated by sedimentation technique in August-October 2008. The sampling areas were: Ferry Terminal (FT), Fishery Harbor (FH), East Zone (EZ), Fuel Quay (FQ) and Apollonian Beach (AB). The aim of this study was to measure the number of aerobic plate count (mesophilic aerobic bacteria) and fungi (yeasts and molds) in the outdoor air in these areas. The number of colonies that were formed determines the number of cells at the moment in the outdoor air; respectively the number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and yeasts and molds. The measure of bacteria and fungi used is CFU (Colony Forming Units) per Petri dish. It is said that marine harbours are very polluted areas. The aim of study was the definition of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and yeasts and molds number, and the comparison of microorganisms number in air sampling areas.

The Effect of Pleurotus sajor-caju (PSC) Addition on the Nutritional Composition and Sensory Properties of Poultry-Based Patty
The nutrient composition and sensory properties of poultry-based patties (PBPs) incorporated with various levels of grey oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju, PSC) were studied. The PBPs were formulated with either 0%, 25% or 50% of fresh ground PSC. Results show poultry patty formulated with 25% PSC had protein content of 17.46% lower than the control patty which had 18.13% but it was not significant. Meanwhile, both cooked poultry patties containing 25% and 50% PSC significantly recorded lower concentration of fat at 10.67% and 7.15%, respectively. On the other hand, poultry patty added with 50% ground PSC shows the highest concentration of total dietary fibre (TDF) of 4.90 g/100g compared to poultry patty containing 25% of mushroom (3.40 g/100g) and to the control (1.90g/100g). In addition, patty incorporated with 25% PSC had moisture content of 57.91% which is significantly lower than patty formulated with 50% which had moisture of 61.80%. In the sensory evaluation, there were no differences recorded in all sensory attributes of PSC-based patties judged by untrained panelists. In conclusion, the addition of PSC to replace poultry meat can be recommended for the purpose of lowering production cost, enhancing nutritional composition and maintaining the acceptability of poultry patties.
A Decomposition Method for the Bipartite Separability of Bell Diagonal States
A new decomposition form is introduced in this report to establish a criterion for the bi-partite separability of Bell diagonal states. A such criterion takes a quadratic inequality of the coefficients of a given Bell diagonal states and can be derived via a simple algorithmic calculation of its invariants. In addition, the criterion can be extended to a quantum system of higher dimension.
An MCDM Approach to Selection Scheduling Rule in Robotic Flexibe Assembly Cells

Multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) is an approach to ranking the solutions and finding the best one when two or more solutions are provided. In this study, MCDM approach is proposed to select the most suitable scheduling rule of robotic flexible assembly cells (RFACs). Two MCDM approaches, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) are proposed for solving the scheduling rule selection problem. The AHP method is employed to determine the weights of the evaluation criteria, while the TOPSIS method is employed to obtain final ranking order of scheduling rules. Four criteria are used to evaluate the scheduling rules. Also, four scheduling policies of RFAC are examined to choose the most appropriate one for this purpose. A numerical example illustrates applications of the suggested methodology. The results show that the methodology is practical and works in RFAC settings.

Analysis of Climatic Strategies in Designing the Residential Buildings in Cold Dry Climate of Tabriz Metropolis to Reduce Air Pollution in Urban Environment
Nowadays, the earth is countered with serious problem of air pollution. This problem has been started from the industrial revolution and has been faster in recent years, so that leads the earth to ecological and environmental disaster. One of its results is the global warming problem and its related increase in global temperature. The most important factors in air pollution especially in urban environments are Automobiles and residential buildings that are the biggest consumers of the fossil energies, so that if the residential buildings as a big part of the consumers of such energies reduce their consumption rate, the air pollution will be decreased. Since Metropolises are the main centers of air pollution in the world, assessment and analysis of efficient strategies in decreasing air pollution in such cities, can lead to the desirable and suitable results and can solve the problem at least in critical level. Tabriz city is one of the most important metropolises in North west of Iran that about two million people are living there. for its situation in cold dry climate, has a high rate of fossil energies consumption that make air pollution in its urban environment. These two factors, being both metropolis and in cold dry climate, make this article try to analyze the strategies of climatic design in old districts of the city and use them in new districts of the future. These strategies can be used in this city and other similar cities and pave the way to reduce energy consumption and related air pollution to save whole world.
Assessing and Visualizing the Stability of Feature Selectors: A Case Study with Spectral Data

Feature selection plays an important role in applications with high dimensional data. The assessment of the stability of feature selection/ranking algorithms becomes an important issue when the dataset is small and the aim is to gain insight into the underlying process by analyzing the most relevant features. In this work, we propose a graphical approach that enables to analyze the similarity between feature ranking techniques as well as their individual stability. Moreover, it works with whatever stability metric (Canberra distance, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, Kuncheva's stability index,...). We illustrate this visualization technique evaluating the stability of several feature selection techniques on a spectral binary dataset. Experimental results with a neural-based classifier show that stability and ranking quality may not be linked together and both issues have to be studied jointly in order to offer answers to the domain experts.

Study of Aluminum, Copper and Molybdenum Pollution in Groundwater Sources Surrounding (Miduk) Shahr-E- Babak Copper Complex Tailings Dam
Interpolated contour maps drawn for aluminum, copper and molybdenum in downstream monitoring boreholes of water dam in Miduk Copper Complex and the values of pH, redox potential (Eh) and distance from water dam indicate different trends of variation and behavior of these three elements in downward groundwater resources. As these maps exhibit, aluminum is dominant in the most alkaline (pH = 9-11) borehole (MB5) to water dam. The highest concentration of molybdenum is found in the nearest borehole (MB6) to water dam. Main concentration of copper is observed in the most oxidized borehole (MB3 with Eh=293.2mV). The spatial difference among sampling stations can be attributed to the existence of faults and diaclases in the geologic structure of Miduk region which causes the groundwater sampling sites to be impressed by different contamination sources (toe seepage and upper seepage water originated from different zones of tailings dump).
Synchronization of 0.1 Hz Oscillations in Heart Rate and Blood Pressure: Application to Treatment of Myocardial Infarction Patients

Synchronization between 0.1 Hz oscillations in heart rate and blood pressure is studied and its change during vertical tilt is evaluated in 37 myocardial infarction patients. Two groups of patients are identified with decreased and increased, respectively, synchronization of the studied oscillations as a response to a tilt test. It is shown that assessment of synchronization of 0.1 Hz oscillations as a response to vertical tilt can be used as a guideline for selecting optimal dose of beta-blocker treatment in post-myocardial infarction patients.

Synthesis of Peptide Amides using Sol-Gel Immobilized Alcalase in Batch and Continuous Reaction System
Two commercial proteases from Bacillus licheniformis (Alcalase 2.4 L FG and Alcalase 2.5 L, Type DX) were screened for the production of Z-Ala-Phe-NH2 in batch reaction. Alcalase 2.4 L FG was the most efficient enzyme for the C-terminal amidation of Z-Ala-Phe-OMe using ammonium carbamate as ammonium source. Immobilization of protease has been achieved by the sol-gel method, using dimethyldimethoxysilane (DMDMOS) and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) as precursors (unpublished results). In batch production, about 95% of Z-Ala-Phe-NH2 was obtained at 30°C after 24 hours of incubation. Reproducibility of different batches of commercial Alcalase 2.4 L FG preparations was also investigated by evaluating the amidation activity and the entrapment yields in the case of immobilization. A packed-bed reactor (0.68 cm ID, 15.0 cm long) was operated successfully for the continuous synthesis of peptide amides. The immobilized enzyme retained the initial activity over 10 cycles of repeated use in continuous reactor at ambient temperature. At 0.75 mL/min flow rate of the substrate mixture, the total conversion of Z-Ala-Phe-OMe was achieved after 5 hours of substrate recycling. The product contained about 90% peptide amide and 10% hydrolysis byproduct.
Computational Tool for Techno-Economical Evaluation of Steam/Oxygen Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasification Technologies
The paper presents a computational tool developed for the evaluation of technical and economic advantages of an innovative cleaning and conditioning technology of fluidized bed steam/oxygen gasifiers outlet product gas. This technology integrates into a single unit the steam gasification of biomass and the hot gas cleaning and conditioning system. Both components of the computational tool, process flowsheet and economic evaluator, have been developed under IPSEpro software. The economic model provides information that can help potential users, especially small and medium size enterprises acting in the regenerable energy field, to decide the optimal scale of a plant and to better understand both potentiality and limits of the system when applied to a wide range of conditions.
Inventory Control for a Joint Replenishment Problem with Stochastic Demand
Most papers model Joint Replenishment Problem (JRP) as a (kT,S) where kT is a multiple value for a common review period T,and S is a predefined order up to level. In general the (T,S) policy is characterized by a long out of control period which requires a large amount of safety stock compared to the (R,Q) policy. In this paper a probabilistic model is built where an item, call it item(i), with the shortest order time between interval (T)is modeled under (R,Q) policy and its inventory is continuously reviewed, while the rest of items (j) are periodically reviewed at a definite time corresponding to item
The Error Analysis of An Upwind Difference Approximation for a Singularly Perturbed Problem

An upwind difference approximation is used for a singularly perturbed problem in material science. Based on the discrete Green-s function theory, the error estimate in maximum norm is achieved, which is first-order uniformly convergent with respect to the perturbation parameter. The numerical experimental result is verified the valid of the theoretical analysis.

A Model to Study the Effect of Excess Buffers and Na+ Ions on Ca2+ Diffusion in Neuron Cell

Calcium is a vital second messenger used in signal transduction. Calcium controls secretion, cell movement, muscular contraction, cell differentiation, ciliary beating and so on. Two theories have been used to simplify the system of reaction-diffusion equations of calcium into a single equation. One is excess buffer approximation (EBA) which assumes that mobile buffer is present in excess and cannot be saturated. The other is rapid buffer approximation (RBA), which assumes that calcium binding to buffer is rapid compared to calcium diffusion rate. In the present work, attempt has been made to develop a model for calcium diffusion under excess buffer approximation in neuron cells. This model incorporates the effect of [Na+] influx on [Ca2+] diffusion,variable calcium and sodium sources, sodium-calcium exchange protein, Sarcolemmal Calcium ATPase pump, sodium and calcium channels. The proposed mathematical model leads to a system of partial differential equations which have been solved numerically using Forward Time Centered Space (FTCS) approach. The numerical results have been used to study the relationships among different types of parameters such as buffer concentration, association rate, calcium permeability.

Detection of Legionella pneumophila in Cooling Water Systems of Hospitals and Nursing Homes of Kerman City, Iran by Semi- Nested PCR
Legionella pneumophila is involved in more than 95% cases of severe atypical pneumonia. Infection is mainly by inhalation the indoor aerosols through the water-coolant systems. Because some Legionella strains may be viable but not culturable, therefore, Taq polymerase, DNA amplification and semi-nested-PCR were carried out to detect Legionella-specific 16S-rDNA sequence. For this purpose, 1.5 litter of water samples from 77 water-coolant system were collected from four different hospitals, two nursing homes and one student hostel in Kerman city of Iran, each in a brand new plastic bottle during summer season of 2006 (from April to August). The samples were filtered in the sterile condition through the Millipore Membrane Filter. DNA was extracted from membrane and used for PCR to detect Legionella spp. The PCR product was then subjected to semi-nested PCR for detection of L. pneumophila. Out of 77 water samples that were tested by PCR, 30 (39%) were positive for most species of Legionella. However, L. pneumophila was detected from 14 (18.2%) water samples by semi-nested PCR. From the above results it can be concluded that water coolant systems of different hospitals and nursing homes in Kerman city of Iran are highly contaminated with L. pneumophila spp. and pose serious concern. So, we recommend avoiding such type of coolant system in the hospitals and nursing homes.
Stability Analysis of Linear Fractional Order Neutral System with Multiple Delays by Algebraic Approach

In this paper, we study the stability of n-dimensional linear fractional neutral differential equation with time delays. By using the Laplace transform, we introduce a characteristic equation for the above system with multiple time delays. We discover that if all roots of the characteristic equation have negative parts, then the equilibrium of the above linear system with fractional order is Lyapunov globally asymptotical stable if the equilibrium exist that is almost the same as that of classical differential equations. An example is provided to show the effectiveness of the approach presented in this paper.

Adomian Method for Second-order Fuzzy Differential Equation

In this paper, we study the numerical method for solving second-order fuzzy differential equations using Adomian method under strongly generalized differentiability. And, we present an example with initial condition having four different solutions to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method under strongly generalized differentiability.

Iterative Solutions to Some Linear Matrix Equations

In this paper the gradient based iterative algorithms are presented to solve the following four types linear matrix equations: (a) AXB = F; (b) AXB = F, CXD = G; (c) AXB = F s. t. X = XT ; (d) AXB+CYD = F, where X and Y are unknown matrices, A,B,C,D, F,G are the given constant matrices. It is proved that if the equation considered has a solution, then the unique minimum norm solution can be obtained by choosing a special kind of initial matrices. The numerical results show that the proposed method is reliable and attractive.

An Asymptotic Formula for Pricing an American Exchange Option

In this paper, the American exchange option (AEO) valuation problem is modelled as a free boundary problem. The critical stock price for an AEO is satisfied an integral equation implicitly. When the remaining time is large enough, an asymptotic formula is provided for pricing an AEO. The numerical results reveal that our asymptotic pricing formula is robust and accurate for the long-term AEO.

A Note on Potentially Power-Positive Sign Patterns

In this note, some properties of potentially powerpositive sign patterns are established, and all the potentially powerpositive sign patterns of order ≤ 3 are classified completely.

Iterative Methods for An Inverse Problem

An inverse problem of doubly center matrices is discussed. By translating the constrained problem into unconstrained problem, two iterative methods are proposed. A numerical example illustrate our algorithms.

GPU Implementation for Solving in Compressible Two-Phase Flows

A one-step conservative level set method, combined with a global mass correction method, is developed in this study to simulate the incompressible two-phase flows. The present framework do not need to solve the conservative level set scheme at two separated steps, and the global mass can be exactly conserved. The present method is then more efficient than two-step conservative level set scheme. The dispersion-relation-preserving schemes are utilized for the advection terms. The pressure Poisson equation solver is applied to GPU computation using the pCDR library developed by National Center for High-Performance Computing, Taiwan. The SMP parallelization is used to accelerate the rest of calculations. Three benchmark problems were done for the performance evaluation. Good agreements with the referenced solutions are demonstrated for all the investigated problems.

Translation Surfaces in Euclidean 3-Space
In this paper, the translation surfaces in 3-dimensional Euclidean space generated by two space curves have been investigated. It has been indicated that Scherk surface is not only minimal translation surface.
Metaheuristic Algorithms for Decoding Binary Linear Codes
This paper introduces two decoders for binary linear codes based on Metaheuristics. The first one uses a genetic algorithm and the second is based on a combination genetic algorithm with a feed forward neural network. The decoder based on the genetic algorithms (DAG) applied to BCH and convolutional codes give good performances compared to Chase-2 and Viterbi algorithm respectively and reach the performances of the OSD-3 for some Residue Quadratic (RQ) codes. This algorithm is less complex for linear block codes of large block length; furthermore their performances can be improved by tuning the decoder-s parameters, in particular the number of individuals by population and the number of generations. In the second algorithm, the search space, in contrast to DAG which was limited to the code word space, now covers the whole binary vector space. It tries to elude a great number of coding operations by using a neural network. This reduces greatly the complexity of the decoder while maintaining comparable performances.
The Effect of Innovation Factors to Customer Loyalty by Structural Equation Model
Innovation is being view from four areas of innovation, product, service, technology, and marketing. Whereas customer loyalty is composed of customer expectation, perceived quality, perceived value, corporate image, customer satisfaction, customer trust/confidence, customer commitment, customer complaint, and customer loyalty. This study aimed to investigate the influence of innovation factors to customer loyalty to GSM in the telecom companies where use of products and services. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using to analyze innovation factors. It was found the factor of innovation have significant influence on customer loyalty.
Design and Analysis of an Automobile Bumper with the Capacity of Energy Release Using GMT Materials
Bumpers play an important role in preventing the impact energy from being transferred to the automobile and passengers. Saving the impact energy in the bumper to be released in the environment reduces the damages of the automobile and passengers. The goal of this paper is to design a bumper with minimum weight by employing the Glass Material Thermoplastic (GMT) materials. This bumper either absorbs the impact energy with its deformation or transfers it perpendicular to the impact direction. To reach this aim, a mechanism is designed to convert about 80% of the kinetic impact energy to the spring potential energy and release it to the environment in the low impact velocity according to American standard1. In addition, since the residual kinetic energy will be damped with the infinitesimal elastic deformation of the bumper elements, the passengers will not sense any impact. It should be noted that in this paper, modeling, solving and result-s analysis are done in CATIA, LS-DYNA and ANSYS V8.0 software respectively.
Biosorption of Heavy Metals Contaminating the Wonderfonteinspruit Catchment Area using Desmodesmus sp.

A vast array of biological materials, especially algae have received increasing attention for heavy metal removal. Algae have been proven to be cheaper, more effective for the removal of metallic elements in aqueous solutions. A fresh water algal strain was isolated from Zoo Lake, Johannesburg, South Africa and identified as Desmodesmus sp. This paper investigates the efficacy of Desmodesmus sp.in removing heavy metals contaminating the Wonderfonteinspruit Catchment Area (WCA) water bodies. The biosorption data fitted the pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models. The Langmuir maximum uptakes gave the sequence: Mn2+>Ni2+>Fe2+. The best results for kinetic study was obtained in concentration 120 ppm for Fe3+ and Mn2+, whilst for Ni2+ was at 20 ppm, which is about the same concentrations found in contaminated water in the WCA (Fe3+115 ppm, Mn2+ 121 ppm and Ni2+ 26.5 ppm).

Investigation of 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis(3-,5--Di-Tert-Butylphenyl)Porphyrinatocopper(II) for Electronics Applications
In this work, an organic compound 5,10,15,20- Tetrakis(3,5-di-tertbutylphenyl)porphyrinatocopper(II) (TDTBPPCu) is studied as an active material for thin film electronic devices. To investigate the electrical properties of TDTBPPCu, junction of TDTBPPCu with heavily doped n-Si and Al is fabricated. TDTBPPCu film was sandwiched between Al and n-Si electrodes. Various electrical parameters of TDTBPPCu are determined. The current-voltage characteristics of the junction are nonlinear, asymmetric and show rectification behavior, which gives the clue of formation of depletion region. This behavior indicates the potential of TDTBPPCu for electronics applications. The current-voltage and capacitance-voltage techniques are used to find the different electronic parameters.
A New Approach to Workforce Planning
In today-s global and competitive market, manufacturing companies are working hard towards improving their production system performance. Most companies develop production systems that can help in cost reduction. Manufacturing systems consist of different elements including production methods, machines, processes, control and information systems. Human issues are an important part of manufacturing systems, yet most companies do not pay sufficient attention to them. In this paper, a workforce planning (WP) model is presented. A non-linear programming model is developed in order to minimize the hiring, firing, training and overtime costs. The purpose is to determine the number of workers for each worker type, the number of workers trained, and the number of overtime hours. Moreover, a decision support system (DSS) based on the proposed model is introduced using the Excel-Lingo software interfacing feature. This model will help to improve the interaction between the workers, managers and the technical systems in manufacturing.
Microbial Oil Production by Isolated Oleaginous Yeast Torulaspora globosa YU5/2
Microbial oil was produced by soil isolated oleaginous yeast YU5/2 in flask-batch fermentation. The yeast was identified by molecular genetics technique based on sequence analysis of the variable D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA and it was identified as Torulaspora globosa. T. globosa YU5/2 supported maximum values of 0.520 g/L/d, 0.472 g lipid/g cells, 4.16 g/L, and 0.156 g/L/d for volumetric lipid production rate, and specific yield of lipid, lipid concentration, and specific rate of lipid production respectively, when culture was performed in nitrogen-limiting medium supplemented with 80g/L glucose. Among the carbon sources tested, maximum cell yield coefficient (YX/S, g/L), maximum specific yield of lipid (YP/X, g lipid/g cells) and volumetric lipid production rate (QP, g/L/d) were found of 0.728, 0.237, and 0.619, respectively, using sweet potato tubers hydrolysates as carbon source.
Ionanofluids as Novel Fluids for Advanced Heat Transfer Applications

Ionanofluids are a new and innovative class of heat transfer fluids which exhibit fascinating thermophysical properties compared to their base ionic liquids. This paper deals with the findings of thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of ionanofluids as a function of a temperature and concentration of nanotubes. Simulation results using ionanofluids as coolants in heat exchanger are also used to access their feasibility and performance in heat transfer devices. Results on thermal conductivity and heat capacity of ionanofluids as well as the estimation of heat transfer areas for ionanofluids and ionic liquids in a model shell and tube heat exchanger reveal that ionanofluids possess superior thermal conductivity and heat capacity and require considerably less heat transfer areas as compared to those of their base ionic liquids. This novel class of fluids shows great potential for advanced heat transfer applications.

A Novel, Cost-effective Design to Harness Ocean Energy in the Developing Countries

The world's population continues to grow at a quarter of a million people per day, increasing the consumption of energy. This has made the world to face the problem of energy crisis now days. In response to the energy crisis, the principles of renewable energy gained popularity. There are much advancement made in developing the wind and solar energy farms across the world. These energy farms are not enough to meet the energy requirement of world. This has attracted investors to procure new sources of energy to be substituted. Among these sources, extraction of energy from the waves is considered as best option. The world oceans contain enough energy to meet the requirement of world. Significant advancements in design and technology are being made to make waves as a continuous source of energy. One major hurdle in launching wave energy devices in a developing country like Pakistan is the initial cost. A simple, reliable and cost effective wave energy converter (WEC) is required to meet the nation-s energy need. This paper will present a novel design proposed by team SAS for harnessing wave energy. This paper has three major sections. The first section will give a brief and concise view of ocean wave creation, propagation and the energy carried by them. The second section will explain the designing of SAS-2. A gear chain mechanism is used for transferring the energy from the buoy to a rotary generator. The third section will explain the manufacturing of scaled down model for SAS-2 .Many modifications are made in the trouble shooting stage. The design of SAS-2 is simple and very less maintenance is required. SAS-2 is producing electricity at Clifton. The initial cost of SAS-2 is very low. This has proved SAS- 2 as one of the cost effective and reliable source of harnessing wave energy for developing countries.

Study of Encapsulation of Quantum Dots in Polystyrene and Poly (E-Caprolactone)Microreactors Prepared by Microvolcanic Eruption of Freeze Dried Microspheres
Polymeric microreactors have emerged as a new generation of carriers that hold tremendous promise in the areas of cancer therapy, controlled delivery of drugs, for removal of pollutants etc. Present work reports a simple and convenient methodology for synthesis of polystyrene and poly caprolactone microreactors. An aqueous suspension of carboxylated (1μm) polystyrene latex particles was mixed with toluene solution followed by freezing with liquid nitrogen. Freezed particles were incubated at -20°C and characterized for formation of voids on the surface of polymer microspheres by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope. The hollow particles were then overnight incubated at 40ºC with unfunctionalized quantum dots (QDs) in 5:1 ratio. QDs Encapsulated polystyrene microcapsules were characterized by fluorescence microscopy. Likewise Poly ε-caprolactone microreactors were prepared by micro-volcanic rupture of freeze dried microspheres synthesized using emulsification of polymer with aqueous Poly vinyl alcohol and freezed with liquid nitrogen. Microreactors were examined with Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope for size and morphology. Current study is an attempt to create hollow polymer particles which can be employed for microencapsulation of nanoparticles and drug molecules.
Bias Stability of a-IGZO TFT and a new Shift-Register Design Suitable for a-IGZO TFT
We have fabricated a-IGZO TFT and investigated the stability under positive DC and AC bias stress. The threshold voltage of a-IGZO TFT shifts positively under those biases, and that reduces on-current. For this reason, conventional shift-register circuit employing TFTs which stressed by positive bias will be unstable, may do not work properly. We have designed a new 6-transistor shift-register, which has less transistors than prior circuits. The TFTs of the proposed shift-register are not suffering from positive DC or AC stress, mainly kept unbiased. Despite the compact design, the stable output signal was verified through the SPICE simulation even under RC delay of clock signal.
Numerical Investigation of High Attack Angle Flow on 760/450 Double-Delta Wing in Incompressible Flow

Along with increasing development of generation of supersonic planes especially fighters and request for increasing the performance and maneuverability scientists and engineers suggested the delta and double delta wing design. One of the areas which was necessary to be researched, was the Aerodynamic review of this type of wings in high angles of attack at low speeds that was very important in landing and takeoff the planes and maneuvers. Leading Edges of the wings,cause the separation flow from wing surface and then formation of powerful vortex with high rotational speed which studing the mechanism and location of formation and also the position of the vortex breakdown in high angles of attack is very important. In this research, a double delta wing with 76o/45o sweep angles at high angle of attack in steady state and incompressible flow were numerically analyzed with Fluent software. With analaysis of the numerical results, we arrived the most important characteristic of the double delta wings which is keeping of lift at high angles of attacks.

Effects of Solar Absorption Coefficient of External Wall on Building Energy Consumption
The principle concern of this paper is to determine the impact of solar absorption coefficient of external wall on building energy consumption. Simulations were carried out on a typical residential building by using the simulation Toolkit DeST-h. Results show that reducing solar absorption coefficient leads to a great reduction in building energy consumption and thus light-colored materials are suitable.
Impedance of an Encircling Coil due to a Cylindrical Tube with Varying Properties
Change in impedance of an encircling coil is obtained in the present paper for the case where the electric conductivity and magnetic permeability of a metal cylindrical tube depend on the radial coordinate. The system of equations for the vector potential is solved by means of the Fourier cosine transform. The solution is expressed in terms of improper integral containing modified Bessel functions of complex order.
Feasibility Study for a Castor oil Extraction Plant in South Africa
A feasibility study for the design and construction of a pilot plant for the extraction of castor oil in South Africa was conducted. The study emphasized the four critical aspects of project feasibility analysis, namely technical, financial, market and managerial aspects. The technical aspect involved research on existing oil extraction technologies, namely: mechanical pressing and solvent extraction, as well as assessment of the proposed production site for both short and long term viability of the project. The site is on the outskirts of Nkomazi village in the Mpumalanga province, where connections for water and electricity are currently underway, potential raw material supply proves to be reliable since the province is known for its commercial farming. The managerial aspect was evaluated based on the fact that the current producer of castor oil will be fully involved in the project while receiving training and technical assistance from Sasol Technology, the TSC and SEDA. Market and financial aspects were evaluated and the project was considered financially viable with a Net Present Value (NPV) of R2 731 687 and an Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 18% at an annual interest rate of 10.5%. The payback time is 6years for analysis over the first 10 years with a net income of R1 971 000 in the first year. The project was thus found to be feasible with high chance of success while contributing to socio-economic development. It was recommended for lab tests to be conducted to establish process kinetics that would be used in the initial design of the plant.
Preparation of Nanosized Iron Oxide and their Photocatalytic Properties for Congo Red
Nanostructured Iron Oxide with different morphologies of rod-like and granular have been suc-cessfully prepared via a solid-state reaction in the presence of NaCl, NaBr, NaI and NaN3, respectively. The added salts not only prevent a drastic increase in the size of the products but also provide suitable conditions for the oriented growth of primary nanoparticles. The formation mechanisms of these materials by solid-state reaction at ambient temperature are proposed. The photocatalytic experiments for congo red (CR) have demonstrated that the mixture of α-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 nanostructures were more efficient than α-Fe2O3 nanostructures.
Fungal Leaching of Hazardous Heavy Metals from a Spent Hydrotreating Catalyst
In this study, the ability of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium simplicissimum to extract heavy metals from a spent refinery catalyst was investigated. For the first step, a spent processing catalyst from one of the oil refineries in Iran was physically and chemically characterized. Aspergillus niger and Penicillium simplicissimum were used to mobilize Al/Co/Mo/Ni from hazardous spent catalysts. The fungi were adapted to the mixture of metals at 100-800 mg L-1 with increments in concentration of 100 mg L-1. Bioleaching experiments were carried out in batch cultures. To investigate the production of organic acids in sucrose medium, analyses of the culture medium by HPLC were performed at specific time intervals after inoculation. The results obtained from Inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) showed that after the one-step bioleaching process using Aspergillus niger, maximum removal efficiencies of 27%, 66%, 62% and 38% were achieved for Al, Co, Mo and Ni, respectively. However, the highest removal efficiencies using Penicillium simplicissimum were of 32%, 67%, 65% and 38% for Al, Co, Mo and Ni, respectively
Rare Earth Elements in Soils of Jharia Coal Field
There are many sources trough which the soil get enriched and contaminated with REEs. The determination of REEs in environmental samples has been limited because of the lack of sensitive analytical techniques. Soil samples were collected from four sites including open cast coal mine, natural coal burning, coal washery and control in the coal field located in Dhanbad, India. Total concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) were determined using the inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry in order to assess enrichment status in the coal field. Results showed that the mean concentrations of La, Pr, Eu, Tb, Ho, and Tm in open cast mine and natural coal burning sites were elevated compared to the reference concentrations, while Ce, Nd, Sm, and Gd were elevated in coal washery site. When compared to reference soil, heavy REEs (HREEs) were enriched in open cast mines and natural coal burning affected soils, however, the HREEs were depleted in the coal washery sites. But, the Chondrite-normalization diagram showed significant enrichment for light REEs (LREEs) in all the soils. High concentration of Pr, Eu, Tb, Ho, Tm, and Lu in coal mining and coal burning sites may pose human health risks. Factor analysis showed that distribution and relative abundance of REEs of the coal washery site is comparable with the control. Eventually washing or cleaning of coal could significantly decrease the emission of REEs from coal into the environment.
Use of Zeolite and Surfactant Modified Zeolite as Ion Exchangers to Control Nitrate Leaching
Nitrogen loss from irrigated cropland, particularly sandy soils, significantly contributes to nitrate (NO3 -) levels in surface and groundwaters. Thus, it is of great interest to use inexpensive natural products that can increase the fertilizer efficiency and decrease nitrate leaching. In this study, the ability of natural Iranian zeolite clinoptilolite (Cp) and surfactant modified zeolite clinoptilolite (SMZ) to remove NH4 + and NO3 -, respectively, from aqueous solutions was determined. The feasibility of using Cp and SMZ as soil amendment to reduce nitrate leaching from soil using lysimeters was also investigated. Zeolite showed 10.23% to 88.42% NH4 + removal efficiency over a wide range of initial NH4 + concentrations. Nitrate removal efficiency by SMZ was 32.26% to 82.26%. Field study results showed that Cp and SMZ significantly (p < 0.05) reduced leachate NO3-N concentration compared to control. There was no significant difference between maximum and mean leachate NO3-N concentration of SMZ lysimeters and those of Cp lysimeters.
An Appraisal of Coal Fly Ash Soil Amendment Technology (FASAT) of Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research (CIMFR)
Coal will continue to be the predominant source of global energy for coming several decades. The huge generation of fly ash (FA) from combustion of coal in thermal power plants (TPPs) is apprehended to pose the concerns of its disposal and utilization. FA application based on its typical characteristics as soil ameliorant for agriculture and forestry is the potential area, and hence the global attempt. The inferences drawn suffer from the variations of ash characteristics, soil types, and agro-climatic conditions; thereby correlating the effects of ash between various plant species and soil types is difficult. Indian FAs have low bulk density, high water holding capacity and porosity, rich silt-sized particles, alkaline nature, negligible solubility, and reasonable plant nutrients. Findings of the demonstrations trials for more than two decades from lab/pot to field scale long-term experiments are developed as FA soil amendment technology (FASAT) by Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research (CIMFR), Dhanbad. Performance of different crops and plant species in cultivable and problematic soils, are encouraging, eco-friendly, and being adopted by the farmers. FA application includes ash alone and in combination with inorganic/organic amendments; combination treatments including bio-solids perform better than FA alone. Optimum dose being up to 100 t/ha for cultivable land and up to/ or above 200 t/ha of FA for waste/degraded land/mine refuse, depending on the characteristics of ash and soil. The elemental toxicity in Indian FA is usually not of much concern owing to alkaline ashes, oxide forms of elements, and elemental concentration within the threshold limits for soil application. Combating toxicity, if any, is possible through combination treatments with organic materials and phytoremediation. Government initiatives through extension programme involving farmers and ash generating organizations need to be accelerated
New Ways for Designing External Fixators Applied in Treatment of Open and Unstable Fractures
This paper deals with a new way for designing external fixators applied in traumatology and orthopaedics. These fixators can be applied in the treatment of open and unstable fractures or for lengthening human or animal bones etc. The new design is based on the development of Ilizarov and other techniques (i.e. shape and weight optimalization based on composite materials, application of smart materials, nanotechnology, low x-ray absorption, antibacterial protection, patient's comfort, reduction in the duration of the surgical treatment, and cost).
A Novel Approach for Beneficiation and Dewatering of Coal Fines for Indian Coal Preparation Plant
An attempt has been made to beneficiate the Indian coking coal fines by a combination of Spiral, flotation and Oleo Flotation processes. Beneficiation studies were also carried out on - 0.5mm coal fines using flotation and oleo flotation by splitting at size 0.063mm.Size fraction of 0.5mm-0.063mm and -0.063mm size were treated in flotation and Oleo flotation respectively. The washability studies on the fraction 3-0.5 mm indicated that good separation may be achieved when it is fed in a spiral. Combined product of Spiral, Flotation and Oleo Flotation has given a significant yield at acceptable ash%. Studies were also conducted to see the dewatering of combined product by batch type centrifuge. It may further be suggested that combination of different processes may be used to treat the -3 mm fraction in an integrated manner to achieve the yield at the desired ash level. The treatment of the 3/1 mm -0.5 mm size fraction by spiral,-0.5-0.63 mm by conventional froth flotation and - 0.063 fractions by oleo flotation may provide a complete solution of beneficiation and dewatering of coal fines, and can effectively address the environmental problems caused by coal fines.
Effect of Medium Capacity on the Relationship between Chemical Heterogeneity and Linearly Adsorbed Solute Dispersion into Fixed Beds
The paper aims at investigating influence of medium capacity on linear adsorbed solute dispersion into chemically heterogeneous fixed beds. A discrete chemical heterogeneity distribution is considered in the one-dimensional advectivedispersive equation. The partial differential equation is solved using finite volumes method based on the Adam-Bashforth algorithm. Increased dispersion is estimated by comparing breakthrough curves second order moments and keeping identical hydrodynamic properties. As a result, dispersion increase due to chemical heterogeneity depends on the column size and surprisingly on the solid capacity. The more intense capacity is, the more important solute dispersion is. Medium length which is known to favour this effect vanishing according to the linear adsorption in fixed bed seems to create nonmonotonous variation of dispersion because of the heterogeneity. This nonmonotonous behaviour is also favoured by high capacities.
The Effect of Slow Variation of Base Flow Profile on the Stability of Slightly Curved Mixing Layers
The effect of small non-parallelism of the base flow on the stability of slightly curved mixing layers is analyzed in the present paper. Assuming that the instability wavelength is much smaller than the length scale of the variation of the base flow we derive an amplitude evolution equation using the method of multiple scales. The proposed asymptotic model provides connection between parallel flow approximations and takes into account slow longitudinal variation of the base flow.
Synthesis and Thermoelectric Behavior in Nanoparticles of Doped Co Ferrites

Samples of CoFe2-xCrxO4 where x varies from 0.0 to 0.5 were prepared by co-precipitation route. These samples were sintered at 750°C for 2 hours. These particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) at room temperature. The FCC spinel structure was confirmed by XRD patterns of the samples. The crystallite sizes of these particles were calculated from the most intense peak by Scherrer formula. The crystallite sizes lie in the range of 37-60 nm. The lattice parameter was found decreasing upon substitution of Cr. DC electrical resistivity was measured as a function of temperature. The room temperature thermoelectric power was measured for the prepared samples. The magnitude of Seebeck coefficient depends on the composition and resistivity of the samples.

Collaborative Mobile Device based Data Collection and Dissemination using MIH for Effective Emergency Management
The importance of our country-s communication system is noticeable when a disaster occurs. The communication system in our country includes wired and wireless telephone networks, radio, satellite system and more increasingly internet. Even though our communication system is most extensive and dependable, extreme conditions can put a strain on them. Interoperability between heterogeneous wireless networks can be used to provide efficient communication for emergency first response. IEEE 802.21 specifies Media Independent Handover (MIH) services to enhance the mobile user experience by optimizing handovers between heterogeneous access networks. This paper presents an algorithm to improve congestion control in MIH framework. It is analytically shown that by including time factor in network selection we can optimize congestion in the network.
Survey Gamma Radiation Measurements in Commercially-used Natural Tiling Rocks in Iran
The gamma radiation in samples of a variety of natural tiling rocks (granites) produced and imported in Iran use in the building industry was measured, employing high-resolution Gamma-ray spectroscopy. The rock samples were pulverized, sealed in 0.5 liter plastic Marinelli beakers, and measured in the laboratory with an accumulating time between 50000 and 80000 second each. From the measured Gamma-ray spectra, activity concentrations were determined for 232Th (range from 6.5 to 172.2 Bq kg-1), 238U (from 7.5 to 178.1 Bq kg-1 ),226Ra( from 3.8 to 94.2 Bq kg-1 ) 40K (from 556.9 to 1539.2 Bq kg-1). From the 29 samples measured in this study, “Nehbndan ( Berjand )" appears to present the highest concentrations for 232Th,“Big Red Flower (China) "for 238U , “ Khoram dareh" for 226 Ra and “ Peranshahr" for 40K , respectively.
Knowledge Management and e-Learning –An Agent-Based Approach
In this paper an open agent-based modular framework for personalized and adaptive curriculum generation in e-learning environment is proposed. Agent-based approaches offer several potential advantages over alternative approaches. Agent-based systems exhibit high levels of flexibility and robustness in dynamic or unpredictable environments by virtue of their intrinsic autonomy. The presented framework enables integration of different types of expert agents, various kinds of learning objects and user modeling techniques. It creates possibilities for adaptive e-learning process. The KM e-learning system is in a process of implementation in Varna Free University and will be used for supporting the educational process at the University.
Detection of Oxidative Stress Induced by Mobile Phone Radiation in Tissues of Mice using 8-Oxo-7, 8-Dihydro-2'-Deoxyguanosine as a Biomarker
We investigated oxidative DNA damage caused by radio frequency radiation using 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'- deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) generated in mice tissues after exposure to 900 MHz mobile phone radio frequency in three independent experiments. The RF was generated by a Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) signal generator. The radio frequency field was adjusted to 25 V/m. The whole body specific absorption rate (SAR) was 1.0 W/kg. Animals were exposed to this field for 30 min daily for 30 days. 24 h post-exposure, blood serum, brain and spleen were removed and DNA was isolated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure 8-oxodG concentration. All animals survived the whole experimental period. The body weight of animals did not change significantly at the end of the experiment. No statistically significant differences observed in the levels of oxidative stress. Our results are not in favor of the hypothesis that 900 MHz RF induces oxidative damage.
Simulation of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Inclined Cavity using Lattice Boltzmann Method

In this paper, Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is used to study laminar flow with mixed convection heat transfer inside a two-dimensional inclined lid-driven rectangular cavity with aspect ratio AR = 3. Bottom wall of the cavity is maintained at lower temperature than the top lid, and its vertical walls are assumed insulated. Top lid motion results in fluid motion inside the cavity. Inclination of the cavity causes horizontal and vertical components of velocity to be affected by buoyancy force. To include this effect, calculation procedure of macroscopic properties by LBM is changed and collision term of Boltzmann equation is modified. A computer program is developed to simulate this problem using BGK model of lattice Boltzmann method. The effects of the variations of Richardson number and inclination angle on the thermal and flow behavior of the fluid inside the cavity are investigated. The results are presented as velocity and temperature profiles, stream function contours and isotherms. It is concluded that LBM has good potential to simulate mixed convection heat transfer problems.

Hydrogen Sensor Based on Surface Activated WO3 Films by Pd Nanoclusters
Tungsten trioxide has been prepared by using P-PTA as a precursor on alumina substrates by spin coating method. Palladium introduced on WO3 film via electrolysis deposition by using palladium chloride as catalytic precursor. The catalytic precursor was introduced on the series of films with different morphologies. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and XPS were applied to analyze structure and morphology of the fabricated thin films. Then we measured variation of samples- electrical conductivity of pure and Pd added films in air and diluted hydrogen. Addition of Pd resulted in a remarkable improvement of the hydrogen sensing properties of WO3 by detection of Hydrogen below 1% at room temperature. Also variation of the electrical conductivity in the presence of diluted hydrogen revealed that response of samples depends rather strongly on the palladium configuration on the surface.
Multi-objective Optimization of Vehicle Passive Suspension with a Two-Terminal Mass Using Chebyshev Goal Programming
To improve the dynamics response of the vehicle passive suspension, a two-terminal mass is suggested to connect in parallel with the suspension strut. Three performance criteria, tire grip, ride comfort and suspension deflection, are taken into consideration to optimize the suspension parameters. However, the three criteria are conflicting and non-commensurable. For this reason, the Chebyshev goal programming method is applied to find the best tradeoff among the three objectives. A simulation case is presented to describe the multi-objective optimization procedure. For comparison, the Chebyshev method is also employed to optimize the design of a conventional passive suspension. The effectiveness of the proposed design method has been clearly demonstrated by the result. It is also shown that the suspension with a two-terminal mass in parallel has better performance in terms of the three objectives.
Dynamic Threshold Adjustment Approach For Neural Networks

The use of neural networks for recognition application is generally constrained by their inherent parameters inflexibility after the training phase. This means no adaptation is accommodated for input variations that have any influence on the network parameters. Attempts were made in this work to design a neural network that includes an additional mechanism that adjusts the threshold values according to the input pattern variations. The new approach is based on splitting the whole network into two subnets; main traditional net and a supportive net. The first deals with the required output of trained patterns with predefined settings, while the second tolerates output generation dynamically with tuning capability for any newly applied input. This tuning comes in the form of an adjustment to the threshold values. Two levels of supportive net were studied; one implements an extended additional layer with adjustable neuronal threshold setting mechanism, while the second implements an auxiliary net with traditional architecture performs dynamic adjustment to the threshold value of the main net that is constructed in dual-layer architecture. Experiment results and analysis of the proposed designs have given quite satisfactory conducts. The supportive layer approach achieved over 90% recognition rate, while the multiple network technique shows more effective and acceptable level of recognition. However, this is achieved at the price of network complexity and computation time. Recognition generalization may be also improved by accommodating capabilities involving all the innate structures in conjugation with Intelligence abilities with the needs of further advanced learning phases.

Equilibrium Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Adsorption on Zeolites
High pressure adsorption of carbon dioxide on zeolite 13X was investigated in the pressure range (0 to 4) Mpa and temperatures 298, 308 and 323K. The data fitting is accomplished with the Toth, UNILAN, Dubinin-Astakhov and virial adsorption models which are generally used for micro porous adsorbents such as zeolites. Comparison with experimental data from the literature indicated that the virial model would best determine results. These results may be partly attributed to the flexibility of the virial model which can accommodate as many constants as the data warrants.
The Comparative Analysis of Two Typical Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Exhaust Nozzles on Aerodynamic Characteristics

The comparisons of two typical fluidic thrust vectoring exhaust nozzles including two-dimensional(2-D) nozzle and axisymmetric nozzle on aerodynamic characteristics was presented by numerical simulation. The results show: the thrust vector angles increased with the increasing secondary flow but decreased with the nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) increasing. With the same secondary flow and NPR, the thrust vector angles of 2-D nozzle were higher than the axisymmetric nozzle-s. So with the lower NPR and more secondary weight flow, the much higher thrust vector angle was caused by 2-D fluidic nozzle. And with the higher NPR and less secondary weight flow, there was not much difference in angular dimension between two nozzles.

Preliminary Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Data Center: Case Study
As the data-driven economy is growing faster than ever and the demand for energy is being spurred, we are facing unprecedented challenges of improving energy efficiency in data centers. Effectively maximizing energy efficiency or minimising the cooling energy demand is becoming pervasive for data centers. This paper investigates overall energy consumption and the energy efficiency of cooling system for a data center in Finland as a case study. The power, cooling and energy consumption characteristics and operation condition of facilities are examined and analysed. Potential energy and cooling saving opportunities are identified and further suggestions for improving the performance of cooling system are put forward. Results are presented as a comprehensive evaluation of both the energy performance and good practices of energy efficient cooling operations for the data center. Utilization of an energy recovery concept for cooling system is proposed. The conclusion we can draw is that even though the analysed data center demonstrated relatively high energy efficiency, based on its power usage effectiveness value, there is still a significant potential for energy saving from its cooling systems.
Analytical Model for Predicting Whole Building Heat Transfer
A new analytical model is developed which provides close-formed solutions for both transient indoor and envelope temperature changes in buildings. Time-dependent boundary temperature is presented as Fourier series which can approximate real weather conditions. The final close-formed solutions are simple, concise, and comprehensive. The model was compared with numerical results and good accuracy was obtained. The model can be used as design and control guidelines in engineering applications for analysing mechanical heat transfer properties for buildings.
Study on Rupture of Tube Type Crash Energy Absorber using Finite Element Method
The aim of this paper is to confirm the effect of key design parameters, the punch radius and punch angle, on rupture of the expansion tube using a finite element analysis with a ductile damage model. The results of the finite element analysis indicated that the expansion ratio of the tube was mainly affected by the radius of the punch. However, the rupture was more affected by the punch angle than the radius of the punch. The existence of a specific punch angle, at which rupture did not occur, even if the radius of the punch was increased, was found.
Fenestration Effects on Cross Ventilation for a Typical Taiwanese School Building When Applying Wind Profile
Appropriate ventilation in a classroom is helpful for enhancing air exchange rate and student concentration. This study focuses on the effects of fenestration in a four-story school building by performing numerical simulation of a building when considering indoor and outdoor environments simultaneously. The wind profile function embedded in PHOENICS code was set as the inlet boundary condition in a suburban environment. Sixteen fenestration combinations were compared in a classroom containing thirty seats. This study evaluates mean age of air (AGE) and airflow pattern of a classroom on different floors. Considering both wind profile and fenestration effects, the airflow on higher floors is channeled toward the area near ceiling in a room and causes older mean age of air in the breathing zone. The results in this study serve as a useful guide for enhancing natural ventilation in a typical school building.
Chelate Enhanced Modified Fenton Treatment for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Contaminated Soils
This work focuses on the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soil via Fenton treatment coupled with novel chelating agent (CA). The feasibility of chelated modified Fenton (MF) treatment to promote PAH oxidation in artificially contaminated soils was investigated in laboratory scale batch experiments at natural pH. The effects of adding inorganic and organic CA are discussed. Experiments using different iron catalyst to CA ratios were conducted, resulting in hydrogen peroxide: soil: iron: CA weight ratios that varied from 0.049: 1: 0.072: 0.008 to 0.049: 1: 0.072: 0.067. The results revealed that (1) inorganic CA could provide much higher PAH removal efficiency and (2) most of the proposed CAs were more efficient than commonly utilised CAs even at mild ratio. This work highlights the potential of novel chelating agents in maintaining a suitable environment throughout the Fenton treatment, particularly in soils with high buffer capacity.
New Multipath Node-Disjoint Routing Based on AODV Protocol
Today, node-disjoint routing becomes inessential technique in communication of packets among various nodes in networks. Meanwhile AODV (Ad Hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector) creates single-path route between a pair of source and destination nodes. Some researches has done so far to make multipath node-disjoint routing based on AODV protocol. But however their overhead and end-to-end delay are relatively high, while the detail of their code is not available too. This paper proposes a new approach of multipath node-disjoint routing based on AODV protocol. Then the algorithm of analytical model is presented. The extensive results of this algorithm will be presented in the next paper.
Rational Structure of Cable Truss

One of the main problems of suspended cable structures is initial shape change under the action of non uniform load. The problem can be solved by increasing of weight of construction or by using of prestressing. But this methods cause increasing of materials consumption of suspended cable structure. The cable truss usage is another way how the problem of shape change under the action of non uniform load can be fixed. The cable trusses with the vertical and inclined suspensions, cross web and single cable were analyzed as the main load-bearing structures of suspension bridge. It was shown, that usage of cable truss allows to reduce the vertical displacements up to 32% in comparison with the single cable in case of non uniformly distributed load. In case of uniformly distributed load single cable is preferable.

The Light Response Characteristics of Oxide-Based Thin Film Transistors
We fabricated the inverted-staggered etch stopper structure oxide-based TFT and investigated the characteristics of oxide TFT under the 400 nm wavelength light illumination. When 400 nm light was illuminated, the threshold voltage (Vth) decreased and subthreshold slope (SS) increased at forward sweep, while Vth and SS were not altered when larger wavelength lights, such as 650 nm, 550 nm and 450 nm, were illuminated. At reverse sweep, the transfer curve barely changed even under 400 nm light. Our experimental results support that photo-induced hole carriers are captured by donor-like interface trap and it caused the decrease of Vth and increase of SS. We investigated the interface trap density increases proportionally to the photo-induced hole concentration at active layer.
Prediction of Henry's Constant in Polymer Solutions using the Peng-Robinson Equation of State

The peng-Robinson (PR), a cubic equation of state (EoS), is extended to polymers by using a single set of energy (A1, A2, A3) and co-volume (b) parameters per polymer fitted to experimental volume data. Excellent results for the volumetric behavior of the 11 polymer up to 2000 bar pressure are obtained. The EoS is applied to the correlation and prediction of Henry constants in polymer solutions comprising three polymer and many nonpolar and polar solvents, including supercritical gases. The correlation achieved with two adjustable parameter is satisfactory compared with the experimental data. As a result, the present work provides a simple and useful model for the prediction of Henry's constant for polymer containing systems including those containing polar, nonpolar and supercritical fluids.

Nonlinear Evolution of Electron Density Under High-Energy-Density Conditions
Evolution of one-dimensional electron system under high-energy-density (HED) conditions is investigated, using the principle of least-action and variational method. In a single-mode modulation model, the amplitude and spatial wavelength of the modulation are chosen to be general coordinates. Equations of motion are derived by considering energy conservation and force balance. Numerical results show that under HED conditions, electron density modulation could exist. Time dependences of amplitude and wavelength are both positively related to the rate of energy input. Besides, initial loading speed has a significant effect on modulation amplitude, while wavelength relies more on loading duration.
Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry of Proteins

The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA), immunoglobulin G (IgG) and fibrinogen (Fgn) on fluorinated selfassembled monolayers have been studied using time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE). The objective of the work has to establish the utility of ToF-SIMS for the determination of the amount of protein adsorbed on the surface. Quantification of surface adsorbed proteins was carried out using SE and a good correlation between ToF-SIMS results and SE was achieved. The surface distribution of proteins were also analysed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). We show that the surface distribution of proteins strongly affect the ToFSIMS results.

Experimental Study of the Extraction of Copper(II) from Sulphuric Acid by Means of Sodium Diethyldithiocarbamate (SDDT)
The present work presents the extraction of copper(II) from sulphuric acid solutions with Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (SDDT), and six different organic diluents: Dichloromethane, Chloroform, Carbon tetrachloride, Toluene, xylene and Cyclohexane, were tested. The pair SDDT/Chloroform showed to be the most selective in removing the copper cations, and hence was considered throughout the experimental study. The effects of operating parameters such as the initial concentration of the extracting agent, the agitation time, the agitation speed and the acid concentration were considered. For an initial concentration of Cu (II) of 63 ppm in a 0.5 M sulphuric acid solution, both with a mass of the extracting agent of 20 mg, an extraction percentage of about 97.8 % and a distribution coefficient of 44.42 were obtained, respectively, confirming the performance of the SDDT-Chloroform pair.
Characterization of Microroughness Parameters in Cu and Cu2O Nanoparticles Embedded in Carbon Film
The morphological parameter of a thin film surface can be characterized by power spectral density (PSD) functions which provides a better description to the topography than the RMS roughness and imparts several useful information of the surface including fractal and superstructure contributions. Through the present study Nanoparticle copper/carbon composite films were prepared by co-deposition of RF-Sputtering and RF-PECVD method from acetylene gas and copper target. Surface morphology of thin films is characterized by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Carbon content of our films was obtained by Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) and it varied from .4% to 78%. The power values of power spectral density (PSD) for the AFM data were determined by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms. We investigate the effect of carbon on the roughness of thin films surface. Using such information, roughness contributions of the surface have been successfully extracted.
Reduce of Fermentation Time in Composting Process by Using a Special Microbial Consortium
Composting is the process in which municipal solid waste (MSW) and other organic waste materials such as biosolids and manures are decomposed through the action of bacteria and other microorganisms into a stable granular material which, applied to land, as soil conditioner. Microorganisms, especially those that are able to degrade polymeric organic material have a key role in speed up this process. The aim of this study has been established to isolation of microorganisms with high ability to production extracellular enzymes for degradation of natural polymers that are exists in MSW for decreasing time of degradation phase. Our experimental study for isolation designed in two phases: in first phase we isolated degrading microorganism with selected media that consist a special natural polymer such as cellulose, starch, lipids and etc as sole source of carbon. In second phase we selected microorganism that had high degrading enzyme production with enzymatic assay for seed production. However, our findings in pilot scale have indicated that usage of this microbial consortium had high efficiency for decreasing degradation phase.
Drainage Prediction for Dam using Fuzzy Support Vector Regression
The drainage Estimating is an important factor in dam management. In this paper, we use fuzzy support vector regression (FSVR) to predict the drainage of the Sirikrit Dam at Uttaradit province, Thailand. The results show that the FSVR is a suitable method in drainage estimating.
Tritium Determination in Danube River Water in Serbia by Liquid Scintillation Counter
Tritium activity concentration in Danube river water in Serbia has been determinate using a liquid scintillation counter Quantulus 1220. During December 2010, water samples were taken along the entire course of Danube through Serbia, from Hungarian- Serbian to Romanian-Serbian border. This investigation is very important because of the nearness of nuclear reactor Paks in Hungary. Sample preparation was performed by standard test method using Optiphase HiSafe 3 scintillation cocktail. We used a rapid method for the preparation of environmental samples, without electrolytic enrichment.
Protocol and Method for Preventing Attacks from the Web
Nowadays, computer worms, viruses and Trojan horse become popular, and they are collectively called malware. Those malware just spoiled computers by deleting or rewriting important files a decade ago. However, recent malware seems to be born to earn money. Some of malware work for collecting personal information so that malicious people can find secret information such as password for online banking, evidence for a scandal or contact address which relates with the target. Moreover, relation between money and malware becomes more complex. Many kinds of malware bear bots to get springboards. Meanwhile, for ordinary internet users, countermeasures against malware come up against a blank wall. Pattern matching becomes too much waste of computer resources, since matching tools have to deal with a lot of patterns derived from subspecies. Virus making tools can automatically bear subspecies of malware. Moreover, metamorphic and polymorphic malware are no longer special. Recently there appears malware checking sites that check contents in place of users' PC. However, there appears a new type of malicious sites that avoids check by malware checking sites. In this paper, existing protocols and methods related with the web are reconsidered in terms of protection from current attacks, and new protocol and method are indicated for the purpose of security of the web.
Construction of Recombinant E.coli Expressing Fusion Protein to Produce 1,3-Propanediol
In this study, a synthetic pathway was created by assembling genes from Clostridium butyricum and Escherichia coli in different combinations. Among the genes were dhaB1 and dhaB2 from C. butyricum VPI1718 coding for glycerol dehydratase (GDHt) and its activator (GDHtAc), respectively, involved in the conversion of glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA). The yqhD gene from E.coli BL21 was also included which codes for an NADPHdependent 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase isoenzyme (PDORI) reducing 3-HPA to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD). Molecular modeling analysis indicated that the conformation of fusion protein of YQHD and DHAB1 was favorable for direct molecular channeling of the intermediate 3-HPA. According to the simulation results, the yqhD and dhaB1 gene were assembled in the upstream of dhaB2 to express a fusion protein, yielding the recombinant strain E. coliBL21 (DE3)//pET22b+::yqhD-dhaB1_dhaB2 (strain BP41Y3). Strain BP41Y3 gave 10-fold higher 1,3-PD concentration than E. coliBL21 (DE3)//pET22b+::yqhD-dhaB1_dhaB2 (strain BP31Y2) expressing the recombinant enzymes simultaneously but in a non-fusion mode. This is the first report using a gene fusion approach to enhance the biological conversion of glycerol to the value added compound 1,3- PD.
Neutralization of Alkaline Waste-Waters using a Blend of Microorganisms
The efficient operation of any biological treatment process requires pre-treatment of incompatible pollutants such as acids, bases, oil, toxic substances, etc. which hamper the treatment of other major components which are otherwise degradable. The pre-treatment of alkaline waste-waters, generated from various industries like textile, paper & pulp, potato-processing industries, etc., having a pH of 10 or higher, is essential. The pre-treatment, i.e., neutralization of such alkaline waste-waters can be achieved by chemical as well as biological means. However, the biological pretreatment offers better package over the chemical means by being safe and economical. The biological pre-treatment can be accomplished by using a blend of microorganisms able to withstand such harsh alkaline conditions. In the present study, for the proper pre-treatment of alkaline waste-waters, a package of alkalophilic bacteria is formulated to neutralise the alkaline pH of the industrial waste-waters. The developed microbial package is cost-effective as well as environmental friendly.
Microalgal Lipid Production by Microalgae Chlorella sp. KKU-S2
The objective of this work is to produce heterotrophic microalgal lipid in flask-batch fermentation. Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 supported maximum values of 0.374 g/L/d, 0.478 g lipid/g cells, and 0.112 g/L/d for volumetric lipid production rate, and specific yield of lipid, and specific rate of lipid production, respectively when culture was performed on BG-11 medium supplemented with 50g/L glucose. Among the carbon sources tested, maximum cell yield coefficient (YX/S, g/L), maximum specific yield of lipid (YP/X, g lipid/g cells) and volumetric lipid production rate (QP, g/L/d) were found of 0.728, 0.237, and 0.619, respectively, using sugarcane molasses as carbon source. The main components of fatty acid from extracted lipid were palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid which similar to vegetable oils and suitable for biodiesel production.
Modeling and Investigation of Elongation in Free Explosive Forming of Aluminum Alloy Plate

Because of high ductility, aluminum alloys, have been widely used as an important base of metal forming industries. But the main week point of these alloys is their low strength so in forming them with conventional methods like deep drawing, hydro forming, etc have been always faced with problems like fracture during of forming process. Because of this, recently using of explosive forming method for forming of these plates has been recommended. In this paper free explosive forming of A2024 aluminum alloy is numerically simulated and during it, explosion wave propagation process is studied. Consequences of this simulation can be effective in prediction of quality of production. These consequences are compared with an experimental test and show the superiority of this method to similar methods like hydro forming and deep drawing.

Lipase Catalyzed Synthesis of Aromatic Esters of Sugar Alcohols

Commercially available lipases (Candida antarctica lipase B, Novozyme 435, Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase, and Lipozyme TL IM), as well as sol-gel immobilized lipases, have been screened for their ability to acylate regioselectively xylitol, sorbitol, and mannitol with a phenolic ester in a binary mixture of t-butanol and dimethylsulfoxide. HPLC and MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed the exclusive formation of monoesters for all studied sugar alcohols. The lipases immobilized by the sol-gel entrapment method proved to be efficient catalysts, leading to high conversions (up to 60%) in the investigated acylation reactions. From a sequence of silane precursors with different nonhydrolyzable groups in their structure, the presence of octyl and i-butyl group was most beneficial for the catalytic activity of sol-gel entrapped lipases in the studied process.

Classification of Initial Stripe Height Patterns using Radial Basis Function Neural Network for Proportional Gain Prediction
This paper aims to improve a fine lapping process of hard disk drive (HDD) lapping machines by removing materials from each slider together with controlling the strip height (SH) variation to minimum value. The standard deviation is the key parameter to evaluate the strip height variation, hence it is minimized. In this paper, a design of experiment (DOE) with factorial analysis by twoway analysis of variance (ANOVA) is adopted to obtain a statistically information. The statistics results reveal that initial stripe height patterns affect the final SH variation. Therefore, initial SH classification using a radial basis function neural network is implemented to achieve the proportional gain prediction.
HDS: Alumina- Boria Supported Catalysts
Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in a high pressure batch reactor was done at 320 °C on CoMoS/Al2O3-B2O3 (4, 10, and 16 wt. % of Boria) using nhexadecane as solvent, dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) in tetradecane as sulfur agent, and stirring at 1000 rpm. The effects of boria were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ammonia, and Brunauer-Emmet- Teller (BET) experiments. The results showed that the catalyst prepared with low boria content (4 wt. %) had HDS activity (in pseudo first order kinetic constant basis) value ~1.45 times higher to that of CoMoS/Al2O3 catalyst.
Implementation of SU-MIMO and MU-MIMOGTD-System under Imperfect CSI Knowledge
We study the performance of compressed beamforming weights feedback technique in generalized triangular decomposition (GTD) based MIMO system. GTD is a beamforming technique that enjoys QoS flexibility. The technique, however, will perform at its optimum only when the full knowledge of channel state information (CSI) is available at the transmitter. This would be impossible in the real system, where there are channel estimation error and limited feedback. We suggest a way to implement the quantized beamforming weights feedback, which can significantly reduce the feedback data, on GTD-based MIMO system and investigate the performance of the system. Interestingly, we found that compressed beamforming weights feedback does not degrade the BER performance of the system at low input power, while the channel estimation error and quantization do. For comparison, GTD is more sensitive to compression and quantization, while SVD is more sensitive to the channel estimation error. We also explore the performance of GTDbased MU-MIMO system, and find that the BER performance starts to degrade largely at around -20 dB channel estimation error.
Biodiesel Fuel Production by Methanolysis of Fish Oil Derived from the Discarded Parts of Fish Catalyzed by Carica papaya Lipase
In this paper, naturally immobilized lipase, Carica papaya lipase, catalyzed biodiesel production from fish oil was studied. The refined fish oil, extracted from the discarded parts of fish, was used as a starting material for biodiesel production. The effects of molar ratio of oil: methanol, lipase dosage, initial water activity of lipase, temperature and solvent were investigated. It was found that Carica papaya lipase was suitable for methanolysis of fish oil to produce methyl ester. The maximum yield of methyl ester could reach up to 83% with the optimal reaction conditions: oil: methanol molar ratio of 1: 4, 20% (based on oil) of lipase, initial water activity of lipase at 0.23 and 20% (based on oil) of tert-butanol at 40oC after 18 h of reaction time. There was negligible loss in lipase activity even after repeated use for 30 cycles.
Problem-based Learning Approach to Human Computer Interaction
Human Computer Interaction (HCI) has been an emerging field that draws in the experts from various fields to enhance the application of computer programs and the ease of computer users. HCI has much to do with learning and cognition and an emerging approach to learning and problem-solving is problembased learning (PBL). The processes of PBL involve important cognitive functions in the various stages. This paper will illustrate how closely related fields to HCI, PBL and cognitive psychology can benefit from informing each other through analysing various cognitive functions. Several cognitive functions from cognitive function disc (CFD) would be presented and discussed in relation to human-computer interface. This paper concludes with the implications of bridging the gaps amongst these disciplines.
Saturated Gain of Doped Multilayer Quantum Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers
The effect of the number of quantum dot (QD) layers on the saturated gain of doped QD semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) has been studied using multi-population coupled rate equations. The developed model takes into account the effect of carrier coupling between adjacent layers. It has been found that increasing the number of QD layers (K) increases the unsaturated optical gain for K
Prospects in Waste Oil Shale Ash Sustainable Valorization
An innovative approach utilizing highly alkaline oil shale waste ash and carbon dioxide gas (CO2), associated with power production, as a resource for production of precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) is introduced in this paper. The specifics and feasibility of the integrated ash valorization and CO2 sequestration process by indirect aqueous carbonation of lime-consisting ash were elaborated and the main parameters established. Detailed description of the formed precipitates was included. Complimentary carbonation experiments with commercial CaO fine powder were conducted for comparative characterization of the final products obtained on the basis of two different raw materials. Finally, the expected CO2 uptake was evaluated.
A New Approach In Protein Folding Studies Revealed The Potential Site For Nucleation Center

A new approach to predict the 3D structures of proteins by combining the knowledge-based method and Molecular Dynamics Simulation is presented on the chicken villin headpiece subdomain (HP-36). Comparative modeling is employed as the knowledge-based method to predict the core region (Ala9-Asn28) of the protein while the remaining residues are built as extended regions (Met1-Lys8; Leu29-Phe36) which then further refined using Molecular Dynamics Simulation for 120 ns. Since the core region is built based on a high sequence identity to the template (65%) resulting in RMSD of 1.39 Å from the native, it is believed that this well-developed core region can act as a 'nucleation center' for subsequent rapid downhill folding. Results also demonstrate that the formation of the non-native contact which tends to hamper folding rate can be avoided. The best 3D model that exhibits most of the native characteristics is identified using clustering method which then further ranked based on the conformational free energies. It is found that the backbone RMSD of the best model compared to the NMR-MDavg is 1.01 Å and 3.53 Å, for the core region and the complete protein, respectively. In addition to this, the conformational free energy of the best model is lower by 5.85 kcal/mol as compared to the NMR-MDavg. This structure prediction protocol is shown to be effective in predicting the 3D structure of small globular protein with a considerable accuracy in much shorter time compared to the conventional Molecular Dynamics simulation alone.

Investigation on Fluid Flow Characteristics of the Orifice in Nuclear Power Plant
The present paper represents a methodology for investigating flow characteristics near orifice plate by using a commercial computational fluid dynamics code. The flow characteristics near orifice plate which is located in the auxiliary feedwater system were modeled via three different levels of grid and four different types of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with proper near-wall treatment. The results from CFD code were compared with experimental data in terms of differential pressure through the orifice plate. In this preliminary study, the Realizable k-ε and the Reynolds stress models with enhanced wall treatment were suitable to analyze flow characteristics near orifice plate, and the results had a good agreement with experimental data.
Workplace Monitoring During Interventional Cardiology Procedures
Interventional cardiologists are at greater risk from radiation exposure as a result of the procedures they undertake than most other medical specialists. A study was performed to evaluate operator dose during interventional cardiology procedures and to establish methods of operator dose reduction with a radiation protective device. Different procedure technique and use of protective tools can explain big difference in the annual equivalent dose received by the professionals. Strategies to prevent and monitor radiation exposure, advanced protective shielding and effective radiation monitoring methods should be applied.
Microwave Assisted Fast Synthesis of Flower-like ZnO Based Guanidinium Template for Photodegradation of Azo Dye Congo Red
ZnO nanostructure were synthesized via microwave method using zinc acetate as starting material, guanidinium as structure directing agents, and water as solvent.. This work investigates the photodegradation of azo dyes using the ZnO Flowerlike in aqueous solutions. As synthesized ZnO samples were characterized using X-Ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and FTIR spectroscopy.In this work photodecolorization of congored azo dye under UV irradiation by nano ZnO was studied.
Design and Implementation a New Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm using Genetic Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless Sensor Networks consist of small battery powered devices with limited energy resources. once deployed, the small sensor nodes are usually inaccessible to the user, and thus replacement of the energy source is not feasible. Hence, One of the most important issues that needs to be enhanced in order to improve the life span of the network is energy efficiency. to overcome this demerit many research have been done. The clustering is the one of the representative approaches. in the clustering, the cluster heads gather data from nodes and sending them to the base station. In this paper, we introduce a dynamic clustering algorithm using genetic algorithm. This algorithm takes different parameters into consideration to increase the network lifetime. To prove efficiency of proposed algorithm, we simulated the proposed algorithm compared with LEACH algorithm using the matlab
Multi-Objective Optimization of Gas Turbine Power Cycle
Because of importance of energy, optimization of power generation systems is necessary. Gas turbine cycles are suitable manner for fast power generation, but their efficiency is partly low. In order to achieving higher efficiencies, some propositions are preferred such as recovery of heat from exhaust gases in a regenerator, utilization of intercooler in a multistage compressor, steam injection to combustion chamber and etc. However thermodynamic optimization of gas turbine cycle, even with above components, is necessary. In this article multi-objective genetic algorithms are employed for Pareto approach optimization of Regenerative-Intercooling-Gas Turbine (RIGT) cycle. In the multiobjective optimization a number of conflicting objective functions are to be optimized simultaneously. The important objective functions that have been considered for optimization are entropy generation of RIGT cycle (Ns) derives using Exergy Analysis and Gouy-Stodola theorem, thermal efficiency and the net output power of RIGT Cycle. These objectives are usually conflicting with each other. The design variables consist of thermodynamic parameters such as compressor pressure ratio (Rp), excess air in combustion (EA), turbine inlet temperature (TIT) and inlet air temperature (T0). At the first stage single objective optimization has been investigated and the method of Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) has been used for multi-objective optimization. Optimization procedures are performed for two and three objective functions and the results are compared for RIGT Cycle. In order to investigate the optimal thermodynamic behavior of two objectives, different set, each including two objectives of output parameters, are considered individually. For each set Pareto front are depicted. The sets of selected decision variables based on this Pareto front, will cause the best possible combination of corresponding objective functions. There is no superiority for the points on the Pareto front figure, but they are superior to any other point. In the case of three objective optimization the results are given in tables.
Design a Biodegradable Hydrogel for Drug Delivery System
In this article, we synthesize a novel chitosan -based superabsorbent hydrogel via graft copolymerization of mixtures acrylic acid (AA) and N-vinyl pyrollidon onto chitosan backbones. The polymerization reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium and in the presence of ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator and N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinker.The hydrogel structures were confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. The swelling behavior of these absorbent polymers was also investigated in various salt solutions. Results indicated that the swelling capacity decreased with an increase in the ionic strength of the swelling medium. Furthermore, the swelling of superabsorbing hydrogels was examined in solutions with pH values ranging between 1.0 and 13.0. It showed a reversible pH-responsive behavior at pHs 2.0 and 8.0. This on-off switching behavior makes the synthesized hydrogels as an excellent candidate for controlled delivery of bioactive agents.
pH-Responsiveness Properties of a Biodigradable Hydrogels Based on Carrageenan-g-poly(NaAA-co-NIPAM)
A novel thermo-sensitive superabsorbent hydrogel with salt- and pH-responsiveness properties was obtained by grafting of mixtures of acrylic acid (AA) and N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) monomers onto kappa-carrageenan, kC, using ammonium persulfate (APS) as a free radical initiator in the presence of methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinker. Infrared spectroscopy was carried out to confirm the chemical structure of the hydrogel. Moreover, morphology of the samples was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of MBA concentration and AA/NIPAM weight ratio on the water absorbency capacity has been investigated. The swelling variations of hydrogels were explained according to swelling theory based on the hydrogel chemical structure. The hydrogels exhibited salt-sensitivity and cation exchange properties. The temperature- and pH-reversibility properties of the hydrogels make the intelligent polymers as good candidates for considering as potential carriers for bioactive agents, e.g. drugs.
Zno Nanocomposites: Control of Enviromental Effects for Preservation of old Manuscripts
We investigate the ZnO role in the inherent protection of old manuscripts to protect them against environmental damaging effect of ultraviolet radiation, pollutant gasses, mold and bacteria. In this study a cellulosic nanocomposite of ZnO were used as protective coating on the surface of paper fibers. This layered nanocomposite can act as a consolidate materials too. Furthermore, to determine how well paper works screen objects from the damaging effects, two accelerated aging mechanisms due to light and heat are discussed. Results show good stability of papers with nanocomposite coating. Also, a good light stability was shown in the colored paper that treated with this nanocomposite. Furthermore, to demonstrate the degree of antifungal and antibacterial properties of coated papers, papers was treated with four common molds and bacteria and the good preventive effects of coated paper against molds and bacteria are described.
A Computational Comparison between Revetec Engine and Conventional Internal Combustion Engines on the Indicated Torque
This paper investigates the effect of replacing crankshaft with cam on the indicated torque during compression and power strokes in internal combustion engines. A Cycloidal cam profile was used in Revetec engine to calculate and compare the torque to a conventional engine, using a computational method. Firstly, the cylinder pressure was calculated using Ferguson equation, and then the torque calculated depending on cylinder pressure values in every crank angle. the results showed that by using Cycloidal cam profile in Revetec engine the torque can increased by 14% compared with conventional engines, which means an increase in engine efficiency.
Preliminary Evaluation of Different Water Qualities on Leucaena Leucocephala Seed Germination and Seedling Growth
The evaluation of non-conventional water resources on seed germination and seedling growth performance at early growth stages is still in progress especially in forage crops. This study was designed to test the effect of four types of water qualities (treated wastewater (TWW), industrial water (IW), grey water (GW), and Distilled water (DW)) on germination and early seedling vigor of Leucaena leucocephala. The results showed that the germination was not significantly affected by the different water qualities. Seed germination reached maximum after 17, 14, 14, and 21 days under GW, IW, TWW, and DW treatments, respectively. The highest mean of shoot length was scored under the GW treatment. And, the highest mean of root length was scored under DW which was not significant from GW treatment. The means of shoot fresh was the highest under the TWW. The means of root fresh weight was not significantly different from each other's under different treatments. The growth performance was in progress with no mortality during 21 days of growth. Thus, the best non-conventional water qualities alternatives based on the cleanness, nutrients, and toxicity are the GW, TWW and IW, respectively.
Optimization of Control Parameters for MRR in Injection Flushing Type of EDM on Stainless Steel 304 Workpiece
The operating control parameters of injection flushing type of electrical discharge machining process on stainless steel 304 workpiece with copper tools are being optimized according to its individual machining characteristic i.e. material removal rate (MRR). Lower MRR during EDM machining process may decrease its- machining productivity. Hence, the quality characteristic for MRR is set to higher-the-better to achieve the optimum machining productivity. Taguchi method has been used for the construction, layout and analysis of the experiment for each of the machining characteristic for the MRR. The use of Taguchi method in the experiment saves a lot of time and cost of preparing and machining the experiment samples. Therefore, an L18 Orthogonal array which was the fundamental component in the statistical design of experiments has been used to plan the experiments and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is used to determine the optimum machining parameters for this machining characteristic. The control parameters selected for this optimization experiments are polarity, pulse on duration, discharge current, discharge voltage, machining depth, machining diameter and dielectric liquid pressure. The result had shown that the higher the discharge voltage, the higher will be the MRR.
Biomimetic Preparation of Nano Hydroxyapatite in Gelatin-Starch Matrix
In this study, we report the synthesis and characterization of nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) in gelatin-starch matrix via biomimetic method. Characterization of the samples was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The Size and morphology of the nHAp samples were determined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). The results reveal that the shape and morphology of nHAp is influenced by presence of biopolymers as template. Carbonyl and amino groups from gelatin and hydroxyl from starch play crucial roles in HAp formation on the surface of gelatin-starch.
A New Time Dependent, High Temperature Analytical Model for the Single-electron Box in Digital Applications
Several models have been introduced so far for single electron box, SEB, which all of them were restricted to DC response and or low temperature limit. In this paper we introduce a new time dependent, high temperature analytical model for SEB for the first time. DC behavior of the introduced model will be verified against SIMON software and its time behavior will be verified against a newly published paper regarding step response of SEB.
Ionic Liquid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Wood Biomass
Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass materials from poplar, acacia, oak, and fir with different ionic liquids (ILs) containing 1-alkyl-3-methyl-imidazolium cations and various anions has been carried out. The dissolved cellulose from biomass was precipitated by adding anti-solvents into the solution and vigorous stirring. Commercial cellulases Celluclast 1.5L and Accelerase 1000 have been used for hydrolysis of untreated and pretreated lignocellulosic biomass. Among the tested ILs, [Emim]COOCH3 showed the best efficiency, resulting in highest amount of liberated reducing sugars. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using glycerol-ionic liquids combined pretreatment and dilute acid-ionic liquids combined pretreatment were evaluated and compared with glycerol pretreatment, ionic liquids pretreatment and dilute acid pretreatment.
An Investigation on the Effects of Injection Spray Cone on Propulsive Droplets in a Duct
This paper addresses one important aspect of combustion system analysis, the spray evaporation and dispersion modeling. In this study we assume an empty cylinder which is as a simulator for a ramjet engine and the cylinder has been studied by cold flow. Four nozzles have the duties of injection which are located in the entrance of cylinder. The air flow comes into the cylinder from one side and injection operation will be done. By changing injection velocity and entrance air flow velocity, we have studied droplet sizing and efficient mass fraction of fuel vapor near and at the exit area. We named the mass of fuel vapor inside the flammability limit as the efficient mass fraction. Further, we decreased the initial temperature of fuel droplets and we have repeated the investigating again. To fulfill the calculation we used a modified version of KIVA-3V.
Evolution of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) via Fuzzy Concepts and Neural Networks

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is an expounded, multi-step planning method for delivering commodity, services, and processes to customers, both external and internal to an organization. It is a way to convert between the diverse customer languages expressing demands (Voice of the Customer), and the organization-s languages expressing results that sate those demands. The policy is to establish one or more matrices that inter-relate producer and consumer reciprocal expectations. Due to its visual presence is called the “House of Quality" (HOQ). In this paper, we assumed HOQ in multi attribute decision making (MADM) pattern and through a proposed MADM method, rank technical specifications. Thereafter compute satisfaction degree of customer requirements and for it, we apply vagueness and uncertainty conditions in decision making by fuzzy set theory. This approach would propound supervised neural network (perceptron) for MADM problem solving.

The Effect of Ion Nitriding and Carbonitriding on Fretting Fatigue of Steels
The paper deals with the effect of ion nitriding and carbonitriding on fatigue strength of steel parts under the fretting conditions. Instrumented fatigue tests were carried out on surface treated flat bars from EA1N and EA4T steels with different strength. The chosen surfacing decrease importantly an unfavorable fretting effect. Nitridation suppressed the unfavorable effect of fretting almost entirely, while the influence of carbonitridation was less striking. The results were compared with those ones obtained on bars without surfacing. The causes of favorable influence of surfacing are discussed.
Efficient Preparation and Characterization of Carbohydrate Based Monomers. D-mannose Derivatives
The field of polymeric biomaterials is very important from the socio-economical viewpoint. Synthetic carbohydrate polymers are being increasingly investigated as biodegradable, biocompatible and biorenewable materials. The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize some derivatives based on D-mannose. D-mannose was chemically modified to obtain 1-O-allyl-2,3:5,6-di- O-isopropylidene-D-mannofuranose and 1-O-(2-,3--epoxy-propyl)- 2,3:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-D-mannofuranose. The chemical structure of the resulting compounds was characterized by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy, and by HPLC-MS.
On Unburned Carbon in Coal Ash from Various Combustion Units
Work is focused to the study of unburned carbon in ash from coal (and wastes) combustion in 8 combustion tests at 3 fluidised-bed power station, at co-combustion of coal and wastes (also at fluidized bed) and at bench-scale unit simulating coal combustion in small domestic furnaces. The attention is paid to unburned carbon contents in bottom ashes and fly ashes at these 8 combustion tests and to morphology of unburned carbons. Specific surface area of coals, unburned carbons and ashes and the relation of specific surface area of unburned carbon and the content of volatile combustibles in coal were studied as well.
Adsorption Studies on the Removal of Pesticides(Carbofuran) using Activated Carbon from Rice Straw Agricultural Waste
In this study, we used a two-stage process and potassium hydroxide (KOH) to transform waste biomass (rice straw) into activated carbon and then evaluated the adsorption capacity of the waste for removing carbofuran from an aqueous solution. Activated carbon was fast and effective for the removal of carbofuran because of its high surface area. The native and carbofuran-loaded adsorbents were characterized by elemental analysis. Different adsorption parameters, such as the initial carbofuran concentration, contact time, temperature and pH for carbofuran adsorption, were studied using a batch system. This study demonstrates that rice straw can be very effective in the adsorption of carbofuran from bodies of water.
Simulation and Analysis of the Shift Process for an Automatic Transmission
The automatic transmission (AT) is one of the most important components of many automobile transmission systems. The shift quality has a significant influence on the ride comfort of the vehicle. During the AT shift process, the joint elements such as the clutch and bands engage or disengage, linking sets of gears to create a fixed gear ratio. Since these ratios differ between gears in a fixed gear ratio transmission, the motion of the vehicle could change suddenly during the shift process if the joint elements are engaged or disengaged inappropriately, additionally impacting the entire transmission system and increasing the temperature of connect elements.The objective was to establish a system model for an AT powertrain using Matlab/Simulink. This paper further analyses the effect of varying hydraulic pressure and the associated impact on shift quality during both engagment and disengagement of the joint elements, proving that shift quality improvements could be achieved with appropriate hydraulic pressure control.
Yield, Yield Components, Soil Minerals and Aroma of KDML 105 Rice in Tungkularonghai, Roi-Et,Thailand
Pearson-s correlation coefficient and sequential path analysis has been used for determining the interrelationship among yield, yield components, soil minerals and aroma of Khao Dawk Mali (KDML) 105 rice grown in the area of Tungkularonghai in Roi-Et province, located in the northeast of Thailand. Pearson-s correlation coefficient in this study showed that the number of panicles was the only factor that had positive significant (0.790**) effect on grain yield. Sequential path analysis revealed that the number of panicles followed by the number of fertile spikelets and 100-grain weight were the first-order factors which had positive direct effects on grain yield. Whereas, other factors analyzed had indirect effects influencing grain yield. This study also indicated that no significant relationship was found between the aroma level and any of the factors analyzed.
A Study of Efficiency and Prioritize of Eurasian Logistics Network
Recently, Northeast Asia has become one of the three largest trade areas, covering approximately 30% of the total trade volume of the world. However, the distribution facilities are saturated due to the increase in the transportation volume within the area and with the European countries. In order to accommodate the increase of the transportation volume, the transportation networking with the major countries in Northeast Asia and Europe is absolutely necessary. The Eurasian Logistics Network will develop into an international passenger transportation network covering the Northeast Asian region and an international freight transportation network connecting across Eurasia Continent. This paper surveys the changes and trend of the distribution network in the Eurasian Region according to the political, economic and environmental changes of the region, analyses the distribution network according to the changes in the transportation policies of the related countries, and provides the direction of the development of composite transportation on the basis of the present conditions of transportation means. The transportation means optimal for the efficiency of transportation system are suggested to be train ferries, sea & rail or sea & rail & sea. It is suggested to develop diversified composite transportation means and routes within the boundary of international cooperation system.
Experimental and Numerical Study of The Shock-Accelerated Elliptic Heavy Gas Cylinders
We studied the evolution of elliptic heavy SF6 gas cylinder surrounded by air when accelerated by a planar Mach 1.25 shock. A multiple dynamics imaging technology has been used to obtain one image of the experimental initial conditions and five images of the time evolution of elliptic cylinder. We compared the width and height of the circular and two kinds of elliptic gas cylinders, and analyzed the vortex strength of the elliptic ones. Simulations are in very good agreement with the experiments, but due to the different initial gas cylinder shapes, a certain difference of the initial density peak and distribution exists between the circular and elliptic gas cylinders, and the latter initial state is more sensitive and more inenarrable.
Multiple Crack Identification Using Frequency Measurement
This paper presents a method to detect multiple cracks based on frequency information. When a structure is subjected to dynamic or static loads, cracks may develop and the modal frequencies of the cracked structure may change. To detect cracks in a structure, we construct a high precision wavelet finite element (EF) model of a certain structure using the B-spline wavelet on the interval (BSWI). Cracks can be modeled by rotational springs and added to the FE model. The crack detection database will be obtained by solving that model. Then the crack locations and depths can be determined based on the frequency information from the database. The performance of the proposed method has been numerically verified by a rotor example.
Radon in Drinking Water in Novi Sad
Exposure to radon occurs when breathing airborne radon while using water: showering, washing dishes, cooking, and drinking water that contain radon. The results of radon activity measurements in water from public drinking fountain in city of Novi Sad, Serbia is presented in this paper. Radon level in some samples exceeded EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) recommendation for maximum contaminant level (MCL) for radon in drinking water of 11.1 Bq/l.
Mathematical Modelling of Transport Phenomena in Radioactive Waste-Cement-Bentonite Matrix

The leaching rate of 137Cs from spent mix bead (anion and cation) exchange resins in a cement-bentonite matrix has been studied. Transport phenomena involved in the leaching of a radioactive material from a cement-bentonite matrix are investigated using three methods based on theoretical equations. These are: the diffusion equation for a plane source an equation for diffusion coupled to a firstorder equation and an empirical method employing a polynomial equation. The results presented in this paper are from a 25-year mortar and concrete testing project that will influence the design choices for radioactive waste packaging for a future Serbian radioactive waste disposal center.

Radioactivity of the Agricultural Soil in Northern Province of Serbia, Vojvodina

During the year 1999, Serbia (ex Yugoslavia) and their northern province, Vojvodina, has been bombarded. Because of that general public believe is that this region was contaminated by depleted uranium and that there is a potential contaminant of agricultural products due to soil radioactivity. This paper presents the repeated analysis of agricultural soil samples in Vojvodina. The same investigation was carried out during the year 2001, and it was concluded that, based on the gamma-spectrometric analysis of 50 soil samples taken from the region of Vojvodina, there haven-t been registered any increase of radioactivity that could endanger the food production. We continue with the monitoring of this region. The comparison between those two sets of results is presented.

Elastic Strain-Concentration Factor of Cylindrical Bars with Circumferential Flat-Bottom Groove under Static Tension
Using finite element method (FEM), the elastic new strain-concentration factor (SNCF) of cylindrical bars with circumferential flat-bottom groove is studied. This new SNCF has been defined under triaxial stress state. The employed specimens have constant groove depth with net section and gross diameters of 10.0 and 16.7 mm, respectively. The length of flatness ao has been varied form 0.0 ~12.5 mm to study the elastic SNCF of this type of geometrical irregularities. The results that the elastic new SNCF rapidly drops from its elastic value of the groove with ao = 0.0, i.e. circumferential U-notch, and reaches minimum value at ao = 2 mm. After that the elastic new SNCF becomes nearly constant with increasing flatness length (ao). The value of tensile load at yielding at the groove root increases with increasing ao. The current results show that severity of the notch decreases with increasing flatness length ao.
Necessity of Risk Management of Various Industry-Associated Pollutants(Case Study of Gavkhoni Wetland Ecosystem)
Since the beginning of human history, human activities have caused many changes in the environment. Today, a particular attention should be paid to gaining knowledge about water quality of wetlands which are pristine natural environments rich in genetic reserves. If qualitative conditions of industrial areas (in terms of both physicochemical and biological conditions) are not addressed properly, they could cause disruption in natural ecosystems, especially in rivers. With regards to the quality of water resources, determination of pollutant sources plays a pivotal role in engineering projects as well as designing water quality control systems. Thus, using different methods such as flow duration curves, dischargepollution load model and frequency analysis by HYFA software package, risk of various industrial pollutants in international and ecologically important Gavkhoni wetland is analyzed. In this study, a station located at Varzaneh City is used as the last station on Zayanderud River, from where the river water is discharged into the wetland. Results showed that elements- concentrations often exceeded the allowed level and river water can endanger regional ecosystem. In addition, if the river discharge is managed on Q25 basis, this basis can lower concentrations of elements, keeping them within the normal level.
The Evaluation and Application of FMEA in Sepahan Oil Co

Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is an effective technique for preventing potential problems and actions needed to error cause removal. On the other hand, the oil producing companies paly a critical role in the oil industry of Iran as a developing country out of which, Sepahan Oil Co. has a considerable contribution. The aim of this research is to show how FMEA could be applied and improve the quality of products at Sepahan Oil Co. For this purpose, the four liter production line of the company has been selected for investigation. The findings imply that the application of FMEA has reduced the scraps from 50000 ppm to 5000 ppm and has resulted in a 0.92 percent decrease of the oil waste.

Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Hydrogen Manifold Injection on the Performance of Compression Ignition Engines
Experiments were carried out to evaluate the influence of the addition of hydrogen to the inlet air on the performance of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Hydrogen was injected in the inlet manifold. The addition of hydrogen was done on energy replacement basis. It was found that the addition of hydrogen improves the combustion process due to superior combustion characteristics of hydrogen in comparison to conventional diesel fuels. It was also found that 10% energy replacement improves the engine thermal efficiency by about 40% and reduces the sfc by about 35% however the volumetric efficiency was reduced by about 35%.
Vibration Analysis of the Gas Turbine Considering Dependency of Stiffness and Damping on Frequency
In this paper the complete rotor system including elastic shaft with distributed mass, allowing for the effects of oil film in bearings. Also, flexibility of foundation is modeled. As a whole this article is a relatively complete research in modeling and vibration analysis of rotor considering gyroscopic effect, damping, dependency of stiffness and damping coefficients on frequency and solving the vibration equations including these parameters. On the basis of finite element method and utilizing four element types including element of shaft, disk, bearing and foundation and using MATLAB, a computer program is written. So the responses in several cases and considering different effects are obtained. Then the results are compared with each other, with exact solutions and results of other papers.
Removal of Copper and Zinc Ions onto Biomodified Palm Shell Activated Carbon
commercially produced in Malaysia granular palm shell activated carbon (PSAC) was biomodified with bacterial biomass (Bacillus subtilis) to produce a hybrid biosorbent of higher efficiency. The obtained biosorbent was evaluated in terms of adsorption capacity to remove copper and zinc metal ions from aqueous solutions. The adsorption capacity was evaluated in batch adsorption experiments where concentrations of metal ions varied from 20 to 350 mg/L. A range of pH from 3 to 6 of aqueous solutions containing metal ions was tested. Langmuir adsorption model was used to interpret the experimental data. Comparison of the adsorption data of the biomodified and original palm shell activated carbon showed higher uptake of metal ions by the hybrid biosorbent. A trend in metal ions uptake increase with the increase in the solution-s pH was observed. The surface characterization data indicated a decrease in the total surface area for the hybrid biosorbent; however the uptake of copper and zinc by it was at least equal to the original PSAC at pH 4 and 5. The highest capacity of the hybrid biosorbent was observed at pH 5 and comprised 22 mg/g and 19 mg/g for copper and zinc, respectively. The adsorption capacity at the lowest pH of 3 was significantly low. The experimental results facilitated identification of potential factors influencing the adsorption of copper and zinc onto biomodified and original palm shell activated carbon.
Noise Level Investigation in Printing Industry in Novi Sad, Serbia
The aim of this study was to determine noise level of six different types of machines in printing companies in Novi Sad. The A-weighted levels on Leq, Lmax and Lmin Sound Pressure Level (SPL) in dBA were measured. It was found that the folders, offset printing presses and binding machines are the predominant noise sources. The noise levels produced by 12 of 38 machines exceed the limiting threshold level of 85 dBA, tolerated by law. Since it was determined that the average noise level for folders (87.7 dB) exceeds the permitted value the octave analysis of noise was performed.
Protein Delivery from Polymeric Nanoparticles
Aim of this work was to compare the efficacy of two loading methods of proteins onto polymeric nanocarriers: adsorption and encapsulation methods. Preliminary studies of protein loading were done using Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as model protein. Nanocarriers were prepared starting from polylactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA) polymer; production methods used are two different variants of emulsion evaporation method. Nanoparticles obtained were analyzed in terms of dimensions by Dynamic Light Scattering and Loading Efficiency of BSA by Bradford Assay. Loaded nanoparticles were then submitted to in-vitro protein dissolution test in order to study the effect of the delivery system on the release rate of the protein.
Replacement of Power Transformers basis on Diagnostic Results and Load Forecasting
This paper describes interconnection between technical and economical making decision. The reason of this dealing could be different: poor technical condition, change of substation (electrical network) regime, power transformer owner budget deficit and increasing of tariff on electricity. Establishing of recommended practice as well as to give general advice and guidance in economical sector, testing, diagnostic power transformers to establish its conditions, identify problems and provide potential remedies.
Property of Polyurethane: from Soy-derived Phosphate Ester
Polyurethane foams (PUF) were formed by a chemical reaction of polyol and isocyanate. The polyol was manufactured by ring-opening hydrolysis of epoxidized soybean oil in the presence of phosphoric acid under varying experimental conditions. Other factors in the foam formulation such as water content and surfactant were kept constant. The effect of the amount of solvents, phosphoric acid, and their derivates in the foam formulation on the properties of polyurethane foams were studied. The properties of the material were measured via a number of parameters, which are water content of prepared polyol, polymer density and cellular structures.
Relationship of Reaction Temperature on Phosphate Oligomers Reactivity to Properties of Soy-Polyurethane
Polyurethane foam (PUF) were prepared by reacting polyols synthesized from soy-oil into mixture of 2,4- Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) with 4,4--Methylene Diamine Isocyanate (MDI) with ratio of 70:30. The polyols obtained via esterification reaction were categorize into different temperature of reaction and by used of varied concentration of phosphoric acid catalyst. The purpose of catalysts is to shifting selectivity to a desired and value added of product. The effect of stoichiometric balance (molar ratio of epoxide/ethylene glycol) to the concentration of the catalyst on the final properties was evaluated.
Face Detection in Color Images using Color Features of Skin
Because of increasing demands for security in today-s society and also due to paying much more attention to machine vision, biometric researches, pattern recognition and data retrieval in color images, face detection has got more application. In this article we present a scientific approach for modeling human skin color, and also offer an algorithm that tries to detect faces within color images by combination of skin features and determined threshold in the model. Proposed model is based on statistical data in different color spaces. Offered algorithm, using some specified color threshold, first, divides image pixels into two groups: skin pixel group and non-skin pixel group and then based on some geometric features of face decides which area belongs to face. Two main results that we received from this research are as follow: first, proposed model can be applied easily on different databases and color spaces to establish proper threshold. Second, our algorithm can adapt itself with runtime condition and its results demonstrate desirable progress in comparison with similar cases.
Seismic Behavior Evaluation of Semi-Rigid Steel Frames with Knee Bracing by Modal Pushover Analysis (MPA)
Nowadays use of a new structural bracing system called 'Knee Bracing System' have taken the specialists attention too much. On the other hand nonlinear static analysis procedures in estimate structures performance in earthquake time have taken attention too much. One of these procedure is modal pushover analysis (MPA) procedure. The accuracy of MPA procedure for simple steel moment resisting frame has been verified and considered in Chintanapakdee and Chopra-s article in 2003. Since the accuracy of MPA procedure has not verified for semi-rigid steel frames with knee bracing, we are going to get through with this matter in this study. For this purpose, the selected structures are four frames with different heights, 5 to 20 stories, will be designed according to AISC criteria. Then MPA procedure is used for the same frames with different rigidity percentiles of connections. The results of seismic responses are compared with dynamic nonlinear response history analysis as exact procedure and accuracy of MPA procedure is evaluated. It seems that MPA procedure accuracy will come down by reduction of the rigidity percentiles of semi-rigid connections.
Bioceramic Scaffolds Fabrication by Rapid Prototyping Technology
This paper describes a rapid prototyping (RP) technology for forming a hydroxyapatite (HA) bone scaffold model. The HA powder and a silica sol are mixed into bioceramic slurry form under a suitable viscosity. The HA particles are embedded in the solidified silica matrix to form green parts via a wide range of process parameters after processing by selective laser sintering (SLS). The results indicate that the proposed process was possible to fabricate multilayers and hollow shell structure with brittle property but sufficient integrity for handling prior to post-processing. The fabricated bone scaffold models had a surface finish of 25
Turbulent Mixing and its Effects on Thermal Fatigue in Nuclear Reactors
The turbulent mixing of coolant streams of different temperature and density can cause severe temperature fluctuations in piping systems in nuclear reactors. In certain periodic contraction cycles these conditions lead to thermal fatigue. The resulting aging effect prompts investigation in how the mixing of flows over a sharp temperature/density interface evolves. To study the fundamental turbulent mixing phenomena in the presence of density gradients, isokinetic (shear-free) mixing experiments are performed in a square channel with Reynolds numbers ranging from 2-500 to 60-000. Sucrose is used to create the density difference. A Wire Mesh Sensor (WMS) is used to determine the concentration map of the flow in the cross section. The mean interface width as a function of velocity, density difference and distance from the mixing point are analyzed based on traditional methods chosen for the purposes of atmospheric/oceanic stratification analyses. A definition of the mixing layer thickness more appropriate to thermal fatigue and based on mixedness is devised. This definition shows that the thermal fatigue risk assessed using simple mixing layer growth can be misleading and why an approach that separates the effects of large scale (turbulent) and small scale (molecular) mixing is necessary.
Generalized Noise Analysis of Log Domain Static Translinear Circuits

This paper presents a new general technique for analysis of noise in static log-domain translinear circuits. It is demonstrated that employing this technique, leads to a general, simple and routine method of the noise analysis. The circuit has been simulated by HSPICE. The simulation results are seen to conform to the theoretical analysis and shows benefits of the proposed circuit.

Interactions between Cells and Nanoscale Surfaces of Oxidized Silicon Substrates
The importance for manipulating an incorporated scaffold and directing cell behaviors is well appreciated for tissue engineering. Here, we developed newly nano-topographic oxidized silicon nanosponges capable of being various chemical modifications to provide much insight into the fundamental biology of how cells interact with their surrounding environment in vitro. A wet etching technique is exerted to allow us fabricated the silicon nanosponges in a high-throughput manner. Furthermore, various organo-silane chemicals enabled self-assembled on the surfaces by vapor deposition. We have found that Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells displayed certain distinguishable morphogenesis, adherent responses, and biochemical properties while cultured on these chemical modified nano-topographic structures in compared with the planar oxidized silicon counterparts, indicating that cell behaviors can be influenced by certain physical characteristic derived from nano-topography in addition to the hydrophobicity of contact surfaces crucial for cell adhesion and spreading. Of particular, there were predominant nano-actin punches and slender protrusions formed while cells were cultured on the nano-topographic structures. This study shed potential applications of these nano-topographic biomaterials for controlling cell development in tissue engineering or basic cell biology research.
Oil Debris Signal Detection Based on Integral Transform and Empirical Mode Decomposition
Oil debris signal generated from the inductive oil debris monitor (ODM) is useful information for machine condition monitoring but is often spoiled by background noise. To improve the reliability in machine condition monitoring, the high-fidelity signal has to be recovered from the noisy raw data. Considering that the noise components with large amplitude often have higher frequency than that of the oil debris signal, the integral transform is proposed to enhance the detectability of the oil debris signal. To cancel out the baseline wander resulting from the integral transform, the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method is employed to identify the trend components. An optimal reconstruction strategy including both de-trending and de-noising is presented to detect the oil debris signal with less distortion. The proposed approach is applied to detect the oil debris signal in the raw data collected from an experimental setup. The result demonstrates that this approach is able to detect the weak oil debris signal with acceptable distortion from noisy raw data.
Kinetic model and Simulation Analysis for Propane Dehydrogenation in an Industrial Moving Bed Reactor
A kinetic model for propane dehydrogenation in an industrial moving bed reactor is developed based on the reported reaction scheme. The kinetic parameters and activity constant are fine tuned with several sets of balanced plant data. Plant data at different operating conditions is applied to validate the model and the results show a good agreement between the model predictions and plant observations in terms of the amount of main product, propylene produced. The simulation analysis of key variables such as inlet temperature of each reactor (Tinrx) and hydrogen to total hydrocarbon ratio (H2/THC) affecting process performance is performed to identify the operating condition to maximize the production of propylene. Within the range of operating conditions applied in the present studies, the operating condition to maximize the propylene production at the same weighted average inlet temperature (WAIT) is ΔTinrx1= -2, ΔTinrx2= +1, ΔTinrx3= +1 , ΔTinrx4= +2 and ΔH2/THC= -0.02. Under this condition, the surplus propylene produced is 7.07 tons/day as compared with base case.
Hydrodynamic Modeling of a Surface Water Treatment Pilot Plant
A mathematical model for the hydrodynamics of a surface water treatment pilot plant was developed and validated by the determination of the residence time distribution (RTD) for the main equipments of the unit. The well known models of ideal/real mixing, ideal displacement (plug flow) and (one-dimensional axial) dispersion model were combined in order to identify the structure that gives the best fitting of the experimental data for each equipment of the pilot plant. RTD experimental results have shown that pilot plant hydrodynamics can be quite well approximated by a combination of simple mathematical models, structure which is suitable for engineering applications. Validated hydrodynamic models will be further used in the evaluation and selection of the most suitable coagulation-flocculation reagents, optimum operating conditions (injection point, reaction times, etc.), in order to improve the quality of the drinking water.
Tool Path Generation and Manufacturing Process for Blades of a Compressor Rotor
This paper presents a complete procedure for tool path planning and blade machining in 5-axis manufacturing. The actual cutting contact and cutter locations can be determined by lead and tilt angles. The tool path generation is implemented by piecewise curved approximation and chordal deviation detection. An application about drive surface method promotes flexibility of tool control and stability of machine motion. A real manufacturing process is proposed to separate the operation into three regions with five stages and to modify the local tool orientation with an interactive algorithm.
Noise Depressed in a Micro Stepping Motor
An investigation of noise in a micro stepping motor is considered to study in this article. Because of the trend towards higher precision and more and more small 3C (including Computer, Communication and Consumer Electronics) products, the micro stepping motor is frequently used to drive the micro system or the other 3C products. Unfortunately, noise in a micro stepped motor is too large to accept by the customs. To depress the noise of a micro stepped motor, the dynamic characteristics in this system must be studied. In this article, a Visual Basic (VB) computer program speed controlled micro stepped motor in a digital camera is investigated. Karman KD2300-2S non-contract eddy current displacement sensor, probe microphone, and HP 35670A analyzer are employed to analyze the dynamic characteristics of vibration and noise in a motor. The vibration and noise measurement of different type of bearings and different treatment of coils are compared. The rotating components, bearings, coil, etc. of the motor play the important roles in producing vibration and noise. It is found that the noise will be depressed about 3~4 dB and 6~7 dB, when substitutes the copper bearing with plastic one and coats the motor coil with paraffin wax, respectively.
Impacts of the Courtyard with Glazed Roof on House Winter Thermal Conditions
The 'wind-rain' house has a courtyard with glazed roof, which allows more direct sunlight to come into indoor spaces during the winter. The glazed roof can be partially opened or closed and automatically controlled to provide natural ventilation in order to adjust for indoor thermal conditions and the roof area can be shaded by reflective insulation materials during the summer. Two field studies for evaluating indoor thermal conditions of the two 'windrain' houses have been carried out by author in 2009 and 2010. Indoor and outdoor air temperature and relative humidity adjacent to floor and ceiling of the two sample houses were continuously tested at 15-minute intervals, 24 hours a day during the winter months. Based on field study data, this study investigates relationships between building design and indoor thermal condition of the 'windrain' house to improve the future house design for building thermal comfort and energy efficiency
Revealing Nonlinear Couplings between Oscillators from Time Series
Quantitative characterization of nonlinear directional couplings between stochastic oscillators from data is considered. We suggest coupling characteristics readily interpreted from a physical viewpoint and their estimators. An expression for a statistical significance level is derived analytically that allows reliable coupling detection from a relatively short time series. Performance of the technique is demonstrated in numerical experiments.
Radiation Dose Distribution for Workers in South Korean Nuclear Power Plants

A total of 33,680 nuclear power plants (NPPs) workers were monitored and recorded from 1990 to 2007. According to the record, the average individual radiation dose has been decreasing continually from it 3.20 mSv/man in 1990 to 1.12 mSv/man at the end of 2007. After the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 60 recommendation was generalized in South Korea, no nuclear power plant workers received above 20 mSv radiation, and the numbers of relatively highly exposed workers have been decreasing continuously. The age distribution of radiation workers in nuclear power plants was composed of mainly 20-30- year-olds (83%) for 1990 ~ 1994 and 30-40-year-olds (75%) for 2003 ~ 2007. The difference in individual average dose by age was not significant. Most (77%) of NPP radiation exposures from 1990 to 2007 occurred mostly during the refueling period. With regard to exposure type, the majority of exposures were external exposures, representing 95% of the total exposures, while internal exposures represented only 5%. External effective dose was affected mainly by gamma radiation exposure, with an insignificant amount of neutron exposure. As for internal effective dose, tritium (3H) in the pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) was the biggest cause of exposure.

Medical Image Segmentation Using Deformable Models and Local Fitting Binary
This paper presents a customized deformable model for the segmentation of abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms in CTA datasets. An important challenge in reliably detecting aortic aneurysm is the need to overcome problems associated with intensity inhomogeneities and image noise. Level sets are part of an important class of methods that utilize partial differential equations (PDEs) and have been extensively applied in image segmentation. A Gaussian kernel function in the level set formulation, which extracts the local intensity information, aids the suppression of noise in the extracted regions of interest and then guides the motion of the evolving contour for the detection of weak boundaries. The speed of curve evolution has been significantly improved with a resulting decrease in segmentation time compared with previous implementations of level sets. The results indicate the method is more effective than other approaches in coping with intensity inhomogeneities.
Synthesis, Characterization and PL Properties of Cds Nanoparticles Confined within a Functionalized SBA-15 Mesoprous

A simple and dexterous in situ method was introduced to load CdS nanocrystals into organofunctionalized mesoporous, which used an ion-exchange method. The products were extensively characterized by combined spectroscopic methods. X- ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) demonstrated both the maintenance of pore symmetry (space group p6mm) of SBA-15 and the presence of CdS nanocrystals with uniform sizes of about 6 - 8 nm inside the functionalized SBA-15 channels. These mesoporous silica-supported CdS composites showed room temperature photoluminescence properties with a blue shift, indicating the quantum size effect of nanocrystalline CdS.

Hydrothermal Synthesis of ZnO/SnO2 Nanoparticles with High Photocatalytic Activity
The paper reports the preparation and photocatalytic activity of ZnO/SnO2 and SnO2 nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Their grain sizes are about 50-100 nm. The photocatalytic activities of these materials were investigated for congo red removal from aqueous solution under UV light irradiation. It was shown that the use of ZnO/SnO2 as photocatalyst have better photocatalytic activity for degradation of congo red than SnO2 or TiO2 (anatase, particle size: 30nm) alone.
The Investigation of Green Roof and White Roof Cooling Potential on Single Storey Residential Building in the Malaysian Climate
The phenomenon of global warming or climate change has led to many environmental issues including higher atmospheric temperatures, intense precipitation, increased greenhouse gaseous emissions and increased indoor discomfort. Studies have shown that bringing nature to the roof such as constructing green roof and implementing high-reflective roof may give positive impact in mitigating the effects of global warming and in increasing thermal comfort sensation inside buildings. However, no study has been conducted to compare both types of passive roof treatments in Malaysia in order to increase thermal comfort in buildings. Therefore, this study is conducted to investigate the effect of green roof and white painted roof as passive roof treatment in improving indoor comfort of Malaysian homes. This study uses an experimental approach in which the measurements of temperatures are conducted on the case study building. The measurements of outdoor and indoor environments were conducted on the flat roof with two different types of roof treatment that are green roof and white roof. The measurement of existing black bare roof was also conducted to act as a control for this study.
Balancing of Quad Tree using Point Pattern Analysis
Point quad tree is considered as one of the most common data organizations to deal with spatial data & can be used to increase the efficiency for searching the point features. As the efficiency of the searching technique depends on the height of the tree, arbitrary insertion of the point features may make the tree unbalanced and lead to higher time of searching. This paper attempts to design an algorithm to make a nearly balanced quad tree. Point pattern analysis technique has been applied for this purpose which shows a significant enhancement of the performance and the results are also included in the paper for the sake of completeness.
Survival of Neutrino Mass Models in Nonthermal Leptogenesis
The Constraints imposed by non-thermal leptogenesis on the survival of the neutrino mass models describing the presently available neutrino mass patterns, are studied numerically. We consider the Majorana CP violating phases coming from right-handed Majorana mass matrices to estimate the baryon asymmetry of the universe, for different neutrino mass models namely quasi-degenerate, inverted hierarchical and normal hierarchical models, with tribimaximal mixings. Considering two possible diagonal forms of Dirac neutrino mass matrix as either charged lepton or up-quark mass matrix, the heavy right-handed mass matrices are constructed from the light neutrino mass matrix. Only the normal hierarchical model leads to the best predictions of baryon asymmetry of the universe, consistent with observations in non-thermal leptogenesis scenario.
Potential of Solar Energy in Zarqa Region
The purpose of this work is to present the potential of solar energy in Zarqa region. The solar radiation along year 2009 was obtained from Pyranometer which measures the global radiation over horizontal surfaces. Solar data in several different forms, over period of 5 minutes, hour-by-hour, daily and monthly data radiation have been presented. Briefly, the yearly global solar radiation in Zarqa is 7297.5 MJ/m2 (2027 kWh/m²) and the average annual solar radiation per day is 20 MJ/m2 (5.5 Kwh/m2). More specifically, the average annual solar radiation per day is 12.9 MJ/m2 (3.57 Kwh/m2) in winter and 25 MJ/m2 (7 Kwh/m2) in summer.
Harris Extraction and SIFT Matching for Correlation of Two Tablets
This article presents the developments of efficient algorithms for tablet copies comparison. Image recognition has specialized use in digital systems such as medical imaging, computer vision, defense, communication etc. Comparison between two images that look indistinguishable is a formidable task. Two images taken from different sources might look identical but due to different digitizing properties they are not. Whereas small variation in image information such as cropping, rotation, and slight photometric alteration are unsuitable for based matching techniques. In this paper we introduce different matching algorithms designed to facilitate, for art centers, identifying real painting images from fake ones. Different vision algorithms for local image features are implemented using MATLAB. In this framework a Table Comparison Computer Tool “TCCT" is designed to facilitate our research. The TCCT is a Graphical Unit Interface (GUI) tool used to identify images by its shapes and objects. Parameter of vision system is fully accessible to user through this graphical unit interface. And then for matching, it applies different description technique that can identify exact figures of objects.
Study of Peptide Fragment of Alpha-Fetoprotein as a Radionuclide Vehicle

Alpfa-fetoprotein and its fragments may be an important vehicle for targeted delivery of radionuclides to the tumor. We investigated the effect of conditions on the labeling of biologically active synthetic peptide based on the (F-afp) with technetium-99m. The influence of the nature of the buffer solution, pH, concentration of reductant, concentration of the peptide and the reaction temperature on the yield of labeling was examined. As a result, the following optimal conditions for labeling of (F-afp) are found: pH 8.5 (phosphate and bicarbonate buffers) and pH from 1.7 to 7.0 (citrate buffer). The reaction proceeds with sufficient yield at room temperature for 30 min at the concentration of SnCl2 and (Fafp) (F-afp) is to be less than 10 mkg/ml and 25 mkg/ml, respectively. Investigations of the test drug accumulation in the tumor cells of human breast cancer were carried out. Results can be assumed that the in vivo study of the (F-afp) in experimental tumor lesions will show concentrations sufficient for imaging these lesions by SPECT.

The Building Thermal Performance and Carbon Sequestration Evaluation for Psophocarpus tetrogonobulus on Biofaçade Wall in the Tropical Environment
Plants are commonly known for its positive correlation in reducing temperature. Since it can benefit buildings by modifying the microclimate, it-s also believed capable of reducing the internal temperature. Various experiments have been done in Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang to investigate the comparison in thermal benefits between two rooms, one being a typical control room (exposed wall) and the other a biofacade room (plant shaded wall). The investigations were conducted during non-rainy season for approximately a month. Climbing plant Psophocarpus tetrogonobulus from legume species was selected as insulation for the biofacade wall. Conclusions were made on whether the biofacade can be used to tackle the energy efficiency, based on the parameters taken into consideration.
Mutational Effect to Particular Interaction Energy of Cycloguanil Drug to Plasmodium Plasmodium Falciparum Dihydrofolate Reductase Enzymes
In order to find the particular interaction energy between cylcloguanil and the amino acids surrounding the pocket of wild type and quadruple mutant type PfDHFR enzymes, the MP2 method with basis set 6-31G(d,p) level of calculations was performed. The obtained interaction energies found that Asp54 has the strongest interaction energy to both wild type and mutant type of - 12.439 and -11.250 kcal/mol, respectively and three amino acids; Asp54, Ile164 and Ile14 formed the H-bonding with cycloguanil drug. Importantly, the mutation at Ser108Asn was the key important of cycloguanil resistant with showing repulsive interaction energy.
Discrete Vector Control for Induction Motor Drives with the Rotor Time Constant Update

In this paper, we investigated vector control of an induction machine taking into account discretization problems of the command. In the purpose to show how to include in a discrete model of this current control and with rotor time constant update. The results of simulation obtained are very satisfaisant. That was possible thanks to the good choice of the values of the parameters of the regulators used which shows, the founded good of the method used, for the choice of the parameters of the discrete regulators. The simulation results are presented at the end of this paper.

Double Immobilized Lipase for the Kinetic Resolution of Secondary Alcohols

Sol-gel immobilization of enzymes, which can improve considerably their properties, is now one of the most used techniques. By deposition of the entrapped lipase on a solid support, a new and improved biocatalyst was obtained, which can be used with excellent results in acylation reactions. In this paper, lipase B from Candida antarctica was double immobilized on different adsorbents. These biocatalysts were employed in the kinetic resolution of several aliphatic secondary alcohols in organic medium. High total recovery yields of enzymatic activity, up to 560%, were obtained. For all the studied alcohols the enantiomeric ratios E were over 200. The influence of the reaction medium was studied for the kinetic resolution of 2-pentanol.

A Study of the Built Environment Design Elements Embedded into the Multiple Criteria Strategic Planning Model for an Urban Renewal

The link between urban planning and design principles and the built environment of an urban renewal area is of interest to the field of urban studies. During the past decade, there has also been increasing interest in urban planning and design; this interest is motivated by the possibility that design policies associated with the built environment can be used to control, manage, and shape individual activity and behavior. However, direct assessments and design techniques of the links between how urban planning design policies influence individuals are still rare in the field. Recent research efforts in urban design have focused on the idea that land use and design policies can be used to increase the quality of design projects for an urban renewal area-s built environment. The development of appropriate design techniques for the built environment is an essential element of this research. Quality function deployment (QFD) is a powerful tool for improving alternative urban design and quality for urban renewal areas, and for procuring a citizen-driven quality system. In this research, we propose an integrated framework based on QFD and an Analytic Network Process (ANP) approach to determine the Alternative Technical Requirements (ATRs) to be considered in designing an urban renewal planning and design alternative. We also identify the research designs and methodologies that can be used to evaluate the performance of urban built environment projects. An application in an urban renewal built environment planning and design project evaluation is presented to illustrate the proposed framework.

A Model to Study the Effect of Na+ ions on Ca2+diffusion under Rapid Buffering Approximation
Calcium is very important for communication among the neurons. It is vital in a number of cell processes such as secretion, cell movement, cell differentiation. To reduce the system of reactiondiffusion equations of [Ca2+] into a single equation, two theories have been proposed one is excess buffer approximation (EBA) other is rapid buffer approximation (RBA). The RBA is more realistic than the EBA as it considers both the mobile and stationary endogenous buffers. It is valid near the mouth of the channel. In this work we have studied the effects of different types of buffers on calcium diffusion under RBA. The novel thing studied is the effect of sodium ions on calcium diffusion. The model has been made realistic by considering factors such as variable [Ca2+], [Na+] sources, sodium-calcium exchange protein(NCX), Sarcolemmal Calcium ATPase pump. The proposed mathematical leads to a system of partial differential equations which has been solved numerically to study the relationships between different parameters such as buffer concentration, buffer disassociation rate, calcium permeability. We have used Forward Time Centred Space (FTCS) approach to solve the system of partial differential equations.
3D Segmentation, Compression and Wireless Transmission of Volumetric Brain MR Images

The main objective of this paper is to provide an efficient tool for delineating brain tumors in three-dimensional magnetic resonance images and set up compression-transmit schemes to distribute result to the remote doctor. To achieve this goal, we use basically a level-sets approach to delineating brain tumors in threedimensional. Then introduce a new compression and transmission plan of 3D brain structures based for the meshes simplification, adapted for time to the specific needs of the telemedicine and to the capacities restricted by wireless network communication. We present here the main stages of our system, and preliminary results which are very encouraging for clinical practice.

Comparison of Different Neural Network Approaches for the Prediction of Kidney Dysfunction
This paper presents the prediction of kidney dysfunction using different neural network (NN) approaches. Self organization Maps (SOM), Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) and Multi Layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLPNN) trained with Back Propagation Algorithm (BPA) are used in this study. Six hundred and sixty three sets of analytical laboratory tests have been collected from one of the private clinical laboratories in Baghdad. For each subject, Serum urea and Serum creatinin levels have been analyzed and tested by using clinical laboratory measurements. The collected urea and cretinine levels are then used as inputs to the three NN models in which the training process is done by different neural approaches. SOM which is a class of unsupervised network whereas PNN and BPNN are considered as class of supervised networks. These networks are used as a classifier to predict whether kidney is normal or it will have a dysfunction. The accuracy of prediction, sensitivity and specificity were found for each type of the proposed networks .We conclude that PNN gives faster and more accurate prediction of kidney dysfunction and it works as promising tool for predicting of routine kidney dysfunction from the clinical laboratory data.
Mathematical Model for Dengue Disease with Maternal Antibodies
Mathematical models can be used to describe the dynamics of the spread of infectious disease between susceptibles and infectious populations. Dengue fever is a re-emerging disease in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Its incidence has increased fourfold since 1970 and outbreaks are now reported quite frequently from many parts of the world. In dengue endemic regions, more cases of dengue infection in pregnancy and infancy are being found due to the increasing incidence. It has been reported that dengue infection was vertically transmitted to the infants. Primary dengue infection is associated with mild to high fever, headache, muscle pain and skin rash. Immune response includes IgM antibodies produced by the 5th day of symptoms and persist for 30-60 days. IgG antibodies appear on the 14th day and persist for life. Secondary infections often result in high fever and in many cases with hemorrhagic events and circulatory failure. In the present paper, a mathematical model is proposed to simulate the succession of dengue disease transmission in pregnancy and infancy. Stability analysis of the equilibrium points is carried out and a simulation is given for the different sets of parameter. Moreover, the bifurcation diagrams of our model are discussed. The controlling of this disease in infant cases is introduced in the term of the threshold condition.
Study on Nitrite Accumulation Characteristics and Nitrifying Population Dynamics at Different Growth Environments
Novel nitrogen removal technologies via nitrite pathway attract increasing interest in recent years. In this study, batch experiments were performed to investigate nitrite accumulation characteristics and shifts in nitrifying community structure at different growth environments including ammonia concentration, pH and alkalinity. It was found that nitrite accumulation ratios were maintained at around 95% at studied conditions, and the optimum pH and Alk/N (ratio between alkalinity and nitrogen) for ammonium oxidization were 8.5 and 8.33, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of nitrifying bacteria showed that high free ammonia (from influent ammonium or caused by high pH) significantly altered the structure of nitrifying community, leading to abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), especially Nitrososmonas, and inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). The results suggest that free ammonia plays more important role than other studied conditions on nitrite accumulation.
Preservation of Millet Flour by Refrigeration: Changes in Total Protein and Amino Acids Composition During Storage

This work describes refrigeration effects during storage on total protein and amino acids composition of raw and processed flour of two pearl millet cultivars (Ashana and Dembi). The protein content of the whole raw flour was found to be 14.46 and 13.38% for Ashana and Dembi cultivars, respectively. Dehulling of the grains reduced the protein content to 13.38 and 12.67% for the cultivars, respectively. For both cultivars, the protein content of the whole and dehulled raw flour before and after cooking was slightly decreased when the flour was stored for 60 days even after refrigeration. The effect of refrigeration process in combination with the storage period, cooking or dehulling was found to be vary between amino acids and even between cultivars. Regardless of the storage period and processing method, the amino acids content was remained unchanged after refrigeration for both cultivars.

Plaque Formation of Toxoplasma gondii in Vero Cells using Carboxymethylcellulose
Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite capable of infecting all nucleated cells in a diverse array of species. Toxoplasma plaque assay have been described using Bacto Agar. Because of its experimental advantages carboxymethyl cellulose overlay, medium viscosity was choosing and the aim of this work was to develop alternative method for formation of T. gondii plaques. Tachyzoites were inoculated onto monolayers of Vero cells and cultured at 37° C under 5 % CO2. The cultures were followed up by microscopy inspection. Small plaques were visible by naphtol blue stain 4 days after infection. Larger plaques could be observed by day 10 of culture. The carboxymethyl cellulose is a cheap reagent and the methodology is easier, faster than assays under agar overlay. This is the first description of the carboxymethyl cellulose overlay use for obtaining the formation of T. gondii plaques and may be useful in consequent obtaining tachyzoites for detailed studies.
Salicylhydroxamic Acid Inhibits the Growth of Candida albicans
Candida spp. are common and aggressive pathogens. Because of the growing resistance of Candida spp. to current antifungals, novel targets, found in Candida spp. but not in humans or other flora, have to be identified. The alternative oxidase (AOX) is one such possibility. This enzyme is insensitive to cyanide, but is sensitive to compounds such as salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), disulfiram and n-alkyl gallates. The growth Candida albicans was inhibited by SHAM (Ki = 9-15 mM) and cyanide (Ki = 2-4 mM), albeit to differing extents. The rate of O2 uptake was inhibited by less than 10% by 25 mM SHAM and by about 90% by 250 μM KCN. Although SHAM substantially inhibited the growth of C. albicans, it is unlikely that the inhibition of AOX was the cause. Salicylhydroxamic acid is used therapeutically in the treatment of urinary tract infections and urolithiasis, but it also has some potential in the treatment of C. albicans infection.
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