Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 172

Automated Ranking of Hints

The importance of hints in an intelligent tutoring system is well understood. The problems however related to their delivering are quite a few. In this paper we propose delivering of hints to be based on considering their usefulness. By this we mean that a hint is regarded as useful to a student if the student has succeeded to solve a problem after the hint was suggested to her/him. Methods from the theory of partial orderings are further applied facilitating an automated process of offering individualized advises on how to proceed in order to solve a particular problem.

New Scheme in Determining nth Order Diagrams for Cross Multiplication Method via Combinatorial Approach

In this paper, a new recursive strategy is proposed for determining $\frac{(n-1)!}{2}$ of $n$th order diagrams. The generalization of $n$th diagram for cross multiplication method were proposed by Pavlovic and Bankier but the specific rule of determining $\frac{(n-1)!}{2}$ of the $n$th order diagrams for square matrix is yet to be discovered. Thus using combinatorial approach, $\frac{(n-1)!}{2}$ of the $n$th order diagrams will be presented as $\frac{(n-1)!}{2}$ starter sets. These starter sets will be generated based on exchanging one element. The advantages of this new strategy are the discarding process was eliminated and the sign of starter set is alternated to each others.

W-CAS: A Central Users Authentication and Authorization System for Enterprise Wide Web Applications

Centrally controlled authentication and authorization services can provide enterprise with an increase in security, more flexible access control solutions and an increased users' trust. By using redirections, users of all Web-based applications within an organization are authenticated at a single well known and secure Web site and using secure communication protocol. Users are first authenticated at the central server using their domain wide credentials before being redirected to a particular Web-based application. The central authentication server will then provide others with pertinence authorization related particulars and credentials of the authenticated user to the specific application. The trust between the clients and the server hosts is established by secure session keys exchange. Case- studies are provided to demonstrate the usefulness and flexibility of the proposed solution.

Globally Convergent Edge-preserving Reconstruction with Contour-line Smoothing

The standard approach to image reconstruction is to stabilize the problem by including an edge-preserving roughness penalty in addition to faithfulness to the data. However, this methodology produces noisy object boundaries and creates a staircase effect. The existing attempts to favor the formation of smooth contour lines take the edge field explicitly into account; they either are computationally expensive or produce disappointing results. In this paper, we propose to incorporate the smoothness of the edge field in an implicit way by means of an additional penalty term defined in the wavelet domain. We also derive an efficient half-quadratic algorithm to solve the resulting optimization problem, including the case when the data fidelity term is non-quadratic and the cost function is nonconvex. Numerical experiments show that our technique preserves edge sharpness while smoothing contour lines; it produces visually pleasing reconstructions which are quantitatively better than those obtained without wavelet-domain constraints.

The Effect of Multi-Layer Bandage on the Interface Pressure Applied by Compression Bandages
Medical compression bandages are widely used in the treatment of chronic venous disorder. In order to design effective compression bandages, researchers have attempted to describe the interface pressure applied by multi-layer bandages using mathematical models. This paper reports on the work carried out to compare and validate the mathematical models used to describe the interface pressure applied by multi-layer bandages. Both analytical and experimental results showed that using simple multiplication of a number of bandage layers with the pressure applied by one layer of bandage or ignoring the increase in the limb radius due to former layers of bandage will result in overestimating the pressure. Experimental results showed that the mathematical models, which take into consideration the increase in the limb radius due to former bandage layers, are more accurate than the one which does not.
Modeling of Cross Flow Classifier with Water Injection
In hydrocyclones, the particle separation efficiency is limited by the suspended fine particles, which are discharged with the coarse product in the underflow. It is well known that injecting water in the conical part of the cyclone reduces the fine particle fraction in the underflow. This paper presents a mathematical model that simulates the water injection in the conical component. The model accounts for the fluid flow and the particle motion. Particle interaction, due to hindered settling caused by increased density and viscosity of the suspension, and fine particle entrainment by settling coarse particles are included in the model. Water injection in the conical part of the hydrocyclone is performed to reduce fine particle discharge in the underflow. The model demonstrates the impact of the injection rate, injection velocity, and injection location on the shape of the partition curve. The simulations are compared with experimental data of a 50-mm cyclone.
Cryptography Over Elliptic Curve Of The Ring Fq[e], e4 = 0

Groups where the discrete logarithm problem (DLP) is believed to be intractable have proved to be inestimable building blocks for cryptographic applications. They are at the heart of numerous protocols such as key agreements, public-key cryptosystems, digital signatures, identification schemes, publicly verifiable secret sharings, hash functions and bit commitments. The search for new groups with intractable DLP is therefore of great importance.The goal of this article is to study elliptic curves over the ring Fq[], with Fq a finite field of order q and with the relation n = 0, n ≥ 3. The motivation for this work came from the observation that several practical discrete logarithm-based cryptosystems, such as ElGamal, the Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems . In a first time, we describe these curves defined over a ring. Then, we study the algorithmic properties by proposing effective implementations for representing the elements and the group law. In anther article we study their cryptographic properties, an attack of the elliptic discrete logarithm problem, a new cryptosystem over these curves.

Direct Numerical Simulation of Oxygen Transfer at the Air-Water Interface in a Convective Flow Environment and Comparison to Experiments
Two-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of high Schmidt number mass transfer in a convective flow environment (Rayleigh-B'enard) is carried out and results are compared to experimental data. A fourth-order accurate WENO-scheme has been used for scalar transport in order to aim for a high accuracy in areas of high concentration gradients. It was found that the typical spatial distance between downward plumes of cold high concentration water and the eddy size are in good agreement with experiments using a combined PIV-LIF technique for simultaneous and spatially synoptic measurements of 2D velocity and concentration fields.
Optical 3D-Surface Reconstruction of Weak Textured Objects Based on an Approach of Disparity Stereo Inspection
Optical 3D measurement of objects is meaningful in numerous industrial applications. In various cases shape acquisition of weak textured objects is essential. Examples are repetition parts made of plastic or ceramic such as housing parts or ceramic bottles as well as agricultural products like tubers. These parts are often conveyed in a wobbling way during the automated optical inspection. Thus, conventional 3D shape acquisition methods like laser scanning might fail. In this paper, a novel approach for acquiring 3D shape of weak textured and moving objects is presented. To facilitate such measurements an active stereo vision system with structured light is proposed. The system consists of multiple camera pairs and auxiliary laser pattern generators. It performs the shape acquisition within one shot and is beneficial for rapid inspection tasks. An experimental setup including hardware and software has been developed and implemented.
Site Inspection and Evaluation Behavior of Qing Shang Concrete Bridge
It is necessary to evaluate the bridges conditions and strengthen bridges or parts of them. The reinforcement necessary due to some reasons can be summarized as: First, a changing in use of bridge could produce internal forces in a part of structural which exceed the existing cross-sectional capacity. Second, bridges may also need reinforcement because damage due to external factors which reduced the cross-sectional resistance to external loads. One of other factors could listed here its misdesign in some details, like safety of bridge or part of its.This article identify the design demands of Qing Shan bridge located in is in Heilongjiang Province He gang - Nen Jiang Road 303 provincial highway, Wudalianchi area, China, is an important bridge in the urban areas. The investigation program was include the observation and evaluate the damage in T- section concrete beams , prestressed concrete box girder bridges section in additional evaluate the whole state of bridge includes the pier , abutments , bridge decks, wings , bearing and capping beam, joints, ........etc. The test results show that the bridges in general structural condition are good. T beam span No 10 were observed, crack extended upward along the ribbed T beam, and continue to the T beam flange. Crack width varying between 0.1mm to 0.4mm, the maximum about 0.4mm. The bridge needs to be improved flexural bending strength especially at for T beam section.
Aerobic Treatment of Oily Wastewater: Effect of Aeration and Sludge Concentration to Pollutant Reduction and PHB Accumulation
This study is aimed to investigate feasibility of the aerobic biological process to treat oily wastewater from palm oil food industry. Effect of aeration and sludge concentrations are studied. Raw sludge and raw wastewater was mixed and acclimatized for five days in a stirred tank reactor. The aeration rate (no aeration, low; 1.5L/min and high rate; 2L/min) and sludge concentration (3675, 7350, and 11025mg/L of VSS) were varied. Responses of process were pH, COD, oil and grease, VSS, and PHB content. It was found that the treatment can remove 85.1 to 97.1 % of COD and remove 12.9 to 54.8% of oil & grease. The PHB yield was found to be within 0.15% to 2.4% as PHB/VSS ratio and 0.01% to 0.12% as PHB/COD removed. The higher aeration results a high COD removal and oil & grease removal, while experiment without aeration gives better PHB yield. Higher sludge concentrations (11025mg/L VSS) give higher removal of oil & grease while moderate sludge concentration (7350mg/L VSS) give better result in COD removal. Higher PHB yield is obtained in low sludge concentration (3675mg/L).
FEM Analysis of the Interaction between a Piezoresistive Tactile Sensor and Biological Tissues
The present paper presents a finite element model and analysis for the interaction between a piezoresistive tactile sensor and biological tissues. The tactile sensor is proposed for use in minimally invasive surgery to deliver tactile information of biological tissues to surgeons. The proposed sensor measures the relative hardness of soft contact objects as well as the contact force. Silicone rubbers were used as the phantom of biological tissues. Finite element analysis of the silicone rubbers and the mechanical structure of the sensor were performed using COMSOL Multiphysics (v3.4) environment. The simulation results verify the capability of the sensor to be used to differentiate between different kinds of silicone rubber materials.
Migration and Accumulation of Artificial Radionuclides in the System Water-Soil-Plants Depending on Polymers Applying
The possibility of radionuclides-related contamination of lands at agricultural holdings defines the necessity to apply special protective measures in plant growing. The aim of researches is to elucidate the influence of polymers applying on biological migration of man-made anthropogenic radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in the system water - soil – plant. The tests are being carried out under field conditions with and without application of polymers in root-inhabited media in more radioecological tension zone (with the radius of 7 km from the Armenian Nuclear Power Plant). The polymers on the base of K+, Caµ, KµCaµ ions were tested. Productivity of pepper depending on the presence and type of polymer material, content of artificial radionuclides in waters, soil and plant material has been determined. The character of different polymers influence on the artificial radionuclides migration and accumulation in the system water-soil-plant and accumulation in the plants has been cleared up.
Non-equilibrium Statistical Mechanics of a Driven Lattice Gas Model: Probability Function, FDT-violation, and Monte Carlo Simulations
The study of non-equilibrium systems has attracted increasing interest in recent years, mainly due to the lack of theoretical frameworks, unlike their equilibrium counterparts. Studying the steady state and/or simple systems is thus one of the main interests. Hence in this work we have focused our attention on the driven lattice gas model (DLG model) consisting of interacting particles subject to an external field E. The dynamics of the system are given by hopping of particles to nearby empty sites with rates biased for jumps in the direction of E. Having used small two dimensional systems of DLG model, the stochastic properties at nonequilibrium steady state were analytically studied. To understand the non-equilibrium phenomena, we have applied the analytic approach via master equation to calculate probability function and analyze violation of detailed balance in term of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to validate the analytic results.
Mean Square Stability of Impulsive Stochastic Delay Differential Equations with Markovian Switching and Poisson Jumps

In the paper, based on stochastic analysis theory and Lyapunov functional method, we discuss the mean square stability of impulsive stochastic delay differential equations with markovian switching and poisson jumps, and the sufficient conditions of mean square stability have been obtained. One example illustrates the main results. Furthermore, some well-known results are improved and generalized in the remarks.

The Splitting Upwind Schemes for Spectral Action Balance Equation
The spectral action balance equation is an equation that used to simulate short-crested wind-generated waves in shallow water areas such as coastal regions and inland waters. This equation consists of two spatial dimensions, wave direction, and wave frequency which can be solved by finite difference method. When this equation with dominating convection term are discretized using central differences, stability problems occur when the grid spacing is chosen too coarse. In this paper, we introduce the splitting upwind schemes for avoiding stability problems and prove that it is consistent to the upwind scheme with same accuracy. The splitting upwind schemes was adopted to split the wave spectral action balance equation into four onedimensional problems, which for each small problem obtains the independently tridiagonal linear systems. For each smaller system can be solved by direct or iterative methods at the same time which is very fast when performed by a multi-processor computer.
Effects of Safflower Cake Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performances, Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Garganica Kids

Two group of kids (“Safflower cake" and “Control") were fed ad libitum with pelleted total mixed rations. After a 7-days adaptation period, the diet of the “Safflower cake" group were supplemented with 20% of safflower cake. The kids were slaughtered at 96 days of age. Dietary safflower cake did not affect the growth traits of kids. In addition, kids fed experimental diet showed a lower feed intake and consequently a better feed conversion ratio in comparison to the “Control" group. The use of safflower decreased the level of SFA and increased the level of MUFA in kid meat. The level of PUFA was higher in lipid extracted from animals feeding “Control“ diet even if the UFA level was lower. Furthermore, lipid extracted from animals feeding control diet contained more ω6 fatty acids in comparison to kids feeding experimental diet while the opposite trend was observed for the level of ω3 fatty acids. The ω6 to ω3 ratio was significantly affected by diet and in particular this ratio decreased in meat of kids fed experimental diet. Our results indicate that intramuscular fatty acid composition of kid meat can be improved from a human health perspective by inclusion of safflower cake in the diet.

Study on Applying Fuzzy AHP and GRA in Selection of Agent Construction Enterprise
To help the client to select a competent agent construction enterprise (ACE), this study aims to investigate the selection standards by using the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) and build an evaluation mathematical model with Grey Relational Analysis (GRA). According to the outputs of literature review, four orderly levels are established within the model, taking the consideration of various agent construction models in practice. Then, the process of applying FAHP and GRA is discussed in detailed. Finally, through a case study, this paper illustrates how to apply these methods in getting the weights of each standard and the final assessment result.
Application of Process Approach to Evaluate the Information Security Risk and its Implementation in an Iranian Private Bank

Every organization is continually subject to new damages and threats which can be resulted from their operations or their goal accomplishment. Methods of providing the security of space and applied tools have been widely changed with increasing application and development of information technology (IT). From this viewpoint, information security management systems were evolved to construct and prevent reiterating the experienced methods. In general, the correct response in information security management systems requires correct decision making, which in turn requires the comprehensive effort of managers and everyone involved in each plan or decision making. Obviously, all aspects of work or decision are not defined in all decision making conditions; therefore, the possible or certain risks should be considered when making decisions. This is the subject of risk management and it can influence the decisions. Investigation of different approaches in the field of risk management demonstrates their progress from quantitative to qualitative methods with a process approach.

Credit Risk Management and Analysis in an Iranian Bank
While financial institutions have faced difficulties over the years for a multitude of reasons, the major cause of serious banking problems continues to be directly related to lax credit standards for borrowers and counterparties, poor portfolio risk management, or a lack of attention to changes in economic or other circumstances that can lead to a deterioration in the credit standing of a bank's counterparties. Credit risk is most simply defined as the potential that a bank borrower or counterparty will fail to meet its obligations in accordance with agreed terms. The goal of credit risk management is to maximize a bank's risk-adjusted rate of return by maintaining credit risk exposure within acceptable parameters. Banks need to manage the credit risk inherent in the entire portfolio as well as the risk in individual credits or transactions. Banks should also consider the relationships between credit risk and other risks. The effective management of credit risk is a critical component of a comprehensive approach to risk management and essential to the long-term success of any banking organization. In this research we also study the relationship between credit risk indices and borrower-s timely payback in Karafarin bank.
Effects of Silicon Oxide Filler Material and Fibre Orientation on Erosive Wear of GF/EP Composites

Materials added to the matrix help improving operating properties of a composite. This experimental study has targeted to investigate this aim where Silicon Oxide particles were added to glass fibre and epoxy resin at an amount of 15% to the main material to obtain a sort of new composite material. Erosive wear behavior of epoxy-resin dipped composite materials reinforced with glass fibre and Silicon Oxide under three different impingement angles (30°, 60° and 90°), three different impact velocities (23, 34 and 53 m/s), two different angular Aluminum abrasive particle sizes (approximately 200 and 400 μm) and the fibre orientation of 45° (45/-45) were investigated. In the test results, erosion rates were obtained as functions of impingement angles, impact velocities, particle sizes and fibre orientation. Moreover, materials with addition of Silicon Oxide filler material exhibited lower wear as compared to neat materials with no added filler material. In addition, SEM views showing worn out surfaces of the test specimens were scrutinized.

Pollution Control and Sustainable Urban Transport System - Electric Vehicle
Recently electric vehicles are becoming popular as an alternative of conventional fossil fuel vehicles. Conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicle uses fossil fuel which contributing a major part of overall carbon emission in the environment. Carbon and other green house gas emission are responsible for global warming and resulting climate change. It becomes vital to evaluate performance of vehicle based on emission. In this paper an effort has been made to depict the picture of emission caused by vehicle and scenario of Australia has taken into account. Effort has been made to compare the fossil based vehicle with electric vehicle in phases. The study also evaluates advancement in electric vehicle technology, required infrastructure for sustainability and future scope of developments. This paper also includes the evaluation of electric vehicle concept for pollution control and sustainable transport systems in future. This study can be a benchmark for development of electric vehicle as low carbon emission alternative for the cities of tomorrow.
Homogeneity of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties in Horizontal Continuous Cast Billet
Horizontal continuous casting is widely used to produce semi-finished non-Ferrous products. Homogeneity in the metallurgical characteristics and mechanical properties for this product is vital for industrial application. In the present work, the microstructure and mechanical properties of a horizontal continuous cast two-phase brass billet have been studied. Impact strength and hardness variations were examined and the phase composition and porosity studied with image analysis software. Distinct differences in mechanical properties were observed between the upper, middle and lower parts of the billet, which are explained in terms of the morphology and size of the phase in the microstructure. Hardness variation in the length of billet is higher in upper area but impact strength is higher in lower areas.
All Proteins Have a Basic Molecular Formula
This study proposes a basic molecular formula for all proteins. A total of 10,739 proteins belonging to 9 different protein groups classified on the basis of their functions were selected randomly. They included enzymes, storage proteins, hormones, signalling proteins, structural proteins, transport proteins, immunoglobulins or antibodies, motor proteins and receptor proteins. After obtaining the protein molecular formula using the ProtParam tool, the H/C, N/C, O/C, and S/C ratios were determined for each randomly selected sample. In this case, H, N, O, and S coefficients were specified per carbon atom. Surprisingly, the results demonstrated that H, N, O, and S coefficients for all 10,739 proteins are similar and highly correlated. This study demonstrates that despite differences in the structure and function, all known proteins have a similar basic molecular formula CnH1.58 ± 0.015nN0.28 ± 0.005nO0.30 ± 0.007nS0.01 ± 0.002n. The total correlation between all coefficients was found to be 0.9999.
Effect of Chloroform on Aerobic Biodegradation of Organic Solvents in Pharmaceutical Wastewater
In this study, cometabolic biodegradation of chloroform was experimented with mixed cultures in the presence of various organic solvents like methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, acetone, acetonitrile and toluene as these are predominant discharges in pharmaceutical industries. Toluene and acetone showed higher specific chloroform degradation rate when compared to other compounds. Cometabolic degradation of chloroform was further confirmed by observation of free chloride ions in the medium. An extended Haldane model, incorporating the inhibition due to chloroform and the competitive inhibition between primary substrates, was developed to predict the biodegradation of primary substrates, cometabolic degradation of chloroform and the biomass growth. The proposed model is based on the use of biokinetic parameters obtained from single substrate degradation studies. The model was able to satisfactorily predict the experimental results of ternary and quaternary mixtures. The proposed model can be used for predicting the performance of bioreactors treating discharges from pharmaceutical industries.
CO2 Sequestration Potential of Construction and Demolition Alkaline Waste Material in Indian Perspective
In order to avoid the potentially devastating consequences of global warming and climate change, the carbon dioxide “CO2" emissions caused due to anthropogenic activities must be reduced considerably. This paper presents the first study examining the feasibility of carbon sequestration in construction and demolition “C&D" waste. Experiments were carried out in a self fabricated Batch Reactor at 40ºC, relative humidity of 50-70%, and flow rate of CO2 at 10L/min for 1 hour for water-to-solids ratio of 0.2 to 1.2. The effect of surface area was found by comparing the theoretical extent of carbonation of two different sieve sizes (0.3mm and 2.36mm) of C&D waste. A 38.44% of the theoretical extent of carbonation equating to 4% CO2 sequestration extent was obtained for C&D waste sample for 0.3mm sieve size. Qualitative, quantitative and morphological analyses were done to validate carbonate formation using X-ray diffraction “X.R.D.," thermal gravimetric analysis “T.G.A., “X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy “X.R.F.," and scanning electron microscopy “S.E.M".
Nonlinear Simulation of Harmonically Coupled Two-Beam Free-Electron Laser
A nonlinear model of two-beam free-electron laser (FEL) in the absence of slippage is presented. The two beams are assumed to be cold with different energies and the fundamental resonance of the higher energy beam is at the third harmonic of lower energy beam. By using Maxwell-s equations and full Lorentz force equations of motion for the electron beams, coupled differential equations are derived and solved numerically by the fourth order Runge–Kutta method. In this method a considerable growth of third harmonic electromagnetic field in the XUV and X-ray regions is predicted.
Stochastic Programming Model for Power Generation
We consider power system expansion planning under uncertainty. In our approach, integer programming and stochastic programming provide a basic framework. We develop a multistage stochastic programming model in which some of the variables are restricted to integer values. By utilizing the special property of the problem, called block separable recourse, the problem is transformed into a two-stage stochastic program with recourse. The electric power capacity expansion problem is reformulated as the problem with first stage integer variables and continuous second stage variables. The L-shaped algorithm to solve the problem is proposed.
Slug Tracking Simulation of Severe Slugging Experiments

Experimental data from an atmospheric air/water terrain slugging case has been made available by the Shell Amsterdam research center, and has been subject to numerical simulation and comparison with a one-dimensional two-phase slug tracking simulator under development at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. The code is based on tracking of liquid slugs in pipelines by use of a Lagrangian grid formulation implemented in Cµ by use of object oriented techniques. An existing hybrid spatial discretization scheme is tested, in which the stratified regions are modelled by the two-fluid model. The slug regions are treated incompressible, thus requiring a single momentum balance over the whole slug. Upon comparison with the experimental data, the period of the simulated severe slugging cycle is observed to be sensitive to slug generation in the horizontal parts of the system. Two different slug initiation methods have been tested with the slug tracking code, and grid dependency has been investigated.

Nonlinear Thermal Expansion Model for SiC/Al
The thermal expansion behaviour of silicon carbide (SCS-2) fibre reinforced 6061 aluminium matrix composite subjected to the influenced thermal mechanical cycling (TMC) process were investigated. The thermal stress has important effect on the longitudinal thermal expansion coefficient of the composites. The present paper used experimental data of the thermal expansion behaviour of a SiC/Al composite for temperatures up to 370°C, in which their data was used for carrying out modelling of theoretical predictions.
Improving TNT Curing Process by Using Infrared Camera

Among the chemicals used for ammunition production, TNT (Trinitrotoluene) play a significant role since World War I and II. Various types of military weapon utilize TNT in casting process. However, the TNT casting process for warhead is difficult to control the cooling rate of the liquid TNT. This problem occurs because the casting process lacks the equipment to detect the temperature during the casting procedure This study presents the temperature detected by infrared camera to illustrate the cooling rate and cooling zone of curing, and demonstrates the optimization of TNT condition to reduce the risk of air gap occurred in the warhead which can result in the destruction afterward. Premature initiation of explosive-filled projectiles in response to set-back forces during gunfiring cause by casting defects. Finally the study can help improving the process of the TNT casting. The operators can control the curing of TNT inside the case by rising up the heating rod at the proper time. Consequently this can reduce tremendous time of rework if the air gaps occur and increase strength to lower elastic modulus. Therefore, it can be clearly concluded that the use of Infrared Cameras in this process is another method to improve the casting procedure.

A Comparison of Different Soft Computing Models for Credit Scoring
It has become crucial over the years for nations to improve their credit scoring methods and techniques in light of the increasing volatility of the global economy. Statistical methods or tools have been the favoured means for this; however artificial intelligence or soft computing based techniques are becoming increasingly preferred due to their proficient and precise nature and relative simplicity. This work presents a comparison between Support Vector Machines and Artificial Neural Networks two popular soft computing models when applied to credit scoring. Amidst the different criteria-s that can be used for comparisons; accuracy, computational complexity and processing times are the selected criteria used to evaluate both models. Furthermore the German credit scoring dataset which is a real world dataset is used to train and test both developed models. Experimental results obtained from our study suggest that although both soft computing models could be used with a high degree of accuracy, Artificial Neural Networks deliver better results than Support Vector Machines.
Mutational Analysis of CTLA4 Gene in Pakistani SLE Patients

The main aim is to perform mutational analysis of CTLA4 gene Exon 1 in SLE patients. A total of 61 SLE patients fulfilling “American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria" and 61 controls were enrolled in this study. The region of CTLA4 gene exon 1 was amplified by using Step-down PCR technique. Extracted DNA of band 354 bp was sequenced to analyze mutations in the exon-1 of CTLA-4 gene. Further, protein sequences were identified from nucleotide sequences of CTLA4 Exon 1 by using Expasy software and through Blast P software it was found that CTLA4 protein sequences of Pakistani SLE patients were similar to that of Chinese SLE population. No variations were found after patients sequences were compared with that of the control sequence. Furthermore it was found that CTLA4 protein sequences of Pakistani SLE patients were similar to that of Chinese SLE population. Thus CTLA4 gene may not be responsible for an autoimmune disease SLE.

Fatigue Life Consumption for Turbine Blades-Vanes Accelerated by Erosion-Contour Modification
A new mechanism responsible for structural life consumption due to resonant fatigue in turbine blades, or vanes, is presented and explained. A rotating blade or vane in a gas turbine can change its contour due to erosion and/or material build up, in any of these instances, the surface pressure distribution occurring on the suction and pressure sides of blades-vanes can suffer substantial modification of their pressure and temperatures envelopes and flow characteristics. Meanwhile, the relative rotation between the blade and duct vane while the pressurized gas flows and the consequent wake crossings, will induce a fluctuating thrust force or lift that will excite the blade. An actual totally used up set of vane-blade components in a HP turbine power stage in a gas turbine is analyzed. The blade suffered some material erosion mostly at the trailing edge provoking a peculiar surface pressure envelope which evolved as the relative position between the vane and the blade passed in front of each other. Interestingly preliminary modal analysis for this eroded blade indicates several natural frequencies within the aeromechanic power spectrum, moreover, the highest frequency component is 94% of one natural frequency indicating near resonant condition. Independently of other simultaneously occurring fatigue cycles (such as thermal, centrifugal stresses).
Estimating Regression Parameters in Linear Regression Model with a Censored Response Variable

In this work we study the effect of several covariates X on a censored response variable T with unknown probability distribution. In this context, most of the studies in the literature can be located in two possible general classes of regression models: models that study the effect the covariates have on the hazard function; and models that study the effect the covariates have on the censored response variable. Proposals in this paper are in the second class of models and, more specifically, on least squares based model approach. Thus, using the bootstrap estimate of the bias, we try to improve the estimation of the regression parameters by reducing their bias, for small sample sizes. Simulation results presented in the paper show that, for reasonable sample sizes and censoring levels, the bias is always smaller for the new proposals.

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Dispersion of Microparticles Emitted by Machining Operation
As a part of the development of a numerical method of close capture exhausts systems for machining devices, a test rig recreating a situation similar to a grinding operation, but in a perfectly controlled environment, is used. The properties of the obtained spray of solid particles are initially characterized using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV), in order to obtain input and validation parameters for numerical simulations. The dispersion of a tracer gas (SF6) emitted simultaneously with the particle jet is then studied experimentally, as the dispersion of such a gas is representative of that of finer particles, whose aerodynamic response time is negligible. Finally, complete modeling of the test rig is achieved to allow comparison with experimental results and thus to progress towards validation of the models used to describe a twophase flow generated by machining operation.
Support Vector Fuzzy Based Neural Networks For Exchange Rate Modeling

A Novel fuzzy neural network combining with support vector learning mechanism called support-vector-based fuzzy neural networks (SVBFNN) is proposed. The SVBFNN combine the capability of minimizing the empirical risk (training error) and expected risk (testing error) of support vector learning in high dimensional data spaces and the efficient human-like reasoning of FNN.

Projective Synchronization of a Class of Fractional-Order Chaotic Systems
This paper at first presents approximate analytical solutions for systems of fractional differential equations using the differential transform method. The application of differential transform method, developed for differential equations of integer order, is extended to derive approximate analytical solutions of systems of fractional differential equations. The solutions of our model equations are calculated in the form of convergent series with easily computable components. After that a drive-response synchronization method with linear output error feedback is presented for “generalized projective synchronization" for a class of fractional-order chaotic systems via a scalar transmitted signal. Genesio_Tesi and Duffing systems are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization method.
Applications of Prediction and Identification Using Adaptive DCMAC Neural Networks
An adaptive dynamic cerebellar model articulation controller (DCMAC) neural network used for solving the prediction and identification problem is proposed in this paper. The proposed DCMAC has superior capability to the conventional cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) neural network in efficient learning mechanism, guaranteed system stability and dynamic response. The recurrent network is embedded in the DCMAC by adding feedback connections in the association memory space so that the DCMAC captures the dynamic response, where the feedback units act as memory elements. The dynamic gradient descent method is adopted to adjust DCMAC parameters on-line. Moreover, the analytical method based on a Lyapunov function is proposed to determine the learning-rates of DCMAC so that the variable optimal learning-rates are derived to achieve most rapid convergence of identifying error. Finally, the adaptive DCMAC is applied in two computer simulations. Simulation results show that accurate identifying response and superior dynamic performance can be obtained because of the powerful on-line learning capability of the proposed DCMAC.
Reversible Watermarking for H.264/AVC Videos
In this paper, we propose a reversible watermarking scheme based on histogram shifting (HS) to embed watermark bits into the H.264/AVC standard videos by modifying the last nonzero level in the context adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC) domain. The proposed method collects all of the last nonzero coefficients (or called last level coefficient) of 4×4 sub-macro blocks in a macro block and utilizes predictions for the current last level from the neighbor block-s last levels to embed watermark bits. The feature of the proposed method is low computational and has the ability of reversible recovery. The experimental results have demonstrated that our proposed scheme has acceptable degradation on video quality and output bit-rate for most test videos.
Real-time ROI Acquisition for Unsupervised and Touch-less Palmprint
In this paper we proposed a novel method to acquire the ROI (Region of interest) of unsupervised and touch-less palmprint captured from a web camera in real-time. We use Viola-Jones approach and skin model to get the target area in real time. Then an innovative course-to-fine approach to detect the key points on the hand is described. A new algorithm is used to find the candidate key points coarsely and quickly. In finely stage, we verify the hand key points with the shape context descriptor. To make the user much comfortable, it can process the hand image with different poses, even the hand is closed. Experiments show promising result by using the proposed method in various conditions.
Monitoring and Fault-Recovery Capacity with Waveguide Grating-based Optical Switch over WDM/OCDMA-PON
In order to implement flexibility as well as survivable capacities over passive optical network (PON), a new automatic random fault-recovery mechanism with array-waveguide-grating based (AWG-based) optical switch (OSW) is presented. Firstly, wavelength-division-multiplexing and optical code-division multiple-access (WDM/OCDMA) scheme are configured to meet the various geographical locations requirement between optical network unit (ONU) and optical line terminal (OLT). The AWG-base optical switch is designed and viewed as central star-mesh topology to prohibit/decrease the duplicated redundant elements such as fiber and transceiver as well. Hence, by simple monitoring and routing switch algorithm, random fault-recovery capacity is achieved over bi-directional (up/downstream) WDM/OCDMA scheme. When error of distribution fiber (DF) takes place or bit-error-rate (BER) is higher than 10-9 requirement, the primary/slave AWG-based OSW are adjusted and controlled dynamically to restore the affected ONU groups via the other working DFs immediately.
How Does Psychoanalysis Help in Reconstructing Political Thought? An Exercise of Interpretation
The significance of psychology in studying politics is embedded in philosophical issues as well as behavioural pursuits. For the former is often associated with Sigmund Freud and his followers. The latter is inspired by the writings of Harold Lasswell. Political psychology or psychopolitics has its own impression on political thought ever since it deciphers the concept of human nature and political propaganda. More importantly, psychoanalysis views political thought as a textual content which needs to explore the latent from the manifest content. In other words, it reads the text symptomatically and interprets the hidden truth. This paper explains the paradigm of dream interpretation applied by Freud. The dream work is a process which has four successive activities: condensation, displacement, representation and secondary revision. The texts dealing with political though can also be interpreted on these principles. Freud's method of dream interpretation draws its source after the hermeneutic model of philological research. It provides theoretical perspective and technical rules for the interpretation of symbolic structures. The task of interpretation remains a discovery of equivalence of symbols and actions through perpetual analogies. Psychoanalysis can help in studying political thought in two ways: to study the text distortion, Freud's dream interpretation is used as a paradigm exploring the latent text from its manifest text; and to apply Freud's psychoanalytic concepts and theories ranging from individual mind to civilization, religion, war and politics.
The Adsorption of Lead from Aqueous Solutions Using Coal Fly Ash : Effect of Crystallinity
Coal fly ash (CFA) generated by coal-based thermal power plants is mainly composed of some oxides having high crystallinity, like quartz and mullite. In this study, the effect of CFA crystallinity toward lead adsorption capacity was investigated. To get solid with various crystallinity, the solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) of 1-7 M was used to treat CFA at various temperature and reflux time. Furthermore, to evaluate the effect of NaOH-treated CFA with respect to adsorption capacity, the treated CFA were examine as adsorbent for removing lead in the solution. The result shows that using NaOH to treat CFA causes crystallinity of quartz and mullite decrease. At higher NaOH concentration (>3M), in addition the damage of quartz and mullite crystallinity is followed by crystal formation called hydroxysodalite. The lower crystalllinity, the higher adsorption capacity.
A Novel Q-algorithm for EPC Global Class-1 Generation-2 Anti-collision Protocol

This paper provides a scheme to improve the read efficiency of anti-collision algorithm in EPCglobal UHF Class-1 Generation-2 RFID standard. In this standard, dynamic frame slotted ALOHA is specified to solve the anti-collision problem. Also, the Q-algorithm with a key parameter C is adopted to dynamically adjust the frame sizes. In the paper, we split the C parameter into two parameters to increase the read speed and derive the optimal values of the two parameters through simulations. The results indicate our method outperforms the original Q-algorithm.

Research on Laws and Regulations of Sustainable Construction in China
This paper introduced the status quo of laws and regulations of sustainable construction in China and investigated the existing problems of current laws and regulations through person-interviews in Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing and Shenzhen in China. The problems include incomplete legal system, lack of guidance of higher-level laws, backward in some laws and regulations, unclear legal liability and poor law enforcement. Aimed at these problems, this paper also put forward some improvement approaches, such as filling the legal gap, revising laws and regulations, establishing incentive system and keeping pace with level of development.
Use of Ecommerce Websites in Developing Countries
The purpose of this study is to investiagte the use of the ecommerce website in Indonesia as a developing country. The ecommerce website has been identified having the significant impact on business activities in particular solving the geographical problem for islanded countries likes Indonesia. Again, website is identified as a crucial marketing tool. This study presents the effect of quality and features on the use and user satisfaction employing ecommerce websites. Survey method for 115 undergraduate students of Management Department in Andalas University who are attending Management Information Systems (SIM) class have been undertaken. The data obtained is analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using SmartPLS program. This result found that quality of system and information, feature as well satisfaction influencing the use ecommerce website in Indonesia contexts.
Investigation of Drying Kinetics of Viscose Yarn Bobbins
This study is concerned with the investigation of the suitability of several empirical and semi-empirical drying models available in the literature to define drying behavior of viscose yarn bobbins. For this purpose, firstly, experimental drying behaviour of viscose bobbins was determined on an experimental dryer setup which was designed and manufactured based on hot-air bobbin dryers used in textile industry. Afterwards, drying models considered were fitted to the experimentally obtained moisture ratios. Drying parameters were drying temperature and bobbin diameter. The fit was performed by selecting the values for constants in the models in such a way that these values make the sum of the squared differences between the experimental and the model results for moisture ratio minimum. Suitability of fitting was specified as comparing the correlation coefficient, standard error and mean square deviation. The results show that the most appropriate model in describing the drying curves of viscose bobbins is the Page model.
Modelling of Soil Structure Interaction of Integral Abutment Bridges
Integral Abutment Bridges (IAB) are defined as simple or multiple span bridges in which the bridge deck is cast monolithically with the abutment walls. This kind of bridges are becoming very popular due to different aspects such as good response under seismic loading, low initial costs, elimination of bearings, and less maintenance. However the main issue related to the analysis of this type of structures is dealing with soil-structure interaction of the abutment walls and the supporting piles. Various soil constitutive models have been used in studies of soil-structure interaction in this kind of structures by researchers. This paper is an effort to review the implementation of various finite elements model which explicitly incorporates the nonlinear soil and linear structural response considering various soil constitutive models and finite element mesh.
An Impulse-Momentum Approach to Swing-Up Control of Double Inverted Pendulum on a Cart
The challenge in the swing-up problem of double inverted pendulum on a cart (DIPC) is to design a controller that bring all DIPC's states, especially the joint angles of the two links, into the region of attraction of the desired equilibrium. This paper proposes a new method to swing-up DIPC based on a series of restto- rest maneuvers of the first link about its vertically upright configuration while holding the cart fixed at the origin. The rest-torest maneuvers are designed such that each one results in a net gain in energy of the second link. This results in swing-up of DIPC-s configuration to the region of attraction of the desired equilibrium. A three-step algorithm is provided for swing-up control followed by the stabilization step. Simulation results with a comparison to an experimental work done in the literature are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the approach.
Effect of Speed and Torque on Statistical Parameters in Tapered Bearing Fault Detection
The effect of the rotational speed and axial torque on the diagnostics of tapered rolling element bearing defects was investigated. The accelerometer was mounted on the bearing housing and connected to Sound and Vibration Analyzer (SVAN 958) and was used to measure the accelerations from the bearing housing. The data obtained from the bearing was processed to detect damage of the bearing using statistical tools and the results were subsequently analyzed to see if bearing damage had been captured. From this study it can be seen that damage is more evident when the bearing is loaded. Also, at the incipient stage of damage the crest factor and kurtosis values are high but as time progresses the crest factors and kurtosis values decrease whereas the peak and RMS values are low at the incipient stage but increase with damage.
Compact Er3+-Doped ZBLAN Green Upconversion Fibre Laser
In this paper, a fibre laser at 546 nm has been studied for a signal power of -30 dB. Er3+-doped ZBLAN fibre has been used by upconversion pumping of a 980 nm laser diode. Gain saturation effect has been investigated in detail. Laser performance has also been discussed. An efficiency of 35% has been calculated with a length of 5 mm fibre laser. Results show that Er3+-doped ZBLAN is a promising candidate for optical amplification at 546 nm.
How Do Politicians Recover Their Costs? The Political Economy of Representative Democracy in India

This paper explores the features of political economy in the dynamics of representative politics in India. Politics is seen as enhancing economic benefits through acquiring and maintenance of power in the realm of democratic set up. The system of representation is riddled with competitive populism. Emerging leaders and parties are forced to accommodate their ideologies in coping with competitive politics. Electoral politics and voting behaviour reflect series of influences mooted by the politicians. Voters are accustomed to expect benefits outs of state exchequer. The electoral competitors show a changing phase of investment and return policy. Every elector has to spend and realize his costs in his tenure. In the case of defeated electors, even the cost recovery is not possible directly; there are indirect means to recover their costs. The series of case studies show the method of party funding, campaign financing, electoral expenditure, and cost recovery. Regulations could not restrict the level of spending. Several cases of disproportionate accumulation of wealth by the politicians reveal that money played a major part in electoral process. The political economy of representative politics hitherto ignores how a politician spends and recovers his cost and multiples his wealth. To be sure, the acquiring and maintenance of power is to enhance the wealth of the electors.

The Effect of Binahong to Hematoma
In elevating performance in competetive sports, an athlete must continously train in achieving maximum performance,but needs to pay attention to recovery therapy, that is to recover from fatigue as well as injury.The correct recovery therapy will assist in process of recovery and helps in the training in achieving better performace. Binahong (Anredera cordifolia) was proven empirically by the locals in assisting speedy recovery from an injury.Clinical research with lab animals receiving blunt trauma injury, microscopically shown signs of: 1) redness, 2) heatiness, 3) swelling and, 4) lack of activity. There is also microscopic indication of: 1) infiltration of inflame cells (migration of cells to the trauma area), 2) Cells necrosis, 3) Congestion (as a result of dead red blood cells), 4) uedema. On administration of Binahong for 3 days, there is a significant drop of 5% in cell inflammation, 2% increase of fibroblast (cell membrance) count.Conclutin: Binahong do assist in reducing cell inflammation and increase counts of cells fibroblast. Suggestion: In helping athlete's to recover from force injury, we need study about Binahong's roots to inflammation cell and healing of injuried cell.
Carrageenan Properties Extracted From Eucheuma cottonii, Indonesia
The effect of extraction solvent upon properties of carrageenan from Eucheuma cottonii was studied. The distilled water and KOH solution (concentration 0.1- 0.5N) were used as the solvent. Extraction process was carried out in water bath equipped by stirrer with constant speed of 275 rpm with a constant ratio of seaweed weight to solvent volume ( 1:50 g/mL) at 86oC for 45 minutes. The extract was then precipitated in 3 volume of 90% ethanol, oven dried at 60oC. Based on experimental data, alkali significantly influenced yield and properties of extracted carrageenan. The extracted carrageenan was found to have essentially identical FTIR spectra to the reference samples of kappa-carrageenan. Increasing the KOH concentration led to carrageenan containing less sulfate content and intrinsic viscosity. The gel strength increased along with the increasing of KOH concentration. The decreasing of intrinsic viscosity value indicates that a polymer degradation occurs during alkali extraction.
Study of Asphaltene Precipitation İnduced Formation Damage During CO2 Injection for a Malaysian Light Oil

In this work, the precipitation of asphaltene from a Malaysian light oil reservoir was studies. A series of experiments were designed and carried out to examine the effect of CO2 injection on asphaltene precipitation. Different pressures of injections were used in Dynamic flooding experiment in order to investigate the effect of pressure versus injection pore volume of CO2. These dynamic displacement tests simulate reservoir condition. Results show that by increasing the pore volume of injected gas asphaltene precipitation will increases, also rise in injection pressure causes less precipitation. Sandstone core plug was used to represent reservoir formation during displacement test; therefore it made it possible to study the effect of present of asphaltene on formation. It is found out that the precipitated asphaltene can reduce permeability and porosity which is not favorable during oil production.

On the Fp-Normal Subgroups of Finite Groups
Let G be a finite group, and let F be a formation of finite group. We say that a subgroup H of G is p F -normal in G if there exists a normal subgroup T of G such that HT is a permutable Hall subgroup of G and G G (H
Effects of Various Substrate Openings for Electronic Cooling under Forced and Natural Convection

This study experimentally investigates the heat transfer effects of forced convection and natural convection under different substrate openings design. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was established and implemented to verify and explain the experimental results and heat transfer behavior. It is found that different opening position will destroy the growth of the boundary layer on substrates to alter the cooling ability for both forced under low Reynolds number and natural convection. Nevertheless, having too many opening may reduce heat conduction and affect the overall heat transfer performance. This study provides future researchers with a guideline on designing and electronic package manufacturing.

Review of Scouring on Integral Bridge and its Possible Protection
The purpose of this paper is to summarize the following protection of scouring countermeasures by using Bentonite-Enhanced Sand (BES) mixtures. The concept of underground improvement is being used in this study to reduce the void of the sand. The sand bentonite mixture was used to bond the ground soil conditions surrounding the pile of integral bridge. The right composition of sand bentonite mixture was proposed based on previous findings. The swelling effect of bentonite also was investigated to ensure there is no adverse impact to the structure of the integral bridge. ScourScour, another name for severe erosion, occurs when the erosive capacity of water resulting from natural and manmade events exceeds the ability of earth materials to resist its effects. According to AASHTO LRFD Specifications (Section C3.7.5), scour is the most common reason for the collapse of highway bridges in the United States
Adsorption Capacities of Activated Carbons Prepared from Bamboo by KOH Activation

The production of activated carbon from low or zero cost of agricultural by-products or wastes has received great attention from academics and practitioners due to its economic and environmental benefits. In the production of bamboo furniture, a significant amount of bamboo waste is inevitably generated. Therefore, this research aimed to prepare activated carbons from bamboo furniture waste by chemical (KOH) activation and determine their properties and adsorption capacities for water treatment. The influence of carbonization time on the properties and adsorption capacities of activated carbons was also investigated. The finding showed that the bamboo-derived activated carbons had microporous characteristics. They exhibited high tendency for the reduction of impurities present in effluent water. Their adsorption capacities were comparable to the adsorption capacity of a commercial activated carbon regarding to the reduction in COD, TDS and turbidity of the effluent water.

Numerical and Experimental Study of Flow from a Leaking Buried Pipe in an Unsaturated Porous Media
Considering the numerous applications of the study of the flow due to leakage in a buried pipe in unsaturated porous media, finding a proper model to explain the influence of the effective factors is of great importance.There are various important factors involved in this type of flow such as: pipe leakage size and location, burial depth, the degree of the saturation of the surrounding porous medium, characteristics of the porous medium, fluid type and pressure of the upstream.In this study, the flow through unsaturated porous media due to leakage of a buried pipe for up and down leakage location is studied experimentally and numerically and their results are compared. Study results show that Darcy equation together with BCM method (for calculating the relative permeability) have suitable ability for predicting the flow due to leakage of buried pipes in unsaturated porous media.
Study of Coupled Lateral-Torsional Free Vibrations of Laminated Composite Beam: Analytical Approach

In this paper, an analytical approach is used to study the coupled lateral-torsional vibrations of laminated composite beam. It is known that in such structures due to the fibers orientation in various layers, any lateral displacement will produce a twisting moment. This phenomenon is modeled by the bending-twisting material coupling rigidity and its main feature is the coupling of lateral and torsional vibrations. In addition to the material coupling, the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia are taken into account in the definition of the potential and kinetic energies. Then, the governing differential equations are derived using the Hamilton-s principle and the mathematical model matches the Timoshenko beam model when neglecting the effect of bending-twisting rigidity. The equations of motion which form a system of three coupled PDEs are solved analytically to study the free vibrations of the beam in lateral and rotational modes due to the bending, as well as the torsional mode caused by twisting. The analytic solution is carried out in three steps: 1) assuming synchronous motion for the kinematic variables which are the lateral, rotational and torsional displacements, 2) solving the ensuing eigenvalue problem which contains three coupled second order ODEs and 3) imposing different boundary conditions related to combinations of simply, clamped and free end conditions. The resulting natural frequencies and mode shapes are compared with similar results in the literature and good agreement is achieved.

Microscopic Analysis of Welded Dental Alloys
Microplasma welding is a less expensive alternative to laser welding in dental technology. The aim of the study was to highlight discontinuities present in the microplasma welded joints of dental base metal alloys by visual analysis. Five base metal alloys designated for fixed prostheses manufacture were selected for the experiments. Using these plates, preliminary tests were conducted by microplasma welding in butt joint configuration, without filler material, bilaterally and with filler material, proper for each base metal. Macroscopic visual inspection was performed to assess carefully the irregularities in the welds. Electron microscopy allowed detection of discontinuities that are not visible to the eye and revealing details regarding location, trajectory, morphology and size of discontinuities. Supplementing visual control with microscopic analysis allows to detect small discontinuities, which escapes the macroscopic control and to make a detailed study of the weld.
Adaptive Path Planning for Mobile Robot Obstacle Avoidance
Generally speaking, the mobile robot is capable of sensing its surrounding environment, interpreting the sensed information to obtain the knowledge of its location and the environment, planning a real-time trajectory to reach the object. In this process, the issue of obstacle avoidance is a fundamental topic to be challenged. Thus, an adaptive path-planning control scheme is designed without detailed environmental information, large memory size and heavy computation burden in this study for the obstacle avoidance of a mobile robot. In this scheme, the robot can gradually approach its object according to the motion tracking mode, obstacle avoidance mode, self-rotation mode, and robot state selection. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive path-planning control scheme is verified by numerical simulations of a differential-driving mobile robot under the possible occurrence of obstacle shapes.
Improved Data Warehousing: Lessons Learnt from the Systems Approach
Data warehousing success is not high enough. User dissatisfaction and failure to adhere to time frames and budgets are too common. Most traditional information systems practices are rooted in hard systems thinking. Today, the great systems thinkers are forgotten by information systems developers. A data warehouse is still a system and it is worth investigating whether systems thinkers such as Churchman can enhance our practices today. This paper investigates data warehouse development practices from a systems thinking perspective. An empirical investigation is done in order to understand the everyday practices of data warehousing professionals from a systems perspective. The paper presents a model for the application of Churchman-s systems approach in data warehouse development.
Modeling Prices of Electricity Futures at EEX
The main aim of this paper is to develop and calibrate an econometric model for modeling prices of long term electricity futures contracts. The calibration of our model is performed on data from EEX AG allowing us to capture the specific features of German electricity market. The data sample contains several structural breaks which have to be taken into account for modeling. We model the data with an ARIMAX model which reveals high correlation between the price of electricity futures contracts and prices of LT futures contracts of fuels (namely coal, natural gas and crude oil). Besides this, also a share price index of representative electricity companies traded on Xetra, spread between 10Y and 1Y German bonds and exchange rate between EUR and USD appeared to have significant explanatory power over these futures contracts on EEX.
Prediction of Watermelon Consumer Acceptability based on Vibration Response Spectrum
It is difficult to judge ripeness by outward characteristics such as size or external color. In this paper a nondestructive method was studied to determine watermelon (Crimson Sweet) quality. Responses of samples to excitation vibrations were detected using laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) technology. Phase shift between input and output vibrations were extracted overall frequency range. First and second were derived using frequency response spectrums. After nondestructive tests, watermelons were sensory evaluated. So the samples were graded in a range of ripeness based on overall acceptability (total desired traits consumers). Regression models were developed to predict quality using obtained results and sample mass. The determination coefficients of the calibration and cross validation models were 0.89 and 0.71 respectively. This study demonstrated feasibility of information which is derived vibration response curves for predicting fruit quality. The vibration response of watermelon using the LDV method is measured without direct contact; it is accurate and timely, which could result in significant advantage for classifying watermelons based on consumer opinions.
Heritability Estimates of Lactation Traits in Maltese Goat
Data on 657 lactation from 163 Maltese goat, collected over a 5-year period were analyzed by a mixed model to estimate the variance components for heritability. The considered lactation traits were: milk yield (MY) and lactation length (LL). Year, parity and type of birth (single or twin) were significant sources of variation for lactation length; on the other hand milk yield was significantly influenced only by the year. The average MY was 352.34 kg and the average LL was 230 days. Estimates of heritability were 0.21 and 0.15 for MY and LL respectively. These values suggest there is low correlation between genotype and phenotype so it may be difficult to evaluate animals directly on phenotype. So, the genetic improvement of this breed may be quite slow without the support of progeny test aimed to select Maltese breeders.
Determination of Cu and Mo Potential Targets in the Khatunabad Based on Analytical Hierarchy Process, West of Mianeh, Iran
Khatunabad area is situated geologically in Urmieh- Dokhtar magmatic belt in NW of Iran. In this research, studied area has been investigated in order to recognize the potential copper and molybdenum-bearing target areas. The survey layers include the lithologic units, alteration, geochemical result, tectonics and copper and molybdenum occurrence. As an accurate decision can have a considerable effect on exploration plans, so in this efforts have been made to make use of new combination method. For this purpose, the analytical hierarchy process was used and revealed highly potential copper and molybdenum mineralization areas. Based on achieved results, geological perspective in north of studied area is appropriate for advance stage, especially for subsurface exploration in future.
A WIP Control Based On an Intelligent Controller

In this study, a robust intelligent backstepping tracking control (RIBTC) system combined with adaptive output recurrent cerebellar model articulation control (AORCMAC) and H∞ control technique is proposed for wheeled inverted pendulums (WIPs) real-time control with exact system dynamics unknown. Moreover, a robust H∞ controller is designed to attenuate the effect of the residual approximation errors and external disturbances with desired attenuation level. The experimental results indicate that the WIPs can stand upright stably when using the proposed RIBTC.

Simulation Modeling for Analysis and Evaluation of the Internal Handling Fleet System at Shahid Rajaee Container Port
The dramatic increasing of sea-freight container transportations and the developing trends for using containers in the multimodal handling systems through the sea, rail, road and land in nowadays market cause general managers of container terminals to face challenges such as increasing demand, competitive situation, new investments and expansion of new activities and need to use new methods to fulfil effective operations both along quayside and within the yard. Among these issues, minimizing the turnaround time of vessels is considered to be the first aim of every container port system. Regarding the complex structure of container ports, this paper presents a simulation model that calculates the number of trucks needed in the Iranian Shahid Rajaee Container Port for handling containers between the berth and the yard. In this research, some important criteria such as vessel turnaround time, gantry crane utilization and truck utilization have been considered. By analyzing the results of the model, it has been shown that increasing the number of trucks to 66 units has a significant effect on the performance indices of the port and can increase the capacity of loading and unloading up to 10.8%.
A Combination of Similarity Ranking and Time for Social Research Paper Searching
Nowadays social media are important tools for web resource discovery. The performance and capabilities of web searches are vital, especially search results from social research paper bookmarking. This paper proposes a new algorithm for ranking method that is a combination of similarity ranking with paper posted time or CSTRank. The paper posted time is static ranking for improving search results. For this particular study, the paper posted time is combined with similarity ranking to produce a better ranking than other methods such as similarity ranking or SimRank. The retrieval performance of combination rankings is evaluated using mean values of NDCG. The evaluation in the experiments implies that the chosen CSTRank ranking by using weight score at ratio 90:10 can improve the efficiency of research paper searching on social bookmarking websites.
Object Alignment for Military Optical Surveillance
Electro-optical devices are increasingly used for military sea-, land- and air applications to detect, recognize and track objects. Typically, these devices produce video information that is presented to an operator. However, with increasing availability of electro-optical devices the data volume is becoming very large, creating a rising need for automated analysis. In a military setting, this typically involves detecting and recognizing objects at a large distance, i.e. when they are difficult to distinguish from background and noise. One may consider combining multiple images from a video stream into a single enhanced image that provides more information for the operator. In this paper we investigate a simple algorithm to enhance simulated images from a military context and investigate how the enhancement is affected by various types of disturbance.
LAYMOD; A Layered and Modular Platform for CAx Collaboration Management and Supporting Product data Integration based on STEP Standard
Nowadays companies strive to survive in a competitive global environment. To speed up product development/modifications, it is suggested to adopt a collaborative product development approach. However, despite the advantages of new IT improvements still many CAx systems work separately and locally. Collaborative design and manufacture requires a product information model that supports related CAx product data models. To solve this problem many solutions are proposed, which the most successful one is adopting the STEP standard as a product data model to develop a collaborative CAx platform. However, the improvement of the STEP-s Application Protocols (APs) over the time, huge number of STEP AP-s and cc-s, the high costs of implementation, costly process for conversion of older CAx software files to the STEP neutral file format; and lack of STEP knowledge, that usually slows down the implementation of the STEP standard in collaborative data exchange, management and integration should be considered. In this paper the requirements for a successful collaborative CAx system is discussed. The STEP standard capability for product data integration and its shortcomings as well as the dominant platforms for supporting CAx collaboration management and product data integration are reviewed. Finally a platform named LAYMOD to fulfil the requirements of CAx collaborative environment and integrating the product data is proposed. The platform is a layered platform to enable global collaboration among different CAx software packages/developers. It also adopts the STEP modular architecture and the XML data structures to enable collaboration between CAx software packages as well as overcoming the STEP standard limitations. The architecture and procedures of LAYMOD platform to manage collaboration and avoid contradicts in product data integration are introduced.
Leukocytes Count and Lymphocyte Proliferation of Dinitrochlorobenzene Sensitized Rat Supplemented with Fermented Goat Milk
Goat milk has an hypoallergenic effects, and allergic diseases related to abnormal of intestinal flora. Probiotic microorganisms do exert an activity on the immune system in the skin of the individual.The purpose of this study are to determine the number of leukocyte and lymphocyte proliferation in rat supplemented with fermented goat milk (acidophilus milk and kefir) and sensitized with dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). Female Wistar rats 6-8 weeks olds were divided into 3 treatment groups. The first group supplemented goat milk kefir, second group acidophilus goat milk, and third group as control. During 28-day experiment, on day 15 rat sensitized with allergen DNCB on the dorsal of the body, and on day 24 was challenged with DNCB on the ear. Sampling of blood and tissue of intestinal Peyer'patch (PP) were performed on day 14 (before DNCB sensitized) and on day 28 (after DNCB sensitized). The results showed the number of neutrophils in rats supplemented with acidophilus milk was higher (P
Innovation in Business
Innovation, technology and knowledge are the trilogy of impact to support the challenges arising from uncertainty. Evidence showed an opportunity to ask how to manage in this environment under constant innovation. In an attempt to get a response from the field of Management Sciences, based in the Contingency Theory, a research was conducted, with phenomenological and descriptive approaches, using the Case Study Method and the usual procedures for this task involving a focus group composed of managers and employees working in the pharmaceutical field. The problem situation was raised; the state of the art was interpreted and dissected the facts. In this tasks were involved four establishments. The result indicates that these focused ventures have been managed by its founder empirically and is experimenting agility described in this work. The expectation of this study is to improve concepts for stakeholders on creativity in business.
Use of Time-Depend Effects for Mixing and Separation of the Two-Phase Flows
The paper shows some ability to manage two-phase flows arising from the use of unsteady effects. In one case, we consider the condition of fragmentation of the interface between the two components leads to the intensification of mixing. The problem is solved when the temporal and linear scale are small for the appearance of the developed mixing layer. Showing that exist such conditions for unsteady flow velocity at the surface of the channel, which will lead to the creation and fragmentation of vortices at Re numbers of order unity. Also showing that the Re is not a criterion of similarity for this type of flows, but we can introduce a criterion that depends on both the Re, and the frequency splitting of the vortices. It turned out that feature of this situation is that streamlines behave stable, and if we analyze the behavior of the interface between the components it satisfies all the properties of unstable flows. The other problem we consider the behavior of solid impurities in the extensive system of channels. Simulated unsteady periodic flow modeled breaths. Consider the behavior of the particles along the trajectories. It is shown that, depending on the mass and diameter of the particles, they can be collected in a caustic on the channel walls, stop in a certain place or fly back. Of interest is the distribution of particle velocity in frequency. It turned out that by choosing a behavior of the velocity field of the carrier gas can affect the trajectory of individual particles including force them to fly back.
An Evaluation of Requirements Management and Traceability Tools
Requirements management is critical to software delivery success and project lifecycle. Requirements management and their traceability provide assistance for many software engineering activities like impact analysis, coverage analysis, requirements validation and regression testing. In addition requirements traceability is the recognized component of many software process improvement initiatives. Requirements traceability also helps to control and manage evolution of a software system. This paper aims to provide an evaluation of current requirements management and traceability tools. Management and test managers require an appropriate tool for the software under test. We hope, evaluation identified here will help to select the efficient and effective tool.
Stakeholder Background and Knowledge Regarding Green Home Rating in Malaysia
Green home rating has emerged as an important agenda to practice the principles of sustainability. In Malaysia, the establishment of the 'Green Building Index ' Residential New Construction- (GBI-RNC) has brought this agenda closer to the stakeholders of the local green building industry. GBI-RNC focuses on the evaluation of the environmental impacts posed by houses rather than assessing the Triple-Bottom-Line (TBL) of Sustainability which also include socio-economic factors. Therefore, as part of a wider study, a survey was conducted to gather the backgrounds of green building stakeholders in Malaysia and their responses to a number of exploratory questions regarding the setting up of a framework to rate green homes against the TBL. This paper reports the findings from Section A and B from this survey and discusses them accordingly with a conclusion that forms part of the basis for a new generation green home rating framework specifically for use in Malaysia.
Thermal Buckling of Rectangular FGM Plate with Variation Thickness

Equilibrium and stability equations of a thin rectangular plate with length a, width b, and thickness h(x)=C1x+C2, made of functionally graded materials under thermal loads are derived based on the first order shear deformation theory. It is assumed that the material properties vary as a power form of thickness coordinate variable z. The derived equilibrium and buckling equations are then solved analytically for a plate with simply supported boundary conditions. One type of thermal loading, uniform temperature rise and gradient through the thickness are considered, and the buckling temperatures are derived. The influences of the plate aspect ratio, the relative thickness, the gradient index and the transverse shear on buckling temperature difference are all discussed.

Study of Water Relations, Chlorophyll and their Correlations with Grain Yield in Wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes
The objective of this experiment was to study of water relations and chlorophyll in different wheat genotypes and their correlations with grain and biological yields. 21 genotypes of bread wheat were compared in a field experiment as randomized complete blocks design with four replications. The results showed that relative water deficit, relative water loss, excised leaf water retention, cell membrane stability, chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, grain yield and biological yield were different significantly among wheat genotypes, but SPAD-chlorophyll index, relative water content and chlorophyll florescence were not. Significant correlations were not observed among above mentioned water relations and chlorophyll characteristics with grain yield, but there was a positive and significant correlation between biological yield and grain yield.
Evaluation of Sensitometric Properties of Radiographic Films at Different Processing Solutions
The aim of this study was to compare the sensitometric properties of commonly used radiographic films processed with chemical solutions in different workload hospitals. The effect of different processing conditions on induced densities on radiologic films was investigated. Two accessible double emulsions Fuji and Kodak films were exposed with 11-step wedge and processed with Champion and CPAC processing solutions. The mentioned films provided in both workloads centers, high and low. Our findings displays that the speed and contrast of Kodak filmscreen in both work load (high and low) is higher than Fuji filmscreen for both processing solutions. However there was significant differences in films contrast for both workloads when CPAC solution had been used (p=0.000 and 0.028). The results showed base plus fog density for Kodak film was lower than Fuji. Generally Champion processing solution caused more speed and contrast for investigated films in different conditions and there was significant differences in 95% confidence level between two used processing solutions (p=0.01). Low base plus fog density for Kodak films provide more visibility and accuracy and higher contrast results in using lower exposure factors to obtain better quality in resulting radiographs. In this study we found an economic advantages since Champion solution and Kodak film are used while it makes lower patient dose. Thus, in a radiologic facility any change in film processor/processing cycle or chemistry should be carefully investigated before radiological procedures of patients are acquired.
Evaluation of Groundwater Trend of Arsanjan Plain
Groundwater resources in Arsanjan plain provide water for agriculture, industry, and human consumption. Continued agricultural development in this area needs to additional groundwater resources for, particularly during of drought periods, and effects on the quantity and quality of ground water available. The purpose of this study is to evaluate water level changes in the aquifer of Arsanjan plain in the Fars province in order to determine the areas of greatest depletion and the causes of depletion. In this plain, farmers and other users are pumping groundwater faster than its natural replenishment rate, causing a continuous drop in groundwater tables and depletion of this resource. In this research variation of groundwater level, their effects and ways to help control groundwater levels in aquifer of the Arsanjan plains were evaluated .Excessive exploitation of groundwater in this aquifer caused the groundwater levels fall too fast or to unacceptable levels. The average drawdown of the groundwater level in this plain were 19.66 meters during 1996 to 2003.
Mycoflora of Activated Sludge with MBRs in Berlin, Germany
Thirty six samples from each (aerobic and anoxic) activated sludge were collected from two wastewater treatment plants with MBRs in Berlin, Germany. The samples were prepared for count and definition of fungal isolates; these isolates were purified by conventional techniques and identified by microscopic examination. Sixty tow species belonging to 28 genera were isolated from activated sludge samples under aerobic conditions (28 genera and 58 species) and anoxic conditions (26 genera and 52 species). The obtained data show that, Aspergillus was found at 94.4% followed by Penicillium 61.1 %, Fusarium (61.1 %), Trichoderma (44.4 %) and Geotrichum candidum (41.6 %) species were the most prevalent in all activated sludge samples. The study confirmed that fungi can thrive in activated sludge and sporulation, but isolated in different numbers depending on the effect of aeration system. Some fungal species in our study are saprophytic, and other a pathogenic to plants and animals.
Combining Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks in Modeling Landfill Gas Production

Heterogeneity of solid waste characteristics as well as the complex processes taking place within the landfill ecosystem motivated the implementation of soft computing methodologies such as artificial neural networks (ANN), fuzzy logic (FL), and their combination. The present work uses a hybrid ANN-FL model that employs knowledge-based FL to describe the process qualitatively and implements the learning algorithm of ANN to optimize model parameters. The model was developed to simulate and predict the landfill gas production at a given time based on operational parameters. The experimental data used were compiled from lab-scale experiment that involved various operating scenarios. The developed model was validated and statistically analyzed using F-test, linear regression between actual and predicted data, and mean squared error measures. Overall, the simulated landfill gas production rates demonstrated reasonable agreement with actual data. The discussion focused on the effect of the size of training datasets and number of training epochs.

Improving Classification Accuracy with Discretization on Datasets Including Continuous Valued Features
This study analyzes the effect of discretization on classification of datasets including continuous valued features. Six datasets from UCI which containing continuous valued features are discretized with entropy-based discretization method. The performance improvement between the dataset with original features and the dataset with discretized features is compared with k-nearest neighbors, Naive Bayes, C4.5 and CN2 data mining classification algorithms. As the result the classification accuracies of the six datasets are improved averagely by 1.71% to 12.31%.
Effect of Drought Stress on Nitrogen Components in Corn
An attempt was made to study of nitrogen components response of corn (Zea mays L.) to drought stress. A farm research was done in RCBD as split-plot with four replications in Khorramabad, west Iran. Drought stress levels as irrigation regimes after 75 (control), 100, and 120 (stress) mm cumulative evaporation were in main plots, and four seed corn varieties include 500 (medium maturity), 647, 700, and 704 (long maturity) were as subplots. Soluble protein, nitrate and proline amino acid were measured in shoot and root at flowering stage, and grain yield was measured in harvesting stage. As the drought progressed, the amount of nitrate and proline followed an increasing trend, but soluble protein decreased in shoot and root. The highest amount of nitrate and proline was observed in longer maturity varieties than shorter ones, but decrease yield of long maturity varieties was higher than medium maturity varieties in drought condition, because of long duration of stress.
Decontamination of Cr(VI) Polluted Wastewater by use of Low Cost Industrial Wastes
The reduction of hexavalent chromium by scrap iron was investigated in continuous system, using long-term column experiments, for aqueous Cr(VI) solutions having low buffering capacities, over the Cr(VI) concentration range of 5 – 40 mg/L. The results showed that the initial Cr(VI) concentration significantly affects the reduction capacity of scrap iron. Maximum reduction capacity of scrap iron was observed at the beginning of the column experiments; the lower the Cr(VI) concentration, the greater the experiment duration with maximum scrap iron reduction capacity. However, due to passivation of active surface, scrap iron reduction capacity continuously decreased in time, especially after Cr(VI) breakthrough. The experimental results showed that highest reduction capacity recorded until Cr(VI) breakthrough was 22.8 mg Cr(VI)/g scrap iron, at CI = 5 mg/L, and decreased with increasing Cr(VI) concentration. In order to assure total reduction of greater Cr(VI) concentrations for a longer period of time, either the mass of scrap iron filling, or the hydraulic retention time should be increased.
Study of Heat Transfer in the Poly Ethylene Fluidized Bed Reactor Numerically and Experimentally
In this research, heat transfer of a poly Ethylene fluidized bed reactor without reaction were studied experimentally and computationally at different superficial gas velocities. A multifluid Eulerian computational model incorporating the kinetic theory for solid particles was developed and used to simulate the heat conducting gas–solid flows in a fluidized bed configuration. Momentum exchange coefficients were evaluated using the Syamlal– O-Brien drag functions. Temperature distributions of different phases in the reactor were also computed. Good agreement was found between the model predictions and the experimentally obtained data for the bed expansion ratio as well as the qualitative gas–solid flow patterns. The simulation and experimental results showed that the gas temperature decreases as it moves upward in the reactor, while the solid particle temperature increases. Pressure drop and temperature distribution predicted by the simulations were in good agreement with the experimental measurements at superficial gas velocities higher than the minimum fluidization velocity. Also, the predicted time-average local voidage profiles were in reasonable agreement with the experimental results. The study showed that the computational model was capable of predicting the heat transfer and the hydrodynamic behavior of gas-solid fluidized bed flows with reasonable accuracy.
Performance Analysis of Selective Adaptive Multiple Access Interference Cancellation for Multicarrier DS-CDMA Systems

In this paper, Selective Adaptive Parallel Interference Cancellation (SA-PIC) technique is presented for Multicarrier Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (MC DS-CDMA) scheme. The motivation of using SA-PIC is that it gives high performance and at the same time, reduces the computational complexity required to perform interference cancellation. An upper bound expression of the bit error rate (BER) for the SA-PIC under Rayleigh fading channel condition is derived. Moreover, the implementation complexities for SA-PIC and Adaptive Parallel Interference Cancellation (APIC) are discussed and compared. The performance of SA-PIC is investigated analytically and validated via computer simulations.

Factors of Competitiveness in the Wine Industry: an Analysis of Innovation Strategy
The search for competitive advantages as one of the main activities of a company has become a principle of contemporary theories on Strategic Management. Innovation facilitates a company's adaptation to the global competitive environment, representing the important strategic role that it has to play in relation to managerial performance and, as such, underlines the growing importance of innovation and the use of a company's technological assets. This paper therefore studies the effect in the results of four dimensions of technological innovation strategy on a sample of Spanish wineries, situated in the Castilla La-Mancha region of Spain, all of which are registered under the La Mancha Designation of Origin (DO).
Development Trend in Investigation of Residual Stresses in WC-Co Coating by HVOF Thermal Spraying
In this paper, the techniques for estimating the residual stress in high velocity oxy fuel thermal spray coatings have been discussed and compared. The development trend and the last investigation have been studied. It is seemed that the there is not effective study on the effect of the peening action in HVOF analytically and numerically.
Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Natural Convection Heat Transfer in an Inclined Open Ended Cavity

In the present study, the lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is applied for simulating of Natural Convection in an inclined open ended cavity. The cavity horizontal walls are insulated while the west wall is maintained at a uniform temperature higher than the ambient. Prandtl number is fixed to 0.71 (air) while Rayligh numbers, aspect ratio of the cavity are changed in the range of 103 to 104 and of 1-4, respectively. The numerical code is validated for the previously results for open ended cavities, and then the results of an inclined open ended cavity for various angles of rotating open ended cavity are presented. Result shows by increasing of aspect ratio, the average Nusselt number on hot wall decreases for all rotation angles. When gravity acceleration direction is opposite of standard gravity direction the convection heat transfer has a manner same as conduction.

Effect of Conservation Agriculture on Maize Yield in the Transilvanian Plain, Romania
An experimental study is presented on the effect of Conservation Agriculture (CA) compared to Conventional Agriculture (ConvA) upon Maize Yield based on split-plot model. Two factors have been considered: A Factor-Fertilization with two variants: A1- N40P40 kg/ha and A2- N90P70 kg/ha; B Factor- Crop protection with 4 variants : B1- 4 treatments, B2-3 treatments, B3- 2 treatments and B4- 1 treatment. In comparison with conventional agriculture, CA determined lower maize yields. Fertilization is the key factor determining a yield gain of 973.58 kg/ha in ConvA and 1,123.33 kg/ha in CA. A reduced number of treatments determined a yield decline. The A-B interaction had a positive effect on maize yield when a larger amount of fertilizer and 4 or 3 treatments were applied in ConvA and a benefic in CA for highest fertilization level and 2 treatments. The B2A2 ConvA variant was the most efficient leading to 302.67 kg/ha gain while B3A2 CA variant brought 181.33 kg production gain.
The Effects of Plate-Support Condition on Buckling Strength of Rectangular Perforated Plates under Linearly Varying In-Plane Normal Load
Mechanical buckling analysis of rectangular plates with central circular cutout is performed in this paper. The finiteelement method is used to study the effects of plate-support conditions, aspect ratio, and hole size on the mechanical buckling strength of the perforated plates subjected to linearly varying loading. Results show that increasing the hole size does not necessarily reduce the mechanical buckling strength of the perforated plates. It is also concluded that the clamped boundary condition increases the mechanical buckling strength of the perforated plates more than the simply-supported boundary condition and the free boundary conditions enhance the mechanical buckling strength of the perforated plates more effectively than the fixed boundary conditions. Furthermore, for the bending cases, the critical buckling load of perforated plates with free edges is less than perforated plates with fixed edges.
Phenotypic and Genetic Parameters of Pre-Weaning Growth Traits in Gentile di Puglia Lambs

Data from 1731 Gentile di Puglia lambs, sired by 65 rams over a 5-year period were analyzed by a mixed model to estimate the variance components for heritability. The considered growth traits were: birth weight (BW), weight at 30 days of age (W30) and average daily gain from birth to 30 days of age (DG). Year of birth, sex of lamb, type of birth (single or twin), dam age at lambing and farm were significant sources of variation for all the considered growth traits. The average lamb weights were 3.85±0.16 kg at birth, 9.57±0.91 kg at 30 days of age and the average daily gain was 191±14 g. Estimates of heritability were 0.33±0.05, 0.41±0.06 and 0.16±0.05 respectively for the same traits. These values suggest there is a good opportunity to improve Gentile di Puglia lambs by selecting animals for growth traits.

Experimental Characterization of a Thermoacoustic Travelling-Wave Refrigerator
The performances of a thermoacoustic travelling-wave refrigerator are presented. Developed in the frame of the European project called THATEA, it is designed for providing 600 W at a temperature of 233 K with an efficiency of 40 % relative to the Carnot efficiency. This paper presents the device and the results of the first measurements. For a cooling power of 210 W, a coefficient of performance relative to Carnot of 30 % is achieved when the refrigerator is coupled with an existing standing-wave engine.
Proportion and Particle Size Distribution of Fine Aggregates Extracted From the Drained Binder in a Binder Drainage Test
Binder drainage test is widely used to set an upper limit to the design binder content of porous asphalt. However, the presence of high amount of fine particles in the drained binder may affect the accuracy of the test result. This paper presents a study to characterize the composition and particle size distribution of fine particles accumulated in the drained binder. Fine aggregates and filler in the drained binder were extracted using a suitable solvent. Then, wet and dry sieve analysis was carried out to identify the actual composition of the extracted fine aggregates and filler. From the results, almost half of the drained binder consisted of fine aggregates and this significantly affects the accuracy of the design binder content of porous asphalt mix. This simple finding highlights the importance of taking into account the presence of fine aggregates in the calculation of drained binder.
FWM Wavelength Conversion Analysis in a 3-Integrated Portion SOA and DFB Laser using Coupled Wave Approach and FD-BPM Method
In this paper we have numerically analyzed terahertzrange wavelength conversion using nondegenerate four wave mixing (NDFWM) in a SOA integrated DFB laser (experiments reported both in MIT electronics and Fujitsu research laboratories). For analyzing semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), we use finitedifference beam propagation method (FDBPM) based on modified nonlinear SchrÖdinger equation and for distributed feedback (DFB) laser we use coupled wave approach. We investigated wavelength conversion up to 4THz probe-pump detuning with conversion efficiency -5dB in 1THz probe-pump detuning for a SOA integrated quantum-well
Immunity of Integrated Drive System, Effects of Radiated and Conducted Emission
In this paper the problems associated with immunity of embedded systems used in Motor-Drive systems are investigated and appropriate solutions are presented. Integration of VSD motor systems (Integral Motor) while partially reducing some of these effects, adds to immunity problem of their embedded systems. Fail safe operation of an Integral Motor in arduous industrial environments is considered. In this paper an integral motor with a unique design is proposed to overcome critical issues such as heat, vibration and electromagnetic interference which are damaging to sensitive electronics without requirement of any additional cooling system. Advantages of the proposed Integral motor are compactness of combo motor and drive system with no external cabling/wiring. This motor provides a perfect shielding for least amount of radiated emission. It has an inbuilt filter for EMC compliance and has been designed to provide lower EMC noise for immunity of the internal electronics as well as the other neighbouring systems.
The Response of Winter Wheat to Flooding
The effect of flooding can be a serious problem for wheat farmers, even at dry land condition. Amount of flooding damage depends on duration flooding, developmental stage, wheat type and variety. Therefore as a factorial experiment in randomized complete design based on winter bread wheat cultivars (Pishtaz, Marvdasht, Shiraz, Zarin, Shahriar, C-81-4, Sardari, Agosta seed, FGS and Azar2) at stages (Non- flooding stress, flooding at tillering and stem elongation stages for 15 days) carried out in Faculty of Agriculture, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. During flooding, soil environment of plant roots were water saturated. Analysis of variance showed that flooding had a significant effect on the number of grains per spike, grain weight per spike and a grain weight. Hence flooding reduces the number of grain per spike between 27.1 to 42.5 percent, grain weight per spike between 34.7 to 54.4 percent and single grain weight between 12.1 to 15.1 percent. Effects of flooding at the tillering stage reduced higher than stem elongation stage on studied traits. The result also showed that flooding at tillering stage delayed spikelet primordial and floret. Between wheat cultivars was significant for traits, but were different reactions. "Shiraz", "Zarin" and "Shahriar" had the most no. grain per spike, but "Zarin" and "Sardari" had the most grain weight per spike and single grain weight, respectively. Also, interaction between start of flooding and cultivar was significant.
The Removal of As(V) from Drinking Waters by Coagulation Process using Iron Salts

In this study arsenate [As(V)] removal from drinking water by coagulation process was investigated. Ferric chloride (FeCl3.6H2O) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4.7H2O) were used as coagulant. The effects of major operating variables such as coagulant dose (1–30 mg/L) and pH (5.5–9.5) were investigated. Ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate were found as effective and reliable coagulant due to required dose, residual arsenate and coagulant concentration. Optimum pH values for maximum arsenate removal for ferrous sulfate and ferric chloride were found as 8 and 7.5. The arsenate removal efficiency decreased at neutral and acidic pH values for Fe(II) and at the high acidic and high alkaline pH for Fe(III). It was found that the increase of coagulant dose caused a substantial increase in the arsenate removal. But above a certain ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate dosage, the increase in arsenate removal was not significant. Ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate dose above 8 mg/L slightly increased arsenate removal.

Computer Vision Applied to Flower, Fruit and Vegetable Processing
This paper presents the theoretical background and the real implementation of an automated computer system to introduce machine vision in flower, fruit and vegetable processing for recollection, cutting, packaging, classification, or fumigation tasks. The considerations and implementation issues presented in this work can be applied to a wide range of varieties of flowers, fruits and vegetables, although some of them are especially relevant due to the great amount of units that are manipulated and processed each year over the world. The computer vision algorithms developed in this work are shown in detail, and can be easily extended to other applications. A special attention is given to the electromagnetic compatibility in order to avoid noisy images. Furthermore, real experimentation has been carried out in order to validate the developed application. In particular, the tests show that the method has good robustness and high success percentage in the object characterization.
FEA for Teeth Preparations Marginal Geometry
Knowledge of factors, which influence stress and its distribution, is of key importance to the successful production of durable restorations. One of this is the marginal geometry. The objective of this study was to evaluate, by finite element analysis (FEA), the influence of different marginal designs on the stress distribution in teeth prepared for cast metal crowns. Five margin designs were taken into consideration: shoulderless, chamfer, shoulder, sloped shoulder and shoulder with bevel. For each kind of preparation three dimensional finite element analyses were initiated. Maximal equivalent stresses were calculated and stress patterns were represented in order to compare the marginal designs. Within the limitation of this study, the shoulder and beveled shoulder margin preparations of the teeth are preferred for cast metal crowns from biomechanical point of view.
Effects of Superheating on Thermodynamic Performance of Organic Rankine Cycles
Recently ORC(Organic Rankine Cycle) has attracted much attention due to its potential in reducing consumption of fossil fuels and its favorable characteristics to exploit low-grade heat sources. In this work thermodynamic performance of ORC with superheating of vapor is comparatively assessed for various working fluids. Special attention is paid to the effects of system parameters such as the evaporating temperature and the turbine inlet temperature on the characteristics of the system such as maximum possible work extraction from the given source, volumetric flow rate per 1 kW of net work and quality of the working fluid at turbine exit as well as thermal and exergy efficiencies. Results show that for a given source the thermal efficiency increases with decrease of the superheating but exergy efficiency may have a maximum value with respect to the superheating of the working fluid. Results also show that in selection of working fluid it is required to consider various criteria of performance characteristics as well as thermal efficiency.
A Virtual Simulation Environment for a Design and Verification of a GPGPU
When a small H/W IP is designed, we can develop an appropriate verification environment by observing the simulated signal waves, or using the serial test vectors for the fixed output. In the case of design and verification of a massive parallel processor with multiple IPs, it-s difficult to make a verification system with existing common verification environment, and to verify each partial IP. A TestDrive verification environment can build easy and reliable verification system that can produce highly intuitive results by applying Modelsim and SystemVerilog-s DPI. It shows many advantages, for example a high-level design of a GPGPU processor design can be migrate to FPGA board immediately.
Active Suspension - Case Study on Robust Control
Automotive suspension system is important part of car comfort and safety. In this article automotive active suspension with linear motor as actuator is designed using H-infinity control. This paper is focused on comparison of different controller designed for quart, half or full-car model (and always used for “full" car). Special attention is placed on energy demand of the whole system. Each controller configuration is simulated and then verified on the hydraulic quarter car test bed.
Effect of Different Fertilization Methods on Soil Biological Indexes

Fertilization plays an important role in crop growth and soil improvement. This study was conducted to determine the best fertilization system for wheat production. Experiments were arranged in a complete block design with three replications in two years. Main plots consisted of six methods of fertilization including (N1): farmyard manure; (N2): compost; (N3): chemical fertilizers; (N4): farmyard manure + compost; (N5): farmyard manure + compost + chemical fertilizers and (N6): control were arranged in sub plots. The addition of compost or farm yard manure significantly increased the soil microbial biomass carbon in comparison to the chemical fertilizer. The dehydrogenase, phosphatase and urease activities in the N3 treatment were significantly lower than in the farm yard manure and compost treatments.

Oxidation of Selected Pharmaceuticals in Water Matrices by Bromine and Chlorine
The bromination of five selected pharmaceuticals (metoprolol, naproxen, amoxicillin, hydrochlorotiazide and phenacetin) in ultrapure water and in three water matrices (a groundwater, a surface water from a public reservoir and a secondary effluent from a WWTP) was investigated. The apparent rate constants for the bromination reaction were determined as a function of the pH, and the sequence obtained for the reaction rate was amoxicillin > naproxen >> hydrochlorotiazide ≈ phenacetin ≈ metoprolol. The proposal of a kinetic mechanism, which specifies the dissociation of bromine and each pharmaceutical according to their pKa values and the pH allowed the determination of the intrinsic rate constants for every elementary reaction. The influence of the main operating conditions (pH, initial bromine dose, and the water matrix) on the degradation of pharmaceuticals was established. In addition, the presence of bromide in chlorination experiments was investigated. The presence of bromide in wastewaters and drinking waters in the range of 10 to several hundred μg L-1 accelerated slightly the oxidation of the selected pharmaceuticals during chorine disinfection.
A Multiclass BCMP Queueing Modeling and Simulation-Based Road Traffic Flow Analysis
Urban road network traffic has become one of the most studied research topics in the last decades. This is mainly due to the enlargement of the cities and the growing number of motor vehicles traveling in this road network. One of the most sensitive problems is to verify if the network is congestion-free. Another related problem is the automatic reconfiguration of the network without building new roads to alleviate congestions. These problems require an accurate model of the traffic to determine the steady state of the system. An alternative is to simulate the traffic to see if there are congestions and when and where they occur. One key issue is to find an adequate model for road intersections. Once the model established, either a large scale model is built or the intersection is represented by its performance measures and simulation for analysis. In both cases, it is important to seek the queueing model to represent the road intersection. In this paper, we propose to model the road intersection as a BCMP queueing network and we compare this analytical model against a simulation model for validation.
Heat Transfer in a Parallel-Plate Enclosure with Graded-Index Coatings on its Walls
A numerical study on the heat transfer in the thermal barrier coatings and the substrates of a parallel-plate enclosure is carried out. Some of the thermal barrier coatings, such as ceramics, are semitransparent and are of interest for high-temperature applications where radiation effects are significant. The radiative transfer equations and the energy equations are solved by using the discrete ordinates method and the finite difference method. Illustrative results are presented for temperature distributions in the coatings and the opaque walls under various heating conditions. The results show that the temperature distribution is more uniform in the interior portion of each coating away from its boundary for the case with a larger average of varying refractive index and a positive gradient of refractive index enhances radiative transfer to the substrates.
The Safety of WiMAX Insolid Propellant Rocket Production

With the advance in wireless networking, IEEE 802.16 WiMAX technology has been widely deployed for several applications such as “last mile" broadband service, cellular backhaul, and high-speed enterprise connectivity. As a result, military employed WiMAX as a high-speed wireless connection for data-link because of its point to multi-point and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) capability for many years. However, the risk of using WiMAX is a critical factor in some sensitive area of military applications especially in ammunition manufacturing such as solid propellant rocket production. The US DoD policy states that the following certification requirements are met for WiMAX: electromagnetic effects on the environment (E3) and Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance (HERO). This paper discuses the Recommended Power Densities and Safe Separation Distance (SSD) for HERO on WiMAX systems deployed on solid propellant rocket production. The result of this research found that WiMAX is safe to operate at close proximity distances to the rocket production based on AF Guidance Memorandum immediately changing AFMAN 91-201.

Determinants of Information Security Affecting Adoption of Web-based Integrated Information Systems
The purpose of this paper is to analyze determinants of information security affecting adoption of the Web-based integrated information systems (IIS). We introduced Web-based information systems which are designed to formulate strategic plans for Peruvian government. Theoretical model is proposed to test impact of organizational factors (deterrent efforts and severity; preventive efforts) and individual factors (information security threat; security awareness) on intentions to proactively use the Web-based IIS .Our empirical study results highlight that deterrent efforts and deterrent severity have no significant influence on the proactive use intentions of IIS, whereas, preventive efforts play an important role in proactive use intentions of IIS. Thus, we suggest that organizations need to do preventive efforts by introducing various information security solutions, and try to improve information security awareness while reducing the perceived information security threats.
Designing of Multi-Agent Rescue Robot: Development and Basic Experiments of Master-Slave Type Rescue Robots

A multi-agent type robot for disaster response in calamity scene is proposed in this paper. The proposed grouped rescue robots can perform cooperative reconnaissance and surveillance to achieve a given rescue mission. The multi-agent rescue of dual set robot consists of one master set and three slave units. The research for this rescue robot system is going to detect at harmful environment where human is unreachable, such as the building is infected with virus or the factory has hazardous liquid in effluent. As a dual set robot, with Bluetooth and communication network, the master set can connect with slave units and send information back to computer by wireless and monitor. Therefore, rescuer can be informed the real-time information in a calamity area. Furthermore, each slave robot is able to obstacle avoidance by ultrasonic sensors, and encodes distance and location by compass. The master robot can integrate every devices information to increase the efficiency of prospected and research unknown area.

Performance of a Turbofan Engine with Intercooling and Regeneration
Pollution emission levels of aircraft engines are a nowadays high concern. Any technological advance that could reduce emission levels is always welcome. In what concerns aircraft engines, a possible solution for this problem could be the use of regenerators and intercoolers. These components might reduce the specific fuel consumption, increase efficiency and specific thrust and consequently reduce the pollution levels of the engine. This is not a novel solution. These heat exchangers are already is use in stationary engines. For aircraft engines, the extra weight of the needed hardware could overcome the fuel saved. This work compares a conventional engine with configurations that use intercoolers and regenerators.
Temperature Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Pd3Rh and PdRh3 Ordered Alloys
The aim of this research was to calculate the mechanical properties of Pd3Rh and PdRh3 ordered alloys. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique was used to obtain temperature dependence of the energy, the Yong modulus, the shear modulus, the bulk modulus, Poisson-s ratio and the elastic stiffness constants at the isobaric-isothermal (NPT) ensemble in the range of 100-325 K. The interatomic potential energy and force on atoms were calculated by Quantum Sutton-Chen (Q-SC) many body potential. Our MD simulation results show the effect of temperature on the cohesive energy and mechanical properties of Pd3Rh as well as PdRh3 alloys. Our computed results show good agreement with the experimental results where they have been available.
Quadrotor Black-Box System Identification

This paper presents a new approach in the identification of the quadrotor dynamic model using a black-box system for identification. Also the paper considers the problems which appear during the identification in the closed-loop and offers a technical solution for overcoming the correlation between the input noise present in the output

An Empirical Study of Taiwan-s Hospital Foundation Investment in Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become a new trend of business governance. Few research studies on CSR published in Taiwanese academia, especially for medical settings, we were interested in probing the relationship of CSR and financial performance in medical settings in Taiwan. The results illustrate that: (1) a time delay effect exists with a lag between CSR effort and its performance in the hospital foundation, (2) input into the internal domains of CSR will be helpful to improve employee productivity in the hospital foundation, and (3) input into the external domains of CSR will be helpful in improving financial performance in the hospital foundation. This study overviews CSR in the medical industry in Taiwan and the relationship of CSR and financial performance. Discussions of possible implications from the study results are applied to consult the CSR concept that will be transferred into a business strategy for the organization manager.
A Vehicular Visual Tracking System Incorporating Global Positioning System
Surveillance system is widely used in the traffic monitoring. The deployment of cameras is moving toward a ubiquitous camera (UbiCam) environment. In our previous study, a novel service, called GPS-VT, was firstly proposed by incorporating global positioning system (GPS) and visual tracking techniques for the UbiCam environment. The first prototype is called GODTA (GPS-based Moving Object Detection and Tracking Approach). For a moving person carried GPS-enabled mobile device, he can be tracking when he enters the field-of-view (FOV) of a camera according to his real-time GPS coordinate. In this paper, GPS-VT service is applied to the tracking of vehicles. The moving speed of a vehicle is much faster than a person. It means that the time passing through the FOV is much shorter than that of a person. Besides, the update interval of GPS coordinate is once per second, it is asynchronous with the frame rate of the real-time image. The above asynchronous is worsen by the network transmission delay. These factors are the main challenging to fulfill GPS-VT service on a vehicle.In order to overcome the influence of the above factors, a back-propagation neural network (BPNN) is used to predict the possible lane before the vehicle enters the FOV of a camera. Then, a template matching technique is used for the visual tracking of a target vehicle. The experimental result shows that the target vehicle can be located and tracking successfully. The success location rate of the implemented prototype is higher than that of the previous GODTA.
A New Method Presentation for Fault Location in Power Transformers
Power transformers are among the most important and expensive equipments in the electric power systems. Consequently the transformer protection is an essential part of the system protection. This paper presents a new method for locating transformer winding faults such as turn-to-turn, turn-to-core, turn-totransformer body, turn-to-earth, and high voltage winding to low voltage winding. In this study the current and voltage signals of input and output terminals of the transformer are measured, which the Fourier transform of measured signals and harmonic analysis determine the fault's location.
A Software for Calculation of Optimum Conditions for Cotton Bobbin Drying in a Hot-Air Bobbin Dryer
In this study, a software has been developed to predict the optimum conditions for drying of cotton based yarn bobbins in a hot air dryer. For this purpose, firstly, a suitable drying model has been specified using experimental drying behavior for different values of drying parameters. Drying parameters in the experiments were drying temperature, drying pressure, and volumetric flow rate of drying air. After obtaining a suitable drying model, additional curve fittings have been performed to obtain equations for drying time and energy consumption taking into account the effects of drying parameters. Then, a software has been developed using Visual Basic programming language to predict the optimum drying conditions for drying time and energy consumption.
Prediction the Limiting Drawing Ratio in Deep Drawing Process by Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network
In this paper back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) with Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm is employed to predict the limiting drawing ratio (LDR) of the deep drawing process. To prepare a training set for BPANN, some finite element simulations were carried out. die and punch radius, die arc radius, friction coefficient, thickness, yield strength of sheet and strain hardening exponent were used as the input data and the LDR as the specified output used in the training of neural network. As a result of the specified parameters, the program will be able to estimate the LDR for any new given condition. Comparing FEM and BPANN results, an acceptable correlation was found.
A Study on Barreling Behavior during Upsetting Process using Artificial Neural Networks with Levenberg Algorithm
In this paper back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN )with Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm is employed to predict the deformation of the upsetting process. To prepare a training set for BPANN, some finite element simulations were carried out. The input data for the artificial neural network are a set of parameters generated randomly (aspect ratio d/h, material properties, temperature and coefficient of friction). The output data are the coefficient of polynomial that fitted on barreling curves. Neural network was trained using barreling curves generated by finite element simulations of the upsetting and the corresponding material parameters. This technique was tested for three different specimens and can be successfully employed to predict the deformation of the upsetting process
Performance and Availability Analyses of PV Generation Systems in Taiwan
The purpose of this article applies the monthly final energy yield and failure data of 202 PV systems installed in Taiwan to analyze the PV operational performance and system availability. This data is collected by Industrial Technology Research Institute through manual records. Bad data detection and failure data estimation approaches are proposed to guarantee the quality of the received information. The performance ratio value and system availability are then calculated and compared with those of other countries. It is indicated that the average performance ratio of Taiwan-s PV systems is 0.74 and the availability is 95.7%. These results are similar with those of Germany, Switzerland, Italy and Japan.
Data-organization Before Learning Multi-Entity Bayesian Networks Structure

The objective of our work is to develop a new approach for discovering knowledge from a large mass of data, the result of applying this approach will be an expert system that will serve as diagnostic tools of a phenomenon related to a huge information system. We first recall the general problem of learning Bayesian network structure from data and suggest a solution for optimizing the complexity by using organizational and optimization methods of data. Afterward we proposed a new heuristic of learning a Multi-Entities Bayesian Networks structures. We have applied our approach to biological facts concerning hereditary complex illnesses where the literatures in biology identify the responsible variables for those diseases. Finally we conclude on the limits arched by this work.

Effect of Relative Permeability on Well Testing Behavior of Naturally Fractured Lean Gas Condensate Reservoirs

Gas condensate Reservoirs show complicated thermodynamic behavior when their pressure reduces to under dew point pressure. Condensate blockage around the producing well cause significant reduction of production rate as well bottom-hole pressure drops below saturation pressure. The main objective of this work was to examine the well test analysis of naturally fractured lean gas condensate reservoir and investigate the effect of condensate formed around the well-bore on behavior of single phase pseudo pressure and its derivative curves. In this work a naturally fractured lean gas condensate reservoir is simulated with compositional simulator. Different sensitivity analysis done on Corry parameters and result of simulator is feed to analytical well testing software. For consideration of these phenomena eighteen compositional models with Capillary number effect are constructed. Matrix relative permeability obeys Corry relative permeability and relative permeability in fracture is linear. Well testing behavior of these models are studied and interpreted. Results show different sensitivity analysis on relative permeability of matrix does not have strong effect on well testing behavior even most part of the matrix around the well is occupied with condensate.

Synchronization of Oestrus in Goats with Progestogen Sponges and Short Term Combined FGA, PGF2α Protocols

The study aimed to evaluated the reproductive performance response to short term oestrus synchronization during the transition period. One hundred and sixty-five indigenous multiparous non-lactating goats were subdivided into the following six treatment groups for oestrus synchronization: NT control Group (N= 30), Fe-21d, FGA vaginal sponge for 21days+eCG at 19thd; FPe- 11d, FGA 11d + PGF2α and eCG at 9th d; FPe-10d, FGA 10d+ PGF2α and eCG at 8th d; FPe-9d, FGA 9d +PGF2α and eCG at 7thd; PFe-5d, PGF2α at d0 + FGA 5d + eCG at 5thd. The goats were natural mated (1 male/6 females). Fecundity rates (n. births /n. females treated x 100) were statistically higher (P < 0.05) in short term FPe-9d (157.9%), FPe- 11d (115.4%), FPe-10d (111.1%) and PFe-5d (107.7%) groups compared to the NT control Group (66.7%).

The Effect of Modification and Initial Concentration on Ammonia Removal from Leachate by Zeolite
The purpose of this study is to investigate the capacity of natural Turkish zeolite for NH4-N removal from landfill leachate. The effects of modification and initial concentration on the removal of NH4-N from leachate were also investigated. The kinetics of adsorption of NH4-N has been discussed using three kinetic models, i.e., the pseudo-second order model, the Elovich equation, the intraparticle diffuion model. Kinetic parameters and correlation coefficients were determined. Equilibrium isotherms for the adsorption of NH4-N were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isotherm models. Langmuir isotherm model was found to best represent the data for NH4-N.
Fuzzy Adjacency Matrix in Graphs
In this paper a new definition of adjacency matrix in the simple graphs is presented that is called fuzzy adjacency matrix, so that elements of it are in the form of 0 and n N n 1 , ∈ that are in the interval [0, 1], and then some charactristics of this matrix are presented with the related examples . This form matrix has complete of information of a graph.
Using Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization for Bi-objective Multi-Mode Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem

In this paper the multi-mode resource-constrained project scheduling problem with discounted cash flows is considered. Minimizing the makespan and maximization the net present value (NPV) are the two common objectives that have been investigated in the literature. We apply one evolutionary algorithm named multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) to find Pareto front solutions. We used standard sets of instances from the project scheduling problem library (PSPLIB). The results are computationally compared respect to different metrics taken from the literature on evolutionary multi-objective optimization.

Diagnosing the Cause and its Timing of Changes in Multivariate Process Mean Vector from Quality Control Charts using Artificial Neural Network
Quality control charts are very effective in detecting out of control signals but when a control chart signals an out of control condition of the process mean, searching for a special cause in the vicinity of the signal time would not always lead to prompt identification of the source(s) of the out of control condition as the change point in the process parameter(s) is usually different from the signal time. It is very important to manufacturer to determine at what point and which parameters in the past caused the signal. Early warning of process change would expedite the search for the special causes and enhance quality at lower cost. In this paper the quality variables under investigation are assumed to follow a multivariate normal distribution with known means and variance-covariance matrix and the process means after one step change remain at the new level until the special cause is being identified and removed, also it is supposed that only one variable could be changed at the same time. This research applies artificial neural network (ANN) to identify the time the change occurred and the parameter which caused the change or shift. The performance of the approach was assessed through a computer simulation experiment. The results show that neural network performs effectively and equally well for the whole shift magnitude which has been considered.
Groundwater Unit Hydrograph Evaluation of Niriz Plain
Groundwater is one of the most important water resources in Fars province. Based on this study, 95 percent of the total annual water consumption in Fars is used for agriculture, whereas the percentages for domestic and industrial uses are 4 and 1 percent, respectively. Population growth, urban and industrial growth, and agricultural development in Fars have created a condition of water stress. In this province, farmers and other users are pumping groundwater faster than its natural replenishment rate, causing a continuous drop in groundwater tables and depletion of this resource. In this research variation of groundwater level, their effects and ways to help control groundwater levels in aquifer of the Niriz plains in Fars plain were evaluated .Excessive exploitation of groundwater in this aquifer caused the groundwater levels fall too fast or to unacceptable levels. The average drawdown of the groundwater level in this plain were 9.1 meters during 1997 to 2004. The purpose of this study is to evaluate water level changes in the Niriz Aquifer in the Fars province in order to determine the areas of greatest depletion, the cause of depletion, and predict the remaining life of the aquifer.
Quantifying the Sustainable Building Criteria Based on Case Studies from Malaysia
In order to encourage the construction of green homes (GH) in Malaysia, a simple and attainable framework for designing and building GHs is needed. This can be achieved by aligning GH principles against Cole-s 'Sustainable Building Criteria' (SBC). This set of considerations was used to categorize the GH features of three case studies from Malaysia. Although the categorization of building features is useful at exploring the presence of sustainability inclinations of each house, the overall impact of building features in each of the five SBCs are unknown. Therefore, this paper explored the possibility of quantifying the impact of building features categorized in SBC1 – “Buildings will have to adapt to the new environment and restore damaged ecology while mitigating resource use" based on existing GH assessment tools and methods and other literature. This process as reported in this paper could lead to a new dimension in green home rating and assessment methods.
Fuel Reserve Tanks Dynamic Analysis Due to Earthquake Loading
In this paper, the dynamic analysis of fuel storage tanks has been studied and some equations are presented for the created fluid waves due to storage tank motions. Also, the equations for finite elements of fluid and structure interactions, and boundary conditions dominant on structure and fluid, were researched. In this paper, a numerical simulation is performed for the dynamic analysis of a storage tank contained a fluid. This simulation has carried out by ANSYS software, using FSI solver (Fluid and Structure Interaction solver), and by considering the simulated fluid dynamic motions due to earthquake loading, based on velocities and movements of structure and fluid according to all boundary conditions dominant on structure and fluid.
A Comparison Study of the Removal of Selected Pharmaceuticals in Waters by Chemical Oxidation Treatments
The degradation of selected pharmaceuticals in some water matrices was studied by using several chemical treatments. The pharmaceuticals selected were the beta-blocker metoprolol, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory naproxen, the antibiotic amoxicillin, and the analgesic phenacetin; and their degradations were conducted by using UV radiation alone, ozone, Fenton-s reagent, Fenton-like system, photo-Fenton system, and combinations of UV radiation and ozone with H2O2, TiO2, Fe(II), and Fe(III). The water matrices, in addition to ultra-pure water, were a reservoir water, a groundwater, and two secondary effluents from two municipal WWTP. The results reveal that the presence of any second oxidant enhanced the oxidation rates, with the systems UV/TiO2 and O3/TiO2 providing the highest degradation rates. It is also observed in most of the investigated oxidation systems that the degradation rate followed the sequence: amoxicillin > naproxen > metoprolol > phenacetin. Lower rates were obtained with the pharmaceuticals dissolved in natural waters and secondary effluents due to the organic matter present which consume some amounts of the oxidant agents.
A Diagnostic Fuzzy Rule-Based System for Congenital Heart Disease
In this study, fuzzy rule-based classifier is used for the diagnosis of congenital heart disease. Congenital heart diseases are defined as structural or functional heart disease. Medical data sets were obtained from Pediatric Cardiology Department at Selcuk University, from years 2000 to 2003. Firstly, fuzzy rules were generated by using medical data. Then the weights of fuzzy rules were calculated. Two different reasoning methods as “weighted vote method" and “singles winner method" were used in this study. The results of fuzzy classifiers were compared.
The Kinetic of Biodegradation Lignin in Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) by Phanerochaete Chrysosporium using Solid State Fermentation (SSF) Method for Bioethanol Production, Indonesia
Lignocellulosic materials are considered the most abundant renewable resource available for the Bioethanol Production. Water Hyacinth is one of potential raw material of the world-s worst aquatic plant as a feedstock to produce Bioethanol. The purposed this research is obtain reduced of matter for biodegradation lignin in Biological pretreatment with White Rot Fungi eg. Phanerochaete Chrysosporium using Solid state Fermentation methods. Phanerochaete Chrysosporium is known to have the best ability to degraded lignin, but simultaneously it can also degraded cellulose and hemicelulose. During 8 weeks incubation, water hyacinth occurred loss of weight reached 34,67%, while loss of lignin reached 67,21%, loss of cellulose reached 11,01% and loss of hemicellulose reached 36,56%. The kinetic of losses lignin using regression linear plot, the results is obtained constant rate (k) of reduction lignin is -0.1053 and the equation of reduction of lignin is y = wo - 0, 1.53 x
A Rough-set Based Approach to Design an Expert System for Personnel Selection
Effective employee selection is a critical component of a successful organization. Many important criteria for personnel selection such as decision-making ability, adaptability, ambition, and self-organization are naturally vague and imprecise to evaluate. The rough sets theory (RST) as a new mathematical approach to vagueness and uncertainty is a very well suited tool to deal with qualitative data and various decision problems. This paper provides conceptual, descriptive, and simulation results, concentrating chiefly on human resources and personnel selection factors. The current research derives certain decision rules which are able to facilitate personnel selection and identifies several significant features based on an empirical study conducted in an IT company in Iran.
The Small Scale Effect on Nonlinear Vibration of Single Layer Graphene Sheets
In the present article, nonlinear vibration analysis of single layer graphene sheets is presented and the effect of small length scale is investigated. Using the Hamilton's principle, the three coupled nonlinear equations of motion are obtained based on the von Karman geometrical model and Eringen theory of nonlocal continuum. The solutions of Free nonlinear vibration, based on a one term mode shape, are found for both simply supported and clamped graphene sheets. A complete analysis of graphene sheets with movable as well as immovable in-plane conditions is also carried out. The results obtained herein are compared with those available in the literature for classical isotropic rectangular plates and excellent agreement is seen. Also, the nonlinear effects are presented as functions of geometric properties and small scale parameter.
A Continuous Time Sigma Delta Modulators Using CMOS Current Conveyors
In this paper, a alternative structure method for continuous time sigma delta modulator is presented. In this modulator for implementation of integrators in loop filter second generation current conveyors are employed. The modulator is designed in CMOS technology and features low power consumption (65db), and with 180khZ bandwidth. Simulation results confirm that this design is suitable for data converters.
Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Annular Flow Boiling in a Microchannel with 70000 Atoms
Molecular dynamics simulation of annular flow boiling in a nanochannel with 70000 particles is numerically investigated. In this research, an annular flow model is developed to predict the superheated flow boiling heat transfer characteristics in a nanochannel. To characterize the forced annular boiling flow in a nanochannel, an external driving force F ext ranging from 1to12PN (PN= Pico Newton) is applied along the flow direction to inlet fluid particles during the simulation. Based on an annular flow model analysis, it is found that saturation condition and superheat degree have great influences on the liquid-vapor interface. Also, the results show that due to the relatively strong influence of surface tension in small channel, the interface between the liquid film and vapor core is fairly smooth, and the mean velocity along the stream-wise direction does not change anymore.
Identification of Optimum Parameters of Deep Drawing of a Cylindrical Workpiece using Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm

Intelligent deep-drawing is an instrumental research field in sheet metal forming. A set of 28 different experimental data have been employed in this paper, investigating the roles of die radius, punch radius, friction coefficients and drawing ratios for axisymmetric workpieces deep drawing. This paper focuses an evolutionary neural network, specifically, error back propagation in collaboration with genetic algorithm. The neural network encompasses a number of different functional nodes defined through the established principles. The input parameters, i.e., punch radii, die radii, friction coefficients and drawing ratios are set to the network; thereafter, the material outputs at two critical points are accurately calculated. The output of the network is used to establish the best parameters leading to the most uniform thickness in the product via the genetic algorithm. This research achieved satisfactory results based on demonstration of neural networks.

Ethics in Negotiations: The Confrontation between Representation and Practices
While in practice negotiation is always a mix of cooperation and competition, these two elements correspond to different approaches of the relationship and also different orientations in term of strategy, techniques, tactics and arguments employed by the negotiators with related effects and in the end leading to different outcomes. The levels of honesty, trust and therefore cooperation are influenced not only by the uncertainty of the situation, the objectives, stakes or power but also by the orientation given from the very beginning of the relationship. When negotiation is reduced to a confrontation of power, participants rely on coercive measures, using different kinds of threats or make false promises and bluff in order to establish a more acceptable balance of power. Most of the negotiators have a tendency to complain about the unethical aspects of the tactics used by their counterparts while, as the same time, they are mostly unaware of the sources of influence of their own vision and practices. In this article, our intention is to clarify these sources and try to understand what can lead negotiators to unethical practices.
Post-Compression Consideration in Video Watermarking for Wireless Communication
A simple but effective digital watermarking scheme utilizing a context adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC) method is presented for wireless communication system. In the proposed approach, the watermark bits are embedded in the final non-zero quantized coefficient of each DCT block, thereby yielding a potential reduction in the length of the coded block. As a result, the watermarking scheme not only provides the means to check the authenticity and integrity of the video stream, but also improves the compression ratio and therefore reduces both the transmission time and the storage space requirements of the coded video sequence. The results confirm that the proposed scheme enables the detection of malicious tampering attacks and reduces the size of the coded H.264 file. Therefore, the current study is feasible to apply in the video applications of wireless communication such as 3G system
Formosa3: A Cloud-Enabled HPC Cluster in NCHC
This paper proposes a new approach to offer a private cloud service in HPC clusters. In particular, our approach relies on automatically scheduling users- customized environment request as a normal job in batch system. After finishing virtualization request jobs, those guest operating systems will dismiss so that compute nodes will be released again for computing. We present initial work on the innovative integration of HPC batch system and virtualization tools that aims at coexistence such that they suffice for meeting the minimizing interference required by a traditional HPC cluster. Given the design of initial infrastructure, the proposed effort has the potential to positively impact on synergy model. The results from the experiment concluded that goal for provisioning customized cluster environment indeed can be fulfilled by using virtual machines, and efficiency can be improved with proper setup and arrangements.
Experimental Study on the Hysteresis Properties in Operation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines
Hysteresis phenomenon has been observed in the operations of both horizontal-axis and vertical-axis wind turbines (HAWTs and VAWTs). In this study, wind tunnel experiments were applied to investigate the characters of hysteresis phenomena between the angular speed and the external resistance of electrical loading during the operation of a Darrieus type VAWT. Data of output voltage, output current, angular speed of wind turbine under different wind speeds are measured and analyzed. Results show that the range of external resistance changes with the wind speed. The range decreases as the wind speed increases following an exponential decay form. Experiments also indicate that the maximum output power of wind turbines is always inside the range where hysteresis happened. These results provide an important reference to the design of output control system of wind turbines.
Folksonomy-based Recommender Systems with User-s Recent Preferences
Social bookmarking is an environment in which the user gradually changes interests over time so that the tag data associated with the current temporal period is usually more important than tag data temporally far from the current period. This implies that in the social tagging system, the newly tagged items by the user are more relevant than older items. This study proposes a novel recommender system that considers the users- recent tag preferences. The proposed system includes the following stages: grouping similar users into clusters using an E-M clustering algorithm, finding similar resources based on the user-s bookmarks, and recommending the top-N items to the target user. The study examines the system-s information retrieval performance using a dataset from del.icio.us, which is a famous social bookmarking web site. Experimental results show that the proposed system is better and more effective than traditional approaches.
Orders Preparation and Control on the Productive Process Efficiency Preparation

The main objective of this paper is to analyse the influence of preparation and control of orders on performance. The focused activities explored in this research are: procurement, production and distribution. These changes in performance were obtained through improvement of the supply chain. It is proved using all the company activities that it is possible to increase de efficiency and do services in an adequate way, placing the products in the market efficiently. For that, it was explored the importance of the supply chain, with privilege to the practical environment and the quantification of the obtained results.

Transferring Route Plan over Time
Travelling salesman problem (TSP) is a combinational optimization problem and solution approaches have been applied many real world problems. Pure TSP assumes the cities to visit are fixed in time and thus solutions are created to find shortest path according to these point. But some of the points are canceled to visit in time. If the problem is not time crucial it is not important to determine new routing plan but if the points are changing rapidly and time is necessary do decide a new route plan a new approach should be applied in such cases. We developed a route plan transfer method based on transfer learning and we achieved high performance against determining a new model from scratch in every change.
Natural Convection of Water-Based CuO Nanofluids in a Cylindrical Enclosure
Buoyancy driven heat transfer of nanofluids in a cylindrical enclosure used as a control unit in the subsea hydrocarbon injection wells is investigated in this study. The governing equations obtained with the Boussinesq approximation are solved using Comsol Multiphysics finite element analysis and simulation software. The base fluid is water and CuO is used as nanoparticles. Solution is obtained for nanoparticle solid volume fraction of 8% and for Rayleigh number in the range of 105-107. The results show that nanoparticle usage in the cylindrical electronic control unit has a significant effect on the flow and heat transfer.
Design a Low Voltage- Low Offset Class AB Op-Amp
A new design approach for three-stage operational amplifiers (op-amps) is proposed. It allows to actually implement a symmetrical push-pull class-AB amplifier output stage for wellestablished three-stage amplifiers using a feedforward transconductance stage. Compared with the conventional design practice, the proposed approach leads to a significant improvement of the symmetry between the positive and the negative op-amp step response, resulting in similar values of the positive/negative settling time. The new approach proves to be very useful in order to fully exploit the potentiality allowed by the op-amp in terms of speed performances. Design examples in a commercial 0.35-μm CMOS prove the effectiveness of theproposed strategy.
Comparing Hilditch, Rosenfeld, Zhang-Suen,and Nagendraprasad -Wang-Gupta Thinning
This paper compares Hilditch, Rosenfeld, Zhang- Suen, dan Nagendraprasad Wang Gupta (NWG) thinning algorithms for Javanese character image recognition. Thinning is an effective process when the focus in not on the size of the pattern, but rather on the relative position of the strokes in the pattern. The research analyzes the thinning of 60 Javanese characters. Time-wise, Zhang-Suen algorithm gives the best results with the average process time being 0.00455188 seconds. But if we look at the percentage of pixels that meet one-pixel thickness, Rosenfelt algorithm gives the best results, with a 99.98% success rate. From the number of pixels that are erased, NWG algorithm gives the best results with the average number of pixels erased being 84.12%. It can be concluded that the Hilditch algorithm performs least successfully compared to the other three algorithms.
A Bi-Objective Model for Location-Allocation Problem within Queuing Framework
This paper proposes a bi-objective model for the facility location problem under a congestion system. The idea of the model is motivated by applications of locating servers in bank automated teller machines (ATMS), communication networks, and so on. This model can be specifically considered for situations in which fixed service facilities are congested by stochastic demand within queueing framework. We formulate this model with two perspectives simultaneously: (i) customers and (ii) service provider. The objectives of the model are to minimize (i) the total expected travelling and waiting time and (ii) the average facility idle-time. This model represents a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem which belongs to the class of NP-hard problems. In addition, to solve the model, two metaheuristic algorithms including nondominated sorting genetic algorithms (NSGA-II) and non-dominated ranking genetic algorithms (NRGA) are proposed. Besides, to evaluate the performance of the two algorithms some numerical examples are produced and analyzed with some metrics to determine which algorithm works better.
Scheduling a Project to Minimize Costs of Material Requirements

Traditionally, project scheduling and material planning have been treated independently. In this research, a mixed integer programming model is presented to integrate project scheduling and materials ordering problems. The goal is to minimize the total material holding and ordering costs. In addition, an efficient metaheuristic algorithm is proposed to solve the model. The proposed algorithm is computationally tested, the results are analyzed, and conclusions are given.

Value-Relevance of Accounting Information:Evidence from Iranian Emerging Stock Exchange
This study aims to investigate empirically the valuerelevance of accounting information to domestic investors in Tehran stock exchange from 1999 to 2006. During the present research impacts of two factors, including positive vs. negative earnings and the firm size are considered as well. The authors used earnings per share and annual change of earnings per share as the income statement indices, and book value of equity per share as the balance sheet index. Return and Price models through regression analysis are deployed in order to test the research hypothesis. Results depicted that accounting information is value-relevance to domestic investors in Tehran Stock Exchange according to both studied models. However, income statement information has more value-relevance than the balance sheet information. Furthermore, positive vs. negative earnings and firm size seems to have significant impact on valuerelevance of accounting information.
Machine Learning Methods for Environmental Monitoring and Flood Protection
More and more natural disasters are happening every year: floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, etc. In order to reduce the risk of possible damages, governments all around the world are investing into development of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for environmental applications. The most important task of the EWS is identification of the onset of critical situations affecting environment and population, early enough to inform the authorities and general public. This paper describes an approach for monitoring of flood protections systems based on machine learning methods. An Artificial Intelligence (AI) component has been developed for detection of abnormal dike behaviour. The AI module has been integrated into an EWS platform of the UrbanFlood project (EU Seventh Framework Programme) and validated on real-time measurements from the sensors installed in a dike.
Application of Homotopy Perturbation Method to Solve Steady Flow of Walter B Fluid A Vertical Channel In Porous Media

In this article, a simulation method called the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) is employed in the steady flow of a Walter's B' fluid in a vertical channel with porous wall. We employed Homotopy Perturbation Method to derive solution of a nonlinear form of equation obtained from exerting similarity transforming to the ordinary differential equation gained from continuity and momentum equations of this kind of flow. The results obtained from the Homotopy Perturbation Method are then compared with those from the Runge–Kutta method in order to verify the accuracy of the proposed method. The results show that the Homotopy Perturbation Method can achieve good results in predicting the solution of such problems. Ultimately we use this solution to obtain the other terms of velocities and physical discussion about it.

Particle Swarm Optimization Approach on Flexible Structure at Wiper Blade System
Application of flexible structures has been significantly, increased in industry and aerospace missions due to their contributions and unique advantages over the rigid counterparts. In this paper, vibration analysis of a flexible structure i.e., automobile wiper blade is investigated and controlled. The wiper generates unwanted noise and vibration during the wiping the rain and other particles on windshield which may cause annoying noise in different ranges of frequency. A two dimensional analytical modeled wiper blade whose model accuracy is verified by numerical studies in literature is considered in this study. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed in alliance with input shaping (IS) technique in order to control or to attenuate the amplitude level of unwanted noise/vibration of the wiper blade.
Vortex-Shedding Suppression in Mixed Convective Flow past a Heated Square Cylinder
The present study investigates numerically the phenomenon of vortex-shedding and its suppression in twodimensional mixed convective flow past a square cylinder under the joint influence of buoyancy and free-stream orientation with respect to gravity. The numerical experiments have been conducted at a fixed Reynolds number (Re) of 100 and Prandtl number (Pr) of 0.71, while Richardson number (Ri) is varied from 0 to 1.6 and freestream orientation, α, is kept in the range 0o≤ α ≤ 90o, with 0o corresponding to an upward flow and 90o representing a cross-flow scenario, respectively. The continuity, momentum and energy equations, subject to Boussinesq approximation, are discretized using a finite difference method and are solved by a semi-explicit pressure correction scheme. The critical Richardson number, leading to the suppression of the vortex-shedding (Ric), is estimated by using Stuart-Landau theory at various free-stream orientations and the neutral curve is obtained in the Ri-α plane. The neutral curve exhibits an interesting non-monotonic behavior with Ric first increasing with increasing values of α upto 45o and then decreasing till 70o. Beyond 70o, the neutral curve again exhibits a sharp increasing asymptotic trend with Ric approaching very large values as α approaches 90o. The suppression of vortex shedding is not observed at α = 90o (cross-flow). In the unsteady flow regime, the Strouhal number (St) increases with the increase in Richardson number.
Study of Real Gas Behavior in a Single-Stage Gas Gun
In this paper, one-dimensional analysis of flow in a single-stage gas gun is conducted. The compressible inviscid flow equations are numerically solved by the second-order Roe TVD method, by using moving boundaries. For investigation of real gas effect the Noble-Able equation is applied. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data to validate the numerical scheme. The results show that with using the Noble-Able equation, the muzzle velocity decreases.
A new Configurable Decimation Filter using Pascal-s Triangle Theorem
This paper presents a new configurable decimation filter for sigma-delta modulators. The filter employs the Pascal-s triangle-s theorem for building the coefficients of non-recursive decimation filters. The filter can be connected to the back-end of various modulators with different output accuracy. In this work two methods are shown and then compared from area occupation viewpoint. First method uses the memory and the second one employs Pascal-s triangle-s method, aiming to reduce required gates. XILINX ISE v10 is used for implementation and confirmation the filter.
GenCos- Optimal Bidding Strategy Considering Market Power and Transmission Constraints: A Cournot-based Model
Restructured electricity markets may provide opportunities for producers to exercise market power maintaining prices in excess of competitive levels. In this paper an oligopolistic market is presented that all Generation Companies (GenCos) bid in a Cournot model. Genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to obtain generation scheduling of each GenCo as well as hourly market clearing prices (MCP). In order to consider network constraints a multiperiod framework is presented to simulate market clearing mechanism in which the behaviors of market participants are modelled through piecewise block curves. A mixed integer linear programming (MILP) is employed to solve the problem. Impacts of market clearing process on participants- characteristic and final market prices are presented. Consequently, a novel multi-objective model is addressed for security constrained optimal bidding strategy of GenCos. The capability of price-maker GenCos to alter MCP is evaluated through introducing an effective-supply curve. In addition, the impact of exercising market power on the variation of market characteristics as well as GenCos scheduling is studied.
Identification Common Microbes Observed on Polyester Tufting
Tufting carpet is a very suitable substrate for growing microorganism such as pathogenic microbes, due to the direct touch with human body, long washing periods and laying on the floor; in fact there are 3 major problems: To risk human health, Prepare bad odors and Destruction of the products.. In the presented research, for investigation of presence most common microbes on polyester tufting, first goods laid in a public place (in the corridor fair) for 30 days and the existence of some microbes were investigate on it with two methods of enrichment in nutrient environments such as thioglycolate and noutrunt brath, and shake the dust off the polyester tufting onto cultivation mediums such as blood agar and noutrunt agar. After the microorganism colonics are grown, the colonies were separated and six microbial tests such as cataloes and sitrat were carried out in five phases on the colonics for identifying the varieties of bacteria. As a result of tests, 5 type of bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, staphylococcus saprophytic as were identified. Each of the mentioned bacteria can be seriously harmful for the heath of human.
Bond Strength in Thermally Sprayed Gas Turbine Shafts
In this paper, the bond strength of thermal spray coatings in high speed shafts has been studied. The metallurgical and mechanical studies has been made on the coated samples and shaft using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Residual Stresses in Thermally Sprayed Gas Turbine Components
In this paper, the residual stress of thermal spray coatings in gas turbine component by curvature method has been studied. The samples and shaft were coated by hard WC-12Co cermets using high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) after preparation in same conditions. The curvature of coated samples was measured by using of coordinate measurement machine (CMM). The metallurgical and Tribological studies has been made on the coated shaft using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
2n Positive Periodic Solutions to n Species Non-autonomous Lotka-Volterra Competition Systems with Harvesting Terms

By using Mawhin-s continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, we establish the existence of 2n positive periodic solutions for n species non-autonomous Lotka-Volterra competition systems with harvesting terms. An example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of our results.

A Mixture Model of Two Different Distributions Approach to the Analysis of Heterogeneous Survival Data
In this paper we propose a mixture of two different distributions such as Exponential-Gamma, Exponential-Weibull and Gamma-Weibull to model heterogeneous survival data. Various properties of the proposed mixture of two different distributions are discussed. Maximum likelihood estimations of the parameters are obtained by using the EM algorithm. Illustrative example based on real data are also given.
A New Similarity Measure on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets
Intuitionistic fuzzy sets as proposed by Atanassov, have gained much attention from past and latter researchers for applications in various fields. Similarity measures between intuitionistic fuzzy sets were developed afterwards. However, it does not cater the conflicting behavior of each element evaluated. We therefore made some modification to the similarity measure of IFS by considering conflicting concept to the model. In this paper, we concentrate on Zhang and Fu-s similarity measures for IFSs and some examples are given to validate these similarity measures. A simple modification to Zhang and Fu-s similarity measures of IFSs was proposed to find the best result according to the use of degree of indeterminacy. Finally, we mark up with the application to real decision making problems.
Regular Generalized Star Star closed sets in Bitopological Spaces

The aim of this paper is to introduce the concepts of τ1τ2-regular generalized star star closed sets , τ1τ2-regular generalized star star open sets and study their basic properties in bitopological spaces.

Solution of Fuzzy Maximal Flow Problems Using Fuzzy Linear Programming
In this paper, the fuzzy linear programming formulation of fuzzy maximal flow problems are proposed and on the basis of the proposed formulation a method is proposed to find the fuzzy optimal solution of fuzzy maximal flow problems. In the proposed method all the parameters are represented by triangular fuzzy numbers. By using the proposed method the fuzzy optimal solution of fuzzy maximal flow problems can be easily obtained. To illustrate the proposed method a numerical example is solved and the obtained results are discussed.
Numerical Grid Generation of Oceanic Model for the Andaman Sea
The study of the Andaman Sea can be studied by using the oceanic model; therefore the grid covering the study area should be generated. This research aims to generate grid covering the Andaman Sea, situated between longitudes 90◦E to 101◦E and latitudes 1◦N to 18◦N. A horizontal grid is an orthogonal curvilinear with 87 × 217 grid points. The methods used in this study are cubic spline and bilinear interpolations. The boundary grid points are generated by spline interpolation while the interior grid points have to be specified by bilinear interpolation method. A vertical grid is sigma coordinate with 15 layers of water column.
Mathematical Modeling of Storm Surge in Three Dimensional Primitive Equations
The mathematical modeling of storm surge in sea and coastal regions such as the South China Sea (SCS) and the Gulf of Thailand (GoT) are important to study the typhoon characteristics. The storm surge causes an inundation at a lateral boundary exhibiting in the coastal zones particularly in the GoT and some part of the SCS. The model simulations in the three dimensional primitive equations with a high resolution model are important to protect local properties and human life from the typhoon surges. In the present study, the mathematical modeling is used to simulate the typhoon–induced surges in three case studies of Typhoon Linda 1997. The results of model simulations at the tide gauge stations can describe the characteristics of storm surges at the coastal zones.
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