Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 257

257
15649
The Strict Stability of Impulsive Stochastic Functional Differential Equations with Markovian Switching
Abstract:
Strict stability can present the rate of decay of the solution, so more and more investigators are beginning to study the topic and some results have been obtained. However, there are few results about strict stability of stochastic differential equations. In this paper, using Lyapunov functions and Razumikhin technique, we have gotten some criteria for the strict stability of impulsive stochastic functional differential equations with markovian switching.
256
3332
The Sizes of Large Hierarchical Long-Range Percolation Clusters
Authors:
Abstract:
We study a long-range percolation model in the hierarchical lattice ΩN of order N where probability of connection between two nodes separated by distance k is of the form min{αβ−k, 1}, α ≥ 0 and β > 0. The parameter α is the percolation parameter, while β describes the long-range nature of the model. The ΩN is an example of so called ultrametric space, which has remarkable qualitative difference between Euclidean-type lattices. In this paper, we characterize the sizes of large clusters for this model along the line of some prior work. The proof involves a stationary embedding of ΩN into Z. The phase diagram of this long-range percolation is well understood.
255
15177
Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm for Robust Power System Stabilizer Design
Abstract:

Power system stabilizers (PSS) are now routinely used in the industry to damp out power system oscillations. In this paper, real-coded genetic algorithm (RCGA) optimization technique is applied to design robust power system stabilizer for both singlemachine infinite-bus (SMIB) and multi-machine power system. The design problem of the proposed controller is formulated as an optimization problem and RCGA is employed to search for optimal controller parameters. By minimizing the time-domain based objective function, in which the deviation in the oscillatory rotor speed of the generator is involved; stability performance of the system is improved. The non-linear simulation results are presented under wide range of operating conditions; disturbances at different locations as well as for various fault clearing sequences to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller and their ability to provide efficient damping of low frequency oscillations.

254
2144
Effect of Uneven Surface on Magnetic Properties of Fe-Based Amorphous Transformer
Abstract:

This study reports the preparation of soft magnetic ribbons of Fe-based amorphous alloys using the single-roller melt-spinning technique. Ribbon width varied from 142 mm to 213 mm and, with a thickness of approximately 22 μm 2 μm. The microstructure and magnetic properties of the ribbons were characterized by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and electrical resistivity measurements (ERM). The amorphous material properties dependence of the cooling rate and nozzle pressure have uneven surface in ribbon thicknesses are investigated. Magnetic measurement results indicate that some region of the ribbon exhibits good magnetic properties, higher saturation induction and lower coercivity. However, due to the uneven surface of 213 mm wide ribbon, the magnetic responses are not uniformly distributed. To understand the transformer magnetic performances, this study analyzes the measurements of a three-phase 2 MVA amorphous-cored transformer. Experimental results confirm that the transformer with a ribbon width of 142 mm has better magnetic properties in terms of lower core loss, exciting power, and audible noise. 

253
9997444
A Comprehensive model for developing of Steer-By-Wire System
Abstract:

Steer-By-Wire ( SBW ) has several advantages of packaging flexibility , advanced vehicle control system ,and superior performance . SBW has no mechanical linkage between the steering gear and the steering column. It is possible to control the steering wheel and the front-wheel steering independently. SBW system is composed of two motors controlled by ECU. One motor in the steering wheel is to improve the driver's steering feel and the other motor in the steering linkage is to improve the vehicle maneuverability and stability. This paper shows a new approach at modeling of SBW system by Bond Graph theory. The mechanical parts , the steering wheel motor and the front wheel motor will be modeled by this theory. The work in the paper will help to guide further researches on control algorithm of the SBW system .

252
912
A C1-Conforming Finite Element Method for Nonlinear Fourth-Order Hyperbolic Equation
Abstract:

In this paper, the C1-conforming finite element method is analyzed for a class of nonlinear fourth-order hyperbolic partial differential equation. Some a priori bounds are derived using Lyapunov functional, and existence, uniqueness and regularity for the weak solutions are proved. Optimal error estimates are derived for both semidiscrete and fully discrete schemes.

251
7420
Existence of Solution for Boundary Value Problems of Differential Equations with Delay
Authors:
Abstract:

In this paper , by using fixed point theorem , upper and lower solution-s method and monotone iterative technique , we prove the existence of maximum and minimum solutions of differential equations with delay , which improved and generalize the result of related paper.

250
15920
An Approximate Solution of the Classical Van der Pol Oscillator Coupled Gyroscopically to a Linear Oscillator Using Parameter-Expansion Method
Abstract:

In this article, we are dealing with a model consisting of a classical Van der Pol oscillator coupled gyroscopically to a linear oscillator. The major problem is analyzed. The regular dynamics of the system is considered using analytical methods. In this case, we provide an approximate solution for this system using parameter-expansion method. Also, we find approximate values for frequencies of the system. In parameter-expansion method the solution and unknown frequency of oscillation are expanded in a series by a bookkeeping parameter. By imposing the non-secularity condition at each order in the expansion the method provides different approximations to both the solution and the frequency of oscillation. One iteration step provides an approximate solution which is valid for the whole solution domain.

249
10207
Hutchinson-Barnsley Operator in Fuzzy Metric Spaces
Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to present the fuzzy contraction properties of the Hutchinson-Barnsley operator on the fuzzy hyperspace with respect to the Hausdorff fuzzy metrics. Also we discuss about the relationships between the Hausdorff fuzzy metrics on the fuzzy hyperspaces. Our theorems generalize and extend some recent results related with Hutchinson-Barnsley operator in the metric spaces.
248
3440
The Diameter of an Interval Graph is Twice of its Radius
Abstract:

In an interval graph G = (V,E) the distance between two vertices u, v is de£ned as the smallest number of edges in a path joining u and v. The eccentricity of a vertex v is the maximum among distances from all other vertices of V . The diameter (δ) and radius (ρ) of the graph G is respectively the maximum and minimum among all the eccentricities of G. The center of the graph G is the set C(G) of vertices with eccentricity ρ. In this context our aim is to establish the relation ρ = δ 2  for an interval graph and to determine the center of it.

247
9200
Extend Three-wave Method for the (3+1)-Dimensional Soliton Equation
Abstract:

In this paper, we study (3+1)-dimensional Soliton equation. We employ the Hirota-s bilinear method to obtain the bilinear form of (3+1)-dimensional Soliton equation. Then by the idea of extended three-wave method, some exact soliton solutions including breather type solutions are presented.

246
3777
Design and Performance Analysis of a Supersonic Diffuser for Plasma Wing Tunnel
Abstract:
Plasma Wind Tunnels (PWT) are extensively used for screening and qualification of re-entry Thermel Protection System (TPS) materials. Proper design of a supersonic diffuser for plasma wind tunnel is of importance for achieving good pressurerecovery (thereby reducing vacuum pumping requirement & run time costs) and isolating downstream stream fluctuations from propagating costs) and isolating downstream stream fluctuationnts the details of a rapid design methodology successfully employed for designing supersonic diffuser for high power (several megawatts)plasma wind tunnels and numerical performance analysis of a diffuser configuration designed for one megawatt power rated plasma wind tunnel(enthalpy ~ 30 MJ/kg) using FLUENT 6.3® solver for different diffuser operating sub-atmospheric back-pressures.
245
14816
Multimodal Biometric System Based on Near- Infra-Red Dorsal Hand Geometry and Fingerprints for Single and Whole Hands
Abstract:
Prior research evidenced that unimodal biometric systems have several tradeoffs like noisy data, intra-class variations, restricted degrees of freedom, non-universality, spoof attacks, and unacceptable error rates. In order for the biometric system to be more secure and to provide high performance accuracy, more than one form of biometrics are required. Hence, the need arise for multimodal biometrics using combinations of different biometric modalities. This paper introduces a multimodal biometric system (MMBS) based on fusion of whole dorsal hand geometry and fingerprints that acquires right and left (Rt/Lt) near-infra-red (NIR) dorsal hand geometry (HG) shape and (Rt/Lt) index and ring fingerprints (FP). Database of 100 volunteers were acquired using the designed prototype. The acquired images were found to have good quality for all features and patterns extraction to all modalities. HG features based on the hand shape anatomical landmarks were extracted. Robust and fast algorithms for FP minutia points feature extraction and matching were used. Feature vectors that belong to similar biometric traits were fused using feature fusion methodologies. Scores obtained from different biometric trait matchers were fused using the Min-Max transformation-based score fusion technique. Final normalized scores were merged using the sum of scores method to obtain a single decision about the personal identity based on multiple independent sources. High individuality of the fused traits and user acceptability of the designed system along with its experimental high performance biometric measures showed that this MMBS can be considered for med-high security levels biometric identification purposes.
244
10563
Incidence of Chronic Disease and Lipid Profile in Veteran Rugby Athletes
Abstract:
Recently, the health of retired National Football League players, particularly lineman has been investigated. A number of studies have reported increased cardiometabolic risk, premature cardiovascular disease and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Rugby union players have somatotypes very similar to National Football League players which suggests that rugby players may have similar health risks. The International Golden Oldies World Rugby Festival (GORF) provided a unique opportunity to investigate the demographics of veteran rugby players. METHODOLOGIES: A cross-sectional, observational study was completed using an online web-based questionnaire that consisted of medical history and physiological measures. Data analysis was completed using a one sample t-test (50yrs) and Chi-square test. RESULTS: A total of 216 veteran rugby competitors (response rate = 6.8%) representing 10 countries, aged 35-72 yrs (mean 51.2, S.D. ±8.0), participated in the online survey. As a group, the incidence of current smokers was low at 8.8% (avg 72.4 cigs/wk) whilst the percentage consuming alcohol was high (93.1% (avg 11.2 drinks/wk). Competitors reported the following top six chronic diseases/disorders; hypertension (18.6%), arthritis (OA/RA, 11.5%), asthma (9.3%), hyperlipidemia (8.2%), diabetes (all types, 7.5%) and gout (6%), there were significant differences between groups with regard to cancer (all types) and migraines. When compared to the Australian general population (Australian Bureau of Statistics data, n=18,000), GORF competitors had a significantly lower incidence of anxiety (p
243
9998
Sinc-Galerkin Method for the Solution of Problems in Calculus of Variations
Abstract:
In this paper, a numerical solution based on sinc functions is used for finding the solution of boundary value problems which arise from the problems of calculus of variations. This approximation reduce the problems to an explicit system of algebraic equations. Some numerical examples are also given to illustrate the accuracy and applicability of the presented method.
242
15985
Improved Body Mass Index Classification for Football Code Masters Athletes, A Comparison to the Australian National Population
Abstract:
Thousands of masters athletes participate quadrennially in the World Masters Games (WMG), yet this cohort of athletes remains proportionately under-investigated. Due to a growing global obesity pandemic in context of benefits of physical activity across the lifespan, the prevalence of obesity in this unique population was of particular interest. Data gathered on a sub-sample of 535 football code athletes, aged 31-72 yrs ( =47.4, s =±7.1), competing at the Sydney World Masters Games (2009) demonstrated a significantly (p
241
13576
Automatic 2D/2D Registration using Multiresolution Pyramid based Mutual Information in Image Guided Radiation Therapy
Abstract:

Medical image registration is the key technology in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) systems. On the basis of the previous work on our IGRT prototype with a biorthogonal x-ray imaging system, we described a method focused on the 2D/2D rigid-body registration using multiresolution pyramid based mutual information in this paper. Three key steps were involved in the method : firstly, four 2D images were obtained including two x-ray projection images and two digital reconstructed radiographies(DRRs ) as the input for the registration ; Secondly, each pair of the corresponding x-ray image and DRR image were matched using multiresolution pyramid based mutual information under the ITK registration framework ; Thirdly, we got the final couch offset through a coordinate transformation by calculating the translations acquired from the two pairs of the images. A simulation example of a parotid gland tumor case and a clinical example of an anthropomorphic head phantom were employed in the verification tests. In addition, the influence of different CT slice thickness were tested. The simulation results showed that the positioning errors were 0.068±0.070, 0.072±0.098, 0.154±0.176mm along three axes which were lateral, longitudinal and vertical. The clinical test indicated that the positioning errors of the planned isocenter were 0.066, 0.07, 2.06mm on average with a CT slice thickness of 2.5mm. It can be concluded that our method with its verified accuracy and robustness can be effectively used in IGRT systems for patient setup.

240
11056
An Efficient Computational Algorithm for Solving the Nonlinear Lane-Emden Type Equations
Abstract:

In this paper we propose a class of second derivative multistep methods for solving some well-known classes of Lane- Emden type equations which are nonlinear ordinary differential equations on the semi-infinite domain. These methods, which have good stability and accuracy properties, are useful in deal with stiff ODEs. We show superiority of these methods by applying them on the some famous Lane-Emden type equations.

239
4821
The Banzhaf-Owen Value for Fuzzy Games with a Coalition Structure
Authors:
Abstract:

In this paper, a generalized form of the Banzhaf-Owen value for cooperative fuzzy games with a coalition structure is proposed. Its axiomatic system is given by extending crisp case. In order to better understand the Banzhaf-Owen value for fuzzy games with a coalition structure, we briefly introduce the Banzhaf-Owen values for two special kinds of fuzzy games with a coalition structure, and give their explicit forms.

238
9786
Scale Time Offset Robust Modulation (STORM) in a Code Division Multiaccess Environment
Abstract:
Scale Time Offset Robust Modulation (STORM) [1]– [3] is a high bandwidth waveform design that adds time-scale to embedded reference modulations using only time-delay [4]. In an environment where each user has a specific delay and scale, identification of the user with the highest signal power and that user-s phase is facilitated by the STORM processor. Both of these parameters are required in an efficient multiuser detection algorithm. In this paper, the STORM modulation approach is evaluated with a direct sequence spread quadrature phase shift keying (DS-QPSK) system. A misconception of the STORM time scale modulation is that a fine temporal resolution is required at the receiver. STORM will be applied to a QPSK code division multiaccess (CDMA) system by modifying the spreading codes. Specifically, the in-phase code will use a typical spreading code, and the quadrature code will use a time-delayed and time-scaled version of the in-phase code. Subsequently, the same temporal resolution in the receiver is required before and after the application of STORM. In this paper, the bit error performance of STORM in a synchronous CDMA system is evaluated and compared to theory, and the bit error performance of STORM incorporated in a single user WCDMA downlink is presented to demonstrate the applicability of STORM in a modern communication system.
237
13874
Bifurcation Analysis of a Delayed Predator-prey Fishery Model with Prey Reserve in Frequency Domain
Authors:
Abstract:

In this paper, applying frequency domain approach, a delayed predator-prey fishery model with prey reserve is investigated. By choosing the delay τ as a bifurcation parameter, It is found that Hopf bifurcation occurs as the bifurcation parameter τ passes a sequence of critical values. That is, a family of periodic solutions bifurcate from the equilibrium when the bifurcation parameter exceeds a critical value. The length of delay which preserves the stability of the positive equilibrium is calculated. Some numerical simulations are included to justify the theoretical analysis results. Finally, main conclusions are given.

236
11931
Finite Volume Model to Study The Effect of Voltage Gated Ca2+ Channel on Cytosolic Calcium Advection Diffusion
Abstract:
Mathematical and computational modeling of calcium signalling in nerve cells has produced considerable insights into how the cells contracts with other cells under the variation of biophysical and physiological parameters. The modeling of calcium signaling in astrocytes has become more sophisticated. The modeling effort has provided insight to understand the cell contraction. Main objective of this work is to study the effect of voltage gated (Operated) calcium channel (VOC) on calcium profile in the form of advection diffusion equation. A mathematical model is developed in the form of advection diffusion equation for the calcium profile. The model incorporates the important physiological parameter like diffusion coefficient etc. Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed. Finite volume method is employed to solve the problem. A program has been developed using in MATLAB 7.5 for the entire problem and simulated on an AMD-Turion 32-bite machine to compute the numerical results.
235
6844
Main Bearing Stiffness Investigation
Abstract:
Simplified coupled engine block-crankshaft models based on beam theory provide an efficient substitute to engine simulation in the design process. These models require accurate definition of the main bearing stiffness. In this paper, an investigation of this stiffness is presented. The clearance effect is studied using a smooth bearing model. It is manifested for low shaft displacement. The hydrodynamic assessment model shows that the oil film has no stiffness for low loads and it is infinitely rigid for important loads. The deformation stiffness is determined using a suitable finite elements model based on real CADs. As a result, a main bearing behaviour law is proposed. This behaviour law takes into account the clearance, the hydrodynamic sustention and the deformation stiffness. It ensures properly the transition from the configuration low rigidity to the configuration high rigidity.
234
12239
Closed Form Solution to problem of Calcium Diffusion in Cylindrical Shaped Neuron Cell
Abstract:
Calcium [Ca2+] dynamics is studied as a potential form of neuron excitability that can control many irregular processes like metabolism, secretion etc. Ca2+ ion enters presynaptic terminal and increases the synaptic strength and thus triggers the neurotransmitter release. The modeling and analysis of calcium dynamics in neuron cell becomes necessary for deeper understanding of the processes involved. A mathematical model has been developed for cylindrical shaped neuron cell by incorporating physiological parameters like buffer, diffusion coefficient, and association rate. Appropriate initial and boundary conditions have been framed. The closed form solution has been developed in terms of modified Bessel function. A computer program has been developed in MATLAB 7.11 for the whole approach.
233
6743
Artificial Accelerated Ageing Test of Silicone Rubber Housing Material for Lightning Arrester
Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of silicone rubber housing material for 24kV lightning arrester under artificial accelerated ageing test based on IEC 61109 specifications. Specimens having inclined and alternated shed made of HTV silicone rubber with ATH content and having leakage distance 625 mm were tested continuously 1000 hrs in artificial salt fog chamber. After 1000 hrs of salt fog ageing test, obviously surface erosion was observed on trunk between the upper large shed and the lower small shed near the energized end. Decreasing in hydrophobicity and increasing in hardness were measured on tested specimen comparing with new specimen. Chemical analysis by ATR-FTIR confirmed the observation results.

232
6329
Performance, Carcass Yield, Hematological Parameters, and Feather Pecking Damage of Thai Indigenous Chickens Raised Indoors or with Outdoor Access
Abstract:
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the rearing system on growth performance, carcass yield, hematological parameters, and feather pecking damage of Thai indigenous chickens. Three hundred and sixty 1-d-old chicks were randomly assigned to 2 treatments: indoor treatment and outdoor access treatment. In the indoor treatment, the chickens were housed in floor pens (5 birds/m2). In the outdoor access treatment, the chickens were housed in a similar indoor house; in addition, they also had an outdoor grass paddock (1 bird/m2). All birds were provided with same diet and were raised for 16 wk of age. The results showed that growth performance and carcass yield were not different among treatment (P>0.05). Outdoor access had no effect on hematological parameters (P>0.05). However, the feather pecking damage of the chickens in the outdoor access treatment was lower than that of the chickens in the indoor treatment (P
231
1565
Development of EPID-based Real time Dose Verification for Dynamic IMRT
Abstract:
An electronic portal image device (EPID) has become a method of patient-specific IMRT dose verification for radiotherapy. Research studies have focused on pre and post-treatment verification, however, there are currently no interventional procedures using EPID dosimetry that measure the dose in real time as a mechanism to ensure that overdoses do not occur and underdoses are detected as soon as is practically possible. As a result, an EPID-based real time dose verification system for dynamic IMRT was developed and was implemented with MATLAB/Simulink. The EPID image acquisition was set to continuous acquisition mode at 1.4 images per second. The system defined the time constraint gap, or execution gap at the image acquisition time, so that every calculation must be completed before the next image capture is completed. In addition, the
230
11057
Influence of Supplemental Glutamine on Nutrient Digestibility and Utilization, Small Intestinal Morphology and Gastrointestinal Tract and Immune Organ Developments of Broiler Chickens
Abstract:
This study was conducted to investigate the optimum levels of glutamine (Gln) supplementation in broiler diets. A total of 32 one-day-old male chicks with initial body weight 41.5 g were segregated into 4 groups (8 chicks per group) and subsequently distributed to individual cages. Feed and water were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Four dietary treatments were as follows: control and supplemented Gln at 1, 2 and 3%, respectively. The results found that the addition Gln had no negative effects on dry matter, organic matter, ash digestibility or nitrogen retention. Birds fed with 1% Gln had significantly higher villi wide and villi height : crypt depth ratio in duodenum than the control chicks and 2 and 3% Gln chicks. It is suggested that the addition of Gln at 1% indicated a beneficial effect on improving small intestinal morphology, in addition Gln may stimulate immune organ development of broiler chickens.
229
15664
Confidence Intervals for the Difference of Two Normal Population Variances
Abstract:

Motivated by the recent work of Herbert, Hayen, Macaskill and Walter [Interval estimation for the difference of two independent variances. Communications in Statistics, Simulation and Computation, 40: 744-758, 2011.], we investigate, in this paper, new confidence intervals for the difference between two normal population variances based on the generalized confidence interval of Weerahandi [Generalized Confidence Intervals. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 88(423): 899-905, 1993.] and the closed form method of variance estimation of Zou, Huo and Taleban [Simple confidence intervals for lognormal means and their differences with environmental applications. Environmetrics 20: 172-180, 2009]. Monte Carlo simulation results indicate that our proposed confidence intervals give a better coverage probability than that of the existing confidence interval. Also two new confidence intervals perform similarly based on their coverage probabilities and their average length widths.

228
10465
Is China Replacing US in the International Monetary System?
Abstract:
The wisest economic decision of United States in the 20th century was establishing the favorable international monetary system, and capturing the leadership position in it. This decision gave economic hegemony to the US for the next more than 7 decades. The continuation of this hegemony till the next decade seems difficult as the US economy is under continuous streams of recessions since 2007. On the other hand, Chinese economy is progressing with a very fast speed and is estimated to pass the US economy till 2025, in various aspects. Will the US be able to continue its leadership in the IMS? Will China replace US in the international monetary system? The answers to these questions have been explored by comparing the economic competitiveness of US and China, with respect to each other. The paper concludes that the change in global economic environment will compel US to share the leadership of international monetary system with China. This sharing will solve most problems of the current IMS, but will also birth some new problems.
227
9082
Coverage Probability of Confidence Intervals for the Normal Mean and Variance with Restricted Parameter Space
Abstract:

Recent articles have addressed the problem to construct the confidence intervals for the mean of a normal distribution where the parameter space is restricted, see for example Wang [Confidence intervals for the mean of a normal distribution with restricted parameter space. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, Vol. 78, No. 9, 2008, 829–841.], we derived, in this paper, analytic expressions of the coverage probability and the expected length of confidence interval for the normal mean when the whole parameter space is bounded. We also construct the confidence interval for the normal variance with restricted parameter for the first time and its coverage probability and expected length are also mathematically derived. As a result, one can use these criteria to assess the confidence interval for the normal mean and variance when the parameter space is restricted without the back up from simulation experiments.

226
8340
Study of Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Housing Material for Outdoor Polymer Insulators
Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of salt fog ageing test of silicone rubber housing material for outdoor polymer insulator based on IEC 61109. Four types of HTV silicone rubber sheet with different amount of ATH were tested continuously 1000<=hours in salt fog chamber. By visual observation after tested, slightly surface erosion was observed on tested specimen surface near the energized end. Furthermore, increasing in hardness and reduction in hydrophobicity were measured on tested specimen comparing with new specimen. In addition, chemical analysis by ATRFTIR was conducted in order to elucidate the chemical change of tested specimens comparing with new specimen. Physical and chemical results confirmed the experimental results as well.

225
10984
Development and Evaluation of a Dynamic Cardiac Phantom for use in Nuclear Medicine
Abstract:

The aim of this study was to develop a dynamic cardiac phantom for quality control in myocardial scintigraphy. The dynamic heart phantom constructed only contained the left ventricle, made of elastic material (latex), comprising two cavities: one internal and one external. The data showed a non-significant variation in the values of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) obtained by varying the heart rate. It was also possible to evaluate the ejection fraction (LVEF) through different arrays of image acquisition and to perform an intercomparison of LVEF by two different scintillation cameras. The results of the quality control tests were satisfactory, showing that they can be used as parameters in future assessments. The new dynamic heart phantom was demonstrated to be effective for use in LVEF measurements. Therefore, the new heart simulator is useful for the quality control of scintigraphic cameras.

224
8836
Effect of Various Concentrations of Humic Acid on Growth and Development of Eggplant Seedlings in Tissue Cultures at Low Nutrient Level
Abstract:
Humic acids (HAs) have been shown to activate some ion uptakes along with stimulating the lateral roots at effective concentration of micronutrients. However, the effects of HA on ion adsorption by plant roots are not easily explainable due to the varieties of HAs that differ from origins. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of various concentrations of HA obtained from the compost derived from mix manures and some agricultural wastes on the growth of eggplant seedlings (Solanum melongena L. cv. Chao Praya) in tissue cultures at low nutrient level. Egg plant seeds were surfaced sterilized and germinated in ½ Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) without HA added or in ¼ MS supplemented with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of HAs. Then, they were cultured for 4 weeks under the controlled environment. The results showed that seedlings grown on ¼MS supplemented with HAs at the concentration of 25 and 50 ppm had the average plant heights (2.49 and 2.28 cm, respectively) higher than the other treatments. Both treatments also significantly showed the maximum average fresh and dry weights (p
223
7085
n-Butanol as an Extractant for Lactic Acid Recovery
Abstract:

Extraction of lactic acid from aqueous solution using n-butanol as an extractant was studied. Effect of mixing time, pH of the aqueous solution, initial lactic acid concentration, and volume ratio between the organic and the aqueous phase were investigated. Distribution coefficient and degree of lactic acid extraction was found to increase when the pH of aqueous solution was decreased. The pH Effect was substantially pronounced at pH of the aqueous solution less than 1. Initial lactic acid concentration and organic-toaqueous volume ratio appeared to have positive effect on the distribution coefficient and the degree of extraction. Due to the nature of n-butanol that is partially miscible in water, incorporation of aqueous solution into organic phase was observed in the extraction with large organic-to-aqueous volume ratio.

222
14142
Characterization and Development of Anthropomorphic Phantoms Liver for Use in Nuclear Medicine
Abstract:
The objective this study was to characterize and develop anthropomorphic liver phantoms in tomography hepatic procedures for quality control and improvement professionals in nuclear medicine. For the conformation of the anthropomorphic phantom was used in plaster and acrylic. We constructed three phantoms representing processes with liver cirrhosis. The phantoms were filled with 99mTc diluted with water to obtain the scintigraphic images. Tomography images were analyzed anterior and posterior phantom representing a body with a greater degree cirrhotic. It was noted that the phantoms allow the acquisition of images similar to real liver with cirrhosis. Simulations of hemangiomas may contribute to continued professional education of nuclear medicine, on the question of image acquisition, allowing of the study parameters such of the matrix, energy window and count statistics.
221
15887
Identification of Non-Lexicon Non-Slang Unigrams in Body-enhancement Medicinal UBE
Abstract:
Email has become a fast and cheap means of online communication. The main threat to email is Unsolicited Bulk Email (UBE), commonly called spam email. The current work aims at identification of unigrams in more than 2700 UBE that advertise body-enhancement drugs. The identification is based on the requirement that the unigram is neither present in dictionary, nor is a slang term. The motives of the paper are many fold. This is an attempt to analyze spamming behaviour and employment of wordmutation technique. On the side-lines of the paper, we have attempted to better understand the spam, the slang and their interplay. The problem has been addressed by employing Tokenization technique and Unigram BOW model. We found that the non-lexicon words constitute nearly 66% of total number of lexis of corpus whereas non-slang words constitute nearly 2.4% of non-lexicon words. Further, non-lexicon non-slang unigrams composed of 2 lexicon words, form more than 71% of the total number of such unigrams. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to analyze usage of non-lexicon non-slang unigrams in any kind of UBE.
220
15468
Impact of Mergers and Acquisitions on Consumers- Welfare: Experience of Indian Manufacturing Sector
Abstract:

In the context of introduction of deregulatory policy measures and subsequent wave of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in Indian corporate sector since 1991, the present paper attempts to examine the welfare implications of this wave. It is found that M&A do not have any significant impact on consumers- welfare. Instead, consumers- welfare is significantly influenced by exports intensity, imports intensity, advertising intensity, technology related efforts, and past profitability of the firms. While the industries with higher exports orientation or greater product differentiation or better financial performance experience greater loss in consumers- welfare, it is less in the industries with greater competition from imports or better technology. Hence, the wave of M&A in Indian manufacturing sector in the post-liberalization era may not be a matter of serious concern from consumers- welfare point of view. Instead, in many cases, M&A can help the firms in consolidating their business and enhancing competitiveness, and this may benefit the consumers in the form of greater efficiency and lower prices.

219
9875
An Efficient Data Collection Approach for Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:
One of the most important applications of wireless sensor networks is data collection. This paper proposes as efficient approach for data collection in wireless sensor networks by introducing Member Forward List. This list includes the nodes with highest priority for forwarding the data. When a node fails or dies, this list is used to select the next node with higher priority. The benefit of this node is that it prevents the algorithm from repeating when a node fails or dies. The results show that Member Forward List decreases power consumption and latency in wireless sensor networks.
218
8529
Numerical Analysis of Wind Loads on a Hemicylindrical Roof Building
Abstract:
The flow field over a three dimensional pole barn characterized by a cylindrical roof has been numerically investigated. Wind pressure and viscous loads acting on the agricultural building have been analyzed for several incoming wind directions, so as to evaluate the most critical load condition on the structure. A constant wind velocity profile, based on the maximum reference wind speed in the building site (peak gust speed worked out for 50 years return period) and on the local roughness coefficient, has been simulated. In order to contemplate also the hazard due to potential air wedging between the stored hay and the lower part of the ceiling, the effect of a partial filling of the barn has been investigated. The distribution of wind-induced loads on the structure have been determined, allowing a numerical quantification of the effect of wind direction on the induced stresses acting on a hemicylindrical roof.
217
10213
Feedrate Optimization for Ball-end milling of Sculptured Surfaces using Fuzzy Logic Controller
Abstract:

Optimization of cutting parameters important in precision machining in regards to efficiency and surface integrity of the machined part. Usually productivity and precision in machining is limited by the forces emanating from the cutting process. Due to the inherent varying nature of the workpiece in terms of geometry and material composition, the peak cutting forces vary from point to point during machining process. In order to increase productivity without compromising on machining accuracy, it is important to control these cutting forces. In this paper a fuzzy logic control algorithm is developed that can be applied in the control of peak cutting forces in milling of spherical surfaces using ball end mills. The controller can adaptively vary the feedrate to maintain allowable cutting force on the tool. This control algorithm is implemented in a computer numerical control (CNC) machine. It has been demonstrated that the controller can provide stable machining and improve the performance of the CNC milling process by varying feedrate.

216
9217
Small Signal Stability Assessment Employing PSO Based TCSC Controller with Comparison to GA Based Design
Abstract:
This paper aims to select the optimal location and setting parameters of TCSC (Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator) controller using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) to mitigate small signal oscillations in a multimachine power system. Though Power System Stabilizers (PSSs) are prime choice in this issue, installation of FACTS device has been suggested here in order to achieve appreciable damping of system oscillations. However, performance of any FACTS devices highly depends upon its parameters and suitable location in the power network. In this paper PSO as well as GA based techniques are used separately and compared their performances to investigate this problem. The results of small signal stability analysis have been represented employing eigenvalue as well as time domain response in face of two common power system disturbances e.g., varying load and transmission line outage. It has been revealed that the PSO based TCSC controller is more effective than GA based controller even during critical loading condition.
215
13932
Design of a Constant Chord Single-Rotating Propeller using Lock and Goldstein Techniques
Abstract:
Design of a constant chord propeller is presented in this paper in order to reduce propeller-s design procedure-s costs. The design process was based on Lock and Goldstein-s techniques of propeller design and analysis. In order to calculate optimum chord of propeller, chord of a referential element is generalized as whole blades chord. The design outcome which named CS-X-1 is modeled & analyzed by CFD methods using K-ε: R.N.G turbulence model. Convergence of results of two codes proved that outcome results of design process are reliable. Design result is a two-blade propeller with a total diameter of 1.1 meter, radial velocity of 3000 R.P.M, efficiency above .75 and power coefficient near 1.05.
214
8371
Review of the Characteristics of Mahan Garden:One Type of Persian Gardens
Abstract:
Iranians- imagination of heaven, which is the reward of a person-s good deeds during their life, has shown itself in pleasant and green gardens where earthly gardens were made as representations of paradise. Iranians are also quite interested in making their earthly gardens and plantations around their buildings. With Iran-s hot and dry climate with a lack of sufficient water for plantation coverage, it becomes noticeable how important it is to Iranians- art in making gardens. This study, with regard to examples, documents and library studies, investigates the characteristics of Persian gardens. The result shows that elements such as soil, water, plants and layout have been used in forming a unique style of Persian gardens. Bagh-e Shah Zadeh Mahan (Mahan prince garden) is a typical example and has been carefully studied. In this paper I try to investigate and evaluate the characteristics of a Persian garden by means of a descriptive approach.
213
2423
Empirical Evidence on Equity Valuation of Thai Firms
Abstract:
This study aims at providing empirical evidence on a comparison of two equity valuation models: (1) the dividend discount model (DDM) and (2) the residual income model (RIM), in estimating equity values of Thai firms during 1995-2004. Results suggest that DDM and RIM underestimate equity values of Thai firms and that RIM outperforms DDM in predicting cross-sectional stock prices. Results on regression of cross-sectional stock prices on the decomposed DDM and RIM equity values indicate that book value of equity provides the greatest incremental explanatory power, relative to other components in DDM and RIM terminal values, suggesting that book value distortions resulting from accounting procedures and choices are less severe than forecast and measurement errors in discount rates and growth rates. We also document that the incremental explanatory power of book value of equity during 1998-2004, representing the information environment under Thai Accounting Standards reformed after the 1997 economic crisis to conform to International Accounting Standards, is significantly greater than that during 1995-1996, representing the information environment under the pre-reformed Thai Accounting Standards. This implies that the book value distortions are less severe under the 1997 Reformed Thai Accounting Standards than the pre-reformed Thai Accounting Standards.
212
13568
Matching Pursuit based Removal of Cardiac Pulse-Related Artifacts in EEG/fMRI
Abstract:
Cardiac pulse-related artifacts in the EEG recorded simultaneously with fMRI are complex and highly variable. Their effective removal is an unsolved problem. Our aim is to develop an adaptive removal algorithm based on the matching pursuit (MP) technique and to compare it to established methods using a visual evoked potential (VEP). We recorded the VEP inside the static magnetic field of an MR scanner (with artifacts) as well as in an electrically shielded room (artifact free). The MP-based artifact removal outperformed average artifact subtraction (AAS) and optimal basis set removal (OBS) in terms of restoring the EEG field map topography of the VEP. Subsequently, a dipole model was fitted to the VEP under each condition using a realistic boundary element head model. The source location of the VEP recorded inside the MR scanner was closest to that of the artifact free VEP after cleaning with the MP-based algorithm as well as with AAS. While none of the tested algorithms offered complete removal, MP showed promising results due to its ability to adapt to variations of latency, frequency and amplitude of individual artifact occurrences while still utilizing a common template.
211
9162
Some Results on Parallel Alternating Two-stage Methods
Abstract:
In this paper, we present parallel alternating two-stage methods for solving linear system Ax=b, where A is a symmetric positive definite matrix. And we give some convergence results of these methods for nonsingular linear system.
210
5571
Periodic Solutions of Recurrent Neural Networks with Distributed Delays and Impulses on Time Scales
Abstract:

In this paper, by using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, M-matrix theory and constructing some suitable Lyapunov functions, some sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence and global exponential stability of periodic solutions of recurrent neural networks with distributed delays and impulses on time scales. Without assuming the boundedness of the activation functions gj, hj , these results are less restrictive than those given in the earlier references.

209
8682
Covering-based Rough sets Based on the Refinement of Covering-element
Abstract:
Covering-based rough sets is an extension of rough sets and it is based on a covering instead of a partition of the universe. Therefore it is more powerful in describing some practical problems than rough sets. However, by extending the rough sets, covering-based rough sets can increase the roughness of each model in recognizing objects. How to obtain better approximations from the models of a covering-based rough sets is an important issue. In this paper, two concepts, determinate elements and indeterminate elements in a universe, are proposed and given precise definitions respectively. This research makes a reasonable refinement of the covering-element from a new viewpoint. And the refinement may generate better approximations of covering-based rough sets models. To prove the theory above, it is applied to eight major coveringbased rough sets models which are adapted from other literature. The result is, in all these models, the lower approximation increases effectively. Correspondingly, in all models, the upper approximation decreases with exceptions of two models in some special situations. Therefore, the roughness of recognizing objects is reduced. This research provides a new approach to the study and application of covering-based rough sets.
208
7340
Almost Periodic Sequence Solutions of a Discrete Cooperation System with Feedback Controls
Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the almost periodic solutions of a discrete cooperation system with feedback controls. Assuming that the coefficients in the system are almost periodic sequences, we obtain the existence and uniqueness of the almost periodic solution which is uniformly asymptotically stable.

207
833
Almost Periodic Solution for a Food-limited Population Model with Delay and Feedback Control
Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a food-limited population model with delay and feedback control. By applying the comparison theorem of the differential equation and constructing a suitable Lyapunov functional, sufficient conditions which guarantee the permanence and existence of a unique globally attractive positive almost periodic solution of the system are obtained.

206
2083
Stability and HOPF Bifurcation Analysis in a Stage-structured Predator-prey system with Two Time Delays
Abstract:

A stage-structured predator-prey system with two time delays is considered. By analyzing the corresponding characteristic equation, the local stability of a positive equilibrium is investigated and the existence of Hopf bifurcations is established. Formulae are derived to determine the direction of bifurcations and the stability of bifurcating periodic solutions by using the normal form theory and center manifold theorem. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the theoretical results. Based on the global Hopf bifurcation theorem for general functional differential equations, the global existence of periodic solutions is established.

205
15064
Prime(Semiprime) Fuzzy h-ideal in Γ-hemiring
Abstract:
The notions of prime(semiprime) fuzzy h-ideal(h-biideal, h-quasi-ideal) in Γ-hemiring are introduced and some of their characterizations are obtained by using "belongingness(∈)" and "quasi - coincidence(q)". Cartesian product of prime(semiprime) fuzzy h-ideals of Γ-hemirings are also investigated.
204
5091
Analysis of Permanence and Extinction of Enterprise Cluster Based On Ecology Theory
Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the permanence and extinction problem of enterprises cluster constituted by m satellite enterprises and a dominant enterprise. We present the model involving impulsive effect based on ecology theory, which effectively describe the competition and cooperation of enterprises cluster in real economic environment. Applying comparison theorem of impulsive differential equation, we establish sufficient conditions which ultimately affect the fate of enterprises: permanence, extinction, and co-existence. Finally, we present numerical examples to explain the economical significance of mathematical results.

203
7084
Mean Square Exponential Synchronization of Stochastic Neutral Type Chaotic Neural Networks with Mixed Delay
Abstract:

This paper studies the mean square exponential synchronization problem of a class of stochastic neutral type chaotic neural networks with mixed delay. On the Basis of Lyapunov stability theory, some sufficient conditions ensuring the mean square exponential synchronization of two identical chaotic neural networks are obtained by using stochastic analysis and inequality technique. These conditions are expressed in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), whose feasibility can be easily checked by using Matlab LMI Toolbox. The feedback controller used in this paper is more general than those used in previous literatures. One simulation example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the derived results.

202
1330
Multiple Positive Periodic Solutions to a Periodic Predator-Prey-Chain Model with Harvesting Terms
Abstract:

In this paper, a class of predator-prey-chain model with harvesting terms are studied. By using Mawhin-s continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory and some skills of inequalities, some sufficient conditions are established for the existence of eight positive periodic solutions. Finally, an example is presented to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the results.

201
2651
Weighted Harmonic Arnoldi Method for Large Interior Eigenproblems
Abstract:

The harmonic Arnoldi method can be used to find interior eigenpairs of large matrices. However, it has been shown that this method may converge erratically and even may fail to do so. In this paper, we present a new method for computing interior eigenpairs of large nonsymmetric matrices, which is called weighted harmonic Arnoldi method. The implementation of the method has been tested by numerical examples, the results show that the method converges fast and works with high accuracy.

200
10961
MMU Simulation in Hardware Simulator Based-on State Transition Models
Abstract:
Embedded hardware simulator is a valuable computeraided tool for embedded application development. This paper focuses on the ARM926EJ-S MMU, builds state transition models and formally verifies critical properties for the models. The state transition models include loading instruction model, reading data model, and writing data model. The properties of the models are described by CTL specification language, and they are verified in VIS. The results obtained in VIS demonstrate that the critical properties of MMU are satisfied in the state transition models. The correct models can be used to implement the MMU component in our simulator. In the end of this paper, the experimental results show that the MMU can successfully accomplish memory access requests from CPU.
199
14752
Thermal Post-buckling of Shape Memory Alloy Composite Plates under Non-uniform Temperature Distribution
Abstract:
Aerospace vehicles are subjected to non-uniform thermal loading that may cause thermal buckling. A study was conducted on the thermal post-buckling of shape memory alloy composite plates subjected to the non-uniform tent-like temperature field. The shape memory alloy wires were embedded within the laminated composite plates to add recovery stress to the plates. The non-linear finite element model that considered the recovery stress of the shape memory alloy and temperature dependent properties of the shape memory alloy and composite matrix along with its source codes were developed. It was found that the post-buckling paths of the shape memory alloy composite plates subjected to various tentlike temperature fields were stable within the studied temperature range. The addition of shape memory alloy wires to the composite plates was found to significantly improve the post-buckling behavior of laminated composite plates under non-uniform temperature distribution.
198
667
Sensitivity of Input Blocking Capacitor on Output Voltage and Current of a PV Inverter Employing IGBTs
Abstract:

This paper present a MATLAB-SIMULINK model of a single phase 2.5 KVA, 240V RMS controlled PV VSI (Photovoltaic Voltage Source Inverter) inverter using IGBTs (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor). The behavior of output voltage, output current, and the total harmonic distortion (THD), with the variation in input dc blocking capacitor (Cdc), for linear and non-linear load has been analyzed. The values of Cdc as suggested by the other authors in their papers are not clearly defined and it poses difficulty in selecting the proper value. As the dc power stored in Cdc, (generally placed parallel with battery) is used as input to the VSI inverter. The simulation results shows the variation in the output voltage and current with different values of Cdc for linear and non-linear load connected at the output side of PV VSI inverter and suggest the selection of suitable value of Cdc.

197
2708
Initialization Method of Reference Vectors for Improvement of Recognition Accuracy in LVQ
Abstract:

Initial values of reference vectors have significant influence on recognition accuracy in LVQ. There are several existing techniques, such as SOM and k-means, for setting initial values of reference vectors, each of which has provided some positive results. However, those results are not sufficient for the improvement of recognition accuracy. This study proposes an ACO-used method for initializing reference vectors with an aim to achieve recognition accuracy higher than those obtained through conventional methods. Moreover, we will demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method by applying it to the wine data and English vowel data and comparing its results with those of conventional methods.

Keywords:
196
11603
A Comprehensive Analysis for Widespread use of Electric Vehicles
Abstract:
This paper mainly investigates the environmental and economic impacts of worldwide use of electric vehicles. It can be concluded that governments have good reason to promote the use of electric vehicles. First, the global vehicles population is evaluated with the help of grey forecasting model and the amount of oil saving is estimated through approximate calculation. After that, based on the game theory, the amount and types of electricity generation needed by electronic vehicles are established. Finally, some conclusions on the government-s attitudes are drawn.
195
15238
Stability and Bifurcation Analysis of a Discrete Gompertz Model with Time Delay
Authors:
Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a discrete Gompertz model with time delay. Firstly, the stability of the equilibrium of the system is investigated by analyzing the characteristic equation. By choosing the time delay as a bifurcation parameter, we prove that Neimark- Sacker bifurcations occur when the delay passes a sequence of critical values. The direction and stability of the Neimark-Sacker are determined by using normal forms and centre manifold theory. Finally, some numerical simulations are given to verify the theoretical analysis.

194
11718
Efficient Power-Delay Product Modulo 2n+1 Adder Design
Abstract:

As embedded and portable systems were emerged power consumption of circuits had been major challenge. On the other hand latency as determines frequency of circuits is also vital task. Therefore, trade off between both of them will be desirable. Modulo 2n+1 adders are important part of the residue number system (RNS) based arithmetic units with the interesting moduli set (2n-1,2n, 2n+1). In this manuscript we have introduced novel binary representation to the design of modulo 2n+1 adder. VLSI realization of proposed architecture under 180 nm full static CMOS technology reveals its superiority in terms of area, power consumption and power-delay product (PDP) against several peer existing structures.

193
5856
New PTH Moment Stable Criteria of Stochastic Neural Networks
Abstract:

In this paper, the issue of pth moment stability of a class of stochastic neural networks with mixed delays is investigated. By establishing two integro-differential inequalities, some new sufficient conditions ensuring pth moment exponential stability are obtained. Compared with some previous publications, our results generalize some earlier works reported in the literature, and remove some strict constraints of time delays and kernel functions. Two numerical examples are presented to illustrate the validity of the main results.

192
6709
Stability of a Special Class of Switched Positive Systems
Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the existence of a linear copositive Lyapunov function(LCLF) for a special class of switched positive linear systems(SPLSs) composed of continuousand discrete-time subsystems. Firstly, by using system matrices, we construct a special kind of matrices in appropriate manner. Secondly, our results reveal that the Hurwitz stability of these matrices is equivalent to the existence of a common LCLF for arbitrary finite sets composed of continuous- and discrete-time positive linear timeinvariant( LTI) systems. Finally, a simple example is provided to illustrate the implication of our results.

191
3904
On General Stability for Switched Positive Linear Systems with Bounded Time-varying Delays
Abstract:

This paper focuses on the problem of a common linear copositive Lyapunov function(CLCLF) existence for discrete-time switched positive linear systems(SPLSs) with bounded time-varying delays. In particular, applying system matrices, a special class of matrices are constructed in an appropriate manner. Our results reveal that the existence of a common copositive Lyapunov function can be related to the Schur stability of such matrices. A simple example is provided to illustrate the implication of our results.

190
4177
Some Results of Sign patterns Allowing Simultaneous Unitary Diagonalizability
Abstract:

Allowing diagonalizability of sign pattern is still an open problem. In this paper, we make a carefully discussion about allowing unitary diagonalizability of two sign pattern. Some sufficient and necessary conditions of allowing unitary diagonalizability are also obtained.

189
1092
Charaterisation of Salmonella Isolated from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) along Lake Victoria Beaches in Western Kenya
Abstract:
Foodborne Salmonella infections have become a major problem world wide. Salmonellosis transmitted from fish are quite common. Established quality control measures exist for export oriented fish, none exists for fish consumed locally. This study aimed at characterization of Salmonella isolated from Nile tilapia . The study was carried out in selected beaches along L. Victoria in Western Kenya between March and June 2007. One hundred and twenty fish specimens were collected. Salmonella isolates were confirmed using serotyping, biochemical testing in addition to malic acid dehydrogenase (mdh) and fliC gene sequencing. Twenty Salmonella isolates were confirmed by mdh gene sequencing. Nine (9) were S. enterica serotype typhimurium, four (4) were S. enterica Serotype, enteritidis and seven (7) were S. enterica serotype typhi. Nile tilapia have a role in transmission of Salmonellosis in the study area, poor sanitation was a major cause of pollution at the beach inshore waters.
188
11311
Effective Strategies for Teaching Cultural Competency to MSW Students in a Global Society
Abstract:
An ethical mandate of the social work profession in the United States is that BSW and MSW graduates are sufficiently prepared to both understand diverse cultural values and beliefs and offer services that are culturally sensitive and relevant to clients. This skill set is particularly important for social workers in the 21st Century, given the increasing globalization of the U.S. and world. The purpose of this paper is to outline a pedagogical model for teaching cultural competency that resulted in a significant increase in cultural competency for MSW graduates at Western Kentucky University (WKU). More specifically, this model is predicated on five specific culturally sensitive principles and activities that were found to be highly effective in conveying culturally relevant knowledge and skills to MSW students at WKU. Future studies can assess the effectiveness of these principles in other MSW programs across the U.S. and abroad.
187
2736
Analysis of Foaming Flow Instabilities for Dynamic Liquid Saturation in Trickle Bed Reactor
Abstract:
The effects of different parameters on the hydrodynamics of trickle bed reactors were discussed for Newtonian and non-Newtonian foaming systems. The varying parameters are varying liquid velocities, gas flow velocities and surface tension. The range for gas velocity is particularly large, thanks to the use of dense gas to simulate very high pressure conditions. This data bank has been used to compare the prediction accuracy of the different trendlines and transition points from the literature. More than 240 experimental points for the trickle flow (GCF) and foaming pulsing flow (PF/FPF) regime were obtained for present study. Hydrodynamic characteristics involving dynamic liquid saturation significantly influenced by gas and liquid flow rates. For 15 and 30 ppm air-aqueous surfactant solutions, dynamic liquid saturation decreases with higher liquid and gas flow rates considerably in high interaction regime. With decrease in surface tension i.e. for 45 and 60 ppm air-aqueous surfactant systems, effect was more pronounced with decreases dynamic liquid saturation very sharply during regime transition significantly at both low liquid and gas flow rates.
186
2094
Optimization of Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Avicennia marina (Forssk.)Vierh using Response Surface Methodology
Abstract:
Optimization of extraction of phenolic compounds from Avicennia marina using response surface methodology was carried out during the present study. Five levels, three factors rotatable design (CCRD) was utilized to examine the optimum combination of extraction variables based on the TPC of Avicennia marina leaves. The best combination of response function was 78.41 °C, drying temperature; 26.18°C; extraction temperature and 36.53 minutes of extraction time. However, the procedure can be promptly extended to the study of several others pharmaceutical processes like purification of bioactive substances, drying of extracts and development of the pharmaceutical dosage forms for the benefit of consumers.
185
1887
Pulsating Flow of an Incompressible Couple Stress Fluid Between Permeable Beds
Abstract:

The paper deals with the pulsating flow of an incompressible couple stress fluid between permeable beds. The couple stress fluid is injected into the channel from the lower permeable bed with a certain velocity and is sucked into the upper permeable bed with the same velocity. The flow between the permeable beds is assumed to be governed by couple stress fluid flow equations of V. K. Stokes and that in the permeable regions by Darcy-s law. The equations are solved analytically and the expressions for velocity and volume flux are obtained. The effects of the material parameters are studied numerically and the results are presented through graphs.

184
5164
Accurate Crosstalk Analysis for RLC On-Chip VLSI Interconnect
Abstract:

This work proposes an accurate crosstalk noise estimation method in the presence of multiple RLC lines for the use in design automation tools. This method correctly models the loading effects of non switching aggressors and aggressor tree branches using resistive shielding effect and realistic exponential input waveforms. Noise peak and width expressions have been derived. The results obtained are at good agreement with SPICE results. Results show that average error for noise peak is 4.7% and for the width is 6.15% while allowing a very fast analysis.

183
12986
Performance Analysis of a Discrete-time GeoX/G/1 Queue with Single Working Vacation
Abstract:

This paper treats a discrete-time batch arrival queue with single working vacation. The main purpose of this paper is to present a performance analysis of this system by using the supplementary variable technique. For this purpose, we first analyze the Markov chain underlying the queueing system and obtain its ergodicity condition. Next, we present the stationary distributions of the system length as well as some performance measures at random epochs by using the supplementary variable method. Thirdly, still based on the supplementary variable method we give the probability generating function (PGF) of the number of customers at the beginning of a busy period and give a stochastic decomposition formulae for the PGF of the stationary system length at the departure epochs. Additionally, we investigate the relation between our discretetime system and its continuous counterpart. Finally, some numerical examples show the influence of the parameters on some crucial performance characteristics of the system.

182
15281
Swarm Intelligence based Optimal Linear Phase FIR High Pass Filter Design using Particle Swarm Optimization with Constriction Factor and Inertia Weight Approach
Abstract:
In this paper, an optimal design of linear phase digital high pass finite impulse response (FIR) filter using Particle Swarm Optimization with Constriction Factor and Inertia Weight Approach (PSO-CFIWA) has been presented. In the design process, the filter length, pass band and stop band frequencies, feasible pass band and stop band ripple sizes are specified. FIR filter design is a multi-modal optimization problem. The conventional gradient based optimization techniques are not efficient for digital filter design. Given the filter specifications to be realized, the PSO-CFIWA algorithm generates a set of optimal filter coefficients and tries to meet the ideal frequency response characteristic. In this paper, for the given problem, the designs of the optimal FIR high pass filters of different orders have been performed. The simulation results have been compared to those obtained by the well accepted algorithms such as Parks and McClellan algorithm (PM), genetic algorithm (GA). The results justify that the proposed optimal filter design approach using PSOCFIWA outperforms PM and GA, not only in the accuracy of the designed filter but also in the convergence speed and solution quality.
181
13352
Dynamic Clustering Estimation of Tool Flank Wear in Turning Process using SVD Models of the Emitted Sound Signals
Abstract:
Monitoring the tool flank wear without affecting the throughput is considered as the prudent method in production technology. The examination has to be done without affecting the machining process. In this paper we proposed a novel work that is used to determine tool flank wear by observing the sound signals emitted during the turning process. The work-piece material we used here is steel and aluminum and the cutting insert was carbide material. Two different cutting speeds were used in this work. The feed rate and the cutting depth were constant whereas the flank wear was a variable. The emitted sound signal of a fresh tool (0 mm flank wear) a slightly worn tool (0.2 -0.25 mm flank wear) and a severely worn tool (0.4mm and above flank wear) during turning process were recorded separately using a high sensitive microphone. Analysis using Singular Value Decomposition was done on these sound signals to extract the feature sound components. Observation of the results showed that an increase in tool flank wear correlates with an increase in the values of SVD features produced out of the sound signals for both the materials. Hence it can be concluded that wear monitoring of tool flank during turning process using SVD features with the Fuzzy C means classification on the emitted sound signal is a potential and relatively simple method.
180
15416
Development and Usability Evaluation of Platform Independent Mobile Learning Tool(M-LT)
Abstract:
Mobile learning (M-learning) integrates mobile devices and wireless computing technology to enhance the current conventional learning system. However, there are constraints which are affecting the implementation of platform and device independent M-learning. The main aim of this research is to fulfill the following main objectives: to develop platform independent mobile learning tool (M-LT) for structured programming course, and evaluate its effectiveness and usability using ADDIE instructional design model (ISD) as M-LT life cycle. J2ME (Java 2 micro edition) and XML (Extensible Markup Language) were used to develop platform independent M-LT. It has two modules lecture materials and quizzes. This study used Quasi experimental design to measure effectiveness of the tool. Meanwhile, questionnaire is used to evaluate the usability of the tool. Finally, the results show that the system was effective and also usability evaluation was positive.
179
7325
Influence of Axial Magnetic Field on the Electrical Breakdown and Secondary Electron Emission in Plane-Parallel Plasma Discharge
Abstract:
The influence of axial magnetic field (B=0.48 T) on the variation of ionization efficiency coefficient h and secondary electron emission coefficient g with respect to reduced electric field E/P is studied at a new range of plane-parallel electrode spacing (0< d< 20 cm) and different nitrogen working pressure between 0.5-20 Pa. The axial magnetic field is produced from an inductive copper coil of radius 5.6 cm. The experimental data of breakdown voltage is adopted to estimate the mean Paschen curves at different working features. The secondary electron emission coefficient is calculated from the mean Paschen curve and used to determine the minimum breakdown voltage. A reduction of discharge voltage of about 25% is investigated by the applied of axial magnetic field. At high interelectrode spacing, the effect of axial magnetic field becomes more significant for the obtained values of h but it was less for the values of g.
178
1370
A Study on Intuitionistic Fuzzy h-ideal in Γ-Hemirings
Abstract:
The notions of intuitionistic fuzzy h-ideal and normal intuitionistic fuzzy h-ideal in Γ-hemiring are introduced and some of the basic properties of these ideals are investigated. Cartesian product of intuitionistic fuzzy h-ideals is also defined. Finally a characterization of intuitionistic fuzzy h-ideals in terms of fuzzy relations is obtained.
177
4725
Probabilistic Method of Wind Generation Placement for Congestion Management
Abstract:
Wind farms (WFs) with high level of penetration are being established in power systems worldwide more rapidly than other renewable resources. The Independent System Operator (ISO), as a policy maker, should propose appropriate places for WF installation in order to maximize the benefits for the investors. There is also a possibility of congestion relief using the new installation of WFs which should be taken into account by the ISO when proposing the locations for WF installation. In this context, efficient wind farm (WF) placement method is proposed in order to reduce burdens on congested lines. Since the wind speed is a random variable and load forecasts also contain uncertainties, probabilistic approaches are used for this type of study. AC probabilistic optimal power flow (P-OPF) is formulated and solved using Monte Carlo Simulations (MCS). In order to reduce computation time, point estimate methods (PEM) are introduced as efficient alternative for time-demanding MCS. Subsequently, WF optimal placement is determined using generation shift distribution factors (GSDF) considering a new parameter entitled, wind availability factor (WAF). In order to obtain more realistic results, N-1 contingency analysis is employed to find the optimal size of WF, by means of line outage distribution factors (LODF). The IEEE 30-bus test system is used to show and compare the accuracy of proposed methodology.
176
9183
Measuring the Level of Housing Defects in the Build-Then-Sell Housing Delivery System
Abstract:

When the Malaysian government announced the implementation of the Build-Then-Sell (BTS) system in 2007, the proponents of the BTS have argued that the implementation of this new system may provide houses with low defects. However, there has been no empirical data to support their argument. Therefore, this study is conducted to measure the level of housing defects in the BTS housing delivery system. A survey was conducted to the occupiers in six BTS residential areas. The BTS residential areas have been identified through the media and because of the small number of population, all households in the BTS residential areas were required to participate in the study to enable the researcher to collect the data concerning defects. Questionnaire had been employed as the data collection instrument and was distributed to the respondents of this study. The result has shown that the level of defects in the BTS houses is low, as the rate of defects for all elements are slight. Such low level of defects has apparently only affected the aesthetic value of the houses.

175
2109
Design of PID Controller for Higher Order Continuous Systems using MPSO based Model Formulation Technique
Abstract:

This paper proposes a new algebraic scheme to design a PID controller for higher order linear time invariant continuous systems. Modified PSO (MPSO) based model order formulation techniques have applied to obtain the effective formulated second order system. A controller is tuned to meet the desired performance specification by using pole-zero cancellation method. Proposed PID controller is attached with both higher order system and formulated second order system. The closed loop response is observed for stabilization process and compared with general PSO based formulated second order system. The proposed method is illustrated through numerical example from literature.

174
3627
Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide in a Monolithic Reactor
Abstract:
Solution for the complete removal of carbon monoxide from the exhaust gases still poses a challenge to the researchers and this problem is still under development. Modeling for reduction of carbon monoxide is carried out using heterogeneous reaction using low cost non-noble metal based catalysts for the purpose of controlling emissions released to the atmosphere. A simple one-dimensional model was developed for the monolith using hopcalite catalyst. The converter is assumed to be an adiabatic monolith operating under warm-up conditions. The effect of inlet gas temperatures and catalyst loading on carbon monoxide reduction during cold start period in the converter is analysed.
173
10426
Application of Pulse Doubling in Star-Connected Autotransformer Based 12-Pulse AC-DC Converter for Power Quality Improvement
Abstract:

This paper presents a pulse doubling technique in a 12-pulse ac-dc converter which supplies direct torque controlled motor drives (DTCIMD-s) in order to have better power quality conditions at the point of common coupling. The proposed technique increases the number of rectification pulses without significant changes in the installations and yields in harmonic reduction in both ac and dc sides. The 12-pulse rectified output voltage is accomplished via two paralleled six-pulse ac-dc converters each of them consisting of three-phase diode bridge rectifier. An autotransformer is designed to supply the rectifiers. The design procedure of magnetics is in a way such that makes it suitable for retrofit applications where a six-pulse diode bridge rectifier is being utilized. Independent operation of paralleled diode-bridge rectifiers, i.e. dc-ripple re-injection methodology, requires a Zero Sequence Blocking Transformer (ZSBT). Finally, a tapped interphase reactor is connected at the output of ZSBT to double the pulse numbers of output voltage up to 24 pulses. The aforementioned structure improves power quality criteria at ac mains and makes them consistent with the IEEE-519 standard requirements for varying loads. Furthermore, near unity power factor is obtained for a wide range of DTCIMD operation. A comparison is made between 6- pulse, 12-pulse, and proposed converters from view point of power quality indices. Results show that input current total harmonic distortion (THD) is less than 5% for the proposed topology at various loads.

172
6045
Design, Simulation and Experimental Realization of Nonlinear Controller for GSC of DFIG System
Abstract:
In a wind power generator using doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), the three-phase pulse width modulation (PWM) voltage source converter (VSC) is used as grid side converter (GSC) and rotor side converter (RSC). The standard linear control laws proposed for GSC provides not only instablity against comparatively large-signal disturbances, but also the problem of stability due to uncertainty of load and variations in parameters. In this paper, a nonlinear controller is designed for grid side converter (GSC) of a DFIG for wind power application. The nonlinear controller is designed based on the input-output feedback linearization control method. The resulting closed-loop system ensures a sufficient stability region, make robust to variations in circuit parameters and also exhibits good transient response. Computer simulations and experimental results are presented to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
171
2598
AC Signals Estimation from Irregular Samples
Abstract:

The paper deals with the estimation of amplitude and phase of an analogue multi-harmonic band-limited signal from irregularly spaced sampling values. To this end, assuming the signal fundamental frequency is known in advance (i.e., estimated at an independent stage), a complexity-reduced algorithm for signal reconstruction in time domain is proposed. The reduction in complexity is achieved owing to completely new analytical and summarized expressions that enable a quick estimation at a low numerical error. The proposed algorithm for the calculation of the unknown parameters requires O((2M+1)2) flops, while the straightforward solution of the obtained equations takes O((2M+1)3) flops (M is the number of the harmonic components). It is applied in signal reconstruction, spectral estimation, system identification, as well as in other important signal processing problems. The proposed method of processing can be used for precise RMS measurements (for power and energy) of a periodic signal based on the presented signal reconstruction. The paper investigates the errors related to the signal parameter estimation, and there is a computer simulation that demonstrates the accuracy of these algorithms.

170
13277
Treatment of Paper and Pulp Mill Effluent by Coagulation
Abstract:
The pulp and paper mill effluent is one of the high polluting effluent amongst the effluents obtained from polluting industries. All the available methods for treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent have certain drawbacks. The coagulation is one of the cheapest process for treatment of various organic effluents. Thus, the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour of paper mill effluent is studied using coagulation process. The batch coagulation process was performed using various coagulants like: aluminium chloride, poly aluminium chloride and copper sulphate. The initial pH of the effluent (Coagulation pH) has tremendous effect on COD and colour removal. Poly aluminium chloride (PAC) as coagulant reduced COD to 84 % and 92 % of colour was removed at an optimum pH 5 and coagulant dose of 8 ml l-1. With aluminium chloride at an optimum pH = 4 and coagulant dose of 5 g l-1, 74 % COD and 86 % colour removal were observed. The results using copper sulphate as coagulant (a less commercial coagulant) were encouraging. At an optimum pH 6 and mass loading of 5 g l-1, 76 % COD reduction and 78 % colour reduction were obtained. It was also observed that after addition of coagulant, the pH of the effluent decreases. The decrease in pH was highest for AlCl3, which was followed by PAC and CuSO4. Significant amount of COD reductions was obtained by coagulation process. Since the coagulation process is the first stage for treatment of effluent and some of the coagulant cations usually remain in the treated effluents. Thus, cation like copper may be one of the good catalyst for second stage of treatment process like wet oxidation. The copper has been found to be good oxidation catalyst then iron and aluminum.
169
13847
Evaluation of the Microbiological, Chemical and Sensory Quality of Carp Processed by the Sous Vide Method
Abstract:
This study evaluated the microbiological quality and the sensory characteristics of carp fillets processed by the sousvide method when stored at 2 and 10 °C. Four different combinations of sauced–storage were studied then stored at 2 or 10 °C was evaluate periodically sensory, microbiological and chemical quality. Batches stored at 2 °C had lower growth rates of mesophiles and psychrotrophs. Moreover, these counts decreased by increasing the heating temperature and time. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens and Listeria monocytogenes were not found in any of the samples. The heat treatment of 90 °C for 15 min and sauced was the most effective to ensure the safety and extend the shelf-life of sousvide carp preserving its sensory characteristics. This study establishes the microbiological quality of sous vide carp and emphasizes the relevance of the raw materials, heat treatment and storage temperature to ensure the safety of the product.
168
6361
Speckle Reducing Contourlet Transform for Medical Ultrasound Images
Abstract:
Speckle noise affects all coherent imaging systems including medical ultrasound. In medical images, noise suppression is a particularly delicate and difficult task. A tradeoff between noise reduction and the preservation of actual image features has to be made in a way that enhances the diagnostically relevant image content. Even though wavelets have been extensively used for denoising speckle images, we have found that denoising using contourlets gives much better performance in terms of SNR, PSNR, MSE, variance and correlation coefficient. The objective of the paper is to determine the number of levels of Laplacian pyramidal decomposition, the number of directional decompositions to perform on each pyramidal level and thresholding schemes which yields optimal despeckling of medical ultrasound images, in particular. The proposed method consists of the log transformed original ultrasound image being subjected to contourlet transform, to obtain contourlet coefficients. The transformed image is denoised by applying thresholding techniques on individual band pass sub bands using a Bayes shrinkage rule. We quantify the achieved performance improvement.
167
3403
Design of a Non-linear Observer for VSI Fed Synchronous Motor
Abstract:
This paper discusses two observers, which are used for the estimation of parameters of PMSM. Former one, reduced order observer, which is used to estimate the inaccessible parameters of PMSM. Later one, full order observer, which is used to estimate all the parameters of PMSM even though some of the parameters are directly available for measurement, so as to meet with the insensitivity to the parameter variation. However, the state space model contains some nonlinear terms i.e. the product of different state variables. The asymptotic state observer, which approximately reconstructs the state vector for linear systems without uncertainties, was presented by Luenberger. In this work, a modified form of such an observer is used by including a non-linear term involving the speed. So, both the observers are designed in the framework of nonlinear control; their stability and rate of convergence is discussed.
166
3418
The Study of Increasing Environmental Temperature on the Dynamical Behaviour of a Prey-Predator System: A Model
Abstract:
It is well recognized that the green house gases such as Chlorofluoro Carbon (CFC), CH4, CO2 etc. are responsible directly or indirectly for the increase in the average global temperature of the Earth. The presence of CFC is responsible for the depletion of ozone concentration in the atmosphere due to which the heat accompanied with the sun rays are less absorbed causing increase in the atmospheric temperature of the Earth. The gases like CH4 and CO2 are also responsible for the increase in the atmospheric temperature. The increase in the temperature level directly or indirectly affects the dynamics of interacting species systems. Therefore, in this paper a mathematical model is proposed and analysed using stability theory to asses the effects of increasing temperature due to greenhouse gases on the survival or extinction of populations in a prey-predator system. A threshold value in terms of a stress parameter is obtained which determines the extinction or existence of populations in the underlying system.
165
15901
The Relationship between Students- Socio-Economic Backgrounds and Student Residential Satisfaction
Abstract:
Debates on residential satisfaction topic have been vigorously discussed in family house setting. Nonetheless, less or lack of attention was given to survey on student residential satisfaction in the campus house setting. This study, however, tried to fill in the gap by focusing more on the relationship between students- socio-economic backgrounds and student residential satisfaction with their on-campus student housing facilities. Two-stage cluster sampling method was employed to classify the respondents. Then, self-administered questionnaires were distributed face-to-face to the students. In general, it was confirmed that the students- socioeconomic backgrounds have significantly influence the students- satisfaction with their on-campus student housing facilities. The main influential factors were revealed as the economic status, sense of sharing, and the ethnicity of roommates. Likewise, this study could also provide some useful feedback for the universities administration in order to improve their student housing facilities.
164
6678
A New Objective Weight on Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets
Abstract:
The design of weight is one of the important parts in fuzzy decision making, as it would have a deep effect on the evaluation results. Entropy is one of the weight measure based on objective evaluation. Non--probabilistic-type entropy measures for fuzzy set and interval type-2 fuzzy sets (IT2FS) have been developed and applied to weight measure. Since the entropy for (IT2FS) for decision making yet to be explored, this paper proposes a new objective weight method by using entropy weight method for multiple attribute decision making (MADM). This paper utilizes the nature of IT2FS concept in the evaluation process to assess the attribute weight based on the credibility of data. An example was presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the new method in decision making. The entropy measure of interval type-2 fuzzy sets yield flexible judgment and could be applied in decision making environment.
163
6101
An Optimal Control of Water Pollution in a Stream Using a Finite Difference Method
Abstract:
Water pollution assessment problems arise frequently in environmental science. In this research, a finite difference method for solving the one-dimensional steady convection-diffusion equation with variable coefficients is proposed; it is then used to optimize water treatment costs.
162
4233
A Fast Cyclic Reduction Algorithm for A Quadratic Matrix Equation Arising from Overdamped Systems
Authors:
Abstract:
We are concerned with a class of quadratic matrix equations arising from the overdamped mass-spring system. By exploring the structure of coefficient matrices, we propose a fast cyclic reduction algorithm to calculate the extreme solutions of the equation. Numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the original cyclic reduction and the structure-preserving doubling algorithm.
161
7640
Experimental and Theoretical Investigation on Notched Specimens Life Under Bending Loading
Abstract:
In this work, bending fatigue life of notched specimens with various notch geometries and dimensions is investigated by experiment and Manson-Caffin theoretical method. In this theoretical method, fatigue life of notched specimens is calculated using the fatigue life obtained from the experiments for plain specimens (without notch). Three notch geometries including ∪-shape, ∨-shape and C -shape notches are considered in this investigation. The experiments are conducted on a rotary bending Moore machine. The specimens are made of a low carbon steel alloy, which has wide application in industry. The stress- life curves are captured for all notched specimen by experiment. The results indicate that Manson-Caffin analytical method cannot adequately predict the fatigue life of notched specimen. However, it seems that the difference between the experiments and Manson-Caffin predictions can be compensated by a proportional factor.
160
2309
Adsorption of Copper by using Microwave Incinerated Rice Husk Ash (MIRHA)
Abstract:
Many non-conventional adsorbent have been studied as economic alternative to commercial activated carbon and mostly agricultural waste have been introduced such as rubber leaf powder and hazelnut shell. Microwave Incinerated Rice Husk Ash (MIRHA), produced from the rice husk is one of the low-cost materials that were used as adsorbent of heavy metal. The aim of this research was to study the feasibility of using MIRHA500 and MIRHA800 as adsorbent for the removal of Cu(II) metal ions from aqueous solutions by the batch studies. The adsorption of Cu(II) into MIRHA500 and MIRH800 favors Fruendlich isotherm and imply pseudo – kinetic second order which applied chemisorptions
159
12190
Doping Profile Measurement and Characterization by Scanning Capacitance Microscope for PocketImplanted Nano Scale n-MOSFET
Abstract:
This paper presents the doping profile measurement and characterization technique for the pocket implanted nano scale n-MOSFET. Scanning capacitance microscopy and atomic force microscopy have been used to image the extent of lateral dopant diffusion in MOS structures. The data are capacitance vs. voltage measurements made on a nano scale device. The technique is nondestructive when imaging uncleaved samples. Experimental data from the published literature are presented here on actual, cleaved device structures which clearly indicate the two-dimensional dopant profile in terms of a spatially varying modulated capacitance signal. Firstorder deconvolution indicates the technique has much promise for the quantitative characterization of lateral dopant profiles. The pocket profile is modeled assuming the linear pocket profiles at the source and drain edges. From the model, the effective doping concentration is found to use in modeling and simulation results of the various parameters of the pocket implanted nano scale n-MOSFET. The potential of the technique to characterize important device related phenomena on a local scale is also discussed.
158
1163
Effect of Turbulence Models on Simulated Iced Aircraft Airfoil
Abstract:
The present work describes a computational study of aerodynamic characteristics of GLC305 airfoil clean and with 16.7 min ice shape (rime 212) and 22.5 min ice shape (glaze 944).The performance of turbulence models SA, Kε, Kω Std, and Kω SST model are observed against experimental flow fields at different Mach numbers 0.12, 0.21, 0.28 in a range of Reynolds numbers 3x106, 6x106, and 10.5x106 on clean and iced aircraft airfoil GLC305. Numerical predictions include lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients at different Mach numbers and at different angle of attacks were done. Accuracy of solutions with respect to the effects of turbulence models, variation of Mach number, initial conditions, grid resolution and grid spacing near the wall made the study much sensitive. Navier Stokes equation based computational technique is used. Results are very close to the experimental results. It has seen that SA and SST models are more efficient than Kε and Kω standard in under study problem.
157
633
Tracking Objects in Color Image Sequences: Application to Football Images
Abstract:

In this paper, we present a comparative study between two computer vision systems for objects recognition and tracking, these algorithms describe two different approach based on regions constituted by a set of pixels which parameterized objects in shot sequences. For the image segmentation and objects detection, the FCM technique is used, the overlapping between cluster's distribution is minimized by the use of suitable color space (other that the RGB one). The first technique takes into account a priori probabilities governing the computation of various clusters to track objects. A Parzen kernel method is described and allows identifying the players in each frame, we also show the importance of standard deviation value research of the Gaussian probability density function. Region matching is carried out by an algorithm that operates on the Mahalanobis distance between region descriptors in two subsequent frames and uses singular value decomposition to compute a set of correspondences satisfying both the principle of proximity and the principle of exclusion.

156
10684
Modernization, Malay Matrimonial Foodways and the Community Social Bonding
Abstract:
Solidarity and kinship has long been an intangible emblem to Malay community especially in the rural area. It is visibly seen through the dependability among each unit of the community either in religious and social events including the matrimonial or wedding. Nevertheless, the inevitable phenomenon, modernization legitimately alters every facets of human life not only the routines, traditions, rituals, norms but also to the daily activities and the specific occasion. Using triangulation approach of interview and self completed questionnaire this study empirically examine the level of alteration of Malays wedding foodways which relate to the preparation and consumption of it and its impact on the community social bonding. Some meaningful insights were obtained whereby modernization through technology (modern equipments) and social factors (education, migration, and high disposal income) significantly contribute to the alteration of wedding foodways from preparation up to consumption stages. The domino effect of this alteration consequently leads to the fragility of social kinship or somehow reduced cohesiveness and interaction among the individual of Malay society in the rural area.
155
14034
The Concept of Place and Sense of Place In Architectural Studies
Abstract:
Place is a where dimension formed by people-s relationship with physical settings, individual and group activities, and meanings. 'Place Attachment', 'Place Identity'and 'Sense of Place' are some concepts that could describe the quality of people-s relationships with a place. The concept of Sense of place is used in studying human-place bonding, attachment and place meaning. Sense of Place usually is defined as an overarching impression encompassing the general ways in which people feel about places, senses it, and assign concepts and values to it. Sense of place is highlighted in this article as one of the prevailing concepts among place-based researches. Considering dimensions of sense of place has always been beneficial for investigating public place attachment and pro-environmental attitudes towards these places. The creation or preservation of Sense of place is important in maintaining the quality of the environment as well as the integrity of human life within it. While many scholars argued that sense of place is a vague concept, this paper will summarize and analyze the existing seminal literature. Therefore, in this paper first the concept of Sense of place and its characteristics will be examined afterward the scales of Sense of place will be reviewed and the factors that contribute to form Sense of place will be evaluated and finally Place Attachment as an objective dimension for measuring the sense of place will be described.
154
3998
Paradigms Shift in Sport Sciences: Body's focus
Abstract:

Sports Sciences has been historically supported by the positivism idea of science, especially by the mechanistic/reductionist and becomes a field that views experimentation and measurement as the mayor research domains. The disposition to simplify nature and the world by parts has fragmented and reduced the idea of bodyathletes as machine. In this paper we intent to re-think this perception lined by Complexity Theory. We come with the idea of athletes as a reflexive and active being (corporeity-body). Therefore, the construction of a training that considers the cultural, biological, psychological elements regarding the experience of the human corporal movements in a circumspect and responsible way could bring better chances of accomplishment. In the end, we hope to help coaches understand the intrinsic complexity of the body they are training, how better deal with it, and, in the field of a deep globalization among the different types of knowledge, to respect and accepted the peculiarities of knowledge that comprise this area.

153
4298
Septic B-spline Collocation Method for Solving One-dimensional Hyperbolic Telegraph Equation
Abstract:

Recently, it is found that telegraph equation is more suitable than ordinary diffusion equation in modelling reaction diffusion for such branches of sciences. In this paper, a numerical solution for the one-dimensional hyperbolic telegraph equation by using the collocation method using the septic splines is proposed. The scheme works in a similar fashion as finite difference methods. Test problems are used to validate our scheme by calculate L2-norm and L∞-norm. The accuracy of the presented method is demonstrated by two test problems. The numerical results are found to be in good agreement with the exact solutions.

152
1874
Determination of Critical Source Areas for Sediment Loss: Sarrath River Basin, Tunisia
Authors:
Abstract:
The risk of water erosion is one of the main environmental concerns in the southern Mediterranean regions. Thus, quantification of soil loss is an important issue for soil and water conservation managers. The objective of this paper is to examine the applicability of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model in The Sarrath river catchment, North of Tunisia, and to identify the most vulnerable areas in order to help manager implement an effective management program. The spatial analysis of the results shows that 7 % of the catchment experiences very high erosion risk, in need for suitable conservation measures to be adopted on a priority basis. The spatial distribution of erosion risk classes estimated 3% high, 5,4% tolerable, and 84,6% low. Among the 27 delineated subcatchments only 4 sub-catchments are found to be under high and very high soil loss group, two sub-catchments fell under moderate soil loss group, whereas other sub-catchments are under low soil loss group.
151
4435
Transient Energy and its Impact on Transmission Line Faults
Abstract:

Transmission and distribution lines are vital links between the generating unit and consumers. They are exposed to atmosphere, hence chances of occurrence of fault in transmission line is very high which has to be immediately taken care of in order to minimize damage caused by it. In this paper Discrete wavelet transform of voltage signals at the two ends of transmission lines have been analyzed. The transient energy of the detail information of level five is calculated for different fault conditions. It is observed that the variation of transient energy of healthy and faulted line can give important information which can be very useful in classifying and locating the fault.

150
8811
Bidirectional Chaotic Synchronization of Non-Autonomous Circuit and its Application for Secure Communication
Abstract:
The nonlinear chaotic non-autonomous fourth order system is algebraically simple but can generate complex chaotic attractors. In this paper, non-autonomous fourth order chaotic oscillator circuits were designed and simulated. Also chaotic nonautonomous Attractor is addressed suitable for chaotic masking communication circuits using Matlab® and MultiSIM® programs. We have demonstrated in simulations that chaos can be synchronized and applied to signal masking communications. We suggest that this phenomenon of chaos synchronism may serve as the basis for little known chaotic non-autonomous Attractor to achieve signal masking communication applications. Simulation results are used to visualize and illustrate the effectiveness of non-autonomous chaotic system in signal masking. All simulations results performed on nonautonomous chaotic system are verify the applicable of secure communication.
149
494
Person Identification using Gait by Combined Features of Width and Shape of the Binary Silhouette
Abstract:
Current image-based individual human recognition methods, such as fingerprints, face, or iris biometric modalities generally require a cooperative subject, views from certain aspects, and physical contact or close proximity. These methods cannot reliably recognize non-cooperating individuals at a distance in the real world under changing environmental conditions. Gait, which concerns recognizing individuals by the way they walk, is a relatively new biometric without these disadvantages. The inherent gait characteristic of an individual makes it irreplaceable and useful in visual surveillance. In this paper, an efficient gait recognition system for human identification by extracting two features namely width vector of the binary silhouette and the MPEG-7-based region-based shape descriptors is proposed. In the proposed method, foreground objects i.e., human and other moving objects are extracted by estimating background information by a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and subsequently, median filtering operation is performed for removing noises in the background subtracted image. A moving target classification algorithm is used to separate human being (i.e., pedestrian) from other foreground objects (viz., vehicles). Shape and boundary information is used in the moving target classification algorithm. Subsequently, width vector of the outer contour of binary silhouette and the MPEG-7 Angular Radial Transform coefficients are taken as the feature vector. Next, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is applied to the selected feature vector to reduce its dimensionality. These extracted feature vectors are used to train an Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for identification of some individuals. The proposed system is evaluated using some gait sequences and the experimental results show the efficacy of the proposed algorithm.
148
31
Experimental Design and Performance Analysis in Plasma Arc Surface Hardening
Abstract:
In this paper, the experimental design of using the Taguchi method is employed to optimize the processing parameters in the plasma arc surface hardening process. The processing parameters evaluated are arc current, scanning velocity and carbon content of steel. In addition, other significant effects such as the relation between processing parameters are also investigated. An orthogonal array, signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are employed to investigate the effects of these processing parameters. Through this study, not only the hardened depth increased and surface roughness improved, but also the parameters that significantly affect the hardening performance are identified. Experimental results are provided to verify the effectiveness of this approach.
147
2707
Mathematical Modeling of Surface Roughness in Surface Grinding Operation
Abstract:
A mathematical model of the surface roughness has been developed by using response surface methodology (RSM) in grinding of AISI D2 cold work tool steels. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to check the validity of the model. Low and high value for work speed and feed rate are decided from design of experiment. The influences of all machining parameters on surface roughness have been analyzed based on the developed mathematical model. The developed prediction equation shows that both the feed rate and work speed are the most important factor that influences the surface roughness. The surface roughness was found to be the lowers with the used of low feed rate and low work speed. Accuracy of the best model was proved with the testing data.
146
15964
Transmission Expansion Planning Considering Network Adequacy and Investment Cost Limitation using Genetic Algorithm
Abstract:

In this research, STNEP is being studied considering network adequacy and limitation of investment cost by decimal codification genetic algorithm (DCGA). The goal is obtaining the maximum of network adequacy with lowest expansion cost for a specific investment. Finally, the proposed idea is applied to the Garvers 6-bus network. The results show that considering the network adequacy for solution of STNEP problem is caused that among of expansion plans for a determined investment, configuration which has relatively lower expansion cost and higher adequacy is proposed by GA based method. Finally, with respect to the curve of adequacy versus expansion cost it can be said that more optimal configurations for expansion of network are obtained with lower investment costs.

145
12280
Babbitt Casting and Babbitt Spraying Processes Case Study
Abstract:

In this paper, the babbitting of a bearing in boiler feed pump of an electromotor has been studied. These bearings have an important role in reducing the shut down times in the pumps, compressors and turbines. The most conventional method in babbitting is casting as a melting method. The comparison between thermal spray and casting methods in babbitting shows that the thermal spraying babbitt layer has better performance and tribological behavior. The metallurgical and tribological analysis such as SEM, EDS and wet chemical analysis has been made in the Babbitt alloys and worn surfaces. Two type of babbitt materials: tinbase and lead-base babbitt was used. The benefits of thermally sprayed babbitt layers are completely clear especially in large bearings.

144
14225
Hourly Electricity Load Forecasting: An Empirical Application to the Italian Railways
Authors:
Abstract:

Due to the liberalization of countless electricity markets, load forecasting has become crucial to all public utilities for which electricity is a strategic variable. With the goal of contributing to the forecasting process inside public utilities, this paper addresses the issue of applying the Holt-Winters exponential smoothing technique and the time series analysis for forecasting the hourly electricity load curve of the Italian railways. The results of the analysis confirm the accuracy of the two models and therefore the relevance of forecasting inside public utilities.

143
1342
Image Transmission in Low-Power Networks in Mobile Communications Channel
Abstract:
This paper studies a vital issue in wireless communications, which is the transmission of images over Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) through the Bluetooth network. It presents a simple method to improve the efficiency of error control code of old Bluetooth versions over mobile WPANs through Interleaved Error Control Code (IECC) technique. The encoded packets are interleaved by simple block interleaver. Also, the paper presents a chaotic interleaving scheme as a tool against bursts of errors which depends on the chaotic Baker map. Also, the paper proposes using the chaotic interleaver instead of traditional block interleaver with Forward Error Control (FEC) scheme. A comparison study between the proposed and standard techniques for image transmission over a correlated fading channel is presented. Simulation results reveal the superiority of the proposed chaotic interleaving scheme to other schemes. Also, the superiority of FEC with proposed chaotic interleaver to the conventional interleavers with enhancing the security level with chaotic interleaving packetby- packet basis.
142
11340
Ozone Decomposition over Silver-Loaded Perlite
Abstract:

The Bulgarian natural expanded mineral obtained from Bentonite AD perlite (A deposit of "The Broken Mountain" for perlite mining, near by the village of Vodenicharsko, in the municipality of Djebel), was loaded with silver (as ion form - Ag+ 2 and 5 wt% by the incipient wetness impregnation method), and as atomic silver - Ag0 using Tollen-s reagent (silver mirror reaction). Some physicochemical characterization of the samples are provided via: DC arc-AES, XRD, DR-IR and UV-VIS. The aim of this work was to obtain and test the silver-loaded catalyst for ozone decomposition. So the samples loaded with atomic silver show ca. 80% conversion of ozone 20 minutes after the reaction start. Then conversion decreases to ca. 20 % but stay stable during the prolongation of time.

141
2817
Rational Chebyshev Tau Method for Solving Natural Convection of Darcian Fluid About a Vertical Full Cone Embedded in Porous Media Whit a Prescribed Wall Temperature
Abstract:

The problem of natural convection about a cone embedded in a porous medium at local Rayleigh numbers based on the boundary layer approximation and the Darcy-s law have been studied before. Similarity solutions for a full cone with the prescribed wall temperature or surface heat flux boundary conditions which is the power function of distance from the vertex of the inverted cone give us a third-order nonlinear differential equation. In this paper, an approximate method for solving higher-order ordinary differential equations is proposed. The approach is based on a rational Chebyshev Tau (RCT) method. The operational matrices of the derivative and product of rational Chebyshev (RC) functions are presented. These matrices together with the Tau method are utilized to reduce the solution of the higher-order ordinary differential equations to the solution of a system of algebraic equations. We also present the comparison of this work with others and show that the present method is applicable.

140
4423
Pontrjagin Duality and Codes over Finite Commutative Rings
Abstract:
We present linear codes over finite commutative rings which are not necessarily Frobenius. We treat the notion of syndrome decoding by using Pontrjagin duality. We also give a version of Delsarte-s theorem over rings relating trace codes and subring subcodes.
139
2835
Generalized Measures of Fuzzy Entropy and their Properties
Abstract:
In the present communication, we have proposed some new generalized measure of fuzzy entropy based upon real parameters, discussed their and desirable properties, and presented these measures graphically. An important property, that is, monotonicity of the proposed measures has also been studied.
138
1233
A Novel Methodology Proposed for Optimizing the Degree of Hybridization in Parallel HEVs using Genetic Algorithm
Abstract:
In this paper, a new Genetic Algorithm (GA) based methodology is proposed to optimize the Degree of Hybridization (DOH) in a passenger parallel hybrid car. At first step, target parameters for the vehicle are decided and then using ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR) software, the variation pattern of these target parameters, across the different DOHs, is extracted. At the next step, a suitable cost function is defined and is optimized using GA. In this paper, also a new technique has been proposed for deciding the number of battery modules for each DOH, which leads to a great improvement in the vehicle performance. The proposed methodology is so simple, fast and at the same time, so efficient.
137
3175
Comparison of different Channel Modeling Techniques used in the BPLC Systems
Abstract:
The paper compares different channel models used for modeling Broadband Power-Line Communication (BPLC) system. The models compared are Zimmermann and Dostert, Philipps, Anatory et al and Anatory et al generalized Transmission Line (TL) model. The validity of each model was compared in time domain with ATP-EMTP software which uses transmission line approach. It is found that for a power-line network with minimum number of branches all the models give similar signal/pulse time responses compared with ATP-EMTP software; however, Zimmermann and Dostert model indicates the same amplitude but different time delay. It is observed that when the numbers of branches are increased only generalized TL theory approach results are comparable with ATPEMTP results. Also the Multi-Carrier Spread Spectrum (MC-SS) system was applied to check the implication of such behavior on the modulation schemes. It is observed that using Philipps on the underground cable can predict the performance up to 25dB better than other channel models which can misread the actual performance of the system. Also modified Zimmermann and Dostert under multipath can predict a better performance of about 5dB better than the actual predicted by Generalized TL theory. It is therefore suggested for a realistic BPLC system design and analyses the model based on generalized TL theory be used.
136
6875
Used Frying Oil for Biodiesel Production Over Kaolinite as Catalyst
Abstract:
Biodiesel production with used frying by transesterification reaction with methanol, using a commercial kaolinite thermally-activated solid acid catalyst was investigated. The surface area, the average pore diameter and pore volume of the kaolinite catalyst were 10 m2/g, 13.0 nm and 30 mm3/g, respectively. The optimal conditions for the transesterification reaction were determined to be oil/methanol, in a molar ratio 1:31, temperature 160 ºC and catalyst concentration of 3% (w/w). The yield of fatty acids methyl esters (FAME) was 92.4% after 2 h of reaction. This method of preparation of biodiesel can be a positive alternative for utilizing used frying corn oil for feedstock of biodiesel combined with the inexpensive catalyst.
135
6742
The Loess Regression Relationship Between Age and BMI for both Sydney World Masters Games Athletes and the Australian National Population
Abstract:
Thousands of masters athletes participate quadrennially in the World Masters Games (WMG), yet this cohort of athletes remains proportionately under-investigated. Due to a growing global obesity pandemic in context of benefits of physical activity across the lifespan, the BMI trends for this unique population was of particular interest. The nexus between health, physical activity and aging is complex and has raised much interest in recent times due to the realization that a multifaceted approach is necessary in order to counteract the obesity pandemic. By investigating age based trends within a population adhering to competitive sport at older ages, further insight might be gleaned to assist in understanding one of many factors influencing this relationship.BMI was derived using data gathered on a total of 6,071 masters athletes (51.9% male, 48.1% female) aged 25 to 91 years ( =51.5, s =±9.7), competing at the Sydney World Masters Games (2009). Using linear and loess regression it was demonstrated that the usual tendency for prevalence of higher BMI increasing with age was reversed in the sample. This trend in reversal was repeated for both male and female only sub-sets of the sample participants, indicating the possibility of improved prevalence of BMI with increasing age for both the sample as a whole and these individual sub-groups.This evidence of improved classification in one index of health (reduced BMI) for masters athletes (when compared to the general population) implies there are either improved levels of this index of health with aging due to adherence to sport or possibly the reduced BMI is advantageous and contributes to this cohort adhering (or being attracted) to masters sport at older ages.
134
12119
A Novel Modified Adaptive Fuzzy Inference Engine and Its Application to Pattern Classification
Abstract:
The Neuro-Fuzzy hybridization scheme has become of research interest in pattern classification over the past decade. The present paper proposes a novel Modified Adaptive Fuzzy Inference Engine (MAFIE) for pattern classification. A modified Apriori algorithm technique is utilized to reduce a minimal set of decision rules based on input output data sets. A TSK type fuzzy inference system is constructed by the automatic generation of membership functions and rules by the fuzzy c-means clustering and Apriori algorithm technique, respectively. The generated adaptive fuzzy inference engine is adjusted by the least-squares fit and a conjugate gradient descent algorithm towards better performance with a minimal set of rules. The proposed MAFIE is able to reduce the number of rules which increases exponentially when more input variables are involved. The performance of the proposed MAFIE is compared with other existing applications of pattern classification schemes using Fisher-s Iris and Wisconsin breast cancer data sets and shown to be very competitive.
133
8914
Phylogenetic Inference from 18S rRNA Gene Sequences of Horseshoe Crabs, Tachypleus gigas between Tanjung Dawai, Kedah and Cherating, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia
Abstract:
The phylogenetic analysis using the most conservative portions of 18S rRNA gene revealed the phylogenetic relationship among the two populations where DNA divergence showed that the nucleotides diversity value were -0.00838 for the Tanjung Dawai, Kedah and -0.00708 for the Cherating, Pahang populations respectively. The net nucleotide divergence among populations (Da) was -0.0073 indicating a low polymorphism among the populations studied. Total number of mutations in the Tanjung Dawai, Kedah samples was higher than Cherating, Pahang samples, which are 73 and 59 respectively while shared mutations across the populations were 8, and reveal the evolutionary in the genome of Malaysian T. gigas. The tree topology of both populations inferred using Neigbour-joining method by comparing 1791 bp of partial 18S rRNA sequence revealed that T. gigas haplotypes were clustered into seven clades, suggesting that they are genetically diverse among populations which derived from a common ancestor.
132
11642
An Approach of Quantum Steganography through Special SSCE Code
Abstract:
Encrypted messages sending frequently draws the attention of third parties, perhaps causing attempts to break and reveal the original messages. Steganography is introduced to hide the existence of the communication by concealing a secret message in an appropriate carrier like text, image, audio or video. Quantum steganography where the sender (Alice) embeds her steganographic information into the cover and sends it to the receiver (Bob) over a communication channel. Alice and Bob share an algorithm and hide quantum information in the cover. An eavesdropper (Eve) without access to the algorithm can-t find out the existence of the quantum message. In this paper, a text quantum steganography technique based on the use of indefinite articles (a) or (an) in conjunction with the nonspecific or non-particular nouns in English language and quantum gate truth table have been proposed. The authors also introduced a new code representation technique (SSCE - Secret Steganography Code for Embedding) at both ends in order to achieve high level of security. Before the embedding operation each character of the secret message has been converted to SSCE Value and then embeds to cover text. Finally stego text is formed and transmits to the receiver side. At the receiver side different reverse operation has been carried out to get back the original information.
131
11481
Low Voltage High Gain Linear Class AB CMOS OTA with DC Level Input Stage
Abstract:

This paper presents a low-voltage low-power differential linear transconductor with near rail-to-rail input swing. Based on the current-mirror OTA topology, the proposed transconductor combines the Flipped Voltage Follower (FVF) technique to linearize the transconductor behavior that leads to class- AB linear operation and the virtual transistor technique to lower the effective threshold voltages of the transistors which offers an advantage in terms of low supply requirement. Design of the OTA has been discussed. It operates at supply voltages of about ±0.8V. Simulation results for 0.18μm TSMC CMOS technology show a good input range of 1Vpp with a high DC gain of 81.53dB and a total harmonic distortion of -40dB at 1MHz for an input of 1Vpp. The main aim of this paper is to present and compare new OTA design with high transconductance, which has a potential to be used in low voltage applications.

130
11226
A Robust Redundant Residue Representation in Residue Number System with Moduli Set(rn-2,rn-1,rn)
Abstract:
The residue number system (RNS), due to its properties, is used in applications in which high performance computation is needed. The carry free nature, which makes the arithmetic, carry bounded as well as the paralleling facility is the reason of its capability of high speed rendering. Since carry is not propagated between the moduli in this system, the performance is only restricted by the speed of the operations in each modulus. In this paper a novel method of number representation by use of redundancy is suggested in which {rn- 2,rn-1,rn} is the reference moduli set where r=2k+1 and k =1, 2,3,.. This method achieves fast computations and conversions and makes the circuits of them much simpler.
129
10425
Sensorless Sliding Power Control of Doubly Fed Induction Wind Generator Based on MRAS Observer
Abstract:

In this paper present a sensorless maximum wind power extraction for variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) wind power generation systems with a doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG), to ensure stability and to impose the ideal feedback control solution despite of model uncertainties , using the principles of an active and reactive power controller (DPC) a robust sliding mode power control has been proposed to guarantees fast response times and precise control actions for control the active and reactive power independently. The simulation results in MATLAB/Simulink platform confirmed the good dynamic performance of power control approach for DFIGbased variable speed wind turbines.

128
15007
Integrating Fast Karnough Map and Modular Neural Networks for Simplification and Realization of Complex Boolean Functions
Abstract:
In this paper a new fast simplification method is presented. Such method realizes Karnough map with large number of variables. In order to accelerate the operation of the proposed method, a new approach for fast detection of group of ones is presented. Such approach implemented in the frequency domain. The search operation relies on performing cross correlation in the frequency domain rather than time one. It is proved mathematically and practically that the number of computation steps required for the presented method is less than that needed by conventional cross correlation. Simulation results using MATLAB confirm the theoretical computations. Furthermore, a powerful solution for realization of complex functions is given. The simplified functions are implemented by using a new desigen for neural networks. Neural networks are used because they are fault tolerance and as a result they can recognize signals even with noise or distortion. This is very useful for logic functions used in data and computer communications. Moreover, the implemented functions are realized with minimum amount of components. This is done by using modular neural nets (MNNs) that divide the input space into several homogenous regions. Such approach is applied to implement XOR function, 16 logic functions on one bit level, and 2-bit digital multiplier. Compared to previous non- modular designs, a clear reduction in the order of computations and hardware requirements is achieved.
127
1246
Development and Initial Validation of the Social Competency Inventory for Tertiary Level Faculty Members
Abstract:

This study aimed to develop and initially validate an instrument that measures social competency among tertiary level faculty members. A review of extant literature on social competence was done. The review of extant literature led to the writing of the items in the initial instrument which was evaluated by 11 Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). The SMEs were either educators or psychologists. The results of the evaluations done by the SMEs served as bases for the creation of the pre-try-out instrument used in the first trial-run. Insights from the first trial-run participants led to the development of the main try-out instrument used in the final test administration. One Hundred Forty-one participants from five private Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in the National Capital Region (NCR) and five private HEIs in Central Luzon in the Philippines participated in the final test administration. The reliability of the instrument was evaluated using Cronbach-s Coefficient Alpha formula and had a Cronbach-s Alpha of 0.92. On the other hand, Factor Analysis was used to evaluate the validity of the instrument and six factors were identified. The development of the final instrument was based on the results of the evaluation of the instrument-s reliability and validity. For purposes of recognition, the instrument was named “Social Competency Inventory for Tertiary Level Faculty Members (SCI-TLFM)."

126
8404
Note to the Global GMRES for Solving the Matrix Equation AXB = F
Abstract:

In the present work, we propose a new projection method for solving the matrix equation AXB = F. For implementing our new method, generalized forms of block Krylov subspace and global Arnoldi process are presented. The new method can be considered as an extended form of the well-known global generalized minimum residual (Gl-GMRES) method for solving multiple linear systems and it will be called as the extended Gl-GMRES (EGl- GMRES). Some new theoretical results have been established for proposed method by employing Schur complement. Finally, some numerical results are given to illustrate the efficiency of our new method.

125
7504
Low Resolution Face Recognition Using Mixture of Experts
Abstract:
Human activity is a major concern in a wide variety of applications, such as video surveillance, human computer interface and face image database management. Detecting and recognizing faces is a crucial step in these applications. Furthermore, major advancements and initiatives in security applications in the past years have propelled face recognition technology into the spotlight. The performance of existing face recognition systems declines significantly if the resolution of the face image falls below a certain level. This is especially critical in surveillance imagery where often, due to many reasons, only low-resolution video of faces is available. If these low-resolution images are passed to a face recognition system, the performance is usually unacceptable. Hence, resolution plays a key role in face recognition systems. In this paper we introduce a new low resolution face recognition system based on mixture of expert neural networks. In order to produce the low resolution input images we down-sampled the 48 × 48 ORL images to 12 × 12 ones using the nearest neighbor interpolation method and after that applying the bicubic interpolation method yields enhanced images which is given to the Principal Component Analysis feature extractor system. Comparison with some of the most related methods indicates that the proposed novel model yields excellent recognition rate in low resolution face recognition that is the recognition rate of 100% for the training set and 96.5% for the test set.
124
8323
Energy Loss at Drops using Neuro Solutions
Abstract:
Energy dissipation in drops has been investigated by physical models. After determination of effective parameters on the phenomenon, three drops with different heights have been constructed from Plexiglas. They have been installed in two existing flumes in the hydraulic laboratory. Several runs of physical models have been undertaken to measured required parameters for determination of the energy dissipation. Results showed that the energy dissipation in drops depend on the drop height and discharge. Predicted relative energy dissipations varied from 10.0% to 94.3%. This work has also indicated that the energy loss at drop is mainly due to the mixing of the jet with the pool behind the jet that causes air bubble entrainment in the flow. Statistical model has been developed to predict the energy dissipation in vertical drops denotes nonlinear correlation between effective parameters. Further an artificial neural networks (ANNs) approach was used in this paper to develop an explicit procedure for calculating energy loss at drops using NeuroSolutions. Trained network was able to predict the response with R2 and RMSE 0.977 and 0.0085 respectively. The performance of ANN was found effective when compared to regression equations in predicting the energy loss.
123
5993
Design of Gravity Dam by Genetic Algorithms
Abstract:
The design of a gravity dam is performed through an interactive process involving a preliminary layout of the structure followed by a stability and stress analysis. This study presents a method to define the optimal top width of gravity dam with genetic algorithm. To solve the optimization task (minimize the cost of the dam), an optimization routine based on genetic algorithms (GAs) was implemented into an Excel spreadsheet. It was found to perform well and GA parameters were optimized in a parametric study. Using the parameters found in the parametric study, the top width of gravity dam optimization was performed and compared to a gradient-based optimization method (classic method). The accuracy of the results was within close proximity. In optimum dam cross section, the ratio of is dam base to dam height is almost equal to 0.85, and ratio of dam top width to dam height is almost equal to 0.13. The computerized methodology may provide the help for computation of the optimal top width for a wide range of height of a gravity dam.
122
8467
Effect of Curing Conditions on Strength of Fly ash-based Self-Compacting Geopolymer Concrete
Abstract:
This paper reports the results of an experimental work conducted to investigate the effect of curing conditions on the compressive strength of self-compacting geopolymer concrete prepared by using fly ash as base material and combination of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate as alkaline activator. The experiments were conducted by varying the curing time and curing temperature in the range of 24-96 hours and 60-90°C respectively. The essential workability properties of freshly prepared Self-compacting Geopolymer concrete such as filling ability, passing ability and segregation resistance were evaluated by using Slump flow, V-funnel, L-box and J-ring test methods. The fundamental requirements of high flowability and resistance to segregation as specified by guidelines on Self-compacting Concrete by EFNARC were satisfied. Test results indicate that longer curing time and curing the concrete specimens at higher temperatures result in higher compressive strength. There was increase in compressive strength with the increase in curing time; however increase in compressive strength after 48 hours was not significant. Concrete specimens cured at 70°C produced the highest compressive strength as compared to specimens cured at 60°C, 80°C and 90°C.
121
1782
Influence of Thermal Annealing on The Structural Properties of Vanadyl Phthalocyanine Thin Films: A Comparative Study
Abstract:
This paper presents a comparative study on Vanadyl Phthalocyanine (VOPc) thin films deposited by thermal evaporation and spin coating techniques. The samples were prepared on cleaned glass substrates and annealed at various temperatures ranging form 95oC to 155oC. To obtain the morphological and structural properties of VOPc thin films, X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been implied. The AFM topographic images show a very slight difference in the thermally grown films, before and after annealing, however best results are achieved for the spin-cast film annealed at 125oC. The XRD spectra show no existence of the sharp peaks, suggesting the material to be amorphous. The humps in the XRD patterns indicate the presence of some crystallites.
120
4363
A Frequency Grouping Approach for Blind Deconvolution of Fairly Motionless Sources
Abstract:
A frequency grouping approach for multi-channel instantaneous blind source separation (I-BSS) of convolutive mixtures is proposed for a lower net residual inter-symbol interference (ISI) and inter-channel interference (ICI) than the conventional short-time Fourier transform (STFT) approach. Starting in the time domain, STFTs are taken with overlapping windows to convert the convolutive mixing problem into frequency domain instantaneous mixing. Mixture samples at the same frequency but from different STFT windows are grouped together forming unique frequency groups. The individual frequency group vectors are input to the I-BSS algorithm of choice, from which the output samples are dispersed back to their respective STFT windows. After applying the inverse STFT, the resulting time domain signals are used to construct the complete source estimates via the weighted overlap-add method (WOLA). The proposed algorithm is tested for source deconvolution given two mixtures, and simulated along with the STFT approach to illustrate its superiority for fairly motionless sources.
119
113
Effect of Enzyme and Heat Pretreatment on Sunflower Oil Recovery Using Aqueous and Hexane Extractions
Abstract:

The effects of enzyme action and heat pretreatment on oil extraction yield from sunflower kernels were analysed using hexane extraction with Soxhlet, and aqueous extraction with incubator shaker. Ground kernels of raw and heat treated kernels, each with and without Viscozyme treatment were used. Microscopic images of the kernels were taken to analyse the visible effects of each treatment on the cotyledon cell structure of the kernels. Heat pretreated kernels before both extraction processes produced enhanced oil extraction yields than the control, with steam explosion the most efficient. In hexane extraction, applying a combination of steam explosion and Viscozyme treatments to the kernels before the extraction gave the maximum oil extractable in 1 hour; while for aqueous extraction, raw kernels treated with Viscozyme gave the highest oil extraction yield. Remarkable cotyledon cell disruption was evident in kernels treated with Viscozyme; whereas steam explosion and conventional heat treated kernels had similar effects.

118
15237
The Stability of Almost n-multiplicative Maps in Fuzzy Normed Spaces
Abstract:

Let A and B be two linear algebras. A linear map ϕ : A → B is called an n-homomorphism if ϕ(a1...an) = ϕ(a1)...ϕ(an) for all a1, ..., an ∈ A. In this note we have a verification on the behavior of almost n-multiplicative linear maps with n > 2 in the fuzzy normed spaces

117
10451
On Thermal Instabilities in a Viscoelastic Fluid Subject to Internal Heat Generation
Abstract:
The B'enard-Marangoni thermal instability problem for a viscoelastic Jeffreys- fluid layer with internal heat generation is investigated. The fluid layer is bounded above by a realistic free deformable surface and by a plane surface below. Our analysis shows that while the internal heat generation and the relaxation time both destabilize the fluid layer, its stability may be enhanced by an increased retardation time.
116
1648
Zero Dimensional Simulation of Combustion Process of a DI Diesel Engine Fuelled With Biofuels
Abstract:
A zero dimensional model has been used to investigate the combustion performance of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled by biofuels with options like supercharging and exhaust gas recirculation. The numerical simulation was performed at constant speed. The indicated pressure, temperature diagrams are plotted and compared for different fuels. The emissions of soot and nitrous oxide are computed with phenomenological models. The experimental work was also carried out with biodiesel (palm stearin methyl ester) diesel blends, ethanol diesel blends to validate simulation results with experimental results, and observed that the present model is successful in predicting the engine performance with biofuels.
115
9836
Adaptive Sampling Algorithm for ANN-based Performance Modeling of Nano-scale CMOS Inverter
Abstract:
This paper presents an adaptive technique for generation of data required for construction of artificial neural network-based performance model of nano-scale CMOS inverter circuit. The training data are generated from the samples through SPICE simulation. The proposed algorithm has been compared to standard progressive sampling algorithms like arithmetic sampling and geometric sampling. The advantages of the present approach over the others have been demonstrated. The ANN predicted results have been compared with actual SPICE results. A very good accuracy has been obtained.
114
252
Analysis and Remediation of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Pollution in Selected Surface Water Bodies of Enugu State of Nigeria
Abstract:
The assessment of surface waters in Enugu metropolis for fecal coliform bacteria was undertaken. Enugu urban was divided into three areas (A1, A2 and A3), and fecal coliform bacteria analysed in the surface waters found in these areas for four years (2005-2008). The plate count method was used for the analyses. Data generated were subjected to statistical tests involving; Normality test, Homogeneity of variance test, correlation test, and tolerance limit test. The influence of seasonality and pollution trends were investigated using time series plots. Results from the tolerance limit test at 95% coverage with 95% confidence, and with respect to EU maximum permissible concentration show that the three areas suffer from fecal coliform pollution. To this end, remediation procedure involving the use of saw-dust extracts from three woods namely; Chlorophora-Excelsa (C-Excelsa),Khayan-Senegalensis,(CSenegalensis) and Erythrophylum-Ivorensis (E-Ivorensis) in controlling the coliforms was studied. Results show that mixture of the acetone extracts of the woods show the most effective antibacterial inhibitory activities (26.00mm zone of inhibition) against E-coli. Methanol extract mixture of the three woods gave best inhibitory activity (26.00mm zone of inhibition) against S-areus, and 25.00mm zones of inhibition against E-Aerogenes. The aqueous extracts mixture gave acceptable zones of inhibitions against the three bacteria organisms.
113
4622
Order Reduction using Modified Pole Clustering and Pade Approximations
Abstract:

The authors present a mixed method for reducing the order of the large-scale dynamic systems. In this method, the denominator polynomial of the reduced order model is obtained by using the modified pole clustering technique while the coefficients of the numerator are obtained by Pade approximations. This method is conceptually simple and always generates stable reduced models if the original high-order system is stable. The proposed method is illustrated with the help of the numerical examples taken from the literature.

112
226
Optimization of Process Parameters for Diesters Biolubricant using D-optimal Design
Abstract:

Optimization study of the diesters biolubricant oleyl 9(12)-hydroxy-10(13)-oleioxy-12(9)-octadecanoate (OLHYOOT) was synthesized in the presence of sulfuric acid (SA) as catalyst has been done. Optimum conditions of the experiment to obtain high yield% of OLHYOOT were predicted at ratio of OL/HYOOA of 1:1 g/g, ratio of SA/HYOOA of 0.20:1 g/g, reaction temperature 110 °C and 4.5 h of reaction time. At this condition, the Yield% of OLHYOOT was 88.7. Disappearance of carboxylic acid (C=O) peak has observed by FTIR with appearance ester (C=O) at 1738 cm-1. 1H NMR spectra analyses confirmed the result of OLHYOOT with appearance ester (-CHOCOR) at 4.05ppm and also the 13C-NMR confirmed the result with appearance ester (C=O) peak at 173.93ppm.

111
14472
Free Vibration Analysis of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Laminated Composite Panels
Abstract:

In this paper, free vibration analysis of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced laminated composite panels is presented. Three types of panels such as flat, concave and convex are considered for study. Numerical simulation is carried out using commercially available finite element analysis software ANSYS. Numerical homogenization is employed to calculate the effective elastic properties of randomly distributed carbon nanotube reinforced composites. To verify the accuracy of the finite element method, comparisons are made with existing results available in the literature for conventional laminated composite panels and good agreements are obtained. The results of the CNT reinforced composite materials are compared with conventional composite materials under different boundary conditions.

110
5220
Simulation of a Process Design Model for Anaerobic Digestion of Municipal Solid Wastes
Abstract:
Anaerobic Digestion has become a promising technology for biological transformation of organic fraction of the municipal solid wastes (MSW). In order to represent the kinetic behavior of such biological process and thereby to design a reactor system, development of a mathematical model is essential. Addressing this issue, a simplistic mathematical model has been developed for anaerobic digestion of MSW in a continuous flow reactor unit under homogeneous steady state condition. Upon simulated hydrolysis, the kinetics of biomass growth and substrate utilization rate are assumed to follow first order reaction kinetics. Simulation of this model has been conducted by studying sensitivity of various process variables. The model was simulated using typical kinetic data of anaerobic digestion MSW and typical MSW characteristics of Kolkata. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solid retention time (SRT) time were mainly estimated by varying different model parameters like efficiency of reactor, influent substrate concentration and biomass concentration. Consequently, design table and charts have also been prepared for ready use in the actual plant operation.
109
10397
Authentic Leadership, Trust and Work Engagement
Abstract:
The issue of leadership has been investigated from several perspectives; however, very less from ethical perspective. With the growing number of corporate scandals and unethical roles played by business leaders in several parts of the world, the need to examine leadership from ethical perspective cannot be over emphasized. The importance of leadership credibility has been discussed in the authentic model of leadership. Authentic leaders display high degree of integrity, have deep sense of purpose, and committed to their core values. As a result they promote a more trusting relationship in their work groups that translates into several positive outcomes. The present study examined how authentic leadership contribute to subordinates- trust in leadership and how this trust, in turn, predicts subordinates- work engagement. A sample of 395 employees was randomly selected from several local banks operating in Malaysia. Standardized tools such as ALQ, OTI, and EEQ were employed. Results indicated that authentic leadership promoted subordinates- trust in leader, and contributed to work engagement. Also, interpersonal trust predicted employees- work engagement as well as mediated the relationship between this style of leadership and employees- work engagement.
108
4599
Design of a Low Power Compensated 90nm RF Multiplier with Improved Isolation Characteristics for a Transmitted Reference Receiver Front End
Abstract:
In this paper, a double balanced radio frequency multiplier is presented which is customized for transmitted reference ultra wideband (UWB) receivers. The multiplier uses 90nm model parameters and exploits compensating transistors to provide controllable gain for a Gilbert core. After performing periodic and quasiperiodic non linear analyses the RF mixer (multiplier) achieves a voltage conversion gain of 16 dB and a DSB noise figure of 8.253 dB with very low power consumption. A high degree of LO to RF isolation (in the range of -94dB), RF to IF isolation (in the range of -95dB) and LO to IF isolation (in the range of -143dB) is expected for this design with an input-referred IP3 point of -1.93 dBm and an input referred 1 dB compression point of -10.67dBm. The amount of noise at the output is 7.7 nV/√Hz when the LO input is driven by a 10dBm signal. The mixer manifests better results when compared with other reported multiplier circuits and its Zero-IF performance ensures its applicability as TR-UWB multipliers.
107
4067
A Microcontroller Implementation of Constrained Model Predictive Control
Abstract:
Model Predictive Control (MPC) is an established control technique in a wide range of process industries. The reason for this success is its ability to handle multivariable systems and systems having input, output or state constraints. Neverthless comparing to PID controller, the implementation of the MPC in miniaturized devices like Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) and microcontrollers has historically been very small scale due to its complexity in implementation and its computation time requirement. At the same time, such embedded technologies have become an enabler for future manufacturing enterprisers as well as a transformer of organizations and markets. In this work, we take advantage of these recent advances in this area in the deployment of one of the most studied and applied control technique in the industrial engineering. In this paper, we propose an efficient firmware for the implementation of constrained MPC in the performed STM32 microcontroller using interior point method. Indeed, performances study shows good execution speed and low computational burden. These results encourage to develop predictive control algorithms to be programmed in industrial standard processes. The PID anti windup controller was also implemented in the STM32 in order to make a performance comparison with the MPC. The main features of the proposed constrained MPC framework are illustrated through two examples.
106
13631
Validation of Building Maintenance Performance Model for Malaysian Universities
Abstract:
This paper is part of an ongoing research on the development of systemic maintenance management model Malaysian university buildings. In order to achieve this aim, there is a need to develop a performance model against which services are measure. Measuring performance is a significant part of maintenance management service delivery. Maintenance organization needs to know where they are in order to provide user-driven services and to enhance productivity. The aim of this paper is to formulate a template or model for university maintenance organization in Malaysia. The model is based on literature review and survey questionnaire and has been validated. Through grounded theory, this paper developed a 8 points matrix for the university maintenance organizations for measuring and improving their service delivery. The potential of the model is guide and assists towards providing value added service delivery through initiating maintenance according to user value system rather than on the condition of the building.
105
9885
Impact of Combustion of Water in Fuel on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (Pah-s)Precursors- Formation
Abstract:
Some of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the strongest known carcinogens compounds; the majority of them are mostly produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels; Motor vehicles are a significant source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) where diesel emission is one of the main sources of such compounds available in the ambient air. There is a big concern about the increasing concentration of PAHs in the environment. Researchers are trying to explore optimal methods to reduce those pollutants and improve the quality of air. Water blended fuel is one of the possible approaches to reduce emission of PAHs from the combustion of diesel in urban and domestic vehicles. In this work a modeling study was conducted using CHEMKIN-PRO software to simulate spray combustion at similar diesel engine conditions. Surrogate fuel of (80 % n-heptane and 20 % toluene) was used due to detailed kinetic and thermodynamic data needed for modeling is available for this kind of fuel but not available for diesel. An emulsified fuel with 3, 5, 8, 10 and 20 % water by volume is used as an engine feed for this study. The modeling results show that water has a significant effect on reducing engine soot and PAHs precursors formation up to certain extent.
104
11997
Chemical and Biological Properties of Local Cowpea Seed Protein Grown in Gizan Region
Abstract:
The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical and biological properties of local cowpea seed protein cultivated in Gizan region. The results showed that the cowpea and its products contain high level of protein (22.9-77.6%), high carbohydrates (9.4-64.3%) and low fats (0.1-0.3%). The trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were found to be 32.2 and 15.2 units, respectively. These activities were not affected in both defatted and protein concentrate whereas they were significantly reduced in isolated protein and cooked samples. The phytate content of cooked and concentrated cowpea samples varied from 0.25% -0.32%, respectively. Tannin content was found to be 0.4% and 0.23% for cooked and raw samples, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility was very high in cowpea seeds (75.04-78.76%). The biological evaluation using rats showed that the group fed with animal feed containing casein gain more weight than those fed with that containing cowpea. However, the group fed with cooked cowpea gain more weight than those fed with uncooked cowpea. On the other hand, in vivo digestion showed high value (98.33%) among the group consumed casein compared to other groups those consumed cowpea contains feed. This could be attributed to low antinutritional factors in casein contains feed compared to those of cowpea contains feed because cooking significantly increased the digestion rate (80.8% to 83.5%) of cowpea contains feed. Furthermore, the biological evaluation was high (91.67%) of casein containing feed compared to that of cowpea containing feed (80.83%-87.5%). The net protein utilization (NPU) was higher (89.67%) in the group fed with casein containing feed than that of cowpea containing feed (56.33%-69.67%).
103
5721
Low Latency Routing Algorithm for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Ad-Hoc Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we proposed a new routing protocol for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) that equipped with directional antenna. We named this protocol Directional Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (DOLSR). This protocol is based on the well known protocol that is called Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR). We focused in our protocol on the multipoint relay (MPR) concept which is the most important feature of this protocol. We developed a heuristic that allows DOLSR protocol to minimize the number of the multipoint relays. With this new protocol the number of overhead packets will be reduced and the End-to-End delay of the network will also be minimized. We showed through simulation that our protocol outperformed Optimized Link State Routing Protocol, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol and Ad- Hoc On demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol in reducing the End-to-End delay and enhancing the overall throughput. Our evaluation of the previous protocols was based on the OPNET network simulation tool.
102
2155
Robust FACTS Controller Design Employing Modern Heuristic Optimization Techniques
Abstract:
Recently, Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm technique have attracted considerable attention among various modern heuristic optimization techniques. Since the two approaches are supposed to find a solution to a given objective function but employ different strategies and computational effort, it is appropriate to compare their performance. This paper presents the application and performance comparison of DE and GA optimization techniques, for flexible ac transmission system (FACTS)-based controller design. The design objective is to enhance the power system stability. The design problem of the FACTS-based controller is formulated as an optimization problem and both the PSO and GA optimization techniques are employed to search for optimal controller parameters. The performance of both optimization techniques has been compared. Further, the optimized controllers are tested on a weekly connected power system subjected to different disturbances, and their performance is compared with the conventional power system stabilizer (CPSS). The eigenvalue analysis and non-linear simulation results are presented and compared to show the effectiveness of both the techniques in designing a FACTS-based controller, to enhance power system stability.
101
8053
MNECLIB2 – A Classical Music Digital Library
Abstract:
Lately there has been a significant boost of interest in music digital libraries, which constitute an attractive area of research and development due to their inherent interesting issues and challenging technical problems, solutions to which will be highly appreciated by enthusiastic end-users. We present here a DL that we have developed to support users in their quest for classical music pieces within a particular collection of 18,000+ audio recordings. To cope with the early DL model limitations, we have used a refined socio-semantic and contextual model that allows rich bibliographic content description, along with semantic annotations, reviewing, rating, knowledge sharing etc. The multi-layered service model allows incorporation of local and distributed information, construction of rich hypermedia documents, expressing the complex relationships between various objects and multi-dimensional spaces, agents, actors, services, communities, scenarios etc., and facilitates collaborative activities to offer to individual users the needed collections and services.
100
8300
Dynamical Behaviors in a Discrete Predator-prey Model with a Prey Refuge
Abstract:

By incorporating a prey refuge, this paper proposes new discrete Leslie–Gower predator–prey systems with and without Allee effect. The existence of fixed points are established and the stability of fixed points are discussed by analyzing the modulus of characteristic roots.

99
1515
A Novel Dosimetry System for Computed Tomography using Phototransistor
Abstract:
Computed tomography (CT) dosimetry normally uses an ionization chamber 100 mm long to estimate the computed tomography dose index (CTDI), however some reports have already indicated that small devices could replace the long ion chamber to improve quality assurance procedures in CT dosimetry. This paper presents a novel dosimetry system based in a commercial phototransistor evaluated for CT dosimetry. Three detector configurations were developed for this system: with a single, two and four devices. Dose profile measurements were obtained with them and their angular response were evaluated. The results showed that the novel dosimetry system with the phototransistor could be an alternative for CT dosimetry. It allows to obtain the CT dose profile in details and also to estimate the CTDI in longer length than the 100 mm pencil chamber. The angular response showed that the one device detector configuration is the most adequate among the three configurations analyzed in this study.
98
7135
FPGA Implement of a Vision Based Lane Departure Warning System
Abstract:

Using vision based solution in intelligent vehicle application often needs large memory to handle video stream and image process which increase complexity of hardware and software. In this paper, we present a FPGA implement of a vision based lane departure warning system. By taking frame of videos, the line gradient of line is estimated and the lane marks are found. By analysis the position of lane mark, departure of vehicle will be detected in time. This idea has been implemented in Xilinx Spartan6 FPGA. The lane departure warning system used 39% logic resources and no memory of the device. The average availability is 92.5%. The frame rate is more than 30 frames per second (fps).

97
6153
A Study of Computational Organizational Narrative Generation for Decision Support
Abstract:
Narratives are invaluable assets of human lives. Due to the distinct features of narratives, they are useful for supporting human reasoning processes. However, many useful narratives become residuals in organizations or human minds nowadays. Researchers have contributed effort to investigate and improve narrative generation processes. This paper attempts to contemplate essential components in narratives and explore a computational approach to acquire and extract knowledge to generate narratives. The methodology and significant benefit for decision support are presented.
96
1058
Beam Orientation Optimization Using Ant Colony Optimization in Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy
Abstract:
In intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning, beam angles are usually preselected on the basis of experience and intuition. Therefore, getting an appropriate beam configuration needs a very long time. Based on the present situation, the paper puts forward beam orientation optimization using ant colony optimization (ACO). We use ant colony optimization to select the beam configurations, after getting the beam configuration using Conjugate Gradient (CG) algorithm to optimize the intensity profiles. Combining with the information of the effect of pencil beam, we can get the global optimal solution accelerating. In order to verify the feasibility of the presented method, a simulated and clinical case was tested, compared with dose-volume histogram and isodose line between target area and organ at risk. The results showed that the effect was improved after optimizing beam configurations. The optimization approach could make treatment planning meet clinical requirements more efficiently, so it had extensive application perspective.
95
3543
The Relationship between Employability and Training
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to provide an empirical evidence about the effects that the management of continuous training have on employability (or employment stability) in the Spanish labour market. With this purpose a binary logit model with interaction effect is been used. The dependent variable includes two situations of the active workers: continuous and discontinuous employability. To distinguish between them an Employability Index Stability (ESI) was calculated taking into account two factors: time worked and job security. Various aspects of the continuous training and personal workers data are used as independent variables. The data obtained from a survey of a sample of 918 employed have revealed a relationship between the likelihood of continuous employability and continuous training received. The empirical results support the positive and significant relationship between various aspects of the training provided by firms and employability likelihood of the workers, postulate alike from a theoretical point of view.
94
3704
A Model for Bidding Markup Decisions Making based-on Agent Learning
Abstract:
Bidding is a very important business function to find latent contractors of construction projects. Moreover, bid markup is one of the most important decisions for a bidder to gain a reasonable profit. Since the bidding system is a complex adaptive system, bidding agent need a learning process to get more valuable knowledge for a bid, especially from past public bidding information. In this paper, we proposed an iterative agent leaning model for bidders to make markup decisions. A classifier for public bidding information named PIBS is developed to make full use of history data for classifying new bidding information. The simulation and experimental study is performed to show the validity of the proposed classifier. Some factors that affect the validity of PIBS are also analyzed at the end of this work.
93
971
Dose due the Incorporation of Radionuclides Using Teeth as Bioindicators nearby Caetité Uranium Mines
Abstract:
Uranium mining and processing in Brazil occur in a northeastern area near to Caetité-BA. Several Non-Governmental Organizations claim that uranium mining in this region is a pollutant causing health risks to the local population,but those in charge of the complex extraction and production of“yellow cake" for generating fuel to the nuclear power plants reject these allegations. This study aimed at identifying potential problems caused by mining to the population of Caetité. In this, work,the concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K radioisotopes in the teeth of the Caetité population were determined by ICP-MS. Teeth are used as bioindicators of incorporated radionuclides. Cumulative radiation doses in the skeleton were also determined. The concentration values were below 0.008 ppm, and annual effective dose due to radioisotopes are below to the reference values. Therefore, it is not possible to state that the mining process in Caetité increases pollution or radiation exposure in a meaningful way.
92
9791
Using Hybrid System of Ground Heat Exchanger and Evaporative Cooler in Arid Weather Condition
Abstract:
In this paper, the feasibility study of using a hybrid system of ground heat exchangers (GHE) and direct evaporative cooling system in arid weather condition has been performed. The model is applied for Yazd and Kerman, two cities with arid weather condition in Iran. The system composed of three sections: Ground- Coupled-Circuit (GCC), Direct Evaporative Cooler (DEC) and Cooling Coil Unite (CCU). The GCC provides the necessary precooling for DEC. The GCC includes four vertical GHE which are designed in series configuration. Simulation results show that hybridization of GCC and DEC could provide comfort condition whereas DEC alone did not. Based on the results the cooling effectiveness of a hybrid system is more than unity. Thus, this novel hybrid system could decrease the air temperature below the ambient wet-bulb temperature. This environmentally clean and energy efficient system can be considered as an alternative to the mechanical vapor compression systems.
91
11053
Experimental Validation of Treatment Planning for Multiple Radiotherapy Fields by EDR2 Film Dosimeter
Abstract:
To investigate the applicability of the EDR-2 film for clinical radiation dosimetry, percentage depth-doses, profiles and distributions in open and dynamically wedged fields were measured using film and compared with data from a Treatment Planning system.The validity of the EDR2 film to measure dose in a plane parallel to the beam was tested by irradiating 10 cm×10 cm and 4 cm×4 cm fields from a Siemens, primus linac with a 6MV beam and a source-to-surface distance of 100 cm. The film was placed Horizontally between solid water phantom blocks and marked with pin holes at a depth of 10 cm from the incident beam surface. The film measurement results, in absolute dose, were compared with ion chamber measurements using a Welhoffer scanning water tank system and Treatment Planning system. Our results indicate a maximum underestimate of calculated dose of 8 % with Treatment Planning system.
90
11609
Simulating Gradient Contour and Mesh of a Scalar Field
Abstract:
This research paper is based upon the simulation of gradient of mathematical functions and scalar fields using MATLAB. Scalar fields, their gradient, contours and mesh/surfaces are simulated using different related MATLAB tools and commands for convenient presentation and understanding. Different mathematical functions and scalar fields are examined here by taking their gradient, visualizing results in 3D with different color shadings and using other necessary relevant commands. In this way the outputs of required functions help us to analyze and understand in a better way as compared to just theoretical study of gradient.
89
3301
Power Line Carrier for Power Telemetering
Abstract:
This paper presents an application of power line carrier (PLC) for electrical power telemetering. This system has a special capability of transmitting the measured values to a centralized computer via power lines. The PLC modem as a passive high-pass filter is designed for transmitting and receiving information. Its function is to send the information carrier together with transmitted data by superimposing it on the 50 Hz power frequency signal. A microcontroller is employed to function as the main processing of the modem. It is programmed for PLC control and interfacing with other devices. Each power meter, connected via a PLC modem, is assigned with a unique identification number (address) for distinguishing each device from one another.
88
3306
Reentry Trajectory Optimization Based on Differential Evolution
Abstract:
Reentry trajectory optimization is a multi-constraints optimal control problem which is hard to solve. To tackle it, we proposed a new algorithm named CDEN(Constrained Differential Evolution Newton-Raphson Algorithm) based on Differential Evolution( DE) and Newton-Raphson.We transform the infinite dimensional optimal control problem to parameter optimization which is finite dimensional by discretize control parameter. In order to simplify the problem, we figure out the control parameter-s scope by process constraints. To handle constraints, we proposed a parameterless constraints handle process. Through comprehensive analyze the problem, we use a new algorithm integrated by DE and Newton-Raphson to solve it. It is validated by a reentry vehicle X-33, simulation results indicated that the algorithm is effective and robust.
87
6941
A Study of the Damages to Historical Monuments due to Climatic Factors and Air Pollution and Offering Solutions
Abstract:
Historical monuments as architectural heritage are, economically and culturally, considered one of the key aspects for modern communities. Cultural heritage represents a country-s national identity and pride and maintains and enriches that country-s culture. Therefore, conservation of the monuments remained from our ancestors requires everybody-s serious and unremitting effort. Conservation, renewal, restoration, and technical study of cultural and historical matters are issues which have a special status among various forms of art and science in the present century and this is due to two reasons: firstly, progress of humankind in this century has created a factor called environmental pollution which not only has caused new destructive processes of cultural/historical monuments but also has accelerated the previous destructive processes by several times, and secondly, the rapid advance of various sciences, especially chemistry, has lead to the contribution of new methods and materials to this significant issue.
86
7020
Evaluation of Guaiacol and Syringol Emission upon Wood Pyrolysis for some Fast Growing Species
Abstract:

Wood pyrolysis for Casuarina glauca, Casuarina cunninghamiana, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca was made at 450°C with 2.5°C/min. in a flowing N2-atmosphere. The Eucalyptus genus wood gave higher values of specific gravity, ash , total extractives, lignin, N2-liquid trap distillate (NLTD) and water trap distillate (WSP) than those for Casuarina genus. The GHC of NLTD was higher for Casuarina genus than that for Eucalyptus genus with the highest value for Casuarina cunninghamiana. Guiacol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol and syringol were observed in the NLTD of all the four wood species reflecting their parent hardwood lignin origin. Eucalyptus camaldulensis wood had the highest lignin content (28.89%) and was pyrolyzed to the highest values of phenolics (73.01%), guaiacol (11.2%) and syringol (32.28%) contents in methylene chloride fraction (MCF) of NLTD. Accordingly, recoveries of syringol and guaiacol may become economically attractive from Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

85
5959
Integrated Learning in Engineering Services: A Conceptual Framework
Authors:
Abstract:
This study explores how the mechanics of learning paves the way to engineering innovation. Theories related to learning in the new product/service innovation are reviewed from an organizational perspective, behavioral perspective, and engineering perspective. From this, an engineering team-s external interactions for knowledge brokering and internal composition for skill balance are examined from a learning and innovation viewpoints. As a result, an integrated learning model is developed by reconciling the theoretical perspectives as well as developing propositions that emphasize the centrality of learning, and its drivers, in the engineering product/service development. The paper also provides a review and partial validation of the propositions using the results of a previously published field study in the aerospace industry.
84
4015
Influence of Active Packaging on the Shelf Life of Apple-Black Currant Marmalade Candies
Abstract:
The research object was apple-black currant marmalade candies. Experiments were carried out at the Faculty of Food Technology of the Latvia University of Agriculture. An active packaging in combination with modified atmosphere (MAP, CO2 100%) was examined and compared with traditional packaging in air ambiance. Polymer Multibarrier 60 and paper bags were used. Influence of iron based oxygen absorber in sachets of 500 cc obtained from Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Europe Ageless® was tested on the quality during the shelf of marmalade. Samples of 80±5 g were packaged in polymer pouches (110 mm x 110 mm), hermetically sealed by MULTIVAC C300 vacuum chamber machine, and stored in room temperature +20.0±1.0 °C. The physiochemical properties – weight losses, moisture content, hardness, aw, pH, colour, changes of atmosphere content (CO2 and O2) in headspace of packs, and microbial conditions were analysed before packaging and in the 1st, 3rd , 5th, 8th, 11th and 15th weeks of storage.
83
6680
A New Model for e-CRM in e-Commerce using Live-Operator
Abstract:
Bythe development of the Internet, e-commerce has got very popular between organizations. E-commerce means buying and selling products and services over the Internet. One of the challenging issues in e-commerce is how to attract the customers and how to satisfy them. Therefore, it is important to keep good relationship with the customers. This paper proposes a new model to increase the customer satisfaction by introducing live-operator. Live-operator is a system which is involved both with the customers and the organization.In this system the customers feelthatthey receive the service directly from the organization. This model decreases the response time and the customer loss. Moreover, it increases customer trust and the ability of organizations.
82
10347
The Performance Improvement of the Target Position Determining System in Laser Tracking Based on 4Q Detector using Neural Network
Abstract:
One of the methods for detecting the target position error in the laser tracking systems is using Four Quadrant (4Q) detectors. If the coordinates of the target center is yielded through the usual relations of the detector outputs, the results will be nonlinear, dependent on the shape, target size and its position on the detector screen. In this paper we have designed an algorithm with using neural network that coordinates of the target center in laser tracking systems is calculated by using detector outputs obtained from visual modeling. With this method, the results except from the part related to the detector intrinsic limitation, are linear and dependent from the shape and target size.
81
12291
Enhancement of Biogas Production from Bakery Waste by Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Abstract:
Production of biogas from bakery waste was enhanced by additional bacterial cell. This study was divided into 2 steps. First step, grease waste from bakery industry-s grease trap was initially degraded by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The concentration of byproduct, especially glycerol, was determined and found that glycerol concentration increased from 12.83% to 48.10%. Secondary step, 3 biodigesters were set up in 3 different substrates: non-degraded waste as substrate in first biodigester, degraded waste as substrate in secondary biodigester, and degraded waste mixed with swine manure in ratio 1:1 as substrate in third biodigester. The highest concentration of biogas was found in third biodigester that was 44.33% of methane and 63.71% of carbon dioxide. The lower concentration at 24.90% of methane and 18.98% of carbon dioxide was exhibited in secondary biodigester whereas the lowest was found in non-degraded waste biodigester. It was demonstrated that the biogas production was greatly increased with the initial grease waste degradation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
80
5755
Six Sigma Solutions and its Benefit-Cost Ratio for Quality Improvement
Abstract:
This is an application research presenting the improvement of production quality using the six sigma solutions and the analyses of benefit-cost ratio. The case of interest is the production of tile-concrete. Such production has faced with the problem of high nonconforming products from an inappropriate surface coating and had low process capability based on the strength property of tile. Surface coating and tile strength are the most critical to quality of this product. The improvements followed five stages of six sigma solutions. After the improvement, the production yield was improved to 80% as target required and the defective products from coating process was remarkably reduced from 29.40% to 4.09%. The process capability based on the strength quality was increased from 0.87 to 1.08 as customer oriented. The improvement was able to save the materials loss for 3.24 millions baht or 0.11 million dollars. The benefits from the improvement were analyzed from (1) the reduction of the numbers of non conforming tile using its factory price for surface coating improvement and (2) the materials saved from the increment of process capability. The benefit-cost ratio of overall improvement was high as 7.03. It was non valuable investment in define, measure, analyses and the initial of improve stages after that it kept increasing. This was due to there were no benefits in define, measure, and analyze stages of six sigma since these three stages mainly determine the cause of problem and its effects rather than improve the process. The benefit-cost ratio starts existing in the improve stage and go on. Within each stage, the individual benefitcost ratio was much higher than the accumulative one as there was an accumulation of cost since the first stage of six sigma. The consideration of the benefit-cost ratio during the improvement project helps make decisions for cost saving of similar activities during the improvement and for new project. In conclusion, the determination of benefit-cost ratio behavior through out six sigma implementation period provides the useful data for managing quality improvement for the optimal effectiveness. This is the additional outcome from the regular proceeding of six sigma.
79
9367
Coherence Analysis for Epilepsy Patients: An MEG Study
Abstract:
It is crucial to quantitatively evaluate the treatment of epilepsy patients. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that compared to the healthy control subjects, the epilepsy patients have abnormal resting-state connectivity. In this study, we used the imaginary part of coherency to measure the resting-state connectivity. The analysis results shown that compared to the healthy control subjects, epilepsy patients tend to have abnormal rhythm brain connectivity over their epileptic focus.
78
305
Analysis of Hollow Rollers Implementation in Flexible Manufacturing of Large Bearings
Abstract:
In this paper is study the possibility of successfully implementing of hollow roller concept in order to minimize inertial mass of the large bearings, with major results in diminution of the material consumption, increasing of power efficiency (in wind power station area), increasing of the durability and life duration of the large bearings systems, noise reduction in working, resistance to vibrations, an important diminution of losses by abrasion and reduction of the working temperature. In this purpose was developed an original solution through which are reduced mass, inertial forces and moments of large bearings by using of hollow rollers. The research was made by using the method of finite element analysis applied on software type Solidworks - Nastran. Also, is study the possibility of rapidly changing the manufacturing system of solid and hollow cylindrical rollers.
77
12042
Localized Non-Stability of the Semi-Infinite Elastic Orthotropic Plate
Abstract:
This paper is concerned with an investigation into the localized non-stability of a thin elastic orthotropic semi-infinite plate. In this study, a semi-infinite plate, simply supported on two edges and different boundary conditions, clamped, hinged, sliding contact and free on the other edge, are considered. The mathematical model is used and a general solution is presented the conditions under which localized solutions exist are investigated.
76
3885
Traffic Load based Performance Analysis of DSR and STAR Routing Protocol
Abstract:
The wireless adhoc network is comprised of wireless node which can move freely and are connected among themselves without central infrastructure. Due to the limited transmission range of wireless interfaces, in most cases communication has to be relayed over intermediate nodes. Thus, in such multihop network each node (also called router) is independent, self-reliant and capable to route the messages over the dynamic network topology. Various protocols are reported in this field and it is very difficult to decide the best one. A key issue in deciding which type of routing protocol is best for adhoc networks is the communication overhead incurred by the protocol. In this paper STAR a table driven and DSR on demand protocols based on IEEE 802.11 are analyzed for their performance on different performance measuring metrics versus varying traffic CBR load using QualNet 5.0.2 network simulator.
75
11993
Fungal Disinfection by Nanofiltration in Tomato Soilless Culture
Authors:
Abstract:
Principally, plants grown in soilless culture may be attacked by the same pests and diseases as cultivated traditionally in soil. The most destructive phytopathogens are fungi, such as Phythium, Phytophthora and Fusarium, followed by viruses, bacteria and nematodes. We investigated effect of carbon nanotube filters on disease management of soilless culture. Tomato seedlings transplant in plastic pots filled with a soilless media of vermiculite. The crop irrigated and fertilized using a hydroponic nutrient solution. We used carbon nanotube filters for nutrient solution disinfection. Our results show that carbon nanotube filtration significantly reduces pathogens on tomato plants. Fungal elimination (Fusarium oxysporum and Pythium spp.) was usually successful at about 96 to 99.9% all over the cultural season. It is seem that in tomato soilless culture, nanofiltration constitutes a reliable method that allows control of the development of diseases caused by pathogenic fungi
74
9216
A Model for the Characterization and Selection of Beeswaxes for use as base Substitute Tissue in Photon Teletherapy
Abstract:
This paper presents a model for the characterization and selection of beeswaxes for use as base substitute tissue for the manufacture of objects suitable for external radiotherapy using megavoltage photon beams. The model of characterization was divided into three distinct stages: 1) verification of aspects related to the origin of the beeswax, the bee species, the flora in the vicinity of the beehives and procedures to detect adulterations; 2) evaluation of physical and chemical properties; and 3) evaluation of beam attenuation capacity. The chemical composition of the beeswax evaluated in this study was similar to other simulators commonly used in radiotherapy. The behavior of the mass attenuation coefficient in the radiotherapy energy range was comparable to other simulators. The proposed model is efficient and enables convenient assessment of the use of any particular beeswax as a base substitute tissue for radiotherapy.
73
873
Research on Transformer Condition-based Maintenance System using the Method of Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation
Abstract:
This study adopted previous fault patterns, results of detection analysis, historical records and data, and experts- experiences to establish fuzzy principles and estimate the failure probability index of components of a power transformer. Considering that actual parameters and limiting conditions of parameters may differ, this study used the standard data of IEC, IEEE, and CIGRE as condition parameters. According to the characteristics of each condition parameter, relative degradation was introduced to reflect the degree of influence of the factors on the transformer condition. The method of fuzzy mathematics was adopted to determine the subordinate function of the transformer condition. The calculation used the Matlab Fuzzy Tool Box to select the condition parameters of coil winding, iron core, bushing, OLTC, insulating oil and other auxiliary components and factors (e.g., load records, performance history, and maintenance records) of the transformer to establish the fuzzy principles. Examples were presented to support the rationality and effectiveness of the evaluation method of power transformer performance conditions, as based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation.
72
1333
Effects of Feeding Glycerol to Lactating Dairy Cows on Milk Production and Composition
Abstract:
A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding glycerol on dairy cows performance. Twenty four Holstein Friesian crossbred (>87.5% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows in early lactation; averaging 13+2.4 kg of milk, 64+45 days in milk, 55+16 months old and 325+26 kg live weight, were stratified for milk yield, days in milk, age, stage of lactation and body weight, and then randomly allocated to three treatment groups. All cows were fed approximate 8 kg of concentrate together with ad libitum corn silage and freely access to clean water. Nil or 150 and 300g of glycerol were supplemented to the cows according to treatment groups. All cows consumed similar concentrate, corn silage and total DM and NELP. There were no significant differences in DM intake, CP intake, NELP intake, milk and milk composition yields. All cows had similar fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat and total solid percentage. All cows gain similar live weight. The present study indicated that, supplementation of glycerol did not enhance milk yield, milk composition and live weight change.
71
7630
Preemptive Possibilistic Linear Programming:Application to Aggregate Production Planning
Abstract:
This research proposes a Preemptive Possibilistic Linear Programming (PPLP) approach for solving multiobjective Aggregate Production Planning (APP) problem with interval demand and imprecise unit price and related operating costs. The proposed approach attempts to maximize profit and minimize changes of workforce. It transforms the total profit objective that has imprecise information to three crisp objective functions, which are maximizing the most possible value of profit, minimizing the risk of obtaining the lower profit and maximizing the opportunity of obtaining the higher profit. The change of workforce level objective is also converted. Then, the problem is solved according to objective priorities. It is easier than simultaneously solve the multiobjective problem as performed in existing approach. Possible range of interval demand is also used to increase flexibility of obtaining the better production plan. A practical application of an electronic company is illustrated to show the effectiveness of the proposed model.
70
7336
Structure of Linkages and Cam Gear for Integral Steering of Vehicles
Abstract:
This paper addresses issues of integral steering of vehicles with two steering axles, where the rear wheels are pivoted in the direction of the front wheels, but also in the opposite direction. The steering box of the rear axle is presented with simple linkages (single contour) that correlate the pivoting of the rear wheels according to the direction of the front wheels, respectively to the rotation angle of the steering wheel. The functionality of the system is analyzed – the extent to which the requirements of the integral steering are met by the considered/proposed mechanisms. The paper highlights the quality of the single contour linkages, with two driving elements for meeting these requirements, emphasizing diagrams of mechanisms with 2 driving elements. Cam variants are analyzed and proposed for the rear axle steering box. Cam profiles are determined by various factors.
69
9280
Effect of the Rise/Span Ratio of a Spherical Cap Shell on the Buckling Load
Abstract:
Rise/span ratio has been mentioned as one of the reasons which contribute to the lower buckling load as compared to the Classical theory buckling load but this ratio has not been quantified in the equation. The purpose of this study was to determine a more realistic buckling load by quantifying the effect of the rise/span ratio because experiments have shown that the Classical theory overestimates the load. The buckling load equation was derived based on the theorem of work done and strain energy. Thereafter, finite element modeling and simulation using ABAQUS was done to determine the variables that determine the constant in the derived equation. The rise/span was found to be the determining factor of the constant in the buckling load equation. The derived buckling load correlates closely to the load obtained from experiments.
68
7088
Routing Load Analysis over 802.11 DCF of Reactive Routing Protocols DSR and DYMO
Abstract:

The Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of self-configuring and rapidly deployed mobile nodes (routers) without any central infrastructure. Routing is one of the potential issues. Many routing protocols are reported but it is difficult to decide which one is best in all scenarios. In this paper on demand routing protocols DSR and DYMO based on IEEE 802.11 DCF MAC protocol are examined and characteristic summary of these routing protocols is presented. Their performance is analyzed and compared on performance measuring metrics throughput, dropped packets due to non availability of routes, duplicate RREQ generated for route discovery and normalized routing load by varying CBR data traffic load using QualNet 5.0.2 network simulator.

67
10411
Bee Parameter Determination via Weighted Centriod Modified Simplex and Constrained Response Surface Optimisation Methods
Abstract:
Various intelligences and inspirations have been adopted into the iterative searching process called as meta-heuristics. They intelligently perform the exploration and exploitation in the solution domain space aiming to efficiently seek near optimal solutions. In this work, the bee algorithm, inspired by the natural foraging behaviour of honey bees, was adapted to find the near optimal solutions of the transportation management system, dynamic multi-zone dispatching. This problem prepares for an uncertainty and changing customers- demand. In striving to remain competitive, transportation system should therefore be flexible in order to cope with the changes of customers- demand in terms of in-bound and outbound goods and technological innovations. To remain higher service level but lower cost management via the minimal imbalance scenario, the rearrangement penalty of the area, in each zone, including time periods are also included. However, the performance of the algorithm depends on the appropriate parameters- setting and need to be determined and analysed before its implementation. BEE parameters are determined through the linear constrained response surface optimisation or LCRSOM and weighted centroid modified simplex methods or WCMSM. Experimental results were analysed in terms of best solutions found so far, mean and standard deviation on the imbalance values including the convergence of the solutions obtained. It was found that the results obtained from the LCRSOM were better than those using the WCMSM. However, the average execution time of experimental run using the LCRSOM was longer than those using the WCMSM. Finally a recommendation of proper level settings of BEE parameters for some selected problem sizes is given as a guideline for future applications.
66
7594
Coping with the Rapidity of Information Technology Changes – A Comparison Reviewon Current Practices
Abstract:
Information technology managers nowadays are facing with tremendous pressure to plan, implement, and adopt new technology solution due to the rapidity of technology changes. Resulted from a lack of study that have been done in this topic, the aim of this paper is to provide a comparison review on current tools that are currently being used in order to respond to technological changes. The study is based on extensive literature review of published works with majority of them are ranging from 2000 to the first part of 2011. The works were gathered from journals, books, and other information sources available on the Web. Findings show that, each tools has different focus and none of the tools are providing a framework in holistic view, which should include technical, people, process, and business environment aspect. Hence, this result provides potential information about current available tools that IT managers could use to manage changes in technology. Further, the result reveals a research gap in the area where the industries a short of such framework.
65
3628
Design and Fabrication of a Low Cost Heart Monitor using Reflectance Photoplethysmogram
Abstract:

This paper presents a low cost design of heart beat monitoring device using reflectance mode PhotoPlethysmography (PPG). PPG is known for its simple construction, ease of use and cost effectiveness and can provide information about the changes in cardiac activity as well as aid in earlier non-invasive diagnostics. The proposed device is divided into three phases. First is the detection of pulses through the fingertip. The signal is then passed to the signal processing unit for the purpose of amplification, filtering and digitizing. Finally the heart rate is calculated and displayed on the computer using parallel port interface. The paper is concluded with prototyping of the device followed by verification procedure of the heartbeat signal obtained in laboratory setting.

64
7154
Signature Identification Scheme Based on Iterated Function Systems
Abstract:
Since 1984 many schemes have been proposed for digital signature protocol, among them those that based on discrete log and factorizations. However a new identification scheme based on iterated function (IFS) systems are proposed and proved to be more efficient. In this study the proposed identification scheme is transformed into a digital signature scheme by using a one way hash function. It is a generalization of the GQ signature schemes. The attractor of the IFS is used to obtain public key from a private one, and in the encryption and decryption of a hash function. Our aim is to provide techniques and tools which may be useful towards developing cryptographic protocols. Comparisons between the proposed scheme and fractal digital signature scheme based on RSA setting, as well as, with the conventional Guillou-Quisquater signature, and RSA signature schemes is performed to prove that, the proposed scheme is efficient and with high performance.
63
10236
Solution of Fuzzy Differential Equation under Generalized Differentiability by Genetic Programming
Abstract:
In this paper, solution of fuzzy differential equation under general differentiability is obtained by genetic programming (GP). The obtained solution in this method is equivalent or very close to the exact solution of the problem. Accuracy of the solution to this problem is qualitatively better. An illustrative numerical example is presented for the proposed method.
62
12741
Study of Compost Maturity during Humification Process using UV-Spectroscopy
Abstract:

The increments of aromatic structures are widely used to monitor the degree of humification. Compost derived from mix manures mixed with agricultural wastes was studied. The compost collected at day 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 49, 77, 91, 105, and 119 was divided into 3 stages, initial stage at day 0, thermophilic stage during day 1-48, and mature stage during day 49-119. The change of highest absorptions at wavelength range between 210-235 nm during day 0- 49 implied that small molecules such as nitrates and carboxylic occurred faster than the aromatic molecules that were found at wavelength around 280 nm. The ratio of electron-transfer band at wavelength 253 nm by the benzonoid band at wavelength 230 nm (E253/E230) also gradually increased during the fermenting period indicating the presence of O-containing functional groups. This was in agreement with the shift change from aliphatic to aromatic structures as shown by the relationship with C/N and H/C ratios (r = - 0.631 and -0.717, p< 0.05) since both were decreasing. Although the amounts of humic acid (HA) were not different much during the humification process, the UV spectral deconvolution showed better qualitative characteristics to help in determining the compost quality. From this study, the compost should be used at day 49 and should not be kept longer than 3 months otherwise the quality of HA would decline regardless of the amounts of HA that might be rising. This implied that other processes, such as mineralization had an influence on the humification process changing HA-s structure and its qualities.

61
4720
A Cooperative Weighted Discriminator Energy Detector Technique in Fading Environment
Abstract:

The need in cognitive radio system for a simple, fast, and independent technique to sense the spectrum occupancy has led to the energy detection approach. Energy detector is known by its dependency on noise variation in the system which is one of its major drawbacks. In this paper, we are aiming to improve its performance by utilizing a weighted collaborative spectrum sensing, it is similar to the collaborative spectrum sensing methods introduced previously in the literature. These weighting methods give more improvement for collaborative spectrum sensing as compared to no weighting case. There is two method proposed in this paper: the first one depends on the channel status between each sensor and the primary user while the second depends on the value of the energy measured in each sensor.

60
7790
Challenges for Security in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)
Abstract:

Wireless sensor network is formed with the combination of sensor nodes and sink nodes. Recently Wireless sensor network has attracted attention of the research community. The main application of wireless sensor network is security from different attacks both for mass public and military. However securing these networks, by itself is a critical issue due to many constraints like limited energy, computational power and lower memory. Researchers working in this area have proposed a number of security techniques for this purpose. Still, more work needs to be done.In this paper we provide a detailed discussion on security in wireless sensor networks. This paper will help to identify different obstacles and requirements for security of wireless sensor networks as well as highlight weaknesses of existing techniques.

59
11838
Dynamic Economic Dispatch Constrained by Wind Power Weibull Distribution: A Here-and-Now Strategy
Abstract:

In this paper, a Dynamic Economic Dispatch (DED) model is developed for the system consisting of both thermal generators and wind turbines. The inclusion of a significant amount of wind energy into power systems has resulted in additional constraints on DED to accommodate the intermittent nature of the output. The probability of stochastic wind power based on the Weibull probability density function is included in the model as a constraint; A Here-and-Now Approach. The Environmental Protection Agency-s hourly emission target, which gives the maximum emission during the day, is used as a constraint to reduce the atmospheric pollution. A 69-bus test system with non-smooth cost function is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model compared with static economic dispatch model with including the wind power.

58
12689
Validation of the WAsP Model for a Terrain Surrounded by Mountainous Region
Abstract:
The problems associated with wind predictions of WAsP model in complex terrain are already the target of several studies in the last decade. In this paper, the influence of surrounding orography on accuracy of wind data analysis of a train is investigated. For the case study, a site with complex surrounding orography is considered. This site is located in Manjil, one of the windiest cities of Iran. For having precise evaluation of wind regime in the site, one-year wind data measurements from two metrological masts are used. To validate the obtained results from WAsP, the cross prediction between each mast is performed. The analysis reveals that WAsP model can estimate the wind speed behavior accurately. In addition, results show that this software can be used for predicting the wind regime in flat sites with complex surrounding orography.
57
6221
Assessment of the Environmental Destructive Effects of Building Dams
Abstract:
From the beginning of creation, human being has ever fought against the ecosystem by changes has made in environment. The most environmental changes on the nature have been done after starting the concentrated life in the same region. Dams are one of the most important buildings in water resources and transferring. These buildings have been made from old times without access to hydrological, hydraulically, hydro mechanical information. Dams have positive and negative effects on environment. Constructing a dam relatively causes equal ecological consequences. According to different criteria, environmental effects of dams can lead short term and long term damages. These effects may influence on the situation and treatment of meteorology, biology, culture, ancient works, etc and severely causes to change and complicate it. So considering importance of positive effects of dam construction, it is necessary to minimize negative environmental effects of dams to achieve a stable development. In this article the considered effects and their solutions in influencing on assessment of destructive environmental effects of dams construction have been surveyed and presented.
56
6109
Evaluation of Optimum Performance of Lateral Intakes
Abstract:

In designing river intakes and diversion structures, it is paramount that the sediments entering the intake are minimized or, if possible, completely separated. Due to high water velocity, sediments can significantly damage hydraulic structures especially when mechanical equipment like pumps and turbines are used. This subsequently results in wasting water, electricity and further costs. Therefore, it is prudent to investigate and analyze the performance of lateral intakes affected by sediment control structures. Laboratory experiments, despite their vast potential and benefits, can face certain limitations and challenges. Some of these include: limitations in equipment and facilities, space constraints, equipment errors including lack of adequate precision or mal-operation, and finally, human error. Research has shown that in order to achieve the ultimate goal of intake structure design – which is to design longlasting and proficient structures – the best combination of sediment control structures (such as sill and submerged vanes) along with parameters that increase their performance (such as diversion angle and location) should be determined. Cost, difficulty of execution and environmental impacts should also be included in evaluating the optimal design. This solution can then be applied to similar problems in the future. Subsequently, the model used to arrive at the optimal design requires high level of accuracy and precision in order to avoid improper design and execution of projects. Process of creating and executing the design should be as comprehensive and applicable as possible. Therefore, it is important that influential parameters and vital criteria is fully understood and applied at all stages of choosing the optimal design. In this article, influential parameters on optimal performance of the intake, advantages and disadvantages, and efficiency of a given design are studied. Then, a multi-criterion decision matrix is utilized to choose the optimal model that can be used to determine the proper parameters in constructing the intake.

55
4685
Bioprocess Intelligent Control: A Case Study
Abstract:

Bioprocesses are appreciated as difficult to control because their dynamic behavior is highly nonlinear and time varying, in particular, when they are operating in fed batch mode. The research objective of this study was to develop an appropriate control method for a complex bioprocess and to implement it on a laboratory plant. Hence, an intelligent control structure has been designed in order to produce biomass and to maximize the specific growth rate.

54
7123
Increasing of Energy Efficiency based on Persian Ancient Architectural Patterns in Desert Regions (Case Study Of Traditional Houses In Kashan)
Abstract:
In general architecture means the art of creating the space. Comprehensive and complete body which is created by a creative and purposeful thought to respond the human needs. Professionally, architecture is the are of designing and comprehensive planning of physical spaces that is created for human-s productivity. The purpose of architectural design is to respond the human needs which is appeared in physical frame. Human in response to his needs is always looking to achieve comfort. Throughout history of human civilization this relative comfort has been inspired by nature and assimilating the facility and natural achievement in the format of artifact patterns base on the nature, so that it is achieved in this comfort level and invention of these factors. All physical factors like regional, social and economical factors are made available to human in order to achieve a specific goal and are made to gain an ideal architecture to respond the functional needs and consider the aesthetics and elemental principles and pay attention to residents- comfort. In this study the Persian architecture with exploiting and transforming the energies into the requisite energies of architecture spaces and importing fuel products, utilities, etc, in order to achieve a relative comfort level will be investigated. In this paper the study of structural and physical specialties of traditional houses in desert regions and Central Plateau of Iran gave us this opportunity to being more familiar with important specialties of energy productivity in architecture body of traditional houses in these regions specially traditional houses of Kashan and in order to use these principles to create modern architectures in these regions.
53
4752
Sensor Fusion Based Discrete Kalman Filter for Outdoor Robot Navigation
Abstract:

The objective of the presented work is to implement the Kalman Filter into an application that reduces the influence of the environmental changes over the robot expected to navigate over a terrain of varying friction properties. The Discrete Kalman Filter is used to estimate the robot position, project the estimated current state ahead at time through time update and adjust the projected estimated state by an actual measurement at that time via the measurement update using the data coming from the infrared sensors, ultrasonic sensors and the visual sensor respectively. The navigation test has been performed in a real world environment and has been found to be robust.

52
12278
The Photo-Absorption and Surface Feature of Nano-Structured TIO2 Coatings
Abstract:
Titanium dioxide coatings were deposited by utilizing atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) system. The agglomerated nanopowder and different spraying parameters were used to determine their influences on the microstructure surface feature and photoabsorption of the coatings. The microstructure of as-sprayed TiO2 coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Surface characteristics were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR). The photo absorption was determined by UV-VIS spectrophotometer. It is found that the spray parameters have an influence on the microstructure, surface feature and photo-absorption of the TiO2 coatings.
51
11093
Content Based Sampling over Transactional Data Streams
Abstract:

This paper investigates the problem of sampling from transactional data streams. We introduce CFISDS as a content based sampling algorithm that works on a landmark window model of data streams and preserve more informed sample in sample space. This algorithm that work based on closed frequent itemset mining tasks, first initiate a concept lattice using initial data, then update lattice structure using an incremental mechanism.Incremental mechanism insert, update and delete nodes in/from concept lattice in batch manner. Presented algorithm extracts the final samples on demand of user. Experimental results show the accuracy of CFISDS on synthetic and real datasets, despite on CFISDS algorithm is not faster than exist sampling algorithms such as Z and DSS.

50
7238
Vibration Control of MDOF Structure under Earthquake Excitation using Passive Control and Active Control
Abstract:
In the present paper, active control system is used in different heights of the building and the most effective part was studied where the active control system is applied. The mathematical model of the building is established in MATLAB and in order to active control the system FLC method was used. Three different locations of the building are chosen to apply active control system, namely at the lowest story, the middle height of the building, and at the highest point of the building with TMD system. The equation of motion was written for high rise building and it was solved by statespace method. Also passive control was used with Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) at the top floor of the building to show the robustness of FLC method when compared with passive control system.
49
4746
Changes in the Research of Crisis
Authors:
Abstract:
Thanks to the interdisciplinary nature of crises, the position of researchers in that field is rather difficult. Very often the traditional methods of research cannot be applied there. The article is aimed at the changes in crises research. It describes the substance of individual changes and emphasizes the shift in research approaches to the crisis.
Keywords:
48
13715
Hydrodynamic Modeling of Infinite Reservoir using Finite Element Method
Abstract:
In this paper, the dam-reservoir interaction is analyzed using a finite element approach. The fluid is assumed to be incompressible, irrotational and inviscid. The assumed boundary conditions are that the interface of the dam and reservoir is vertical and the bottom of reservoir is rigid and horizontal. The governing equation for these boundary conditions is implemented in the developed finite element code considering the horizontal and vertical earthquake components. The weighted residual standard Galerkin finite element technique with 8-node elements is used to discretize the equation that produces a symmetric matrix equation for the damreservoir system. A new boundary condition is proposed for truncating surface of unbounded fluid domain to show the energy dissipation in the reservoir, through radiation in the infinite upstream direction. The Sommerfeld-s and perfect damping boundary conditions are also implemented for a truncated boundary to compare with the proposed far end boundary. The results are compared with an analytical solution to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed formulation and other truncated boundary conditions in modeling the hydrodynamic response of an infinite reservoir.
47
11318
Influence of PLA Film Packaging on the Shelf Life of Soft Cheese Kleo
Abstract:
Experiments were carried out at the Faculty of Food Technology of Latvia University of Agriculture (LLU). Soft cheese Kleo produced in Latvia was packed in a biodegradable PLA without barrierproperties and VC999 BioPack lidding film PLA, coated with a barrier of pure silicon oxide (SiOx) and in combination with modified atmosphere (MAP) the influence on the shelf life was investigated and compared with some conventional (OPP, PE/PA, PE/OPA and Multibarrier 60) polymer film impact. Modified atmosphere consisted of carbon dioxide CO2 (E 290) 30% and nitrogen N2 (E 941) 70%. The analyzable samples were stored at the temperature of +4.0±0.5 °C up to 32 days- and analyzed before packaging and in the 0, 5th, 11th, 15th, 18th, 22nd, 25th, 29th and 32nd day of storage. The shelf life was extended along to 32 days, good outside appearance and lactic acid aroma was observed.
46
14315
DWM-CDD: Dynamic Weighted Majority Concept Drift Detection for Spam Mail Filtering
Abstract:

Although e-mail is the most efficient and popular communication method, unwanted and mass unsolicited e-mails, also called spam mail, endanger the existence of the mail system. This paper proposes a new algorithm called Dynamic Weighted Majority Concept Drift Detection (DWM-CDD) for content-based filtering. The design purposes of DWM-CDD are first to accurate the performance of the previously proposed algorithms, and second to speed up the time to construct the model. The results show that DWM-CDD can detect both sudden and gradual changes quickly and accurately. Moreover, the time needed for model construction is less than previously proposed algorithms.

45
9572
Determination of the Specific Activity of Soil and Fertilizers in Sergipe - Brazil
Abstract:

Measurements of radioactivity in the environment is of great importance to monitor and control the levels of radiation to which man is exposed directly or indirectly. It is necessary to show that regardless of working or being close to nuclear power plants, people are daily in contact with some amount of radiation from the actual environment and food that are ingested, contradicting the view of most of them. The aim of this study was to analyze the rate of natural and artificial radiation from radionuclides present in cement, soil and fertilizers used in Sergipe State – Brazil. The radionuclide activitiesmeasured all samples arebelow the Brazilian limit of the exclusion and exemption criteria from the requirement of radiation protection.It was detected Be-7 in organic fertilizers that means a short interval between the brewing processes for use in agriculture. It was also detected an unexpected Cs-137 in some samples; however its activities does not represent risk for the population. Th-231 was also found in samples of soil and cement in the state of Sergipe that is an unprecedented result.

44
5197
Customer Need Type Classification Model using Data Mining Techniques for Recommender Systems
Abstract:
Recommender systems are usually regarded as an important marketing tool in the e-commerce. They use important information about users to facilitate accurate recommendation. The information includes user context such as location, time and interest for personalization of mobile users. We can easily collect information about location and time because mobile devices communicate with the base station of the service provider. However, information about user interest can-t be easily collected because user interest can not be captured automatically without user-s approval process. User interest usually represented as a need. In this study, we classify needs into two types according to prior research. This study investigates the usefulness of data mining techniques for classifying user need type for recommendation systems. We employ several data mining techniques including artificial neural networks, decision trees, case-based reasoning, and multivariate discriminant analysis. Experimental results show that CHAID algorithm outperforms other models for classifying user need type. This study performs McNemar test to examine the statistical significance of the differences of classification results. The results of McNemar test also show that CHAID performs better than the other models with statistical significance.
43
5921
Attentiveness of Building Commissioning in the Malaysian Construction Industry
Abstract:
This paper provides some thoughts about the lack of attentiveness of building commissioning in the construction industry and the lack of handling in project commissioning as an integral part of the project life-cycle. Many have perceived commissioning as the problem solving process of a project, rather than the start up of the equipment, or the handing over of the project to the client. Therefore, there is a lack of proper attention in the planning of commissioning as a vital part of the project life-cycle. This review paper aims to highlight the benefits of building commissioning and to propose the lacking of knowledge gap on building commissioning. Finally, this paper hopes to propose the shift of focus on this matter in future research.
42
13087
Colour Stability of Wild Cactus Pear Juice
Abstract:
Prickly pear (Opuntia spp) fruit has received renewed interest since it contains a betalain pigment that has an attractive purple colour for the production of juice. Prickly pear juice was prepared by homogenizing the fruit and treating the pulp with 48 g of pectinase from Aspergillus niger. Titratable acidity was determined by diluting 10 ml prickly pear juice with 90 ml deionized water and titrating to pH 8.2 with 0.1 N NaOH. Brix was measured using a refractometer and ascorbic acid content assayed spectrophotometrically. Colour variation was determined colorimetrically (Hunter L.a.b.). Hunter L.a.b. analysis showed that the red purple colour of prickly pear juice had been affected by juice treatments. This was indicated by low light values of colour difference meter (CDML*), hue, CDMa* and CDMb* values. It was observed that non-treated prickly pear juice had a high (colour difference meter of light) CDML* of 3.9 compared to juice treatments (range 3.29 to 2.14). The CDML* significantly (p
41
107
Manual Testing of Web Software Systems Supported by Direct Guidance of the Tester Based On Design Model
Abstract:

Software testing is important stage of software development cycle. Current testing process involves tester and electronic documents with test case scenarios. In this paper we focus on new approach to testing process using automated test case generation and tester guidance through the system based on the model of the system. Test case generation and model-based testing is not possible without proper system model. We aim on providing better feedback from the testing process thus eliminating the unnecessary paper work.

40
8374
Real-time Interactive Ocean Wave Simulation using Multithread
Abstract:
This research simulates one of the natural phenomena, the ocean wave. Our goal is to be able to simulate the ocean wave at real-time rate with the water surface interacting with objects. The wave in this research is calm and smooth caused by the force of the wind above the ocean surface. In order to make the simulation of the wave real-time, the implementation of the GPU and the multithreading techniques are used here. Based on the fact that the new generation CPUs, for personal computers, have multi cores, they are useful for the multithread. This technique utilizes more than one core at a time. This simulation is programmed by C language with OpenGL. To make the simulation of the wave look more realistic, we applied an OpenGL technique called cube mapping (environmental mapping) to make water surface reflective and more realistic.
39
1227
Lexical Database for Multiple Languages: Multilingual Word Semantic Network
Abstract:

Data mining and knowledge engineering have become a tough task due to the availability of large amount of data in the web nowadays. Validity and reliability of data also become a main debate in knowledge acquisition. Besides, acquiring knowledge from different languages has become another concern. There are many language translators and corpora developed but the function of these translators and corpora are usually limited to certain languages and domains. Furthermore, search results from engines with traditional 'keyword' approach are no longer satisfying. More intelligent knowledge engineering agents are needed. To address to these problems, a system known as Multilingual Word Semantic Network is proposed. This system adapted semantic network to organize words according to concepts and relations. The system also uses open source as the development philosophy to enable the native language speakers and experts to contribute their knowledge to the system. The contributed words are then defined and linked using lexical and semantic relations. Thus, related words and derivatives can be identified and linked. From the outcome of the system implementation, it contributes to the development of semantic web and knowledge engineering.

38
7979
Full-genomic Network Inference for Non-model organisms: A Case Study for the Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans
Abstract:

Reverse engineering of full-genomic interaction networks based on compendia of expression data has been successfully applied for a number of model organisms. This study adapts these approaches for an important non-model organism: The major human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. During the infection process, the pathogen can adapt to a wide range of environmental niches and reversibly changes its growth form. Given the importance of these processes, it is important to know how they are regulated. This study presents a reverse engineering strategy able to infer fullgenomic interaction networks for C. albicans based on a linear regression, utilizing the sparseness criterion (LASSO). To overcome the limited amount of expression data and small number of known interactions, we utilize different prior-knowledge sources guiding the network inference to a knowledge driven solution. Since, no database of known interactions for C. albicans exists, we use a textmining system which utilizes full-text research papers to identify known regulatory interactions. By comparing with these known regulatory interactions, we find an optimal value for global modelling parameters weighting the influence of the sparseness criterion and the prior-knowledge. Furthermore, we show that soft integration of prior-knowledge additionally improves the performance. Finally, we compare the performance of our approach to state of the art network inference approaches.

37
9750
A Study on the Location and Range of Obstacle Region in Robot's Point Placement Task based on the Vision Control Algorithm
Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the application of the vision control algorithm for robot's point placement task in discontinuous trajectory caused by obstacle. The presented vision control algorithm consists of four models, which are the robot kinematic model, vision system model, parameters estimation model, and robot joint angle estimation model.When the robot moves toward a target along discontinuous trajectory, several types of obstacles appear in two obstacle regions. Then, this study is to investigate how these changes will affect the presented vision control algorithm.Thus, the practicality of the vision control algorithm is demonstrated experimentally by performing the robot's point placement task in discontinuous trajectory by obstacle.

36
4866
Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Polymer Insulator under Salt Water Dip Wheel Test
Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of silicone rubber polymer insulators for 22 kV systems under salt water dip wheel test based on IEC 62217. Straight shed silicone rubber polymer insulators having leakage distance 685 mm were tested continuously 30,000 cycles. One test cycle includes 4 positions, energized, de-energized, salt water dip and deenergized, respectively. For one test cycle, each test specimen remains stationary for about 40 second in each position and takes 8 second for rotate to next position. By visual observation, sever surface erosion was observed on the trunk near the energized end of tested specimen. Puncture was observed on the upper shed near the energized end. In addition, decreasing in hydrophobicity and increasing in hardness were measured on tested specimen comparing with new specimen. Furthermore, chemical analysis by ATR-FTIR was conducted in order to elucidate the chemical change of tested specimens comparing with new specimen.

35
15379
Comparation Treatment Method for Industrial Tempeh Waste by Constructed Wetland and Activated Sludge
Abstract:
Ever since industrial revolution began, our ecosystem has changed. And indeed, the negatives outweigh the positives. Industrial waste usually released into all kinds of body of water, such as river or sea. Tempeh waste is one example of waste that carries many hazardous and unwanted substances that will affect the surrounding environment. Tempeh is a popular fermented food in Asia which is rich in nutrients and active substances. Tempeh liquid waste- in particular- can cause an air pollution, and if penetrates through the soil, it will contaminates ground-water, making it unavailable for the water to be consumed. Moreover, bacteria will thrive within the polluted water, which often responsible for causing many kinds of diseases. The treatment used for this chemical waste is biological treatment such as constructed wetland and activated sludge. These kinds of treatment are able to reduce both physical and chemical parameters altogether such as temperature, TSS, pH, BOD, COD, NH3-N, NO3-N, and PO4-P. These treatments are implemented before the waste is released into the water. The result is a comparation between constructed wetland and activated sludge, along with determining which method is better suited to reduce the physical and chemical subtances of the waste.
34
15183
Multi-Element Synthetic Transmit Aperture Method in Medical Ultrasound Imaging
Abstract:
The paper presents the multi-element synthetic transmit aperture (MSTA) method with a small number of elements transmitting and all elements apertures in medical ultrasound imaging. As compared to the other methods MSTA allows to increase the system frame rate and provides the best compromise between penetration depth and lateral resolution. In the experiments a 128-element linear transducer array with 0.3 mm pitch excited by a burst pulse of 125 ns duration were used. The comparison of 2D ultrasound images of tissue mimicking phantom obtained using the STA and the MSTA methods is presented to demonstrate the benefits of the second approach. The results were obtained using SA algorithm with transmit and receive signals correction based on a single element directivity function.
33
10059
A Microstrip Antenna Design and Performance Analysis for RFID High Bit Rate Applications
Abstract:
Lately, an interest has grown greatly in the usages of RFID in an un-presidential applications. It is shown in the adaptation of major software companies such as Microsoft, IBM, and Oracle the RFID capabilities in their major software products. For example Microsoft SharePoints 2010 workflow is now fully compatible with RFID platform. In addition, Microsoft BizTalk server is also capable of all RFID sensors data acquisition. This will lead to applications that required high bit rate, long range and a multimedia content in nature. Higher frequencies of operation have been designated for RFID tags, among them are the 2.45 and 5.8 GHz. The higher the frequency means higher range, and higher bit rate, but the drawback is the greater cost. In this paper we present a single layer, low profile patch antenna operates at 5.8 GHz with pure resistive input impedance of 50 and close to directive radiation. Also, we propose a modification to the design in order to improve the operation band width from 8.7 to 13.8
32
12821
Analysis of a Singular Perturbed Synchronous Generator with a Bond Graph Approach
Abstract:
An analysis of a synchronous generator in a bond graph approach is proposed. This bond graph allows to determine the simplified models of the system by using singular perturbations. Firstly, the nonlinear bond graph of the generator is linearized. Then, the slow and fast state equations by applying singular perturbations are obtained. Also, a bond graph to get the quasi-steady state of the slow dynamic is proposed. In order to verify the effectiveness of the singularly perturbed models, simulation results of the complete system and reduced models are shown.
31
15444
Low-Cost and Highly Accurate Motion Models for Three-Dimensional Local Landmark-based Autonomous Navigation
Abstract:

Recently, the Spherical Motion Models (SMM-s) have been introduced [1]. These new models have been developed for 3D local landmark-base Autonomous Navigation (AN). This paper is revealing new arguments and experimental results to support the SMM-s characteristics. The accuracy and the robustness in performing a specific task are the main concerns of the new investigations. To analyze their performances of the SMM-s, the most powerful tools of estimation theory, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF), which give the best estimations in noisy environments, have been employed. The Monte Carlo validation implementations used to test the stability and robustness of the models have been employed as well.

30
6050
Using Ferry Access Points to Improve the Performance of Message Ferrying in Delay-Tolerant Networks
Abstract:
Delay-Tolerant Networks (DTNs) are sparse, wireless networks where disconnections are common due to host mobility and low node density. The Message Ferrying (MF) scheme is a mobilityassisted paradigm to improve connectivity in DTN-like networks. A ferry or message ferry is a special node in the network which has a per-determined route in the deployed area and relays messages between mobile hosts (MHs) which are intermittently connected. Increased contact opportunities among mobile hosts and the ferry improve the performance of the network, both in terms of message delivery ratio and average end-end delay. However, due to the inherent mobility of mobile hosts and pre-determined periodicity of the message ferry, mobile hosts may often -miss- contact opportunities with a ferry. In this paper, we propose the combination of stationary ferry access points (FAPs) with MF routing to increase contact opportunities between mobile hosts and the MF and consequently improve the performance of the DTN. We also propose several placement models for deploying FAPs on MF routes. We evaluate the performance of the FAP placement models through comprehensive simulation. Our findings show that FAPs do improve the performance of MF-assisted DTNs and symmetric placement of FAPs outperforms other placement strategies.
29
15729
Analyzing of Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity Effect in the Numerical Modeling of Fin-Tube Radiators: Introduction of a New Method
Abstract:
In all industries which are related to heat, suitable thermal ranges are defined for each device to operate well. Consideration of these limits requires a thermal control unit beside the main system. The Satellite Thermal Control Unit exploits from different methods and facilities individually or mixed. For enhancing heat transfer between primary surface and the environment, utilization of radiating extended surfaces are common. Especially for large temperature differences; variable thermal conductivity has a strong effect on performance of such a surface .In most literatures, thermo-physical properties, such as thermal conductivity, are assumed as constant. However, in some recent researches the variation of these parameters is considered. This may be helpful for the evaluation of fin-s temperature distribution in relatively large temperature differences. A new method is introduced to evaluate temperature-dependent thermal conductivity values. The finite volume method is employed to simulate numerically the temperature distribution in a space radiating fin. The present modeling is carried out for Aluminum as fin material and compared with previous method. The present results are also compared with those of two other analytical methods and good agreement is shown.
28
5263
Influence of Watertable Depth on Soil Sodicity and Salinity
Abstract:
In order to monitor the water table depth on soil profile salinity buildup, a field study was carried out during 2006-07. Wheat (Rabi) and Sorghum (Kharif) fodder were sown in with three treatments. The results showed that watertable depth lowered from 1.15m to 2.89 m depth at the end of experiment. With lower of watertable depth, pH, ECe and SAR decreased under crops both without and with gypsum and increased in fallowing. Soil moisture depletion was directly proportional to lowering of watertable. With the application of irrigation water (58cm) pH, ECe and SAR were reduced in cropped plots, reduction was higher in gypsum applied plots than non-gypsum plots. In case of fallowing, there was increase in pH, EC, while slight reduction occurred in SAR values. However, soil salinity showed an increasing upward trend under fallowing and its value in 0-30 cm soil layer was the highest amongst the treatments.
27
1127
Forecasting Stock Price Manipulation in Capital Market
Abstract:
The aim of the article is extending and developing econometrics and network structure based methods which are able to distinguish price manipulation in Tehran stock exchange. The principal goal of the present study is to offer model for approximating price manipulation in Tehran stock exchange. In order to do so by applying separation method a sample consisting of 397 companies accepted at Tehran stock exchange were selected and information related to their price and volume of trades during years 2001 until 2009 were collected and then through performing runs test, skewness test and duration correlative test the selected companies were divided into 2 sets of manipulated and non manipulated companies. In the next stage by investigating cumulative return process and volume of trades in manipulated companies, the date of starting price manipulation was specified and in this way the logit model, artificial neural network, multiple discriminant analysis and by using information related to size of company, clarity of information, ratio of P/E and liquidity of stock one year prior price manipulation; a model for forecasting price manipulation of stocks of companies present in Tehran stock exchange were designed. At the end the power of forecasting models were studied by using data of test set. Whereas the power of forecasting logit model for test set was 92.1%, for artificial neural network was 94.1% and multi audit analysis model was 90.2%; therefore all of the 3 aforesaid models has high power to forecast price manipulation and there is no considerable difference among forecasting power of these 3 models.
26
12840
Effect of Including Thermal Process on Spot Welded and Weld-Bonded Joints
Abstract:

A three-dimensional finite element modeling for austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 annealed condition sheets of 1.0 mm thickness are developed using ABAQUS® software. This includes spot welded and weld bonded joints models. Both models undergo thermal heat caused by spot welding process and then are subjected to axial load up to the failure point. The properties of elastic and plastic regions, modulus of elasticity, fracture limit, nugget and heat affected zones are determined. Complete loaddisplacement curve for each joining model is obtained and compared with the experiment data and with the finite element models without including the effect of thermal process. In general, the results obtained for both spot welded and weld-bonded joints affected by thermal process showed an excellent agreement with the experimental data.

25
3223
Consumer Adoption - Risk Factor of Mobile Banking Services
Abstract:
Mobile banking services present a unique growth opportunity for mobile operators in emerging markets, and have already made good progress in bringing financial services to the previously unbanked populations of many developing countries. The potential is amazing, but what about the risks? In the complex process of establishing a mobile banking business model, many kinds of risks and factors need to be monitored and well-managed. Risk identification is the first stage of risk management. Correct risk identification ensures risk management effectiveness. Keeping the risks low makes it possible to use the full potential of mobile banking and carry out the planned business strategy. The focus should be on adoption of consumers which is the main risk factor of mobile banking services.
24
7957
Dynamic of Aggressive Behavior at the Context of Reflective Process
Abstract:
The paper which is dedicated to describing the effect made by the “significant other", presents the new model of interrelation between self-reflection, the “significant other" phenomenon and aggression. Tendencies of direction and type frustration response developments in detail are discussed. New results have been received through designing of the original experiment. It is based on modifications of the “Picture – Frustration Study" test by S. Rosenzweig.
23
11864
Cultivation of Thymus by In Vitro And Hydroponics Combined Method
Abstract:
Our results showed that for the growth of qualitative seedling and vegetative raw material of ðó. marschallianus Willd. and T. serphyllum L. it is more profitable to use the in vitro and hydroponics combined method. In in vitro culture it is possible to do micro-propagation whole year with 98-99% rhizogenesis. 30000 micro-plants were obtained from one explant during 9 months. Hydroponic conditions provide the necessary microclimate for microplants where the survival rate without acclimatization was 93.3%. The essential oil content in hydroponic dry herb of both species in vegetative and blossom phase was 1.3% whereas in wild plants it was 1.2%, the content of extractive substances and vitamin C also exceeded wild plants. Our biochemical and radiochemical investigations indicated that the medicinal raw materials obtained from hydroponic and wild plants of Thymus species correspond to the demands of SPh XI, and the content of artificial radionuclides does not exceed the MACL.
22
1905
Determination of the Proper Quality Costs Parameters via Variable Step Size Steepest Descent Algorithm
Abstract:
This paper presents the determination of the proper quality costs parameters which provide the optimum return. The system dynamics simulation was applied. The simulation model was constructed by the real data from a case of the electronic devices manufacturer in Thailand. The Steepest Descent algorithm was employed to optimise. The experimental results show that the company should spend on prevention and appraisal activities for 850 and 10 Baht/day respectively. It provides minimum cumulative total quality cost, which is 258,000 Baht in twelve months. The effect of the step size in the stage of improving the variables to the optimum was also investigated. It can be stated that the smaller step size provided a better result with more experimental runs. However, the different yield in this case is not significant in practice. Therefore, the greater step size is recommended because the region of optima could be reached more easily and rapidly.
21
15075
GPI Observer-based Tracking Control and Synchronization of Chaotic Systems
Abstract:

Based on general proportional integral (GPI) observers and sliding mode control technique, a robust control method is proposed for the master-slave synchronization of chaotic systems in the presence of parameter uncertainty and with partially measurable output signal. By using GPI observer, the master dynamics are reconstructed by the observations from a measurable output under the differential algebraic framework. Driven by the signals provided by GPI observer, a sliding mode control technique is used for the tracking control and synchronization of the master-slave dynamics. The convincing numerical results reveal the proposed method is effective, and successfully accommodate the system uncertainties, disturbances, and noisy corruptions.

20
829
Firing Angle Range Control For Minimising Harmonics in TCR Employed in SVC-s
Abstract:
Most electrical distribution systems are incurring large losses as the loads are wide spread, inadequate reactive power compensation facilities and their improper control. A typical static VAR compensator consists of capacitor bank in binary sequential steps operated in conjunction with a thyristor controlled reactor of the smallest step size. This SVC facilitates stepless control of reactive power closely matching with load requirements so as to maintain power factor nearer to unity. This type of SVC-s requiring a appropriately controlled TCR. This paper deals with an air cored reactor suitable for distribution transformer of 3phase, 50Hz, Dy11, 11KV/433V, 125 KVA capacity. Air cored reactors are designed, built, tested and operated in conjunction with capacitor bank in five binary sequential steps. It is established how the delta connected TCR minimizes the harmonic components and the operating range for various electrical quantities as a function of firing angle is investigated. In particular firing angle v/s line & phase currents, D.C. components, THD-s, active and reactive powers, odd and even triplen harmonics, dominant characteristic harmonics are all investigated and range of firing angle is fixed for satisfactory operation. The harmonic spectra for phase and line quantities at specified firing angles are given. In case the TCR is operated within the bound specified in this paper established through simulation studies are yielding the best possible operating condition particularly free from all dominant harmonics.
19
14429
On Simulation based WSN Multi-Parametric Performance Analysis
Abstract:
Optimum communication and performance in Wireless Sensor Networks, constitute multi-facet challenges due to the specific networking characteristics as well as the scarce resource availability. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly apparent that isolated layer based approaches often do not meet the demands posed by WSNs applications due to omission of critical inter-layer interactions and dependencies. As a counterpart, cross-layer is receiving high interest aiming to exploit these interactions and increase network performance. However, in order to clearly identify existing dependencies, comprehensive performance studies are required evaluating the effect of different critical network parameters on system level performance and behavior.This paper-s main objective is to address the need for multi-parametric performance evaluations considering critical network parameters using a well known network simulator, offering useful and practical conclusions and guidelines. The results reveal strong dependencies among considered parameters which can be utilized by and drive future research efforts, towards designing and implementing highly efficient protocols and architectures.
18
13680
Characterization of Three Photodetector Types for Computed Tomography Dosimetry
Abstract:
In this study three commercial semiconductor devices were characterized in the laboratory for computed tomography dosimetry: one photodiode and two phototransistors. It was evaluated four responses to the irradiation: dose linearity, energy dependence, angular dependence and loss of sensitivity after X ray exposure. The results showed that the three devices have proportional response with the air kerma; the energy dependence displayed for each device suggests that some calibration factors would be applied for each one; the angular dependence showed a similar pattern among the three electronic components. In respect to the fourth parameter analyzed, one phototransistor has the highest sensitivity however it also showed the greatest loss of sensitivity with the accumulated dose. The photodiode was the device with the smaller sensitivity to radiation, on the other hand, the loss of sensitivity after irradiation is negligible. Since high accuracy is a desired feature for a dosimeter, the photodiode can be the most suitable of the three devices for dosimetry in tomography. The phototransistors can also be used for CT dosimetry, however it would be necessary a correction factor due to loss of sensitivity with accumulated dose.
17
7968
Kerma Profile Measurements in CT Chest Scans– a Comparison of Methodologies
Abstract:
The Brazilian legislation has only established diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in terms of Multiple Scan Average Dose (MSAD) as a quality control parameter for computed tomography (CT) scanners. Compliance with DRLs can be verified by measuring the Computed Tomography Kerma Index (Ca,100) with a pencil ionization chamber or by obtaining the kerma distribution in CT scans with radiochromic films or rod shape lithium fluoride termoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100). TL dosimeters were used to record kerma profiles and to determine MSAD values of a Bright Speed model GE CT scanner. Measurements were done with radiochromic films and TL dosimeters distributed in cylinders positioned in the center and in four peripheral bores of a standard polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) body CT dosimetry phantom. Irradiations were done using a protocol for adult chest. The maximum values were found at the midpoint of the longitudinal axis. The MSAD values obtained with three dosimetric techniques were compared.
16
10946
Geochemical Assessment of Heavy Metals Concentration in Surface Sediment of West Port, Malaysia
Abstract:

One year (November 2009-October 2010) sediment monitoring was used to evaluate pollution status, concentration and distribution of heavy metals (As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) in West Port of Malaysia. Sediment sample were collected from nine stations every four months. Geo-accumulation factor and Pollution Load Index (PLI) were estimated to better understand the pollution level in study area. The heavy metal concentration (Mg/g dry weight) were ranged from 20.2 to 162 for As, 7.4 to 27.6 for Cu, 0.244 to 3.53 for Cd, 11.5 to 61.5 for Cr, 0.11 to 0.409 for Hg, 7.2 to 22.2 for Ni, 22.3 to 80 for Pb and 23 to 98.3 for Zn. In general, concentration some metals (As,Cd, Hg and Pb) was higher than background values that are considered as serious concern for aquatic life and the human health.

15
1206
People Critical Success Factors of IT/IS Implementation: Malaysian Perspectives
Abstract:
Implementing Information Technology/ Information System (IT/IS) is critical for every industry as its potential benefits have been to motivate many industries including the Malaysian construction industry to invest in it. To successfully implement IT/IS has become the major concern for every organisation. Identifying the critical success factors (CSFs) has become the main agenda for researchers, academicians and practitioners due to the wide number of failures reported. This research paper seeks to identify the CSFs that influence the successful implementation of IT/IS in construction industry in Malaysia. Limited factors relating to people issue will be highlighted here to showcase some as it becomes one of the major contributing factors to the failure. Three (3) organisations have participated in this study. Semi-structured interviews are employed as they offer sufficient flexibility to ensure that all relevant factors are covered. Several key issues contributing to successful implementations of IT/IS are identified. The results of this study reveal that top management support, communication, user involvement, IT staff roles and responsibility, training/skills, leader/ IT Leader, organisation culture, knowledge/ experience, motivation, awareness, focus and ambition, satisfaction, teamwork/ collaboration, willingness to change, attitude, commitment, management style, interest in IT, employee behaviour towards collaborative environment, trust, interpersonal relationship, personal characteristic and competencies are significantly associated with the successful implementations of IT/IS. It is anticipated that this study will create awareness and contribute to a better understanding amongst construction industry players and will assist them to successfully implement IT/IS.
14
10333
Adoptability Issues of GPS in Public Sector in Pakistan
Abstract:
This study discusses the stumbling blocks stifling the adoption of GPS technology in the public sector of Pakistan. This study has been carried out in order to describe the value of GPS technology and its adoption at various public sector organisations in Pakistan. Sample size for the research conducted was 200; personnel working in public sector having age above 29 years were surveyed. Data collected for this research has been quantitatively analysed with the help of SPSS. Regression analysis, correlation and cross tabulation were the techniques used to determine the strength of relationship between key variables. Findings of this research indicate that main hurdles in GPS adoption in the public sector of Pakistan are lack of awareness about GPS among masses in general and the stakeholders in particular, lack of initiative on part of government in promoting new technologies, unavailability of GPS infrastructure in Pakistan and prohibitions on map availability because of security reasons.
13
11543
Removal of Chlorinated Resin and Fatty Acids from Paper Mill wastewater through Constructed Wetland
Abstract:
This study evaluates the performance of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSF-CW) for the removal of chlorinated resin and fatty acids (RFAs) from pulp and paper mill wastewater. The dimensions of the treatment system were 3.5 m x 1.5 m x 0.28 m with surface area of 5.25 m2, filled with fine sand and gravel. The cell was planted with an ornamental plant species Canna indica. The removal efficiency of chlorinated RFAs was in the range of 92-96% at the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5.9 days. Plant biomass and soil (sand and gravel) were analyzed for chlorinated RFAs content. No chlorinated RFAs were detected in plant biomass but detected in soil samples. Mass balance studies of chlorinated RFAs in HSSF-CW were also carried out.
12
12654
Is E-learning Based On Learning Theories? A Literature Review
Abstract:
E-learning aims to build knowledge and skills in order to enhance the quality of learning. Research has shown that the majority of the e-learning solutions lack in pedagogical background and present some serious deficiencies regarding teaching strategies and content delivery, time and pace management, interface design and preservation of learners- focus. The aim of this review is to approach the design of e-learning solutions with a pedagogical perspective and to present some good practices of e-learning design grounded on the core principles of Learning Theories (LTs).
11
10081
Analytical Model for Brine Discharges from a Sea Outfall with Multiport Diffusers
Authors:
Abstract:
Multiport diffusers are the effective engineering devices installed at the modern marine outfalls for the steady discharge of effluent streams from the coastal plants, such as municipal sewage treatment, thermal power generation and seawater desalination. A mathematical model using a two-dimensional advection-diffusion equation based on a flat seabed and incorporating the effect of a coastal tidal current is developed to calculate the compounded concentration following discharges of desalination brine from a sea outfall with multiport diffusers. The analytical solutions are computed graphically to illustrate the merging of multiple brine plumes in shallow coastal waters, and further approximation will be made to the maximum shoreline's concentration to formulate dilution of a multiport diffuser discharge.
10
4920
Investigation of Inert Gas Injection in Steam Reforming of Methane: Energy
Abstract:

Synthesis gas manufacturing by steam reforming of hydrocarbons is an important industrial process. High endothermic nature of the process makes it one of the most cost and heat intensive processes. In the present work, composite effect of different inert gases on synthesis gas yield, feed gas conversion and temperature distribution along the reactor length has been studied using a heterogeneous model. Mathematical model was developed as a first stage and validated against the existing process models. With the addition of inert gases, a higher yield of synthesis gas is observed. Simultaneously the rector outlet temperature drops to as low as 810 K. It was found that Xenon gives the highest yield and conversion while Helium gives the lowest temperature. Using Xenon inert gas 20 percent reduction in outlet temperature was observed compared to traditional case.

9
3410
Investigation of Anti-Inflammatory, Antipyretic and Analgesic Effect of Yemeni Sidr Honey
Abstract:
Traditionally, Yemini Sidr honey has been reported to cure liver problems, stomach ulcers, and respiratory disorders. In this experiment, we evaluated Yemeni Sidr honey for its ability to protect inflammations caused by acetic acid and formalin -induced writhing, carrageenan and histamine-induced paw oedema in experimental rat model. Hyperpyrexia, membrane stabilizing activity, and phytochemical screening of the honey was also examined. Yemini Sidr Honey at (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg) exhibited a concentration dependant inhibition of acetic acid induced and formalin induced writhing, paw oedema induced by carrageenan & histamine, and hyperpyrexia induced by brewer's yeast, it also inhibited membrane stabilizing activity. Phytochemical screenings of the honey reveal the presence of flavonoids, steroid, alkaloids, saponins and tannins. This study suggested that Yemeni Sidr honey possess very strong antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects and these effects would be a result of the phytochemicals present.
8
13343
Investigation of Plant Density and Weed Competition in Different Cultivars of Wheat In Khoramabad Region
Abstract:
In order to study the effect of plant density and competition of wheat with field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) on yield and agronomical properties of wheat(Triticum Sativum) in irrigated conditions, a factorial experiment as the base of complete randomize block design in three replication was conducted at the field of Kamalvand in khoramabad (Lorestan) region of Iran during 2008-2009. Three plant density (Factor A=200, 230 and 260kg/ha) three cultivar (Factor B=Bahar,Pishtaz and Alvand) and weed control (Factor C= control and no control of weeds)were assigned in experiment. Results show that: Plant density had significant effect (statistically) on seed yield, 1000 seed weight, weed density and dry weight of weeds, seed yield and harvest index had been meaningful effect for cultivars. The interaction between plant density and cultivars for weed density, seed yield, thousand seed weight and harvest index were significant. 260 kg/ha (plant density) of wheat had more effect on increasing of seed yield in Bahar cultivar wheat in khoramabad region of Iran.
7
12957
Structural Monitoring and Control During Support System Replacement of a Historical Gate
Authors:
Abstract:
Middle-gate is located in Hasankeyf, Batman dating back to 1800 BC and is one of the important historical structures in Turkey. The ancient structure has suffered major structural cracks due to aging as well as lateral pressure of a cracked rock which is predicted to be about 100 tons. The existing support system was found to be inadequate to support the load especially after a recent rock fall in the close vicinity. Concerns were increased since the existing support system that is integral with a damaged and cracked gate wall needed to be replaced by a new support system. The replacement process must be carefully monitored by crackmeters and control mechanisms should be integrated to prevent cracks to expand while the same crack width needs to be maintained after the operation. The control system and actions taken during the intervention are explained in this paper.
6
11074
Investigation on Ship Collision Phenomena by Analytical and Finite Element Methods
Abstract:
Collision is considered as a time-depended nonlinear dynamic phenomenon. The majority of researchers have focused on deriving the resultant damage of the ship collisions via analytical, experimental, and finite element methods.In this paper, first, the force-penetration curve of a head collision on a container ship with rigid barrier based on Yang and Pedersen-s methods for internal mechanic section is studied. Next, the obtained results from different analytical methods are compared with each others. Then, through a simulation of the container ship collision in Ansys Ls-Dyna, results from finite element approach are compared with analytical methods and the source of errors is discussed. Finally, the effects of parameters such as velocity, and angle of collision on the forcepenetration curve are investigated.
5
1406
Nonlinear Optimal Line-Of-Sight Stabilization with Fuzzy Gain-Scheduling
Abstract:
A nonlinear optimal controller with a fuzzy gain scheduler has been designed and applied to a Line-Of-Sight (LOS) stabilization system. Use of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) theory is an optimal and simple manner of solving many control engineering problems. However, this method cannot be utilized directly for multigimbal LOS systems since they are nonlinear in nature. To adapt LQ controllers to nonlinear systems at least a linearization of the model plant is required. When the linearized model is only valid within the vicinity of an operating point a gain scheduler is required. Therefore, a Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Inference System gain scheduler has been implemented, which keeps the asymptotic stability performance provided by the optimal feedback gain approach. The simulation results illustrate that the proposed controller is capable of overcoming disturbances and maintaining a satisfactory tracking performance.
4
8925
EEG Indices to Time-On-Task Effects and to a Workload Manipulation (Cueing)
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of a range of EEG indices to time-on-task effects and to a workload manipulation (cueing), during performance of a resource-limited vigilance task. Effects of task period and cueing on performance and subjective state response were consistent with previous vigilance studies and with resource theory. Two EEG indices – the Task Load Index (TLI) and global lower frequency (LF) alpha power – showed effects of task period and cueing similar to those seen with correct detections. Across four successive task periods, the TLI declined and LF alpha power increased. Cueing increased TLI and decreased LF alpha. Other indices – the Engagement Index (EI), frontal theta and upper frequency (UF) alpha failed to show these effects. However, EI and frontal theta were sensitive to interactive effects of task period and cueing, which may correspond to a stronger anxiety response to the uncued task.
3
1797
Interaction Effect of DGAT1 and Composite Genotype of Beta-Kappa Casein on Economic Milk Production Traits in Crossbred Holstein
Abstract:
The objective was to determine the single gene and interaction effect of composite genotype of beta-kappa casein and DGAT1 gene on milk yield (MY) and milk composition, content of milk fat (%FAT), milk protein (%PRO), solid not fat (%SNF), and total solid (%TS) in crossbred Holstein cows. Two hundred and thirty- one cows were genotyped with PCR-RFLP for DGAT1 and composite genotype data of beta-kappa casein from previous work were used. Two model, (1), and (2), was used to estimate single gene effect, and interaction effect on the traits, respectively. The significance of interaction effects on all traits were detected. Most traits have consistent pattern of significant when model (1), and (2) were compared, except the effect of composite genotype of betakappa casein on %FAT, and the effect of DGAT1 on MY, which the significant difference was detected in only model (1).The results suggested that when the optimum of all traits was necessary, interaction effect should be concerned.
2
13083
Possibilities of Mathematical Modelling of Explosive Substance Aerosol and Vapour Dispersion in the Atmosphere
Abstract:
The paper deals with the possibilities of modelling vapour propagation of explosive substances in the FLUENT software. With regard to very low tensions of explosive substance vapours the experiment has been verified as exemplified by mononitrotoluene. Either constant or time variable meteorological conditions have been used for calculation. Further, it has been verified that the eluent source may be time-dependent and may reflect a real situation or the liberation rate may be constant. The execution of the experiment as well as evaluation were clear and it could also be used for modelling vapour and aerosol propagation of selected explosive substances in the atmospheric boundary layer.
1
6210
A Semi- One Time Pad Using Blind Source Separation for Speech Encryption
Abstract:
We propose a new perspective on speech communication using blind source separation. The original speech is mixed with key signals which consist of the mixing matrix, chaotic signals and a random noise. However, parts of the keys (the mixing matrix and the random noise) are not necessary in decryption. In practice implement, one can encrypt the speech by changing the noise signal every time. Hence, the present scheme obtains the advantages of a One Time Pad encryption while avoiding its drawbacks in key exchange. It is demonstrated that the proposed scheme is immune against traditional attacks.
Vol:11 No:06 2017Vol:11 No:05 2017Vol:11 No:04 2017Vol:11 No:03 2017Vol:11 No:02 2017Vol:11 No:01 2017
Vol:10 No:12 2016Vol:10 No:11 2016Vol:10 No:10 2016Vol:10 No:09 2016Vol:10 No:08 2016Vol:10 No:07 2016Vol:10 No:06 2016Vol:10 No:05 2016Vol:10 No:04 2016Vol:10 No:03 2016Vol:10 No:02 2016Vol:10 No:01 2016
Vol:9 No:12 2015Vol:9 No:11 2015Vol:9 No:10 2015Vol:9 No:09 2015Vol:9 No:08 2015Vol:9 No:07 2015Vol:9 No:06 2015Vol:9 No:05 2015Vol:9 No:04 2015Vol:9 No:03 2015Vol:9 No:02 2015Vol:9 No:01 2015
Vol:8 No:12 2014Vol:8 No:11 2014Vol:8 No:10 2014Vol:8 No:09 2014Vol:8 No:08 2014Vol:8 No:07 2014Vol:8 No:06 2014Vol:8 No:05 2014Vol:8 No:04 2014Vol:8 No:03 2014Vol:8 No:02 2014Vol:8 No:01 2014
Vol:7 No:12 2013Vol:7 No:11 2013Vol:7 No:10 2013Vol:7 No:09 2013Vol:7 No:08 2013Vol:7 No:07 2013Vol:7 No:06 2013Vol:7 No:05 2013Vol:7 No:04 2013Vol:7 No:03 2013Vol:7 No:02 2013Vol:7 No:01 2013
Vol:6 No:12 2012Vol:6 No:11 2012Vol:6 No:10 2012Vol:6 No:09 2012Vol:6 No:08 2012Vol:6 No:07 2012Vol:6 No:06 2012Vol:6 No:05 2012Vol:6 No:04 2012Vol:6 No:03 2012Vol:6 No:02 2012Vol:6 No:01 2012
Vol:5 No:12 2011Vol:5 No:11 2011Vol:5 No:10 2011Vol:5 No:09 2011Vol:5 No:08 2011Vol:5 No:07 2011Vol:5 No:06 2011Vol:5 No:05 2011Vol:5 No:04 2011Vol:5 No:03 2011Vol:5 No:02 2011Vol:5 No:01 2011
Vol:4 No:12 2010Vol:4 No:11 2010Vol:4 No:10 2010Vol:4 No:09 2010Vol:4 No:08 2010Vol:4 No:07 2010Vol:4 No:06 2010Vol:4 No:05 2010Vol:4 No:04 2010Vol:4 No:03 2010Vol:4 No:02 2010Vol:4 No:01 2010
Vol:3 No:12 2009Vol:3 No:11 2009Vol:3 No:10 2009Vol:3 No:09 2009Vol:3 No:08 2009Vol:3 No:07 2009Vol:3 No:06 2009Vol:3 No:05 2009Vol:3 No:04 2009Vol:3 No:03 2009Vol:3 No:02 2009Vol:3 No:01 2009
Vol:2 No:12 2008Vol:2 No:11 2008Vol:2 No:10 2008Vol:2 No:09 2008Vol:2 No:08 2008Vol:2 No:07 2008Vol:2 No:06 2008Vol:2 No:05 2008Vol:2 No:04 2008Vol:2 No:03 2008Vol:2 No:02 2008Vol:2 No:01 2008
Vol:1 No:12 2007Vol:1 No:11 2007Vol:1 No:10 2007Vol:1 No:09 2007Vol:1 No:08 2007Vol:1 No:07 2007Vol:1 No:06 2007Vol:1 No:05 2007Vol:1 No:04 2007Vol:1 No:03 2007Vol:1 No:02 2007Vol:1 No:01 2007