Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 187

187
10034
A Combined Conventional and Differential Evolution Method for Model Order Reduction
Abstract:

In this paper a mixed method by combining an evolutionary and a conventional technique is proposed for reduction of Single Input Single Output (SISO) continuous systems into Reduced Order Model (ROM). In the conventional technique, the mixed advantages of Mihailov stability criterion and continued Fraction Expansions (CFE) technique is employed where the reduced denominator polynomial is derived using Mihailov stability criterion and the numerator is obtained by matching the quotients of the Cauer second form of Continued fraction expansions. Then, retaining the numerator polynomial, the denominator polynomial is recalculated by an evolutionary technique. In the evolutionary method, the recently proposed Differential Evolution (DE) optimization technique is employed. DE method is based on the minimization of the Integral Squared Error (ISE) between the transient responses of original higher order model and the reduced order model pertaining to a unit step input. The proposed method is illustrated through a numerical example and compared with ROM where both numerator and denominator polynomials are obtained by conventional method to show its superiority.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
186
11072
Simultaneously Reduction of NOx and Soot Emissions in a DI Heavy Duty diesel Engine Operating at High Cooled EGR Rates
Abstract:
One promising way to achieve low temperature combustion regime is the use of a large amount of cooled EGR. In this paper, the effect of injection timing on low temperature combustion process and emissions were investigated via three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) procedures in a DI diesel engine using high EGR rates. The results show when increasing EGR from low levels to levels corresponding to reduced temperature combustion, soot emission after first increasing, is decreased beyond 40% EGR and get the lowest value at 58% EGR rate. Soot and NOx emissions are simultaneously decreased at advanced injection timing before 20.5 ºCA BTDC in conjunction with 58% cooled EGR rate in compared to baseline case.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
185
9824
Ψ-Eventual Stability of Differential System with Impulses
Authors:
Abstract:

In this paper, the criteria of Ψ-eventual stability have been established for generalized impulsive differential systems of multiple dependent variables. The sufficient conditions have been obtained using piecewise continuous Lyapunov function. An example is given to support our theoretical result.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
184
782
Anti-microbial Activity of Aristolochic Acid from Root of Aristolochia bracteata Retz
Abstract:
The present research was designed to investigate the anti-microbial activity of aristolochic acid from the root of Aristolochia bracteata. From the methanolic & ethyl extract extracts of Aristolochia bracteata aristolochic acid I was isolated and conformed through IR, NMR & MS. The percentage purity of aristolochic acid I was determined by UV & HPLC method. Antibacterial activity of extracts of Aristolochia bracteata and the isolated compound was determined by disc diffusion method. The results reveled that the isolated aristolochic acid from methanolic extract was more pure than the compound from ethyl acetate extract. The various extracts (500μg/disc) of Aristolochia bracteata showed moderate antibacterial activity with the average zone of inhibition of 7-18 mm by disc diffusion method. Among the extracts, ethyl acetate & methanol extracts were shown good anti-microbial activity and the growth of E.coli (18 mm) was strongly inhibited. Microbial assay of isolated compound (Aristolochic acid I) from ethyl acetate & methanol extracts were shown good antimicrobial activity and the zone of inhibition of both at higher concentration 50 μg/ml was similar with the standard aristolochic acid. It may be concluded that the isolated compound of aristolochic acid I has good anti-bacterial activity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
183
15885
Measurement of I-V Characteristics of a PtSi/p-Si Schottky Barrier Diode at low Temperatures
Abstract:
The current-voltage characteristics of a PtSi/p-Si Schottky barrier diode was measured at the temperature of 85 K and from the forward bias region of the I-V curve, the electrical parameters of the diode were measured by three methods. The results obtained from the two methods which considered the series resistance were in close agreement with each other and from them barrier height (), ideality factor (n) and series resistance () were found to be 0.2045 eV, 2.877 and 14.556 K respectively. By measuring the I-V characteristics in the temperature range of 85-136 K the electrical parameters were observed to have strong dependency on temperature. The increase of barrier height and decrease of ideality factor with increasing temperature is attributed to the existence of barrier height inhomogeneities in the silicide-semiconductor structure.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
182
13567
Predicting Oil Content of Fresh Palm Fruit Using Transmission-Mode Ultrasonic Technique
Abstract:
In this paper, an ultrasonic technique is proposed to predict oil content in a fresh palm fruit. This is accomplished by measuring the attenuation based on ultrasonic transmission mode. Several palm fruit samples with known oil content by Soxhlet extraction (ISO9001:2008) were tested with our ultrasonic measurement. Amplitude attenuation data results for all palm samples were collected. The Feedforward Neural Networks (FNNs) are applied to predict the oil content for the samples. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of the FNN model for predicting oil content percentage are 7.6186 and 5.2287 with the correlation coefficient (R) of 0.9193.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
181
14114
Oscillation Effect of the Multi-stage Learning for the Layered Neural Networks and Its Analysis
Abstract:

This paper proposes an efficient learning method for the layered neural networks based on the selection of training data and input characteristics of an output layer unit. Comparing to recent neural networks; pulse neural networks, quantum neuro computation, etc, the multilayer network is widely used due to its simple structure. When learning objects are complicated, the problems, such as unsuccessful learning or a significant time required in learning, remain unsolved. Focusing on the input data during the learning stage, we undertook an experiment to identify the data that makes large errors and interferes with the learning process. Our method devides the learning process into several stages. In general, input characteristics to an output layer unit show oscillation during learning process for complicated problems. The multi-stage learning method proposes by the authors for the function approximation problems of classifying learning data in a phased manner, focusing on their learnabilities prior to learning in the multi layered neural network, and demonstrates validity of the multi-stage learning method. Specifically, this paper verifies by computer experiments that both of learning accuracy and learning time are improved of the BP method as a learning rule of the multi-stage learning method. In learning, oscillatory phenomena of a learning curve serve an important role in learning performance. The authors also discuss the occurrence mechanisms of oscillatory phenomena in learning. Furthermore, the authors discuss the reasons that errors of some data remain large value even after learning, observing behaviors during learning.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
180
6621
Prediction of Optimum Cutting Parameters to obtain Desired Surface in Finish Pass end Milling of Aluminium Alloy with Carbide Tool using Artificial Neural Network
Abstract:
End milling process is one of the common metal cutting operations used for machining parts in manufacturing industry. It is usually performed at the final stage in manufacturing a product and surface roughness of the produced job plays an important role. In general, the surface roughness affects wear resistance, ductility, tensile, fatigue strength, etc., for machined parts and cannot be neglected in design. In the present work an experimental investigation of end milling of aluminium alloy with carbide tool is carried out and the effect of different cutting parameters on the response are studied with three-dimensional surface plots. An artificial neural network (ANN) is used to establish the relationship between the surface roughness and the input cutting parameters (i.e., spindle speed, feed, and depth of cut). The Matlab ANN toolbox works on feed forward back propagation algorithm is used for modeling purpose. 3-12-1 network structure having minimum average prediction error found as best network architecture for predicting surface roughness value. The network predicts surface roughness for unseen data and found that the result/prediction is better. For desired surface finish of the component to be produced there are many different combination of cutting parameters are available. The optimum cutting parameter for obtaining desired surface finish, to maximize tool life is predicted. The methodology is demonstrated, number of problems are solved and algorithm is coded in Matlab®.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
179
7919
Comparative Study of Sedimentation in Hydraulic Structures using Sharc and Ssiim Soft Wares - A Case of the Dez and Hamidieh Intake Structures in Iran
Abstract:

Sedimentation formation is a complex hydraulic phenomenon that has emerged as a major operational and maintenance consideration in modern hydraulic engineering in general and river engineering in particular. Sediments accumulation along the river course and their eventual storage in a form of islands affect water intake in the canal systems that are fed by the storage reservoirs. Without proper management, sediment transport can lead to major operational challenges in water distribution system of arid regions like the Dez and Hamidieh command areas. The paper aims to investigate sedimentation in the Western Canal of Dez Diversion Weir using the SHARC model and compare the results with the two intake structures of the Hamidieh dam in Iran using SSIIM model. The objective was to identify the factors which influence the process, check reliability of outcome and provide ways in which to mitigate the implications on operation and maintenance of the structures. Results estimated sand and silt bed loads concentrations to be 193 ppm and 827ppm respectively. This followed ,ore or less similar pattern in Hamidieh where the sediment formation impeded water intake in the canal system. Given the available data on average annual bed loads and average suspended sediment loads of 165ppm and 837ppm in the Dez, there was a significant statistical difference (16%) between the sand grains, whereas no significant difference (1.2%) was find in the silt grain sizes. One explanation for such finding being that along the 6 Km river course there was considerable meandering effects which explains recent shift in the hydraulic behavior along the stream course under investigation. The sand concentration in downstream relative to present state of the canal showed a steep descending curve. Sediment trapping on the other hand indicated a steep ascending curve. These occurred because the diversion weir was not considered in the simulation model. The comparative study showed very close similarities in the results which explains the fact that both software can be used as accurate and reliable analytical tools for simulation of the sedimentation in hydraulic engineering.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
178
13455
Removal of Basic Blue 3 from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption Onto Durio Ziberthinus
Authors:
Abstract:

Durian husk (DH), a fruit waste, was studied for its ability to remove Basic blue 3 (BB3) from aqueous solutions. Batch kinetic studies were carried out to study the sorption characteristics under various experimental conditions. The optimum pH for the dye removal occurred in the pH range of 3-10. Sorption was found to be concentration and agitation dependent. The kinetics of dye sorption fitted a pseudo-second order rate expression. Both Langmuir and Freundlich models appeared to provide reasonable fittings for the sorption data of BB3 on durian husk. Maximum sorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir model is 49.50 mg g-1.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
177
9002
Photo Mosaic Smartphone Application in Client-Server Based Large-Scale Image Databases
Abstract:
In this paper we present a photo mosaic smartphone application in client-server based large-scale image databases. Photo mosaic is not a new concept, but there are very few smartphone applications especially for a huge number of images in the client-server environment. To support large-scale image databases, we first propose an overall framework working as a client-server model. We then present a concept of image-PAA features to efficiently handle a huge number of images and discuss its lower bounding property. We also present a best-match algorithm that exploits the lower bounding property of image-PAA. We finally implement an efficient Android-based application and demonstrate its feasibility.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
176
15052
Coherent and Incoherent Scattering Cross Sections for Elements with 13
Abstract:

Coherent and incoherent scattering cross section measurements have been carried out using a HPGe detector on elements in the range of Z = 13 - 50 using 241Am gamma rays. The cross sections have been derived by comparing the net count rate obtained from the Compton peak of aluminium with the corresponding peak of the target. The measured cross sections for the coherent and incoherent processes are compared with theoretical values and earlier reported values. Our results are in agreement with the theoretical values.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
175
13425
Effect of UV-Treatment on Properties of Biodegradable Film From Rice Starch
Abstract:
Photo-crosslinked rice starch-based biodegradable films were prepared by casting film-solution on leveled trays and ultra violet (UV) irradiation was applied for 10 minute. The effect of the content (3%, 6% and 9 wt. %)of photosensitiser (sodium benzoate) on mechanical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP) and structural properties of rice starch films were investigated. The tensile strength increased while elongation at break and water resistance properties of rice starch films decreased with addition and increasing content of photosensitiser. The % crystallinity of rice starch films were decreased when the content of photosensitiser increased and UV were applied. The results showed that the carboxylate group band of sodium benzoate was found in the FTIR spectrum of rice starch films and found that incorporation of 6% of photosensitiser into the films showed a higher absorption band of resulted films. This result pointed out the highest interaction between starch molecules was occurred.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
174
4749
Hybridizing Genetic Algorithm with Biased Chance Local Search
Abstract:
This paper explores university course timetabling problem. There are several characteristics that make scheduling and timetabling problems particularly difficult to solve: they have huge search spaces, they are often highly constrained, they require sophisticated solution representation schemes, and they usually require very time-consuming fitness evaluation routines. Thus standard evolutionary algorithms lack of efficiency to deal with them. In this paper we have proposed a memetic algorithm that incorporates the problem specific knowledge such that most of chromosomes generated are decoded into feasible solutions. Generating vast amount of feasible chromosomes makes the progress of search process possible in a time efficient manner. Experimental results exhibit the advantages of the developed Hybrid Genetic Algorithm than the standard Genetic Algorithm.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
173
1652
Development of High Performance Clarification System for FBR Dissolver Liquor
Abstract:
A high performance clarification system has been discussed for advanced aqueous reprocessing of FBR spent fuel. Dissolver residue gives the cause of troubles on the plant operation of reprocessing. In this study, the new clarification system based on the hybrid of centrifuge and filtration was proposed to get the high separation ability of the component of whole insoluble sludge. The clarification tests of simulated solid species were carried out to evaluate the clarification performance using small-scale test apparatus of centrifuge and filter unit. The density effect of solid species on the collection efficiency was mainly evaluated in the centrifugal clarification test. In the filtration test using ceramic filter with pore size of 0.2μm, on the other hand, permeability and filtration rate were evaluated in addition to the filtration efficiency. As results, it was evaluated that the collection efficiency of solid species on the new clarification system was estimated as nearly 100%. In conclusion, the high clarification performance of dissolver liquor can be achieved by the hybrid of the centrifuge and filtration system.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
172
9327
Comprehensive Evaluation on Land Supply System Performance: In Terms of System Transformation
Abstract:
This evaluation of land supply system performance in China shall examine the combination of government functions and national goals in order to perform a cost-benefit analysis of system results. From the author's point of view, it is most productive to evaluate land supply system performance at moments of system transformation for the following reasons. The behavior and input-output change of beneficial results at different times can be observed when the system or policy changes and system performance can be evaluated through a cost-benefit analysis during the process of system transformation. Moreover, this evaluation method can avoid the influence of land resource endowment. Different land resource endowment methods and different economy development periods result in different systems. This essay studies the contents, principles and methods of land supply system performance evaluation. Taking Beijing as an example, this essay optimizes and classifies the land supply index, makes a quantitative evaluation of land supply system performance through principal component analysis (PCA), and finally analyzes the factors that influence land supply system performance at times of system transformation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
171
13921
Structural Behaviour of Partially Filled Steel Grid Composite Deck
Abstract:
In order to apply partially filled steel grid composite deck as the horizontal supporting structure of various kinds of infrastructures, the variation of its flexural strength according to design parameters such as cross and longitudinal bars constituting the steel grid and the type of shear connection is evaluated and compared experimentally. The result shows that the design sensitivity of the deck to the spacing of the cross bars is insignificant in the case of structure with low risk of punching failure or without load distribution problem. By means of shear connection composed by transverse rebar and longitudinal bar without additional shear stud bolts, the complete interaction between steel grid and concrete slab is able to be achieved and the composite deck can develop its bending resistance capacity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
170
2507
RF Power Consumption Emulation Optimized with Interval Valued Homotopies
Abstract:

This paper presents a methodology towards the emulation of the electrical power consumption of the RF device during the cellular phone/handset transmission mode using the LTE technology. The emulation methodology takes the physical environmental variables and the logical interface between the baseband and the RF system as inputs to compute the emulated power dissipation of the RF device. The emulated power, in between the measured points corresponding to the discrete values of the logical interface parameters is computed as a polynomial interpolation using polynomial basis functions. The evaluation of polynomial and spline curve fitting models showed a respective divergence (test error) of 8% and 0.02% from the physically measured power consumption. The precisions of the instruments used for the physical measurements have been modeled as intervals. We have been able to model the power consumption of the RF device operating at 5MHz using homotopy between 2 continuous power consumptions of the RF device operating at the bandwidths 3MHz and 10MHz.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
169
4240
The Pack-Bed Sphere Liquid Porous Burner
Abstract:
The combustion of liquid fuel in the porous burner (PB) was experimented to investigate evaporation mechanism and combustion behavior. The diesel oil was used as fuel and the pebbles carefully chosen in the same size like the solid sphere homogeneously was adopted as the porous media. Two structures of the liquid porous burner, i.e. the PB without and with installation of porous emitter (PE), were performed. PE was installed by lower than PB with distance of 20 cm. The pebbles having porosity (φ) of 0.45 and 0.52 were, respectively, used in PB and PE. The fuel was supplied dropwise from the top through the PB and the combustion was occurred between PB and PE. Axial profiles of temperature along the burner length were measured to clarify the evaporation and combustion phenomena. The pollutant emission characteristics were monitored at the burner exit. From the experiment, it was found that the temperature profiles of both structures decreased with the three ways swirling air flows (QA) increasing. On the other hand, the temperature profiles increased with fuel heat input (QF). Obviously, the profile of the porous burner installed with PE was higher than that of the porous burner without PE
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
168
2576
The Contribution of Growth Rate to the Pathogenicity of Candida spp.
Abstract:
Fungal infections are becoming more common and the range of susceptible individuals has expanded. While Candida albicans remains the most common infective species, other Candida spp. are becoming increasingly significant. In a range of large-scale studies of candidaemia between 1999 and 2006, about 52% of 9717 cases involved C. albicans, about 30% involved either C. glabrata or C. parapsilosis and less than 15% involved C. tropicalis, C. krusei or C. guilliermondii. However, the probability of mortality within 30 days of infection with a particular species was at least 40% for C. tropicalis, C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei and only 22% for C. parapsilopsis. Clinical isolates of Candida spp. grew at rates ranging from 1.65 h-1 to 4.9 h-1. Three species (C. krusei, C. albicans and C. glabrata) had relatively high growth rates (μm > 4 h-1), C. tropicalis and C. dubliniensis grew moderately quickly (Ôëê 3 h-1) and C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii grew slowly (< 2 h-1). Based on these data, the log of the odds of mortality within 30 days of diagnosis was linearly related to μm. From this the underlying probability of mortality is 0.13 (95% CI: 0.10-0.17) and it increases by about 0.09 ± 0.02 for each unit increase in μm. Given that the overall crude mortality is about 0.36, the growth of Candida spp. approximately doubles the rate, consistent with the results of larger case-matched studies of candidaemia.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
167
13851
Performance Evaluation of Complex Electrical Bio-impedance from V/I Four-electrode Measurements
Abstract:
The passive electrical properties of a tissue depends on the intrinsic constituents and its structure, therefore by measuring the complex electrical impedance of the tissue it might be possible to obtain indicators of the tissue state or physiological activity [1]. Complete bio-impedance information relative to physiology and pathology of a human body and functional states of the body tissue or organs can be extracted by using a technique containing a fourelectrode measurement setup. This work presents the estimation measurement setup based on the four-electrode technique. First, the complex impedance is estimated by three different estimation techniques: Fourier, Sine Correlation and Digital De-convolution and then estimation errors for the magnitude, phase, reactance and resistance are calculated and analyzed for different levels of disturbances in the observations. The absolute values of relative errors are plotted and the graphical performance of each technique is compared.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
166
2237
Study of EEGs from Somatosensory Cortex and Alzheimer's Disease Sources
Abstract:

This study is to investigate the electroencephalogram (EEG) differences generated from a normal and Alzheimer-s disease (AD) sources. We also investigate the effects of brain tissue distortions due to AD on EEG. We develop a realistic head model from T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using finite element method (FEM) for normal source (somatosensory cortex (SC) in parietal lobe) and AD sources (right amygdala (RA) and left amygdala (LA) in medial temporal lobe). Then, we compare the AD sourced EEGs to the SC sourced EEG for studying the nature of potential changes due to sources and 5% to 20% brain tissue distortions. We find an average of 0.15 magnification errors produced by AD sourced EEGs. Different brain tissue distortion models also generate the maximum 0.07 magnification. EEGs obtained from AD sources and different brain tissue distortion levels vary scalp potentials from normal source, and the electrodes residing in parietal and temporal lobes are more sensitive than other electrodes for AD sourced EEG.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
165
1251
Thermodynamic Analysis of R507A-R23 Cascade Refrigeration System
Abstract:
The present work deals with thermodynamic analysis of cascade refrigeration system using ozone friendly refrigerants pair R507A and R23. R507A is azeotropic mixture composed of HFC refrigerants R125/R143a (50%/50% wt.). R23 is a single component HFC refrigerant used as replacement to CFC refrigerant R13 in low temperature applications. These refrigerants have zero ozone depletion potential and are non-flammable and as R507A an azeotropic mixture there is no problem of temperature glide. This study thermodynamically analyzed R507A-R23 cascade refrigeration system to optimize the design and operating parameters of the system. The design and operating parameters include: Condensing, evaporating, subcooling and superheating temperatures in the high temperature circuit, temperature difference in the cascade heat exchanger, Condensing, evaporating, subcooling and superheating temperatures in the low temperature circuit.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
164
4372
Fuzzy Logic System for Tractive Performance Prediction of an Intelligent Air-Cushion Track Vehicle
Abstract:
Fuzzy logic system (FLS) is used in this study to predict the tractive performance in terms of traction force, and motion resistance for an intelligent air cushion track vehicle while it operates in the swamp peat. The system is effective to control the intelligent air –cushion system with measuring the vehicle traction force (TF), motion resistance (MR), cushion clearance height (CH) and cushion pressure (CP). Ultrasonic displacement sensor, pull-in solenoid electromagnetic switch, pressure control sensor, micro controller, and battery pH sensor are incorporated with the Fuzzy logic system to investigate experimentally the TF, MR, CH, and CP. In this study, a comparison for tractive performance of an intelligent air cushion track vehicle has been performed with the results obtained from the predicted values of FLS and experimental actual values. The mean relative error of actual and predicted values from the FLS model on traction force, and total motion resistance are found as 5.58 %, and 6.78 % respectively. For all parameters, the relative error of predicted values are found to be less than the acceptable limits. The goodness of fit of the prediction values from the FLS model on TF, and MR are found as 0.90, and 0.98 respectively.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
163
7850
Thermo-mechanical Deformation Behavior of Functionally Graded Rectangular Plates Subjected to Various Boundary Conditions and Loadings
Abstract:

This paper deals with the thermo-mechanical deformation behavior of shear deformable functionally graded ceramicmetal (FGM) plates. Theoretical formulations are based on higher order shear deformation theory with a considerable amendment in the transverse displacement using finite element method (FEM). The mechanical properties of the plate are assumed to be temperaturedependent and graded in the thickness direction according to a powerlaw distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. The temperature field is supposed to be a uniform distribution over the plate surface (XY plane) and varied in the thickness direction only. The fundamental equations for the FGM plates are obtained using variational approach by considering traction free boundary conditions on the top and bottom faces of the plate. A C0 continuous isoparametric Lagrangian finite element with thirteen degrees of freedom per node have been employed to accomplish the results. Convergence and comparison studies have been performed to demonstrate the efficiency of the present model. The numerical results are obtained for different thickness ratios, aspect ratios, volume fraction index and temperature rise with different loading and boundary conditions. Numerical results for the FGM plates are provided in dimensionless tabular and graphical forms. The results proclaim that the temperature field and the gradient in the material properties have significant role on the thermo-mechanical deformation behavior of the FGM plates.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
162
9930
Mathematical Modeling of an Avalanche Release and Estimation of Flow Parameters by Numerical Method
Abstract:

Avalanche release of snow has been modeled in the present studies. Snow is assumed to be represented by semi-solid and the governing equations have been studied from the concept of continuum approach. The dynamical equations have been solved for two different zones [starting zone and track zone] by using appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Effect of density (ρ), Eddy viscosity (η), Slope angle (θ), Slab depth (R) on the flow parameters have been observed in the present studies. Numerical methods have been employed for computing the non linear differential equations. One of the most interesting and fundamental innovation in the present studies is getting initial condition for the computation of velocity by numerical approach. This information of the velocity has obtained through the concept of fracture mechanics applicable to snow. The results on the flow parameters have found to be in qualitative agreement with the published results.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
161
11041
The Optimal Equilibrium Capacity of Information Hiding Based on Game Theory
Abstract:
Game theory could be used to analyze the conflicted issues in the field of information hiding. In this paper, 2-phase game can be used to build the embedder-attacker system to analyze the limits of hiding capacity of embedding algorithms: the embedder minimizes the expected damage and the attacker maximizes it. In the system, the embedder first consumes its resource to build embedded units (EU) and insert the secret information into EU. Then the attacker distributes its resource evenly to the attacked EU. The expected equilibrium damage, which is maximum damage in value from the point of view of the attacker and minimum from the embedder against the attacker, is evaluated by the case when the attacker attacks a subset from all the EU. Furthermore, the optimal equilibrium capacity of hiding information is calculated through the optimal number of EU with the embedded secret information. Finally, illustrative examples of the optimal equilibrium capacity are presented.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
160
1856
Nonlinear Dynamical Characterization of Heart Rate Variability Time Series of Meditation
Abstract:
Many recent electrophysiological studies have revealed the importance of investigating meditation state in order to achieve an increased understanding of autonomous control of cardiovascular functions. In this paper, we characterize heart rate variability (HRV) time series acquired during meditation using nonlinear dynamical parameters. We have computed minimum embedding dimension (MED), correlation dimension (CD), largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), and nonlinearity scores (NLS) from HRV time series of eight Chi and four Kundalini meditation practitioners. The pre-meditation state has been used as a baseline (control) state to compare the estimated parameters. The chaotic nature of HRV during both pre-meditation and meditation is confirmed by MED. The meditation state showed a significant decrease in the value of CD and increase in the value of LLE of HRV, in comparison with premeditation state, indicating a less complex and less predictable nature of HRV. In addition, it was shown that the HRV of meditation state is having highest NLS than pre-meditation state. The study indicated highly nonlinear dynamic nature of cardiac states as revealed by HRV during meditation state, rather considering it as a quiescent state.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
159
7996
Can Physical Activity and Dietary Fat Intake Influence Body Mass Index in a Cross-sectional Correlational Design?
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of physical activity and dietary fat intake on Body Mass Index (BMI) of lecturers within a higher learning institutionalized setting. The study adopted a Cross-sectional Correlational Design and included 120 lecturers selected proportionately by simple random sampling techniques from a population of 600 lecturers. Data was collected using questionnaires, which had sections including physical activity checklist adopted from the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ), 24-hour food recall, anthropometric measurements mainly weight and height. Analysis involved the use of bivariate correlations and linear regression. A significant inverse association was registered between BMI and duration (in minutes) spent doing moderate intense physical activity per day (r=-0.322, p
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
158
11623
The Effect of Sodium Chloride and pH on the Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Essential Oils Against Pathogenic and Food Spoilage Bacteria:Implications in Food Safety
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to elucidate the factors affecting antimicrobial effectiveness of essential oils against food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. The minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) of the essential oils, were determined by turbidimetric technique using Biocreen C, analyzer. The effects of pH ranging from 7.3 to 5.5 in absence and presence of essential oils and/or NaCl on the lag time and mean generation time of the bacteria at 370C, were carried out and results were determined showed that, combination of low pH and essential oil at 370C had additive effects against the test micro-organisms. The combination of 1.2 % (w/v) of NaCl and clove essential oil at 0.0325% (v/v) was effective against E. coli. The use of concentrations less than MIC in combination with low pH and or NaCl has the potential of being used as an alternative to “traditional food preservatives".

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
157
10431
Wavelet Enhanced CCA for Minimization of Ocular and Muscle Artifacts in EEG
Abstract:
Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings are often contaminated with ocular and muscle artifacts. In this paper, the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is used as blind source separation (BSS) technique (BSS-CCA) to decompose the artifact contaminated EEG into component signals. We combine the BSSCCA technique with wavelet filtering approach for minimizing both ocular and muscle artifacts simultaneously, and refer the proposed method as wavelet enhanced BSS-CCA. In this approach, after careful visual inspection, the muscle artifact components are discarded and ocular artifact components are subjected to wavelet filtering to retain high frequency cerebral information, and then clean EEG is reconstructed. The performance of the proposed wavelet enhanced BSS-CCA method is tested on real EEG recordings contaminated with ocular and muscle artifacts, for which power spectral density is used as a quantitative measure. Our results suggest that the proposed hybrid approach minimizes ocular and muscle artifacts effectively, minimally affecting underlying cerebral activity in EEG recordings.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
156
7430
Error Estimates for Calculated Glomerular Filtration Rates
Authors:
Abstract:
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a measure of kidney function. It is usually estimated from serum concentrations of cystatin C or creatinine although there has been considerable debate in the literature about (i) the best equation to use and (ii) the variability in the correlation between the concentrations of creatinine and cystatin C. The equations for GFR can be written in a general form and from these I calculate the error of the GFR estimates associated with analyte measurement error. These show that the error of the GFR estimates is such that it is not possible to distinguish between the equations over much of the concentration range of either analyte. The general forms of the equations are also used to derive an expression for the concentration of cystatin C as a function of the concentration of creatinine. This equation shows that these analyte concentrations are not linearly related. Clinical reports of cystatin C and creatinine concentration are consistent with the expression derived.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
155
5593
Drag Analysis of an Aircraft Wing Model withand without Bird Feather like Winglet
Abstract:
This work describes the aerodynamic characteristic for aircraft wing model with and without bird feather like winglet. The aerofoil used to construct the whole structure is NACA 653-218 Rectangular wing and this aerofoil has been used to compare the result with previous research using winglet. The model of the rectangular wing with bird feather like winglet has been fabricated using polystyrene before design using CATIA P3 V5R13 software and finally fabricated in wood. The experimental analysis for the aerodynamic characteristic for rectangular wing without winglet, wing with horizontal winglet and wing with 60 degree inclination winglet for Reynolds number 1.66×105, 2.08×105 and 2.50×105 have been carried out in open loop low speed wind tunnel at the Aerodynamics laboratory in Universiti Putra Malaysia. The experimental result shows 25-30 % reduction in drag coefficient and 10-20 % increase in lift coefficient by using bird feather like winglet for angle of attack of 8 degree.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
154
1946
Analysis of Heart Beat Dynamics through Singularity Spectrum
Abstract:
The analysis to detect arrhythmias and life-threatening conditions are highly essential in today world and this analysis can be accomplished by advanced non-linear processing methods for accurate analysis of the complex signals of heartbeat dynamics. In this perspective, recent developments in the field of multiscale information content have lead to the Microcanonical Multiscale Formalism (MMF). We show that such framework provides several signal analysis techniques that are especially adapted to the study of heartbeat dynamics. In this paper, we just show first hand results of whether the considered heartbeat dynamics signals have the multiscale properties by computing local preticability exponents (LPEs) and the Unpredictable Points Manifold (UPM), and thereby computing the singularity spectrum.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
153
13564
Thermodynamic Study of Seed Oil Extraction by Organic Solvents
Abstract:
Thermodynamics characterization Sesame oil extraction by Acetone, Hexane and Benzene has been evaluated. The 120 hours experimental Data were described by a simple mathematical model. According to the simulation results and the essential criteria, Acetone is superior to other solvents but under certain conditions where oil extraction takes place Hexane is superior catalyst.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
152
6099
Rarefactive and Compressive Solitary Waves in Warm Plasma with Positrons and Nonthermal Electrons
Abstract:
Ion-acoustic solitary waves in a plasma with nonthermal electrons, thermal positrons and warm ions are investigated using Sagdeev-s pseudopotential technique. We study the effects of non-thermal electrons and ion temperature on solitons and show both negative and positive potential waves are possible.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
151
996
Rarefactive and Compressive Solitons in Warm Dusty Plasma with Electrons and Nonthermal Ions
Abstract:
Dust acoustic solitary waves are studied in warm dusty plasma containing negatively charged dusts, nonthermal ions and Boltzmann distributed electrons. Sagdeev pseudopotential method is used in order to investigate solitary wave solutions in the plasmas. The existence of compressive and rarefractive solitons is studied.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
150
11846
Quantum Ion Acoustic Solitary and Shock Waves in Dissipative Warm Plasma with Fermi Electron and Positron
Abstract:
Ion-acoustic solitary and shock waves in dense quantum plasmas whose constituents are electrons, positrons, and positive ions are investigated. We assume that ion velocity is weakly relativistic and also the effects of kinematic viscosity among the plasma constituents is considered. By using the reductive perturbation method, the Korteweg–deVries–Burger (KdV-B) equation is derived.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
149
12431
Design of Coal Quality Disturbance Free System for Coordinated Control System Based on Gain Scheduling
Abstract:
The economic and stable operation was affected seriously by coal quality disturbance for power plants. Based on model analysis, influence of the disturbance can be considered as gain change of control system. Power capability coefficient of coal was constructed to inhibit it. Accuracy of the coefficient was verified by operating data. Then coal quality disturbance free system based on gain scheduling was designed for coordinated control system. Simulation showed that, the strategy improved control quality obviously, and inhibited the coal quality disturbance.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
148
11136
An Interactive Web-based Simulation Tool for Surgical Thread
Abstract:
Interactive web-based computer simulations are needed by the medical community to replicate the experience of surgical procedures as closely and realistically as possible without the need to practice on corpses, animals and/or plastic models. In this paper, we offer a review on current state of the research on simulations of surgical threads, identify future needs and present our proposed plans to meet them. Our goal is to create a physics-based simulator, which will predict the behavior of surgical thread when subjected to conditions commonly encountered during surgery. To that end, we will i) develop three dimensional finite element models based on the Cosserat theory of elasticity ii) test and feedback results with the medical community and iii) develop a web-based user interface to run/command our simulator and visualize the results. The impacts of our research are that i) it will contribute to the development of a new generation of training for medical school students and ii) the simulator will be useful to expert surgeons in developing new, better and less risky procedures.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
147
12746
Assamese Numeral Speech Recognition using Multiple Features and Cooperative LVQ -Architectures
Abstract:
A set of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based methods for the design of an effective system of speech recognition of numerals of Assamese language captured under varied recording conditions and moods is presented here. The work is related to the formulation of several ANN models configured to use Linear Predictive Code (LPC), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and other features to tackle mood and gender variations uttering numbers as part of an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system in Assamese. The ANN models are designed using a combination of Self Organizing Map (SOM) and Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) constituting a Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) block trained in a cooperative environment to handle male and female speech samples of numerals of Assamese- a language spoken by a sizable population in the North-Eastern part of India. The work provides a comparative evaluation of several such combinations while subjected to handle speech samples with gender based differences captured by a microphone in four different conditions viz. noiseless, noise mixed, stressed and stress-free.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
146
8716
Robust Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor with DTFC and Fuzzy Speed Regulator
Abstract:
Recent developments in Soft computing techniques, power electronic switches and low-cost computational hardware have made it possible to design and implement sophisticated control strategies for sensorless speed control of AC motor drives. Such an attempt has been made in this work, for Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor (IM) by means of Direct Torque Fuzzy Control (DTFC), PI-type fuzzy speed regulator and MRAS speed estimator strategy, which is absolutely nonlinear in its nature. Direct torque control is known to produce quick and robust response in AC drive system. However, during steady state, torque, flux and current ripple occurs. So, the performance of conventional DTC with PI speed regulator can be improved by implementing fuzzy logic techniques. Certain important issues in design including the space vector modulated (SVM) 3-Ф voltage source inverter, DTFC design, generation of reference torque using PI-type fuzzy speed regulator and sensor less speed estimator have been resolved. The proposed scheme is validated through extensive numerical simulations on MATLAB. The simulated results indicate the sensor less speed control of IM with DTFC and PI-type fuzzy speed regulator provides satisfactory high dynamic and static performance compare to conventional DTC with PI speed regulator.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
145
11985
A Novel Digital Calibration Technique for Gain and Offset Mismatch in TIΣΔ ADCs
Abstract:
Time interleaved sigma-delta (TIΣΔ) architecture is a potential candidate for high bandwidth analog to digital converters (ADC) which remains a bottleneck for software and cognitive radio receivers. However, the performance of the TIΣΔ architecture is limited by the unavoidable gain and offset mismatches resulting from the manufacturing process. This paper presents a novel digital calibration method to compensate the gain and offset mismatch effect. The proposed method takes advantage of the reconstruction digital signal processing on each channel and requires only few logic components for implementation. The run time calibration is estimated to 10 and 15 clock cycles for offset cancellation and gain mismatch calibration respectively.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
144
12488
Wireless Control for an Induction Motor
Abstract:
This paper discusses the development of wireless structure control of an induction motor scalar drives. This was realised up on the wireless WiFi networks. This strategy of control is ensured by the use of Wireless ad hoc networks and a virtual network interface based on VNC which is used to make possible to take the remote control of a PC connected on a wireless Ethernet network. Verification of the proposed strategy of control is provided by experimental realistic tests on scalar controlled induction motor drives. The experimental results of the implementations with their analysis are detailed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
143
5883
Approximation Incremental Training Algorithm Based on a Changeable Training Set
Abstract:
The quick training algorithms and accurate solution procedure for incremental learning aim at improving the efficiency of training of SVR, whereas there are some disadvantages for them, i.e. the nonconvergence of the formers for changeable training set and the inefficiency of the latter for a massive dataset. In order to handle the problems, a new training algorithm for a changeable training set, named Approximation Incremental Training Algorithm (AITA), was proposed. This paper explored the reason of nonconvergence theoretically and discussed the realization of AITA, and finally demonstrated the benefits of AITA both on precision and efficiency.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
142
15019
Existence and Uniqueness of Periodic Solution for a Discrete-time SIR Epidemic Model with Time Delays and Impulses
Abstract:

In this paper, a discrete-time SIR epidemic model with nonlinear incidence rate, time delays and impulses is investigated. Sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of periodic solutions are obtained by using contraction theorem and inequality techniques. An example is employed to illustrate our results.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
141
506
Modelling Customer's Attitude Towards E-Government Services
Abstract:

e-Government structures permits the government to operate in a more transparent and accountable manner of which it increases the power of the individual in relation to that of the government. This paper identifies the factors that determine customer-s attitude towards e-Government services using a theoretical model based on the Technology Acceptance Model. Data relating to the constructs were collected from 200 respondents. The research model was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques via the Analysis of Moment Structure (AMOS 16) computer software. SEM is a comprehensive approach to testing hypotheses about relations among observed and latent variables. The proposed model fits the data well. The results demonstrated that e- Government services acceptance can be explained in terms of compatibility and attitude towards e-Government services. The setup of the e-Government services will be compatible with the way users work and are more likely to adopt e-Government services owing to their familiarity with the Internet for various official, personal, and recreational uses. In addition, managerial implications for government policy makers, government agencies, and system developers are also discussed.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
140
7828
A Conceptual Framework for Supply Chain Competitiveness
Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of the concept of competitiveness in the supply chain and to present a conceptual framework for Supply Chain Competitiveness (SCC). The framework is based on supply chain activities, which are inputs, necessary for SCC and the benefits which are the outputs of SCC. A literature review is conducted on key supply chain competitiveness issues, its determinants, its various dimensions followed by exploration for SCC. Based on the insights gained, a conceptual framework for SCC is presented based on activities for SCC, SCC environment and outcomes of SCC. The information flow in the conceptual framework is bi-directional at all levels and the activities are interrelated in a global competitive environment. The activities include the activities of suppliers, manufacturers and distributors, giving more emphasis on manufacturers- activities. Further, implications of various factors such as economic, politicolegal, technical, socio-cultural, competition, demographic etc. are also highlighted. The SCC framework is an attempt to cover the relatively less explored area of supply chain competitiveness. It is expected that this work will further motivate researchers, academicians and practitioners to work in this area and offers conceptual help in providing a directions for supply chain competitiveness which leads to improvement in the supply chain and supply chain performance.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
139
15225
Are Adolescent Girls More Depressive than Adolescent Boys in Turkey?
Authors:
Abstract:
Depression is a serious mental health problem that affects people of all ages, including children and adolescents. Studies showed that female gender is one of the risk factors may influence the development of depression in adolescents. However, some of the studies from Turkey suggested that gender does not lead to any significant difference in the youth depression level. Therefore, the presented study investigated whether girls differ from boys in respect of depression. The association between genders and test scores for the adolescents in a population of primary and secondary school students was also evaluated. The study was consisting of 254 adolescents (122 boys and 132 girls) with a mean age of 13.86±1.43 (Mean±SD) ranging from 12-16 years. Psychological assessment was performed using Children-s Depression Inventory (CDI). Chi-square and Student-s t-test statistics were employed to analyze the data. The mean of the CDI scores of the girls were higher than boys- CDI scores (t = -4.580, p = 0.001). Higher ratio appeared for the girls when they compared with boy group-s depression levels using a CDI cut-off point of 19 (p = 0.001, Odds Ratio = 2,603). The findings of the present study suggested that adolescent girls have high level of depression than adolescent boys aged between 12-16 years in Turkey. Although some studies reported that there is no any differences depression level between adolescent boys and girls in Turkey, result of the present study showed that adolescent girls have high level of depression than adolescent boys in Turkey.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
138
14922
A Third Drop Level For TCP-RED Congestion Control Strategy
Abstract:
This work presents the Risk Threshold RED (RTRED) congestion control strategy for TCP networks. In addition to the maximum and minimum thresholds in existing RED-based strategies, we add a third dropping level. This new dropping level is the risk threshold which works with the actual and average queue sizes to detect the immediate congestion in gateways. Congestion reaction by RTRED is on time. The reaction to congestion is neither too early, to avoid unfair packet losses, nor too late to avoid packet dropping from time-outs. We compared our novel strategy with RED and ARED strategies for TCP congestion handling using a NS-2 simulation script. We found that the RTRED strategy outperformed RED and ARED.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
137
6994
Prediction of Tool and Nozzle Flow Behavior in Ultrasonic Machining Process
Abstract:
The use of hard and brittle material has become increasingly more extensive in recent years. Therefore processing of these materials for the parts fabrication has become a challenging problem. However, it is time-consuming to machine the hard brittle materials with the traditional metal-cutting technique that uses abrasive wheels. In addition, the tool would suffer excessive wear as well. However, if ultrasonic energy is applied to the machining process and coupled with the use of hard abrasive grits, hard and brittle materials can be effectively machined. Ultrasonic machining process is mostly used for the brittle materials. The present research work has developed models using finite element approach to predict the mechanical stresses sand strains produced in the tool during ultrasonic machining process. Also the flow behavior of abrasive slurry coming out of the nozzle has been studied for simulation using ANSYS CFX module. The different abrasives of different grit sizes have been used for the experimentation work.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
136
15874
Evaluation of the Energy Consumption per Bit inBENES Optical Packet Switch
Abstract:
We evaluate the average energy consumption per bit in Optical Packet Switches equipped with BENES switching fabric realized in Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) technology. We also study the impact that the Amplifier Spontaneous Emission (ASE) noise generated by a transmission system has on the power consumption of the BENES switches due to the gain saturation of the SOAs used to realize the switching fabric. As a matter of example for 32×32 switches supporting 64 wavelengths and offered traffic equal to 0,8, the average energy consumption per bit is 2, 34 · 10-1 nJ/bit and increases if ASE noise introduced by the transmission systems is increased.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
135
2531
Evaluation of Power Consumption of Spanke Optical Packet Switch
Abstract:
The power consumption of an Optical Packet Switch equipped with SOA technology based Spanke switching fabric is evaluated. Sophisticated analytical models are introduced to evaluate the power consumption versus the offered traffic, the main switch parameters, and the used device characteristics. The impact of Amplifier Spontaneous Emission (ASE) noise generated by a transmission system on the power consumption is investigated. As a matter of example for 32×32 switches supporting 64 wavelengths and offered traffic equal to 0,8, the average energy consumption per bit is 5, 07 · 10-2 nJ/bit and increases if ASE noise introduced by the transmission systems is increased.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
134
15959
Performance Evaluation of the OCDM/WDM Technique for Optical Packet Switches
Abstract:

The performance of the Optical Code Division Multiplexing/ Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM/OCDM) technique for Optical Packet Switch is investigated. The impact on the performance of the impairment due to both Multiple Access Interference and Beat noise is studied. The Packet Loss Probability due to output packet contentions is evaluated as a function of the main switch and traffic parameters when Gold coherent optical codes are adopted. The Packet Loss Probability of the OCDM/WDM switch can reach 10-9 when M=16 wavelengths, Gold code of length L=511 and only 24 wavelength converters are used in the switch.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
133
8626
Three Dimensional Analysis of Pollution Dispersion in Street Canyon
Abstract:

Three dimensional simulations are carried out to estimate the effect of wind direction, wind speed and geometry on the flow and dispersion of vehicular pollutant in a street canyon. The pollutant sources are motor vehicles passing between the two buildings. Suitable emission factors for petrol and diesel vehicles at varying vehicle speed are used for the estimation of the rate of emission from the streets. The dispersion of automobile pollutant released from the street is simulated by introducing vehicular emission source term as a fixed-flux boundary condition at the ground level over the road. The emission source term is suitably calculated by adopting emission factors from literature for varying conditions of street traffic. It is observed that increase in wind angle disturbs the symmetric pattern of pollution distribution along the street length. The concentration increases in the far end of the street as compared to the near end.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
132
5267
Comparison of Physico-Chemical Properties And Fatty Acid Compostion of Elateriospermum Tapos (Buah Perah), Palm Oil And Soybean Oil
Abstract:
Elateriospermum tapos seed (buah perah) is the one of the rich sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids. It contains high percentage of oleic acid which is the important component to develop nervous system and also α-linolenic acid (ALA) which is the precursor of omega-3 fatty acids series to synthesize eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, there is less study about this valuable oilseed and exploit its potential. Therefore, this paper is to assess the comparison of physico-chemical properties and fatty composition of perah oil to palm oil and soybean oil. From the comparison, perah oil shows low peroxide value means it has good oxidative stability and also high iodine values shows that it can be used in paint industry. The study shown that perah oil is comparable to palm oil and soybean oil, so it has high potential to be exploited in the oleochemical, pharmaceutical, cosmetics and paint industries.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
131
4642
Scatter Analysis of Fatigue Life and Pore Size Data of Die-Cast AM60B Magnesium Alloy
Abstract:
Scatter behavior of fatigue life in die-cast AM60B alloy was investigated. For comparison, those in rolled AM60B alloy and die-cast A365-T5 aluminum alloy were also studied. Scatter behavior of pore size was also investigated to discuss dominant factors for fatigue life scatter in die-cast materials. Three-parameter Weibull function was suitable to explain the scatter behavior of both fatigue life and pore size. The scatter of fatigue life in die-cast AM60B alloy was almost comparable to that in die-cast A365-T5 alloy, while it was significantly large compared to that in the rolled AM60B alloy. Scatter behavior of pore size observed at fracture nucleation site on the fracture surface was comparable to that observed on the specimen cross-section and also to that of fatigue life. Therefore, the dominant factor for large scatter of fatigue life in die-cast alloys would be the large scatter of pore size. This speculation was confirmed by the fracture mechanics fatigue life prediction, where the pore observed at fatigue crack nucleation site was assumed as the pre-existing crack.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
130
14776
Comparison of BER Performances for Conventional and Non-Conventional Mapping Schemes Used in OFDM
Abstract:

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is one of the techniques for high speed data rate communication with main consideration for 4G and 5G systems. In OFDM, there are several mapping schemes which provide a way of parallel transmission. In this paper, comparisons of mapping schemes used by some standards have been made and also has been discussed about the performance of the non-conventional modulation technique. The Comparisons of Bit Error Rate (BER) performances for conventional and non-conventional modulation schemes have been done using MATLAB software. Mentioned schemes used in OFDM system can be selected on the basis of the requirement of power or spectrum efficiency and BER analysis.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
129
6220
The Influence of Social Network Websites on Level of user Satisfaction
Abstract:
the purpose of this research is to identify and clarify factors which have positive effect among user satisfaction and their social networking through websites. The examined factors in this research are; innovation, ease of use, trustworthy and customer support which are defined as satisfaction factors. To obtain reliable research approaches and to have better result in this research four hypothesizes used to test. This hypothesis testing has been done by correlation, regression and test of normality by using “SPSS16" also the data which was analyzed by this software. this data was gathered from prepaid questionnaire.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
128
11956
Comparison of Detrending Methods in Spectral Analysis of Heart Rate Variability
Abstract:
Non-stationary trend in R-R interval series is considered as a main factor that could highly influence the evaluation of spectral analysis. It is suggested to remove trends in order to obtain reliable results. In this study, three detrending methods, the smoothness prior approach, the wavelet and the empirical mode decomposition, were compared on artificial R-R interval series with four types of simulated trends. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram was used for spectral analysis of R-R interval series. Results indicated that the wavelet method showed a better overall performance than the other two methods, and more time-saving, too. Therefore it was selected for spectral analysis of real R-R interval series of thirty-seven healthy subjects. Significant decreases (19.94±5.87% in the low frequency band and 18.97±5.78% in the ratio (p
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
127
2565
Microstructure Changes of Machined Surfaceson Austenitic 304 Stainless Steel
Abstract:
This paper presents a experiment to estimate the influences of cutting conditions in microstructure changes of machining austenitic 304 stainless steel, especially for wear insert. The wear insert were prefabricated with a width of 0.5 mm. And the forces, temperature distribution, RS, and microstructure changes were measured by force dynamometer, infrared thermal camera, X-ray diffraction, XRD, SEM, respectively. The results told that the different combinations of machining condition have a significant influence on machined surface microstructure changes. In addition to that, the ANOVA and AOMwere used to tell the different influences of cutting speed, feed rate, and wear insert.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
126
12083
Optimization of Human Comfort Reaction for Suspended Cabin Tractor Semitrailer Drivers
Abstract:

This work has been conducted to study on comfort level of drivers of suspended cabin tractor semitrailer. Some drivers suffer from low back pain caused by vibration. The practical significance of applying suspended cabin type of tractor semi trailer was tested at different road conditions, different speed as well as different load conditions for comfortable driver seat interface (x, y, z ) and the process parameters have been prioritized using Taguchi-s L27 orthogonal array. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to optimize the human comfort vibration of suspended cabin tractor semitrailer drivers. The practical significance of applying GA to human comfort to reaction of suspended cabin tractor semitrailer has been validated by means of computing the deviation between predicted and experimentally obtained human comfort to vibration. The optimized acceleration data indicate a little uncomfortable ride for suspended cabin tractor semitrailer.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
125
11632
Extraction in Two-Phase Systems and Some Properties of Laccase from Lentinus polychrous
Abstract:
Extraction of laccase produced by L. polychrous in an aqueous two-phase system, composed of polyethylene glycol and phosphate salt at pH 7.0 and 250C was investigated. The effect of PEG molecular weight, PEG concentration and phosphate concentration was determined. Laccase preferentially partitioned to the top phase. Good extraction of laccase to the top phase was observed with PEG 4000. The optimum system was found in the system containing 12% w/w PEG 4000 and 16% w/w phosphate salt with KE of 88.3, purification factor of 3.0-fold and 99.1% yield. Some properties of the enzyme such as thermal stability, effect of heavy metal ions and kinetic constants were also presented in this work. The thermal stability decreased sharply with high temperature above 60 0C. The enzyme was inhibited by Cd2+, Pb2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+. The Vmax and Km values of the enzyme were 74.70 μmol/min/ml and 9.066 mM respectively.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
124
2893
Determination of Penicillins Residues in Livestock and Marine Products by LC/MS/MS
Abstract:
Multi-residue analysis method for penicillins was developed and validated in bovine muscle, chicken, milk, and flatfish. Detection was based on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The developed method was validated for specificity, precision, recovery, and linearity. The analytes were extracted with 80% acetonitrile and clean-up by a single reversed-phase solid-phase extraction step. Six penicillins presented recoveries higher than 76% with the exception of Amoxicillin (59.7%). Relative standard deviations (RSDs) were not more than 10%. LOQs values ranged from 0.1 and to 4.5 ug/kg. The method was applied to 128 real samples. Benzylpenicillin was detected in 15 samples and Cloxacillin was detected in 7 samples. Oxacillin was detected in 2 samples. But the detected levels were under the MRL levels for penicillins in samples.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
123
11880
Evaluating the Tool Wear Rate in Ultrasonic Machining of Titanium using Design of Experiments Approach
Abstract:
Ultrasonic machining (USM) is a non-traditional machining process being widely used for commercial machining of brittle and fragile materials such as glass, ceramics and semiconductor materials. However, USM could be a viable alternative for machining a tough material such as titanium; and this aspect needs to be explored through experimental research. This investigation is focused on exploring the use of ultrasonic machining for commercial machining of pure titanium (ASTM Grade-I) and evaluation of tool wear rate (TWR) under controlled experimental conditions. The optimal settings of parameters are determined through experiments planned, conducted and analyzed using Taguchi method. In all, the paper focuses on parametric optimization of ultrasonic machining of pure titanium metal with TWR as response, and validation of the optimized value of TWR by conducting confirmatory experiments.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
122
1140
Storytelling for Business Blogging: Position and Navigation
Abstract:

Truly successful bloggers, navigating the public to know them, often use their blogs as a way to better communicate with customers. Integrating with marketing tools, storytelling can be regarded as one of the most effective ways that businesses can follow to gain competitive edge. Even though the literature on marketing contains much discussion of traditional vehicles, the issue of business blogs applying storytelling has, as yet, received little attention. In the exploration stage, this paper identifies four storytelling disciplines and then presents a road map to business blogging. This paper also provides a two-path framework for blog storytelling and initiates an issue for further study.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
121
1398
Study of Stress Wave Propagation with NHDMOC
Abstract:
MOC (method of cell) is a new method of investigating wave propagating in material with periodic microstructure, and can reflect the effect of microstructure. Wave propagation in periodically laminated medium consisting of linearly elastic layers can be treated as a special application of this method. In this paper, it was used to simulate the dynamic response of carbon-phenolic to impulsive loading under certain boundary conditions. From the comparison between the results obtained from this method and the exact results based on propagator matrix theory, excellent agreement is achieved. Conclusion can be made that the oscillation periodicity is decided by the thickness of sub-cells. In the end, the NHDMOC method, which permits studying stress wave propagation with one dimensional strain, was applied to study the one-dimensional stress wave propagation. In this paper, the ZWT nonlinear visco-elastic constitutive relationship with 7 parameters, NHDMOC, and corresponding equations were deduced. The equations were verified, comparing the elastic stress wave propagation in SHPB with, respectively, the elastic and the visco-elastic bar. Finally the dispersion and attenuation of stress wave in SHPB with visco-elastic bar was studied.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
120
5178
Using Radio Frequency Identification Technology in Supply Chain Management
Abstract:
The radio frequency identification (RFID) is a technology for automatic identification of items, particularly in supply chain, but it is becoming increasingly important for industrial applications. Unlike barcode technology that detects the optical signals reflected from barcode labels, RFID uses radio waves to transmit the information from an RFID tag affixed to the physical object. In contrast to today most often use of this technology in warehouse inventory and supply chain, the focus of this paper is an overview of the structure of RFID systems used by RFID technology and it also presents a solution based on the application of RFID for brand authentication, traceability and tracking, by implementing a production management system and extending its use to traders.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
119
7899
Performance Prediction of a 5MW Wind Turbine Blade Considering Aeroelastic Effect
Abstract:
In this study, aeroelastic response and performance analyses have been conducted for a 5MW-Class composite wind turbine blade model. Advanced coupled numerical method based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational flexible multi-body dynamics (CFMBD) has been developed in order to investigate aeroelastic responses and performance characteristics of the rotating composite blade. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with k-ω SST turbulence model were solved for unsteady flow problems on the rotating turbine blade model. Also, structural analyses considering rotating effect have been conducted using the general nonlinear finite element method. A fully implicit time marching scheme based on the Newmark direct integration method is applied to solve the coupled aeroelastic governing equations of the 3D turbine blade for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems. Detailed dynamic responses and instantaneous velocity contour on the blade surfaces which considering flow-separation effects were presented to show the multi-physical phenomenon of the huge rotating wind- turbine blade model.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
118
10009
Indonesian News Classification using Support Vector Machine
Abstract:
Digital news with a variety topics is abundant on the internet. The problem is to classify news based on its appropriate category to facilitate user to find relevant news rapidly. Classifier engine is used to split any news automatically into the respective category. This research employs Support Vector Machine (SVM) to classify Indonesian news. SVM is a robust method to classify binary classes. The core processing of SVM is in the formation of an optimum separating plane to separate the different classes. For multiclass problem, a mechanism called one against one is used to combine the binary classification result. Documents were taken from the Indonesian digital news site, www.kompas.com. The experiment showed a promising result with the accuracy rate of 85%. This system is feasible to be implemented on Indonesian news classification.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
117
8981
Transonic Flutter Analysis Using Euler Equation and Reduced Order Modeling Technique
Abstract:

A new method identifies coupled fluid-structure system with a reduced set of state variables is presented. Assuming that the structural model is known a priori either from an analysis or a test and using linear transformations between structural and aeroelastic states, it is possible to deduce aerodynamic information from sampled time histories of the aeroelastic system. More specifically given a finite set of structural modes the method extracts generalized aerodynamic force matrix corresponding to these mode shapes. Once the aerodynamic forces are known, an aeroelastic reduced-order model can be constructed in discrete-time, state-space format by coupling the structural model and the aerodynamic system. The resulting reduced-order model is suitable for constant Mach, varying density analysis.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
116
7518
A CFD Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement in Pipe Flow with Al2O3 Nanofluid
Authors:
Abstract:
Fluids are used for heat transfer in many engineering equipments. Water, ethylene glycol and propylene glycol are some of the common heat transfer fluids. Over the years, in an attempt to reduce the size of the equipment and/or efficiency of the process, various techniques have been employed to improve the heat transfer rate of these fluids. Surface modification, use of inserts and increased fluid velocity are some examples of heat transfer enhancement techniques. Addition of milli or micro sized particles to the heat transfer fluid is another way of improving heat transfer rate. Though this looks simple, this method has practical problems such as high pressure loss, clogging and erosion of the material of construction. These problems can be overcome by using nanofluids, which is a dispersion of nanosized particles in a base fluid. Nanoparticles increase the thermal conductivity of the base fluid manifold which in turn increases the heat transfer rate. In this work, the heat transfer enhancement using aluminium oxide nanofluid has been studied by computational fluid dynamic modeling of the nanofluid flow adopting the single phase approach.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
115
6360
Study on Mixed Convection Heat Transfer in Vertical Ducts with Radiation Effects
Abstract:

Experiments have been performed to investigate the radiation effects on mixed convection heat transfer for thermally developing airflow in vertical ducts with two differentially heated isothermal walls and two adiabatic walls. The investigation covers the Reynolds number Re = 800 to Re = 2900, heat flux varied from 256 W/m2 to 863 W/m2, hot wall temperature ranges from 27°C to 100 °C, aspect ratios 1 & 0.5 and the emissivity of internal walls are 0.05 and 0.85. In the present study, combined flow visualization was conducted to observe the flow patterns. The effect of surface temperature along the walls was studied to investigate the local Nusselt number variation within the duct. The result shows that flow condition and radiation significantly affect the total Nusselt number and tends to reduce the buoyancy condition.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
114
486
Comparative Study on Production of Fructooligosaccharides by p. Simplicissimum Using Immobilized Cells and Conventional Reactor System
Abstract:

Fructooligosaccharides derived from microbial enzyme especially from fungal sources has been received particular attention due to its beneficial effects as prebiotics and mass production. However, fungal fermentation is always cumbersome due to its broth rheology problem that will eventually affect the production of FOS. This study investigated the efficiency of immobilized cell system using rotating fibrous bed bioreactor (RFBB) in producing fructooligosaccharides (FOS). A comparative picture with respect to conventional stirred tank bioreactor (CSTB) and RFBB has been presented. To demonstrate the effect of agitation intensity and aeration rate, a laboratory-scale bioreactor 2.5 L was operated in three phases (high, medium, low) for 48 hours. Agitation speed has a great influence on P. simplicissimum fermentation for FOS production, where the volumetric FOS productivity using RFBB is increased with almost 4 fold compared to the FOS productivity in CSTB that only 0.319 g/L/h. Rate of FOS production increased up to 1.2 fold when immobilized cells system was employed at aeration rate similar to the freely suspended cells at 2.0 vvm.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
113
8275
Complexity of Operation and Maintenance in Irrigation Network Management-A Case of the Dez Scheme in the Greater Dezful, Iran
Authors:
Abstract:

Food and fibre production in arid and semi-arid regions has emerged as one of the major challenges for various socio-economic and political reasons such as the food security and self-sufficiency. Productive use of the renewable water resources has risen on top ofthe decision-making agenda. For this reason, efficient operation and maintenance of modern irrigation and drainage schemes become part and parcel and indispensible reality in agricultural policy making arena. The aim of this paper is to investigate the complexity of operating and maintaining such schemes, mainly focussing on challenges which enhance and opportunities that impedsustainable food and fibre production. The methodology involved using secondary data complemented byroutine observations and stakeholders views on issues that influence the O&M in the Dez command area. The SPSS program was used as an analytical framework for data analysis and interpretation.Results indicate poor application efficiency in most croplands, much of which is attributed to deficient operation of conveyance and distribution canals. These in turn, are reportedly linked to inadequate maintenance of the pumping stations and hydraulic structures like turnouts,flumes and other control systems particularly in the secondary and tertiary canals. Results show that the aforementioned deficiencies have been the major impediment to establishing regular flow toward the farm gates which subsequently undermine application efficiency and tillage operationsat farm level. Results further show that accumulative impact of such deficiencies has been the major causes of poorcrop yield and quality that deem production system in these croplands uneconomic. Results further show that the present state might undermine the sustainability of agricultural system in the command area. The overall conclusion being that present water management is unlikely to be responsive to challenges that the sector faces. And in the absence of coherent measures to shift the status quo situation in favour of more productive resource use, it would be hard to fulfil the objectives of the National Economic and Socio-cultural Development Plans.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
112
932
Identification of Seat Belt Wearing Compliance Associate Factors in Malaysia: Evidence-based Approach
Abstract:
The aim of the study was to identify seat belt wearing factor among road users in Malaysia. Evidence-based approach through in-depth crash investigation was utilised to determine the intended objectives. The objective was scoped into crashes investigated by Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research (MIROS) involving passenger vehicles within 2007 and 2010. Crash information of a total of 99 crash cases involving 240 vehicles and 864 occupants were obtained during the study period. Statistical test and logistic regression analysis have been performed. Results of the analysis revealed that gender, seat position and age were associated with seat belt wearing compliance in Malaysia. Males are 97.6% more likely to wear seat belt compared to females (95% CI 1.317 to 2.964). By seat position, the finding indicates that frontal occupants were 82 times more likely to be wearing seat belt (95% CI 30.199 to 225.342) as compared to rear occupants. It is also important to note that the odds of seat belt wearing increased by about 2.64% (95% CI 1.0176 to 1.0353) for every one year increase in age. This study is essential in understanding the Malaysian tendency in belting up while being occupied in a vehicle. The factors highlighted in this study should be emphasized in road safety education in order to increase seat belt wearing rate in this country and ultimately in preventing deaths due to road crashes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
111
160
A New Method in Short-Term Heart Rate Variability — Five-Class Density Histogram
Abstract:

A five-class density histogram with an index named cumulative density was proposed to analyze the short-term HRV. 150 subjects participated in the test, falling into three groups with equal numbers -- the healthy young group (Young), the healthy old group (Old), and the group of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Results of multiple comparisons showed a significant differences of the cumulative density in the three groups, with values 0.0238 for Young, 0.0406 for Old and 0.0732 for CHF (p<0.001). After 7 days and 14 days, 46 subjects from the Young and Old groups were retested twice following the same test protocol. Results showed good-to-excellent interclass correlations (ICC=0.783, 95% confidence interval 0.676-0.864). The Bland-Altman plots were used to reexamine the test-retest reliability. In conclusion, the method proposed could be a valid and reliable method to the short-term HRV assessment.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
110
9880
Mixed Model Assembly Line Sequencing In Make to Order System with Available to Promise Consideration
Abstract:
Mixed model assembly lines (MMAL) are a type of production line where a variety of product models similar in product characteristics are assembled. The effective design of these lines requires that schedule for assembling the different products is determined. In this paper we tried to fit the sequencing problem with the main characteristics of make to order (MTO) environment. The problem solved in this paper is a multiple objective sequencing problem in mixed model assembly lines sequencing using weighted Sum Method (WSM) using GAMS software for small problem and an effective GA for large scale problems because of the nature of NP-hardness of our problem and vast time consume to find the optimum solution in large problems. In this problem three practically important objectives are minimizing: total utility work, keeping a constant production rate variation, and minimizing earliness and tardiness cost which consider the priority of each customer and different due date which is a real situation in mixed model assembly lines and it is the first time we consider different attribute to prioritize the customers which help the company to reduce the cost of earliness and tardiness. This mechanism is a way to apply an advance available to promise (ATP) in mixed model assembly line sequencing which is the main contribution of this paper.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
109
12750
On Asymptotic Laws and Transfer Processes Enhancement in Complex Turbulent Flows
Authors:
Abstract:
The lecture represents significant advances in understanding of the transfer processes mechanism in turbulent separated flows. Based upon experimental data suggesting the governing role of generated local pressure gradient that takes place in the immediate vicinity of the wall in separated flow as a result of intense instantaneous accelerations induced by large-scale vortex flow structures similarity laws for mean velocity and temperature and spectral characteristics and heat and mass transfer law for turbulent separated flows have been developed. These laws are confirmed by available experimental data. The results obtained were employed for analysis of heat and mass transfer in some very complex processes occurring in technological applications such as impinging jets, heat transfer of cylinders in cross flow and in tube banks, packed beds where processes manifest distinct properties which allow them to be classified under turbulent separated flows. Many facts have got an explanation for the first time.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
108
388
Anisotropic Constitutive Model and its Application in Simulation of Thermal Shock Wave Propagation for Cylinder Shell Composite
Abstract:
In this paper, a plane-strain orthotropic elasto-plastic dynamic constitutive model is established, and with this constitutive model, the thermal shock wave induced by intense pulsed X-ray radiation in cylinder shell composite is simulated by the finite element code, then the properties of thermal shock wave propagation are discussed. The results show that the thermal shock wave exhibit different shapes under the radiation of soft and hard X-ray, and while the composite is radiated along different principal axes, great differences exist in some aspects, such as attenuation of the peak stress value, spallation and so on.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
107
115
The Role of Knowledge Management in Enterprise 2.0
Authors:
Abstract:

The term Enterprise 2.0 (E2.0) describes a collection of organizational and IT practices that help organizations establish flexible work models, visible knowledge-sharing practices, and higher levels of community participation. E2.0 parallels and builds on another term commonly being used in the industry – Web 2.0. E2.0 represents also new packaging for strategic collaboration and Knowledge Management (KM). Organizations rely on collaboration and KM initiatives to attain innovation, growth, productivity, and performance goals.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
106
14024
Vertical Silicon Nanowire MOSFET With A Fully-Silicided (FUSI) NiSi2 Gate
Abstract:

This paper presents a vertical silicon nanowire n- MOSFET integrated with a CMOS-compatible fully-silicided (FUSI) NiSi2 gate. Devices with nanowire diameter of 50nm show good electrical performance (SS < 70mV/dec, DIBL < 30mV/V, Ion/Ioff > 107). Most significantly, threshold voltage tunability of about 0.2V is shown. Although threshold voltage remains low for the 50nm diameter device, it is expected to become more positive as nanowire diameter reduces.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
105
12766
Determination of Effective Variables on Arachidonic Acid Production by Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68in Solid-State Fermentation using Plackett-Burman Screening Design
Abstract:
In the present study, the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68 was screened for arachidonic acidproduction using inexpensive agricultural by-products as substrate. Four oilcakes were analysed to choose the best substrate among them. Sunflower oilcake was the most effective substrate for ARA production followed by soybean, colza and olive oilcakes. In the next step, seven variables including substrate particle size, moisture content, time, temperature, yeast extract supply, glucose supply and glutamate supply were surveyed and effective variables for ARA production were determined using a Plackett-Burman screening design. Analysis results showed that time (12 days), substrate particle size (1-1.4 mm) and temperature (20ºC) were the most effective variables for the highest level of ARA production respectively.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
104
1585
Bleeding Detection Algorithm for Capsule Endoscopy
Abstract:
Automatic detection of bleeding is of practical importance since capsule endoscopy produces an extremely large number of images. Algorithm development of bleeding detection in the digestive tract is difficult due to different contrasts among the images, food dregs, secretion and others. In this study, were assigned weighting factors derived from the independent features of the contrast and brightness between bleeding and normality. Spectral analysis based on weighting factors was fast and accurate. Results were a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 90% when the accuracy was determined for each pixel out of 42 endoscope images.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
103
4826
Product Development and Derivatives Exploration by using Photosynthetic Bacteria
Abstract:
Lycopene, which can be extracted from plants and is very popular for fruit intake, is restricted for healthy food development due to its high price. On the other hand, it will get great safety concerns, especially in the food or cosmetic application, if the raw material of lycopene is produced by chemical synthesis. In this project, we provide a key technology to bridge the limitation as mentioned above. Based on the abundant bioresources of BCRC (Bioresource Collection and Research Center, Taiwan), a promising lycopene output will be anticipated by the introduction of fermentation technology along with industry-related core energy. Our results showed that addition of tween 80(0.2%) and span 20 produced higher amount of lycopene. And piperidine, when was added at 48hr to the cultivation medium, could promote lycopene excretion effectively also.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
102
12011
Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Structures of Oscillating Pipe Flows
Abstract:
The RANS method with Saffman-s turbulence model was employed to solve the time-dependent turbulent Navier-Stokes and energy equations for oscillating pipe flows. The method of partial sums of the Fourier series is used to analyze the harmonic velocity and temperature results. The complete structures of the oscillating pipe flows and the averaged Nusselt numbers on the tube wall are provided by numerical simulation over wide ranges of ReA and ReR. Present numerical code is validated by comparing the laminar flow results to analytic solutions and turbulence flow results to published experimental data at lower and higher Reynolds numbers respectively. The effects of ReA and ReR on the velocity, temperature and Nusselt number distributions have been di scussed. The enhancement of the heat transfer due to oscillating flows has also been presented. By the way of analyzing the overall Nusselt number over wide ranges of the Reynolds number Re and Keulegan- Carpenter number KC, the optimal ratio of the tube diameter over the oscillation amplitude is obtained based on the existence of a nearly constant optimal KC number. The potential application of the present results in sea water cooling has also been discussed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
101
9823
Experimental and Statistical Study of Nonlinear Effect of Carbon Nanotube on Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene Composites
Abstract:
In this study concept of experimental design is successfully applied for the determination of optimum condition to produce PP/SWCNT (Polypropylene/Single wall carbon nanotube) nanocomposite. Central composite design as one of experimental design techniques is employed for the optimization and statistical determination of the significant factors influencing on the tensile modulus and yield stress as mechanical properties of this nanocomposite. The significant factors are SWCNT weight fraction and acid treatment time for functionalizing the nanoparticles. Optimum conditions are in 0.7 % of SWCNT weight fraction and 210 min as acid treatment time for 1112.75 ± 28 MPa as maximum tensile modulus and in 216 min and 0.65 % as acid treatment time and SWCNT weight fraction respectively for 40.26 ± 0.3 MPa as maximum yield stress. Also after setting new experiments for test these optimum conditions, found excelent agreement with predicted values.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
100
1703
Silicon Nanowire for Thermoelectric Applications: Effects of Contact Resistance
Abstract:

Silicon nanowire (SiNW) based thermoelectric device (TED) has potential applications in areas such as chip level cooling/ energy harvesting. It is a great challenge however, to assemble an efficient device with these SiNW. The presence of parasitic in the form of interfacial electrical resistance will have a significant impact on the performance of the TED. In this work, we explore the effect of the electrical contact resistance on the performance of a TED. Numerical simulations are performed on SiNW to investigate such effects on its cooling performance. Intrinsically, SiNW individually without the unwanted parasitic effect has excellent cooling power density. However, the cooling effect is undermined with the contribution of the electrical contact resistance.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
99
10504
A Numerical Study on Rear-spoiler of Passenger Vehicle
Abstract:

The simulation of external aerodynamics is one of the most challenging and important automotive CFD applications. With the rapid developments of digital computers, CFD is used as a practical tool in modern fluid dynamics research. It integrates fluid mechanics disciplines, mathematics and computer science. In this study, two different types of simulations were made, one for the flow around a simplified high speed passenger car with a rear-spoiler and the other for the flow without a rear-spoiler. The standard k-ε model is selected to numerically simulate the external flow field of the simplified Camry model with or without a rear-spoiler. Through an analysis of the simulation results, a new rear spoiler is designed and it shows a mild reduction of the vehicle aerodynamics drag. This leads to less vehicle fuel consumption on the road.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
98
9070
Analysis on the Decision-Making Model of Private Sector Companies in PPP Projects
Abstract:
Successful public-private-partnership (PPP) implementation can not be achieved without the active participation of private sector companies. This paper examines the decision-making of private sector companies in public works delivered by the PPP model on the basis of social responsibility theory. It proposes that private sector companies should indentify objectives of entering into PPP projects, and shoulder relevant social responsibilities, while a minimum return should also be guaranteed in their favor, so as to compensate for their assumed risk and support them to take on responsibilities in the future. The paper also gives a calculation regarding the appropriate scale and reasonable degree of private sector involvement in PPP projects through the cost-benefit analysis in a specific case study, with the purpose to guide the private sector companies to create a cooperation environment resembling “symbiosis" and facilitate the smooth implementation of public works delivered by the PPP model.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
97
12087
Iteration Acceleration for Nonlinear Coupled Parabolic-Hyperbolic System
Abstract:

A Picard-Newton iteration method is studied to accelerate the numerical solution procedure of a class of two-dimensional nonlinear coupled parabolic-hyperbolic system. The Picard-Newton iteration is designed by adding higher-order terms of small quantity to an existing Picard iteration. The discrete functional analysis and inductive hypothesis reasoning techniques are used to overcome difficulties coming from nonlinearity and coupling, and theoretical analysis is made for the convergence and approximation properties of the iteration scheme. The Picard-Newton iteration has a quadratic convergent ratio, and its solution has second order spatial approximation and first order temporal approximation to the exact solution of the original problem. Numerical tests verify the results of the theoretical analysis, and show the Picard-Newton iteration is more efficient than the Picard iteration.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
96
12600
The Sublimation Energy of Metal versus Temperature and Pressure and its Influence on Blow-off Impulse
Abstract:
Based on the thermodynamic theory, the dependence of sublimation energy of metal on temperature and pressure is discussed, and the results indicate that the sublimation energy decreases linearly with the increase of temperature and pressure. Combined with this result, the blow-off impulse of aluminum induced by pulsed X-ray is simulated by smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method. The numerical results show that, while the change of sublimation energy with temperature and pressure is considered, the blow-off impulse of aluminum is larger than the case that the sublimation energy is assumed to be a constant.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
95
14747
Effect of Replacement of Unripe Banana Flour for Rice Flour on Physical Properties and Resistant Starch Content of Rice Noodle
Abstract:
This work was conducted to improve the level of resistant starch (RS) in a rice noodle using unripe banana flour and to investigate the effect of substitution of unripe banana flour for rice flour on the physical properties of rice noodle. In order to prepare rice noodles, the unripe banana flour were replaced the rice flour with different degrees of substitutions including 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%. The results indicated that substitution of unripe banana flour was significantly affected the viscosity properties of noodle flour, color, cooking loss, RS and total starch content of noodle. It was found that the noodle prepared from 100% unripe banana indicated the greatest changes on the viscosity properties and color profiles. It also showed the highest values of cooking loss (2.53%), tensile strength (129.03%), and RS content (13.15%).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
94
7861
An Investigation into Air Ejector with Pulsating Primary Flow
Abstract:
The article deals with pneumatic and hot wire anemometry measurement on subsonic axi-symmetric air ejector. Performances of the ejector with and without pulsations of primary flow are compared, measuring of characteristic pressures and mass flow rates are performed and ejector efficiency is evaluated. The pulsations of primary flow are produced by a synthetic jet generator, which is placed in the supply line of the primary flow just in front of the primary nozzle. The aim of the pulsation is to intensify the mixing process. In the article we present: Pressure measuring of pulsation on the mixing chamber wall, behind the mixing chamber and behind the diffuser measured by fast pressure transducers and results of hot wire anemometry measurement. It was found out that using of primary flow pulsations yields higher back pressure behind the ejector and higher efficiency. The processes in this ejector and influences of primary flow pulsations on the mixing processes are described.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
93
12157
An Advanced Hybrid P2p Botnet 2.0
Abstract:
Recently, malware attacks have become more serious over the Internet by e-mail, denial of service (DoS) or distributed denial of service (DDoS). The Botnets have become a significant part of the Internet malware attacks. The traditional botnets include three parts – botmaster, command and control (C&C) servers and bots. The C&C servers receive commands from botmaster and control the distributions of computers remotely. Bots use DNS to find the positions of C&C server. In this paper, we propose an advanced hybrid peer-to-peer (P2P) botnet 2.0 (AHP2P botnet 2.0) using web 2.0 technology to hide the instructions from botmaster into social sites, which are regarded as C&C servers. Servent bots are regarded as sub-C&C servers to get the instructions from social sites. The AHP2P botnet 2.0 can evaluate the performance of servent bots, reduce DNS traffics from bots to C&C servers, and achieve harder detection bots actions than IRC-based botnets over the Internet.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
92
15043
On a Way for Constructing Numerical Methods on the Joint of Multistep and Hybrid Methods
Abstract:
Taking into account that many problems of natural sciences and engineering are reduced to solving initial-value problem for ordinary differential equations, beginning from Newton, the scientists investigate approximate solution of ordinary differential equations. There are papers of different authors devoted to the solution of initial value problem for ODE. The Euler-s known method that was developed under the guidance of the famous scientists Adams, Runge and Kutta is the most popular one among these methods. Recently the scientists began to construct the methods preserving some properties of Adams and Runge-Kutta methods and called them hybrid methods. The constructions of such methods are investigated from the middle of the XX century. Here we investigate one generalization of multistep and hybrid methods and on their base we construct specific methods of accuracy order p = 5 and p = 6 for k = 1 ( k is the order of the difference method).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
91
15374
Synthesis and Characterization of New Thermotropic Liquid Crystals Derived from 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde
Abstract:
A homologous series of aromatic esters, 4-nalkanoyloxybenzylidene- 4--bromoanilines, nABBA, consisting of two 1,4-disubstituted phenyl cores and a Schiff base central linkage was synthesized. All the members can be differed by the number of carbon atoms at terminal alkanoyloxy chain (CnH2n-1COO-, n = 2, 6, 18). The molecular structure of nABBA was confirmed with infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and electron-ionization mass (EI-MS) spectrometry. Mesomorphic properties were studied using differential scanning calorimetry and polarizing optical microscopy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
90
6741
The Establishment of Cause-System of Poor Construction Site Safety and Priority Analysis from Different Perspectives
Abstract:
Construction site safety in China has aroused comprehensive concern all over the world. It is imperative to investigate the main causes of poor construction site safety. This paper divides all the causes into four aspects, namely the factors of workers, object, environment and management and sets up the accident causes element system based on Delphi Method. This is followed by the application of structural equation modeling to examine the importance of each aspect of causes from the standpoints of different roles related to the construction respectively. The results indicate that all the four aspects of factors are in need of improvement, and different roles have different ideas considering the priority of those factors. The paper has instructive significance for the practitioners to take measures to improve construction site safety in China accordingly.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
89
12884
Analysis of Surface Spalling on a First Intermediate Roll in Sendzirmir Mills
Abstract:
A first intermediate roll of Sendzirmir mills was failure by surface spalling during operation. After analyzing by visual, stereo microscope, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, glow-discharged spectrometer and hardness test, respectively, the results show that some voids and cracks existed on the contact surface as well as subsurface. Further examination verified inadequate hardness and inclusions were responsible for the failure of surface spalling.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
88
14886
A Study on Reducing Malicious Replies on the Internet: An Approach by Game Theory
Authors:
Abstract:
Since the advent of the information era, the Internet has brought various positive effects in everyday life. Nevertheless, recently, problems and side-effects have been noted. Internet witch-trials and spread of pornography are only a few of these problems.In this study, problems and causes of malicious replies on internet boards were analyzed, using the key ideas of game theory. The study provides a mathematical model for the internet reply game to devise three possible plans that could efficiently counteract malicious replies. Furthermore, seven specific measures that comply with one of the three plans were proposed and evaluated according to the importance and utility of each measure using the orthogonal array survey and SPSS conjoint analysis.The conclusion was that the most effective measure would be forbidding unsigned user access to malicious replies. Also notable was that some analytically proposed measures, when implemented, could backfire and encourage malicious replies.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
87
1375
Effect of Particle Size in Aviation Turbine Fuel-Al2O3 Nanofluids for Heat Transfer Applications
Abstract:
The effect of Alumina nanoparticle size on thermophysical properties, heat transfer performance and pressure loss characteristics of Aviation Turbine Fuel (ATF)-Al2O3 nanofluids is studied experimentally for the proposed application of regenerative cooling of semi-cryogenic rocket engine thrust chambers. Al2O3 particles with mean diameters of 50 nm or 150 nm are dispersed in ATF. At 500C and 0.3% particle volume concentration, the bigger particles show increases of 17% in thermal conductivity and 55% in viscosity, whereas the smaller particles show corresponding increases of 21% and 22% for thermal conductivity and viscosity respectively. Contrary to these results, experiments to study the heat transfer performance and pressure loss characteristics show that at the same pumping power, the maximum enhancement in heat transfer coefficient at 500C and 0.3% concentration is approximately 47% using bigger particles, whereas it is only 36% using smaller particles.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
86
2076
AES and ECC Mixed for ZigBee Wireless Sensor Security
Abstract:
In this paper, we argue the security protocols of ZigBee wireless sensor network in MAC layer. AES 128-bit encryption algorithm in CCM* mode is secure transferred data; however, AES-s secret key will be break within nearest future. Efficient public key algorithm, ECC has been mixed with AES to rescue the ZigBee wireless sensor from cipher text and replay attack. Also, the proposed protocol can parallelize the integrity function to increase system performance.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
85
6752
Investigating Relationship between Product Features and Supply Chain Integration
Abstract:
This paper addresses integration issues in supply chain, and tries to investigate how different aspects of integration are linked with some product features. Integration in this study is interpreted as "internal", "upstream" (supply), and "downstream" (demand). Two features of product innovative and quality are considered. To examine the relationships between supply chain integrations – as mentioned above, and product features, this research follows the survey method in automotive industry.The results imply that supply chain upstream integration has a higher impact on product quality, comparing to internal and supply chain downstream integrations. It is also found that the influence of supply chain downstream integration on product innovation is greater than other variables. In brief, this study mainly tackles the importance of specific level of supply chain integrations and its effects on two product features.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
84
13679
Comparison of Proximate Compositions, Resistant Starch Content, and Pasting Properties of Different Colored Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) and Red Kidney Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)
Abstract:
Four different colors of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) (black, white, red and black/white speckled) and red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) were used to evaluate proximate compositions, starch content, and pasting properties. There were no significant differences of moisture, protein, ash, fat, and carbohydrate contents of all bean types. The kidney bean had significantly lower amounts of total starch and solubilized starch compared to those of other cowpeas (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the red cowpea and red kidney bean had highest content of resistant starch (9-10%). Decortication indicated no significant effect on the proximate compositions of all samples, but it significantly decreased the resistant starch content in cowpeas and increased the solubilized starch and total starch content in all types of cowpeas. The highest values of pasting properties, generally observed in flours obtained from black and black/white speckled cowpea.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
83
6668
Optimization of Conditions for Xanthan Gum Production from Waste Date in Submerged Fermantation
Abstract:
Xanthan gum is one of the major commercial biopolymers. Due to its excellent rheological properties xanthan gum is used in many applications, mainly in food industry. Commercial production of xanthan gum uses glucose as the carbon substrate; consequently the price of xanthan production is high. One of the ways to decrease xanthan price, is using cheaper substrate like agricultural wastes. Iran is one of the biggest date producer countries. However approximately 50% of date production is wasted annually. The goal of this study is to produce xanthan gum from waste date using Xanthomonas campestris PTCC1473 by submerged fermentation. In this study the effect of three variables including phosphor and nitrogen amount and agitation rate in three levels using response surface methodology (RSM) has been studied. Results achieved from statistical analysis Design Expert 7.0.0 software showed that xanthan increased with increasing level of phosphor. Low level of nitrogen leaded to higher xanthan production. Xanthan amount, increasing agitation had positive influence. The statistical model identified the optimum conditions nitrogen amount=3.15g/l, phosphor amount=5.03 g/l and agitation=394.8 rpm for xanthan. To model validation, experiments in optimum conditions for xanthan gum were carried out. The mean of result for xanthan was 6.72±0.26. The result was closed to the predicted value by using RSM.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
82
15514
Atoms in Molecules, An Other Method For Analyzing Dibenzoylmethane
Authors:
Abstract:
Proton transfer and hydrogen bonding are two aspects of the chemistry of hydrogen that respectively govern the behaviour and structure of many molecules, both simple and complex. All the theoretical enol and keto conformations of 1,3-diphenyl-1,3- propandion known as dibenzoylmethane (DBM), have been investigated by means of atoms in molecules (AIM) theory. It was found that the most stable conformers are those stabilized by hydrogen bridges.The aim of the present paper is a thorough conformational analysis of DBM (with special attention on chelated cis-enol conformers) in order to obtain detailed information on the geometrical parameters, relative stabilities and rotational motion of the phenyl groups. It is also important to estimate the barrier height for ptoton transfer and hydrogen bond strength, which are the main factors governing conformational stability.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
81
1165
Nuts Composition and their Health Benefits
Abstract:

Nuts are part of a healthy diet such as Mediterranean diet. Benefits of nuts in reducing the risk of heart disease has been reasonably attributed to their composition of vitamins, minerals, unsaturated fatty acids, fiber and phytochemicals such as polyphenols, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols. More than 75% of total fatty acids of nuts are unsaturated. α- tocopherol is the main tocopherol isomer present in most of the nuts. While walnuts, Brazil nut, cashew nut, peanut, pecan and pistachio nuts are rich in γ- tocopherol. β- sitosterol is dominant sterol in nuts. Pistachio and pine nut have the highest total phytosterol and Brazil nut and English walnut the lowest. Walnuts also contain large amount of phenolic compounds compared with other nuts. Nuts are rich in compounds with antioxidant properties and their consumption can offer preventing from incidence of many diseases including cardiovascular.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
80
4522
A Novel Web Metric for the Evaluation of Internet Trends
Abstract:
Web 2.0 (social networking, blogging and online forums) can serve as a data source for social science research because it contains vast amount of information from many different users. The volume of that information has been growing at a very high rate and becoming a network of heterogeneous data; this makes things difficult to find and is therefore not almost useful. We have proposed a novel theoretical model for gathering and processing data from Web 2.0, which would reflect semantic content of web pages in better way. This article deals with the analysis part of the model and its usage for content analysis of blogs. The introductory part of the article describes methodology for the gathering and processing data from blogs. The next part of the article is focused on the evaluation and content analysis of blogs, which write about specific trend.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
79
9866
Revised PLWAP Tree with Non-frequent Items for Mining Sequential Pattern
Abstract:

Sequential pattern mining is a challenging task in data mining area with large applications. One among those applications is mining patterns from weblog. Recent times, weblog is highly dynamic and some of them may become absolute over time. In addition, users may frequently change the threshold value during the data mining process until acquiring required output or mining interesting rules. Some of the recently proposed algorithms for mining weblog, build the tree with two scans and always consume large time and space. In this paper, we build Revised PLWAP with Non-frequent Items (RePLNI-tree) with single scan for all items. While mining sequential patterns, the links related to the nonfrequent items are not considered. Hence, it is not required to delete or maintain the information of nodes while revising the tree for mining updated transactions. The algorithm supports both incremental and interactive mining. It is not required to re-compute the patterns each time, while weblog is updated or minimum support changed. The performance of the proposed tree is better, even the size of incremental database is more than 50% of existing one. For evaluation purpose, we have used the benchmark weblog dataset and found that the performance of proposed tree is encouraging compared to some of the recently proposed approaches.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
78
14476
Comparison Mechanical and Chemical Treatments on Properties of Low Yield Bagasse Pulp During Recycling
Abstract:

the effects of refining and alkaline chemicals on potential of recycling bleached chemical pulp of bagasse were investigated in this study. Recycling was done until three times. Handsheet properties such as, apparent density, light scattering coefficient, tear index, burst index, breaking length, and fold number according to TAPPI standard were measured. Water retention value also was used to considering the treatments during recycling. Refining enhanced the strength of recycled pulp by increasing fiber flexibility and swelling ability, whereas by applying chemical treatment didn't observe any improvement. The morphology of recycled fiber was considered with scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
77
7445
Sociological Impact on Education An Analytical Approach Through Artificial Neural network
Abstract:
This research presented in this paper is an on-going project of an application of neural network and fuzzy models to evaluate the sociological factors which affect the educational performance of the students in Sri Lanka. One of its major goals is to prepare the grounds to device a counseling tool which helps these students for a better performance at their examinations, especially at their G.C.E O/L (General Certificate of Education-Ordinary Level) examination. Closely related sociological factors are collected as raw data and the noise of these data are filtered through the fuzzy interface and the supervised neural network is being utilized to recognize the performance patterns against the chosen social factors.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
76
10109
Steady State Transpiration Cooling System in Ni-Cr Open-Cellular Porous Plate
Abstract:

The steady-state temperature for one-dimensional transpiration cooling system has been conducted experimentally and numerically to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of combined convection and radiation. The Nickel –Chrome (Ni-Cr) open-cellular porous material having porosity of 0.93 and pores per inch (PPI) of 21.5 was examined. The upper surface of porous plate was heated by the heat flux of incoming radiation varying from 7.7 - 16.6 kW/m2 whereas air injection velocity fed into the lower surface was varied from 0.36 - 1.27 m/s, and was then rearranged as Reynolds number (Re). For the report of the results in the present study, two efficiencies including of temperature and conversion efficiency were presented. Temperature efficiency indicating how close the mean temperature of a porous heat plate to that of inlet air, and increased rapidly with the air injection velocity (Re). It was then saturated and had a constant value at Re higher than 10. The conversion efficiency, which was regarded as the ability of porous material in transferring energy by convection after absorbed from heat radiation, decreased with increasing of the heat flux and air injection velocity. In addition, it was then asymptotic to a constant value at the Re higher than 10. The numerical predictions also agreed with experimental data very well.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
75
2969
Physical Properties and Stability of Emulsions as Affected by Native and Modified Yam Starches
Abstract:

This study was conducted in order to determine the physical properties and stability of mayonnaise-like emulsions as affected by modified yam starches. Native yam starch was modified via pre-gelatinization and cross-linking phosphorylation procedures. The emulsions (50% oil dispersed phase) were prepared with 0.3% native potato, native yam, pre-gelatinized yam and cross-linking phosphorylation yam starches. The droplet size of surface weighted mean diameter was found to be significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the sample with cross-linking phosphorylation yam starch as compared to other samples. Moreover, the viscosity of the sample with pregelatinized yam starch was observed to be higher than that of other samples. The phase separation stability was low in the freshly prepared and stored (45 days, 5°C) emulsions containing native yam starch. This study thus generally suggested that modified yam starches were more suitable (i.e. better physical properties and stability) to be used as stabilizers in a similar system i.e. light mayonnaises, rather than a native yam starch.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
74
4635
Fabrication and Characterization of Poly-Si Vertical Nanowire Thin Film Transistor
Abstract:

In this paper, we present a vertical nanowire thin film transistor with gate-all-around architecture, fabricated using CMOS compatible processes. A novel method of fabricating polysilicon vertical nanowires of diameter as small as 30 nm using wet-etch is presented. Both n-type and p-type vertical poly-silicon nanowire transistors exhibit superior electrical characteristics as compared to planar devices. On a poly-crystalline nanowire of 30 nm diameter, high Ion/Ioff ratio of 106, low drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) of 50 mV/V, and low sub-threshold slope SS~100mV/dec are demonstrated for a device with channel length of 100 nm.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
73
13231
Chemical Compositions and Physico-Chemical Properties of Malted Sorghum Flour and Characteristics of Gluten Free Bread
Abstract:

This study investigated the effect of germination on chemical compositions, physio-chemical properties of malted (germinated) red sorghum flours and evaluated characteristics of gluten free breads from sorghum flour. Results showed that germinated sorghum flour had higher amylase activity, swelling power and solubility at 95°C, but lower in the peak, break down, final and set back viscosities than ungerminated sample (p≤0.05). Five gluten free breads made from sorghum flour blends, with different ratios of ungerminated and germinated sorghum flour, were compared for the physical properties with those made from wheat flour. Crumb hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness of sorghum breads were found significantly higher than those of wheat bread. With increasing of ungerminated flour proportion, the bread hardness increased while the cohesiveness declined. Sorghum breads appeared red to human eyes with a*values of 10.41-15.77.Their crust and crumb colors differed significantly from those of wheat bread.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
72
8012
Solving a New Mixed-Model Assembly LineSequencing Problem in a MTO Environment
Abstract:
In the last decades to supply the various and different demands of clients, a lot of manufacturers trend to use the mixedmodel assembly line (MMAL) in their production lines, since this policy make possible to assemble various and different models of the equivalent goods on the same line with the MTO approach. In this article, we determine the sequence of (MMAL) line, with applying the kitting approach and planning of rest time for general workers to reduce the wastages, increase the workers effectiveness and apply the sector of lean production approach. This Multi-objective sequencing problem solved in small size with GAMS22.2 and PSO meta heuristic in 10 test problems and compare their results together and conclude that their results are very similar together, next we determine the important factors in computing the cost, which improving them cost reduced. Since this problem, is NPhard in large size, we use the particle swarm optimization (PSO) meta-heuristic for solving it. In large size we define some test problems to survey it-s performance and determine the important factors in calculating the cost, that by change or improved them production in minimum cost will be possible.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
71
11403
DNS of a Laminar Separation Bubble
Abstract:

Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to study the evolution of a boundary layer that was laminar initially followed by separation and then reattachment owing to generation of turbulence. This creates a closed region of recirculation, known as the laminar-separation bubble. The present simulation emulates the flow environment encountered in a modern LP turbine blade, where a laminar separation bubble may occur on the suction surface. The unsteady, incompressible three-dimensional (3-D) Navier-Stokes (NS) equations have been solved over a flat plate in the Cartesian coordinates. The adverse pressure gradient, which causes the flow to separate, is created by a boundary condition. The separated shear layer undergoes transition through appearance of ╬ø vortices, stretching of these create longitudinal streaks. Breakdown of the streaks into small and irregular structures makes the flow turbulent downstream.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
70
9102
Effect of Geometrical Parameters on Natural Frequencies of FGM Cylindrical shell with Holes Under Various Boundary Conditions
Abstract:

In the recent years, functionally gradient materials (FGMs) have gained considerable attention in the high temperature environment applications. In this paper, free vibration of thin functionally graded cylindrical shell with hole composed of stainless steel and zirconia is studied. The mechanical properties vary smoothly and continuously from one surface to the other according to a volume fraction power-law distribution. The Influence of shell geometrical parameters, variations of volume fractions and boundary conditions on natural frequency is considered. The equations of motion are based on strains-displacement relations from Love-s shell theory and Rayleigh method. The results have been obtained for natural frequencies of cylindrical shell with holes for different shape, number and location in this paper.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
69
6461
A New Heuristic Statistical Methodology for Optimizing Queuing Networks Using Discreet Event Simulation
Abstract:

Most of the real queuing systems include special properties and constraints, which can not be analyzed directly by using the results of solved classical queuing models. Lack of Markov chains features, unexponential patterns and service constraints, are the mentioned conditions. This paper represents an applied general algorithm for analysis and optimizing the queuing systems. The algorithm stages are described through a real case study. It is consisted of an almost completed non-Markov system with limited number of customers and capacities as well as lots of common exception of real queuing networks. Simulation is used for optimizing this system. So introduced stages over the following article include primary modeling, determining queuing system kinds, index defining, statistical analysis and goodness of fit test, validation of model and optimizing methods of system with simulation.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
68
6479
Computational Aspects of Regression Analysis of Interval Data
Authors:
Abstract:

We consider linear regression models where both input data (the values of independent variables) and output data (the observations of the dependent variable) are interval-censored. We introduce a possibilistic generalization of the least squares estimator, so called OLS-set for the interval model. This set captures the impact of the loss of information on the OLS estimator caused by interval censoring and provides a tool for quantification of this effect. We study complexity-theoretic properties of the OLS-set. We also deal with restricted versions of the general interval linear regression model, in particular the crisp input – interval output model. We give an argument that natural descriptions of the OLS-set in the crisp input – interval output cannot be computed in polynomial time. Then we derive easily computable approximations for the OLS-set which can be used instead of the exact description. We illustrate the approach by an example.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
67
7583
Systems and Software Safety and Security
Abstract:
Security issue and the importance of the function of police to provide practical and psychological contexts in the community has been the main topics among researchers , police and security circles and this subject require to review and analysis mechanisms within the police and its interaction with other parts of the system for providing community safety. This paper examine national and social security in the Internet.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
66
1173
Calculation of Wave Function at the Origin (WFO) for the Ground State of Doubly Heavy Mesons Based On the Variational Method
Abstract:

The wave function at the origin is an important quantity in studying many physical problems concerning heavy quarkonia. This is because that it is using for calculating spin state hyperfine splitting and also crucial to evaluating the production and decay amplitude of the heavy quarkonium. In this paper, we present the variational method by using the single-parameter wave function to estimate the WFO for the ground state of heavy mesons.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
65
11174
Calculation of Masses and Magnetic Moment of the Nucleon using the MIT Bag Model
Abstract:

The bag radius of the nucleon can be determined by MIT bag model based on electric and magnetic form factors of the nucleon. Also we determined the masses and magnetic moment of the nucleon with MIT bag model, using bag radius and compared with other results, suggests a suitable compatibility.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
64
3518
Analysis of Euler Angles in a Simple Two-Axis Gimbals Set
Abstract:

Any rotation of a 3-dimensional object can be performed by three consecutive rotations over Euler angles. Intrinsic rotations produce the same result as extrinsic rotations in transformation. Euler rotations are the movement obtained by changing one of the Euler angles while leaving the other two constant. These Euler rotations are applied in a simple two-axis gimbals set mounted on an automotives. The values of Euler angles are [π/4, π/4, π/4] radians inside the angles ranges for a given coordinate system and these actual orientations can be directly measured from these gimbals set of moving automotives but it can occur the gimbals lock in application at [π/2.24, 0, 0] radians. In order to avoid gimbals lock, the values of quaternion must be [π/4.8, π/8.2, 0, π/4.8] radians. The four-gimbals set can eliminate gimbals lock.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
63
6732
Probe of Crack Initiate at the Toe of Concrete Gravity Dam using Numerical Analysis
Abstract:
In this survey the process of crack propagation at the toe of concrete gravity dam is investigated by applying principals and criteria of linear elastic fracture mechanic. Simulating process of earthquake conditions for three models of dam with different geometrical condition, in empty reservoir under plain stress is calculated through special fracture mechanic software FRANNC2D [1] for determining fracture mechanic criteria. The outcomes showed that in spite of the primary expectations, the simultaneous existence of fillet in both toe and heel area (model 3), the rate of maximum principal stress has not been decreased; however, even the maximum principal stress has increased, so it caused stress intensity factors increase which is undesirable. On the other hand, the dam with heel fillet has shown the best attitude and it is because of items like decreasing the rates of maximum and minimum principal stresses and also is related to decreasing the rates of stress intensity factors for 1st & 2nd modes of the model.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
62
13586
A Comparison of Artificial Neural Networks for Prediction of Suspended Sediment Discharge in River- A Case Study in Malaysia
Abstract:
Prediction of highly non linear behavior of suspended sediment flow in rivers has prime importance in the field of water resources engineering. In this study the predictive performance of two Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) namely, the Radial Basis Function (RBF) Network and the Multi Layer Feed Forward (MLFF) Network have been compared. Time series data of daily suspended sediment discharge and water discharge at Pari River was used for training and testing the networks. A number of statistical parameters i.e. root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), coefficient of efficiency (CE) and coefficient of determination (R2) were used for performance evaluation of the models. Both the models produced satisfactory results and showed a good agreement between the predicted and observed data. The RBF network model provided slightly better results than the MLFF network model in predicting suspended sediment discharge.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
61
4323
Investigation on Metalosalen Complexes Binding to DNA using Ab Initio Calculations
Abstract:

Geometry optimizations of metal complexes of Salen(bis(Salicylidene)1,2-ethylenediamine) were carried out at HF and DFT methods employing Lanl2DZ basis set. In this work structural, energies, bond lengths and other physical properties between Mn2+,Cu2+ and Ni2+ ions coordinated by salen–type ligands are examined. All calculations were performed using Gaussian 98W program series. To investigate local aromaticities, NICS were calculated at all centers of rings. The higher the band gap indicating a higher global aromaticity. The possible binding energies have been evaluated. We have evaluated Frequencies and Zero-point energy with freq calculation. The NICS(Nucleous Independent Chemical Shift) Results show Ni(II) complexes are antiaromatic and aromaticites of Mn(II) complexes are larger than Cu(II) complexes. The energy Results show Cu(II) complexes are stability than Mn(II) and Ni(II) complexes.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
60
5183
Portfolio Simulation in GSM Cellular Telecommunication Industry for Company's Decision and Policies Making
Abstract:

The rising growth of the GSM cellular phone industry has tightening competition level between providers in making strategies enhancing the market shares in Indonesia. Tsel, as one of those companies, has to determine the proper strategy to sustain as well as improve the market share without reducing its operational income level. Portfolio simulation model is designed with a dynamic system approach. The result of this research is a recommendation to the company by optimizing its technological policies, services, and promotions. The tariff policies and the signal quality should not be the main focus because this company has had a large number of customers and a good infrastructural condition.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
59
13369
Ignition Analysis in Supersonic Turbulent Mixing Layer
Authors:
Abstract:
Numerical study of two dimensional supersonic hydrogen-air mixing layer is performed to investigate the effect of turbulence and chemical additive on ignition distance. Chemical reaction is treated using detail kinetics. Advection upstream splitting method is used to calculate the fluxes and one equation turbulence model is chosen here to simulate the considered problem. Hydrogen peroxide is used as an additive and the results show that inflow turbulence and chemical additive may drastically decrease the ignition delay in supersonic combustion.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
58
7151
Investigation Corn and Soybean Intercropping Advantages in Competition with Redroot Pigweed and Jimsonweed
Abstract:

The spatial variation in plant species associated with intercropping is intended to reduce resource competition between species and increase yield potential. A field experiment was carried out on corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) intercropping in a replacement series experiment with weed contamination consist of: weed free, infestation of redroot pigweed, infestation of jimsonweed and simultaneous infestation of redroot pigweed and jimsonweed in Karaj, Iran during 2007 growing season. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in factorial experiment with replicated thrice. Significant (P≤0.05) differences were observed in yield in intercropping. Corn yield was higher in intercropping, but soybean yield was significantly reduced by corn when intercropped. However, total productivity and land use efficiency were high under the intercropping system even in contamination of either species of weeds. Aggressivity of corn relative to soybean revealed the greater competitive ability of corn than soybean. Land equivalent ratio (LER) more than 1 in all treatments attributed to intercropping advantages and was highest in 50: 50 (corn/soybean) in weed free. These findings suggest that intercropping corn and soybean increase total productivity per unit area and improve land use efficiency. Considering the experimental findings, corn-soybean intercropping (50:50) may be recommended for yield advantage, more efficient utilization of resources, and weed suppression as a biological control.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
57
9157
Some Remarks About Riemann-Liouville and Caputo Impulsive Fractional Calculus
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper establishes some closed formulas for Riemann- Liouville impulsive fractional integral calculus and also for Riemann- Liouville and Caputo impulsive fractional derivatives.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
56
13693
Role of Oxide Scale Thickness Measurements in Boiler Conditions Assessment
Abstract:

Oxide scale thickness measurements are used in assessing the life of different components operating at high temperature environment. Such measurements provide an approximation for the temperature inside components such as reheater and superheater tubes. A number of failures were encountered in one of the boilers in one of Kuwaiti power plants. These failure were mainly in the first row of the primary super heater tubes, therefore, the specialized engineer decide to replace them during the annual shutdown. As a tool for failure analysis, oxide scale thickness measurement were used to investigate the temperature distribution in these tubes. In this paper, the oxide scale thickness of these tubes were measured and used for analysis. The measurements provide an illustration of the distribution of heat transfer of the primary superheater tubes in the boiler system. Remarks and analysis about the design of the boiler are also provided.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
55
14509
Plant Varieties Selection System
Abstract:

In the end of the day, meteorological data and environmental data becomes widely used such as plant varieties selection system. Variety plant selection for planted area is of almost importance for all crops, including varieties of sugarcane. Since sugarcane have many varieties. Variety plant non selection for planting may not be adapted to the climate or soil conditions for planted area. Poor growth, bloom drop, poor fruit, and low price are to be from varieties which were not recommended for those planted area. This paper presents plant varieties selection system for planted areas in Thailand from meteorological data and environmental data by the use of decision tree techniques. With this software developed as an environmental data analysis tool, it can analyze resulting easier and faster. Our software is a front end of WEKA that provides fundamental data mining functions such as classify, clustering, and analysis functions. It also supports pre-processing, analysis, and decision tree output with exporting result. After that, our software can export and display data result to Google maps API in order to display result and plot plant icons effectively.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
54
9705
Ultrasonic Evaluation of Bone Callus Growth in a Rabbit Tibial Distraction Model
Abstract:
Ultrasound is useful in demonstrating bone mineral density of regenerating osseous tissue as well as structural alterations. A proposed ultrasound method, which included ultrasonography and acoustic parameters measurement, was employed to evaluate its efficacy in monitoring the bone callus changes in a rabbit tibial distraction osteogenesis (DO) model. The findings demonstrated that ultrasonographic images depicted characteristic changes of the bone callus, typical of histology findings, during the distraction phase. Follow-up acoustic parameters measurement of the bone callus, including speed of sound, reflection and attenuation, showed significant linear changes over time during the distraction phase. The acoustic parameters obtained during the distraction phase also showed moderate to strong correlation with consolidated bone callus density and micro-architecture measured by micro-computed tomography at the end of the consolidation phase. The results support the preferred use of ultrasound imaging in the early monitoring of bone callus changes during DO treatment.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
53
6606
Health Risk Assessment for Sewer Workers using Bayesian Belief Networks
Abstract:
The sanitary sewerage connection rate becomes an important indicator of advanced cities. Following the construction of sanitary sewerages, the maintenance and management systems are required for keeping pipelines and facilities functioning well. These maintenance tasks often require sewer workers to enter the manholes and the pipelines, which are confined spaces short of natural ventilation and full of hazardous substances. Working in sewers could be easily exposed to a risk of adverse health effects. This paper proposes the use of Bayesian belief networks (BBN) as a higher level of noncarcinogenic health risk assessment of sewer workers. On the basis of the epidemiological studies, the actual hospital attendance records and expert experiences, the BBN is capable of capturing the probabilistic relationships between the hazardous substances in sewers and their adverse health effects, and accordingly inferring the morbidity and mortality of the adverse health effects. The provision of the morbidity and mortality rates of the related diseases is more informative and can alleviate the drawbacks of conventional methods.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
52
5169
Method for Concept Labeling Based on Mapping between Ontology and Thesaurus
Abstract:
When designing information systems that deal with large amount of domain knowledge, system designers need to consider ambiguities of labeling termsin domain vocabulary for navigating users in the information space. The goal of this study is to develop a methodology for system designers to label navigation items, taking account of ambiguities stems from synonyms or polysemes of labeling terms. In this paper, we propose a method for concept labeling based on mappings between domain ontology andthesaurus, and report results of an empirical evaluation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
51
2771
MABENA Strategic Management Model for Local Companies
Abstract:
MABENA model is a complementary model in comparison with traditional models such as HCMS, CMS and etc. New factors, which have effects on preparation of strategic plans and their sequential order in MABENA model is the platform of presented road map in this paper.Study review shows, factors such as emerging new critical success factors for strategic planning, improvement of international strategic models, increasing the maturity of companies and emerging new needs leading to design a new model which can be responsible for new critical factors and solve the limitations of previous strategic management models. Preparation of strategic planning need more factors than introduced in traditional models. The needed factors includes determining future Critical Success Factors and competencies, defining key processes, determining the maturity of the processes, considering all aspects of the external environment etc. Description of aforementioned requirements, the outcomes and their order is developing and presenting the MABENA model-s road map in this paper. This study presents a road map for strategic planning of the Iranian organizations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
50
4272
A Novel Approach to Image Compression of Colour Images by Plane Reduction Technique
Abstract:
Several methods have been proposed for color image compression but the reconstructed image had very low signal to noise ratio which made it inefficient. This paper describes a lossy compression technique for color images which overcomes the drawbacks. The technique works on spatial domain where the pixel values of RGB planes of the input color image is mapped onto two dimensional planes. The proposed technique produced better results than JPEG2000, 2DPCA and a comparative study is reported based on the image quality measures such as PSNR and MSE.Experiments on real time images are shown that compare this methodology with previous ones and demonstrate its advantages.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
49
12112
Development of Condition Monitoring System with Control Functions for Wind Turbines
Abstract:
As an effort to promote wind power industry in Korea, Korea South-East Power Corporation has been developing 22MW YeungHeung wind farm consisting of nine 2 to 3MW wind turbines supplied by three manufacturers. To maximize its availability and reliability and to solve the difficulty of operating three kinds of SCADA systems, Korea Electric Power Corporation has been developing a condition monitoring system integrated with control functions. This paper presents the developed condition monitoring system and its application to YeungHeung wind test bed, and the design of its control functions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
48
3137
Kinematic Analysis of 2-DOF Planer Robot Using Artificial Neural Network
Abstract:
Automatic control of the robotic manipulator involves study of kinematics and dynamics as a major issue. This paper involves the forward and inverse kinematics of 2-DOF robotic manipulator with revolute joints. In this study the Denavit- Hartenberg (D-H) model is used to model robot links and joints. Also forward and inverse kinematics solution has been achieved using Artificial Neural Networks for 2-DOF robotic manipulator. It shows that by using artificial neural network the solution we get is faster, acceptable and has zero error.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
47
4259
Satellite Beam Handoff Detection Algorithm Based On RCST Mobility Information
Abstract:

Since DVB-RCS has been successively implemented, the mobile communication on the multi-beam satellite communication is attractive attention. And the DVB-RCS standard sets up to support mobility of a RCST. In the case of the spot-beam satellite system, the received signal strength does not differ largely between the center and the boundary of the beam. Thus, the RSS based handoff detection algorithm is not benefit to the satellite system as a terrestrial system. Therefore we propose an Adaptive handoff detection algorithm based on RCST mobility information. Our handoff detection algorithm not only can be used as centralized handoff detection algorithm but also removes uncertainties of handoff due to the variation of RSS. Performances were compared with RSS based handoff algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed handoff detection algorithm not only achieved better handoff and link degradation rate, but also achieved better forward link spectral efficiency.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
46
12046
Avoiding Pin Ball Routing Problem in Network Mobility Hand-Off Management
Abstract:
With the demand of mobility by users, wireless technologies have become the hotspot developing arena. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) working group has developed Mobile IP to support node mobility. The concept of node mobility indicates that in spite of the movement of the node, it is still connected to the internet and all the data transactions are preserved. It provides location-independent access to Internet. After the incorporation of host mobility, network mobility has undergone intense research. There are several intricacies faced in the real world implementation of network mobility significantly the problem of nested networks and their consequences. This article is concerned regarding a problem of nested network called pinball route problem and proposes a solution to eliminate the above problem. The proposed mechanism is implemented using NS2 simulation tool and it is found that the proposed mechanism efficiently reduces the overload caused by the pinball route problem.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
45
13952
Verification of K-ω SST Turbulence Model for Supersonic Internal Flows
Abstract:
In this work, we try to find the best setting of Computational Fluid Dynamic solver available for the problems in the field of supersonic internal flows. We used the supersonic air-toair ejector to represent the typical problem in focus. There are multiple oblique shock waves, shear layers, boundary layers and normal shock interacting in the supersonic ejector making this device typical in field of supersonic inner flows. Modeling of shocks in general is demanding on the physical model of fluid, because ordinary conservation equation does not conform to real conditions in the near-shock region as found in many works. From these reasons, we decided to take special care about solver setting in this article by means of experimental approach of color Schlieren pictures and pneumatic measurement. Fast pressure transducers were used to measure unsteady static pressure in regimes with normal shock in mixing chamber. Physical behavior of ejector in several regimes is discussed. Best choice of eddy-viscosity setting is discussed on the theoretical base. The final verification of the k-ω SST is done on the base of comparison between experiment and numerical results.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
44
8991
Energy and Exergy Analysis of Dual Purpose Solar Collector
Abstract:

Energy and exergy study of air-water combined solar collector which is called dual purpose solar collector (DPSC) is investigated. The method of ε - NTU is used. Analysis is performed for triangle channels. Parameters like the air flow rate and water inlet temperature are studied. Results are shown that DPSC has better energy and exergy efficiency than single collector. In addition, the triangle passage with water inlet temperature of 60O C has shown better exergy and energy efficiency.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
43
631
Ontology-based Concept Weighting for Text Documents
Abstract:
Documents clustering become an essential technology with the popularity of the Internet. That also means that fast and high-quality document clustering technique play core topics. Text clustering or shortly clustering is about discovering semantically related groups in an unstructured collection of documents. Clustering has been very popular for a long time because it provides unique ways of digesting and generalizing large amounts of information. One of the issues of clustering is to extract proper feature (concept) of a problem domain. The existing clustering technology mainly focuses on term weight calculation. To achieve more accurate document clustering, more informative features including concept weight are important. Feature Selection is important for clustering process because some of the irrelevant or redundant feature may misguide the clustering results. To counteract this issue, the proposed system presents the concept weight for text clustering system developed based on a k-means algorithm in accordance with the principles of ontology so that the important of words of a cluster can be identified by the weight values. To a certain extent, it has resolved the semantic problem in specific areas.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
42
4533
Optical Wireless Sensor Networks Based on VLC with PLC-Ethernet Interface
Abstract:
We present a white LED-based optical wireless communication systems for indoor ubiquitous sensor networks. Each sensor node could access to the server through the PLC (Power Line Communication)-Ethernet interface. The proposed system offers a full-duplex wireless link by using different wavelengths to reduce the inter-symbol interference between uplink and downlink. Through the 1-to-n optical wireless sensor network and PLC modem, the mobile terminals send a temperature data to server. The data transmission speed and distance are 115.2kbps and about 60cm, respectively.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
41
9272
Analysis of Self Excited Induction Generator using Particle Swarm Optimization
Abstract:

In this paper, Novel method, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, based technique is proposed to estimate and analyze the steady state performance of self-excited induction generator (SEIG). In this novel method the tedious job of deriving the complex coefficients of a polynomial equation and solving it, as in previous methods, is not required. By comparing the simulation results obtained by the proposed method with those obtained by the well known mathematical methods, a good agreement between these results is obtained. The comparison validates the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
40
13776
Spacecraft Neural Network Control System Design using FPGA
Abstract:

Designing and implementing intelligent systems has become a crucial factor for the innovation and development of better products of space technologies. A neural network is a parallel system, capable of resolving paradigms that linear computing cannot. Field programmable gate array (FPGA) is a digital device that owns reprogrammable properties and robust flexibility. For the neural network based instrument prototype in real time application, conventional specific VLSI neural chip design suffers the limitation in time and cost. With low precision artificial neural network design, FPGAs have higher speed and smaller size for real time application than the VLSI and DSP chips. So, many researchers have made great efforts on the realization of neural network (NN) using FPGA technique. In this paper, an introduction of ANN and FPGA technique are briefly shown. Also, Hardware Description Language (VHDL) code has been proposed to implement ANNs as well as to present simulation results with floating point arithmetic. Synthesis results for ANN controller are developed using Precision RTL. Proposed VHDL implementation creates a flexible, fast method and high degree of parallelism for implementing ANN. The implementation of multi-layer NN using lookup table LUT reduces the resource utilization for implementation and time for execution.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
39
5962
Integrating LCA into PDM for Ecodesign
Abstract:
Product Data Management (PDM) systems for Computer Aided Design (CAD) file management are widely established in design processes. This management system is indispensable for design collaboration or when design task distribution is present. It is thus surprising that engineering design curricula has not paid much attention in the education of PDM systems. This is also the case for eduction of ecodesign and environmental evaluation of products. With the rise of sustainability as a strategic aspect in companies, environmental concerns are becoming a key issue in design. This paper discusses the establishment of a PDM platform to be used among technical and vocational schools in Austria. The PDM system facilitates design collaboration among these schools. Further, it will be discussed how the PDM system has been prepared in order to facilitate environmental evaluation of parts, components and subassemblies of a product. By integrating a Business Intelligence solution, environmental Life Cycle Assessment and communication of results is enabled.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
38
15068
The Incorporation of In in GaAsN as a Means of N Fraction Calibration
Abstract:
InGaAsN and GaAsN epitaxial layers with similar nitrogen compositions in a sample were successfully grown on a GaAs (001) substrate by solid source molecular beam epitaxy. An electron cyclotron resonance nitrogen plasma source has been used to generate atomic nitrogen during the growth of the nitride layers. The indium composition changed from sample to sample to give compressive and tensile strained InGaAsN layers. Layer characteristics have been assessed by high-resolution x-ray diffraction to determine the relationship between the lattice constant of the GaAs1-yNy layer and the fraction x of In. The objective was to determine the In fraction x in an InxGa1-xAs1-yNy epitaxial layer which exactly cancels the strain present in a GaAs1-yNy epitaxial layer with the same nitrogen content when grown on a GaAs substrate.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
37
7710
A Finite Point Method Based on Directional Derivatives for Diffusion Equation
Abstract:
This paper presents a finite point method based on directional derivatives for diffusion equation on 2D scattered points. To discretize the diffusion operator at a given point, a six-point stencil is derived by employing explicit numerical formulae of directional derivatives, namely, for the point under consideration, only five neighbor points are involved, the number of which is the smallest for discretizing diffusion operator with first-order accuracy. A method for selecting neighbor point set is proposed, which satisfies the solvability condition of numerical derivatives. Some numerical examples are performed to show the good performance of the proposed method.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
36
14535
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory CommissionTraining for Research and Training Reactor Inspectors
Abstract:
Currently, a large number of license activities (Early Site Permits, Combined Operating License, reactor certifications, etc.), are pending for review before the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC). Much of the senior staff at the NRC is now committed to these review and licensing actions. To address this additional workload, the NRC has recruited a large number of new Regulatory Staff for dealing with these and other regulatory actions such as the US Fleet of Research and Test Reactors (RTRs). These reactors pose unusual demands on Regulatory Staff since the US Fleet of RTRs, although few (32 Licensed RTRs as of 2010), they represent a broad range of reactor types, operations, and research and training aspects that nuclear reactor power plants (such as the 104 LWRs) do not pose. The NRC must inspect and regulate all these facilities. This paper addresses selected training topics and regulatory activities providedNRC Inspectors for RTRs.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
35
2293
Gas Sensing Properties of SnO2 Thin Films Modified by Ag Nanoclusters Synthesized by SILD Method
Abstract:

The effect of SnO2 surface modification by Ag nanoclusters, synthesized by SILD method, on the operating characteristics of thin film gas sensors was studied and models for the promotional role of Ag additives were discussed. It was found that mentioned above approach can be used for improvement both the sensitivity and the rate of response of the SnO2-based gas sensors to CO and H2. At the same time, the presence of the Ag clusters on the surface of SnO2 depressed the sensor response to ozone.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
34
1899
Effect of Load Orientation on the Stability of a Three-Lobe Bearing Supporting Rigid and Flexible Rotors
Authors:
Abstract:

Multilobe bearings are found to be more stable than circular bearings. A three lobe bearing also possesses good stability characteristics. Sometimes the line of action of the load does not pass through the axis of a bearing and is shifted on either side by a few degrees. Load orientation is one of the factors that affect the stability of a three lobe bearing. The effect of load orientation on the stability of a three-lobe has been discussed in this paper. The results show that stability of a three-lobe bearing supporting either rigid or flexible rotor is increased for the positive values of load orientation i.e. when the load line is shifted in the opposite direction of rotation.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
33
11454
Chain Extender on Property Relationships of Polyurethane Derived from Soybean Oil
Abstract:
Polyurethane foams (PUF) has been prepared from vegetable; soybean based polyols. They were characterized into flexible and semi rigid polyurethane foam. This work is directed to production of flexible polyurethane foams by a process involving the reaction of mixture of 2,4- and 2,6-Toluene di Isocyanate isomers, with portion of to blends of soy polyols with petroleum polyol in the presence of other ingredients such as blowing agents, silicone surfactants and accelerating agents. Additon of chain extender improves the property then further decreases the properties on further addition of the same. The objective of this work was to study the effect of chain extender and role of phosphoric acid catalyst to the final properties and correlate the morphology image with mechanical properties of these foams.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
32
4993
Optimization of Soy Epoxide Hydroxylation to Properties of Prepolymer Polyurethane
Abstract:
The epoxidation of soybean oil at temperature of 600C was provided the best result in terms of attaching the –OH functionality. Temperatures below and above 600C it is likely the attaching reaction did not proceed sufficiently fast. The considerable yield below 40%, implies the oil is not completely converted, it is not possible by conventional methods, because the epoxide decomposes at the temperature required. The objective of this work was the development of catalyst toward the conversion of epoxide and polyol with reaction temperature at 50,60, and 700C. The effect of different type of catalyst were studied, the effect of alcohols with different molecular configuration was determined which leads to selective addition of alcohols to the epoxide oils.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
31
11001
A High Standard Isolated Insolated Photovoltaic Egyptian Safari Rest Red Sea Area
Abstract:

Where renewable energy sources, solar, hydro, wind are available the remote communities and businesses can be provided with the most reliable and affordable source of electrical energy. This paper presents a model of safari rest contains all the necessary services for the interested tourists who visit the safari Sinai desert. The PV energy system provides the rural energy needs of remote communities. A photovoltaic renewable energy system is designed to feed the global Ac and Dc electrical required load of this safari rest . The benefits of photovoltaic renewable energy at rural applications are its versatility and convenience. This model of safari rest must be taken in consideration by Egyptian Government as it will provide the tourism plane by new interested tourism field which put a big spot on Red sea area: El Ghordaka.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
30
4656
Assessment of Cadmium Level in Water from Watershed of the Kowsar Dam
Abstract:
The Kowsar dam supply water for different usages such as drinking, industrial, agricultural and aquaculture farms usages and located next to the city of Dehdashat in Kohgiluye and Boyerahmad province in southern Iran. There are some towns and villages on the Kowsar dam watersheds, which Dehdasht and Choram are the most important and populated cities in this area. The study was undertaken to assess the status of water quality in the urban areas of the Kowsar dam. A total of 28 water samples were collected from 6 stations on surface water and 1 station from groundwater on the watershed of the Kowsar dam. All the samples were analyzed for Cd concentration using standard procedures. The results were compared with other national and international standards. Among the analyzed samples, as the maximum value of cadmium (1.131 μg/L) was observed on the station 2 at the winter 2009, all the samples analyzed were within the maximum admissible limits by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, EU, WHO, New Zealand , Australian, Iranian, and the Indian standards. In general results of the present study have shown that Cd mean values of stations No. 4, 1 and 2 with 0.5135, 0.0.4733 and 0.4573 μg/L respectively are higher than the other stations . Although Cd level of all samples and stations have had normal values but this is an indication of pollution potential and hazards because of human activity and waste water of towns in the areas, which can effect on human health implications in future. This research, therefore, recommends the government and other responsible authorities to take suitable improving measures in the Kowsar dam watershed-s.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
29
170
Influence of Garbage Leachate on Soil Reaction,Salinity and Soil Organic Matter in East of Isfahan
Abstract:

During this day a considerable amount of Leachate is produced with high amounts of organic material and nutrients needed plants. This study has done in order to scrutinize the effect of Leachate compost on the pH, EC and organic matter percentage in the form of statistical Factorial plan through randomizing block design with three main and two minor treatments and also three replications during three six month periods. Major treatments include N: Irrigation with the region-s well water as a control, I: Frequent irrigation with well water and Leachate, C: Mixing Leachate and water well (25 percent leachate + 75 percent ordinary well water) and secondary treatments, include DI: surface drip irrigation and SDI: sub surface drip irrigation. Results of this study indicated significant differences between treatments and also there were mixing up with the control treatment in the reduction of pH, increasing soluble salts and also increasing the organic matter percentage. This increase is proportional to the amount of added Leachate and in the treatment also proportional to higher mixture of frequent treatment. Therefore, since creating an acidic pH increases the ability to absorb some nutrient elements such as phosphorus, iron, zinc, copper and manganese are increased and the other hand, organic materials also improve many physical and chemical properties of soil are used in Leachate trash Consider health issues as refined in the green belts around cities as a liquid fertilizer recommended.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
28
10945
Design and Control of PEM Fuel Cell Diffused Aeration System using Artificial Intelligence Techniques
Abstract:
Fuel cells have become one of the major areas of research in the academia and the industry. The goal of most fish farmers is to maximize production and profits while holding labor and management efforts to the minimum. Risk of fish kills, disease outbreaks, poor water quality in most pond culture operations, aeration offers the most immediate and practical solution to water quality problems encountered at higher stocking and feeding rates. Many units of aeration system are electrical units so using a continuous, high reliability, affordable, and environmentally friendly power sources is necessary. Aeration of water by using PEM fuel cell power is not only a new application of the renewable energy, but also, it provides an affordable method to promote biodiversity in stagnant ponds and lakes. This paper presents a new design and control of PEM fuel cell powered a diffused air aeration system for a shrimp farm in Mersa Matruh in Egypt. Also Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques control is used to control the fuel cell output power by control input gases flow rate. Moreover the mathematical modeling and simulation of PEM fuel cell is introduced. A comparison study is applied between the performance of fuzzy logic control (FLC) and neural network control (NNC). The results show the effectiveness of NNC over FLC.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
27
864
Analytic and Finite Element Solutions for Temperature Profiles in Welding using Varied Heat Source Models
Abstract:
Solutions for the temperature profile around a moving heat source are obtained using both analytic and finite element (FEM) methods. Analytic and FEM solutions are applied to study the temperature profile in welding. A moving heat source is represented using both point heat source and uniform distributed disc heat source models. Analytic solutions are obtained by solving the partial differential equation for energy conservation in a solid, and FEM results are provided by simulating welding using the ANSYS software. Comparison is made for quasi steady state conditions. The results provided by the analytic solutions are in good agreement with results obtained by FEM.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
26
1076
Landscape Data Transformation: Categorical Descriptions to Numerical Descriptors
Abstract:
Categorical data based on description of the agricultural landscape imposed some mathematical and analytical limitations. This problem however can be overcome by data transformation through coding scheme and the use of non-parametric multivariate approach. The present study describes data transformation from qualitative to numerical descriptors. In a collection of 103 random soil samples over a 60 hectare field, categorical data were obtained from the following variables: levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, pH, hue, chroma, value and data on topography, vegetation type, and the presence of rocks. Categorical data were coded, and Spearman-s rho correlation was then calculated using PAST software ver. 1.78 in which Principal Component Analysis was based. Results revealed successful data transformation, generating 1030 quantitative descriptors. Visualization based on the new set of descriptors showed clear differences among sites, and amount of variation was successfully measured. Possible applications of data transformation are discussed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
25
1547
Comparative Characterization Study of Malaysian Sand as Proppant
Abstract:
This paper presents a review on published literature and experimental works on local sands for possible use as proppant, specifically those from Terengganu coastal area. This includes examination on characteristics of sand samples and selection of experiments for proppant testing. Sand samples from identified areas were tested according to particle size distribution, density, roundness and sphericity, turbidity and mineralogy. Results from sand samples were compared against proppant specifications set by API RP 56 and selected commercial proppants. The present study found that the size distribution, sphericity, turbidity and bulk density of Terengganu sands are at par with some of commercial proppants. Nevertheless, Terengganu sand samples do not completely surpass the required roundness for use as proppant.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
24
3596
Environmental and Technical Modeling of Industrial Solid Waste Management Using Analytical Network Process; A Case Study: Gilan-IRAN
Abstract:
Proper management of residues originated from industrial activities is considered as one of the serious challenges faced by industrial societies due to their potential hazards to the environment. Common disposal methods for industrial solid wastes (ISWs) encompass various combinations of solely management options, i.e. recycling, incineration, composting, and sanitary landfilling. Indeed, the procedure used to evaluate and nominate the best practical methods should be based on environmental, technical, economical, and social assessments. In this paper an environmentaltechnical assessment model is developed using analytical network process (ANP) to facilitate the decision making practice for ISWs generated at Gilan province, Iran. Using the results of performed surveys on industrial units located at Gilan, the various groups of solid wastes in the research area were characterized, and four different ISW management scenarios were studied. The evaluation process was conducted using the above-mentioned model in the Super Decisions software (version 2.0.8) environment. The results indicates that the best ISW management scenario for Gilan province is consist of recycling the metal industries residues, composting the putrescible portion of ISWs, combustion of paper, wood, fabric and polymeric wastes as well as energy extraction in the incineration plant, and finally landfilling the rest of the waste stream in addition with rejected materials from recycling and compost production plants and ashes from the incineration unit.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
23
7263
Facilitating Cooperative Knowledge Support by Role-Based Knowledge-Flow Views
Abstract:
Effective knowledge support relies on providing operation-relevant knowledge to workers promptly and accurately. A knowledge flow represents an individual-s or a group-s knowledge-needs and referencing behavior of codified knowledge during operation performance. The flow has been utilized to facilitate organizational knowledge support by illustrating workers- knowledge-needs systematically and precisely. However, conventional knowledge-flow models cannot work well in cooperative teams, which team members usually have diverse knowledge-needs in terms of roles. The reason is that those models only provide one single view to all participants and do not reflect individual knowledge-needs in flows. Hence, we propose a role-based knowledge-flow view model in this work. The model builds knowledge-flow views (or virtual knowledge flows) by creating appropriate virtual knowledge nodes and generalizing knowledge concepts to required concept levels. The customized views could represent individual role-s knowledge-needs in teamwork context. The novel model indicates knowledge-needs in condensed representation from a roles perspective and enhances the efficiency of cooperative knowledge support in organizations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
22
12082
Influence of Paralleled Capacitance Effect in Well-defined Multiple Value Logical Level System with Active Load
Abstract:
Three similar negative differential resistance (NDR) profiles with both high peak to valley current density ratio (PVCDR) value and high peak current density (PCD) value in unity resonant tunneling electronic circuit (RTEC) element is developed in this paper. The PCD values and valley current density (VCD) values of the three NDR curves are all about 3.5 A and 0.8 A, respectively. All PV values of NDR curves are 0.40 V, 0.82 V, and 1.35 V, respectively. The VV values are 0.61 V, 1.07 V, and 1.69 V, respectively. All PVCDR values reach about 4.4 in three NDR curves. The PCD value of 3.5 A in triple PVCDR RTEC element is better than other resonant tunneling devices (RTD) elements. The high PVCDR value is concluded the lower VCD value about 0.8 A. The low VCD value is achieved by suitable selection of resistors in triple PVCDR RTEC element. The low PV value less than 1.35 V possesses low power dispersion in triple PVCDR RTEC element. The designed multiple value logical level (MVLL) system using triple PVCDR RTEC element provides equidistant logical level. The logical levels of MVLL system are about 0.2 V, 0.8 V, 1.5 V, and 2.2 V from low voltage to high voltage and then 2.2 V, 1.3 V, 0.8 V, and 0.2 V from high voltage back to low voltage in half cycle of sinusoid wave. The output level of four levels MVLL system is represented in 0.3 V, 1.1 V, 1.7 V, and 2.6 V, which satisfies the NMP condition of traditional two-bit system. The remarkable logical characteristic of improved MVLL system with paralleled capacitor are with four significant stable logical levels about 220 mV, 223 mV, 228 mV, and 230 mV. The stability and articulation of logical levels of improved MVLL system are outstanding. The average holding time of improved MVLL system is approximately 0.14 μs. The holding time of improved MVLL system is fourfold than of basic MVLL system. The function of additional capacitor in the improved MVLL system is successfully discovered.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
21
8877
Influence of Flood Detention Capability in Flood Prevention for Flood Disaster of Depression Area
Abstract:
Rainfall records of rainfall station including the rainfall potential per hour and rainfall mass of five heavy storms are explored, respectively from 2001 to 2010. The rationalization formula is to investigate the capability of flood peak duration of flood detention pond in different rainfall conditions. The stable flood detention model is also proposed by using system dynamic control theory to get the message of flood detention pond in this research. When rainfall frequency of one hour rainfall duration is more than 100-year frequency which exceeds the flood detention standard of 20-year frequency for the flood detention pond, the flood peak duration of flood detention pond is 1.7 hours at most even though the flood detention pond with maximum drainage potential about 15.0 m3/s of pumping system is constructed. If the rainfall peak current is more than maximum drainage potential, the flood peak duration of flood detention pond is about 1.9 hours at most. The flood detention pond is the key factor of stable drainage control and flood prevention. The critical factors of flood disaster is not only rainfall mass, but also rainfall frequency of heavy storm in different rainfall duration and flood detention frequency of flood detention system.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
20
6261
Impact of a Proposed Pier on Tidal Currents:Koa Kood Island, Thailand
Abstract:
The impact of a proposed pier on tidal current alteration was evaluated. The proposed pier location was in Salad Bay on Koa Kood Island, Trat province, Thailand, and was designed to accommodate passenger ships with a draft of less than 2 m. The study began with collecting necessary data, including bathymetric, water elevation and tidal current characteristics. The impact was assessed using a software package (MIKE21). Although the results showed that the pier would affect the existing current pattern, the change was determined to be insignificant, as the design of the piles for the pier provided sufficient spacing to let the current flow as freely as possible. Consequences of the altered current, such as seabed erosion, water stagnation, sediment deposition and navigational risk were assessed. Environmental mitigation measures might be necessary if the impacts were considered unacceptable.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
19
4543
Selection of Extracurricular Education Facilities and Organizational Performance Analysis of Meg-city Spatial System
Abstract:
With the rapid expansion of city scale and the excessive concentration of population, achieving relative equality of extracurricular education resources and improving spatial service performance of relevant facilities become necessary arduous tasks. In urban space, extracurricular education facilities should offer better service to its targeted area and promote the equality and efficiency of education, which is accomplished by the allocation of facilities. Based on questionnaire and survey for local students in Hangzhou City in 2009, this study classifies extracurricular education facilities in meg-city and defines the equalization of these facilities. Then it is suggested to establish extracurricular education facilities system according to the development level of city and demands of local students, and to introduce a spatial analysis method into urban planning through the aspects of spatial distribution, travel cost and spatial service scope. Finally, the practice of nine sub-districts of Hangzhou is studied.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
18
10951
Adsorption of Lead from Synthetic Solution using Luffa Charcoal
Abstract:
This work was to study batch biosorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by Luffa charcoal. The effect of operating parameters such as adsorption contact time, initial pH solution and different initial Pb(II) concentration on the sorption of Pb(II) were investigated. The results showed that the adsorption of Pb(II) ions was initially rapid and the equilibrium time was 10 h. Adsorption kinetics of Pb(II) ions onto Luffa charcoal could be best described by the pseudo-second order model. At pH 5.0 was favorable for the adsorption and removal of Pb(II) ions. Freundlich adsorption isotherm model was better fitted for the adsorption of Pb(II) ions than Langmuir and Timkin isotherms, respectively. The highest monolayer adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm model was 51.02 mg/g. This study demonstrated that Luffa charcoal could be used for the removal of Pb(II) ions in water treatment.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
17
1222
A Basic Study on Ubiquitous Overloaded Vehicles Regulation System
Abstract:
Load managing method on road became necessary since overloaded vehicles occur damage on road facilities and existing systems for preventing this damage still show many problems.Accordingly, efficient managing system for preventing overloaded vehicles could be organized by using the road itself as a scale by applying genetic algorithm to analyze the load and the drive information of vehicles.Therefore, this paper organized Ubiquitous sensor network system for development of intelligent overload vehicle regulation system, also in this study, to use the behavior of road, the transformation was measured by installing underground box type indoor model and indoor experiment was held using genetic algorithm. And we examined wireless possibility of overloaded vehicle regulation system through experiment of the transmission and reception distance.If this system will apply to road and bridge, might be effective for economy and convenience through establishment of U-IT system..
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
16
316
RF Permeability Test in SOC Structure for Establishing USN(Ubiquitous Sensor Network)
Abstract:
Recently, as information industry and mobile communication technology are developing, this study is conducted on the new concept of intelligent structures and maintenance techniques that applied wireless sensor network, USN (Ubiquitous Sensor Network), to social infrastructures such as civil and architectural structures on the basis of the concept of Ubiquitous Computing that invisibly provides human life with computing, along with mutually cooperating, compromising and connecting networks each other by having computers within all objects around us. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the capability of wireless communication of sensor node embedded in reinforced concrete structure with a basic experiment on an electric wave permeability of sensor node by fabricating molding with variables of concrete thickness and steel bars that are mostly used in constructing structures to determine the feasibility of application to constructing structures with USN. At this time, with putting the pitches of steel bars, the thickness of concrete placed, and the intensity of RF signal of a transmitter-receiver as variables and when wireless communication module was installed inside, the possible communication distance of plain concrete and the possible communication distance by the pitches of steel bars was measured in the horizontal and vertical direction respectively. Besides, for the precise measurement of diminution of an electric wave, the magnitude of an electric wave in the range of used frequencies was measured by using Spectrum Analyzer. The phenomenon of diminution of an electric wave was numerically analyzed and the effect of the length of wavelength of frequencies was analyzed by the properties of a frequency band area. As a result of studying the feasibility of an application to constructing structures with wireless sensor, in case of plain concrete, it shows 45cm for the depth of permeability and in case of reinforced concrete with the pitches of 5cm, it shows 37cm and 45cm for the pitches of 15cm.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
15
15831
Improving Digital Image Edge Detection by Fuzzy Systems
Abstract:
Image Edge Detection is one of the most important parts of image processing. In this paper, by fuzzy technique, a new method is used to improve digital image edge detection. In this method, a 3x3 mask is employed to process each pixel by means of vicinity. Each pixel is considered a fuzzy input and by examining fuzzy rules in its vicinity, the edge pixel is specified and by utilizing calculation algorithms in image processing, edges are displayed more clearly. This method shows significant improvement compared to different edge detection methods (e.g. Sobel, Canny).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
14
5056
Microwave Pretreatment of Seeds to Extract High Quality Vegetable Oil
Abstract:

Microwave energy is a superior alternative to several other thermal treatments. Extraction techniques are widely employed for the isolation of bioactive compounds and vegetable oils from oil seeds. Among the different and new available techniques, microwave pretreatment of seeds is a simple and desirable method for production of high quality vegetable oils. Microwave pretreatment for oil extraction has many advantages as follow: improving oil extraction yield and quality, direct extraction capability, lower energy consumption, faster processing time and reduced solvent levels compared with conventional methods. It allows also for better retention and availability of desirable nutraceuticals, such as phytosterols and tocopherols, canolol and phenolic compounds in the extracted oil such as rapeseed oil. This can be a new step to produce nutritional vegetable oils with improved shelf life because of high antioxidant content.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
13
13565
Method of Finding Aerodynamic Characteristic Equations of Missile for Trajectory Simulation
Abstract:

This paper present a new way to find the aerodynamic characteristic equation of missile for the numerical trajectories prediction more accurate. The goal is to obtain the polynomial equation based on two missile characteristic parameters, angle of attack (α ) and flight speed (╬¢ ). First, the understudied missile is modeled and used for flow computational model to compute aerodynamic force and moment. Assume that performance range of understudied missile where range -10< α <10 and 0< ╬¢ <200. After completely obtained results of all cases, the data are fit by polynomial interpolation to create equation of each case and then combine all equations to form aerodynamic characteristic equation, which will be used for trajectories simulation.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
12
8074
A Comparison of Recent Methods for Solving a Model 1D Convection Diffusion Equation
Abstract:

In this paper we study some numerical methods to solve a model one-dimensional convection–diffusion equation. The semi-discretisation of the space variable results into a system of ordinary differential equations and the solution of the latter involves the evaluation of a matrix exponent. Since the calculation of this term is computationally expensive, we study some methods based on Krylov subspace and on Restrictive Taylor series approximation respectively. We also consider the Chebyshev Pseudospectral collocation method to do the spatial discretisation and we present the numerical solution obtained by these methods.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
11
12510
The Used of Environmental Ethics in Methods and Techniques of Environmental Management
Abstract:
Although, it is a long time that human know about the importance of environment in life, but at the last decade of 20 century, the space that was full of hot scientific, collegial and political were made in environmental challenge, So much that, this problem not only disarrange the peace and security of life, but also it has threatened human existence. One of the problems in last years that are significant for authorities is unsatisfactory achieved results against of using huge cost for magnificent environmental projects. This subject leads thinker to this thought that for solving the environmental problems it is needed new methods include of sociology, ethics and philosophic, etc. methods apart of technical affairs. Environment ethics is a new branch of philosophic ethics discussion that discusses about the ethics relationship between humans and universe that is around them. By notifying to the above considered affairs, in today world, necessity of environmental ethics for environment management is reduplicated. In the following the article has been focused on environmental ethics role and environmental management methods and techniques for developing it.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
10
13034
Study of Atmospheric System and its Effect on Flood in Isfahan
Abstract:
Heavy rains are one of the features of arid and semi arid climates which result in flood. This kind of rainfall originates from environmental and synoptic conditions. Mediterranean cyclones are the major factor in heavy rainfall in Iran, but these cyclones do not happen in some parts of Iran such as Southern and Southeastern areas. In this study, it has been tried to pinpoint the synoptic reasons of heavy rainfall in Isfahan through the analysis of the relationship between this rainfall in Isfahan and atmospheric system over Iran and the areas around it. The findings of this study show that the major factor have is the arrival of Sudanese low pressure system in this region from the southwest, of course if the ascent local conditions such as heat occur, the heaviest rains happen in Isfahan. In fact this kind of rainfall in Isfahan has a Sudanese origin and if it is accompanied by Mediterranean system, heavier rain falls.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
9
7275
Investigating the Precipitation and Temperature Change Procedure in Zayanderood Watershed
Abstract:
Global warming and continental changes have been one of the people's issues in the recent years and its consequences have appeared in the most parts of the earth planet or will appear in the future. Temperature and Precipitation are two main parameters in climatology. Any changes in these two parameters in this region cause widespread changes in the ecosystem and its natural and humanistic structure. One of the important consequences of this procedure is change in surface and underground water resources. Zayanderood watershed basin which is the main central river in Iran has faced water shortage in the recent years and also it has resulted in drought in Gavkhuni swamp and the river itself. Managers and experts in provinces which are the Zayanderood water consumers believe that global warming; raining decrease and continental changes are the main reason of water decrease. By statistical investigation of annual Precipitation and 46 years temperature of internal and external areas of Zayanderood watershed basin's stations and by using Kendal-man method, Precipitation and temperature procedure changes have been analyzed in this basin. According to obtained results, there was not any noticeable decrease or increase procedure in Precipitation and annual temperature in the basin during this period. However, regarding to Precipitation, a noticeable decrease and increase have been observed in small part of western and some parts of eastern and southern basin, respectively. Furthermore, the investigation of annual temperature procedure has shown that a noticeable increase has been observed in some parts of western and eastern basin, and also a noticeable increasing procedure of temperature in the central parts of metropolitan Esfahan can be observed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
8
10782
Sustainable Development in Iranian South Coastal and Islands Using Wind Energy
Abstract:

The development incompatible with environment cannot be sustainable. Using renewable energy sources such as solar energy, geothermal energy and wind energy can make sustainable development in a region. Iran has a lot of renewable and nonrenewable energy resources. Since Iran has a special geographic position, it has lot of solar and wind energy resources. Both solar and wind energy are free, renewable and adaptable with environment. The study of 10 year wind data in Iranian South coastal and Islands synoptic stations shows that the production of wind power electricity and water pumping is possible in this region. In this research, we studied the local and temporal distribution of wind using three – hour statistics of windspeed in Iranian South coastal and Islands synoptic stations. This research shows that the production of wind power electricity is possible in this region all the year.

Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
7
1878
Effect of Cement-kiln Dust Pollution on The Vegetation in The Western Mediterranean Desert of Egypt
Abstract:
This study investigated the ecological effects of particulate pollution from a cement factory on the vegetation in the western Mediterranean coastal desert of Egypt. Variations in vegetation, soil chemical characters, and some responses of Atriplex halimus, as a dominant species in the study area, were investigated in some sites located in different directions from the cement factory between Burg El-Arab in the east and El-Hammam in the west. The results showed an obvious decrease in vegetation diversity, in response to cement-kiln dust pollution, that accompanied by a high dominance attributed to the high contribution of Atriplex halimus. Annual species were found to be more sensitive to cement dust pollution as they all failed to persist in highly disturbed sites. It is remarkable that cover and phytomass of Atriplex halimus were increased greatly in response to cement dust pollution, and this was accompanied by a reduction in the mature seeds and leaf-area of the plant. The few seeds of the affected individuals seemed to be more fertile and attained higher germination percentages and exhibited hardening against drought stress.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
6
6021
Development of a Simulator for Explaining Organic Chemical Reactions Based on Qualitative Process Theory
Abstract:
This paper discusses the development of a qualitative simulator (abbreviated QRiOM) for predicting the behaviour of organic chemical reactions. The simulation technique is based on the qualitative process theory (QPT) ontology. The modelling constructs of QPT embody notions of causality which can be used to explain the behaviour of a chemical system. The major theme of this work is that, in a qualitative simulation environment, students are able to articulate his/her knowledge through the inspection of explanations generated by software. The implementation languages are Java and Prolog. The software produces explanation in various forms that stresses on the causal theories in the chemical system which can be effectively used to support learning.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
5
845
Preparing the Curve Number (CN) and Surface Runoff Coefficient (C) Map of the Basin in the Aghche Watershed, Iran
Abstract:
In this research, a part of Aghche basin in Isfahan province with an area about 2000 hectars, was chosen to be obtain curve number coefficient runoff and W indicator in second Cook method By using aerial photos 1968 and 1995, the satellite data of the IRS in 2008. Then the process of land use changes in the period of study and its effect on the changes of curve number (CN), W indicator and surface runoff coefficient (C) of the basin was investigated. These results showed that on the track of these land use changes the weight averages curve number (CN), surface runoff coefficient (C) and W indicator of the basin were increased to 0.92, 0.02 and 0.78 unit in the first period of study and 1.18, 0.03, 0.99 Unit in the second period of study respectively.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
4
7865
Fabrication and Electrical Characterization of Al/BaxSr1-xTiO3/Pt/SiO2/Si Configuration for FeFET Applications
Abstract:
The ferroelectric behavior of barium strontium titanate (BST) in thin film form has been investigated in order to study the possibility of using BST for ferroelectric gate-field effect transistor (FeFET) for memory devices application. BST thin films have been fabricated as Al/BST/Pt/SiO2/Si-gate configuration. The variation of the dielectric constant (ε) and tan δ with frequency have been studied to ensure the dielectric quality of the material. The results show that at low frequencies, ε increases as the Ba content increases, whereas at high frequencies, it shows the opposite variation, which is attributed to the dipole dynamics. tan δ shows low values with a peak at the mid-frequency range. The ferroelectric behavior of the Al/BST/Pt/SiO2/Si has been investigated using C-V characteristics. The results show that the strength of the ferroelectric hysteresis loop increases as the Ba content increases; this is attributed to the grain size and dipole dynamics effect.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
3
3334
Climatic Change, Drought and Dust Crisis in Iran
Abstract:
Drought is a phenomenon caused by environmental and climatic changes. This phenomenon is affected by shortage of rainfall and temperature. Dust is one of important environmental problems caused by climate change and drought. With recent multi-year drought, many environmental crises caused by dust in Iran and Middle East. Dust in the vast areas of the provinces occurs with high frequency. By dust affecting many problems created in terms of health, social and economic. In this study, we tried to study the most important factors causing dust. In this way we have used the satellite images and meteorological data. Finally, strategies to deal with the dust will be mentioned.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2
544
Design a Line Start synchronous Motor and Analysis Effect of the Rotor Structure on the Efficiency
Abstract:
The line start permanent magnet motor (LSPMM) combines a permanent magnet rotor for a better motor efficiency during synchronous running with an induction motor squirrel cage rotor to permit the motor starting by direct coupling to power source. In this paper effect of the rotor structure on a line start synchronous permanent magnet motor (LSPMM) is analyzed. LSPMM motor with three different structures for rotor is designed by using RMxprt software; efficiency and line current of LSPMM motor for different structures in full-load condition have been presented. The results indicate that with correct choosing of rotor structure, maximum efficiency can be found.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1
1737
Oleate Induces Apoptosis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes
Abstract:
Oleic acid (C18:1) play an important role in proliferation of fat cells. In this study, the effect of oleate on cells viability in 3T3-L1 cells (fat cells) was investigated. The 3T3-L1 cells were treated with various concentrations of oleate in the presence of 23 mM glucose. Oleate was added to adipogenic media (day 0) to investigate the influence of oleate on proliferation of postconfluent preadipocytes after 24 h induction. 0.1 mM oleate promoted cell division by increasing 33.9% number of cells from basal control in postconfluent preadipocytes. However, there were no significantly different in cells viability with control cells when oleate concentrations were increased up to 0.5 mM. When added to differentiated adipocytes (day 12) for 48 h, the number of cells decreased as oleate concentrations increased. 92.7% of cells lost demonstrated apoptosis and necrosis after 48 h with 0.5 mM oleate. The fluorochrome staining was examined under fluorescence microscopy using acridine orange and ethidium bromide double staining. Furthermore, the presence of high lactate (60.6% increased from basal control) released into plasma has shown the direct cytotoxicity of 0.5 mM oleate on adipocytes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):

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