Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 333

333
4031
Comparing Academically Gifted and Non-Gifted Students- Supportive Environments in Jordan
Abstract:
Jordan exerts many efforts to nurture their academically gifted students in special schools since 2001. During the past nine years of launching these schools, their learning and excellence environments were believed to be distinguished compared to public schools. This study investigated the environments of gifted students compared with other non-gifted, using a survey instrument that measures the dimensions of family, peers, teachers, school- support, society, and resources –dimensions rooted deeply in supporting gifted education, learning, and achievement. A total number of 109 were selected from excellence schools for academically gifted students, and 119 non-gifted students were selected from public schools. Around 8.3% of the non-gifted students reported that they “Never" received any support from their surrounding environments, 14.9% reported “Seldom" support, 23.7% reported “ Often" support, 26.0% reported “Frequent" support, and 32.8% reported “Very frequent" support. Where the gifted students reported more “Never" support than the non-gifted did with 11.3%, “Seldom" support with 15.4%, “Often" support with 26.6%, “Frequent" support with 29.0%, and reported “Very frequent" support less than the non-gifted students with 23.6%. Unexpectedly, statistical differences were found between the two groups favoring non-gifted students in perception of their surrounding environments in specific dimensions, namely, school- support, teachers, and society. No statistical differences were found in the other dimensions of the survey, namely, family, peers, and resources. As the differences were found in teachers, school- support, and society, the nurturing environments for the excellence schools need to be revised to adopt more creative teaching styles, rich school atmosphere and infrastructures, interactive guiding for the students and their parents, promoting for the excellence environments, and re-build successful identification models. Thus, families, schools, and society should increase their cooperation, communication, and awareness of the gifted supportive environments. However, more studies to investigate other aspects of promoting academic giftedness and excellence are recommended.
332
13080
A Study on the Importance of Motivation among the Managers in Construction Companies in Medan
Abstract:
Managers as the key employees have a very important role in maintaining the workforce performance which is critical to the construction companies- success in the future. If motivated employees start with motivated managers probably it would seem plausible if the de-motivated ones start with de-motivated managers. This study aims to analyze the importance of motivated managers to their successes and construction companies- successes. In this study, a quantitative method was used and the study area was in Medan, North Sumatera. Questionnaire survey was distributed directly to construction companies in Medan which are listed in the Construction Services Development Board. A total of 60 managers responded and the completed questionnaires were analyzed using the descriptive analysis. The results indicated that the respondents acknowledge the importance of motivation among themselves to the projects and construction companies- success, implying that it is vital o maintain the motivation and good performance of the workforce.
331
5370
Negotiation Support for Value-based Decision in Construction
Abstract:

A Negotiation Support is required on a value-based decision to enable each stakeholder to evaluate and rank the solution alternatives before engaging into negotiation with the other stakeholders. This study demonstrates a process of negotiation support model for selection of a building system from value-based design perspective. The perspective is based on comparison of function and cost of a building system. Multi criteria decision techniques were applied to determine the relative value of the alternative solutions for performing the function. A satisfying option game theory are applied to the criteria of value-based decision which are LCC (life cycle cost) and function based FAST. The results demonstrate a negotiation process to select priorities of a building system. The support model can be extended to an automated negotiation by combining value based decision method, group decision and negotiation support.

330
10173
HOPF Bifurcation of a Predator-prey Model with Time Delay and Habitat Complexity
Authors:
Abstract:

In this paper, a predator-prey model with time delay and habitat complexity is investigated. By analyzing the characteristic equations, the local stability of each feasible equilibria of the system is discussed and the existence of a Hopf bifurcation at the coexistence equilibrium is established. By choosing the sum of two delays as a bifurcation parameter, we show that Hopf bifurcations can occur as  crosses some critical values. By deriving the equation describing the flow on the center manifold, we can determine the direction of the Hopf bifurcations and the stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the main theoretical results.

329
6347
BIP-Based Alarm Declaration and Clearing in SONET Networks Employing Automatic Protection Switching
Abstract:

The paper examines the performance of bit-interleaved parity (BIP) methods in error rate monitoring, and in declaration and clearing of alarms in those transport networks that employ automatic protection switching (APS). The BIP-based error rate monitoring is attractive for its simplicity and ease of implementation. The BIP-based results are compared with exact results and are found to declare the alarms too late, and to clear the alarms too early. It is concluded that the standards development and systems implementation should take into account the fact of early clearing and late declaration of alarms. The window parameters defining the detection and clearing thresholds should be set so as to build sufficient hysteresis into the system to ensure that BIP-based implementations yield acceptable performance results.

328
7205
Organizational Culture and Innovation Adoption/Generation: A Proposed Model for Architectural Firms
Abstract:

Organizational culture fosters innovation, and innovation is the main engine to be sustained within the uncertainty market. Like other countries, the construction industry significantly contributes to the economy, society and technology of Malaysia, yet, innovation is still considered slow compared to other industries such as manufacturing. Given the important role of an architect as the key player and the contributor of new ideas in the construction industry, there is a call to identify the issue and improve the current situation by focusing on the architectural firms. In addition, the existing studies tend to focus only on a few dimensions of organizational culture and very few studies consider whether innovation is being generated or adopted. Hence, the present research tends to fill in the gap by identifying the organizational cultures that foster or hinder innovation generation and/or innovation adoption, and propose a model of organizational culture and innovation generation and/or adoption.

327
14769
Determination of Stress-Strain Characteristics of Railhead Steel using Image Analysis
Abstract:
True stress-strain curve of railhead steel is required to investigate the behaviour of railhead under wheel loading through elasto-plastic Finite Element (FE) analysis. To reduce the rate of wear, the railhead material is hardened through annealing and quenching. The Australian standard rail sections are not fully hardened and hence suffer from non-uniform distribution of the material property; usage of average properties in the FE modelling can potentially induce error in the predicted plastic strains. Coupons obtained at varying depths of the railhead were, therefore, tested under axial tension and the strains were measured using strain gauges as well as an image analysis technique, known as the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The head hardened steel exhibit existence of three distinct zones of yield strength; the yield strength as the ratio of the average yield strength provided in the standard (σyr=780MPa) and the corresponding depth as the ratio of the head hardened zone along the axis of symmetry are as follows: (1.17 σyr, 20%), (1.06 σyr, 20%-80%) and (0.71 σyr, > 80%). The stress-strain curves exhibit limited plastic zone with fracture occurring at strain less than 0.1.
326
8911
Development of an Avionics System for Flight Data Collection of an UAV Helicopter
Abstract:
In this present work, the development of an avionics system for flight data collection of a Raptor 30 V2 is carried out. For the data acquisition both onground and onboard avionics systems are developed for testing of a small-scale Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) helicopter. The onboard avionics record the helicopter state outputs namely accelerations, angular rates and Euler angles, in real time, and the on ground avionics system record the inputs given to the radio controlled helicopter through a transmitter, in real time. The avionic systems are designed and developed taking into consideration low weight, small size, anti-vibration, low power consumption, and easy interfacing. To mitigate the medium frequency vibrations embedded on the UAV helicopter during flight, a damper is designed and its performance is evaluated. A number of flight tests are carried out and the data obtained is then analyzed for accuracy and repeatability and conclusions are inferred.
325
13485
(T1, T2)*- Semi Star Generalized Locally Closed Sets
Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to continue the study of (T1, T2)-semi star generalized closed sets by introducing the concepts of (T1, T2)-semi star generalized locally closed sets and study their basic properties in bitopological spaces.

324
7774
Work Engagement of Malaysian Nurses: Exploring the Impact of Hope and Resilience
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between hope and resilience with work engagement. A total of 422 staff nurses working in three public hospitals in Peninsular Malaysia participated in this study. Statistical results using regression analysis revealed that hope and resilience were positively related to work engagement. Possible reasons for these findings, as well as their implications and future research directions are discussed.

323
9513
A New Time Discontinuous Expanded Mixed Element Method for Convection-dominated Diffusion Equation
Abstract:

In this paper, a new time discontinuous expanded mixed finite element method is proposed and analyzed for two-order convection-dominated diffusion problem. The proofs of the stability of the proposed scheme and the uniqueness of the discrete solution are given. Moreover, the error estimates of the scalar unknown, its gradient and its flux in the L1( ¯ J,L2( )-norm are obtained.

322
13898
A Method of Planar-Template- Based Camera Self-Calibration for Single-View
Abstract:
Camera calibration is an important step in 3D reconstruction. Camera calibration may be classified into two major types: traditional calibration and self-calibration. However, a calibration method in using a checkerboard is intermediate between traditional calibration and self-calibration. A self is proposed based on a square in this paper. Only a square in the planar template, the camera self-calibration can be completed through the single view. The proposed algorithm is that the virtual circle and straight line are established by a square on planar template, and circular points, vanishing points in straight lines and the relation between them are be used, in order to obtain the image of the absolute conic (IAC) and establish the camera intrinsic parameters. To make the calibration template is simpler, as compared with the Zhang Zhengyou-s method. Through real experiments and experiments, the experimental results show that this algorithm is feasible and available, and has a certain precision and robustness.
321
14669
Statistical Distributions of the Lapped Transform Coefficients for Images
Abstract:

Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) based transform coding is very popular in image, video and speech compression due to its good energy compaction and decorrelating properties. However, at low bit rates, the reconstructed images generally suffer from visually annoying blocking artifacts as a result of coarse quantization. Lapped transform was proposed as an alternative to the DCT with reduced blocking artifacts and increased coding gain. Lapped transforms are popular for their good performance, robustness against oversmoothing and availability of fast implementation algorithms. However, there is no proper study reported in the literature regarding the statistical distributions of block Lapped Orthogonal Transform (LOT) and Lapped Biorthogonal Transform (LBT) coefficients. This study performs two goodness-of-fit tests, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test and the 2- test, to determine the distribution that best fits the LOT and LBT coefficients. The experimental results show that the distribution of a majority of the significant AC coefficients can be modeled by the Generalized Gaussian distribution. The knowledge of the statistical distribution of transform coefficients greatly helps in the design of optimal quantizers that may lead to minimum distortion and hence achieve optimal coding efficiency.

320
15154
Microalbuminuria in Essential Hypertension
Abstract:

Essential hypertension (HTN) usually clusters with other cardiovascular risk factors such as age, overweight, diabetes, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. The target organ damage (TOD) such as left ventricular hypertrophy, microalbuminuria (MA), acute coronary syndrome (ACS), stroke and cognitive dysfunction takes place early in course of hypertension. Though the prevalence of hypertension is high in India, the relationship between microalbuminuria and target organ damage in hypertension is not well studied. This study aim at detecting MA in essential hypertension and its relation to severity of HTN, duration of HTN, body mass index (BMI), age and TOD such as HTN retinopathy and acute coronary syndrome The present study was done in 100 patients of essential hypertension non diabetics admitted to B.L.D.E.University-s Sri B.M.Patil Medical College, Bijapur, from October 2008 to April 2011. The patients underwent detailed history and clinical examination. Early morning 5 ml of urine sample was collected & MA was estimated by immunoturbidometry method. The relationship of MA with the duration & severity of HTN, BMI, age, sex and TOD's like hypertensive retinopathy, ACS was assessed by univariate analysis. The prevalence of MA in this study was found to be 63 %. In that 42% were male & 21% were female. In this study a significant association between MA and the duration of hypertension (p = 0.036) & (OR =0.438). Longer the duration of hypertension, more possibility of microalbumin in urine. Also there was a significant association between severity of hypertension and MA (p=0.045) and (OR=0.093). MA was positive in 50 (79.4%) patients out of 63, whose blood pressure was >160/100 mm Hg. In this study a significant association between MA and the grades of hypertensive retinopathy (p =0.011) and acute coronary syndrome (p = 0.041) (OR =2.805). Gender and BMI did not pose high risk for MA in this study.The prevalence of MA in essential hypertension is high in this part of the community and MA will increase the risk of developing target organ damage.Early screening of patients with essential hypertension for MA and aggressive management of positive cases might reduce the burden of chronic kidney diseases and cardiovascular diseases in the community.

319
10528
Intelligent Automatic Generation Control of Two Area Interconnected Power System using Hybrid Neuro Fuzzy Controller
Abstract:

This paper presents the development and application of an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based intelligent hybrid neuro fuzzy controller for automatic generation control (AGC) of two-area interconnected thermal power system with reheat non linearity. The dynamic response of the system has been studied for 1% step load perturbation in area-1. The performance of the proposed neuro fuzzy controller is compared against conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller, state feedback linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller and fuzzy gain scheduled proportionalintegral (FGSPI) controller. Comparative analysis demonstrates that the proposed intelligent neuro fuzzy controller is the most effective of all in improving the transients of frequency and tie-line power deviations against small step load disturbances. Simulations have been performed using Matlab®.

318
2460
On Q-Fuzzy Ideals in Γ-Semigroups
Abstract:

In this paper the concept of Q-fuzzification of ideals of Γ-semigroups has been introduced and some important properties have been investigated. A characterization of regular Γ-semigroup in terms of Q-fuzzy ideals has been obtained. Operator semigroups of a Γ-semigroup has been made to work by obtaining various relationships between Q-fuzzy ideals of a Γ-semigroup and that of its operator semigroups.

317
664
Comparison of Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Housing Material for Outdoor Polymer Insulators
Abstract:

This paper presents the comparison ageing deterioration of silicone rubber housing material for outdoor polymer insulators by using salt fog ageing test based on IEC 61109 and outdoor exposure test.Four types of high temperature silicone vulcanized silicone rubber sheet with different amount of ATH were used as testing specimen. For salt fog ageing test, the specimens were tested continuously 1000 hours with energized in test chamber. For outdoor exposure test, the specimens were hung continuously 18 months without energized. Physical and chemical analyses were conducted to evaluate degree of ageing deterioration of tested specimens. Slightly surface erosion was observed on specimen surface after salt fog ageing test and no erosion was observed on surface of outdoor exposure specimen. However, comparable degree of ageing deterioration can be seen from surface analysis results.

316
1925
Development of Multimodal e-Slide Presentation to Support Self-Learning for the Visually Impaired
Abstract:

Currently electronic slide (e-slide) is one of the most common styles in educational presentation. Unfortunately, the utilization of e-slide for the visually impaired is uncommon since they are unable to see the content of such e-slides which are usually composed of text, images and animation. This paper proposes a model for presenting e-slide in multimodal presentation i.e. using conventional slide concurrent with voicing, in both languages Malay and English. At the design level, live multimedia presentation concept is used, while at the implementation level several components are used. The text content of each slide is extracted using COM component, Microsoft Speech API for voicing the text in English language and the text in Malay language is voiced using dictionary approach. To support the accessibility, an auditory user interface is provided as an additional feature. A prototype of such model named as VSlide has been developed and introduced.

315
9416
Release of Elements in Bottom Ash and Fly Ash from Incineration of Peat- and Wood-Residues using a Sequential Extraction Procedure
Abstract:

When the results of the total element concentrations using USEPA method 3051A are compared to the sequential extraction analyses (i.e. the sum of fractions BCR1, BCR2 and BRC3), it can be calculated that the recovery values of elements varied between 56.8-% and 69.4-% in the bottom ash, and between 11.3-% and 70.9-% in the fly ash. This indicates that most of the elements in the ashes do not occur as readily soluble forms.

314
15139
Nanocomputing Memory Devices Formed from Carbon Nanotubes and Metallofulleres
Abstract:

In this paper, we summarize recent work of the authors on nanocomputing memory devices. We investigate two memory devices, each comprising a charged metallofullerene and carbon nanotubes. The first device involves two open nanotubes of the same radius that are joined by a centrally located nanotube of a smaller radius. A metallofullerene is then enclosed inside the structure. The second device also involves a etallofullerene that is located inside a closed carbon nanotube. Assuming the Lennard-Jones interaction energy and the continuum approximation, for both devices, the metallofullerene has two symmetrically placed equal minimum energy positions. On one side the metallofullerene represents the zero information state and by applying an external electrical field, it can overcome the energy barrier, and pass from one end of the tube to the other, where the metallofullerene then represents the one information state.

313
12349
Analysis of a Spatiotemporal Phytoplankton Dynamics: Higher Order Stability and Pattern Formation
Abstract:
In this paper, for the understanding of the phytoplankton dynamics in marine ecosystem, a susceptible and an infected class of phytoplankton population is considered in spatiotemporal domain. Here, the susceptible phytoplankton is growing logistically and the growth of infected phytoplankton is due to the instantaneous Holling type-II infection response function. The dynamics are studied in terms of the local and global stabilities for the system and further explore the possibility of Hopf -bifurcation, taking the half saturation period as (i.e., ) the bifurcation parameter in temporal domain. It is also observe that the reaction diffusion system exhibits spatiotemporal chaos and pattern formation in phytoplankton dynamics, which is particularly important role play for the spatially extended phytoplankton system. Also the effect of the diffusion coefficient on the spatial system for both one and two dimensional case is obtained. Furthermore, we explore the higher-order stability analysis of the spatial phytoplankton system for both linear and no-linear system. Finally, few numerical simulations are carried out for pattern formation.
312
4837
Investigation of I/Q Imbalance in Coherent Optical OFDM System
Abstract:
The inphase/quadrature (I/Q) amplitude and phase imbalance effects are studied in coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) systems. An analytical model for the I/Q imbalance is developed and supported by simulation results. The results indicate that the I/Q imbalance degrades the BER performance considerably.
311
8350
In-flight Meals, Passengers- Level of Satisfaction and Re-flying Intention
Abstract:

Service quality has become a centerpiece for airline companies in vying with one another and keeps their image in the minds of passengers. Many airlines have pushed service quality through service personalization which includes both ground and on board especially from the viewpoint of retaining satisfied passengers and attracting new ones. Besides those, in-flight meals/food service is another important aspect of the airline operation. The in flight meals/food services now are seen as part of marketing strategies in attracting business or leisure travelers. This study reports the outcomes of the investigation on in-flight meals/food attributes toward passengers- level of satisfaction and re-flying intention. Taste, freshness, appearance of in-flight meals/food served and menu choices are important to the airlines passengers especially for the long haul flight. Food not only contributes to the prediction of the airline passengers- levels of satisfaction but besides other factors slightly influence passengers- re- flying intention. Airline companies therefore should not ignore this element but take the opportunity to create more attractive and acceptable in-flight meals/food along with other matter as marketing tools in attracting passengers to re-flying with them.

310
4952
Design and Fabrication of Hybrid Composite Flywheel Rotor
Abstract:
An advanced composite flywheel rotor consisting of intra and inter hybrid rims was designed to optimally increase the energy capacity, and was manufactured using filament winding with in-situ curing. The flywheel has recently attracted considerable attention from many investigators since it possesses great potential in many energy storage applications, including electric utilities, hybrid or electric automobiles, and space vehicles. In this investigation, a comprehensive study was conducted with the intent to implement composites in high performance flywheel applications.The inner two intra-hybrid rims (rims 1 and 2) were manufactured as a whole part through continuous filament winding under in-situ curing conditions, and so were the outer two rims (rims 3 and 4). The outer surface of rim 2 and the inner surface of rim 3 were CNC-tapered for press-fitting. Machined rims were finally press-fitted using a hydraulic press with a maximum compressive force of approximately 1000 ton.
309
2341
Behaviour of Masonry Wall Constructed using Interlocking Soil Cement Bricks
Abstract:
According to the masonry standard the compressive strength is basically dependent on factors such as the mortar strength and the relative values of unit and mortar strength. However interlocking brick has none or less use of mortar. Therefore there is a need to investigate the behavior of masonry walls using interlocking bricks. In this study a series of tests have been conducted; physical properties and compressive strength of brick units and masonry walls were constructed from interlocking bricks and tested under constant vertical load at different eccentricities. The purpose of the experimental investigations is to obtain the force displacement curves, analyze the behavior of masonry walls. The results showed that the brick is categorized as common brick (BS 3921:1985) and severe weathering grade (ASTM C62). The maximum compressive stress of interlocking brick wall is 3.6 N/mm2 and fulfilled the requirement of standard for residential building.
308
3304
Exact Evaluation Method for Error Performance Analysis of Arbitrary 2-D Modulation OFDM Systems with CFO
Abstract:
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has developed into a popular scheme for wideband digital communications used in consumer applications such as digital broadcasting, wireless networking and broadband internet access. In the OFDM system, carrier frequency offset (CFO) causes intercarrier interference (ICI) which significantly degrades the system error performance. In this paper we provide an exact evaluation method for error performance analysis of arbitrary 2-D modulation OFDM systems with CFO, and analyze the effect of CFO on error performance.
307
13962
Developing of Intelligent Schools with a New Model of Strategic Management System
Abstract:
Intelligent schools are those which use IT devices and technologies as media software, hardware and networks to improve learning process. On the other hand Strategic management is a field that deals with the major intended and emergent initiatives taken by general managers on behalf of owners, involving utilization of resources, to enhance the performance of firms in their external environments. Here, we present a model Strategic Management System that has been applied on some schools and have made strict improvement.
306
2249
The New Method of Concealed Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor: A Case Study
Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks (WSN) consists of many sensor nodes that are placed on unattended environments such as military sites in order to collect important information. Implementing a secure protocol that can prevent forwarding forged data and modifying content of aggregated data and has low delay and overhead of communication, computing and storage is very important. This paper presents a new protocol for concealed data aggregation (CDA). In this protocol, the network is divided to virtual cells, nodes within each cell produce a shared key to send and receive of concealed data with each other. Considering to data aggregation in each cell is locally and implementing a secure authentication mechanism, data aggregation delay is very low and producing false data in the network by malicious nodes is not possible. To evaluate the performance of our proposed protocol, we have presented computational models that show the performance and low overhead in our protocol.

305
1181
Nanobiocomposites with Enhanced Cell Proliferation and Improved Mechanical Properties Based on Organomodified-Nanoclay and Silicone Rubber
Abstract:

Bionanotechnology deals with nanoscopic interactions between nanostructured materials and biological systems. Polymer nanocomposites with optimized biological activity have attracted great attention. Nanoclay is considered as reinforcing nanofiller in manufacturing of high performance nanocomposites. In current study, organomodified-nanoclay with negatively charged silicate layers was incorporated into biomedical grade silicone rubber. Nanoparticle loading has been tailored to enhance cell behavior. Addition of nanoparticles led to improved mechanical properties of substrate with enhanced strength and stiffness while no toxic effects was observed. Results indicated improved viability and proliferation of cells by addition of nanofillers. The improved mechanical properties of the matrix result in proper cell response through adjustment and arrangement of cytoskeletal fibers. Results can be applied in tissue engineering when enhanced substrates are required for improvement of cell behavior for in vivo applications.

304
14103
Influence of Differences of Heat Insulation Methods on Thermal Comfort of Apartment Buildings
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to analyze influence of differences of heat insulation methods on indoor thermal environment and comfort of apartment buildings. This study analyzes indoor thermal environment and comfort on units of apartment buildings using calculation software "THERB" and compares three different kinds of heat insulation methods. Those are outside insulation on outside walls, inside insulation on outside walls and interior insulation. In terms of indoor thermal environment, outside insulation is the best to stabilize room temperature. In winter, room temperature on outside insulation after heating is higher than other and it is kept 3-5 degrees higher through all night. But the surface temperature with outside insulation did not dramatically increase when heating was used, which was 3 to 5oC lower than the temperature with other insulation. The PMV of interior insulation fall nearly range of comfort when the heating and cooling was use.
303
6989
A Study of the Garbage Enzyme's Effects in Domestic Wastewater
Abstract:

“Garbage enzyme", a fermentation product of kitchen waste, water and brown sugar, is claimed in the media as a multipurpose solution for household and agricultural uses. This study assesses the effects of dilutions (5% to 75%) of garbage enzyme in reducing pollutants in domestic wastewater. The pH of the garbage enzyme was found to be 3.5, BOD concentration about 150 mg/L. Test results showed that the garbage enzyme raised the wastewater-s BOD in proportion to its dilution due to its high organic content. For mixtures with more than 10% garbage enzyme, its pH remained acidic after the 5-day digestion period. However, it seems that ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus could be removed by the addition of the garbage enzyme. The most economic solution for removal of ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus was found to be 9%. Further tests are required to understand the removal mechanisms of the ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus.

302
8010
Internal Behavior of Biological Nutrient Removal System for Advanced Wastewater Treatment
Abstract:
The purpose of this research was develop a biological nutrient removal (BNR) system which has low energy consumption, sludge production, and land usage. These indicate that BNR system could be a alternative of future wastewater treatment in ubiquitous city(U-city). Organics and nitrogen compounds could be removed by this system so that secondary or tertiary stages of wastewater treatment satisfy their standards. This system was composed of oxic and anoxic filter filed with PVDC and POM media. Anoxic/oxic filter system operated under empty bed contact time of 4 hours by increasing recirculation ratio from 0 to 100 %. The system removals of total nitrogen and COD were 76.3% and 93%, respectively. To be observed internal behavior in this system SCOD, NH3-N, and NO3-N were conducted and removal shows range of 25~100%, 59~99%, and 70~100%, respectively.
301
1582
Project Base Learning for IT Personnel Resources Development using TVML
Abstract:
Using the animations video of teaching materials is an effective learning method. However, we thought that more effective learning method is to produce the teaching video by learners themselves. The learners who act as the producer must learn and understand well to produce and present video of teaching materials to others. The purpose of this study is to propose the project based learning (PBL) technique by co-producing video of IT (information technology) teaching materials. We used the T2V player to produce the video based on TVML a TV program description language. By proposed method, we have assigned the learners to produce the animations video for “National Examination for Information Processing Technicians (IPA examination)" in Japan, in order to get them learns various knowledge and skill on IT field. Experimental result showed that learning effect has occurred at the video production process that useful for IT personnel resources development.
300
3159
Studies on Seasonal Variations of Physico- Chemical Parameters of Fish Farm at Govt. Nursery Unit, Muzaffargarh, Punjab, Pakistan
Abstract:

The present study was designed to demonstrate the seasonal variations in physico-chemical parameters of fish farm at Govt. Nursery Unit, Muzaffargarh, Department of Fisheries Govt. of Punjab, Pakistan for a period of eight months from January to August 2008. Water samples were collected on fifteen days basis and have been analyzed for estimation of Air temperature, Water temperature, Light penetration, pH, Total dissolved oxygen, Clouds, Carbonates, Bicarbonates, Total carbonates, Total dissolved solids, Chlorides, Calcium and Hardness. Seasonal fluctuations were observed in all the physico-chemical parameters of fish farm. The overall physicochemical parameters of fish pond water remained within the tolerable range throughout the study period.

299
9065
In Search of Excellence – Google vs Baidu
Abstract:
This paper compares the search engine marketing strategies adopted in China and the Western countries through two illustrative cases, namely, Google and Baidu. Marketers in the West use search engine optimization (SEO) to rank their sites higher for queries in Google. Baidu, however, offers paid search placement, or the selling of engine results for particular keywords to the higher bidders. Whereas Google has been providing innovative services ranging from Google Map to Google Blog, Baidu remains focused on search services – the one that it does best. The challenges and opportunities of the Chinese Internet market offered to global entrepreneurs are also discussed in the paper
298
15447
A Study on the Introduction of Wastewater Reuse Facility in Military Barracks by Cost-Benefit Analysis
Abstract:
The international society focuses on the environment protection and natural energy sources control for the global cooperation against weather change and sustainable growth. The study presents the overview of the water shortage status and the necessity of wastewater reuse facility in military facilities and for the possibility of the introduction, compares the economics by means of cost-benefit analysis. The military features such as the number of users of military barracks and the water use were surveyed by the design principles by facility types, the application method of wastewater reuse facility was selected, the feed water, its application and the volume of reuse volume were defined and the expectation was estimated, confirming the possibility of introducing a wastewater reuse possibility by means of cost-benefit analysis.
297
11679
Development of a Spark Electrode Ignition System for an Explosion Vessel
Abstract:
This paper presents development of an ignition system using spark electrodes for application in a research explosion vessel. A single spark is aimed to be discharged with quantifiable ignition energy. The spark electrode system would enable study of flame propagation, ignitability of fuel-air mixtures and other fundamental characteristics of flames. The principle of the capacitive spark circuit of ASTM is studied to charge an appropriate capacitance connected across the spark gap through a large resistor by a high voltage from the source of power supply until the initiation of spark. Different spark energies could be obtained mainly by varying the value of the capacitance and the supply current. The spark sizes produced are found to be affected by the spark gap, electrode size, input voltage and capacitance value.
296
6060
Tongue Diagnosis System Based on PCA and SVM
Abstract:
In this study, we propose a tongue diagnosis method which detects the tongue from face image and divides the tongue area into six areas, and finally generates tongue coating ratio of each area. To detect the tongue area from face image, we use ASM as one of the active shape models. Detected tongue area is divided into six areas widely used in the Korean traditional medicine and the distribution of tongue coating of the six areas is examined by SVM(Support Vector Machine). For SVM, we use a 3-dimensional vector calculated by PCA(Principal Component Analysis) from a 12-dimentional vector consisting of RGB, HIS, Lab, and Luv. As a result, we detected the tongue area stably using ASM and found that PCA and SVM helped raise the ratio of tongue coating detection.
295
12880
A Post Keynesian Environmental Macroeconomic Model for Agricultural Water Sustainability under Climate Change in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia
Abstract:

Climate change has profound consequences for the agriculture of south-eastern Australia and its climate-induced water shortage in the Murray-Darling Basin. Post Keynesian Economics (PKE) macro-dynamics, along with Kaleckian investment and growth theory, are used to develop an ecological-economic system dynamics model of this complex nonlinear river basin system. The Murray- Darling Basin Simulation Model (MDB-SM) uses the principles of PKE to incorporate the fundamental uncertainty of economic behaviors of farmers regarding the investments they make and the climate change they face, particularly as regards water ecosystem services. MDB-SM provides a framework for macroeconomic policies, especially for long-term fiscal policy and for policy directed at the sustainability of agricultural water, as measured by socio-economic well-being considerations, which include sustainable consumption and investment in the river basin. The model can also reproduce other ecological and economic aspects and, for certain parameters and initial values, exhibit endogenous business cycles and ecological sustainability with realistic characteristics. Most importantly, MDBSM provides a platform for the analysis of alternative economic policy scenarios. These results reveal the importance of understanding water ecosystem adaptation under climate change by integrating a PKE macroeconomic analytical framework with the system dynamics modelling approach. Once parameterised and supplied with historical initial values, MDB-SM should prove to be a practical tool to provide alternative long-term policy simulations of agricultural water and socio-economic well-being.

294
8596
Personal Digital Assistants for Fieldwork Training in College Campus
Abstract:

Education supported by mobile computers has been widely done for some time. Teachers have attempted to use mobile computers and to find concrete subjects for student-s fieldwork training in college education. The purpose of this research is to develop software for Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) to conduct fieldwork in our campus, and to report a fieldwork class using PDAs in the curriculum of the Department of Regional Environment Studies.

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7608
Object Detection based Weighted-Center Surround Difference
Abstract:
Intelligent traffic surveillance technology is an issue in the field of traffic data analysis. Therefore, we need the technology to detect moving objects in real-time while there are variations in background and natural light. In this paper, we proposed a Weighted-Center Surround Difference method for object detection in outdoor environments. The proposed system detects objects using the saliency map that is obtained by analyzing the weight of each layers of Gaussian pyramid. In order to validate the effectiveness of our system, we implemented the proposed method using a digital signal processor, TMS320DM6437. Experimental results show that blurred noisy around objects was effectively eliminated and the object detection accuracy is improved.
292
15065
Classification Influence Index and its Application for k-Nearest Neighbor Classifier
Authors:
Abstract:
Classification is an important topic in machine learning and bioinformatics. Many datasets have been introduced for classification tasks. A dataset contains multiple features, and the quality of features influences the classification accuracy of the dataset. The power of classification for each feature differs. In this study, we suggest the Classification Influence Index (CII) as an indicator of classification power for each feature. CII enables evaluation of the features in a dataset and improved classification accuracy by transformation of the dataset. By conducting experiments using CII and the k-nearest neighbor classifier to analyze real datasets, we confirmed that the proposed index provided meaningful improvement of the classification accuracy.
291
3625
Cloning and Expression of D-Threonine Aldolase from Ensifer arboris NBRC100383
Authors:
Abstract:
D-erythro-cyclohexylserine (D chiral unnatural β-hydroxy amino acid expected for the synthesis of drug for AIDS treatment. To develop a continuous bioconversion system with whole cell biocatalyst of D-threonine aldolase (D genes for the D-erythro-CHS production, D-threonine aldolase gene was amplified from Ensifer arboris 100383 by direct PCR amplication using two degenerated oligonucleotide primers designed based on genomic sequence of Shinorhizobium meliloti Sequence analysis of the cloned DNA fragment revealed one open-reading frame of 1059 bp and 386 amino acids. This putative D-TA gene was cloned into NdeI and EcoRI (pEnsi His-tag sequence or BamHI (pEnsi-DTA[2]) sequence of the pET21(a) vector. The expression level of the cloned gene was extremely overexpressed by E. coli BL21(DE3) transformed with pEnsi-DTA[1] compared to E. coli BL21(DE3) transformed with pEnsi-DTA[2]. When the cells expressing the wild used for D-TA enzyme activity, 12 mM glycine was successfully detected in HPLC analysis. Moreover, the whole cells harbouring the recombinant D-TA was able to synthesize D-erythro of 0.6 mg/ml in a batch reaction.
290
9539
Symmetries, Conservation Laws and Reduction of Wave and Gordon-type Equations on Riemannian Manifolds
Abstract:

Equations on curved manifolds display interesting properties in a number of ways. In particular, the symmetries and, therefore, the conservation laws reduce depending on how curved the manifold is. Of particular interest are the wave and Gordon-type equations; we study the symmetry properties and conservation laws of these equations on the Milne and Bianchi type III metrics. Properties of reduction procedures via symmetries, variational structures and conservation laws are more involved than on the well known flat (Minkowski) manifold.

289
479
Biplot Analysis for Evaluation of Tolerance in Some Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes to Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV)
Abstract:

The common bean is the most important grain legume for direct human consumption in the world and BCMV is one of the world's most serious bean diseases that can reduce yield and quality of harvested product. To determine the best tolerance index to BCMV and recognize tolerant genotypes, 2 experiments were conducted in field conditions. Twenty five common bean genotypes were sown in 2 separate RCB design with 3 replications under contamination and non-contamination conditions. On the basis of the results of indices correlations GMP, MP and HARM were determined as the most suitable tolerance indices. The results of principle components analysis indicated 2 first components totally explained 98.52% of variations among data. The first and second components were named potential yield and stress susceptible respectively. Based on the results of BCMV tolerance indices assessment and biplot analysis WA8563-4, WA8563-2 and Cardinal were the genotypes that exhibited potential seed yield under contamination and noncontamination conditions.

288
10784
Study of the Effectiveness of Outrigger System for High-Rise Composite Buildings for Cyclonic Region
Abstract:

The demands of taller structures are becoming imperative almost everywhere in the world in addition to the challenges of material and labor cost, project time line etc. This paper conducted a study keeping in view the challenging nature of high-rise construction with no generic rules for deflection minimizations and frequency control. The effects of cyclonic wind and provision of outriggers on 28-storey, 42-storey and 57-storey are examined in this paper and certain conclusions are made which would pave way for researchers to conduct further study in this particular area of civil engineering. The results show that plan dimensions have vital impacts on structural heights. Increase of height while keeping the plan dimensions same, leads to the reduction in the lateral rigidity. To achieve required stiffness increase of bracings sizes as well as introduction of additional lateral resisting system such as belt truss and outriggers is required.

287
1344
Renewable Energy Supply Options in Kuwait
Abstract:
This paper compares planning results of the electricity and water generation inventory up to year 2030 in the State of Kuwait. Currently, the generation inventory consists of oil and gas fired technologies only. The planning study considers two main cases. The first case, Reference case, examines a generation inventory based on oil and gas fired generation technologies only. The second case examines the inclusion of renewables as part of the generation inventory under two scenarios. In the first scenario, Ref-RE, renewable build-out is based on optimum economic performance of overall generation system. Result shows that the optimum installed renewable capacity with electric energy generation of 11% . In the second scenario, Ref-RE20, the renewable capacity build-out is forced to provide 20% of electric energy by 2030. The respective energy systems costs of Reference, Ref-RE and Ref-RE20 case scenarios reach US dollar 24, 10 and 14 billion annually in 2030.
286
13331
Public Transport: Punctuality Index for Bus Operation
Abstract:
Public bus service plays a significant role in our society as people movers and to facilitate travels within towns and districts. The quality of service of public bus is always being regarded as poor, or rather, underestimated as second class means of transportation. Reliability of service, or the ability to deliver service as planned, is one key element in perceiving the quality of bus service and the punctuality index is one of the performance parameters in determining the service reliability. This study concentrates on evaluating the reliability performance of bus operation using punctuality index assessment. A week data for each of six city bus routes is recorded using the on-board methodology to calculate the punctuality index for city bus service in Kota Bharu. The results revealed that the punctuality index for the whole city bus network is 94.25% (LOS B).
285
13721
Assessment of In-Situ Water Sensitive Urban Design Elements
Abstract:
Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) features are increasingly used to treat and manage polluted stormwater runoff in urbanised areas. It is important to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of the infrastructure in achieving their intended performance targets after constructing and operating these features overtime. The paper presents the various methods of analysis used to assess the effectiveness of the in-situ WSUD features, such as: onsite visual inspections during operational and non operational periods, maintenance audits and periodic water quality testing. The results will contribute to a better understanding of the operational and maintenance needs of in-situ WSUD features and assist in providing recommendations to better manage life cycle performance.
284
11300
Recursive Path-finding in a Dynamic Maze with Modified Tremaux's Algorithm
Abstract:

Number Link is a Japanese logic puzzle where pairs of same numbers are connected using lines. Number Link can be regarded as a dynamic multiple travelers, multiple entries and exits maze, where the walls and passages are dynamically changing as the travelers move. In this paper, we apply the Tremaux’s algorithm to solve Number Link puzzles of size 8x8, 10x10 and 15x20. The algorithm works well and produces a solution for puzzles of size 8x8 and 10x10. However, solving a puzzle of size 15x20 requires high computer processing power and is time consuming.

283
10280
Enhancing Landfill Gas Production by Methanogenic Sand Layer
Abstract:
Landfill gas, particularly methane is one of the greenhouse gases which contributes to global warming. This paper presents the findings of a study on methane gas production from simulated landfill reactor under saturated conditions. A reactor was constructed to represent a landfill cell of 2.5 m thickness on sandy soil. The reactor was 0.2 m in diameter and 4 m in height. One meter of sand and pebble layer was packed at the bottom of the reactor followed by 2.5 m of solid waste layer and 0.4 m of sand layer as the cover soil. Degradation of waste in the solid waste layer was at acidification stage as indicated by the leachate quality with COD as high as 55,511 mg/L and pH as low as 5.1. However, methanogenic environment was established at the bottom sand layer after one year of operation indicated by pH of 7.2 and methane gas generation. Leachate degradation took place as the leachate moved through the sand layer at an infiltration of rate 0.7 cm/day. This resulted in landfill gas production of 77 mL/day/kg containing 55 to 65% methane. The application of sand layer contributed to the gas production from landfill by an in-situ degradation of leachate in the sand at the bottom of the landfill.
282
6317
Photograph Based Pair-matching Recognition of Human Faces
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel system recognition of human faces without using face different color photographs is proposed. It mainly in face detection, normalization and recognition. Foot method of combination of Haar-like face determined segmentation and region-based histogram stretchi (RHST) is proposed to achieve more accurate perf using Haar. Apart from an effective angle norm side-face (pose) normalization, which is almost a might be important and beneficial for the prepr introduced. Then histogram-based and photom normalization methods are investigated and ada retinex (ASR) is selected for its satisfactory illumin Finally, weighted multi-block local binary pattern with 3 distance measures is applied for pair-mat Experimental results show its advantageous perfo with PCA and multi-block LBP, based on a principle.
281
11977
Formation Control of Mobile Robots
Abstract:
In this paper, we study the formation control problem for car-like mobile robots. A team of nonholonomic mobile robots navigate in a terrain with obstacles, while maintaining a desired formation, using a leader-following strategy. A set of artificial potential field functions is proposed using the direct Lyapunov method for the avoidance of obstacles and attraction to their designated targets. The effectiveness of the proposed control laws to verify the feasibility of the model is demonstrated through computer simulations
280
6942
Multiple Moving Talker Tracking by Integration of Two Successive Algorithms
Abstract:
In this paper, an estimation accuracy of multiple moving talker tracking using a microphone array is improved. The tracking can be achieved by the adaptive method in which two algorithms are integrated, namely, the PAST (Projection Approximation Subspace Tracking) algorithm and the IPLS (Interior Point Least Square) algorithm. When either talker begins to speak again after a silent period, an appropriate feasible region for an evaluation function of the IPLS algorithm might not be set. Then, the tracking fails due to the incorrect updating. Therefore, if an increment of the number of active talkers is detected, the feasible region must be reset. Then, a low cost realization is required for the high speed tracking and a high accuracy realization is desired for the precise tracking. In this paper, the directions roughly estimated using the delayed-sum-array method are used for the resetting. Several results of experiments performed in an actual room environment show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
279
14402
Numerical Analysis for the Performance of a Thermoelectric Generator According to Engine Exhaust Gas Thermal Conditions
Abstract:
Internal combustion engines rejects 30-40% of the energy supplied by fuel to the environment through exhaust gas. thus, there is a possibility for further significant improvement of efficiency with the utilization of exhaust gas energy and its conversion to mechanical energy or electrical energy. The Thermo-Electric Generator (TEG) will be located in the exhaust system and will make use of an energy flow between the warmer exhaust gas and the external environment. Predict to th optimum position of temperature distribution and the performance of TEG through numerical analysis. The experimental results obtained show that the power output significantly increases with the temperature difference between cold and hot sides of a thermoelectric generator.
278
13835
A Power Conversion System using the Renewable Energies for HEV Charger
Abstract:
With a development of Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV), A photovoltaic(PV) generation system is used for charging batteries in many cases. A dc/dc converter using PV power for a battery charger requires a high efficiency. In this paper, A ZVS boost converter using the renewable energies for HEV charger is proposed. Through the theoretical analysis and experimental result, operation modes and characteristics of the proposed topology are verified.
Keywords:
277
7698
Human Detection using Projected Edge Feature
Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to detect human in images. This paper proposes a method for extracting human body feature descriptors consisting of projected edge component series. The feature descriptor can express appearances and shapes of human with local and global distribution of edges. Our method evaluated with a linear SVM classifier on Daimler-Chrysler pedestrian dataset, and test with various sub-region size. The result shows that the accuracy level of proposed method similar to Histogram of Oriented Gradients(HOG) feature descriptor and feature extraction process is simple and faster than existing methods.
276
8026
Motion Control of TUAV having Eight Rotors for Enhanced Situational Awareness
Abstract:
This paper focuses on a critical component of the situational awareness (SA), the control of autonomous vertical flight for tactical unmanned aerial vehicle (TUAV). With the SA strategy, we proposed a two stage flight control procedure using two autonomous control subsystems to address the dynamics variation and performance requirement difference in initial and final stages of flight trajectory for a nontrivial nonlinear eight-rotor helicopter model. This control strategy for chosen model of mini-TUAV has been verified by simulation of hovering maneuvers using software package Simulink and demonstrated good performance for fast stabilization of engines in hovering, consequently, fast SA with economy in energy of batteries can be asserted during search-andrescue operations.
275
12226
Evaluation of Radiation Synthesized β-Glucan Hydrogel Wound Dressing using Rat Models
Abstract:
In this study, hydrogels consisted of polyvinyl alcohol, propylene glycol and β-glucan were developed by radiation technique for wound dressing. The prepared hydrogels were characterized by examining of physical properties such as gel fraction and absorption ratio. The gel fraction and absorption ratio were dependent on the crosslinking density. On observing the wound healing of rat skin, the resulting hydrogels accelerated the wound healing comparing to cotton gauze. Therefore, the PVA/propylene glycol/β-glucan blended hydrogels can greatly accelerate the healing without causing irritation.
274
10224
Identifying and Prioritizing Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior Based on Product Value
Abstract:
Nowadays, without the awareness of consumer behavior and correct understanding of it, it is not possible for organizations to take appropriate measures to meet the consumer needs and demands. The aim of this paper is the identification and prioritization of the factors affecting the consumer behavior based on the product value. The population of the study includes all the consumers of furniture producing firms in East Azarbaijan province, Iran. The research sample includes 93 people selected by the sampling formula in unlimited population. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire, the validity of which was confirmed through face validity and the reliability of which was determined, using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The Kolmogorov-Smironov test was used to test data normality, the t-test for identification of factors affecting the product value, and Friedman test for prioritizing the factors. The results show that quality, satisfaction, styling, price, finishing operation, performance, safety, worth, shape, use, and excellence are placed from 1 to 11 priorities, respectively.
273
14737
Designing and Manufacturing High Voltage Pulse Generator with Adjustable Pulse and Monitoring Current and Voltage: Food Processing Application
Abstract:
Using strength Pulse Electrical Field (PEF) in food industries is a non-thermal process that can deactivate microorganisms and increase penetration in plant and animals tissues without serious impact on food taste and quality. In this paper designing and fabricating of a PEF generator has been presented. Pulse generation methods have been surveyed and the best of them selected. The equipment by controller set can generate square pulse with adjustable parameters such as amplitude 1-5kV, frequency 0.1-10Hz, pulse width 10-100s, and duty cycle 0-100%. Setting the number of pulses, and presenting the output voltage and current waveforms on the oscilloscope screen are another advantages of this equipment. Finally, some food samples were tested that yielded the satisfactory results. PEF applying had considerable effects on potato, banana and purple cabbage. It caused increase Brix factor from 0.05 to 0.15 in potato solution. It is also so effective in extraction color material from purple cabbage. In the last experiment effects of PEF voltages on color extraction of saffron scum were surveyed (about 6% increasing yield).
Keywords:
272
10478
Effects of Combined Stimulation on the Autonomic Nervous System: A Pilot Study
Abstract:
The autonomic nervous system has a regulatory structure that helps people adapt to changes in their environment by adjusting or modifying some functions in response to stress, and regulating involuntary function of human organs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of combined stimulation, both far-infrared heating and chiropractic, on the autonomic nervous system activities using thermal image and heart rate variability. Six healthy subjects participated in this test. We compared the before and after autonomic nervous system activities through obtaining thermal image and photoplethysmogram signal. The thermal images showed that the combined stimulation changed subject-s body temperature more highly and widely than before. The result of heart rate variability indicated that LF/HF ratio decreased. We concluded that combined stimulation activates autonomic nervous system, and expected other possibilities of this combined stimulation.
271
14726
Identifying Relationships between Technology-based Services and ICTs: A Patent Analysis Approach
Abstract:
A variety of new technology-based services have emerged with the development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Since technology-based services have technology-driven characteristics, the identification of relationships between technology-based services and ICTs would give meaningful implications. Thus, this paper proposes an approach for identifying the relationships between technology-based services and ICTs by analyzing patent documents. First, business model (BM) patents are classified into relevant service categories. Second, patent citation analysis is conducted to investigate the technological linkage and impacts between technology-based services and ICTs at macro level. Third, as a micro level analysis, patent co-classification analysis is employed to identify the technological linkage and coverage. The proposed approach could guide and help managers and designers of technology-based services to discover the opportunity of the development of new technology-based services in emerging service sectors.
270
6635
Improved Lung Nodule Visualization on Chest Radiographs using Digital Filtering and Contrast Enhancement
Abstract:
Early detection of lung cancer through chest radiography is a widely used method due to its relatively affordable cost. In this paper, an approach to improve lung nodule visualization on chest radiographs is presented. The approach makes use of linear phase high-frequency emphasis filter for digital filtering and histogram equalization for contrast enhancement to achieve improvements. Results obtained indicate that a filtered image can reveal sharper edges and provide more details. Also, contrast enhancement offers a way to further enhance the global (or local) visualization by equalizing the histogram of the pixel values within the whole image (or a region of interest). The work aims to improve lung nodule visualization of chest radiographs to aid detection of lung cancer which is currently the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide.
269
3762
Wastewater Treatment in Moving-Bed Biofilm Reactor operated by Flow Reversal Intermittent Aeration System
Abstract:
Intermittent aeration process can be easily applied on the existing activated sludge system and is highly reliable against the loading changes. It can be operated in a relatively simple way as well. Since the moving-bed biofilm reactor method processes pollutants by attaching and securing the microorganisms on the media, the process efficiency can be higher compared to the suspended growth biological treatment process, and can reduce the return of sludge. In this study, the existing intermittent aeration process with alternating flow being applied on the oxidation ditch is applied on the continuous flow stirred tank reactor with advantages from both processes, and we would like to develop the process to significantly reduce the return of sludge in the clarifier and to secure the reliable quality of treated water by adding the moving media. Corresponding process has the appropriate form as an infrastructure based on u- environment in future u- City and is expected to accelerate the implementation of u-Eco city in conjunction with city based services. The system being conducted in a laboratory scale has been operated in HRT 8hours except for the final clarifier and showed the removal efficiency of 97.7 %, 73.1 % and 9.4 % in organic matters, TN and TP, respectively with operating range of 4hour cycle on system SRT 10days. After adding the media, the removal efficiency of phosphorus showed a similar level compared to that before the addition, but the removal efficiency of nitrogen was improved by 7~10 %. In addition, the solids which were maintained in MLSS 1200~1400 at 25 % of media packing were attached all onto the media, which produced no sludge entering the clarifier. Therefore, the return of sludge is not needed any longer.
268
6422
Adaptive Climate Responsive Vernacular Construction in High Altitude
Abstract:
In the traditional architecture, buildings were designed to achieve human comfort by using locally available building materials and construction technology which were more responsive to their climatic and geographic condition. This paper will try to bring out the wisdom of the local masons and builders, often the inhabitants themselves, about their way of living, and shaping their built environment, indoor and outdoor spaces, as a response to the local climatic conditions, from the findings of a field settlement.
267
11370
Semi-Analytic Solution and Hydrodynamics Behavior of Fluid Flow in Micro-Converging plates
Abstract:
The hydrodynamics behavior of fluid flow in microconverging plates is investigated analytically. Effects of Knudsen number () on the microchannel hydrodynamics behavior and the coefficient of friction are investigated. It is found that as  increases the slip in the hydrodynamic boundary condition increases. Also, the coefficient of friction decreases as  increases.
266
2357
Flood Hazard Mapping in Dikrong Basin of Arunachal Pradesh (India)
Abstract:
Flood zoning studies have become more efficient in recent years because of the availability of advanced computational facilities and use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). In the present study, flood inundated areas were mapped using GIS for the Dikrong river basin of Arunachal Pradesh, India, corresponding to different return periods (2, 5, 25, 50, and 100 years). Further, the developed inundation maps corresponding to 25, 50, and 100 year return period floods were compared to corresponding maps developed by conventional methods as reported in the Brahmaputra Board Master Plan for Dikrong basin. It was found that, the average deviation of modelled flood inundation areas from reported map inundation areas is below 5% (4.52%). Therefore, it can be said that the modelled flood inundation areas matched satisfactorily with reported map inundation areas. Hence, GIS techniques were proved to be successful in extracting the flood inundation extent in a time and cost effective manner for the remotely located hilly basin of Dikrong, where conducting conventional surveys is very difficult.
265
3433
Transient Hydrodynamic and Thermal Behaviors of Fluid Flow in a Vertical Porous Microchannel under the Effect of Hyperbolic Heat Conduction Model
Abstract:
The transient hydrodynamics and thermal behaviors of fluid flow in open-ended vertical parallel-plate porous microchannel are investigated semi-analytically under the effect of the hyperbolic heat conduction model. The model that combines both the continuum approach and the possibility of slip at the boundary is adopted in the study. The Effects of Knudsen number , Darcy number , and thermal relaxation time  on the microchannel hydrodynamics and thermal behaviors are investigated using the hyperbolic heat conduction models. It is found that as  increases the slip in the hydrodynamic and thermal boundary condition increases. This slip in the hydrodynamic boundary condition increases as  increases. Also, the slip in the thermal boundary condition increases as  decreases especially the early stage of time.
264
10767
A Strategy for Address Coding from HouseHold Registry Database
Abstract:
Address Matching is an important application of Geographic Information System (GIS). Prior to Address Matching working, obtaining X,Y coordinates is necessary, which process is calling Address Geocoding. This study will illustrate the effective address geocoding process of using household registry database, and the check system for geocoded address.
263
7047
A Training Model for Successful Implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning
Abstract:
It well recognized that one feature that makes a successful company is its ability to successfully align its business goals with its information communication technologies platform. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems contribute to achieve better performance by integrating various business functions and providing support for information flows. However, the technological systems complexity is known to prevent the business users to exploit in an efficient way the Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (ERP). This paper aims to investigate the role of training in improving the usage of ERP systems. To this end, we have designed an instrument survey to employees of a Norwegian multinational global provider of technology solutions. Based on the analysis of collected data, we have delineated a training model that could be high relevance for both researchers and practitioners as a step towards a better understanding of ERP system implementation.
262
5913
Investigation of the Neutral Axis in the Positive Moment Region of Composite Beams
Abstract:
Researchers investigate arious strategies to develop composite beams and maximize the structural advantages. This study attempted to conduct experiments and analysis of changes in the neutral axis of positive moments of a Green Beam. Strain compatibility analysis was used, and its efficiency was demonstrated by comparing experimental and analytical values. In the comparison of neutral axis, the difference between experimental and analytical values was found to range from 8.8~26.2%. It was determined that strain compatibility analysis can be useful for predicting the behaviors of composite beams, with the ability to predict the behavior of not only the elastic location of the composite member, but also of the plastic location
261
9036
On the Impact of Reference Node Placement in Wireless Indoor Positioning Systems
Abstract:
This paper presents a studyof the impact of reference node locations on the accuracy of the indoor positioning systems. In particular, we analyze the localization accuracy of the RSSI database mapping techniques, deploying on the IEEE 802.15.4 wireless networks. The results show that the locations of the reference nodes used in the positioning systems affect the signal propagation characteristics in the service area. Thisin turn affects the accuracy of the wireless indoor positioning system. We found that suitable location of reference nodes could reduce the positioning error upto 35 %.
260
2306
Investigation of Temperature-Dependent Electrical Properties of Tc-CuPc: PCBM Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ) under Dark Conditions
Abstract:

An organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) was fabricated using a blended film containing Copper (II) tetrakis(4-acumylphenoxy) phthalocyanine (Tc-CuPc) along with [6,6]-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Weight ratio between Tc-CuPc and PCBM was 1:1. The electrical properties of Tc-CuPc: PCBM BHJ were examined. Rectifying nature of the BHJ was displayed by current-voltage (I-V) curves, recorded in dark and at various temperatures. At low voltages, conduction was ohmic succeeded by space-charge limiting current (SCLC) conduction at higher voltages in which exponential trap distribution was dominant. Series resistance, shunt resistance, ideality factor, effective barrier height and mobility at room temperature were found to be 526 4, 482 k4, 3.7, 0.17 eV and 2×10-7 cm2V-1s-1 respectively. Temperature effect towards different BHJ parameters was observed under dark condition.

259
7392
Information Transmission between Large and Small Stocks in the Korean Stock Market
Abstract:
Little attention has been paid to information transmission between the portfolios of large stocks and small stocks in the Korean stock market. This study investigates the return and volatility transmission mechanisms between large and small stocks in the Korea Exchange (KRX). This study also explores whether bad news in the large stock market leads to a volatility of the small stock market that is larger than the good news volatility of the large stock market. By employing the Granger causality test, we found unidirectional return transmissions from the large stocks to medium and small stocks. This evidence indicates that pat information about the large stocks has a better ability to predict the returns of the medium and small stocks in the Korean stock market. Moreover, by using the asymmetric GARCH-BEKK model, we observed the unidirectional relationship of asymmetric volatility transmission from large stocks to the medium and small stocks. This finding suggests that volatility in the medium and small stocks following a negative shock in the large stocks is larger than that following a positive shock in the large stocks.
258
8629
Foot Anthropometry of Primary School Children in the South of Thailand
Abstract:
The objective of the research was to study of foot anthropometry of children aged 7-12 years in the South of Thailand Thirty-three dimensions were measured on 305 male and 295 female subjects with 3 age ranges (7-12 years old). The instrumentation consists of four types of anthropometer, digital vernier caliper, digital height gauge and measuring tape. The mean values and standard deviations of average age, height, and weight of the male subjects were 9.52(±1.70) years, 137.80(±11.55) cm, and 37.57(±11.65) kg. Female average age, height, and weight subjects were 9.53(±1.70) years, 137.88(±11.55) cm, and 34.90(±11.57) kg respectively. The comparison of the 33 comparison measured anthropometric. Between male and female subjects were sexual differences in size on women in almost all areas of significance (p
257
4110
Effect of Applied Voltage Frequency on Electrical Treeing in 22 kV Cross-linked Polyethylene Insulated Cable
Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results on effect of applied voltage stress frequency to the occurrence of electrical treeing in 22 kV cross linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulated cable.Hallow disk of XLPE insulating material with thickness 5 mm taken from unused high voltage cable was used as the specimen in this study. Stainless steel needle was inserted gradually into the specimen to give a tip to earth plane electrode separation of 2.50.2 mm at elevated temperature 105-110°C. The specimen was then annealed for 5 minute to minimize any mechanical stress build up around the needle-plane region before it was cooled down to room temperature. Each specimen were subjected to the same applied voltage stress level at 8 kV AC rms, with various frequency, 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz. Initiation time, propagation speed and pattern of electrical treeing were examined in order to study the effect of applied voltage stress frequency. By the experimental results, initial time of visible treeing decreases with increasing in applied voltage frequency. Also, obviously, propagation speed of electrical treeing increases with increasing in applied voltage frequency.Furthermore, two types of electrical treeing, bush-like and branch-like treeing were observed.The experimental results confirmed the effect of voltage stress frequency as well.

256
1338
Strongly Adequate Software Architecture
Abstract:
Components of a software system may be related in a wide variety of ways. These relationships need to be represented in software architecture in order develop quality software. In practice, software architecture is immensely challenging, strikingly multifaceted, extravagantly domain based, perpetually changing, rarely cost-effective, and deceptively ambiguous. This paper analyses relations among the major components of software systems and argues for using several broad categories for software architecture for assessment purposes: strongly adequate, weakly adequate and functionally adequate software architectures among other categories. These categories are intended for formative assessments of architectural designs.
255
7923
Web-GIS based Outdoor Education Program for Junior High Schools
Abstract:
This study, focusing on the importance of encouraging outdoor activities for children, aims to propose and implement a Web-GIS based outdoor education program for junior high schools, which will then be evaluated by users. Specifically, for the purpose of improved outdoor activities in the junior high school education, the outdoor education program, with chiefly using the Web-GIS that provides a good information provision and sharing tool, is proposed and implemented before being evaluated by users. The conclusion of this study can be summarized in the following two points. (1) A five -step outdoor education program based on Web-GIS was proposed for a “second school" at junior high schools that was then implemented before being evaluated by teachers as users. (2) Based on the results of evaluation by teachers, it was clear that the general operation of Web-GIS based outdoor education program with them only is difficult due to their lack of knowledge regarding Web-GIS and that support staff who can effectively utilize Web-GIS are essential.
254
9089
Removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from Single Metal Aqueous Solution using Activated Carbon Prepared from Rice Husk
Abstract:

The abundance and availability of rice husk, an agricultural waste, make them as a good source for precursor of activated carbon. In this work, rice husk-based activated carbons were prepared via base treated chemical activation process prior the carbonization process. The effect of carbonization temperatures (400, 600 and 800oC) on their pore structure was evaluated through morphology analysis using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Sample carbonized at 800oC showed better evolution and development of pores as compared to those carbonized at 400 and 600oC. The potential of rice husk-based activated carbon as an alternative adsorbent was investigated for the removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) from single metal aqueous solution. The adsorption studies using rice husk-based activated carbon as an adsorbent were carried out as a function of contact time at room temperature and the metal ions were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The ability to remove metal ion from single metal aqueous solution was found to be improved with the increasing of carbonization temperature. Among the three metal ions tested, Pb(II) ion gave the highest adsorption on rice husk-based activated carbon. The results obtained indicate the potential to utilize rice husk as a promising precursor for the preparation of activated carbon for removal of heavy metals.

253
15855
Effect of Incorporating Silica Fume in Fly Ash Geopolymers
Abstract:

This paper presents results of an experimental study performed to investigate effect of incorporating silica fume on physico-mechanical properties and durability of resulting fly ash geopolymers. Geopolymer specimens were prepared by activating fly ash incorporated with additional silica fume in the range of 2.5% to 5%, with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution having Na2O content of 8%. For studying durability, 10% magnesium sulphate solution was used to immerse the specimens up to a period of 15 weeks during which visual observation, weight changes and strength changes were monitored regularly. Addition of silica fume lowers performance of geopolymer pastes. However, in mortars, addition of silica fume significantly enhanced physico-mechanical properties and durability.

252
4729
Rough Set Based Intelligent Welding Quality Classification
Abstract:
The knowledge base of welding defect recognition is essentially incomplete. This characteristic determines that the recognition results do not reflect the actual situation. It also has a further influence on the classification of welding quality. This paper is concerned with the study of a rough set based method to reduce the influence and improve the classification accuracy. At first, a rough set model of welding quality intelligent classification has been built. Both condition and decision attributes have been specified. Later on, groups of the representative multiple compound defects have been chosen from the defect library and then classified correctly to form the decision table. Finally, the redundant information of the decision table has been reducted and the optimal decision rules have been reached. By this method, we are able to reclassify the misclassified defects to the right quality level. Compared with the ordinary ones, this method has higher accuracy and better robustness.
251
7770
An Embedded System Design for SRAM SEU Test
Abstract:
An embedded system for SEU(single event upset) test needs to be designed to prevent system failure by high-energy particles during measuring SEU. SEU is a phenomenon in which the data is changed temporary in semiconductor device caused by high-energy particles. In this paper, we present an embedded system for SRAM(static random access memory) SEU test. SRAMs are on the DUT(device under test) and it is separated from control board which manages the DUT and measures the occurrence of SEU. It needs to have considerations for preventing system failure while managing the DUT and making an accurate measurement of SEUs. We measure the occurrence of SEUs from five different SRAMs at three different cyclotron beam energies 30, 35, and 40MeV. The number of SEUs of SRAMs ranges from 3.75 to 261.00 in average.
250
12851
Study of Sickle Cell Syndromes in the Population of the Region of Batna
Abstract:
Sickle cell anemia is a recessive genetic disease caused by the presence in the red blood cell, of abnormal hemoglobin called hemoglobin S. It results from the replacement in the beta chain of the acid glutamic acid by valin at position 6. Topics may be homozygous (SS) or heterozygous (AS) most often asymptomatic. Other mutations result in compound heterozygous: - Synthesis of hemoglobin C mutation in the sixth leucin codon (heterozygous SC); - ß-thalassemia (heterozygous S-ß thalassemia). SS homozygous, heterozygous SC and S- ß -thalassemia are grouped under the major sickle cell syndromes. To make a laboratory diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies in a portion of the population in region of Batna, our study was conducted on 115 patients with suspected sickle cell anemia, all cases have benefited from hematological tests as blood count (count RBC, calculated erythrocyte indices, MCV and MCHC, measuring the hemoglobin concentration) and a biochemical test in this case electrophoresis CAPILLARYS HEMOGLOBIN (E). The results showed: 27 cases of sickle cell anemia were found on 115 suspected cases, 73,03% homozygous sickle cell disease and 59,25% sickle cell trait. Finally, the double heterozygous S/C, represent the incidence rate of 3, 70%.
249
753
SOA-Based Mobile Application for Crime Control in Thailand
Abstract:
Crime is a major societal problem for most of the world's nations. Consequently, the police need to develop new methods to improve their efficiency in dealing with these ever increasing crime rates. Two of the common difficulties that the police face in crime control are crime investigation and the provision of crime information to the general public to help them protect themselves. Crime control in police operations involves the use of spatial data, crime data and the related crime data from different organizations (depending on the nature of the analysis to be made). These types of data are collected from several heterogeneous sources in different formats and from different platforms, resulting in a lack of standardization. Moreover, there is no standard framework for crime data collection, integration and dissemination through mobile devices. An investigation into the current situation in crime control was carried out to identify the needs to resolve these issues. This paper proposes and investigates the use of service oriented architecture (SOA) and the mobile spatial information service in crime control. SOA plays an important role in crime control as an appropriate way to support data exchange and model sharing from heterogeneous sources. Crime control also needs to facilitate mobile spatial information services in order to exchange, receive, share and release information based on location to mobile users anytime and anywhere.
248
12374
Comparison of Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Outdoor Polymer Insulator under Salt Water Dip Wheel Test
Abstract:
This paper presents the experimental results on ageing deterioration of silicone rubber outdoor polymer insulator under salt water dip wheel test based on IEC 62217. In order to comparison effect of chemical contents, silicone rubber outdoor polymer insulators having same configuration and leakage distant from two manufactures were tested together continuously 30,000 test cycles. Many discharge activities were observed in during the test. After 30,000 test cycles, in spite of same configuration, differences in degree of surface aging were observed. Physical analysis such as decreasing in hydrophobicity and increasing in hardness measurement were measured on two-type tested specimen surface in order to confirm degree of surface ageing. Furthermore, chemical analysis by ATR-FTIR to diagnose the chemical change of tested specimen surface was conducted to confirm the physical analysis results.
247
13297
Design and Construction of the Semi-Automatic Sliced Ginger Machine
Abstract:
The purpose of study was to design and construction the semi-automatic sliced ginger machine for reduce production times in sheet and slice ginger procedure furthermore, reduced amount of labor of slides and cutting method. Take consider into clean and safety of workers and consumers. The principle of machines, used 1 horsepower motor, rotation speed of sliced blade 967 rpm, the diameter of sliced dish 310 mm, consists of 2 blades for sheet cutting ginger and the power from motor which transfer to rotate the sliced blade roller, rotation speed 440 rpm. The slice cutter roller was sliced ginger from sheet ginger to line ginger. The conveyer could adjustment level of motors, used to the beginning area that sheet ginger was transference to the roller for sheet and sliced cutting in next process. The cover of sliced cutting had channel for 1 tuber of ginger. The semi-automatic sliced ginger machine could produced sheet ginger 81.8 kg/h (6.2 times of labor) and line ginger 17.9 kg/h (2.5 times of labor) compare with, labor work could produced sheet ginger 13.2 kg/h and line ginger 7.1 kg/h, and when timekeeper, the total times of semi auto machine 30.86 kg/h and labor 4.6 kg/h, there for the semi auto machine was 6.7 times of labor. The semiautomatic sliced ginger machine convenient, easy for use and maintain, in addition to reduce fatigue of body and seriousness from works; must be used high skill, and protection accident in slicing procedure. Beside, machine could used with other vegetables for example potato, carrot .etc
246
1865
Effect of Planting Density on Yield and Yield Components of Safflower Cultivars in Spring Planting
Abstract:
This study carried out to determine the effect of plant densities on some agronomic characteristics of four safflower cultivars in spring planting. The experiment was conducted at Yazd, Iran- using a factorial in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Cultivars were including Arak, IL, Asteria and Local and plant densities were 10, 13.3, 20 and 40 plant/m2. Number of seeds/head, number of heads/plant, HI, 1000-seed weight and seed yield significantly decreased as planting density increased. With increasing planting density, LAI, plant height, first branch height and biological yield increased. The highest seed yield was obtained in 13.3 plant/m2 (2167 kg/ha). There were significant differences between cultivars. Local cv. had higher seed yield than the other cultivars mainly due to higher heads/plant and seeds/head.
245
1718
Hybrid Minimal Repair for a Serial System
Abstract:
This study proposes a hybrid minimal repair policy which combines periodic maintenance policy with age-based maintenance policy for a serial production system. Parameters of such policy are defined as  and  which indicate as hybrid minimal repair time and planned preventive maintenance time respectively  . Under this hybrid policy, the system is repaired minimally if it fails during , . A perfect repair is conducted on the first failure after  at any machines. At the same time, we take opportunity to advance the preventive maintenance of other machines simultaneously. If the system is still operating properly up to , then the preventive maintenance is carried out as its predetermined schedule. For a given , we obtain the optimal value  which minimizes the expected cost per time unit. Numerical example is presented to illustrate the properties of the optimal solution.
244
12139
Transfer Function of Piezoelectric Material
Abstract:
The study of piezoelectric material in the past was in T-Domain form; however, no one has studied piezoelectric material in the S-Domain form. This paper will present the piezoelectric material in the transfer function or S-Domain model. S-Domain is a well known mathematical model, used for analyzing the stability of the material and determining the stability limits. By using S-Domain in testing stability of piezoelectric material, it will provide a new tool for the scientific world to study this material in various forms.
243
3476
Study of Characteristics of Multi-Layer Piezoelectric Transformers by using 3-D Finite Element Method
Abstract:
Piezoelectric transformers are electronic devices made from piezoelectric materials. The piezoelectric transformers as the name implied are used for changing voltage signals from one level to another. Electrical energy carried with signals is transferred by means of mechanical vibration. Characterizing in both electrical and mechanical properties leads to extensively use and efficiency enhancement of piezoelectric transformers in various applications. In this paper, study and analysis of electrical and mechanical properties of multi-layer piezoelectric transformers in forms of potential and displacement distribution throughout the volume, respectively. This paper proposes a set of quasi-static mathematical model of electromechanical coupling for piezoelectric transformer by using a set of partial differential equations. Computer-based simulation utilizing the three-dimensional finite element method (3-D FEM) is exploited as a tool for visualizing potentials and displacements distribution within the multi-layer piezoelectric transformer. This simulation was conducted by varying a number of layers. In this paper 3, 5 and 7 of the circular ring type were used. The computer simulation based on the use of the FEM has been developed in MATLAB programming environment.
242
946
A Failure Analysis Tool for HDD Analysis
Abstract:

The study of piezoelectric material in the past was in T-Domain form; however, no one has studied piezoelectric material in the S-Domain form. This paper will present the piezoelectric material in the transfer function or S-Domain model. S-Domain is a well known mathematical model, used for analyzing the stability of the material and determining the stability limits. By using S-Domain in testing stability of piezoelectric material, it will provide a new tool for the scientific world to study this material in various forms.

241
7742
Positive Solutions for Discrete Third-order Three-point Boundary Value Problem
Authors:
Abstract:
In this paper, the existence of multiple positive solutions for a class of third-order three-point discrete boundary value problem is studied by applying algebraic topology method.
240
5355
Flow Visualization and Characterization of an Artery Model with Stenosis
Abstract:

Cardiovascular diseases, principally atherosclerosis, are responsible for 30% of world deaths. Atherosclerosis is due to the formation of plaque. The fatty plaque may be at risk of rupture, leading typically to stroke and heart attack. The plaque is usually associated with a high degree of lumen reduction, called a stenosis.It is increasingly recognized that the initiation and progression of disease and the occurrence of clinical events is a complex interplay between the local biomechanical environment and the local vascular biology. The aim of this study is to investigate the flow behavior through a stenosed artery. A physical experiment was performed using an artery model and blood analogue fluid. An axisymmetric model constructed consists of contraction and expansion region that follow a mathematical form of cosine function. A 30% diameter reduction was used in this study. The flow field was measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Spherical particles with 20μm diameter were seeded in a water-glycerol-NaCl mixture. Steady flow Reynolds numbers are 250. The area of interest is the region after the stenosis where the flow separation occurs. The velocity field was measured and the velocity gradient was investigated. There was high particle concentration in the recirculation zone. High velocity gradient formed immediately after the stenosis throat created a lift force that enhanced particle migration to the flow separation area.

239
10456
Multi-Line Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) Controller for Transient Stability Analysis of a Multi-Machine Power System Network
Abstract:
A considerable progress has been achieved in transient stability analysis (TSA) with various FACTS controllers. But, all these controllers are associated with single transmission line. This paper is intended to discuss a new approach i.e. a multi-line FACTS controller which is interline power flow controller (IPFC) for TSA of a multi-machine power system network. A mathematical model of IPFC, termed as power injection model (PIM) presented and this model is incorporated in Newton-Raphson (NR) power flow algorithm. Then, the reduced admittance matrix of a multi-machine power system network for a three phase fault without and with IPFC is obtained which is required to draw the machine swing curves. A general approach based on L-index has also been discussed to find the best location of IPFC to reduce the proximity to instability of a power system. Numerical results are carried out on two test systems namely, 6-bus and 11-bus systems. A program in MATLAB has been written to plot the variation of generator rotor angle and speed difference curves without and with IPFC for TSA and also a simple approach has been presented to evaluate critical clearing time for test systems. The results obtained without and with IPFC are compared and discussed.
238
10116
Relational Impact of Job Stress on Gender Based Managerial Effectiveness in Ghanaian Organizations
Abstract:
This study explored the relationship between occupational stress and the perceived effectiveness of men and women managers in Ghanaian organizations. The exploration is underlined by attempt to understand the degree to which male and female managers in Ghanaian organizations experience occupational stress at the workplace. The purpose is to examine the sources and extents of occupational stress experienced by male and female managers in Ghana. Data was collected using questionnaires and analyzed using both descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. The results showed that female managers in Ghana are more likely to report of more stress experiences in the workplace than their male counterparts. The female managers are more likely to perceive role conflict and alienation as job stressors while the male managers perceived blocked career as a major source of workplace stress. It is concluded that despite the female managers experiencing enormous level of occupational stress, there was no significant differences between their managerial effectiveness and that of the male.
237
7500
Traffic Signal Coordinated Control Optimization: A Case Study
Abstract:
In the urban traffic network, the intersections are the “bottleneck point" of road network capacity. And the arterials are the main body in road network and the key factor which guarantees the normal operation of the city-s social and economic activities. The rapid increase in vehicles leads to seriously traffic jam and cause the increment of vehicles- delay. Most cities of our country are traditional single control system, which cannot meet the need for the city traffic any longer. In this paper, Synchro6.0 as a platform to minimize the intersection delay, optimizesingle signal cycle and split for Zhonghua Street in Handan City. Meanwhile, linear control system uses to optimize the phase for the t arterial road in this system. Comparing before and after use the control, capacities and service levels of this road and the adjacent road have improved significantly.
236
7471
The Effects of Various Boundary Conditions on Thermal Buckling of Functionally Graded Beamwith Piezoelectric Layers Based on Third order Shear Deformation Theory
Authors:
Abstract:

This article attempts to analyze functionally graded beam thermal buckling along with piezoelectric layers applying based on the third order shearing deformation theory considering various boundary conditions. The beam properties are assumed to vary continuously from the lower surface to the upper surface of the beam. The equilibrium equations are derived using the total potential energy equations, Euler equations, piezoelectric material constitutive equations and third order shear deformation theory assumptions. In order to fulfill such an aim, at first functionally graded beam with piezoelectric layers applying the third order shearing deformation theory along with clamped -clamped boundary conditions are thoroughly analyzed, and then following making sure of the correctness of all the equations, the very same beam is analyzed with piezoelectric layers through simply-simply and simply-clamped boundary conditions. In this article buckling critical temperature for functionally graded beam is derived in two different ways, without piezoelectric layer and with piezoelectric layer and the results are compared together. Finally, all the conclusions obtained will be compared and contrasted with the same samples in the same and distinguished conditions through tables and charts. It would be noteworthy that in this article, the software MAPLE has been applied in order to do the numeral calculations.

235
12457
Positive Solutions of Second-order Singular Differential Equations in Banach Space
Authors:
Abstract:

In this paper, by constructing a special set and utilizing fixed point index theory, we study the existence of solution for the boundary value problem of second-order singular differential equations in Banach space, which improved and generalize the result of related paper.

234
14569
On a Discrete-Time GIX/Geo/1/N Queue with Single Working Vacation and Partial Batch Rejection
Authors:
Abstract:

This paper treats a discrete-time finite buffer batch arrival queue with a single working vacation and partial batch rejection in which the inter-arrival and service times are, respectively, arbitrary and geometrically distributed. The queue is analyzed by using the supplementary variable and the imbedded Markov-chain techniques. We obtain steady-state system length distributions at prearrival, arbitrary and outside observer-s observation epochs. We also present probability generation function (p.g.f.) of actual waiting-time distribution in the system and some performance measures.

233
16023
Strengthening of RC Beams Containing Large Opening at Flexure with CFRP laminates
Abstract:
This paper presents the study of strengthening R/C beams with large circular and square opening located at flexure zone by Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) laminates. A total of five beams were tested to failure under four point loading to investigate the structural behavior including crack patterns, failure mode, ultimate load and load deflection behaviour. Test results show that large opening at flexure reduces the beam capacity and stiffness; and increases cracking and deflection. A strengthening configuration was designed for each un-strengthened beams based on their respective crack patterns. CFRP laminates remarkably restore the beam capacity of beam with large circular opening at flexure location while 10% re-gain of beam capacity with square opening. The use of CFRP laminates with the designed strengthening configuration could significantly reduce excessive cracking and deflection and increase the ultimate capacity and stiffness of beam.
232
15439
The Baer Radical of Rings in Term of Prime and Semiprime Generalized Bi-ideals
Abstract:
Using the idea of prime and semiprime bi-ideals of rings, the concept of prime and semiprime generalized bi-ideals of rings is introduced, which is an extension of the concept of prime and semiprime bi-ideals of rings and some interesting characterizations of prime and semiprime generalized bi-ideals are obtained. Also, we give the relationship between the Baer radical and prime and semiprime generalized bi-ideals of rings in the same way as of biideals of rings which was studied by Roux.
231
2925
Seven step Adams Type Block Method With Continuous Coefficient For Periodic Ordinary Differential Equation
Abstract:
We consider the development of an eight order Adam-s type method, with A-stability property discussed by expressing them as a one-step method in higher dimension. This makes it suitable for solving variety of initial-value problems. The main method and additional methods are obtained from the same continuous scheme derived via interpolation and collocation procedures. The methods are then applied in block form as simultaneous numerical integrators over non-overlapping intervals. Numerical results obtained using the proposed block form reveals that it is highly competitive with existing methods in the literature.
230
14967
Temperature Field Study of Brake Disc in a Belt Conveyor Brake
Abstract:
To reveal the temperature field distribution of disc brake in downward belt conveyor, mathematical models of heat transfer for disc brake were established combined with heat transfer theory. Then, the simulation process was stated in detail and the temperature field of disc brake under conditions of dynamic speed and dynamic braking torque was numerically simulated by using ANSYS software. Finally the distribution and variation laws of temperature field in the braking process were analyzed. Results indicate that the maximum surface temperature occurs at a time before the brake end and there exist large temperature gradients in both radial and axial directions, while it is relatively small in the circumferential direction.
229
10568
The Design and Development of Multimedia Pronunciation Learning Management System
Abstract:
The proposed Multimedia Pronunciation Learning Management System (MPLMS) in this study is a technology with profound potential for inducing improvement in pronunciation learning. The MPLMS optimizes the digitised phonetic symbols with the integration of text, sound and mouth movement video. The components are designed and developed in an online management system which turns the web to a dynamic user-centric collection of consistent and timely information for quality sustainable learning. The aim of this study is to design and develop the MPLMS which serves as an innovative tool to improve English pronunciation. This paper discusses the iterative methodology and the three-phase Alessi and Trollip model in the development of MPLMS. To align with the flexibility of the development of educational software, the iterative approach comprises plan, design, develop, evaluate and implement is followed. To ensure the instructional appropriateness of MPLMS, the instructional system design (ISD) model of Alessi and Trollip serves as a platform to guide the important instructional factors and process. It is expected that the results of future empirical research will support the efficacy of MPLMS and its place as the premier pronunciation learning system.
228
12109
Supply Chain Modeling and Improving Manufacturing Industry in Developing Countries: A Research Agenda
Abstract:
This paper presents a research agenda on the SCOR model adaptation. SCOR model is designated to measure supply chain performance and logistics impact across the boundaries of individual organizations. It is at its growing stage of its life cycle and is enjoying the leverage of becoming the industry standard. The SCOR model has been developed and used widely in developed countries context. This research focuses on the SCOR model adaptation for the manufacturing industry in developing countries. With a necessary understanding of the characteristics, difficulties and problems of the manufacturing industry in developing countries- supply chain; consequently, we will try to designs an adapted model with its building blocks: business process model, performance measures and best practices.
227
8901
Protein Residue Contact Prediction using Support Vector Machine
Abstract:
Protein residue contact map is a compact representation of secondary structure of protein. Due to the information hold in the contact map, attentions from researchers in related field were drawn and plenty of works have been done throughout the past decade. Artificial intelligence approaches have been widely adapted in related works such as neural networks, genetic programming, and Hidden Markov model as well as support vector machine. However, the performance of the prediction was not generalized which probably depends on the data used to train and generate the prediction model. This situation shown the importance of the features or information used in affecting the prediction performance. In this research, support vector machine was used to predict protein residue contact map on different combination of features in order to show and analyze the effectiveness of the features.
226
12882
Location Based Clustering in Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:

Due to the limited energy resources, energy efficient operation of sensor node is a key issue in wireless sensor networks. Clustering is an effective method to prolong the lifetime of energy constrained wireless sensor network. However, clustering in wireless sensor network faces several challenges such as selection of an optimal group of sensor nodes as cluster, optimum selection of cluster head, energy balanced optimal strategy for rotating the role of cluster head in a cluster, maintaining intra and inter cluster connectivity and optimal data routing in the network. In this paper, we propose a protocol supporting an energy efficient clustering, cluster head selection/rotation and data routing method to prolong the lifetime of sensor network. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol prolongs network lifetime due to the use of efficient clustering, cluster head selection/rotation and data routing.

225
4772
Creating Maintenance Cost Model for University Buildings
Abstract:
Maintenance costs incurred on building differs. The difference can be as results of the types, functions, age, building health index, size, form height, location and complexity of the building. These are contributing to the difficulty in maintenance development of deterministic maintenance cost model. This paper is concerns with reporting the preliminary findings on the creation of building maintenance cost distributions for universities in Malaysia. This study is triggered by the need to provide guides on maintenance costs distributions for decision making. For this purpose, a survey questionnaire was conducted to investigate the distribution of maintenance costs in the universities. Altogether, responses were received from twenty universities comprising both private and publicly owned. The research found that engineering services, roofing and finishes were the elements contributing the larger segment of the maintenance costs. Furthermore, the study indicates the significance of maintenance cost distribution as decision making tool towards maintenance management.
224
15243
A Novel Adaptive E-Learning Model Based on Developed Learner's Styles
Abstract:
Adaptive e-learning today gives the student a central role in his own learning process. It allows learners to try things out, participate in courses like never before, and get more out of learning than before. In this paper, an adaptive e-learning model for logic design, simplification of Boolean functions and related fields is presented. Such model presents suitable courses for each student in a dynamic and adaptive manner using existing database and workflow technologies. The main objective of this research work is to provide an adaptive e-learning model based learners' personality using explicit and implicit feedback. To recognize the learner-s, we develop dimensions to decide each individual learning style in order to accommodate different abilities of the users and to develop vital skills. Thus, the proposed model becomes more powerful, user friendly and easy to use and interpret. Finally, it suggests a learning strategy and appropriate electronic media that match the learner-s preference.
223
14799
Eigenvalues of Particle Bound in Single and Double Delta Function Potentials through Numerical Analysis
Abstract:
This study employs the use of the fourth order Numerov scheme to determine the eigenstates and eigenvalues of particles, electrons in particular, in single and double delta function potentials. For the single delta potential, it is found that the eigenstates could only be attained by using specific potential depths. The depth of the delta potential well has a value that varies depending on the delta strength. These depths are used for each well on the double delta function potential and the eigenvalues are determined. There are two bound states found in the computation, one with a symmetric eigenstate and another one which is antisymmetric.
222
6464
Optimal Allocation of DG Units for Power Loss Reduction and Voltage Profile Improvement of Distribution Networks using PSO Algorithm
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper proposes a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based technique for the optimal allocation of Distributed Generation (DG) units in the power systems. In this paper our aim is to decide optimal number, type, size and location of DG units for voltage profile improvement and power loss reduction in distribution network. Two types of DGs are considered and the distribution load flow is used to calculate exact loss. Load flow algorithm is combined appropriately with PSO till access to acceptable results of this operation. The suggested method is programmed under MATLAB software. Test results indicate that PSO method can obtain better results than the simple heuristic search method on the 30-bus and 33- bus radial distribution systems. It can obtain maximum loss reduction for each of two types of optimally placed multi-DGs. Moreover, voltage profile improvement is achieved.
221
5094
Robust Quadratic Stabilization of Uncertain Impulsive Switched Systems
Abstract:

This paper focuses on the quadratic stabilization problem for a class of uncertain impulsive switched systems. The uncertainty is assumed to be norm-bounded and enters both the state and the input matrices. Based on the Lyapunov methods, some results on robust stabilization and quadratic stabilization for the impulsive switched system are obtained. A stabilizing state feedback control law realizing the robust stabilization of the closed-loop system is constructed.

220
2753
CFD of Oscillating Airfoil Pitch Cycle by using PISO Algorithm
Abstract:
This research paper presents the CFD analysis of oscillating airfoil during pitch cycle. Unsteady subsonic flow is simulated for pitching airfoil at Mach number 0.283 and Reynolds number 3.45 millions. Turbulent effects are also considered for this study by using K-ω SST turbulent model. Two-dimensional unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes code including two-equation turbulence model and PISO pressure velocity coupling is used. Pressure based implicit solver with first order implicit unsteady formulation is used. The simulated pitch cycle results are compared with the available experimental data. The results have a good agreement with the experimental data. Aerodynamic characteristics during pitch cycles have been studied and validated.
219
5493
Comparison of Two Airfoil Sections for Application in Straight-Bladed Darrieus VAWT
Abstract:
This paper presents a model for the evaluation of energy performance and aerodynamic forces acting on a small straight-bladed Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbine depending on blade geometrical section. It consists of an analytical code coupled to a solid modeling software, capable of generating the desired blade geometry based on the desired blade design geometric parameters. Such module is then linked to a finite volume commercial CFD code for the calculation of rotor performance by integration of the aerodynamic forces along the perimeter of each blade for a full period of revolution.After describing and validating the computational model with experimental data, the results of numerical simulations are proposed on the bases of two candidate airfoil sections, that is a classical symmetrical NACA 0021 blade profile and the recently developed DU 06-W-200 non-symmetric and laminar blade profile.Through a full CFD campaign of analysis, the effects of blade geometrical section on angle of attack are first investigated and then the overall rotor torque and power are analyzed as a function of blade azimuthal position, achieving a numerical quantification of the influence of airfoil geometry on overall rotor performance.
218
1853
The Implicit Methods for the Study of Tolerance
Abstract:

Tolerance is a tool for achieving a social cohesion, particularly, among individuals and groups with different values. The aim is to study the characteristics of the ethnic tolerance, the inhabitants of Latvia. The ethnic tolerance is taught as a set of conscious and unconscious orientations of the individual in social interaction and inter-ethnic communication. It uses the tools of empirical studies of the ethnic tolerance which allows to identify the explicitly and implicitly levels of the emotional component of Latvia's residents. Explicit measurements were made using the techniques of self-report which revealed the index of the ethnic tolerance and the ethnic identity of the participants. The implicit component was studied using methods based on the effect of the emotional priming. During the processing of the results, there were calculated indicators of the positive and negative implicit attitudes towards members of their own and other ethnicity as well as the explicit parameters of the ethnic tolerance and the ethnic identity of Latvia-s residents. The implicit measurements of the ratio of neighboring ethnic groups against each other showed a mutual negative attitude whereas the explicit measurements indicate a neutral attitude. The data obtained contribute to a further study of the ethnic tolerance of Latvia's residents.

217
2498
Fuzzy Controlled Hydraulic Excavator with Model Parameter Uncertainty
Abstract:
The hydraulic actuated excavator, being a non-linear mobile machine, encounters many uncertainties. There are uncertainties in the hydraulic system in addition to the uncertain nature of the load. The simulation results obtained in this study show that there is a need for intelligent control of such machines and in particular interval type-2 fuzzy controller is most suitable for minimizing the position error of a typical excavator-s bucket under load variations. We consider the model parameter uncertainties such as hydraulic fluid leakage and friction. These are uncertainties which also depend up on the temperature and alter bulk modulus and viscosity of the hydraulic fluid. Such uncertainties together with the load variations cause chattering of the bucket position. The interval type-2 fuzzy controller effectively eliminates the chattering and manages to control the end-effecter (bucket) position with positional error in the order of few millimeters.
216
5705
The Effects of Tissue Optical Parameters and Interface Reflectivity on Light Diffusion in Biological Tissues
Authors:
Abstract:
In cancer progress, the optical properties of tissues like absorption and scattering coefficient change, so by these changes, we can trace the progress of cancer, even it can be applied for pre-detection of cancer. In this paper, we investigate the effects of changes of optical properties on light penetrated into tissues. The diffusion equation is widely used to simulate light propagation into biological tissues. In this study, the boundary integral method (BIM) is used to solve the diffusion equation. We illustrate that the changes of optical properties can modified the reflectance or penetrating light.
215
14154
Quasi Multi-Pulse Back-to-Back Static Synchronous Compensator Employing Line Frequency Switching 2-Level GTO Inverters
Abstract:

Back-to-back static synchronous compensator (BtBSTATCOM) consists of two back-to-back voltage-source converters (VSC) with a common DC link in a substation. This configuration extends the capabilities of conventional STATCOM that bidirectional active power transfer from one bus to another is possible. In this paper, VSCs are designed in quasi multi-pulse form in which GTOs are triggered only once per cycle in PSCAD/EMTDC. The design details of VSCs as well as gate switching circuits and controllers are fully represented. Regulation modes of BtBSTATCOM are verified and tested on a multi-machine power system through different simulation cases. The results presented in the form of typical time responses show that practical PI controllers are almost robust and stable in case of start-up, set-point change, and line faults.

214
7279
Lagrange and Multilevel Wavelet-Galerkin with Polynomial Time Basis for Heat Equation
Abstract:
The Wavelet-Galerkin finite element method for solving the one-dimensional heat equation is presented in this work. Two types of basis functions which are the Lagrange and multi-level wavelet bases are employed to derive the full form of matrix system. We consider both linear and quadratic bases in the Galerkin method. Time derivative is approximated by polynomial time basis that provides easily extend the order of approximation in time space. Our numerical results show that the rate of convergences for the linear Lagrange and the linear wavelet bases are the same and in order 2 while the rate of convergences for the quadratic Lagrange and the quadratic wavelet bases are approximately in order 4. It also reveals that the wavelet basis provides an easy treatment to improve numerical resolutions that can be done by increasing just its desired levels in the multilevel construction process.
213
5089
Chitosan Nanoparticle as a Novel Delivery System for A/H1n1 Influenza Vaccine: Safe Property and Immunogenicity in Mice
Abstract:
The aims of this paper are to study the efficacy of chitosan nanoparticles in stimulating specific antibody against A/H1N1 influenza antigen in mice. Chitosan nanoparticles (CSN) were characterized by TEM. The results showed that the average size of CSN was from 80nm to 106nm. The efficacy of A/H1N1 influenza vaccine loaded on the surface of CSN showed that loading efficiency of A/H1N1 influenza antigen on CSN was from 93.75 to 100%. Safe property of the vaccine were tested. In 10 days post vaccination, group of CSN 30 kDa and 300 kDa loaded A/H1N1 influenza antigen were the rate of immune response on mice to be 100% (9/9) higher than Al(OH)3 and other adjuvant. 100% mice in the experiment of all groups had immune response in 20 days post vaccination. The results also showed that HI titer of the group using CSN 300 kDa as an adjuvant increased significantly up to 3971 HIU, over three-fold higher than the Al(OH)3 adjuvant, chitosan (CS), and one hundredfold than the A/H1N1 antigen only. Stability of the vaccine formulation was investigated.
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1968
Ethnobotany and Distribution of Wild Edible Tubers in Pulau Redang and Nearby Islands of Terengganu, Malaysia
Abstract:
An ethnobotanical study was conducted to document local knowledge and potentials of wild edible tubers that has been reported and sighted and to investigate and record their distribution in Pulau Redang and nearby islands of Terengganu, Malaysia. Information was gathered from 42 villagers by using semi-structured questionnaire. These respondents were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. For distribution, the locations of wild edible tubers were recorded by using the Global Positioning System (GPS). The wild edible tubers recorded were ubi gadung, ubi toyo, ubi kasu, ubi jaga, ubi seratus and ubi kertas. Dioscorea or commonly known as yam is reported to be one of the major food sources worldwide. The majority of villagers used Dioscorea hispida Dennst. or ubi gadung in many ways in their life such as for food, medicinal purposes and fish poison. The villagers have identified this ubi gadung by looking at the morphological characteristics; that include leaf shape, stem and the color of the tuber-s flesh.
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15314
A Novel Method to Evaluate Line Loadability for Distribution Systems with Realistic Loads
Abstract:
This paper presents a simple method for estimation of additional load as a factor of the existing load that may be drawn before reaching the point of line maximum loadability of radial distribution system (RDS) with different realistic load models at different substation voltages. The proposed method involves a simple line loadability index (LLI) that gives a measure of the proximity of the present state of a line in the distribution system. The LLI can use to assess voltage instability and the line loading margin. The proposed method also compares with the existing method of maximum loadability index [10]. The simulation results show that the LLI can identify not only the weakest line/branch causing system instability but also the system voltage collapse point when it is near one. This feature enables us to set an index threshold to monitor and predict system stability on-line so that a proper action can be taken to prevent the system from collapse. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm, computer simulations are carried out on two bus and 69 bus RDS.
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2339
Robust Probabilistic Online Change Detection Algorithm Based On the Continuous Wavelet Transform
Abstract:

In this article we present a change point detection algorithm based on the continuous wavelet transform. At the beginning of the article we describe a necessary transformation of a signal which has to be made for the purpose of change detection. Then case study related to iron ore sinter production which can be solved using our proposed technique is discussed. After that we describe a probabilistic algorithm which can be used to find changes using our transformed signal. It is shown that our algorithm works well with the presence of some noise and abnormal random bursts.

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10854
Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Controller for a 3-DOF Stabilized Platform with Adaptive Decoupling Scheme
Abstract:

This paper presents a fuzzy control system for a three degree of freedom (3-DOF) stabilized platform with explicit decoupling scheme. The system under consideration is a system with strong interactions between three channels. By using the concept of decentralized control, a control structure is developed that is composed of three control loops, each of which is associated with a single-variable fuzzy controller and a decoupling unit. Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy control algorithm is used to implement the fuzzy controller. The decoupling units design is based on the adaptive theory reasoning. Simulation tests were established using Simulink of Matlab. The obtained results have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach. Simulation results are represented in this paper.

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2627
Exponential Stability of Uncertain Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Hopfield Neural Networks with Time Delays
Abstract:

In this paper, based on linear matrix inequality (LMI), by using Lyapunov functional theory, the exponential stability criterion is obtained for a class of uncertain Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy Hopfield neural networks (TSFHNNs) with time delays. Here we choose a generalized Lyapunov functional and introduce a parameterized model transformation with free weighting matrices to it, these techniques lead to generalized and less conservative stability condition that guarantee the wide stability region. Finally, an example is given to illustrate our results by using MATLAB LMI toolbox.

207
5088
Application of Micro-continuum Approach in the Estimation of Snow Drift Density, Velocity and Mass Transport in Hilly Bound Cold Regions
Abstract:

We estimate snow velocity and snow drift density on hilly terrain under the assumption that the drifting snow mass can be represented using a micro-continuum approach (i.e. using a nonclassical mechanics approach assuming a class of fluids for which basic equations of mass, momentum and energy have been derived). In our model, the theory of coupled stress fluids proposed by Stokes [1] has been employed for the computation of flow parameters. Analyses of bulk drift velocity, drift density, drift transport and mass transport of snow particles have been carried out and computations made, considering various parametric effects. Results are compared with those of classical mechanics (logarithmic wind profile). The results indicate that particle size affects the flow characteristics significantly.

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7301
Computing Center Conditions for Non-analytic Vector Fields with Constant Angular Speed
Authors:
Abstract:

We investigate the planar quasi-septic non-analytic systems which have a center-focus equilibrium at the origin and whose angular speed is constant. The system could be changed into an analytic system by two transformations, with the help of computer algebra system MATHEMATICA, the conditions of uniform isochronous center are obtained.

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12935
Switching Rule for the Exponential Stability and Stabilization of Switched Linear Systems with Interval Time-varying Delays
Abstract:

This paper is concerned with exponential stability and stabilization of switched linear systems with interval time-varying delays. The time delay is any continuous function belonging to a given interval, in which the lower bound of delay is not restricted to zero. By constructing a suitable augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional combined with Leibniz-Newton-s formula, a switching rule for the exponential stability and stabilization of switched linear systems with interval time-varying delays and new delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the exponential stability and stabilization of the systems are first established in terms of LMIs. Numerical examples are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the results.

204
529
Bootstrap and MLS Methods-based Individual Bioequivalence Assessment
Abstract:

It is a one-sided hypothesis testing process for assessing bioequivalence. Bootstrap and modified large-sample(MLS) methods are considered to study individual bioequivalence(IBE), type I error and power of hypothesis tests are simulated and compared with FDA(2001). The results show that modified large-sample method is equivalent to the method of FDA(2001) .

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1037
Influence of Adaptation Gain and Reference Model Parameters on System Performance for Model Reference Adaptive Control
Abstract:
This article presents a detailed analysis and comparative performance evaluation of model reference adaptive control systems. In contrast to classical control theory, adaptive control methods allow to deal with time-variant processes. Inspired by the works [1] and [2], two methods based on the MIT rule and Lyapunov rule are applied to a linear first order system. The system is simulated and it is investigated how changes to the adaptation gain affect the system performance. Furthermore, variations in the reference model parameters, that is changing the desired closed-loop behaviour are examinded.
202
7809
TFRank: An Evaluation of Users Importance with Fractal Views in Social Networks
Abstract:
One of research issues in social network analysis is to evaluate the position/importance of users in social networks. As the information diffusion in social network is evolving, it seems difficult to evaluate the importance of users using traditional approaches. In this paper, we propose an evaluation approach for user importance with fractal view in social networks. In this approach, the global importance (Fractal Importance) and the local importance (Topological Importance) of nodes are considered. The basic idea is that the bigger the product of fractal importance and topological importance of a node is, the more important of the node is. We devise the algorithm called TFRank corresponding to the proposed approach. Finally, we evaluate TFRank by experiments. Experimental results demonstrate our TFRank has the high correlations with PageRank algorithm and potential ranking algorithm, and it shows the effectiveness and advantages of our approach.
201
13056
Positive Periodic Solutions for a Neutral Impulsive Delay Competition System
Authors:
Abstract:

In this paper, a neutral impulsive competition system with distributed delays is studied by using Mawhin-s coincidence degree theory and the mean value theorem of differential calculus. Sufficient conditions on the existence of positive periodic solution of the system are obtained.

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10503
Existence and Global Exponential Stability of Periodic Solutions of Cellular Neural Networks with Distributed Delays and Impulses on Time Scales
Authors:
Abstract:

In this paper, by using Mawhin-s continuation theorem of coincidence degree and a method based on delay differential inequality, some sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence and global exponential stability of periodic solutions of cellular neural networks with distributed delays and impulses on time scales. The results of this paper generalized previously known results.

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400
A Preliminary Study on the Eventual Positivity of Irreducible Tridiagonal Sign Patterns
Authors:
Abstract:

Motivated by Berman et al. [Sign patterns that allow eventual positivity, ELA, 19(2010): 108-120], we concentrate on the potential eventual positivity of irreducible tridiagonal sign patterns. The minimal potential eventual positivity of irreducible tridiagonal sign patterns of order less than six is established, and all the minimal potentially eventually positive tridiagonal sign patterns of order · 5 are identified. Our results indicate that if an irreducible tridiagonal sign pattern of order less than six A is minimal potentially eventually positive, then A requires the eventual positivity.

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9386
Solitary Wave Solutions for Burgers-Fisher type Equations with Variable Coefficients
Abstract:
We have solved the Burgers-Fisher (BF) type equations, with time-dependent coefficients of convection and reaction terms, by using the auxiliary equation method. A class of solitary wave solutions are obtained, and some of which are derived for the first time. We have studied the effect of variable coefficients on physical parameters (amplitude and velocity) of solitary wave solutions. In some cases, the BF equations could be solved for arbitrary timedependent coefficient of convection term.
197
8831
Frequency-Variation Based Method for Parameter Estimation of Transistor Amplifier
Abstract:
In this paper, a frequency-variation based method has been proposed for transistor parameter estimation in a commonemitter transistor amplifier circuit. We design an algorithm to estimate the transistor parameters, based on noisy measurements of the output voltage when the input voltage is a sine wave of variable frequency and constant amplitude. The common emitter amplifier circuit has been modelled using the transistor Ebers-Moll equations and the perturbation technique has been used for separating the linear and nonlinear parts of the Ebers-Moll equations. This model of the amplifier has been used to determine the amplitude of the output sinusoid as a function of the frequency and the parameter vector. Then, applying the proposed method to the frequency components, the transistor parameters have been estimated. As compared to the conventional time-domain least squares method, the proposed method requires much less data storage and it results in more accurate parameter estimation, as it exploits the information in the time and frequency domain, simultaneously. The proposed method can be utilized for parameter estimation of an analog device in its operating range of frequencies, as it uses data collected from different frequencies output signals for parameter estimation.
196
1939
Unsupervised Segmentation by Hidden Markov Chain with Bi-dimensional Observed Process
Abstract:

In unsupervised segmentation context, we propose a bi-dimensional hidden Markov chain model (X,Y) that we adapt to the image segmentation problem. The bi-dimensional observed process Y = (Y 1, Y 2) is such that Y 1 represents the noisy image and Y 2 represents a noisy supplementary information on the image, for example a noisy proportion of pixels of the same type in a neighborhood of the current pixel. The proposed model can be seen as a competitive alternative to the Hilbert-Peano scan. We propose a bayesian algorithm to estimate parameters of the considered model. The performance of this algorithm is globally favorable, compared to the bi-dimensional EM algorithm through numerical and visual data.

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12587
An Adaptive Least-squares Mixed Finite Element Method for Pseudo-parabolic Integro-differential Equations
Abstract:

In this article, an adaptive least-squares mixed finite element method is studied for pseudo-parabolic integro-differential equations. The solutions of least-squares mixed weak formulation and mixed finite element are proved. A posteriori error estimator is constructed based on the least-squares functional and the posteriori errors are obtained.

194
9679
Filteristic Soft Lattice Implication Algebras
Authors:
Abstract:

Applying the idea of soft set theory to lattice implication algebras, the novel concept of (implicative) filteristic soft lattice implication algebras which related to (implicative) filter(for short, (IF-)F-soft lattice implication algebras) are introduced. Basic properties of (IF-)F-soft lattice implication algebras are derived. Two kinds of fuzzy filters (i.e.(2, 2 _qk)((2, 2 _ qk))-fuzzy (implicative) filter) of L are introduced, which are generalizations of fuzzy (implicative) filters. Some characterizations for a soft set to be a (IF-)F-soft lattice implication algebra are provided. Analogously, this idea can be used in other types of filteristic lattice implication algebras (such as fantastic (positive implicative) filteristic soft lattice implication algebras).

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1449
Two Fourth-order Iterative Methods Based on Continued Fraction for Root-finding Problems
Abstract:
In this paper, we present two new one-step iterative methods based on Thiele-s continued fraction for solving nonlinear equations. By applying the truncated Thiele-s continued fraction twice, the iterative methods are obtained respectively. Analysis of convergence shows that the new methods are fourth-order convergent. Numerical tests verifying the theory are given and based on the methods, two new one-step iterations are developed.
192
10752
A Finite Element Solution of the Mathematical Model for Smoke Dispersion from Two Sources
Abstract:
Smoke discharging is a main reason of air pollution problem from industrial plants. The obstacle of a building has an affect with the air pollutant discharge. In this research, a mathematical model of the smoke dispersion from two sources and one source with a structural obstacle is considered. The governing equation of the model is an isothermal mass transfer model in a viscous fluid. The finite element method is used to approximate the solutions of the model. The triangular linear elements have been used for discretising the domain, and time integration has been carried out by semi-implicit finite difference method. The simulations of smoke dispersion in cases of one chimney and two chimneys are presented. The maximum calculated smoke concentration of both cases are compared. It is then used to make the decision for smoke discharging and air pollutant control problems on industrial area.
191
3933
Improved Torque Control of Electrical Load Simulator with Parameters and State Estimation
Abstract:
ELS is an important ground based hardware in the loop simulator used for aerodynamics torque loading experiments of the actuators under test. This work focuses on improvement of the transient response of torque controller with parameters uncertainty of Electrical Load Simulator (ELS).The parameters of load simulator are estimated online and the model is updated, eliminating the model error and improving the steady state torque tracking response of torque controller. To improve the Transient control performance the gain of robust term of SMC is updated online using fuzzy logic system based on the amount of uncertainty in parameters of load simulator. The states of load simulator which cannot be measured directly are estimated using luenberger observer with update of new estimated parameters. The stability of the control scheme is verified using Lyapunov theorem. The validity of proposed control scheme is verified using simulations.
190
6076
Multiple Soliton Solutions of (2+1)-dimensional Potential Kadomtsev-Petviashvili Equation
Abstract:

We employ the idea of Hirota-s bilinear method, to obtain some new exact soliton solutions for high nonlinear form of (2+1)-dimensional potential Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation. Multiple singular soliton solutions were obtained by this method. Moreover, multiple singular soliton solutions were also derived.

189
11775
Sign Pattern Matrices that Admit P0 Matrices
Abstract:

A P0-matrix is a real square matrix all of whose principle minors are nonnegative. In this paper, we consider the class of P0-matrix. Our main aim is to determine which sign pattern matrices are admissible for this class of real matrices.

188
15795
Relational Framework and its Applications
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper has, as its point of departure, the foundational axiomatic theory of E. De Giorgi (1996, Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, Preprints di Matematica 26, 1), based on two primitive notions of quality and relation. With the introduction of a unary relation, we develop a system totally based on the sole primitive notion of relation. Such a modification enables a definition of the concept of dynamic unary relation. In this way we construct a simple language capable to express other well known theories such as Robinson-s arithmetic or a piece of a theory of concatenation. A key role in this system plays an abstract relation designated by “( )", which can be interpreted in different ways, but in this paper we will focus on the case when we can perform computations and obtain results.
187
8747
Ten Limit Cycles in a Quintic Lyapunov System
Authors:
Abstract:

In this paper, center conditions and bifurcation of limit cycles at the nilpotent critical point in a class of quintic polynomial differential system are investigated.With the help of computer algebra system MATHEMATICA, the first 10 quasi Lyapunov constants are deduced. As a result, sufficient and necessary conditions in order to have a center are obtained. The fact that there exist 10 small amplitude limit cycles created from the three order nilpotent critical point is also proved. Henceforth we give a lower bound of cyclicity of three-order nilpotent critical point for quintic Lyapunov systems. At last, we give an system which could bifurcate 10 limit circles.

186
4145
Equal Sharing Solutions for Bicooperative Games
Abstract:

In this paper, we discuss the egalitarianism solution (ES) and center-of-gravity of the imputation-set value (CIV) for bicooperative games, which can be seen as the extensions of the solutions for traditional games given by Dutta and Ray [1] and Driessen and Funaki [2]. Furthermore, axiomatic systems for the given values are proposed. Finally, a numerical example is offered to illustrate the player ES and CTV.

185
8309
Primary subgroups and p-nilpotency of finite groups
Authors:
Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate the influence of Ssemipermutable and weakly S-supplemented subgroups on the pnilpotency of finite groups. Some recent results are generalized.

184
1473
Mechanized Proof of Resistance of Denial of Service Attacks in Voting Protocol with ProVerif
Abstract:

Resistance of denial of service attacks is a key security requirement in voting protocols. Acquisti protocol plays an important role in development of internet voting protocols and claims its security without strong physical assumptions. In this study firstly Acquisti protocol is modeled in extended applied pi calculus, and then resistance of denial of service attacks is proved with ProVerif. The result is that it is not resistance of denial of service attacks because two denial of service attacks are found. Finally we give the method against the denial of service attacks.

183
4419
Comparison of Different Techniques for Processing and Preserving fish Rastrineobola argentea from Lake Victoria, Kenya
Abstract:
This study was set to determine the antimicrobial activities of brine salting, chlorinated solution, and oil frying treatments on enteric bacteria and fungi in Rastrineobola argentea fish from fish landing beaches within L. Victoria basin of western Kenya. Statistical differences in effectiveness of the different treatment methods was determined by single factor ANOVA, and paired two-tail t-Test was performed to compare the differences in moisture contents before and after storage. Oil fried fish recorded the lowest microbial loads, sodium chloride at 10% concentration was the second most effective and chlorinated solution even at 150ppm was the least effective against the bacteria and fungi in fish. Moisture contents of the control and treated fish were significantly lower after storage. These results show that oil frying of fish should be adopted for processing and preserving Rastrineobola argentea which is the most abundant and affordable fish species from Lake Victoria.
182
6933
Applying Complex Network Theory to Software Structure Analysis
Authors:
Abstract:
Complex networks have been intensively studied across many fields, especially in Internet technology, biological engineering, and nonlinear science. Software is built up out of many interacting components at various levels of granularity, such as functions, classes, and packages, representing another important class of complex networks. It can also be studied using complex network theory. Over the last decade, many papers on the interdisciplinary research between software engineering and complex networks have been published. It provides a different dimension to our understanding of software and also is very useful for the design and development of software systems. This paper will explore how to use the complex network theory to analyze software structure, and briefly review the main advances in corresponding aspects.
181
504
IIR Filter design with Craziness based Particle Swarm Optimization Technique
Abstract:

This paper demonstrates the application of craziness based particle swarm optimization (CRPSO) technique for designing the 8th order low pass Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter. CRPSO, the much improved version of PSO, is a population based global heuristic search algorithm which finds near optimal solution in terms of a set of filter coefficients. Effectiveness of this algorithm is justified with a comparative study of some well established algorithms, namely, real coded genetic algorithm (RGA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). Simulation results affirm that the proposed algorithm CRPSO, outperforms over its counterparts not only in terms of quality output i.e. sharpness at cut-off, pass band ripple, stop band ripple, and stop band attenuation but also in convergence speed with assured stability.

180
8397
Linear Phase High Pass FIR Filter Design using Improved Particle Swarm Optimization
Abstract:
This paper presents an optimal design of linear phase digital high pass finite impulse response (FIR) filter using Improved Particle Swarm Optimization (IPSO). In the design process, the filter length, pass band and stop band frequencies, feasible pass band and stop band ripple sizes are specified. FIR filter design is a multi-modal optimization problem. An iterative method is introduced to find the optimal solution of FIR filter design problem. Evolutionary algorithms like real code genetic algorithm (RGA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) have been used in this work for the design of linear phase high pass FIR filter. IPSO is an improved PSO that proposes a new definition for the velocity vector and swarm updating and hence the solution quality is improved. A comparison of simulation results reveals the optimization efficacy of the algorithm over the prevailing optimization techniques for the solution of the multimodal, nondifferentiable, highly non-linear, and constrained FIR filter design problems.
179
4033
Robust Minutiae Watermarking in Wavelet Domain for Fingerprint Security
Abstract:
In this manuscript, a wavelet-based blind watermarking scheme has been proposed as a means to provide security to authenticity of a fingerprint. The information used for identification or verification of a fingerprint mainly lies in its minutiae. By robust watermarking of the minutiae in the fingerprint image itself, the useful information can be extracted accurately even if the fingerprint is severely degraded. The minutiae are converted in a binary watermark and embedding these watermarks in the detail regions increases the robustness of watermarking, at little to no additional impact on image quality. It has been experimentally shown that when the minutiae is embedded into wavelet detail coefficients of a fingerprint image in spread spectrum fashion using a pseudorandom sequence, the robustness is observed to have a proportional response while perceptual invisibility has an inversely proportional response to amplification factor “K". The DWT-based technique has been found to be very robust against noises, geometrical distortions filtering and JPEG compression attacks and is also found to give remarkably better performance than DCT-based technique in terms of correlation coefficient and number of erroneous minutiae.
178
930
Applying 5S Lean Technology: An Infrastructure for Continuous Process Improvement
Abstract:

This paper presents an application of 5S lean technology to a production facility. Due to increased demand, high product variety, and a push production system, the plant has suffered from excessive wastes, unorganized workstations, and unhealthy work environment. This has translated into increased production cost, frequent delays, and low workers morale. Under such conditions, it has become difficult, if not impossible, to implement effective continuous improvement studies. Hence, the lean project is aimed at diagnosing the production process, streamlining the workflow, removing/reducing process waste, cleaning the production environment, improving plant layout, and organizing workstations. 5S lean technology is utilized for achieving project objectives. The work was a combination of both culture changes and tangible/physical changes on the shop floor. The project has drastically changed the plant and developed the infrastructure for a successful implementation of continuous improvement as well as other best practices and quality initiatives.

177
12081
Accurate Fault Classification and Section Identification Scheme in TCSC Compensated Transmission Line using SVM
Abstract:
This paper presents a new approach for the protection of Thyristor-Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC) line using Support Vector Machine (SVM). One SVM is trained for fault classification and another for section identification. This method use three phase current measurement that results in better speed and accuracy than other SVM based methods which used single phase current measurement. This makes it suitable for real-time protection. The method was tested on 10,000 data instances with a very wide variation in system conditions such as compensation level, source impedance, location of fault, fault inception angle, load angle at source bus and fault resistance. The proposed method requires only local current measurement.
176
11489
An Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Deep cold Rolling Parameters on Surface Roughness and Hardness of AISI 4140 Steel
Abstract:

Deep cold rolling (DCR) is a cold working process, which easily produces a smooth and work-hardened surface by plastic deformation of surface irregularities. In the present study, the influence of main deep cold rolling process parameters on the surface roughness and the hardness of AISI 4140 steel were studied by using fractional factorial design of experiments. The assessment of the surface integrity aspects on work material was done, in terms of identifying the predominant factor amongst the selected parameters, their order of significance and setting the levels of the factors for minimizing surface roughness and/or maximizing surface hardness. It was found that the ball diameter, rolling force, initial surface roughness and number of tool passes are the most pronounced parameters, which have great effects on the work piece-s surface during the deep cold rolling process. A simple, inexpensive and newly developed DCR tool, with interchangeable collet for using different ball diameters, was used throughout the experimental work presented in this paper.

175
15810
Novel Direct Flux and Torque Control of Optimally Designed 6 Phase Reluctance Machine with Special Current Waveform
Abstract:

In this paper the principle, basic torque theory and design optimisation of a six-phase reluctance dc machine are considered. A trapezoidal phase current waveform for the machine drive is proposed and evaluated to minimise ripple torque. Low cost normal laminated salient-pole rotors with and without slits and chamfered poles are investigated. The six-phase machine is optimised in multi-dimensions by linking the finite-element analysis method directly with an optimisation algorithm; the objective function is to maximise the torque per copper losses of the machine. The armature reaction effect is investigated in detail and found to be severe. The measured and calculated torque performances of a 35 kW optimum designed six-phase reluctance dc machine drive are presented.

174
5291
Palmprint Recognition by Wavelet Transform with Competitive Index and PCA
Abstract:
This manuscript presents, palmprint recognition by combining different texture extraction approaches with high accuracy. The Region of Interest (ROI) is decomposed into different frequencytime sub-bands by wavelet transform up-to two levels and only the approximate image of two levels is selected, which is known as Approximate Image ROI (AIROI). This AIROI has information of principal lines of the palm. The Competitive Index is used as the features of the palmprint, in which six Gabor filters of different orientations convolve with the palmprint image to extract the orientation information from the image. The winner-take-all strategy is used to select dominant orientation for each pixel, which is known as Competitive Index. Further, PCA is applied to select highly uncorrelated Competitive Index features, to reduce the dimensions of the feature vector, and to project the features on Eigen space. The similarity of two palmprints is measured by the Euclidean distance metrics. The algorithm is tested on Hong Kong PolyU palmprint database. Different AIROI of different wavelet filter families are also tested with the Competitive Index and PCA. AIROI of db7 wavelet filter achievs Equal Error Rate (EER) of 0.0152% and Genuine Acceptance Rate (GAR) of 99.67% on the palm database of Hong Kong PolyU.
173
14901
A Robust Al-Hawalees Gaming Automation using Minimax and BPNN Decision
Abstract:

Artificial Intelligence based gaming is an interesting topic in the state-of-art technology. This paper presents an automation of a tradition Omani game, called Al-Hawalees. Its related issues are resolved and implemented using artificial intelligence approach. An AI approach called mini-max procedure is incorporated to make a diverse budges of the on-line gaming. If number of moves increase, time complexity will be increased in terms of propositionally. In order to tackle the time and space complexities, we have employed a back propagation neural network (BPNN) to train in off-line to make a decision for resources required to fulfill the automation of the game. We have utilized Leverberg- Marquardt training in order to get the rapid response during the gaming. A set of optimal moves is determined by the on-line back propagation training fashioned with alpha-beta pruning. The results and analyses reveal that the proposed scheme will be easily incorporated in the on-line scenario with one player against the system.

172
4476
I-Vague Groups
Abstract:
The notions of I-vague groups with membership and non-membership functions taking values in an involutary dually residuated lattice ordered semigroup are introduced which generalize the notions with truth values in a Boolean algebra as well as those usual vague sets whose membership and non-membership functions taking values in the unit interval [0, 1]. Moreover, various operations and properties are established.
171
9980
I-Vague Normal Groups
Abstract:
The notions of I-vague normal groups with membership and non-membership functions taking values in an involutary dually residuated lattice ordered semigroup are introduced which generalize the notions with truth values in a Boolean algebra as well as those usual vague sets whose membership and non-membership functions taking values in the unit interval [0, 1]. Various operations and properties are established.
170
10342
Sensorless Speed Based on MRAS with Tuning of IP Speed Controller in FOC of Induction Motor Drive Using PSO
Abstract:

In this paper, a field oriented control (FOC) induction motor drive is presented. In order to eliminate the speed sensor, an adaptation algorithm for tuning the rotor speed is proposed. Based on the Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) scheme, the rotor speed is tuned to obtain an exact FOC induction motor drive. The reference and adjustable models, developed in stationary stator reference frame, are used in the MRAS scheme to estimate induction rotor speed from measured terminal voltages and currents. The Integral Proportional (IP) gains speed controller are tuned by a modern approach that is the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm in order to optimize the parameters of the IP controller. The use of PSO as an optimization algorithm makes the drive robust, with faster dynamic response, higher accuracy and insensitive to load variation. The proposed algorithm has been tested by numerical simulation, showing the capability of driving load.

169
3431
Active and Reactive Power Control of a DFIG with MPPT for Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion using Sliding Mode Control
Abstract:
This paper presents the study of a variable speed wind energy conversion system based on a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based on a sliding mode control applied to achieve control of active and reactive powers exchanged between the stator of the DFIG and the grid to ensure a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of a wind energy conversion system. The proposed control algorithm is applied to a DFIG whose stator is directly connected to the grid and the rotor is connected to the PWM converter. To extract a maximum of power, the rotor side converter is controlled by using a stator flux-oriented strategy. The created decoupling control between active and reactive stator power allows keeping the power factor close to unity. Simulation results show that the wind turbine can operate at its optimum energy for a wide range of wind speed.
168
4382
Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Total Variation Minimization on Inpainting Problem
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper is concerned with the numerical minimization of energy functionals in BV ( ) (the space of bounded variation functions) involving total variation for gray-scale 1-dimensional inpainting problem. Applications are shown by finite element method and discontinuous Galerkin method for total variation minimization. We include the numerical examples which show the different recovery image by these two methods.
167
3268
Multiple Periodic Solutions for a Delayed Predator-prey System on Time Scales
Abstract:

This paper is devoted to a delayed periodic predatorprey system with non-monotonic numerical response on time scales. With the help of a continuation theorem based on coincidence degree theory, we establish easily verifiable criteria for the existence of multiple periodic solutions. As corollaries, some applications are listed. In particular, our results improve and generalize some known ones.

166
14062
Prognostic and Diagnostic Modes of Mathematical Model for the Pre-operation of Suspended Sediment Transport model in Estuaries and Coastal areas
Abstract:
Both prognostic and diagnostic modes of a 3D baroclinic model in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) were conducted to separate prognose and diagnose effects of different hydrodynamic factors on transport of suspended sediment discharged from the rivers to the Gulf of Thailand (GoT). Both transport modes of suspended sediment distribution in the GoT were numerically simulated. It could be concluded that the suspended sediment discharged from the rivers around the GoT. Most of sediments in estuaries and coastal areas are deposited outside the GoT under the condition of wind-driven current, and very small amount of the sediments of them are transported faraway. On the basis of wind forcing, sediments from the lower GoT to the upper GoT are mainly transported south-northwestward and also continuously moved north-southwestward. An obvious 3D characteristic of suspended sediment transport is produced in the wind-driven current residual circulation condition. In this study, the transport patterns at the third layer are generally consistent with the typhoon-induced strong currents in two case studies of Typhoon Linda 1997. The case studies presented the prognostic and diagnostic modes during 00UTC28OCT1997 to 12UTC06NOV1997 in a short period with the current condition for pre-operation of the suspended sediment transport model in estuaries and coastal areas.
165
4150
Quantifying the Stability of Software Systems via Simulation in Dependency Networks
Authors:
Abstract:
The stability of a software system is one of the most important quality attributes affecting the maintenance effort. Many techniques have been proposed to support the analysis of software stability at the architecture, file, and class level of software systems, but little effort has been made for that at the feature (i.e., method and attribute) level. And the assumptions the existing techniques based on always do not meet the practice to a certain degree. Considering that, in this paper, we present a novel metric, Stability of Software (SoS), to measure the stability of object-oriented software systems by software change propagation analysis using a simulation way in software dependency networks at feature level. The approach is evaluated by case studies on eight open source Java programs using different software structures (one employs design patterns versus one does not) for the same object-oriented program. The results of the case studies validate the effectiveness of the proposed metric. The approach has been fully automated by a tool written in Java.
164
3979
Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium Data for Butan-2-ol - Ethanol - Water, Pentan-1-ol - Ethanol - Water and Toluene - Acetone - Water Systems
Abstract:
Experimental liquid-liquid equilibra of butan-2-ol - ethanol -water; pentan-1-ol - ethanol - water and toluene - acetone - water ternary systems were investigated at (25oC). The reliability of the experimental tie-line data was ascertained by using Othmer-Tobias and Hand plots. The distribution coefficients (D) and separation factors (S) of the immiscibility region were evaluated for the three systems.
163
4337
Ordinary Differential Equations with Inverted Functions
Authors:
Abstract:

Equations with differentials relating to the inverse of an unknown function rather than to the unknown function itself are solved exactly for some special cases and numerically for the general case. Invertibility combined with differentiability over connected domains forces solutions always to be monotone. Numerical function inversion is key to all solution algorithms which either are of a forward type or a fixed point type considering whole approximate solution functions in each iteration. The given considerations are restricted to ordinary differential equations with inverted functions (ODEIs) of first order. Forward type computations, if applicable, admit consistency of order one and, under an additional accuracy condition, convergence of order one.

162
10318
Identification of States and Events for the Static and Dynamic Simulation of Single Electron Tunneling Circuits
Abstract:
The implementation of single-electron tunneling (SET) simulators based on the master-equation (ME) formalism requires the efficient and accurate identification of an exhaustive list of active states and related tunnel events. Dynamic simulations also require the control of the emerging states and guarantee the safe elimination of decaying states. This paper describes algorithms for use in the stationary and dynamic control of the lists of active states and events. The paper presents results obtained using these algorithms with different SET structures.
161
11341
Impact of Modeling Different Fading Channels on Wireless MAN Fixed IEEE802.16d OFDM System with Diversity Transmission Technique
Abstract:
Wimax (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a promising technology which can offer high speed data, voice and video service to the customer end, which is presently, dominated by the cable and digital subscriber line (DSL) technologies. The performance assessment of Wimax systems is dealt with. The biggest advantage of Broadband wireless application (BWA) over its wired competitors is its increased capacity and ease of deployment. The aims of this paper are to model and simulate the fixed OFDM IEEE 802.16d physical layer under variant combinations of digital modulation (BPSK, QPSK, and 16-QAM) over diverse combination of fading channels (AWGN, SUIs). Stanford University Interim (SUI) Channel serial was proposed to simulate the fixed broadband wireless access channel environments where IEEE 802.16d is to be deployed. It has six channel models that are grouped into three categories according to three typical different outdoor Terrains, in order to give a comprehensive effect of fading channels on the overall performance of the system.
160
8254
The Gerber-Shiu Functions of a Risk Model with Two Classes of Claims and Random Income
Authors:
Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a risk model involving two independent classes of insurance risks and random premium income. We assume that the premium income process is a Poisson Process, and the claim number processes are independent Poisson and generalized Erlang(n) processes, respectively. Both of the Gerber- Shiu functions with zero initial surplus and the probability generating functions (p.g.f.) of the Gerber-Shiu functions are obtained.

159
8497
Study of Features for Hand-printed Recognition
Authors:
Abstract:
The feature extraction method(s) used to recognize hand-printed characters play an important role in ICR applications. In order to achieve high recognition rate for a recognition system, the choice of a feature that suits for the given script is certainly an important task. Even if a new feature required to be designed for a given script, it is essential to know the recognition ability of the existing features for that script. Devanagari script is being used in various Indian languages besides Hindi the mother tongue of majority of Indians. This research examines a variety of feature extraction approaches, which have been used in various ICR/OCR applications, in context to Devanagari hand-printed script. The study is conducted theoretically and experimentally on more that 10 feature extraction methods. The various feature extraction methods have been evaluated on Devanagari hand-printed database comprising more than 25000 characters belonging to 43 alphabets. The recognition ability of the features have been evaluated using three classifiers i.e. k-NN, MLP and SVM.
158
8826
MPSO based Model Order Formulation Scheme for Discrete PID Controller Design
Abstract:
This paper proposes the novel model order formulation scheme to design a discrete PID controller for higher order linear time invariant discrete systems. Modified PSO (MPSO) based model order formulation technique has used to obtain the successful formulated second order system. PID controller is tuned to meet the desired performance specification by using pole-zero cancellation and proposed design procedures. Proposed PID controller is attached with both higher order system and formulated second order system. System specifications are tabulated and closed loop response is observed for stabilization process. The proposed method is illustrated through numerical examples from literature.
157
9417
On Generalized Exponential Fuzzy Entropy
Abstract:
In the present communication, the existing measures of fuzzy entropy are reviewed. A generalized parametric exponential fuzzy entropy is defined.Our study of the four essential and some other properties of the proposed measure, clearly establishes the validity of the measure as an entropy.
156
3991
Localizing Acoustic Touch Impacts using Zip-stuffing in Complex k-space Domain
Abstract:
Visualizing sound and noise often help us to determine an appropriate control over the source localization. Near-field acoustic holography (NAH) is a powerful tool for the ill-posed problem. However, in practice, due to the small finite aperture size, the discrete Fourier transform, FFT based NAH couldn-t predict the activeregion- of-interest (AROI) over the edges of the plane. Theoretically few approaches were proposed for solving finite aperture problem. However most of these methods are not quite compatible for the practical implementation, especially near the edge of the source. In this paper, a zip-stuffing extrapolation approach has suggested with 2D Kaiser window. It is operated on wavenumber complex space to localize the predicted sources. We numerically form a practice environment with touch impact databases to test the localization of sound source. It is observed that zip-stuffing aperture extrapolation and 2D window with evanescent components provide more accuracy especially in the small aperture and its derivatives.
155
12963
The Study of the Discrete Risk Model with Random Income
Authors:
Abstract:

In this paper, we extend the compound binomial model to the case where the premium income process, based on a binomial process, is no longer a linear function. First, a mathematically recursive formula is derived for non ruin probability, and then, we examine the expected discounted penalty function, satisfy a defect renewal equation. Third, the asymptotic estimate for the expected discounted penalty function is then given. Finally, we give two examples of ruin quantities to illustrate applications of the recursive formula and the asymptotic estimate for penalty function.

154
11513
Multiple Positive Periodic Solutions to a Predator-prey system with Harvesting Terms and Holling II Type Functional Response
Abstract:

In this paper, a periodic predator-prey system with harvesting terms and Holling II type functional response is considered. Sufficient criteria for the existence of at least sixteen periodic solutions are established by using the well known continuation theorem due to Mawhin. An example is given to illustrate the main result.

153
10485
Fuzzy Logic Speed Control of Three Phase Induction Motor Drive
Abstract:
This paper presents an intelligent speed control system based on fuzzy logic for a voltage source PWM inverter-fed indirect vector controlled induction motor drive. Traditional indirect vector control system of induction motor introduces conventional PI regulator in outer speed loop; it is proved that the low precision of the speed regulator debases the performance of the whole system. To overcome this problem, replacement of PI controller by an intelligent controller based on fuzzy set theory is proposed. The performance of the intelligent controller has been investigated through digital simulation using MATLAB-SIMULINK package for different operating conditions such as sudden change in reference speed and load torque. The simulation results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed controller is better than that of the conventional PI controller.
152
53
High-performance Second-Generation Controlled Current Conveyor CCCII and High Frequency Applications
Abstract:

In this paper, a modified CCCII is presented. We have used a current mirror with low supply voltage. This circuit is operated at low supply voltage of ±1V. Tspice simulations for TSMC 0.18μm CMOS Technology has shown that the current and voltage bandwidth are respectively 3.34GHz and 4.37GHz, and parasitic resistance at port X has a value of 169.320 for a control current of 120μA. In order to realize this circuit, we have implemented in this first step a universal current mode filter where the frequency can reach the 134.58MHz. In the second step, we have implemented two simulated inductors: one floating and the other grounded. These two inductors are operated in high frequency and variable depending on bias current I0. Finally, we have used the two last inductors respectively to implement two sinusoidal oscillators domains of frequencies respectively: [470MHz, 692MHz], and [358MHz, 572MHz] for bias currents I0 [80μA, 350μA].

151
6995
A Descent-projection Method for Solving Monotone Structured Variational Inequalities
Abstract:
In this paper, a new descent-projection method with a new search direction for monotone structured variational inequalities is proposed. The method is simple, which needs only projections and some function evaluations, so its computational load is very tiny. Under mild conditions on the problem-s data, the method is proved to converges globally. Some preliminary computational results are also reported to illustrate the efficiency of the method.
150
13669
Near-Lossless Image Coding based on Orthogonal Polynomials
Abstract:
In this paper, a near lossless image coding scheme based on Orthogonal Polynomials Transform (OPT) has been presented. The polynomial operators and polynomials basis operators are obtained from set of orthogonal polynomials functions for the proposed transform coding. The image is partitioned into a number of distinct square blocks and the proposed transform coding is applied to each of these individually. After applying the proposed transform coding, the transformed coefficients are rearranged into a sub-band structure. The Embedded Zerotree (EZ) coding algorithm is then employed to quantize the coefficients. The proposed transform is implemented for various block sizes and the performance is compared with existing Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) transform coding scheme.
149
3187
Permanence and Exponential Stability of a Predator-prey Model with HV-Holling Functional Response
Abstract:

In this paper, a delayed predator-prey system with Hassell-Varley-Holling type functional response is studied. A sufficient criterion for the permanence of the system is presented, and further some sufficient conditions for the global attractivity and exponential stability of the system are established. And an example is to show the feasibility of the results by simulation.

148
12859
Performances Comparison of Neural Architectures for On-Line Speed Estimation in Sensorless IM Drives
Abstract:
The performance of sensor-less controlled induction motor drive depends on the accuracy of the estimated speed. Conventional estimation techniques being mathematically complex require more execution time resulting in poor dynamic response. The nonlinear mapping capability and powerful learning algorithms of neural network provides a promising alternative for on-line speed estimation. The on-line speed estimator requires the NN model to be accurate, simpler in design, structurally compact and computationally less complex to ensure faster execution and effective control in real time implementation. This in turn to a large extent depends on the type of Neural Architecture. This paper investigates three types of neural architectures for on-line speed estimation and their performance is compared in terms of accuracy, structural compactness, computational complexity and execution time. The suitable neural architecture for on-line speed estimation is identified and the promising results obtained are presented.
147
1025
Modeling of Normal and Atherosclerotic Blood Vessels using Finite Element Methods and Artificial Neural Networks
Abstract:
Analysis of blood vessel mechanics in normal and diseased conditions is essential for disease research, medical device design and treatment planning. In this work, 3D finite element models of normal vessel and atherosclerotic vessel with 50% plaque deposition were developed. The developed models were meshed using finite number of tetrahedral elements. The developed models were simulated using actual blood pressure signals. Based on the transient analysis performed on the developed models, the parameters such as total displacement, strain energy density and entropy per unit volume were obtained. Further, the obtained parameters were used to develop artificial neural network models for analyzing normal and atherosclerotic blood vessels. In this paper, the objectives of the study, methodology and significant observations are presented.
146
1595
Some Third Order Methods for Solving Systems of Nonlinear Equations
Abstract:
Based on Traub-s methods for solving nonlinear equation f(x) = 0, we develop two families of third-order methods for solving system of nonlinear equations F(x) = 0. The families include well-known existing methods as special cases. The stability is corroborated by numerical results. Comparison with well-known methods shows that the present methods are robust. These higher order methods may be very useful in the numerical applications requiring high precision in their computations because these methods yield a clear reduction in number of iterations.
145
5575
The Stigma of Mental Illness and the Way of Destigmatization: The Effects of Interactivity and Self-Construal
Abstract:
Some believe that stigma is the worst side effect of the people who have mental illness. Mental illness researchers have focused on the influence of mass media on the stigmatization of the people with mental illness. However, no studies have investigated the effects of the interactive media, such as blogs, on the stigmatization of mentally ill people, even though the media have a significant influence on people in all areas of life. The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of interactivity in destigmatization of the mentally ill and the moderating effect of self-construal (independent versus interdependent self-construal) on the relation between interactivity and destigmatization. The findings suggested that people in the human-human interaction condition had less social distance toward people with mental illness. Additionally, participants with higher independence showed more favorable affection and less social distance toward mentally ill people. Finally, direct contact with mentally ill people increased a person-s positive affect toward people with mental illness. The current study should provide insights for mental health practitioners by suggesting how they can use interactive media to approach the public that stigmatizes the mentally ill.
144
8414
Ruin Probability for a Markovian Risk Model with Two-type Claims
Abstract:

In this paper, a Markovian risk model with two-type claims is considered. In such a risk model, the occurrences of the two type claims are described by two point processes {Ni(t), t ¸ 0}, i = 1, 2, where {Ni(t), t ¸ 0} is the number of jumps during the interval (0, t] for the Markov jump process {Xi(t), t ¸ 0} . The ruin probability ª(u) of a company facing such a risk model is mainly discussed. An integral equation satisfied by the ruin probability ª(u) is obtained and the bounds for the convergence rate of the ruin probability ª(u) are given by using key-renewal theorem.

143
6161
Synchronization for Impulsive Fuzzy Cohen-Grossberg Neural Networks with Time Delays under Noise Perturbation
Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate a class of fuzzy Cohen- Grossberg neural networks with time delays and impulsive effects. By virtue of stochastic analysis, Halanay inequality for stochastic differential equations, we find sufficient conditions for the global exponential square-mean synchronization of the FCGNNs under noise perturbation. In particular, the traditional assumption on the differentiability of the time-varying delays is no longer needed. Finally, a numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the results in this paper.

142
5256
Periodic Solutions for a Two-prey One-predator System on Time Scales
Authors:
Abstract:

In this paper, using the Gaines and Mawhin,s continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory on time scales, the existence of periodic solutions for a two-prey one-predator system is studied. Some sufficient conditions for the existence of positive periodic solutions are obtained. The results provide unified existence theorems of periodic solution for the continuous differential equations and discrete difference equations.

141
5887
Spatial thinking Issues: Towards Rural Sociological Research Agenda in the Third Millennium
Abstract:

Does the spatial perspective provide a common thread for rural sociology? Have rural sociologists succeeded in bringing order to their data using spatial analysis models and techniques? A trial answer to such questions, as touchstones of theoretical and applied sociological studies in rural areas, is the point at issue in the present paper. Spatial analyses have changed the way rural sociologists approach scientific problems. Rural sociology is spatial by nature because much, if not most, of its research topics has a spatial “awareness." However, such spatial awareness is not quite the same as spatial analysis because it is not typically associated with underlying theories and hypotheses about spatial patterns that are designed to be tested for their specific spatial content. This paper presents pressing issues for future research to reintroduce mainstream rural sociology to the concept of space.

140
8968
Bond Graph and Bayesian Networks for Reliable Diagnosis
Abstract:
Bond Graph as a unified multidisciplinary tool is widely used not only for dynamic modelling but also for Fault Detection and Isolation because of its structural and causal proprieties. A binary Fault Signature Matrix is systematically generated but to make the final binary decision is not always feasible because of the problems revealed by such method. The purpose of this paper is introducing a methodology for the improvement of the classical binary method of decision-making, so that the unknown and identical failure signatures can be treated to improve the robustness. This approach consists of associating the evaluated residuals and the components reliability data to build a Hybrid Bayesian Network. This network is used in two distinct inference procedures: one for the continuous part and the other for the discrete part. The continuous nodes of the network are the prior probabilities of the components failures, which are used by the inference procedure on the discrete part to compute the posterior probabilities of the failures. The developed methodology is applied to a real steam generator pilot process.
139
10277
Effects of Mixed Convection and Double Dispersion on Semi Infinite Vertical Plate in Presence of Radiation
Abstract:
In this paper, the effects of radiation, chemical reaction and double dispersion on mixed convection heat and mass transfer along a semi vertical plate are considered. The plate is embedded in a Newtonian fluid saturated non - Darcy (Forchheimer flow model) porous medium. The Forchheimer extension and first order chemical reaction are considered in the flow equations. The governing sets of partial differential equations are nondimensionalized and reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations which are then solved numerically by Fourth order Runge– Kutta method. Numerical results for the detail of the velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles as well as heat transfer rates (Nusselt number) and mass transfer rates (Sherwood number) against various parameters are presented in graphs. The obtained results are checked against previously published work for special cases of the problem and are found to be in good agreement.
138
9019
An Agent Based Simulation for Network Formation with Heterogeneous Agents
Abstract:
We investigate an asymmetric connections model with a dynamic network formation process, using an agent based simulation. We permit heterogeneity of agents- value. Valuable persons seem to have many links on real social networks. We focus on this point of view, and examine whether valuable agents change the structures of the terminal networks. Simulation reveals that valuable agents diversify the terminal networks. We can not find evidence that valuable agents increase the possibility that star networks survive the dynamic process. We find that valuable agents disperse the degrees of agents in each terminal network on an average.
137
11081
A Study of Wind Speed Characteristic in PI Controller based DFIG Wind Turbine
Abstract:

The Wind Turbine Modeling in Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) using Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) PI Controller based design is presented. To study about the variable wind speed. The PI controller performs responding to the dynamic performance. The objective is to study the characteristic of wind turbine and finding the optimum wind speed suitable for wind turbine performance. This system will allow the specification setting (2.5MW). The output active power also corresponding same the input is given. And the reactive power produced by the wind turbine is regulated at 0 Mvar. Variable wind speed is optimum for drive train performance at 12.5 m/s (at maximum power coefficient point) from the simulation of DFIG by Simulink is described.

136
10841
An Authoring Tool for Vibrotactile Images
Abstract:
This paper presents an authoring tool which makes a user easily and intuitively design vibrotactile sensation. A mobile hardware platform powered by ANDROID, a multi-purpose haptic driver and a linear resonance actuator are used to implement the system of the presented authoring tool. The tool allows users to easily and simply create a vibrotactile sensation by drawing vibrotactile images and to feel the sensation by rubbing drawn images on the touch screen of a mobile device. The tool supports a graphical interface for designing, editing and playing vibrotactile images as well as a pre-defined file format for save and open.
135
12315
Entropy based Expeditive Methodology for Rating Curves Assessment
Abstract:

The river flow forecasting represents a crucial point to employ for improving a management policy addressed to the right use of water resources as well as for conjugating prevention and defense actions against environmental degradation. The difficulties occurring during the field activities encourage the development and implementation of operative computation and measuring methods addressed to time reduction for data acquisition and processing maintaining a good level of accuracy. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to test a new entropy based expeditive methodology for the evaluation of the rating curves on three gauged sections with different geometric and morphological characteristics. The methodology requires the choice of only three verticals along the measure section and the sampling of only the maximum velocity. The results underline how in most conditions the rating curves drawn can replace those built with classic methodologies, simplifying thus the procedures of data monitoring and calculation.

134
4951
Influence of the Entropic Parameter on the Flow Geometry and Morphology
Abstract:

The necessity of updating the numerical models inputs, because of geometrical and resistive variations in rivers subject to solid transport phenomena, requires detailed control and monitoring activities. The human employment and financial resources of these activities moves the research towards the development of expeditive methodologies, able to evaluate the outflows through the measurement of more easily acquirable sizes. Recent studies highlighted the dependence of the entropic parameter on the kinematical and geometrical flow conditions. They showed a meaningful variability according to the section shape, dimension and slope. Such dependences, even if not yet well defined, could reduce the difficulties during the field activities, and also the data elaboration time. On the basis of such evidences, the relationships between the entropic parameter and the geometrical and resistive sizes, obtained through a large and detailed laboratory experience on steady free surface flows in conditions of macro and intermediate homogeneous roughness, are analyzed and discussed.

133
6107
Impulse Noise Reduction in Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Fuzzy Filters
Abstract:
Noise contamination in a magnetic resonance (MR) image could occur during acquisition, storage, and transmission in which effective filtering is required to avoid repeating the MR procedure. In this paper, an iterative asymmetrical triangle fuzzy filter with moving average center (ATMAVi filter) is used to reduce different levels of salt and pepper noise in a brain MR image. Besides visual inspection on filtered images, the mean squared error (MSE) is used as an objective measurement. When compared with the median filter, simulation results indicate that the ATMAVi filter is effective especially for filtering a higher level noise (such as noise density = 0.45) using a smaller window size (such as 3x3) when operated iteratively or using a larger window size (such as 5x5) when operated non-iteratively.
132
4433
Pollution Induced Community Tolerance(PICT) of Microorganisms in Soil Incubated with Different Levels of PB
Abstract:

Soil microbial activity is adversely affected by pollutants such as heavy metals, antibiotics and pesticides. Organic amendments including sewage sludge, municipal compost and vermicompost are recently used to improve soil structure and fertility. But, these materials contain heavy metals including Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni and Cu that are toxic to soil microorganisms and may lead to occurrence of more tolerant microbes. Among these, Pb is the most abundant and has more negative effect on soil microbial ecology. In this study, Pb levels of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg Pb [as Pb(NO3)2] per kg soil were added to the pots containing 2 kg of a loamy soil and incubated for 6 months at 25°C with soil moisture of - 0.3 MPa. Dehydrogenase activity of soil as a measure of microbial activity was determined on 15, 30, 90 and 180 days after incubation. Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) was used as an electron acceptor in this assay. PICTs (€IC50 values) were calculated for each Pb level and incubation time. Soil microbial activity was decreased by increasing Pb level during 30 days of incubation but the induced tolerance appeared on day 90 and thereafter. During 90 to 180 days of incubation, the PICT was gradually developed by increasing Pb level up to 200 mg kg-1, but the rate of enhancement was steeper at higher concentrations.

131
655
Mathematical Modelling of Partially Filled Fluid Coupling Behaviour
Abstract:
Modelling techniques for a fluid coupling taken from published literature have been extended to include the effects of the filling and emptying of the coupling with oil and the variation in losses when the coupling is partially full. In the model, the fluid flow inside the coupling is considered to have two principal velocity components; one circumferentially about the coupling axis (centrifugal head) and the other representing the secondary vortex within the coupling itself (vortex head). The calculation of liquid mass flow rate circulating between the two halves of the coupling is based on: the assumption of a linear velocity variation in the circulating vortex flow; the head differential in the fluid due to the speed difference between the two shafts; and the losses in the circulating vortex flow as a result of the impingement of the flow with the blades in the coupling and friction within the passages between the blades.
130
6431
Effects of Wastewater Strength and Salt Stress on Microalgal Biomass Production and Lipid Accumulation
Abstract:
This work aims to investigate a potential of microalgae for utilizing industrial wastewater as a cheap nutrient for their growth and oil accumulation. Wastewater was collected from the effluent ponds of agro-industrial factories (cassava and ethanol production plants). Only 2 microalgal strains were isolated and identified as Scenedesmus quadricauda and Chlorella sp.. However, only S. quadricauda was selected to cultivate in various wastewater concentrations (10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%). The highest biomass obtained at 6.6×106 and 6.27×106 cells/ml when 60% wastewater was used in flask and photo-bioreactor. The cultures gave the highest lipid content at 18.58 % and 42.86% in cases of S. quadricauda and S. obliquus. In addition, under salt stress (1.0 M NaCl), S. obliquus demonstrated the highest lipid content at 50% which was much more than the case of no NaCl adding. However, the concentration of NaCl does not affect on lipid accumulation in case of S. quadricauda.
129
14794
Approximation for Average Error Probability of BPSK in the Presence of Phase Error
Abstract:
Phase error in communications systems degrades error performance. In this paper, we present a simple approximation for the average error probability of the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) in the presence of phase error having a uniform distribution on arbitrary intervals. For the simple approximation, we use symmetry and periodicity of a sinusoidal function. Approximate result for the average error probability is derived, and the performance is verified through comparison with simulation result.
128
1285
Estimating Spatial Disaggregation of Urban Thermal Responsiveness on Summer Diurnal Range with a Numerical Modeling Approach in Bangkok, Thailand
Abstract:

Facing the concern of the population to its environment and to climatic change, city planners are now considering the urban climate in their choices of planning. The urban climate, representing different urban morphologies across central Bangkok metropolitan area (BMA), are used to investigates the effects of both the composition and configuration of variables of urban morphology indicators on the summer diurnal range of urban climate, using correlation analyses and multiple linear regressions. Results show first indicate that approximately 92.6% of the variation in the average maximum daytime near-surface air temperature (Ta) was explained jointly by the two composition variables of urban morphology indicators including open space ratio (OSR) and floor area ratio (FAR). It has been possible to determine the membership of sample areas to the local climate zones (LCZs) using these urban morphology descriptors automatically computed with GIS and remote sensed data. Finally result found the temperature differences among zones of large separation, such as the city center could be respectively from 35.48±1.04ºC (Mean±S.D.) warmer than the outskirt of Bangkok on average for maximum daytime near surface temperature to 28.27±0.21ºC for extreme event and, can exceed as 8ºC. A spatially disaggregation of urban thermal responsiveness map would be helpful for several reasons. First, it would localize urban areas concerned by different climate behavior over summer daytime and be a good indicator of urban climate variability. Second, when overlaid with a land cover map, this map may contribute to identify possible urban management strategies to reduce heat wave effects in BMA.

127
970
Study of Barriers to Women's Entrepreneurship Development among Iranian Women (Case Entrepreneur Women)
Abstract:
In this research, effort was made to identify and evaluate barriers to the development of entrepreneurship among Iranian entrepreneur women who were graduated from universities. In this study, perspectives of thirty-seven available entrepreneur women were examined. In order to prepare questionnaires and receive knowledge about barriers among these women, seven cases of entrepreneur women took part in in-depth interviews. Then, to evaluate the importance of barriers, the researchers made a questionnaire with closed questions in which the barriers were classified into the following categories: personal-familial barriers; socio-cultural barriers; economic-financial-commercial barriers; and structural barriers. Entrepreneur women were requested to rate the importance of each item. The results indicated that there were different obstacles among entrepreneur women. The order of the important barriers was as fallow: economic-financial-commercial, structural, socio-cultural, and personal-familial.
126
15978
Sensitivity Comparison between Rapid Immuno-Chromatographic Device Test and ELISA in Detection and Sero-Prevalence of HBsAg and Anti-HCV antibodies in Apparently Healthy Blood Donors of Lahore, Pakistan
Abstract:
Hepatitis B and hepatitis C are among the most significant hepatic infections all around the world that may lead to hepatocellular carcinoma. This study is first time performed at the blood transfussion centre of Omar hospital, Lahore. It aims to determine the sero-prevalence of these diseases by screening the apparently healthy blood donors who might be the carriers of HBV or HCV and pose a high risk in the transmission. It also aims the comparison between the sensitivity of two diagnostic tests; chromatographic immunoassay – one step test device and Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbant Assay (ELISA). Blood serum of 855 apparently healthy blood donors was screened for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and for anti HCV antibodies. SPSS version 12.0 and X2 (Chi-square) test were used for statistical analysis. The seroprevalence of HCV was 8.07% by the device method and by ELISA 9.12% and that of HBV was 5.6% by the device and 6.43% by ELISA. The unavailability of vaccination against HCV makes it more prevalent. Comparing the two diagnostic methods, ELISA proved to be more sensitive.
125
9712
Genetic Comparison of Two Different Arabian Oryx Populations in UAE Based on Microsatellite Analysis
Abstract:
This is a genetic comparison study of Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx) population at two different locations (A &B) based on nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Arabian Oryx is listed as vulnerable and endanger by the World Conservation Union (IUCN). Thirty microsatellite markers from bovine family were applied to investigate the genetic diversity of the Arabian Oryx and to set up a molecular inventory. Among 30 microsatellite markers used, 13 markers were moderately polymorphic. Arabian Oryx at location A has shown better gene diversity over location B. However, mean number of alleles were less than location B. Data of within population inbreeding coefficient indicates inbreeding at both locations (A&B). Based on the analysis of polymorphic microsatellite markers, the study revealed that Arabian Oryx need a genetically designed breeding program.
124
13849
Issues Problems of Sedimentation in Reservoir Siazakh Dam Case Study
Abstract:
Sedimentation in reservoirs lowers the quality of consumed water, reduce the volume of reservoir, lowers the controllable amount of flood, increases the risk of water overflow during possible floods and the risk of reversal and reduction of dam's useful life. So in all stages of dam establishment such as cognitive studies, phase-1 studies of design, control, construction and maintenance, the problem of sedimentation in reservoir should be considered. What engineers need to do is examine and develop the methods to keep effective capacity of a reservoir, however engineers should also consider the influences of the methods on the flood disaster, functions of water use facilities and environmental issues.This article first examines the sedimentation in reservoirs and shows how to control it and then discusses the studies about the sedimens in Siazakh Dam.
123
7006
The Fundamental Reliance of Iterative Learning Control on Stability Robustness
Abstract:
Iterative learning control aims to achieve zero tracking error of a specific command. This is accomplished by iteratively adjusting the command given to a feedback control system, based on the tracking error observed in the previous iteration. One would like the iterations to converge to zero tracking error in spite of any error present in the model used to design the learning law. First, this need for stability robustness is discussed, and then the need for robustness of the property that the transients are well behaved. Methods of producing the needed robustness to parameter variations and to singular perturbations are presented. Then a method involving reverse time runs is given that lets the world behavior produce the ILC gains in such a way as to eliminate the need for a mathematical model. Since the real world is producing the gains, there is no issue of model error. Provided the world behaves linearly, the approach gives an ILC law with both stability robustness and good transient robustness, without the need to generate a model.
122
2457
Optimization of Fiber Rich Gluten-Free Cookie Formulation by Response Surface Methodology
Abstract:
Most of the commercial gluten free products are nutritionally inferior when compared to gluten containing counterparts as manufacturers most often use the refined flours and starches. So it is possible that people on gluten free diet have low intake of fibre content. The foxtail millet flour and copra meal are gluten free and have high fibre and protein contents. The formulation of fibre rich gluten free cookies was optimized by response surface methodology considering independent process variables as proportion of Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) flour in mixed flour, fat content and guar gum. The sugar, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonates and water were added in fixed proportion as 60, 1.0, 0.4 and 20% of mixed flour weight, respectively. Optimum formulation obtained for maximum spread ratio, fibre content, surface L-value, overall acceptability and minimum breaking strength were 80% foxtail millet flour in mixed flour, 42.8 % fat content and 0.05% guar gum.
121
5133
Post ERP Feral System and use of ‘Feral System as Coping Mechanism
Abstract:
A number of studies highlighted problems related to ERP systems, yet, most of these studies focus on the problems during the project and implementation stages but not during the postimplementation use process. Problems encountered in the process of using ERP would hinder the effective exploitation and the extended and continued use of ERP systems and their value to organisations. This paper investigates the different types of problems users (operational, supervisory and managerial) faced in using ERP and how 'feral system' is used as the coping mechanism. The paper adopts a qualitative method and uses data collected from two cases and 26 interviews, to inductively develop a casual network model of ERP usage problem and its coping mechanism. This model classified post ERP usage problems as data quality, system quality, interface and infrastructure. The model is also categorised the different coping mechanism through use of 'feral system' inclusive of feral information system, feral data and feral use of technology.
120
11218
Solubility of CO2 in Aqueous Solutions of 2- Amino-2-Methyl-1-Propanol at High Pressure
Abstract:
Carbon dioxide is one of the major green house gases. It is removed from different streams using amine absorption process. Sterically hindered amines are suggested as good CO2 absorbers. Solubility of carbon dioxide (CO2) was measured in aqueous solutions of 2-Amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) at temperatures 30 oC, 40 oC and 60 oC. The effect of pressure and temperature was studied over various concentrations of AMP. It has been found that pressure has positive effect on CO2 solubility where as solubility decreased with increasing temperature. Absorption performance of AMP increased with increasing pressure. Solubility of aqueous AMP was compared with mo-ethanolamine (MEA) and the absorption capacity of aqueous solutions of AMP was found to be better.
119
14115
Simulation Study on the Indoor Thermal Comfort with Insulation on Interior Structural Components of Super High-Rise Residences
Abstract:
In this study, we discussed the effects on the thermal comfort of super high-rise residences that how effected by the high thermal capacity structural components. We considered different building orientations, structures, and insulation methods. We used the dynamic simulation software THERB (simulation of the thermal environment of residential buildings). It can estimate the temperature, humidity, sensible temperature, and heating/cooling load for multiple buildings. In the past studies, we examined the impact of air-conditioning loads (hereinafter referred to as AC loads) on the interior structural parts and the AC-usage patterns of super-high-rise residences. Super-high-rise residences have more structural components such as pillars and beams than do ordinary apartment buildings. The skeleton is generally made of concrete and steel, which have high thermal-storage capacities. The thermal-storage capacity of super-high-rise residences is considered to have a larger impact on the AC load and thermal comfort than that of ordinary residences. We show that the AC load of super-high-rise units would be reduced by installing insulation on the surfaces of interior walls that are not usually insulated in Japan.
118
82
On the Dynamic Model of Service Innovation in Manufacturing Industry
Abstract:

As the trend of manufacturing is being dominated depending on services, products and processes are more and more related with sophisticated services. Thus, this research starts with the discussion about integration of the product, process, and service in the innovation process. In particular, this paper sets out some foundations for a theory of service innovation in the field of manufacturing, and proposes the dynamic model of service innovation related to product and process. Two dynamic models of service innovation are suggested to investigate major tendencies and dynamic variations during the innovation cycle: co-innovation and sequential innovation. To structure dynamic models of product, process, and service innovation, the innovation stages in which two models are mainly achieved are identified. The research would encourage manufacturers to formulate strategy and planning for service development with product and process.

117
636
An Improved Data Mining Method Applied to the Search of Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Lifestyles
Abstract:
A data cutting and sorting method (DCSM) is proposed to optimize the performance of data mining. DCSM reduces the calculation time by getting rid of redundant data during the data mining process. In addition, DCSM minimizes the computational units by splitting the database and by sorting data with support counts. In the process of searching for the relationship between metabolic syndrome and lifestyles with the health examination database of an electronics manufacturing company, DCSM demonstrates higher search efficiency than the traditional Apriori algorithm in tests with different support counts.
116
8568
GPS TEC Variation Affected by the Interhemispheric Conjugate Auroral Activity on 21 September 2009
Abstract:
This paper observed the interhemispheric conjugate auroral activity occurred on 21 September 2009. The GPS derived ionospheric total electron content (TEC) during a weak substorm interval recorded at interhemispheric conjugate points at Husafell in Iceland and Syowa in Antarctica is investigated to look at their signatures on the auroral features. Selection of all-sky camera (ASC) images and keogram at Tjörnes and Syowa during the interval 00:47:54 – 00:50:14 UT on 21 September 2009 found that the auroral activity had exerted their influence on the GPS TEC as a consequence of varying interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By polarity.
115
15723
Study of the Cryogenically Cooled Electrode Shape in Electric Discharge Machining Process
Abstract:
Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is well established machining technique mainly used to machine complex geometries on difficult-to-machine materials and high strength temperature resistant alloys. In the present research, the objective is to study the shape of the electrode and establish the application of liquid nitrogen in reducing distortion of the electrode during electrical discharge machining of M2 grade high speed steel using copper electrodes. Study of roundness was performed on the electrode to observe the shape of the electrode for both conventional EDM and EDM with cryogenically cooled electrode. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) has been used to study the shape of electrode tip. The effect of various parameters such as discharge current and pulse on time has been studied to understand the behavior of distortion of electrode. It has been concluded that the shape retention is better in case of liquid nitrogen cooled electrode.
114
14199
Efficient Numerical Model for Studying Bridge Pier Collapse in Floods
Abstract:
High level and high velocity flood flows are potentially harmful to bridge piers as evidenced in many toppled piers, and among them the single-column piers were considered as the most vulnerable. The flood flow characteristic parameters including drag coefficient, scouring and vortex shedding are built into a pier-flood interaction model to investigate structural safety against flood hazards considering the effects of local scouring, hydrodynamic forces, and vortex induced resonance vibrations. By extracting the pier-flood simulation results embedded in a neural networks code, two cases of pier toppling occurred in typhoon days were reexamined: (1) a bridge overcome by flash flood near a mountain side; (2) a bridge washed off in flood across a wide channel near the estuary. The modeling procedures and simulations are capable of identifying the probable causes for the tumbled bridge piers during heavy floods, which include the excessive pier bending moments and resonance in structural vibrations.
113
6670
New Explicit Group Newton's Iterative Methods for the Solutions of Burger's Equation
Abstract:

In this article, we aim to discuss the formulation of two explicit group iterative finite difference methods for time-dependent two dimensional Burger-s problem on a variable mesh. For the non-linear problems, the discretization leads to a non-linear system whose Jacobian is a tridiagonal matrix. We discuss the Newton-s explicit group iterative methods for a general Burger-s equation. The proposed explicit group methods are derived from the standard point and rotated point Crank-Nicolson finite difference schemes. Their computational complexity analysis is discussed. Numerical results are given to justify the feasibility of these two proposed iterative methods.

112
14415
Adaptive Nonlinear Backstepping Control
Abstract:
This paper presents an adaptive nonlinear position controller with velocity constraint, capable of combining the input-output linearization technique and Lyapunov stability theory. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, the adaptation law of the proposed controller is derived along with the verification of the overall system-s stability. Computer simulation results demonstrate that the proposed controller is robust and it can ensure transient stability of BLDCM, under the occurrence of a large sudden fault.
111
2024
Ghazal Ozon River and Preserving the Existent Aquatics While Constructing the Siazakh Dam
Abstract:
The main purpose of the dam is to control the surface streams and rivers across the country. Dam construction and formation of river and big water reservoirs and resources happen in the glen is a big incident which would change its surrounding area considerably. In fact, constructing a dam the glen width is close and fishes don't migrate from upstream to downstream and ultimately it would led to their death. To resolve this, it seems necessity to create a passage for fishes during the construction of dam. It is provided establishing a set of stepped pools overlooking each other as a fish way or fish ladder a proper pathway for moving fishes. In this article we first examine the surrounding environment and then Ghazal Ozon River and preserving the aquatics.
110
15482
Autonomous Control of a Mobile Manipulator
Abstract:
This paper considers the design of a motion planner that will simultaneously accomplish control and motion planning of a n-link nonholonomic mobile manipulator, wherein, a n-link holonomic manipulator is coupled with a nonholonomic mobile platform, within an obstacle-ridden environment. This planner, derived from the Lyapunov-based control scheme, generates collision-free trajectories from an initial configuration to a final configuration in a constrained environment cluttered with stationary solid objects of different shapes and sizes. We demonstrate the efficiency of the control scheme and the resulting acceleration controllers of the mobile manipulator with results through computer simulations of an interesting scenario.
109
5469
Novel Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation with Least Correlated Noise
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel sinusoidal modulation scheme that features least correlated noise and high linearity. The modulation circuit, which is composed of a quantizer, a resonator, and a comparator, is capable of eliminating correlated modulation noise while doing modulation. The proposed modulation scheme combined with the linear quadratic optimal control is applied to a single-phase voltage source inverter and validated with the experiment results. The experiments show that the inverter supplies stable 60Hz 110V AC power with a total harmonic distortion of less than 1%, under the DC input variation from 190 V to 300 V and the output power variation from 0 to 600 W.
108
1065
A Novel Design for Hybrid Space-Time Block Codes and Spatial Multiplexing Scheme
Abstract:
Space-time block codes (STBC) and spatial multiplexing (SM) are promising techniques that effectively exploit multipleinput multiple-output (MIMO) transmission to achieve more reliable communication and a higher multiplexing rate, respectively. In this paper, we study a practical design for hybrid scheme with multi-input multi-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMOOFDM) systems to flexibly maximize the tradeoff between diversity and multiplexing gains. Unlike the existing STBC and SM designs which are suitable for the integer multiplexing rate, the proposed design can achieve arbitrary number of multiplexing rate.
107
10978
Variable-Relation Criterion for Analysis of the Memristor
Abstract:
To judge whether the memristor can be interpreted as the fourth fundamental circuit element, we propose a variable-relation criterion of fundamental circuit elements. According to the criterion, we investigate the nature of three fundamental circuit elements and the memristor. From the perspective of variables relation, the memristor builds a direct relation between the voltage across it and the current through it, instead of a direct relation between the magnetic flux and the charge. Thus, it is better to characterize the memristor and the resistor as two special cases of the same fundamental circuit element, which is the memristive system in Chua-s new framework. Finally, the definition of memristor is refined according to the difference between the magnetic flux and the flux linkage.
106
1091
Does Labour Supply Respond to Globalisation? Malaysia Evidence from Micro Data
Abstract:
Globalisation is a phenomenon that cannot be avoided. As globalisation allowed free flow of inputs including labour, it may affect job opportunities for the locals. Therefore, investigate the determinants of labour supply is essential in understanding the structure of labour market in the new era of globalization. The objective of this article is to examine labour supply by taking into account the globalisation effect. The study covers 3885 households in Peninsular Malaysia who are chosen using stratified random sampling. The labour supply model will be the basis for the analysis. The basic labour supply determinants are own wage and non-labour income. However, the extended labour supply model incorporates other variables like spouse wage,number of children and individuals characteristics like education level and age. Besides, the globalization indicator will also be incorporated as another independent variable.
105
1201
Studying the Relationship between Different Dimensions of CRM and Innovation Capabilities in Melli Bank of Iran
Abstract:

This paper investigates the relationship between different dimensions of customer relationship management and innovation capabilities in Melli Bank of Iran. Five dimensions of CRM include information sharing, customer involvement, long-term partnership, joint problem solving and technology-based CRM are selected to measure their relationship with innovation capabilities including innovation in product, innovation in process, innovation in administrative affairs, innovation in marketing, and finally innovation in services. Research findings indicate that there is significant relationship between CRM dimensions and innovation capabilities in Melli bank of Iran.

104
15179
Fuzzy Processing of Uncertain Data
Abstract:
In practice, we often come across situations where it is necessary to make decisions based on incomplete or uncertain data. In control systems it may be due to the unknown exact mathematical model, or its excessive complexity (e.g. nonlinearity) when it is necessary to simplify it, respectively, to solve it using a rule base. In the case of databases, searching data we compare a similarity measure with of the requirements of the selection with stored data, where both the select query and the data itself may contain vague terms, for example in the form of linguistic qualifiers. In this paper, we focus on the processing of uncertain data in databases and demonstrate it on the example multi-criteria decision making in the selection of variants, specified by higher number of technical parameters.
103
10852
Computational Modeling in Strategic Marketing
Abstract:
Well-developed strategic marketing planning is the essential prerequisite for establishment of the right and unique competitive advantage. Typical market, however, is a heterogeneous and decentralized structure with natural involvement of individual or group subjectivity and irrationality. These features cannot be fully expressed with one-shot rigorous formal models based on, e.g. mathematics, statistics or empirical formulas. We present an innovative solution, extending the domain of agent based computational economics towards the concept of hybrid modeling in service provider and consumer market such as telecommunications. The behavior of the market is described by two classes of agents - consumer and service provider agents - whose internal dynamics are fundamentally different. Customers are rather free multi-state structures, adjusting behavior and preferences quickly in accordance with time and changing environment. Producers, on the contrary, are traditionally structured companies with comparable internal processes and specific managerial policies. Their business momentum is higher and immediate reaction possibilities limited. This limitation underlines importance of proper strategic planning as the main process advising managers in time whether to continue with more or less the same business or whether to consider the need for future structural changes that would ensure retention of existing customers or acquisition of new ones.
102
15284
Experimental teaching, Perceived usefulness, Ease of use, Learning Interest and Science Achievement of Taiwan 8th Graders in TIMSS 2007 Database
Abstract:
the data of Taiwanese 8th grader in the 4th cycle of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) are analyzed to examine the influence of the science teachers- preference in experimental teaching on the relationships between the affective variables ( the perceived usefulness of science, ease of using science and science learning interest) and the academic achievement in science. After dealing with the missing data, 3711 students and 145 science teacher-s data were analyzed through a Hierarchical Linear Modeling technique. The major objective of this study was to determine the role of the experimental teaching moderates the relationship between perceived usefulness and achievement.
101
955
Classification of Causes and Effects of Uploading and Downloading of Pirated Film Products
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper covers various aspects of the Internet film piracy. In order to successfully deal with this matter, it is needed to recognize and explain various motivational factors related to film piracy. Thus, this study proposes groups of economical, sociopsychological and other factors that could motivate individuals to engage in pirate activities. The paper also studies the interactions between downloaders and uploaders and offers the causality of the motivational factors and its effects on the film industry. Moreover, the study also focuses on proposed scheme of relations of downloading movies and the possible effect on box office revenues.
100
14187
Probabilistic Modelling of Marine Bridge Deterioration
Abstract:
Chloride induced corrosion of steel reinforcement is the main cause of deterioration of reinforced concrete marine structures. This paper investigates the relative performance of alternative repair options with respect to the deterioration of reinforced concrete bridge elements in marine environments. Focus is placed on the initiation phase of reinforcement corrosion. A laboratory study is described which involved exposing concrete samples to accelerated chloride-ion ingress. The study examined the relative efficiencies of two repair methods, namely Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concrete and a concrete which utilised Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Cement (GGBS) as a partial cement replacement. The mix designs and materials utilised were identical to those implemented in the repair of a marine bridge on the South East coast of Ireland in 2007. The results of this testing regime serve to inform input variables employed in probabilistic modelling of deterioration for subsequent reliability based analysis to compare the relative performance of the studied repair options.
99
87
Reliability Analysis of Tubular Joints of Offshore Platforms in Malaysia
Abstract:
The oil and gas industry has moved towards Load and Resistance Factor Design through API RP2A - LRFD and the recently published international standard, ISO-19902, for design of fixed steel offshore structures. The ISO 19902 is intended to provide a harmonized design practice that offers a balanced structural fitness for the purpose, economy and safety. As part of an ongoing work, the reliability analysis of tubular joints of the jacket structure has been carried out to calibrate the load and resistance factors for the design of offshore platforms in Malaysia, as proposed in the ISO. Probabilistic models have been established for the load effects (wave, wind and current) and the tubular joints strengths. In this study the First Order Reliability Method (FORM), coded in MATLAB Software has been employed to evaluate the reliability index of the typical joints, designed using API RP2A - WSD and ISO 19902.
98
15882
Feature Selection Approaches with Missing Values Handling for Data Mining - A Case Study of Heart Failure Dataset
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigated the characteristic of a clinical dataseton the feature selection and classification measurements which deal with missing values problem.And also posed the appropriated techniques to achieve the aim of the activity; in this research aims to find features that have high effect to mortality and mortality time frame. We quantify the complexity of a clinical dataset. According to the complexity of the dataset, we proposed the data mining processto cope their complexity; missing values, high dimensionality, and the prediction problem by using the methods of missing value replacement, feature selection, and classification.The experimental results will extend to develop the prediction model for cardiology.
97
7788
Preliminary Study on Determining Stem Diameter Variations of Sympodial Orchid
Abstract:
Changes in stem diameter of orchid plants were investigated in a control growing climate. Previous studies have focused on stem diameter in relation to plant water on terrestrial plants in order to schedule the irrigation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the ability of the strain gauges to capture changes in the epiphytes plant stem. Experiments were carried out by using the sympodial orchid, Dendrobium Sonia in a stressed condition. From the findings, the sensor can detect changes in the plant stem and the result can easily be used as a reference for further studies for the development of a proper watering system.
96
15865
A Study of Calcination and Carbonation of Cockle Shell
Abstract:
Calcium oxide (CaO) as carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorbent at the elevated temperature has been very well-received thus far. The CaO can be synthesized from natural calcium carbonate (CaCO3) sources through the reversible calcination-carbonation process. In the study, cockle shell has been selected as CaO precursors. The objectives of the study are to investigate the performance of calcination and carbonation with respect to different temperature, heating rate, particle size and the duration time. Overall, better performance is shown at the calcination temperature of 850oC for 40 minutes, heating rate of 20oC/min, particle size of < 0.125mm and the carbonation temperature is at 650oC. The synthesized materials have been characterized by nitrogen physisorption and surface morphology analysis. The effectiveness of the synthesized cockle shell in capturing CO2 (0.72 kg CO2/kg adsorbent) which is comparable to the commercialized adsorbent (0.60 kg CO2/kg adsorbent) makes them as the most promising materials for CO2 capture.
95
6058
Analysis of Current Mirror in 32nm MOSFET and CNTFET Technologies
Abstract:

There is need to explore emerging technologies based on carbon nanotube electronics as the MOS technology is approaching its limits. As MOS devices scale to the nano ranges, increased short channel effects and process variations considerably effect device and circuit designs. As a promising new transistor, the Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor(CNTFET) avoids most of the fundamental limitations of the Traditional MOSFET devices. In this paper we present the analysis and comparision of a Carbon Nanotube FET(CNTFET) based 10(A current mirror with MOSFET for 32nm technology node. The comparision shows the superiority of the former in terms of 97% increase in output resistance,24% decrease in power dissipation and 40% decrease in minimum voltage required for constant saturation current. Furthermore the effect on performance of current mirror due to change in chirality vector of CNT has also been investigated. The circuit simulations are carried out using HSPICE model.

94
771
An Adequate Choice of Initial Sample Size for Selection Approach
Abstract:
In this paper, we consider the effect of the initial sample size on the performance of a sequential approach that used in selecting a good enough simulated system, when the number of alternatives is very large. We implement a sequential approach on M=M=1 queuing system under some parameter settings, with a different choice of the initial sample sizes to explore the impacts on the performance of this approach. The results show that the choice of the initial sample size does affect the performance of our selection approach.
93
7921
Microalgae-based Oil for Biodiesel Production
Abstract:
Biodiesel is traditionally produced from oleaginous plants. On the other hand, increasing biodiesel production from these raw materials could create problems of food supply. Producing biodiesel from microalgae could help to overcome this difficulty, because microalgae are rich in lipids and do not compete for arable lands. However, no studies had compared vegetable and microalgae oil-based biodiesel in terms of yield, viscosity and heat of combustion. In the present study, commercial canola and microalgae oil were therefore transesterified with methanol under a homogenous alkali catalyst (potassium hydroxide) at 100oC for 1h. The result showed that microalgae-based oil has a higher yield in biodiesel with 89.7% (g biodiesel/g oil) and a lower kinematic viscosity (22oC) of 4.31 mm/s2 than canola oil.
92
14093
Feasibility Study on Designing a Flat Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) to Recover the Heat from Exhaust of a Gas Turbine
Authors:
Abstract:
A theoretical study is conducted to design and explore the effect of different parameters such as heat loads, the tube size of piping system, wick thickness, porosity and hole size on the performance and capability of a Loop Heat Pipe(LHP). This paper presents a steady state model that describes the different phenomena inside a LHP. Loop Heat Pipes(LHPs) are two-phase heat transfer devices with capillary pumping of a working fluid. By their original design comparing with heat pipes and special properties of the capillary structure, they-re capable of transferring heat efficiency for distances up to several meters at any orientation in the gravity field, or to several meters in a horizontal position. This theoretical model is described by different relations to satisfy important limits such as capillary and nucleate boiling. An algorithm is developed to predict the size of the LHP satisfying the limitations mentioned above for a wide range of applied loads. Finally, to assess and evaluate the algorithm and all the relations considered, we have used to design a new kind of LHP to recover the heat from the exhaust of an actual Gas Turbine. By finding the results, it showed that we can use the LHP as a very high efficient device to recover the heat even in high amount of loads(exhaust of a gas turbine). The sizes of all parts of the LHP were obtained using the developed algorithm.
91
12604
Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes/Polyacrylonitrile Composite as Novel Semi-Permeable Mixed Matrix Membrane in Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Process
Abstract:
novel and simple method is introduced for rapid and highly efficient water treatment by reverse osmosis (RO) method using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) / polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer as a flexible, highly efficient, reusable and semi-permeable mixed matrix membrane (MMM). For this purpose, MWCNTs were directly synthesized and on-line purified by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process, followed by directing the MWCNT bundles towards an ultrasonic bath, in which PAN polymer was simultaneously suspended inside a solid porous silica support in water at temperature to ~70 οC. Fabrication process of MMM was finally completed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process. In accordance with the analytical figures of merit, the efficiency of fabricated MMM was ~97%. The rate of water treatment process was also evaluated to 6.35 L min-1. The results reveal that, the CNT-based MMM is suitable for rapid treatment of different forms of industrial, sea, drinking and well water samples.
90
15378
Facebook Lessons for E-Business Startups
Abstract:
This paper addresses the fundamental requirements for starting an online business. It covers the process of ideation, conceptualization, formulation, and implementation of new venture ideas on the Web. Using Facebook as an illustrative example, we learn how to turn an idea into a successful electronic business and to execute a business plan with IT skills, management expertise, a good entrepreneurial attitude, and an understanding of Internet culture. The personality traits and characteristics of a successful e-commerce entrepreneur are discussed with reference to Facebook-s founder, Mark Zuckerberg. Facebook is a social and e-commerce success. It provides a trusted environment of which participants can conduct business with social experience. People are able to discuss products before, during the after the sale within the Facebook environment. The paper also highlights the challenges and opportunities for e-commerce entrepreneurial startups to go public and of entering the China market.
89
6092
Comprehensive Studies on Mechanical Stress Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates
Abstract:
Stress analysis of functionally graded composite plates composed of ceramic, functionally graded material and metal layers is investigated using 3-D finite element method. In FGM layer, material properties are assumed to be varied continuously in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fraction of a ceramic and metal. The 3-D finite element model is adopted by using an 18-node solid element to analyze more accurately the variation of material properties in the thickness direction. Numerical results are compared for three types of materials. In the analysis, the tensile and the compressive stresses are summarized for various FGM thickness ratios, volume fraction distributions, geometric parameters and mechanical loads.
88
7702
Mining and Visual Management of XML-Based Image Collections
Abstract:
This article describes Uruk, the virtual museum of Iraq that we developed for visual exploration and retrieval of image collections. The system largely exploits the loosely-structured hierarchy of XML documents that provides a useful representation method to store semi-structured or unstructured data, which does not easily fit into existing database. The system offers users the capability to mine and manage the XML-based image collections through a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI). Typically, at an interactive session with the system, the user can browse a visual structural summary of the XML database in order to select interesting elements. Using this intermediate result, queries combining structure and textual references can be composed and presented to the system. After query evaluation, the full set of answers is presented in a visual and structured way.
87
6514
Parallel Explicit Group Domain Decomposition Methods for the Telegraph Equation
Abstract:
In a previous work, we presented the numerical solution of the two dimensional second order telegraph partial differential equation discretized by the centred and rotated five-point finite difference discretizations, namely the explicit group (EG) and explicit decoupled group (EDG) iterative methods, respectively. In this paper, we utilize a domain decomposition algorithm on these group schemes to divide the tasks involved in solving the same equation. The objective of this study is to describe the development of the parallel group iterative schemes under OpenMP programming environment as a way to reduce the computational costs of the solution processes using multicore technologies. A detailed performance analysis of the parallel implementations of points and group iterative schemes will be reported and discussed.
86
4207
Development of a Portable Welding Robot with EtherCAT Interface
Abstract:
This paper presents a portable robot that is to use for welding process in shipbuilding yard. It has six degree of freedom and 3kg payload capability. Its weight is 21.5kg so that human workers can carry it to the work place. Its body mainly made of magnesium alloy and aluminum alloy for few parts that require high strength. Since the distance between robot and controller should be 50m at most, the robot controller controls the robot through EtherCAT. RTX and KPA are used for real time EtherCAT control on Windows XP. The performance of the developed robot was satisfactory, in welding of U type cell in shipbuilding yard.
85
7016
Measuring Relative Efficiency of Korean Construction Company using DEA/Window
Abstract:
Sub-prime mortgage crisis which began in the US is regarded as the most economic crisis since the Great Depression in the early 20th century. Especially, hidden problems on efficient operation of a business were disclosed at a time and many financial institutions went bankrupt and filed for court receivership. The collapses of physical market lead to bankruptcy of manufacturing and construction businesses. This study is to analyze dynamic efficiency of construction businesses during the five years at the turn of the global financial crisis. By discovering the trend and stability of efficiency of a construction business, this study-s objective is to improve management efficiency of a construction business in the ever-changing construction market. Variables were selected by analyzing corporate information on top 20 construction businesses in Korea and analyzed for static efficiency in 2008 and dynamic efficiency between 2006 and 2010. Unlike other studies, this study succeeded in deducing efficiency trend and stability of a construction business for five years by using the DEA/Window model. Using the analysis result, efficient and inefficient companies could be figured out. In addition, relative efficiency among DMU was measured by comparing the relationship between input and output variables of construction businesses. This study can be used as a literature to improve management efficiency for companies with low efficiency based on efficiency analysis of construction businesses.
84
15286
Development of Motor and Controller for VVA Module of Gasoline Vehicle
Abstract:

Due to environmental concerns, the recent regulation on automobile fuel economy has been strengthened. The market demand for efficient vehicles is growing and automakers to improve engine fuel efficiency in the industry have been paying a lot of effort. To improve the fuel efficiency, it is necessary to reduce losses or to improve combustion efficiency of the engine. VVA (Variable Valve Actuation) technology enhances the engine's intake air flow, reduce pumping losses and mechanical friction losses. And also, VVA technology is the engine's low speed and high speed operation to implement each of appropriate valve lift. It improves the performance of engine in the entire operating range. This paper presents a design procedure of DC motor and drive for VVA system and shows the validity of the design result by experimental result with prototype.

83
14817
The Acaricidal and Repellent Effect of Cinnamon Essential Oil against House Dust Mite
Abstract:
The major source of allergy in home is the house dust mite (Dematophagoides farina, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) causing allergic symptom include atopic dermatitis, asthma, perennial rhinitis and even infant death syndrome. Control of this mite species is dependent on the use of chemical methods such as fumigation treatments with methylene bromide, spraying with organophosphates such as pirimiphos-methyl, or treatments with repellents such as DEET and benzyl benzoate. Although effective, their repeated use for decades has sometimes resulted in development of resistance and fostered environmental and human health concerns. Both decomposing animal parts and the protein that surrounds mite fecal pellets cause mite allergy. So it is more effective to repel than to kill them because allergen is not living house dust mite but dead body or fecal particles of house dust mite. It is important to find out natural repellent material against house dust mite to control them and reduce the allergic reactions. Plants may be an alternative source for dust mite control because they contain a range of bioactive chemicals. The research objectives of this paper were to verify the acaricidal and repellent effects of cinnamon essential oil and to find out it-s most effective concentrations. We could find that cinnamon bark essential oil was very effective material to control the house dust mite. Furthermore, it could reduce chemical resistance and danger for human health.
82
7775
Local Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Native Porcine Endplate
Abstract:
Hysitron TriboIndenterTM TI 950 system has been used for studying the local viscoelastic properties of porcine intervertebral disc end plate by means of nanoscale mechanical dynamic analysis. The specimen of an endplate was cut from fresh porcine vertebra dissected from 16 month animal. The lumbar spine motion segments were dissected and 5 millimeter thick plates of vertebral body, endplate and annulus fibrosus were prepared for nanoindentation. The surface of the sample was kept in physiological solution during nanoindentation experiment. We obtained mechanical characteristics of different areas of native endplate (endplate middle and vertebra and annulus fibrosus boundary).
81
3944
Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Bacterial Isolates from Animal Farming Aquatic Environments and Meats in a Peri-Urban Community in South Korea
Abstract:
The increasing usage of antibiotics in the animal farming industry is an emerging worldwide problem contributing to the development of antibiotic resistance. The purpose of this work was to investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profile of bacterial isolates collected from aquatic environments and meats in a peri-urban community in Daejeon, Korea. In an antibacterial susceptibility test, the bacterial isolates showed a high incidence of resistance (~ 26.04 %) to cefazolin, tetracycline, gentamycin, norfloxacin, erythromycin and vancomycin. The results from a test for multiple antibiotic resistance indicated that the isolates were displaying an approximately 5-fold increase in the incidence of multiple antibiotic resistance to combinations of two different antibiotics compared to combinations of three or more antibiotics. Most of the isolates showed multi-antibiotic resistance, and the resistance patterns were similar among the sampling groups. Sequencing data analysis of 16S rRNA showed that most of the resistant isolates appeared to be dominated by the classes Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria.
80
12355
Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Based Effective Design of Combinational and Sequential Logical Structures
Abstract:
The use of Quantum dots is a promising emerging Technology for implementing digital system at the nano level. It is effecient for attractive features such as faster speed , smaller size and low power consumption than transistor technology. In this paper, various Combinational and sequential logical structures - HALF ADDER, SR Latch and Flip-Flop, D Flip-Flop preceding NAND, NOR, XOR,XNOR are discussed based on QCA design, with comparatively less number of cells and area. By applying these layouts, the hardware requirements for a QCA design can be reduced. These structures are designed and simulated using QCA Designer Tool. By taking full advantage of the unique features of this technology, we are able to create complete circuits on a single layer of QCA. Such Devices are expected to function with ultra low power Consumption and very high speeds.
79
6554
Seismic Response Reduction of Structures using Smart Base Isolation System
Authors:
Abstract:
In this study, control performance of a smart base isolation system consisting of a friction pendulum system (FPS) and a magnetorheological (MR) damper has been investigated. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is used to modulate the MR damper so as to minimize structural acceleration while maintaining acceptable base displacement levels. To this end, a multi-objective optimization scheme is used to optimize parameters of membership functions and find appropriate fuzzy rules. To demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed multi-objective genetic algorithm for FLC, a numerical study of a smart base isolation system is conducted using several historical earthquakes. It is shown that the proposed method can find optimal fuzzy rules and that the optimized FLC outperforms not only a passive control strategy but also a human-designed FLC and a conventional semi-active control algorithm.
78
15093
Removal of Iron from Groundwater by Sulfide Precipitation
Abstract:

Iron in groundwater is one of the problems that render the water unsuitable for drinking. The concentration above 0.3 mg/L is common in groundwater. The conventional method of removal is by precipitation under oxic condition. In this study, iron removal under anaerobic conditions was examined by batch experiment as a main purpose. The process involved by purging of groundwater samples with H2S to form iron sulfide. Removal up to 83% for 1 mg/L iron solution was achieved. The removal efficiency dropped to 82% and 75% for the higher initial iron concentrations 3.55 and 5.01 mg/L, respectively. The average residual sulfide concentration in water after the process was 25*g/L. The Eh level during the process was -272 mV. The removal process was found to follow the first order reaction with average rate constant of 4.52 x 10-3. The half-life for the concentrations to reduce from initial values was 157 minutes.

77
6008
Product Ecodesign Approaches in ISO 14001 Certified Companies
Abstract:
The aim of the study was to investigate whether there is the promotion of product ecodesign measures as a result of adopting ISO 14001 certification in manufacturing companies in the Republic of Slovenia. Companies gave the most of their product development attention to waste and energy reduction during manufacturing process and reduction of material consumption per unit of product. Regarding the importance of different ecodesign criteria reduction of material consumption per unit of product was reported as the most important criterion. Less attention is paid to endof- life issues considering recycling or packaging. Most manufacturing enterprises considered ISO 14001 standard as a very useful tool or at least a useful tool helping them to accelerate and establish product ecodesign activities. Two most frequently considered ecodesign drivers are increased competitive advantage and legal requirements and two most important barriers are high development costs and insufficient market demand.
76
12331
A Study of Performance of Wastewater Treatment Systems for Small Sites
Abstract:
The pollutant removal efficiency of the Intermittently Decanted Extended Aeration (IDEA) wastewater treatment system at Curtin University Sarawak Campus, and conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment system at a local resort, Resort A, is monitored. The influent and effluent characteristics are tested during wet and dry weather conditions, and peak and off peak periods. For the wastewater treatment systems at Curtin Sarawak and Resort A, during dry weather and peak season, it was found that the BOD5 concentration in the influent is 121.7mg/L and 80.0mg/L respectively, and in the effluent, 18.7mg/L and and 18.0mg/L respectively. Analysis of the performance of the IDEA treatment system showed that the operational costs can be minimized by 3%, by decreasing the number of operating cycles. As for the treatment system in Resort A, by utilizing a smaller capacity air blower, a saving of 12% could be made in the operational costs.
75
641
Investigation of Undular Hydraulic Jump over Smooth Beds
Abstract:
Undular hydraulic jumps are illustrated by a smooth rise of the free surface followed by a train of stationary waves. They are sometimes experienced in natural waterways and rivers. The characteristics of undular hydraulic jumps are studied here. The height, amplitude and the main characteristics of undular jump is depended on the upstream Froude number and aspect ratio. The experiments were done on the smooth bed flume. These results compared with other researches and the main characteristics of the undular hydraulic jump were studied in this article.
74
14343
Three Attacks on Jia et al.'s Remote User Authentication Scheme using Bilinear Pairings and ECC
Abstract:

Recently, Jia et al. proposed a remote user authentication scheme using bilinear pairings and an Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem (ECC). However, the scheme is vulnerable to privileged insider attack at their proposed registration phase and to forgery attack at their proposed authentication phase. In addition, the scheme can be vulnerable to server spoofing attack because it does not provide mutual authentication between the user and the remote server. Therefore, this paper points out that the Jia et al. scheme is vulnerable to the above three attacks.

73
15700
Supplementation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor during in vitro Maturation of Porcine Cumulus Oocyte Complexes and Subsequent Developmental Competence after Parthenogenesis and in vitro Fertilization
Abstract:
In mammalian reproductive tract, the oviduct secretes huge number of growth factors and cytokines that create an optimal micro-environment for the initial stages of preimplantation embryos. Secretion of these growth factors is stage-specific. Among them, VEGF is a potent mitogen for vascular endothelium and stimulates vascular permeability. Apart from angiogenesis, VEGF in the oviduct may be involved in regulating the oocyte maturation and subsequent developmental process during embryo production in vitro. In experiment 1, to evaluate the effect of VEGF during IVM of porcine COC and subsequent developmental ability after PA and SCNT. The results from these experiments indicated that maturation rates among the different VEGF concentrations were not significant different. In experiment 2, total intracellular GSH concentrations of oocytes matured with VEGF (5-50 ng/ml) were increased significantly compared to a control and VEGF group (500 ng/ml). In experiment 3, the blastocyst formation rates and total cell number per blastocyst after parthenogenesis of oocytes matured with VEGF (5-50 ng/ml) were increased significantly compared to a control and VEGF group (500 ng/ml). Similarly, in experiment 4, the blastocyst formation rate and total cell number per blastocyst after SCNT and IVF of oocytes matured with VEGF (5 ng/ml) were significantly higher than that of oocytes matured without VEGF group. In experiment 5, at 10 hour after the onset of IVF, pronuclear formation rate was evaluated. Monospermy was significantly higher in VEGF-matured oocytes than in the control, and polyspermy and sperm penetration per oocyte were significantly higher in the control group than in the VEGFmatured oocytes. Supplementation with VEGF during IVM significantly improved male pronuclear formation as compared with the control. In experiment 6, type III cortical granule distribution in oocytes was more common in VEGF-matured oocytes than in the control. In conclusion, the present study suggested that supplementation of VEGF during IVM may enhance the developmental potential of porcine in vitro embryos through increase of the intracellular GSH level, higher MPN formation and increased fertilization rate as a consequence of an improved cytoplasmic maturation.
72
13471
A Numerical Model for Studying Convectional Lifting Processes in the Tropics
Abstract:
A simple model for studying convectional lifting processes in the tropics is described in this paper with some tests of the model in dry air. The model consists of the density equation, the wind equation, the vertical velocity equation, and the temperature equation. The model domain is two-dimensional with length 100 km and height 17.5 km. Plan for experiments to investigate the effects of the heating surface, the deep convection approximation and the treatment of velocities at the boundaries are discussed. Equations for the simplified treatment of moisture in the atmosphere in future numerical experiments are also given.
71
15787
Water Quality from a Mixed Land-Use Catchment in Miri, Sarawak
Abstract:
Urbanization has been found to impact stormwater runoff quantity and quality. A study catchment with mixed land use, residential and industrial were investigated and the water quality discharged from the catchment were sampled and tested for four basic water quality parameters; BOD5, NH3-N, NO3-N and P. One dry weather flow and several stormwater runoff were sampled. Results were compared to the USEPA stormwater quality benchmark values and the Interim National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia (INWQS). The concentration of the parameters was found to vary significantly between storms and the pollutant of concern was found to be NO3-N.
70
7230
Exons and Introns Classification in Human and Other Organisms
Abstract:
In the paper, the relative performances on spectral classification of short exon and intron sequences of the human and eleven model organisms is studied. In the simulations, all combinations of sixteen one-sequence numerical representations, four threshold values, and four window lengths are considered. Sequences of 150-base length are chosen and for each organism, a total of 16,000 sequences are used for training and testing. Results indicate that an appropriate combination of one-sequence numerical representation, threshold value, and window length is essential for arriving at top spectral classification results. For fixed-length sequences, the precisions on exon and intron classification obtained for different organisms are not the same because of their genomic differences. In general, precision increases as sequence length increases.
69
11430
School Design and Energy Efficiency
Authors:
Abstract:
Auckland has a temperate climate with comfortable warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters. An Auckland school normally does not need air conditioning for cooling during the summer and only need heating during the winter. The space hating energy is the major portion of winter school energy consumption and the winter energy consumption is major portion of annual school energy consumption. School building thermal design should focus on the winter thermal performance for reducing the space heating energy. A number of Auckland schools- design data and energy consumption data are used for this study. This pilot study investigates the relationships between their energy consumption data and school building design data to improve future school design for energy efficiency.
68
8879
Multi-Objective Planning and Operation of Water Supply Systems Subject to Climate Change
Abstract:
Many water supply systems in Australia are currently undergoing significant reconfiguration due to reductions in long term average rainfall and resulting low inflows to water supply reservoirs since the second half of the 20th century. When water supply systems undergo change, it is necessary to develop new operating rules, which should consider climate, because the climate change is likely to further reduce inflows. In addition, water resource systems are increasingly intended to be operated to meet complex and multiple objectives representing social, economic, environmental and sustainability criteria. This is further complicated by conflicting preferences on these objectives from diverse stakeholders. This paper describes a methodology to develop optimum operating rules for complex multi-reservoir systems undergoing significant change, considering all of the above issues. The methodology is demonstrated using the Grampians water supply system in northwest Victoria, Australia. Initial work conducted on the project is also presented in this paper.
67
1749
Development of an ArcGIS Toolbar for Trend Analysis of Climatic Data
Abstract:
Climate change is a cumulative change in weather patterns over a period of time. Trend analysis using non-parametric Mann-Kendall test may help to determine the existence and magnitude of any statistically significant trend in the climatic data. Another index called Sen slope may be used to quantify the magnitude of such trends. A toolbar extension to ESRI ArcGIS named Arc Trends has been developed in this study for performing the above mentioned tasks. To study the temporal trend of meteorological parameters, 32 years (1971-2002) monthly meteorological data were collected for 133 selected stations over different agro-ecological regions of India. Both the maximum and minimum temperatures were found to be rising. A significant increasing trend in the relative humidity and a consistent significant decreasing trend in the wind speed all over the country were found. However, a general increase in rainfall was not found in recent years.
66
14838
Torrefaction of Malaysian Palm Kernel Shell into Value-Added Solid Fuels
Abstract:
This project aims to investigate the potential of torrefaction to improve the properties of Malaysian palm kernel shell (PKS) as a solid fuel. A study towards torrefaction of PKS was performed under various temperature and residence time of 240, 260, and 280oC and 30, 60, and 90 minutes respectively. The torrefied PKS was characterized in terms of the mass yield, energy yield, elemental composition analysis, calorific value analysis, moisture and volatile matter contents, and ash and fixed carbon contents. The mass and energy yield changes in the torrefied PKS were observed to prove that the temperature has more effect compare to residence time in the torrefaction process. The C content of PKS increases while H and O contents decrease after torrefaction, which resulted in higher heating value between 5 to 16%. Meanwhile, torrefaction caused the ash and fixed carbon content of PKS to increase, and the moisture and volatile matter to decrease.
65
5440
Investigation of Advanced Oxidation Process for the Removal of Residual Carbaryl from Drinking Water Resources
Abstract:
A laboratory set-up was designed to survey the effectiveness of UV/O3 advanced oxidation process (AOP) for the removal of Carbaryl from polluted water in batch reactor. The study was carried out by UV/O3 process for water samples containing 1 to 20 mg/L of Carbaryl in distilled water. Also the range of drinking water resources adjusted in synthetic water and effects of contact time, pH and Carbaryl concentration were studied. The residual pesticide concentration was determined by applying high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that increasing of retention time and pH, enhances pesticide removal efficiency. The removal efficiency has been affected by pesticide initial concentration. Samples with low pesticide concentration showed a remarkable removal efficiency compared to the samples with high pesticide concentration. AOP method showed the removal efficiencies of 80% to 100%. Although process showed high performance for removal of pesticide from water samples, this process has different disadvantages including complication, intolerability, difficulty of maintenance and equipmental and structural requirements.
64
7972
Factors Having Impact on Marketing and Improvement Measures in the Real Estate Sector of Turkey
Abstract:
Marketing is an essential issue to the survival of any real estate company in Turkey. There are some factors which are constraining the achievements of the marketing and sales strategies in the Turkey real estate industry. This study aims to identify and prioritise the most significant constraints to marketing in real estate sector and new strategies based on those constraints. This study is based on survey method, where the respondents such as credit counsellors, real estate investors, consultants, academicians and marketing representatives in Turkey were asked to rank forty seven sub-factors according to their levels of impact. The results of Multiattribute analytical technique indicated that the main subcomponents having impact on marketing in real estate sector are interest rates, real estate credit availability, accessibility, company image and consumer real income, respectively. The identified constraints are expected to guide the marketing team in a sales-effective way.
63
3057
Development of a RAM Simulation Model for Acid Gas Removal System
Abstract:

A reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) model has been built for acid gas removal plant for system analysis that will play an important role in any process modifications, if required, for achieving its optimum performance. Due to the complexity of the plant, the model was based on a Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) with a Monte Carlo simulation engine. The model has been validated against actual plant data as well as local expert opinions, resulting in an acceptable simulation model. The results from the model showed that the operation and maintenance can be further improved, resulting in reduction of the annual production loss.

62
240
Safety Compliance of Substation Earthing Design
Abstract:
As new challenges emerge in power electrical workplace safety, it is the responsibility of the systems designer to seek out new approaches and solutions that address them. Design decisions made today will impact cost, safety and serviceability of the installed systems for 40 or 50 years during the useful life for the owner. Studies have shown that this cost is an order of magnitude of 7 to 10 times the installed cost of the power distribution equipment. This paper reviews some aspects of earthing system design in power substation surrounded by residential houses. The electrical potential rise and split factors are discussed and a few recommendations are provided to achieve a safety voltage in the area beyond the boundary of the substation.
61
5027
Analysis and Circuit Modeling of APDs
Abstract:
In this paper a new method for increasing the speed of SAGCM-APD is proposed. Utilizing carrier rate equations in different regions of the structure, a circuit model for the structure is obtained. In this research, in addition to frequency response, the effect of added new charge layer on some transient parameters like slew-rate, rising and falling times have been considered. Finally, by trading-off among some physical parameters such as different layers widths and droppings, a noticeable decrease in breakdown voltage has been achieved. The results of simulation, illustrate some features of proposed structure improvement in comparison with conventional SAGCM-APD structures.
60
5784
Analysis of Road Repairs in Undermined Areas
Abstract:
The article presents analysis results of maps of expected subsidence in undermined areas for road repair management. The analysis was done in the area of Karvina district in the Czech Republic, including undermined areas with ongoing deep mining activities or finished deep mining in years 2003 - 2009. The article discusses the possibilities of local road maintenance authorities to determine areas that will need most repairs in the future with limited data available. Using the expected subsidence maps new map of surface curvature was calculated. Combined with road maps and historical data about repairs the result came for five main categories of undermined areas, proving very simple tool for management.
59
9847
The Nonlinear Dynamic Elasto-Plastic Analysis for Evaluating the Controlling Effectiveness and Failure Mechanism of the MSCSS
Abstract:
This paper focuses on the Mega-Sub Controlled Structure Systems (MSCSS) performances and characteristics regarding the new control principle contained in MSCSS subjected to strong earthquake excitations. The adopted control scheme consists of modulated sub-structures where the control action is achieved by viscous dampers and sub-structure own configuration. The elastic-plastic time history analysis under severe earthquake excitation is analyzed base on the Finite Element Analysis Method (FEAM), and some comparison results are also given in this paper. The result shows that the MSCSS systems can remarkably reduce vibrations effects more than the mega-sub structure (MSS). The study illustrates that the improved MSCSS presents good seismic resistance ability even at 1.2g and can absorb seismic energy in the structure, thus imply that structural members cross section can be reduce and achieve to good economic characteristics. Furthermore, the elasto-plastic analysis demonstrates that the MSCSS is accurate enough regarding international building evaluation and design codes. This paper also shows that the elasto-plastic dynamic analysis method is a reasonable and reliable analysis method for structures subjected to strong earthquake excitations and that the computed results are more precise.
58
3027
From e-Government to e-Democracy Challenges and Opportunities for Development in Montenegro
Abstract:
Internet today has a huge impact on all aspects of life, and also in the area of the broader context of democracy, politics and politicians. If democracy is freedom of choice, there are a number of conditions that can ensure in practice the freedom to be achieved and realized. These preconditions must be achieved regardless of the manner of voting. The key contribution of ICT to achieve freedom of choice is that technology enables the correlation of the citizens and elected representatives on the better way than it was possible without the Internet. In this sense, we can say that the Internet and ICT are changing significantly, and potentially improving the environment in which democratic processes are taking place. This paper aims to describe trends in use of ICT in democratic processes, and analyzes the challenges for implementation of e-Democracy in Montenegro
57
1802
The Application of Adaptive Tabu Search Algorithm and Averaging Model to the Optimal Controller Design of Buck Converters
Abstract:
The paper presents the applications of artificial intelligence technique called adaptive tabu search to design the controller of a buck converter. The averaging model derived from the DQ and generalized state-space averaging methods is applied to simulate the system during a searching process. The simulations using such averaging model require the faster computational time compared with that of the full topology model from the software packages. The reported model is suitable for the work in the paper in which the repeating calculation is needed for searching the best solution. The results will show that the proposed design technique can provide the better output waveforms compared with those designed from the classical method.
56
11436
The Comparison Study of Current Control Techniques for Active Power Filters
Abstract:

This paper presents the comparison study of current control techniques for shunt active power filter. The hysteresis current control, the delta modulation control and the carrier-based PWM control are considered in the paper. The synchronous detection method is used to calculate the reference currents for shunt active power filter. The simulation results show that the carrier-based PWM control technique provides the minimum %THD value of the source currents compared with other comparable techniques after compensation. However, the %THD values of all three techniques can follow the IEEE std.519-1992.

55
9743
The Development of Flying Type Moving Robot Using Image Processing
Abstract:
Wheel-running type moving robot has the restriction on the moving range caused by obstacles or stairs. Solving this weakness, we studied the development of moving robot using airship. Our airship robot moves by recognizing arrow marks on the path. To have the airship robot recognize arrow marks, we used edge-based template matching. To control propeller units, we used PID and PD controller. The results of experiments demonstrated that the airship robot can move along the marks and can go up and down the stairs. It is shown the possibility that airship robot can become a robot which can move at wide range facilities.
54
5723
Automatic Design Algorithm for the Tower Crane Foundations
Abstract:
Foundation of tower crane serves to ensure stability against vertical and horizontal forces. If foundation stress is not sufficient, tower crane may be subject to overturning, shearing or foundation settlement. Therefore, engineering review of stable support is a highly critical part of foundation design. However, there are not many professionals who can conduct engineering review of tower crane foundation and, if any, they have information only on a small number of cranes in which they have hands-on experience. It is also customary to rely on empirical knowledge and tower crane renter-s recommendations rather than designing foundation on the basis of engineering knowledge. Therefore, a foundation design automation system considering not only lifting conditions but also overturning risk, shearing and vertical force may facilitate production of foolproof foundation design for experts and enable even non-experts to utilize professional knowledge that only experts can access now. This study proposes Automatic Design Algorithm for the Tower Crane Foundations considering load and horizontal force.
53
6582
Comparison Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Outdoor Polymer Insulators in Artificial Accelerated Salt Fog Ageing Test
Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of silicone rubber outdoor polymer insulators in salt fog ageing test based on IEC 61109. Specimens made ofHTV silicone rubber with ATH content having three different configurations, straight shedsalternated sheds, and incline and alternate sheds, were tested continuously 1000 hrs.in artificial salt fog chamber. Contamination level, reduction of hydrophobicity and hardness measurement were used as physical damaged inspection techniques to evaluate degree of surface deterioration. In addition, chemical changing of tested specimen surface was evaluated by ATR-FTIRto confirm physical damaged inspection. After 1000 hrs.of salt fog test, differences in degree of surface deterioration were observed on all tested specimens. Physical damaged inspection and chemical analysis results confirmed the experimental results as well.

52
11763
Evaluation of Alloying Additions on the Microstructure and IMC Formation of Sn-Ag-Cu Solder on Cu and Ni (P) Substrates
Abstract:

Studies have shown that the SnAgCu solder family has been widely used as a replacement for conventional Sn-Pb solders. An attractive approach is by introducing alloying additives (rare earth elements (RE), Zn, Co, Fe, Ni, Sb) into the SnAgCu solder, which helps in refining the microstructure also improving the mechanical and wetting properties of the solder. The present work focuses on the effect of additions of 0.5% Ce and Fe into Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder, in attempt to reduce the intermetallic compound (IMC) growth and reflow properties of the solder on Cu and Ni (P) surface finish, as well as effects thermal aging on the formation of intermetallic compound (IMC) on different surface finish. Excessive intermetallic compound growth may effect the interface and solder joint due to the brittle nature of the intermetallic compounds. Thus, by introducing alloying elements, IMC layer thickness can be decrease, resulting in better joint and solder reliability.

51
2035
A Literature Survey of Neural Network Applications for Shunt Active Power Filters
Abstract:
This paper aims to present the reviews of the application of neural network in shunt active power filter (SAPF). From the review, three out of four components of SAPF structure, which are harmonic detection component, compensating current control, and DC bus voltage control, have been adopted some of neural network architecture as part of its component or even substitution. The objectives of most papers in using neural network in SAPF are to increase the efficiency, stability, accuracy, robustness, tracking ability of the systems of each component. Moreover, minimizing unneeded signal due to the distortion is the ultimate goal in applying neural network to the SAPF. The most famous architecture of neural network in SAPF applications are ADALINE and Backpropagation (BP).
50
5625
Dynamic Model of a Buck Converter with a Sliding Mode Control
Abstract:
This paper presents the averaging model of a buck converter derived from the generalized state-space averaging method. The sliding mode control is used to regulate the output voltage of the converter and taken into account in the model. The proposed model requires the fast computational time compared with those of the full topology model. The intensive time-domain simulations via the exact topology model are used as the comparable model. The results show that a good agreement between the proposed model and the switching model is achieved in both transient and steady-state responses. The reported model is suitable for the optimal controller design by using the artificial intelligence techniques.
49
12915
Extraction Condition of Phaseolus vulgaris
Abstract:
Theoptimal extraction condition of dried Phaseolus vulgaris powderwas studied. The three independent variables are raw material concentration, shaking and centrifugaltime. The dependent variables are both yield percentage of crude extract and alphaamylase enzyme inhibition activity. The experimental design was based on box-behnkendesign. Highest yield percentage of crude extract could get from extraction condition at concentration of 1, 0,1, concentration of 0.15 M ,extraction time for 2hour, and separationtime for60 min. Moreover, the crude extract with highest alpha-amylase enzyme inhibition activityoccurred by extraction condition at concentration of 0.10 M, extraction time for 2 min, and separation time for 45 min
48
15683
Gas Turbine Optimal PID Tuning by Genetic Algorithm using MSE
Abstract:
Realistic systems generally are systems with various inputs and outputs also known as Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO). Such systems usually prove to be complex and difficult to model and control purposes. Therefore, decomposition was used to separate individual inputs and outputs. A PID is assigned to each individual pair to regulate desired settling time. Suitable parameters of PIDs obtained from Genetic Algorithm (GA), using Mean of Squared Error (MSE) objective function.
47
15202
On the Analysis of IP Traffic Distribution in the Network of Suranaree University of Technology
Abstract:
This paper presents the IP traffic analysis. The traffic was collected from the network of Suranaree University of Technology using the software based on the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). In particular, we analyze the distribution of the aggregated traffic during the hours of peak load and light load. The traffic profiles including the parameters described the traffic distributions were derived. From the statistical analysis applying three different methods, including the Kolmogorov Smirnov test, Anderson Darling test, and Chi-Squared test, we found that the IP traffic distribution is a non-normal distribution and the distributions during the peak load and the light load are different. The experimental study and analysis show high uncertainty of the IP traffic.
46
1683
Mathematical Model and Control Strategy on DQ Frame for Shunt Active Power Filters
Abstract:
This paper presents the mathematical model and control strategy on DQ frame of shunt active power filter. The structure of the shunt active power filter is the voltage source inverter (VSI). The pulse width modulation (PWM) with PI controller is used in the paper. The concept of DQ frame to apply with the shunt active power filter is described. Moreover, the detail of the PI controller design for two current loops and one voltage loop are fully explained. The DQ axis with Fourier (DQF) method is applied to calculate the reference currents on DQ frame. The simulation results show that the control strategy and the design method presented in the paper can provide the good performance of the shunt active power filter. Moreover, the %THD of the source currents after compensation can follow the IEEE Std.519-1992.
45
9722
Averaging Model of a Three-Phase Controlled Rectifier Feeding an Uncontrolled Buck Converter
Abstract:
Dynamic models of power converters are normally time-varying because of their switching actions. Several approaches are applied to analyze the power converters to achieve the timeinvariant models suitable for system analysis and design via the classical control theory. The paper presents how to derive dynamic models of the power system consisting of a three-phase controlled rectifier feeding an uncontrolled buck converter by using the combination between the well known techniques called the DQ and the generalized state-space averaging methods. The intensive timedomain simulations of the exact topology model are used to support the accuracies of the reported model. The results show that the proposed model can provide good accuracies in both transient and steady-state responses.
44
7880
Magnetic Field Analysis for a Distribution Transformer with Unbalanced Load Conditions by using 3-D Finite Element Method
Abstract:
This paper proposes a set of quasi-static mathematical model of magnetic fields caused by high voltage conductors of distribution transformer by using a set of second-order partial differential equation. The modification for complex magnetic field analysis and time-harmonic simulation are also utilized. In this research, transformers were study in both balanced and unbalanced loading conditions. Computer-based simulation utilizing the threedimensional finite element method (3-D FEM) is exploited as a tool for visualizing magnetic fields distribution volume a distribution transformer. Finite Element Method (FEM) is one among popular numerical methods that is able to handle problem complexity in various forms. At present, the FEM has been widely applied in most engineering fields. Even for problems of magnetic field distribution, the FEM is able to estimate solutions of Maxwell-s equations governing the power transmission systems. The computer simulation based on the use of the FEM has been developed in MATLAB programming environment.
43
834
An Artificial Intelligent Technique for Robust Digital Watermarking in Multiwavelet Domain
Abstract:
In this paper, an artificial intelligent technique for robust digital image watermarking in multiwavelet domain is proposed. The embedding technique is based on the quantization index modulation technique and the watermark extraction process does not require the original image. We have developed an optimization technique using the genetic algorithms to search for optimal quantization steps to improve the quality of watermarked image and robustness of the watermark. In addition, we construct a prediction model based on image moments and back propagation neural network to correct an attacked image geometrically before the watermark extraction process begins. The experimental results show that the proposed watermarking algorithm yields watermarked image with good imperceptibility and very robust watermark against various image processing attacks.
42
11279
Investigation on Feature Extraction and Classification of Medical Images
Abstract:
In this paper we present the deep study about the Bio- Medical Images and tag it with some basic extracting features (e.g. color, pixel value etc). The classification is done by using a nearest neighbor classifier with various distance measures as well as the automatic combination of classifier results. This process selects a subset of relevant features from a group of features of the image. It also helps to acquire better understanding about the image by describing which the important features are. The accuracy can be improved by increasing the number of features selected. Various types of classifications were evolved for the medical images like Support Vector Machine (SVM) which is used for classifying the Bacterial types. Ant Colony Optimization method is used for optimal results. It has high approximation capability and much faster convergence, Texture feature extraction method based on Gabor wavelets etc..
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7975
Web Server with Multi-Agent Support for Medical Practitioners by JADE Technology
Abstract:
The multi-agent system for processing Bio-signals will help the medical practitioners to have a standard examination procedure stored in web server. Web Servers supporting any standard Search Engine follow all possible combinations of the search keywords as an input by the user to a Search Engine. As a result, a huge number of Web-pages are shown in the Web browser. It also helps the medical practitioner to interact with the expert in the field his need in order to make a proper judgment in the diagnosis phase [3].A web server uses a web server plug in to establish and maintained the medical practitioner to make a fast analysis. If the user uses the web server client can get a related data requesting their search. DB agent, EEG / ECG / EMG agents- user placed with difficult aspects for updating medical information-s in web server.
40
772
Design of a Cost Effective Off-Grid Wind-Diesel Hybrid Power System in an Island of Bangladesh
Abstract:
Bangladesh is a developing country with large population. Demand of electrical energy is increasing day by day because of increasing population and industrialization. But due to limited resources, people here are suffering from power crisis problem which is considered as a major obstacle to the economic development. In most of the cases, it is extremely difficult to extend high tension transmission lines to some of the places that are separated from the mainland. Renewable energy is considered to be the right choice for providing clean energy to these remote settlements. This paper proposes a cost effective design of off-grid wind-diesel hybrid power system using combined heat and power (CHP) technology in a grid isolated island, Sandwip, Bangladesh. Design and simulation of the wind-diesel hybrid power system is performed considering different factors for the island Sandwip. Detailed economic analysis and comparison with solar PV system clearly reveals that wind-diesel hybrid power system can be a cost effective solution for the isolated island like Sandwip.
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15860
Reliability Assessment of Bangladesh Power System Using Recursive Algorithm
Abstract:

An electric utility-s main concern is to plan, design, operate and maintain its power supply to provide an acceptable level of reliability to its users. This clearly requires that standards of reliability be specified and used in all three sectors of the power system, i.e., generation, transmission and distribution. That is why reliability of a power system is always a major concern to power system planners. This paper presents the reliability analysis of Bangladesh Power System (BPS). Reliability index, loss of load probability (LOLP) of BPS is evaluated using recursive algorithm and considering no de-rated states of generators. BPS has sixty one generators and a total installed capacity of 5275 MW. The maximum demand of BPS is about 5000 MW. The relevant data of the generators and hourly load profiles are collected from the National Load Dispatch Center (NLDC) of Bangladesh and reliability index 'LOLP' is assessed for the period of last ten years.

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9509
Analysis of Codebook Based Channel Feedback Techniques for MIMO-OFDM Systems
Abstract:

This paper investigates the performance of Multiple- Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) feedback system combined with Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). Two types of codebook based channel feedback techniques are used in this work. The first feedback technique uses a combination of both the long-term and short-term channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter, whereas the second technique uses only the short term CSI. The long-term and short-term CSI at the transmitter is used for efficient channel utilization. OFDM is a powerful technique employed in communication systems suffering from frequency selectivity. Combined with multiple antennas at the transmitter and receiver, OFDM proves to be robust against delay spread. Moreover, it leads to significant data rates with improved bit error performance over links having only a single antenna at both the transmitter and receiver. The effectiveness of these techniques has been demonstrated through the simulation of a MIMO-OFDM feedback system. The results have been evaluated for 4x4 MIMO channels. Simulation results indicate the benefits of the MIMO-OFDM channel feedback system over the one without incorporating OFDM. Performance gain of about 3 dB is observed for MIMO-OFDM feedback system as compared to the one without employing OFDM. Hence MIMO-OFDM becomes an attractive approach for future high speed wireless communication systems.

37
887
Factors Influence Depositors- Withdrawal Behavior in Islamic Banks: A Theory of Reasoned Action
Abstract:
Unlike its conventional counterpart, Islamic principles forbid Islamic banks to take any interest-related income and thus makes deposits from depositors as an important source of fund for its operational and financing. Consequently, the risk of deposit withdrawal by depositors is an important aspect that should be wellmanaged in Islamic banking. This paper aims to investigate factors that influence depositors- withdrawal behavior in Islamic banks, particularly in Malaysia, using the framework of theory of reasoned action. A total of 368 respondents from Klang valley are involved in the analysis. The paper finds that all the constructs variable i.e. normative beliefs, subjective norms, behavioral beliefs, and attitude towards behavior are perceived to be distinct by the respondents. In addition, the structural equation model is able to verify the structural relationships between subjective norms, attitude towards behavior and behavioral intention. Subjective norms gives more influence to depositors- decision on deposit withdrawal compared to attitude towards behavior.
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1457
Assessment of Water Pollution of Kowsar Dam Reservoir
Abstract:
The reservoir of Kowsar dam supply water for different usages such as aquaculture farms , drinking, agricultural and industrial usages for some provinces in south of Iran. The Kowsar dam is located next to the city of Dehdashat in Kohgiluye and Boyerahmad province in southern Iran. There are some towns and villages on the Kowsar dam watersheds, which Dehdasht and Choram are the most important and populated twons in this area, which can to be sources of pollution for water reservoir of the Kowsar dam . This study was done to determine of water pollution of the Kowsar dam reservoir which is one of the most important water resources of Kohkiloye and Boyerahmad and Bushehr provinces in south-west Iran. In this study , water samples during 12 months were collected to examine Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Dissolved Oxygen(DO) as a criterion for evaluation of water pollution of the reservoir. In summary ,the study has shown Maximum, average and minimum levels of BOD have observed 25.9 ,9.15 and 2.3 mg/L respectively and statistical parameters of data such as standard deviation , variance and skewness have calculated 7.88, 62 and 1.54 respectively. Finally the results were compared with Iranian national standards. Among the analyzed samples, as the maximum value of BOD (25.9 mg/L) was observed at the May 2010 , was within the maximum admissible limits by the Iranian standards.
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5447
Implementation of Parallel Interface for Microprocessor Trainer
Abstract:
In this paper, parallel interface for microprocessor trainer was implemented. A programmable parallel–port device such as the IC 8255A is initialized for simple input or output and for handshake input or output by choosing kinds of modes. The hardware connections and the programs can be used to interface microprocessor trainer and a personal computer by using IC 8255A. The assembly programs edited on PC-s editor can be downloaded to the trainer.
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1122
Control and Navigation with Knowledge Bases
Abstract:
In this paper, we focus on the use of knowledge bases in two different application areas – control of systems with unknown or strongly nonlinear models (i.e. hardly controllable by the classical methods), and robot motion planning in eight directions. The first one deals with fuzzy logic and the paper presents approaches for setting and aggregating the rules of a knowledge base. Te second one is concentrated on a case-based reasoning strategy for finding the path in a planar scene with obstacles.
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13183
Life Table and Reproductive Table Parameters of Scolothrips Longicornis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) as a Predator of Two-Spotted Spider Mite, Tetranychus Turkestani (Acari: Tetranychidae)
Abstract:
Scolothrips longicornis Priesner is one of the important predators of tetranychid mites with a wide distribution throughout Iran. Life table and population growth parameters of S. longicornis feeding on two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus turkestani Ugarov & Nikolski were investigated under laboratory condition (26±1ºC, 65±5% R.H. and 16L: 8D). To carry of these experiments, S. longicornis collections reared on cowpea infested with T. turkestani were prepared. The eggs with less than 24 hours old were selected and reared. The emerged larvae feeding directly on cowpea leaf discs which were infested with T. turkestani. Thirty females of S. longicornis with 24 hours age were selected and released on infested leaf discs. They replaced daily to a new leaf disc and the laying eggs have counted. The experiment continued till the last thrips had died. The result showed that the mean age mortality of the adult female thrips were between 21-25 days which is nearly equal life expectancy (ex) at the time of adult eclosion. Parameters related to reproductive table including gross reproductive rate, net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of natural increase and finite rate of increase were 48.91, 37.63, 0.26 and 2.3, respectively. Mean age per female/day, mean fertile egg per female/day, gross hatch rate, mean net age fertility, mean net age fecundity, net fertility rate and net fecundity rate were 2.23, 1.76, 0.87, 13.87, 14.26, 69.1 and 78.5, respectively. Sex ratio of offspring also recorded daily. The highest sex ratio for females was 0.88 in first day of oviposition. The sex ratio decreased gradually and reached under 0.46 after the day 26 and the oviposition rate declined. Then it seems that maintenance of rearing culture of predatory thrips for mass rearing later than 26 days after egg-laying commence is not profitable.
32
13755
GPS and Discrete Kalman Filter for Indoor Robot Navigation
Abstract:
This paper discusses the implementation of the Kalman Filter along with the Global Positioning System (GPS) for indoor robot navigation. Two dimensional coordinates is used for the map building, and refers to the global coordinate which is attached to the reference landmark for position and direction information the robot gets. The Discrete Kalman Filter is used to estimate the robot position, project the estimated current state ahead in time through time update and adjust the projected estimated state by an actual measurement at that time via the measurement update. The navigation test has been performed and has been found to be robust.
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4330
An Agent-based Model for Analyzing Interaction of Two Stable Social Networks
Abstract:
In this research, the authors analyze network stability using agent-based simulation. Firstly, the authors focus on analyzing large networks (eight agents) by connecting different two stable small social networks (A small stable network is consisted on four agents.). Secondly, the authors analyze the network (eight agents) shape which is added one agent to a stable network (seven agents). Thirdly, the authors analyze interpersonal comparison of utility. The “star-network "was not found on the result of interaction among stable two small networks. On the other hand, “decentralized network" was formed from several combination. In case of added one agent to a stable network (seven agents), if the value of “c"(maintenance cost of per a link) was larger, the number of patterns of stable network was also larger. In this case, the authors identified the characteristics of a large stable network. The authors discovered the cases of decreasing personal utility under condition increasing total utility.
30
14823
Performance Analysis of Multiuser Diversity in Multiuser Two-Hop Decode-and-Forward Cooperative Multi-Relay Wireless Networks
Abstract:

Cooperative diversity (CD) has been adopted in many communication systems because it helps in improving performance of the wireless communication systems with the help of the relays that emulate the multiple antenna terminals. This work aims to provide the derivation of the performance analysis expressions of the multiuser diversity (MUD) in the two-hop cooperative multi-relay