Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 238

238
6807
An Experimental Study on the Tensile Behavior of the Cracked Aluminum Plates Repaired with FML Composite Patches
Abstract:
Repairing of the cracks by fiber metal laminates (FMLs) was first done by some aeronautical laboratories in early 1970s. In this study, experimental investigations were done on the effect of repairing the center-cracked aluminum plates using the FML patches. The repairing processes were conducted to characterize the response of the repaired structures to tensile tests. The composite patches were made of one aluminum layer and two woven glassepoxy composite layers. Three different crack lengths in three crack angles and different patch lay-ups were examined. It was observed for the lengthen cracks, the effect of increasing the crack angle on ultimate tensile load in the structure was increase. It was indicated that the situation of metal layer in the FML patches had an important effect on the tensile response of the tested specimens. It was found when the aluminum layer is farther, the ultimate tensile load has the highest amount.
237
6074
Frame and Burst Acquisition in TDMA Satellite Communication Networks with Transponder Hopping
Abstract:

The paper presents frame and burst acquisition in a satellite communication network based on time division multiple access (TDMA) in which the transmissions may be carried on different transponders. A unique word pattern is used for the acquisition process. The search for the frame is aided by soft-decision of QPSK modulated signals in an additive white Gaussian channel. Results show that when the false alarm rate is low the probability of detection is also low, and the acquisition time is long. Conversely when the false alarm rate is high, the probability of detection is also high and the acquisition time is short. Thus the system operators can trade high false alarm rates for high detection probabilities and shorter acquisition times.

236
15263
Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multisets And Its Application in Medical Diagnosis
Abstract:
In this paper a new concept named Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multiset is introduced. The basic operations on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multisets such as union, intersection, addition, multiplication etc. are discussed. An application of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multiset in Medical diagnosis problem using a distance function is discussed in detail.
235
9801
Augmented Reality Interaction System in 3D Environment
Abstract:

It is important to give input information without other device in AR system. One solution is using hand for augmented reality application. Many researchers have proposed different solutions for hand interface in augmented reality. Analyze Histogram and connecting factor is can be example for that. Various Direction searching is one of robust way to recognition hand but it takes too much calculating time. And background should be distinguished with skin color. This paper proposes a hand tracking method to control the 3D object in augmented reality using depth device and skin color. Also in this work discussed relationship between several markers, which is based on relationship between camera and marker. One marker used for displaying virtual object and three markers for detecting hand gesture and manipulating the virtual object.

234
9997443
Nonlinear Controller Design for Active Front Steering System
Abstract:

Active Front Steering system (AFS) provides an electronically controlled superposition of an angle to the steering wheel angle. This additional degree of freedom enables a continuous and driving-situation dependent on adaptation of the steering characteristics. In an active steering system, there needs be no fixed relationship between the steering wheel and the angle of the road wheels. Not only can the effective steering ratio be varied with speed, for example, but also the road wheel angles can be controlled by a combination of driver and computer inputs. Features like steering comfort, effort and steering dynamics are optimized and stabilizing steering interventions can be performed. In contrast to the conventional stability control, the yaw rate was fed back to AFS controller and the stability performance was optimized with Sliding Mode control (SMC) method. In addition, tire uncertainties have been taken into account in SM controller to provide the control robustness. In this paper, 3-DOF nonlinear model is used to design the AFS controller and 8-DOF nonlinear model is used to model the controlled vehicle.

233
13005
New Newton's Method with Third-order Convergence for Solving Nonlinear Equations
Abstract:

For the last years, the variants of the Newton-s method with cubic convergence have become popular iterative methods to find approximate solutions to the roots of non-linear equations. These methods both enjoy cubic convergence at simple roots and do not require the evaluation of second order derivatives. In this paper, we present a new Newton-s method based on contra harmonic mean with cubically convergent. Numerical examples show that the new method can compete with the classical Newton's method.

232
4420
The Determinants of Corporate Cash Holdings in Nigeria: Evidence from General Method of Moments (GMM)
Abstract:

The study examines the determinants of corporate cash holding of non-financial quoted firms in Nigeria using a sample of fifty four non-financial quoted firms listed on the Nigeria Stock Exchange for the period 1995-2009. Data were sourced from the Annual reports of the sampled firms and analyzed using Generalized Method of Moments(GMM). The study finds evidence supportive of a target adjustment model and that firms can not instantaneously adjust towards the target cash level owing to the fact that adjustment cost being costly,. Also, the result shows significant negative relationship between cash holdings and firm size, net working capital, return on asset and bank relationship and positive relationship with growth opportunities, leverage, inventories, account receivables and financial distress. Furthermore, there is no significant relationship between cash holdings and cash flow. In Nigerian setting, most of the variables that are relevant for explaining cash holdings in the Developed countries are found by this study to be relevant also in Nigeria.

231
3257
Geographic Profiling Based on Multi-point Centrography with K-means Clustering
Abstract:

Geographic Profiling has successfully assisted investigations for serial crimes. Considering the multi-cluster feature of serial criminal spots, we propose a Multi-point Centrography model as a natural extension of Single-point Centrography for geographic profiling. K-means clustering is first performed on the data samples and then Single-point Centrography is adopted to derive a probability distribution on each cluster. Finally, a weighted combinations of each distribution is formed to make next-crime spot prediction. Experimental study on real cases demonstrates the effectiveness of our proposed model.

230
2347
Sweet Corn Water Productivity under Several Deficit Irrigation Regimes Applied during Vegetative Growth Stage using Treated Wastewater as Water Irrigation Source
Abstract:
Yield and Crop Water Productivity are crucial issues in sustainable agriculture, especially in high-demand resource crops such as sweet corn. This study was conducted to investigate agronomic responses such as plant growth, yield and soil parameters (EC and Nitrate accumulation) to several deficit irrigation treatments (100, 75, 50, 25 and 0% of ETm) applied during vegetative growth stage, rainfed treatment was also tested. The finding of this research indicates that under deficit irrigation during vegetative growth stage applying 75% of ETm lead to increasing of 19.4% in terms of fresh ear yield, 9.4% in terms of dry grain yield, 10.5% in terms of number of ears per plant, 11.5% for the 1000 grains weight and 19% in terms of crop water productivity compared with fully irrigated treatment. While those parameters in addition to root, shoot and plant height has been affected by deficit irrigation during vegetative growth stage when increasing water stress degree more than 50% of ETm.
229
7229
Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Buildings in Algiers Area
Abstract:

Several models of vulnerability assessment have been proposed. The selection of one of these models depends on the objectives of the study. The classical methodologies for seismic vulnerability analysis, as a part of seismic risk analysis, have been formulated with statistical criteria based on a rapid observation. The information relating to the buildings performance is statistically elaborated. In this paper, we use the European Macroseismic Scale EMS-98 to define the relationship between damage and macroseismic intensity to assess the seismic vulnerability. Applying to Algiers area, the first step is to identify building typologies and to assign vulnerability classes. In the second step, damages are investigated according to EMS-98.

228
12627
Chewing behavior and Bolus Properties as Affected by Different Rice Types
Abstract:

The study aimed to investigate the effect of rice types on chewing behaviours (chewing time, number of chews, and portion size) and bolus properties (bolus moisture content, solid loss, and particle size distribution (PSD)) in human subjects. Five cooked rice types including brown rice (BR), white rice (WR), parboiled white rice (PR), high amylose white rice (HR) and waxy white rice (WXR) were chewed by six subjects. The chewing behaviours were recorded and the food boluses were collected during mastication. Rice typeswere found to significantly influence all chewing parameters evaluated. The WXR and BR showed the most pronounced differences compared with other rice types. The initial moisture content of un-chewed WXR was lowest (43.39%) whereas those of other rice types were ranged from 66.86 to 70.33%. The bolus obtained from chewing the WXR contained lowest moisture content (56.43%) whilst its solid loss (22.03%) was not significant different from those of all rice types. In PSD evaluation using Mastersizer S, the diameter of particles measured was ranged between 4 to 3500 μm. The particle size of food bolus from BR, HR, and WXR contained much finer particles than those of WR and PR.

227
1904
Threshold Submergence of Flow over PK Weirs
Abstract:
In this study an extensive experimental research is carried out to develop a better understanding of the effects of Piano Key (PK) weir geometry on weir flow threshold submergence. Experiments were conducted in a 12 m long, 0.4 m wide and 0.7 m deep rectangular glass wall flume. The main objectives were to investigate the effect of the PK weir geometries including the weir length, weir height, inlet-outlet key widths, upstream and downstream apex overhangs, and slopped floors on threshold submergence and study the hydraulic flow characteristics. From the experimental results, a practical formula is proposed to evaluate the flow threshold submergence over PK weirs.
226
12632
Mass Transfer Modeling of Nitrate in an Ion Exchange Selective Resin
Abstract:
The rate of nitrate adsorption by a nitrate selective ion exchange resin was investigated in a well-stirred batch experiments. The kinetic experimental data were simulated with diffusion models including external mass transfer, particle diffusion and chemical adsorption. Particle pore volume diffusion and particle surface diffusion were taken into consideration separately and simultaneously in the modeling. The model equations were solved numerically using the Crank-Nicholson scheme. An optimization technique was employed to optimize the model parameters. All nitrate concentration decay data were well described with the all diffusion models. The results indicated that the kinetic process is initially controlled by external mass transfer and then by particle diffusion. The external mass transfer coefficient and the coefficients of pore volume diffusion and surface diffusion in all experiments were close to each other with the average value of 8.3×10-3 cm/S for external mass transfer coefficient. In addition, the models are more sensitive to the mass transfer coefficient in comparison with particle diffusion. Moreover, it seems that surface diffusion is the dominant particle diffusion in comparison with pore volume diffusion.
225
6378
An Economical Operation Analysis Optimization Model for Heavy Equipment Selection
Abstract:
Optimizing equipment selection in heavy earthwork operations is a critical key in the success of any construction project. The objective of this research incentive was geared towards developing a computer model to assist contractors and construction managers in estimating the cost of heavy earthwork operations. Economical operation analysis was conducted for an equipment fleet taking into consideration the owning and operating costs involved in earthwork operations. The model is being developed in a Microsoft environment and is capable of being integrated with other estimating and optimization models. In this study, Caterpillar® Performance Handbook [5] was the main resource used to obtain specifications of selected equipment. The implementation of the model shall give optimum selection of equipment fleet not only based on cost effectiveness but also in terms of versatility. To validate the model, a case study of an actual dam construction project was selected to quantify its degree of accuracy.
224
2375
Effect of Greywater Irrigation on Air-Water Interfacial area in Porous Medium
Abstract:

In this study, the effect of greywater irrigation on airwater interfacial area is investigated. Several soil column experiments were conducted for different greywater irrigation to develop the pressure-saturation curves. Surface tension was measured for different greywater concentration and fitted for Gibbs adsorption equation. Pressure-saturation curves show that the reduction of capillary rise stops when it reaches its critical micelle concentration (CMC). A simple theory is derived from pressure-saturation curves for calculating air-water interfacial area in porous medium during greywater irrigation by introducing a term 'hydraulic radius' for the pores. This term diminishes any effect of pore shapes on the air-water interfacial area. The air-water interfacial area was calculated using the pressure-saturation curves and found that it decreases with increasing moisture content. But no significant effect was observed on air-water interfacial area for different greywater irrigation. A maximum of 10% variation in interfacial area was observed at the residual saturation zone.

223
6208
Robust Integrated Navigation of a Low Cost System
Abstract:
Robust nonlinear integrated navigation of GPS and low cost MEMS is a hot topic of research these days. A robust filter is required to cope up with the problem of unpredictable discontinuities and colored noises associated with low cost sensors. H∞ filter is previously used in Extended Kalman filter and Unscented Kalman filter frame. Unscented Kalman filter has a problem of Cholesky matrix factorization at each step which is a very unstable operation. To avoid this problem in this research H∞ filter is designed in Square root Unscented filter framework and found 50% more robust towards increased level of colored noises.
222
5282
Necessity of using an Optimum Business Model in High-Tech Firms, Nanotechnology Case Study
Abstract:
In the way of growing and developing firms especially high-tech firms, on many occasions manager of firm is mainly involved in solving problems of his business and decision making about executive activities of the firm, while besides executive measures, attention to planning of firm's success and growth way and application of long experience and sagacity in designing business model are vital and necessary success in a business is achieved as a result of different factors, one of the most important of them is designing and performing an optimal business model at the beginning of the firm's work. This model is determining the limit of profitability achieved by innovation and gained value added. Therefore, business model is the process of connecting innovation environment and technology with economic environment and business and is important for succeeding modern businesses considering their traits.
221
15373
Stabilizing Voltage for Sheens with Motor Loading due to Starting Inductive Motor by using STATCOM
Abstract:
In this treatise we will study the capability of static compensator for reactive power to stabilize sheen voltage with motor loading on power networks system. We also explain the structure and main function of STATCOM and the method to control it using STATCOM transformer current to simultaneously predict after telling about the necessity of FACTS tools to compensate in power networks. Then we study topology and controlling system to stabilize voltage during start of inductive motor. The outcome of stimulat by MATLAB software supports presented controlling idea and system in the treatise.
220
12576
Nonlinear Thermal Hydraulic Model to Analyze Parallel Channel Density Wave Instabilities in Natural Circulation Boiling Water Reactor with Asymmetric Power Distribution
Abstract:
The paper investigates parallel channel instabilities of natural circulation boiling water reactor. A thermal-hydraulic model is developed to simulate two-phase flow behavior in the natural circulation boiling water reactor (NCBWR) with the incorporation of ex-core components and recirculation loop such as steam separator, down-comer, lower-horizontal section and upper-horizontal section and then, numerical analysis is carried out for parallel channel instabilities of the reactor undergoing both in-phase and out-of-phase modes of oscillations. To analyze the relative effect on stability of the reactor due to inclusion of various ex-core components and recirculation loop, marginal stable point is obtained at a particular inlet enthalpy of the reactor core without the inclusion of ex-core components and recirculation loop and then with the inclusion of the same. Numerical simulations are also conducted to determine the relative dominance between two modes of oscillations i.e. in-phase and out-of-phase. Simulations are also carried out when the channels are subjected to asymmetric power distribution keeping the inlet enthalpy same.
219
15300
Investigation of the Effect of Milling Time on the Mechanochemical Synthesis of Fe3Al/ Al2O3 Nanocomposite
Abstract:

In this study, the effect of mechanical activation on the synthesis of Fe3Al/Al2O3 nanocomposite has been investigated by using mechanochemical method. For this purpose, Aluminum powder and hematite as precursors, with stoichiometric ratio, have been utilized and other effective parameters in milling process were kept constant. Phase formation analysis, crystallite size measurement and lattice strain were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) by using Williamson-Hall method as well as microstructure and morphology were explored by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Also, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis was used in order to probe the particle distribution. The results showed that after 30-hour milling, the reaction was started, combustibly done and completed.

218
3961
Performance Evaluation of Improved Ball End Magnetorheological Finishing Process
Abstract:
A novel nanofinishing process using improved ball end magnetorheological (MR) finishing tool was developed for finishing of flat as well as 3D surfaces of ferromagnetic and non ferromagnetic workpieces. In this process a magnetically controlled ball end of smart MR polishing fluid is generated at the tip surface of the tool which is used as a finishing medium and it is guided to follow the surface to be finished through computer controlled 3-axes motion controller. The experiments were performed on ferromagnetic workpiece surface in the developed MR finishing setup to study the effect of finishing time on final surface roughness. The performance of present finishing process on final finished surface roughness was studied. The surface morphology was observed under scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope. The final surface finish was obtained as low as 19.7 nm from the initial surface roughness of 142.9 nm. The outcome of newly developed finishing process can be found useful in its applications in aerospace, automotive, dies and molds manufacturing industries, semiconductor and optics machining etc.
217
6129
In vivo Introduced Extracellular Ubiquitin Regulates Intracellular Processes
Abstract:

Extracellular ubiquitin in vivo effect on regenerative liver cells and liver histoarchitectonics has been studied. Experiments were performed on mature female white rats. Partial hepatectomy was made using the modified method of Higgins and Anderson. Standard histopathological assessment of liver tissue was used. Proliferative activity of hepatocytes was analyzed by colchicine mitotic index and immunohistochemical staining on ki67. We have found that regardless of number of injections and dose of extracellular ubiquitin liver histology has not been changed, so at tissue level no effect was observed. In vivo double injection of ubiquitin significantly decreases the mitotic activity at 32 hour point after partial hepatectomy. Thus, we can conclude that in vivo injected extracellular ubiquitin inhibits proliferative activity of hepatocytes in partially hepatectomyzed rats.

216
13622
Semantic Web as an Enabling Technology for Better e-Services Addoption
Abstract:
E-services have significantly changed the way of doing business in recent years. We can, however, observe poor use of these services. There is a large gap between supply and actual eservices usage. This is why we started a project to provide an environment that will encourage the use of e-services. We believe that only providing e-service does not automatically mean consumers would use them. This paper shows the origins of our project and its current position. We discuss the decision of using semantic web technologies and their potential to improve e-services usage. We also present current knowledge base and its real-world classification. In the paper, we discuss further work to be done in the project. Current state of the project is promising.
215
12341
A Case Study on Product Development Performance Measurement
Abstract:

In recent years, an increased competition and lower profit margins have necessitated a focus on improving the performance of the product development process, an area that traditionally have been excluded from detailed steering and evaluation. A systematic improvement requires a good understanding of the current performance, wherefore the interest for product development performance measurement has increased dramatically. This paper presents a case study that evaluates the performance of the product development performance measurement system used in a Swedish company that is a part of a global corporate group. The study is based on internal documentation and eighteen in-depth interviews with stakeholders involved in the product development process. The results from the case study includes a description of what metrics that are in use, how these are employed, and its affect on the quality of the performance measurement system. Especially, the importance of having a well-defined process proved to have a major impact on the quality of the performance measurement system in this particular case.

214
10084
Bioleaching of Spent Catalyst using Moderate Thermophiles with Different Pulp Densities and Varying Size Fractions without Fe Supplemented Growth Medium
Abstract:

Bioleaching of spent catalyst using moderate thermophilic chemolithotrophic acidophiles in growth medium without Fe source was investigated with two different pulp densities and three different size fractions. All the experiments were conducted on shake flasks at a temperature of 65 °C. The leaching yield of Ni and Al was found to be promising with very high leaching yield of 92-96% followed by Al as 41-76%, which means both Ni and Al leaching were favored by the moderate thermophilic bioleaching compared to the mesophilic bioleaching. The acid consumption was comparatively higher for the 10% pulp density experiments. Comparatively minimal difference in the leaching yield with different size fractions and different pulp densities show no requirement of grinding and using low pulp density less than 10%. This process would rather be economical as well as eco-friendly process for future optimization of the recovery of metal values from spent catalyst.

213
11274
Crystalline Graphene Nanoribbons with Atomically Smooth Edges via a Novel Physico- Chemical Route
Abstract:

A novel physico-chemical route to produce few layer graphene nanoribbons with atomically smooth edges is reported, via acid treatment (H2SO4:HNO3) followed by characteristic thermal shock processes involving extremely cold substances. Samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This method demonstrates the importance of having the nanotubes open ended for an efficient uniform unzipping along the nanotube axis. The average dimensions of these nanoribbons are approximately ca. 210 nm wide and consist of few layers, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. The produced nanoribbons exhibit different chiralities, as observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. This method is able to provide graphene nanoribbons with atomically smooth edges which could be used in various applications including sensors, gas adsorption materials, composite fillers, among others.

212
8540
Micromachining with ECDM: Research Potentials and Experimental Investigations
Abstract:
Electro Chemical Discharge Machining (ECDM) is an emerging hybrid machining process used in precision machining of hard and brittle non-conducting materials. The present paper gives a critical review on materials machined by ECDM under the prevailing machining conditions; capability indicators of the process are reported. Some results obtained while performing experiments in micro-channeling on soda lime glass using ECDM are also presented. In these experiments, Tool Wear (TW) and Material Removal (MR) were studied using design of experiments and L–4 orthogonal array. Experimental results showed that the applied voltage was the most influencing parameter in both MR and TW studies. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results obtained on the microchannels confirmed the presence of micro-cracks, primarily responsible for MR. Chemical etching was also seen along the edges. The Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results were used to detect the elements present in the debris and specimens.
211
351
2Taiwan Public Corporation's Participation in the Mechanism of Payment for Environmental Services
Abstract:

The Taiwan government has started to promote the “Plain Landscape Afforestation and Greening Program" since 2002. A key task of the program was the payment for environmental services (PES), entitled the “Plain Landscape Afforestation Policy" (PLAP), which was certificated by the Executive Yuan on August 31, 2001 and enacted on January 1, 2002. According to the policy, it is estimated that the total area of afforestation will be 25,100 hectares by December 31, 2007. Until the end of 2007, the policy had been enacted for six years in total and the actual area of afforestation was 8,919.18 hectares. Among them, Taiwan Sugar Corporation (TSC) was accounted for 7,960 hectares (with 2,450.83 hectares as public service area) which occupied 86.22% of the total afforestation area; the private farmland promoted by local governments was accounted for 869.18 hectares which occupied 9.75% of the total afforestation area. Based on the above, we observe that most of the afforestation area in this policy is executed by TSC, and the achievement ratio by TSC is better than by others. It implies that the success of the PLAP is seriously related to the execution of TSC. The objective of this study is to analyze the relevant policy planning of TSC-s participation in the PLAP, suggest complementary measures, and draw up effective adjustment mechanisms, so as to improve the effectiveness of executing the policy. Our main conclusions and suggestions are summarized as follows: 1. The main reason for TSC-s participation in the PLAP is based on their passive cooperation with the central government or company policy. Prior to TSC-s participation in the PLAP, their lands were mainly used for growing sugarcane. 2. The main factors of TSC-s consideration on the selection of tree species are based on the suitability of land and species. The largest proportion of tree species is allocated to economic forests, and the lack of technical instruction was the main problem during afforestation. Moreover, the method of improving TSC-s future development in leisure agriculture and landscape business becomes a key topic. 3. TSC has developed short and long-term plans on participating in the PLAP for the future. However, there is no great willingness or incentive on budgeting for such detailed planning. 4. Most people from TSC interviewed consider the requirements on PLAP unreasonable. Among them, an unreasonable requirement on the number of trees accounted for the greatest proportion; furthermore, most interviewees suggested that the government should continue to provide incentives even after 20 years. 5. Since the government shares the same goals as TSC, there should be sufficient cooperation and communication that support the technical instruction and reduction of afforestation cost, which will also help to improve effectiveness of the policy.

210
12002
Generation of Highly Ordered Porous Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide Film by A Simple Coating Method with Colloidal Template
Abstract:

An ordered porous antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) film was successfully prepared using a simple coating process with colloidal templates. The facile production was effective when a combination of 16-nm ATO (as a model of an inorganic nanoparticle) and polystyrene (PS) spheres (as a model of the template) weresimply coated to produce a composite ATO/PS film. Heat treatment was then used to remove the PS and produce the porous film. The porous film with a spherical pore shape and a highly ordered porous structure could be obtained. A potential way for the control of pore size could be also achieved by changing initial template size. The theoretical explanation and mechanism of porous formation were also added, which would be important for the scaling-up prediction and estimation.

209
15889
Contribution to the Study of Thermal Conductivity of Porous Silicon Used In Thermal Sensors
Abstract:
The porous silicon (PS), formed from the anodization of a p+ type substrate silicon, consists of a network organized in a pseudo-column as structure of multiple side ramifications. Structural micro-topology can be interpreted as the fraction of the interconnected solid phase contributing to thermal transport. The reduction of dimensions of silicon of each nanocristallite during the oxidation induced a reduction in thermal conductivity. Integration of thermal sensors in the Microsystems silicon requires an effective insulation of the sensor element. Indeed, the low thermal conductivity of PS consists in a very promising way in the fabrication of integrated thermal Microsystems.In this work we are interesting in the measurements of thermal conductivity (on the surface and in depth) of PS by the micro-Raman spectroscopy. The thermal conductivity is studied according to the parameters of anodization (initial doping and current density. We also, determine porosity of samples by spectroellipsometry.
208
13017
Improving Survivability in Wireless Ad Hoc Network
Abstract:
Topological changes in mobile ad hoc networks frequently render routing paths unusable. Such recurrent path failures have detrimental effects on quality of service. A suitable technique for eliminating this problem is to use multiple backup paths between the source and the destination in the network. This paper proposes an effective and efficient protocol for backup and disjoint path set in ad hoc wireless network. This protocol converges to a highly reliable path set very fast with no message exchange overhead. The paths selection according to this algorithm is beneficial for mobile ad hoc networks, since it produce a set of backup paths with more high reliability. Simulation experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of our algorithm in terms of route numbers in the path set and its reliability. In order to acquire link reliability estimates, we use link expiration time (LET) between two nodes.
207
7905
Adhesion Strength Evaluation Methods in Thermally Sprayed Coatings
Abstract:

The techniques for estimating the adhesive and cohesive strength in high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coatings have been discussed and compared. The development trend and the last investigation have been studied. We will focus on benefits and limitations of these methods in different process and materials.

206
9830
Establishing a New Simple Formula for Buckling Length Factor (K) of Rigid Frames Columns
Abstract:
The calculation of buckling length factor (K) for steel frames columns is a major and governing processes to determine the dimensions steel frame columns cross sections during design. The buckling length of steel frames columns has a direct effect on the cost (weight) of using cross section. A new formula is required to determine buckling length factor (K) by simplified way. In this research a new formula for buckling length factor (K) was established to determine by accurate method for a limited interval of columns ends rigidity (GA, GB). The new formula can be used ease to evaluate the buckling length factor without needing to complicated equations or difficult charts.
205
8856
Earth Station Neural Network Control Methodology and Simulation
Abstract:

Renewable energy resources are inexhaustible, clean as compared with conventional resources. Also, it is used to supply regions with no grid, no telephone lines, and often with difficult accessibility by common transport. Satellite earth stations which located in remote areas are the most important application of renewable energy. Neural control is a branch of the general field of intelligent control, which is based on the concept of artificial intelligence. This paper presents the mathematical modeling of satellite earth station power system which is required for simulating the system.Aswan is selected to be the site under consideration because it is a rich region with solar energy. The complete power system is simulated using MATLAB–SIMULINK.An artificial neural network (ANN) based model has been developed for the optimum operation of earth station power system. An ANN is trained using a back propagation with Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. The best validation performance is obtained for minimum mean square error. The regression between the network output and the corresponding target is equal to 96% which means a high accuracy. Neural network controller architecture gives satisfactory results with small number of neurons, hence better in terms of memory and time are required for NNC implementation. The results indicate that the proposed control unit using ANN can be successfully used for controlling the satellite earth station power system.

204
7431
Dynamic Analyses for Passenger Volume of Domestic Airline and High Speed Rail
Authors:
Abstract:

Discrete choice model is the most used methodology for studying traveler-s mode choice and demand. However, to calibrate the discrete choice model needs to have plenty of questionnaire survey. In this study, an aggregative model is proposed. The historical data of passenger volumes for high speed rail and domestic civil aviation are employed to calibrate and validate the model. In this study, different models are compared so as to propose the best one. From the results, systematic equations forecast better than single equation do. Models with the external variable, which is oil price, are better than models based on closed system assumption.

203
2650
The Influence of using Compost Leachate on Soil Reaction
Abstract:
In the area where the high quality water is not available, unconventional water sources are used to irrigate. Household leachate is one of the sources which are used in dry and semi dry areas in order to water the barer trees and plants. It meets the plants needs and also has some effects on the soil, but at the same time it might cause some problems as well. This study in order to evaluate the effect of using Compost leachate on the density of soil iron in form of a statistical pattern called ''Split Plot'' by using two main treatments, one subsidiary treatment and three repetitions of the pattern in a three month period. The main N treatments include: irrigation using well water as a blank treatments and the main I treatments include: irrigation using leachate and well water concurrently. Some subsidiary treatments were DI (Drop Irrigation) and SDI (Sub Drop Irrigation). Then in the established plots, 36 biannual pine and cypress shrubs were randomly grown. Two months later the treatment begins. The results revealed that there was a significant variation between the main treatment and the instance regarding pH decline in the soil which was related to the amount of leachate injected into the soil. After some time and using leachate the pH level fell, as much as 0.46 and also increased due to the great amounts of leachate. The underneath drop irrigation ends in better results than sub drop irrigation since it keeps the soil texture fixed.
202
1134
Equivalent Transformation for Heterogeneous Traffic Cellular Automata
Authors:
Abstract:
Understanding driving behavior is a complicated researching topic. To describe accurate speed, flow and density of a multiclass users traffic flow, an adequate model is needed. In this study, we propose the concept of standard passenger car equivalent (SPCE) instead of passenger car equivalent (PCE) to estimate the influence of heavy vehicles and slow cars. Traffic cellular automata model is employed to calibrate and validate the results. According to the simulated results, the SPCE transformations present good accuracy.
201
9192
A Comprehensive Study on Phytoextractive Potential of Sri Lankan Mustard (Brassica Juncea (L.) Czern. and Coss) Genotypes
Abstract:
Heavy metal pollution is an environmental concern. Phytoremediation is a low-cost, environmental-friendly approach to solve this problem. Mustard has the potential in reducing heavy metal contents in soils. Among mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss) genotypes in Sri Lanka, accessions 7788, 8831 and 5088 give significantly a high yield. Therefore, present study was conducted to quantify the phytoextractive potential among these local mustard accessions and to assess the interaction of heavy metals, Pb, Co, Mn on phytoextraction. A pot experiment was designed with acid washed sand (quartz) and a series of heavy metal solutions of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 μg/g. Experiment was carried out with factorial experimental design. Mustard accessions were tolerant to heavy metals and could be successfully used in removal of Pb, Co and Mn and they are capable of accumulating significant quantities of heavy metals in vegetative and reproductive organs. The order of the accumulative potential of Pb, Co and Mn in mustard accessions is, root > shoot >seed.
200
5713
Effect of Spray Stand-off on Hardness of Thermally Sprayed Coatings
Abstract:
The mechanical and tribological properties in WC-Co coatings are strongly affected by hardness and elasticity specifications. The results revealed the effect of spraying distance on microhardness and elasticity modulus of coatings. The metallurgical studies have been made on coated samples using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
199
6350
Heat Transfer from Two Cam Shaped Cylinders in Tandem Arrangement
Abstract:

Heat transfer from two cam shape cylinder in tandem arrangement had been studied numerically. The distance between the centers of cylinders (L) is allowed to vary to change the longitudinal pitch ratio (L/Deq). The equivalent diameter of the cylinder (Deq) is 27.6 mm and longitudinal pitch ratio varies in range 2<L/Deq<6. The Reynolds number based on equivalent circular cylinder are within 50< Reeq <300. Results show that Nusselt number of second cylinder increases about 5 to 33 times when longitudinal pitch ratio increases from 2 to 6.

198
7629
Effect of Spray Stand-off on Elasticity Modulus of Thermally Sprayed Coatings
Abstract:
The mechanical and tribological properties in WC-Co coatings are strongly affected by hardness and elasticity specifications. The results revealed the effect of spraying distance on microhardness and elasticity modulus of coatings. The metallurgical studies have been made on coated samples using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
197
14101
Variance Based Component Analysis for Texture Segmentation
Abstract:
This paper presents a comparative analysis of a new unsupervised PCA-based technique for steel plates texture segmentation towards defect detection. The proposed scheme called Variance Based Component Analysis or VBCA employs PCA for feature extraction, applies a feature reduction algorithm based on variance of eigenpictures and classifies the pixels as defective and normal. While the classic PCA uses a clusterer like Kmeans for pixel clustering, VBCA employs thresholding and some post processing operations to label pixels as defective and normal. The experimental results show that proposed algorithm called VBCA is 12.46% more accurate and 78.85% faster than the classic PCA.
196
10873
Determining the Criteria and their Importance Level of Calibration Supplier Selection
Abstract:
Quality control is the crucial step for ISO 9001 Quality System Management Standard for companies. While measuring the quality level of both raw material and semi product/product, the calibration of the measuring device is an essential requirement. Calibration suppliers are in the service sector and therefore the calibration supplier selection is becoming a worthy topic for improving service quality. This study presents the results of a questionnaire about the selection criteria of a calibration supplier. The questionnaire was applied to 103 companies and the results are discussed in this paper. The analysis was made with MINITAB 14.0 statistical programs. “Competence of documentations" and “technical capability" are defined as the prerequisites because of the ISO/IEC17025:2005 standard. Also “warranties and complaint policy", “communication", “service features", “quality" and “performance history" are defined as very important criteria for calibration supplier selection.
195
3007
Experimental and Computational Analysis of Hygrothermal Performance of an Interior Thermal Insulation System
Abstract:
Combined experimental and computational analysis of hygrothermal performance of an interior thermal insulation system applied on a brick wall is presented in the paper. In the experimental part, the functionality of the insulation system is tested at simulated difference climate conditions using a semi-scale device. The measured temperature and relative humidity profiles are used for the calibration of computer code HEMOT that is finally applied for a long-term hygrothermal analysis of the investigated structure.
194
1942
Investigation of the Effectiveness of Siloxane Hydrophobic Injection for Renovation of Damp Brick Masonry
Abstract:
Experimental investigation of the effect of hydrophobic injection on siloxane basis on the properties of oldfashioned type of ceramic brick is presented in the paper. At the experimental testing, the matrix density, total open porosity, pore size distribution, sorptivity, water absorption coefficient, sorption and desorption isotherms are measured for the original, as well as the hydrophobic-injection treated brick. On the basis of measured data, the functionality of the hydrophobic injection for the moisture ingress prevention into the studied ceramic brick is assessed.
193
13957
Effect of Environmental Conditions on Energy Efficiency of AAC-based Building Envelopes
Abstract:
Calculations of energy efficiency of several AACbased building envelopes under different climatic conditions are presented. As thermal insulating materials, expanded polystyrene and hydrophobic and hydrophilic mineral wools are assumed. The computations are accomplished using computer code HEMOT developed at Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering at the Czech Technical University in Prague. The climatic data of Athens, Kazan, Oslo, Prague and Reykjavík are obtained using METEONORM software.
192
4507
A Utilitarian Approach to Modeling Information Flows in Social Networks
Abstract:
We propose a multi-agent based utilitarian approach to model and understand information flows in social networks that lead to Pareto optimal informational exchanges. We model the individual expected utility function of the agents to reflect the net value of information received. We show how this model, adapted from a theorem by Karl Borch dealing with an actuarial Risk Exchange concept in the Insurance industry, can be used for social network analysis. We develop a utilitarian framework that allows us to interpret Pareto optimal exchanges of value as potential information flows, while achieving a maximization of a sum of expected utilities of information of the group of agents. We examine some interesting conditions on the utility function under which the flows are optimal. We illustrate the promise of this new approach to attach economic value to information in networks with a synthetic example.
191
913
DEMO Based Optimal Power Purchase Planning Under Electricity Price Uncertainty
Abstract:
Due to the deregulation of the Electric Supply Industry and the resulting emergence of electricity market, the volumes of power purchases are on the rise all over the world. In a bid to meet the customer-s demand in a reliable and yet economic manner, utilities purchase power from the energy market over and above its own production. This paper aims at developing an optimal power purchase model with two objectives viz economy and environment ,taking various functional operating constraints such as branch flow limits, load bus voltage magnitudes limits, unit capacity constraints and security constraints into consideration.The price of purchased power being an uncertain variable is modeled using fuzzy logic. DEMO (Differential Evolution For Multi-objective Optimization) is used to obtain the pareto-optimal solution set of the multi-objective problem formulated. Fuzzy set theory has been employed to extract the best compromise non-dominated solution. The results obtained on IEEE 30 bus system are presented and compared with that of NSGAII.
190
437
Online Computing System for Cctuple-Precision Computation with Fortran
Abstract:

Computations with higher than the IEEE 754 standard double-precision (about 16 significant digits) are required recently. Although there are available software routines in Fortran and C for high-precision computation, users are required to implement such routines in their own computers with detailed knowledges about them. We have constructed an user-friendly online system for octupleprecision computation. In our Web system users with no knowledges about high-precision computation can easily perform octupleprecision computations, by choosing mathematical functions with argument(s) inputted, by writing simple mathematical expression(s) or by uploading C program(s). In this paper we enhance the Web system above by adding the facility of uploading Fortran programs, which have been widely used in scientific computing. To this end we construct converter routines in two stages.

189
241
Developing OMS in IHL
Abstract:
Managing knowledge of research is one way to ensure just in time information and knowledge to support research strategist and activities. Unfortunately researcher found the vital research knowledge in IHL (Institutions of Higher Learning) are scattered, unstructured and unorganized. Aiming on lay aside conceptual foundations for understanding and developing OMS (Organizational Memory System) to facilitate research in IHL, this research revealed ten factors contributed to the needs of research in the IHL and seven internal challenges of IHL in promoting research to their academic members. This study then suggested a comprehensive support of managing research knowledge using Organizational Memory System (OMS). Eight OMS characteristics to support research were identified. Finally the initial work in designing OMS was projected using knowledge taxonomy. All analysis is derived from pertinent research paper related to research in IHL and OMS. Further study can be conducted to validate and verify results presented.
188
7258
Working Capital Management, Firms- Performance and Market Valuation in Nigeria
Abstract:
This study examines the impact of working capital management on firms- performance and market value of the firms in Nigeria. A sample of fifty four non-financial quoted firms in Nigeria listed on the Nigeria Stock Exchange was used for this study. Data were collected from annual reports of the sampled firms for the period 1995-2009. This result shows there is a significant negative relationship between cash conversion cycle and market valuation and firm-s performance. It also shows that debt ratio is positively related to market valuation and negatively related firm-s performance. The findings confirm that there is a significant relationship between Market valuation, profitability and working capital component in line with previous studies. This mean that Nigeria firms should ensure adequate management of working capital especially cash conversion cycle components of account receivables, account payables and inventories, as efficiency working capital management is expected to contribute positively to the firms- market value.
187
2974
The Importance of Class Attendance and Cumulative GPA for Academic Success in Industrial Engineering Classes
Abstract:
The affect of the attendance percentage, the overall GPA and the number of credit hours the student is enrolled in at specific semester on the grade attained in specific course has been studied. This study has been performed on three courses offered in industrial engineering department at the Hashemite University in Jordan. Study has revealed that the grade attained by a student is strongly affected by the attendance percentage and his overall GPA with a value of R2 of 52.5%. Another model that has been investigated is the relation between the semester GPA and the attendance percentage, the number of credit hours enrolled in at specific semester, and the overall GPA. This model gave us a strong relationship between the semester GPA and attendance percentage and the overall GPA with a value of R2 of 76.2%.
186
9376
Role of Association Rule Mining in Numerical Data Analysis
Abstract:
Numerical analysis naturally finds applications in all fields of engineering and the physical sciences, but in the 21st century, the life sciences and even the arts have adopted elements of scientific computations. The numerical data analysis became key process in research and development of all the fields [6]. In this paper we have made an attempt to analyze the specified numerical patterns with reference to the association rule mining techniques with minimum confidence and minimum support mining criteria. The extracted rules and analyzed results are graphically demonstrated. Association rules are a simple but very useful form of data mining that describe the probabilistic co-occurrence of certain events within a database [7]. They were originally designed to analyze market-basket data, in which the likelihood of items being purchased together within the same transactions are analyzed.
185
3325
Power Reduction by Automatic Monitoring and Control System in Active Mode
Abstract:
This paper describes a novel monitoring scheme to minimize total active power in digital circuits depend on the demand frequency, by adjusting automatically both supply voltage and threshold voltages based on circuit operating conditions such as temperature, process variations, and desirable frequency. The delay monitoring results, will be control and apply so as to be maintained at the minimum value at which the chip is able to operate for a given clock frequency. Design details of power monitor are examined using simulation framework in 32nm BTPM model CMOS process. Experimental results show the overhead of proposed circuit in terms of its power consumption is about 40 μW for 32nm technology; moreover the results show that our proposed circuit design is not far sensitive to the temperature variations and also process variations. Besides, uses the simple blocks which offer good sensitivity, high speed, the continuously feedback loop. This design provides up to 40% reduction in power consumption in active mode.
184
14068
Investigating the Treatability of a Compost Leachate in a Hybrid Anaerobic Reactor: An Experimental Study
Abstract:
Compost manufacturing plants are one of units where wastewater is produced in significantly large amounts. Wastewater produced in these plants contains high amounts of substrate (organic loads) and is classified as stringent waste which creates significant pollution when discharged into the environment without treatment. A compost production plant in the one of the Iran-s province treating 200 tons/day of waste is one of the most important environmental pollutant operations in this zone. The main objectives of this paper are to investigate the compost wastewater treatability in hybrid anaerobic reactors with an upflow-downflow arrangement, to determine the kinetic constants, and eventually to obtain an appropriate mathematical model. After starting the hybrid anaerobic reactor of the compost production plant, the average COD removal rate efficiency was 95%.
183
15637
Statistical Study of Drink Markets: Case Study
Abstract:
An important official knowledge in each country is to have a comprehensive knowledge about markets of each group of products. Drink markets are one the most important markets of each country as a sub-group of nourishment markets. This paper is going to study these markets in Iran. To do so, first, two drink products are selected as pilot, including milk and concentrate. Then, for each product, two groups of information are estimated for the last five years, including 1) total consumption (demand) and 2) total production. Finally, the two groups of productions are compared statistically by means of two statistical tests called t test and Mann- Whitney test. The implemented Different related tables and figures are also illustrated to show the method more explicitly.
182
13872
Proposing a Pareto-based Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm to Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem
Abstract:
During last decades, developing multi-objective evolutionary algorithms for optimization problems has found considerable attention. Flexible job shop scheduling problem, as an important scheduling optimization problem, has found this attention too. However, most of the multi-objective algorithms that are developed for this problem use nonprofessional approaches. In another words, most of them combine their objectives and then solve multi-objective problem through single objective approaches. Of course, except some scarce researches that uses Pareto-based algorithms. Therefore, in this paper, a new Pareto-based algorithm called controlled elitism non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (CENSGA) is proposed for the multi-objective FJSP (MOFJSP). Our considered objectives are makespan, critical machine work load, and total work load of machines. The proposed algorithm is also compared with one the best Pareto-based algorithms of the literature on some multi-objective criteria, statistically.
181
9519
Antimicrobial, Antiplasmid and Cytotoxicity Potentials of Marine Algae Halimeda opuntia and Sarconema filiforme Collected from Red Sea Coast
Authors:
Abstract:

The antimicrobial, antiplasmid and cytotoxic activities of marine algae Halimeda opuntia and Sarconema filiforme were investigated. Antimicrobial bioassay against some human pathogenic bacteria and yeast were conducted using disc diffusion method. Halimeda extract exhibited antibacterial activity against six species of microrganisms, with significant inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus. While Sarconema extract was better potent as antifungal against Candida albicans. Comparative antibacterial studies showed that Halimeda extract showed equivalent or better activity as compared with commercial antibiotic when tested against Staphylococcus aureus. Further tests conducted using dilution method showed both extracts as having bacteriostatic mode of action against the tested microorganisms. Methanol extract of two species showed significant cytotoxicity (LC50 <500μg) on brine shrimp. Halimeda opuntia showed highest cytotoxic activity (LC50 =192.3μg). Also, the present investigation was undertaken to investigate the ability of methanolic extract of the algal extracts to cure R-plasmids from certain clinical E. coli isolates. The active fraction of Halimeda and Sarconema could cure plasmids from E. coli at curing efficiencies of approximately 78%. The active fraction mediated plasmid curing resulted in the subsequent loss of antibiotic resistance encoded in the plasmids as revealed by antibiotic resistance profile of cured strains. The screening results confirm the possible use of marine algae Halimeda opuntia and Sarconema filiforme as a source of pharmacological benefits.

180
8088
Application of Java-based Pointcuts in Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP) for Data Race Detection
Abstract:
Wide applicability of concurrent programming practices in developing various software applications leads to different concurrency errors amongst which data race is the most important. Java provides greatest support for concurrent programming by introducing various concurrency packages. Aspect oriented programming (AOP) is modern programming paradigm facilitating the runtime interception of events of interest and can be effectively used to handle the concurrency problems. AspectJ being an aspect oriented extension to java facilitates the application of concepts of AOP for data race detection. Volatile variables are usually considered thread safe, but they can become the possible candidates of data races if non-atomic operations are performed concurrently upon them. Various data race detection algorithms have been proposed in the past but this issue of volatility and atomicity is still unaddressed. The aim of this research is to propose some suggestions for incorporating certain conditions for data race detection in java programs at the volatile fields by taking into account support for atomicity in java concurrency packages and making use of pointcuts. Two simple test programs will demonstrate the results of research. The results are verified on two different Java Development Kits (JDKs) for the purpose of comparison.
179
4468
Improvement in Power Transformer Intelligent Dissolved Gas Analysis Method
Abstract:
Non-Destructive evaluation of in-service power transformer condition is necessary for avoiding catastrophic failures. Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) is one of the important methods. Traditional, statistical and intelligent DGA approaches have been adopted for accurate classification of incipient fault sources. Unfortunately, there are not often enough faulty patterns required for sufficient training of intelligent systems. By bootstrapping the shortcoming is expected to be alleviated and algorithms with better classification success rates to be obtained. In this paper the performance of an artificial neural network, K-Nearest Neighbour and support vector machine methods using bootstrapped data are detailed and shown that while the success rate of the ANN algorithms improves remarkably, the outcome of the others do not benefit so much from the provided enlarged data space. For assessment, two databases are employed: IEC TC10 and a dataset collected from reported data in papers. High average test success rate well exhibits the remarkable outcome.
178
12716
Drag models for Simulation Gas-Solid Flow in the Bubbling Fluidized Bed of FCC Particles
Abstract:
In the current work, a numerical parametric study was performed in order to model the fluid mechanics in the riser of a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB). The gas-solid flow was simulated by mean of a multi-fluid Eulerian model incorporating the kinetic theory for solid particles. The bubbling fluidized bed was simulated two dimensionally by mean of a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) commercial software package, Fluent. The effects of using different inter-phase drag function (the drag model of Gidaspow, Syamlal and O-Brien and the EMMS drag model) on the model predictions were evaluated and compared. The results showed that the drag models of Gidaspow and Syamlal and O-Brien overestimated the drag force for the FCC particles and predicted a greater bed expansion in comparison to the EMMS drag model.
177
9855
Business Intelligence and Strategic Decision Simulation
Abstract:

The purpose of this study is two-fold. First, it attempts to explore potential opportunities for utilizing visual interactive simulations along with Business Intelligence (BI) as a decision support tool for strategic decision making. Second, it tries to figure out the essential top-level managerial requirements that would transform strategic decision simulation into an integral component of BI systems. The domain of particular interest was the application of visual interactive simulation capabilities in the field of supply chains. A qualitative exploratory method was applied, through the use of interviews with two leading companies. The collected data was then analysed to demonstrate the difference between the literature perspective and the practical managerial perspective on the issue. The results of the study suggest that although the use of simulation particularly in managing supply chains is very evident in literature, yet, in practice such utilization is still in its infancy, particularly regarding strategic decisions. Based on the insights a prototype of a simulation based BI-solution-extension was developed and evaluated.

176
9642
Off-State Leakage Power Reduction by Automatic Monitoring and Control System
Abstract:
This paper propose a new circuit design which monitor total leakage current during standby mode and generates the optimal reverse body bias voltage, by using the adaptive body bias (ABB) technique to compensate die-to-die parameter variations. Design details of power monitor are examined using simulation framework in 65nm and 32nm BTPM model CMOS process. Experimental results show the overhead of proposed circuit in terms of its power consumption is about 10 μW for 32nm technology and about 12 μW for 65nm technology at the same power supply voltage as the core power supply. Moreover the results show that our proposed circuit design is not far sensitive to the temperature variations and also process variations. Besides, uses the simple blocks which offer good sensitivity, high speed, the continuously feedback loop.
175
12470
Dependence of Equilibrium, Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Zn (II) Ions Sorption from Water on Particle Size of Natural Hydroxyapatite Extracted from Bone Ash
Abstract:
Heavy metals have bad effects on environment and soils and it can uptake by natural HAP .natural Hap is an inexpensive material that uptake large amounts of various heavy metals like Zn (II) .Natural HAP (N-HAP), extracted from bovine cortical bone ash, is a good choice for substitution of commercial HAP. Several experiments were done to investigate the sorption capacity of Zn (II) to N-HAP in various particles sizes, temperatures, initial concentrations, pH and reaction times. In this study, the sorption of Zinc ions from a Zn solution onto HAP particles with sizes of 1537.6 nm and 47.6 nm at three initial pH values of 4.50, 6.00 and 7.50 was studied. The results showed that better performance was obtained through a 47.6 nm particle size and higher pH values. The experimental data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Arrhenius equations for equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. The analysis showed a maximum adsorption capacity of NHAP as being 1.562 mmol/g at a pH of 7.5 and small particle size. Kinetically, the prepared N-HAP is a feasible sorbent that retains Zn (II) ions through a favorable and spontaneous sorption process.
174
12899
Social Networks and Absorptive Capacity
Abstract:
The resource-based view of the firm regards knowledge as one of the most important organizational assets and a key strategic resource that contributes unique value to organizations. The acquisition, absorption and internalization of external knowledge are central to an organization-s innovative capabilities. This ability to evaluate, acquire and integrate new knowledge from its environment is referred to as a firm-s absorptive capacity (AC). This research in progress paper explores the link between interorganizational Social Networks (SNs) and a firm-s Absorptive Capacity (AC). Based on an in-depth literature survey of both concepts, four propositions are proposed that explain the link between AC and SNs. These propositions suggest that SNs are key to a firm-s AC. A qualitative research method is proposed to test the set of propositions in the next stage of this research.
173
968
Evaluation on Bearing Capacity of Ring Foundations on two-Layered Soil
Abstract:
This paper utilizes a finite element analysis to study the bearing capacity of ring footings on a two-layered soil. The upper layer, that the footing is placed on it, is soft clay and the underneath layer is a cohesionless sand. For modeling soils, Mohr–Coulomb plastic yield criterion is employed. The effects of two factors, the clay layer thickness and the ratio of internal radius of the ring footing to external radius of the ring, have been analyzed. It is found that the bearing capacity decreases as the value of ri / ro increases. Although, as the clay layer thickness increases the bearing capacity was alleviated gradually.
172
12417
Using Combination of Optimized Recurrent Neural Network with Design of Experiments and Regression for Control Chart Forecasting
Abstract:
recurrent neural network (RNN) is an efficient tool for modeling production control process as well as modeling services. In this paper one RNN was combined with regression model and were employed in order to be checked whether the obtained data by the model in comparison with actual data, are valid for variable process control chart. Therefore, one maintenance process in workshop of Esfahan Oil Refining Co. (EORC) was taken for illustration of models. First, the regression was made for predicting the response time of process based upon determined factors, and then the error between actual and predicted response time as output and also the same factors as input were used in RNN. Finally, according to predicted data from combined model, it is scrutinized for test values in statistical process control whether forecasting efficiency is acceptable. Meanwhile, in training process of RNN, design of experiments was set so as to optimize the RNN.
171
4731
Determination of Required Ion Exchange Solution for Stabilizing Clayey Soils with Various PI
Abstract:
Soil stabilization has been widely used to improve soil strength and durability or to prevent erosion and dust generation. Generally to reduce problems of clayey soils in engineering work and to stabilize these soils additional materials are used. The most common materials are lime, fly ash and cement. Using this materials, although improve soil property , but in some cases due to financial problems and the need to use special equipment are limited .One of the best methods for stabilization clayey soils is neutralization the clay particles. For this purpose we can use ion exchange materials. Ion exchange solution like CBR plus can be used for soil stabilization. One of the most important things in using CBR plus is determination the amount of this solution for various soils with different properties. In this study a laboratory experiment is conduct to evaluate the ion exchange capacity of three soils with various plasticity index (PI) to determine amount or required CBR plus solution for soil stabilization.
170
9588
Numerical Modeling of Direct Shear Tests on Sandy Clay
Abstract:
Investigation of sandy clay behavior is important since urban development demands mean that sandy clay areas are increasingly encountered, especially for transportation infrastructures. This paper presents the results of the finite element analysis of the direct shear test (under three vertical loading 44, 96 and 192 kPa) and discusses the effects of different parameters such as cohesion, friction angle and Young's modulus on the shear strength of sandy clay. The numerical model was calibrated against the experimental results of large-scale direct shear tests. The results have shown that the shear strength was increased with increase in friction angle and cohesion. However, the shear strength was not influenced by raising the friction angle at normal stress of 44 kPa. Also, the effect of different young's modulus factors on stress-strain curve was investigated.
169
12937
6DSpaces: Multisensory Interactive Installations
Abstract:
Interactive installations for public spaces are a particular kind of interactive systems, the design of which has been the subject of several research studies. Sensor-based applications are becoming increasingly popular, but the human-computer interaction community is still far from reaching sound, effective large-scale interactive installations for public spaces. The 6DSpaces project is described in this paper as a research approach based on studying the role of multisensory interactivity and how it can be effectively used to approach people to digital, scientific contents. The design of an entire scientific exhibition is described and the result was evaluated in the real world context of a Science Centre. Conclusions bring insight into how the human-computer interaction should be designed in order to maximize the overall experience.
168
2121
The Calculation of Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) in Substations of Shopping Centers
Abstract:
In nature, electromagnetic fields always appear like atmosphere static electric field, the earth's static magnetic field and the wide-rang frequency electromagnetic field caused by lightening. However, besides natural electromagnetic fields (EMF), today human beings are mostly exposed to artificial electromagnetic fields due to technology progress and outspread use of electrical devices. To evaluate nuisance of EMF, it is necessary to know field intensity for every frequency which appears and compare it with allowed values. Low frequency EMF-s around transmission and distribution lines are time-varying quasi-static electromagnetic fields which have conservative component of low frequency electrical field caused by charges and eddy component of low frequency magnetic field caused by currents. Displacement current or field delay are negligible, so energy flow in quasi-static EMF involves diffusion, analog like heat transfer. Electrical and magnetic field can be analyzed separately. This paper analysis the numerical calculations in ELF-400 software of EMF in distribution substation in shopping center. Analyzing the results it is possible to specify locations exposed to the fields and give useful suggestion to eliminate electromagnetic effect or reduce it on acceptable level within the non-ionizing radiation norms and norms of protection from EMF.
167
6591
Optimization of Fuel Consumption of a Bus used in City Line with Regulation of Driving Characteristics
Abstract:
The fuel cost of the motor vehicle operating on its common route is an important part of the operating cost. Therefore, the importance of the fuel saving is increasing day by day. One of the parameters which improve fuel saving is the regulation of driving characteristics. The number and duration of stop is increased by the heavy traffic load. It is possible to improve the fuel saving with regulation of traffic flow and driving characteristics. The researches show that the regulation of the traffic flow decreases fuel consumption, but it is not enough to improve fuel saving without the regulation of driving characteristics. This study analyses the fuel consumption of two trips of city bus operating on its common route and determines the effect of traffic density and driving characteristics on fuel consumption. Finally it offers some suggestions about regulation of driving characteristics to improve the fuel saving. Fuel saving is determined according to the results obtained from simulation program. When experimental and simulation results are compared, it has been found that the fuel saving was reached up the to 40 percent ratios.
166
1377
Consolidation of Al-2024 Powder by Conventional P/M Route and ECAP – A Comparative Study
Abstract:
In this study, mechanically alloyed Al 2024 powder is densified by conventional sintering and by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) with and without back pressure. The powder was encapsulated in an aluminium can for consolidation through ECAP. The properties obtained in the compacts by conventional sintering route and by ECAP are compared. The effect of conventional sintering and ECAP on consolidation behaviour of powder, microstructure, density and hardness is discussed. Room temperature back pressure aided ECAP results in nearly full denser (97% of its theoretical density) compact at room temperature. NanoIndentation technique was used to determine the modulus of the consolidated compacts.
165
13974
Behavior of Ice Melting in Natural Convention
Abstract:
In this paper, the ice melting in rectangular, cylindrical and conical forms, which are erected vertically against air flow, are experimentally studied in the free convection regime.The results obtained are: Nusslet Number, heat transfer coefficient andGrashof Number, and the variations of the said numbers in relation to the time. The variations of ice slab area and volume are measured, too.
164
5418
Experimental Study of Kiwi Juice under Sonication and Carbonation
Abstract:
This paper focuses on the experimental impacts of ultrasonic, carbonate and a combination of them on the quality of fresh kiwi juice. Today, non-thermal methods like ultrasonic, which have imperceptible effects on some properties of the juice such as taste, flavor and color, are commonly used for killing microorganisms.In this paper, some properties of kiwi fruit juice under ultrasonic, carbonate and a combination of them has been researched. Those properties include pH, acidity, transparency and Brix. Its impact on microorganisms has been studied as well.The results show that using a combination of carbonate and sonicate make the cavitation more severe without a perceptible effect on nonactivation of microorganisms.
163
15410
Energy Savings in Pumps
Abstract:
This study presents energy saving in general-purpose pumps widely used in industrial applications. Such pumps are normally driven by a constant-speed electrical motor which in most applications must support varying load conditions. This is equivalent to saying the loading conditions mismatch the designed optimal energy consumption requirements of the intended application thus resulting in substantial energy losses. In the held experiments it was indicated that combination of mechanical and electrical speed drives can contribute to lower energy consumption in the pump without negatively distorting the required performance indices of a typical centrifugal pump at substantially lower energy consumption. The registered energy savings were recorded to be within the 15-40% margin. It was also indicated that although VSDs are installed at a cost, the financial burden is balanced against the earnings resulting from the associated energy savings.
162
2450
Fabrication and Characterization of Al/Methyl Orange/n-Si Heterojunction Diode
Abstract:
Herein, the organic semiconductor methyl orange (MO), is investigated for the first time for its electronic applications. For this purpose, Al/MO/n-Si heterojunction is fabricated through economical cheap and simple “drop casting” technique. The currentvoltage (I-V) measurements of the device are made at room temperature under dark conditions. The I-V characteristics of Al/MO/n-Si junction exhibits asymmetrical and rectifying behavior that confirms the formation of diode. The diode parameters such as rectification ratio (RR), turn on voltage (Vturn on), reverse saturation current (I0), ideality factor (n), barrier height ( b f ), series resistance (Rs) and shunt resistance (Rsh) are determined from I-V curves using Schottky equations. These values of these parameters are also extracted and verified by applying Cheung’s functions. The conduction mechanisms are explained from the forward bias I-V characteristics using the power law.
161
2594
Fast and Accurate Reservoir Modeling: Genetic Algorithm versus DIRECT Method
Abstract:
In this paper, two very different optimization algorithms, Genetic and DIRECT algorithms, are used to history match a bottomhole pressure response for a reservoir with wellbore storage and skin with the best possible analytical model. No initial guesses are available for reservoir parameters. The results show that the matching process is much faster and more accurate for DIRECT method in comparison with Genetic algorithm. It is furthermore concluded that the DIRECT algorithm does not need any initial guesses, whereas Genetic algorithm needs to be tuned according to initial guesses.
160
3366
Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage: A Recipe for Success
Abstract:
In this paper, Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) is introduced and its advantages over ordinary steam injection is demonstrated. A simple simulation model is built and three scenarios of natural production, ordinary steam injection, and SAGD are compared in terms of their cumulative oil production and cumulative oil steam ratio. The results show that SAGD can significantly enhance oil production in quite a short period of time. However, since the distance between injection and production wells is short, the oil to steam ratio decreases gradually through time.
159
14298
Movement of Location of Tip Vortex Cavitation along Blade Edge due to Reduction of Flow Rate in an Axial Pump
Abstract:
Tip vortex cavitation is one of well known patterns of cavitation phenomenon which occurs in axial pumps. This pattern of cavitation occurs due to pressure difference between the pressure and suction sides of blades of an axial pump. Since the pressure in the pressure side of the blade is higher than the pressure in its suction side, thus a very small portion of liquid flow flows back from pressure side to the suction side. This fact is cause of tip vortex cavitation and gap cavitation that may occur in axial pumps. In this paper the results of our experimental investigation about movement of tip vortex cavitation along blade edge due to reduction of pump flow rate in an axial pump is reported. Results show that reduction of pump flow rate in conjunction with increasing of outlet pressure causes movement of tip vortex cavitation along blade edge towards the blade tip. Results also show that by approaching tip vortex cavitation to the blade tip, vortex tip pattern of cavitation replaces with a cavitation phenomenon on the blade tip. Furthermore by further reduction of pump flow rate and increasing of outlet pressure, an unstable cavitation phenomenon occurs between each blade leading edge and the next blade trailing edge.
158
15460
Processor Scheduling on Parallel Computers
Abstract:
Many problems in computer vision and image processing present potential for parallel implementations through one of the three major paradigms of geometric parallelism, algorithmic parallelism and processor farming. Static process scheduling techniques are used successfully to exploit geometric and algorithmic parallelism, while dynamic process scheduling is better suited to dealing with the independent processes inherent in the process farming paradigm. This paper considers the application of parallel or multi-computers to a class of problems exhibiting spatial data characteristic of the geometric paradigm. However, by using processor farming paradigm, a dynamic scheduling technique is developed to suit the MIMD structure of the multi-computers. A hybrid scheme of scheduling is also developed and compared with the other schemes. The specific problem chosen for the investigation is the Hough transform for line detection.
157
8571
Shape Memory alloy Actuator System Optimization for New Hand Prostheses
Abstract:
Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators have found a wide range of applications due to their unique properties such as high force, small size, lightweight and silent operation. This paper presents the development of compact (SMA) actuator and cooling system in one unit. This actuator is developed for multi-fingered hand. It consists of nickel-titanium (Nitinol) SMA wires in compact forming. The new arrangement insulates SMA wires from the human body by housing it in a heat sink and uses a thermoelectric device for rejecting heat to improve the actuator performance. The study uses optimization methods for selecting the SMA wires geometrical parameters and the material of a heat sink. The experimental work implements the actuator prototype and measures its response.
156
9914
Assessing and Managing Intellectual Capital to Support Open Innovation Paradigm
Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to support the application of Open Innovation practices in firms and organizations by the assessment and management of Intellectual Capital. Intellectual Capital constituents are analyzed in order to verify their capability of acting as key drivers of Open Innovation processes and, therefore, of creating value. A methodology is defined to settle a procedure which helps to select the most relevant Intellectual Capital value drivers and to provide Communities of Innovation with strategic and managerial guidelines in sustaining Open Innovation paradigm. An application of the methodology is developed within a specifically addressed project and its results are hereafter examined.

155
8375
Reliable Capacitated Facility Location Problem Considering Maximal Covering
Abstract:
This paper provides a framework in order to incorporate reliability issue as a sign of disruption in distribution systems and partial covering theory as a response to limitation in coverage radios and economical preferences, simultaneously into the traditional literatures of capacitated facility location problems. As a result we develop a bi-objective model based on the discrete scenarios for expected cost minimization and demands coverage maximization through a three echelon supply chain network by facilitating multi-capacity levels for provider side layers and imposing gradual coverage function for distribution centers (DCs). Additionally, in spite of objectives aggregation for solving the model through LINGO software, a branch of LP-Metric method called Min- Max approach is proposed and different aspects of corresponds model will be explored.
154
2539
Distribution Centers Reliability Cost in Capacitated Facility Location Problem
Abstract:
Recently studies in area of supply chain network (SCN) have focused on the disruption issues in distribution systems. Also this paper extends the previous literature by providing a new biobjective model for cost minimization of designing a three echelon SCN across normal and failure scenarios with considering multi capacity option for manufacturers and distribution centers. Moreover, in order to solve the problem by means of LINGO software, novel model will be reformulated through a branch of LP-Metric method called Min-Max approach.
153
1859
A Bi-Objective Preventive Healthcare Facility Network Design with Incorporating Cost and Time Saving
Abstract:
Main goal of preventive healthcare problems are at decreasing the likelihood and severity of potentially life-threatening illnesses by protection and early detection. The levels of establishment and staffing costs along with summation of the travel and waiting time that clients spent are considered as objectives functions of the proposed nonlinear integer programming model. In this paper, we have proposed a bi-objective mathematical model for designing a network of preventive healthcare facilities so as to minimize aforementioned objectives, simultaneously. Moreover, each facility acts as M/M/1 queuing system. The number of facilities to be established, the location of each facility, and the level of technology for each facility to be chosen are provided as the main determinants of a healthcare facility network. Finally, to demonstrate performance of the proposed model, four multi-objective decision making techniques are presented to solve the model.
152
1468
Iris Localization using Circle and Fuzzy Circle Detection Method
Abstract:
Iris localization is a very important approach in biometric identification systems. Identification process usually is implemented in three levels: iris localization, feature extraction, and pattern matching finally. Accuracy of iris localization as the first step affects all other levels and this shows the importance of iris localization in an iris based biometric system. In this paper, we consider Daugman iris localization method as a standard method, propose a new method in this field and then analyze and compare the results of them on a standard set of iris images. The proposed method is based on the detection of circular edge of iris, and improved by fuzzy circles and surface energy difference contexts. Implementation of this method is so easy and compared to the other methods, have a rather high accuracy and speed. Test results show that the accuracy of our proposed method is about Daugman method and computation speed of it is 10 times faster.
151
1130
Application of Particle Swarm Optimization Technique for an Optical Fiber Alignment System
Abstract:

In this paper, a new alignment method based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique is presented. The PSO algorithm is used for locating the optimal coupling position with the highest optical power with three-degrees of freedom alignment. This algorithm gives an interesting results without a need to go thru the complex mathematical modeling of the alignment system. The proposed algorithm is validated considering practical tests considering the alignment of two Single Mode Fibers (SMF) and the alignment of SMF and PCF fibers.

150
7141
Bail-in Capital: The New Box
Abstract:
In this paper, we discuss the paradigm shift in bank capital from the “gone concern" to the “going concern" mindset. We then propose a methodology for pricing a product of this shift called Contingent Capital Notes (“CoCos"). The Merton Model can determine a price for credit risk by using the firm-s equity value as a call option on those assets. Our pricing methodology for CoCos also uses the credit spread implied by the Merton Model in a subsequent derivative form created by John Hull et al . Here, a market implied asset volatility is calculated by using observed market CDS spreads. This implied asset volatility is then used to estimate the probability of triggering a predetermined “contingency event" given the distanceto- trigger (DTT). The paper then investigates the effect of varying DTTs and recovery assumptions on the CoCo yield. We conclude with an investment rationale.
149
10430
Optimization of Quantization in Higher Order Modulations for LDPC-Coded Systems
Abstract:
In this paper, we evaluate the choice of suitable quantization characteristics for both the decoder messages and the received samples in Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) coded systems using M-QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) schemes. The analysis involves the demapper block that provides initial likelihood values for the decoder, by relating its quantization strategy of the decoder. A mapping strategy refers to the grouping of bits within a codeword, where each m-bit group is used to select a 2m-ary signal in accordance with the signal labels. Further we evaluate the system with mapping strategies like Consecutive-Bit (CB) and Bit-Reliability (BR). A new demapper version, based on approximate expressions, is also presented to yield a low complexity hardware implementation.
148
4833
Firm Ownership and Performance: Evidence for Croatian Listed Firms
Abstract:
Using data of listed Croatian firms from the Zagreb Stock Exchange we analyze the relationship between firm ownership (ownership concentration and type) and performance (ROA). Empirical research was conducted for the period 2003-2010, yielding with the total of 1,430 observations. Empirical findings based on dynamic panel analysis indicate that ownership concentration variable - CR4 is negatively related with performance, i.e. listed firms with dispersed ownership perform better than firms with concentrated ownership. Also, the research indicated that foreign controlled listed firms perform better than domestically controlled firms. Majority state owned firms perform worse than privately held firms but dummy variable for privately controlled firms was not statistically significant in the estimated panel model.
147
7467
Effects of Market Share and Diversification on Nonlife Insurers- Performance
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of market share and diversification on the nonlife insurers- performance. The underlying relationships have been investigated in different industries and different disciplines (economics, management...), still, no consistency exists either in the magnitude or statistical significance of the relationship between market share (and diversification as well) on one side and companies- performance on the other side. Moreover, the direction of the relationship is also somewhat questionable. While some authors find this relationship to be positive, the others reveal its negative association. In order to test the influence of market share and diversification on companies- performance in Croatian nonlife insurance industry for the period from 1999 to 2009, we designed an empirical model in which we included the following independent variables: firms- profitability from previous years, market share, diversification and control variables (i.e. ownership, industrial concentration, GDP per capita, inflation). Using the two-step generalized method of moments (GMM) estimator we found evidence of a positive and statistically significant influence of both, market share and diversification, on insurers- profitability.
146
9109
Design Optimization of Cutting Parameters when Turning Inconel 718 with Cermet Inserts
Abstract:
Inconel 718, a nickel based super-alloy is an extensively used alloy, accounting for about 50% by weight of materials used in an aerospace engine, mainly in the gas turbine compartment. This is owing to their outstanding strength and oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures in excess of 5500 C. Machining is a requisite operation in the aircraft industries for the manufacture of the components especially for gas turbines. This paper is concerned with optimization of the surface roughness when turning Inconel 718 with cermet inserts. Optimization of turning operation is very useful to reduce cost and time for machining. The approach is based on Response Surface Method (RSM). In this work, second-order quadratic models are developed for surface roughness, considering the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut as the cutting parameters, using central composite design. The developed models are used to determine the optimum machining parameters. These optimized machining parameters are validated experimentally, and it is observed that the response values are in reasonable agreement with the predicted values.
145
14018
A New Protocol for Concealed Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:
Wireless sensor networks (WSN) consists of many sensor nodes that are placed on unattended environments such as military sites in order to collect important information. Implementing a secure protocol that can prevent forwarding forged data and modifying content of aggregated data and has low delay and overhead of communication, computing and storage is very important. This paper presents a new protocol for concealed data aggregation (CDA). In this protocol, the network is divided to virtual cells, nodes within each cell produce a shared key to send and receive of concealed data with each other. Considering to data aggregation in each cell is locally and implementing a secure authentication mechanism, data aggregation delay is very low and producing false data in the network by malicious nodes is not possible. To evaluate the performance of our proposed protocol, we have presented computational models that show the performance and low overhead in our protocol.
144
12794
Effect of Information System Strategies on Supply Chain Strategies and Supply Chain Performance
Abstract:
In order to achieve competitive advantage and better performance of firm, supply chain management (SCM) strategy should support and drive forward business strategy. It means that supply chain should be aligned with business strategy, at the same time supply chain (SC) managers need to use appropriate information system (IS) solution to support their strategy, which would lead to stay competitive. There are different kinds of IS strategies which enable managers to meet the SC requirement by selecting the best IS strategy. Therefore, it is important to align IS strategies and practices with SC strategies and practices, which could help us to plan for an IS application that supports and enhances a SCMS. In this study, aligning IS with SC in strategy level is considered. The main aim of this paper is to align the various IS strategies with SCM strategies and demonstrate their impact on SC and firm performance.
143
8731
Perfect Plastic Deformation of a Circular Thin Bronze Plate due to the Growth and Collapse of a Vapour Bubble
Abstract:

Dynamics of a vapour bubble generated due to a high local energy input near a circular thin bronze plate in the absence of the buoyancy forces is numerically investigated in this paper. The bubble is generated near a thin bronze plate and during the growth and collapse of the bubble, it deforms the nearby plate. The Boundary Integral Equation Method is employed for numerical simulation of the problem. The fluid is assumed to be incompressible, irrotational and inviscid and the surface tension on the bubble boundary is neglected. Therefore the fluid flow around the vapour bubble can be assumed as a potential flow. Furthermore, the thin bronze plate is assumed to have perfectly plastic behaviour. Results show that the displacement of the circular thin bronze plate has considerable effect on the dynamics of its nearby vapour bubble. It is found that by decreasing the thickness of the thin bronze plate, the growth and collapse rate of the bubble becomes higher and consequently the lifetime of the bubble becomes shorter.

142
10500
Antibacterial Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Table Olives against Skin Pathogens
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of LAB isolated from Iranian native olives on the opportunistic skin pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Lactic Acid Bacteria were isolated from the brine of each sample in the prior of time. The samples were spread on MRS agar for isolation of lactobacillus and for lactococcus. 28 strains of labs were isolated. The labs were centrifuged, the supernatant was strewed and pellet was used to inoculation in wells or at blank disks. 20μl of each pellet was inoculated to blank disks and 40μl of each pellet was inoculated to each well. The result of disk and well diffusion agar against these pathogens were confirmed each other. The size of inhibition zone was different according to the type of bacteria, the method and the concentrations of labs.
141
10233
A Proposed Performance Prediction Approach for Manufacturing Processes using ANNs
Abstract:
this paper aims to provide an approach to predict the performance of the product produced after multi-stages of manufacturing processes, as well as the assembly. Such approach aims to control and subsequently identify the relationship between the process inputs and outputs so that a process engineer can more accurately predict how the process output shall perform based on the system inputs. The approach is guided by a six-sigma methodology to obtain improved performance. In this paper a case study of the manufacture of a hermetic reciprocating compressor is presented. The application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) technique is introduced to improve performance prediction within this manufacturing environment. The results demonstrate that the approach predicts accurately and effectively.
140
12835
Tuning of Power System Stabilizers in a Multi- Machine Power System using C-Catfish PSO
Abstract:
The main objective of this paper is to investigate the enhancement of power system stability via coordinated tuning of Power System Stabilizers (PSSs) in a multi-machine power system. The design problem of the proposed controllers is formulated as an optimization problem. Chaotic catfish particle swarm optimization (C-Catfish PSO) algorithm is used to minimize the ITAE objective function. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on a two-area, 4- machines system. The robustness of the proposed algorithm is verified on this system under different operating conditions and applying a three-phase fault. The nonlinear time-domain simulation results and some performance indices show the effectiveness of the proposed controller in damping power system oscillations and this novel optimization algorithm is compared with particle swarm optimization (PSO).
139
8809
Confidence Intervals for Double Exponential Distribution: A Simulation Approach
Authors:
Abstract:
The double exponential model (DEM), or Laplace distribution, is used in various disciplines. However, there are issues related to the construction of confidence intervals (CI), when using the distribution.In this paper, the properties of DEM are considered with intention of constructing CI based on simulated data. The analysis of pivotal equations for the models here in comparisons with pivotal equations for normal distribution are performed, and the results obtained from simulation data are presented.
138
12461
Antibacterial Activity of the Chennopodium album Leaves and Flowers Extract
Abstract:
Recent years have instance that there is a invigoration of interest in drug discovery from medicinal plants for the support of health in all parts of the world . This study was designed to examine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the flowers and leaves methanolic and ethanolic extracts of Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium album Linn. flowers and leaves were collected from East Esfahan, Iran. The effects of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were tested against 4 bacterial strains by using disc,well-diffusion method. Results showed that flowers and leaves methanolic and ethanolic extracts of C.album don-t have any activity against the selected bacterial strains. Our study has indicated that ,there are effective different factors on antimicrobial properties of plant extracts
137
4998
The Impact Factors of the Environmental Pollution and Workers Health in Printing Industry
Abstract:
This paper presents the study of parameters affecting the environment protection in the printing industry. The paper has also compared LCA studies performed within the printing industry in order to identify common practices, limitations, areas for improvement, and opportunities for standardization. This comparison is focused on the data sources and methodologies used in the printing pollutants register. The presented concepts, methodology and results represent the contribution to the sustainable development management. Furthermore, the paper analyzes the result of the quantitative identification of hazardous substances emitted in printing industry of Novi Sad.
136
8516
Effect of Miniature Cracks on the Fracture Strength and Strain of Tensile Armour Wires
Abstract:
Tensile armour wires provide a flexible pipe's resistance to longitudinal stresses. Flexible pipe manufacturers need to know the effect of defects such as scratches and cracks, with dimensions less than 0.2mm which is the limit of the current nondestructive detection technology, on the fracture stress and fracture strain of the wire for quality assurance purposes. Recent research involving the determination of the fracture strength of cracked wires employed laboratory testing and classical fracture mechanics approach using non-standardised fracture mechanics specimens because standard test specimens could not be manufactured from the wires owing to their sizes. In this work, the effect of miniature cracks on the fracture properties of tensile armour wires was investigated using laboratory and finite element tensile testing simulations with the phenomenological shear fracture model. The investigation revealed that the presence of cracks shallower than 0.2mm is worse on the fracture strain of the wire.
135
1791
KM Practices in Service SMEs
Abstract:
Knowledge management is a critical component of competitive success in service organizations. Knowledge management centers on creating new knowledge and utilizing existing knowledge. While utilizing existing knowledge relates to input and control and can lead to a reduction in costs; creating new knowledge relates to output and growth and can lead to an increase in revenue. Therefore managers must ensure that they can successfully optimize the knowledge and talent in their organizations. To do this they and must try to develop an environment that promotes the generation, acquisition, transfer and use of valuable knowledge in creative ways. However knowledge management is complex and diverse. Research suggests that organizations in general and SMEs in particular are finding it difficult to implement successful knowledge management initiatives. Our research attempts to understand whether organizations are adopting best practice initiatives in their organizations. This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of 139 SMEs operating in the tourism sector across Europe. The goals of the survey is to assess the level of awareness of knowledge and talent management strategies and methodologies and to determine whether the responding companies implement best practice knowledge management initiatives in their organizations Analysis of the findings from the study are presented and discussed.
134
11723
Modelling Indoor Air Carbon Dioxide (CO2)Concentration using Neural Network
Abstract:
The use of neural networks is popular in various building applications such as prediction of heating load, ventilation rate and indoor temperature. Significant is, that only few papers deal with indoor carbon dioxide (CO2) prediction which is a very good indicator of indoor air quality (IAQ). In this study, a data-driven modelling method based on multilayer perceptron network for indoor air carbon dioxide in an apartment building is developed. Temperature and humidity measurements are used as input variables to the network. Motivation for this study derives from the following issues. First, measuring carbon dioxide is expensive and sensors power consumptions is high and secondly, this leads to short operating times of battery-powered sensors. The results show that predicting CO2 concentration based on relative humidity and temperature measurements, is difficult. Therefore, more additional information is needed.
133
6376
Level of Concentration in Banking Markets and Length of EU Membership
Abstract:
The purpose of this article is to analyze the degree of concentration in the banking market in EU member states as well as to determine the impact of the length of EU membership on the degree of concentration. In that sense several analysis were conducted, specifically, panel analysis, calculation of correlation coefficient and regression analysis of the impact of the length of EU membership on the degree of concentration. Panel analysis was conducted to determine whether there is a similar trend of concentration in three groups of countries - countries with a low, moderate and high level of concentration. The conducted panel analysis showed that in EU countries with a moderate level of concentration, the level of concentration decreases. The calculation of correlation showed that, to some extent, with other influential factors, the length of EU membership negatively affects the market concentration of the banking market. Using the regression analysis for investigation of the influence of the length of EU membership on the level of concentration in the banking sector in a particular country, the results reveal that there is a negative effect of the length in EU membership on market concentration, although it is not significantly influential variable.
132
1740
Determination of Moisture Diffusivity of AACin Drying Phase using Genetic Algorithm
Abstract:

The current practice of determination of moisture diffusivity of building materials under laboratory conditions is predominantly aimed at the absorption phase. The main reason is the simplicity of the inverse analysis of measured moisture profiles. However, the liquid moisture transport may exhibit significant hysteresis. Thus, the moisture diffusivity should be different in the absorption (wetting) and desorption (drying) phase. In order to bring computer simulations of hygrothermal performance of building materials closer to the reality, it is then necessary to find new methods for inverse analysis which could be used in the desorption phase as well. In this paper we present genetic algorithm as a possible method of solution of the inverse problem of moisture transport in desorption phase. Its application is demonstrated for AAC as a typical building material.

131
11288
Simulation and Statistical Analysis of Motion Behavior of a Single Rockfall
Abstract:
The impact force of a rockfall is mainly determined by its moving behavior and velocity, which are contingent on the rock shape, slope gradient, height, and surface roughness of the moving path. It is essential to precisely calculate the moving path of the rockfall in order to effectively minimize and prevent damages caused by the rockfall. By applying the Colorado Rockfall Simulation Program (CRSP) program as the analysis tool, this research studies the influence of three shapes of rock (spherical, cylindrical and discoidal) and surface roughness on the moving path of a single rockfall. As revealed in the analysis, in addition to the slope gradient, the geometry of the falling rock and joint roughness coefficient ( JRC ) of the slope are the main factors affecting the moving behavior of a rockfall. On a single flat slope, both the rock-s bounce height and moving velocity increase as the surface gradient increases, with a critical gradient value of 1:m = 1 . Bouncing behavior and faster moving velocity occur more easily when the rock geometry is more oval. A flat piece tends to cause sliding behavior and is easily influenced by the change of surface undulation. When JRC
130
4465
Two DEA Based Ant Algorithms for CMS Problems
Abstract:
This paper considers a multi criteria cell formation problem in Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS). Minimizing the number of voids and exceptional elements in cells simultaneously are two proposed objective functions. This problem is an Np-hard problem according to the literature, and therefore, we can-t find the optimal solution by an exact method. In this paper we developed two ant algorithms, Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Max-Min Ant System (MMAS), based on Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Both of them try to find the efficient solutions based on efficiency concept in DEA. Each artificial ant is considered as a Decision Making Unit (DMU). For each DMU we considered two inputs, the values of objective functions, and one output, the value of one for all of them. In order to evaluate performance of proposed methods we provided an experimental design with some empirical problem in three different sizes, small, medium and large. We defined three different criteria that show which algorithm has the best performance.
129
14331
Comparing the Performance of the Particle Swarm Optimization and the Genetic Algorithm on the Geometry Design of Longitudinal Fin
Abstract:
In the present work, the performance of the particle swarm optimization and the genetic algorithm compared as a typical geometry design problem. The design maximizes the heat transfer rate from a given fin volume. The analysis presumes that a linear temperature distribution along the fin. The fin profile generated using the B-spline curves and controlled by the change of control point coordinates. An inverse method applied to find the appropriate fin geometry yield the linear temperature distribution along the fin corresponds to optimum design. The numbers of the populations, the count of iterations and time to convergence measure efficiency. Results show that the particle swarm optimization is most efficient for geometry optimization.
128
2986
Topology Influence on TCP Congestion Control Performance in Multi-hop Ad Hoc Wireless
Abstract:
Wireless ad hoc nodes are freely and dynamically self-organize in communicating with others. Each node can act as host or router. However it actually depends on the capability of nodes in terms of its current power level, signal strength, number of hops, routing protocol, interference and others. In this research, a study was conducted to observe the effect of hops count over different network topologies that contribute to TCP Congestion Control performance degradation. To achieve this objective, a simulation using NS-2 with different topologies have been evaluated. The comparative analysis has been discussed based on standard observation metrics: throughput, delay and packet loss ratio. As a result, there is a relationship between types of topology and hops counts towards the performance of ad hoc network. In future, the extension study will be carried out to investigate the effect of different error rate and background traffic over same topologies.
127
13623
Improvement of Energy Efficiency using Porous Fins in Heat Exchangers
Abstract:

The forced convection heat transfer in high porosity metal-foam filled tube heat exchangers are studied in this paper. The Brinkman Darcy momentum model and two energy equations for both solid and fluid phases in porous media are employed .The study shows that using metal-foams can significantly improve the heat transfer in heat exchangers.

126
15165
Numerical Analysis of Turbulent Natural Convection in a Square Cavity using Large- Eddy Simulation in Lattice Boltzmann Method
Abstract:
In this paper Lattice Boltzmann simulation of turbulent natural convection with large-eddy simulations (LES) in a square cavity which is filled by water has been investigated. The present results are validated by finds of other investigations which have been done with different numerical methods. Calculations were performed for high Rayleigh numbers of Ra=108 and 109. The results confirm that this method is in acceptable agreement with other verifications of such a flow. In this investigation is tried to present Large-eddy turbulence flow model by Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) with a clear and simple statement. Effects of increase in Rayleigh number are displayed on streamlines, isotherm counters and average Nusselt number. Result shows that the average Nusselt number enhances with growth of the Rayleigh numbers.
125
11929
Daily and Seasonal Changes of Air Pollution in Kuwait
Abstract:

This paper focuses on assessment of air pollution in Umm-Alhyman, Kuwait, which is located south to oil refineries, power station, oil field, and highways. The measurements were made over a period of four days in March and July in 2001, 2004, and 2008. The measured pollutants included methanated and nonmethanated hydrocarbons (MHC, NMHC), CO, CO2, SO2, NOX, O3, and PM10. Also, meteorological parameters were measured, which includes temperature, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation. Over the study period, data analysis showed increase in measured SO2, NOX and CO by factors of 1.2, 5.5 and 2, respectively. This is explained in terms of increase in industrial activities, motor vehicle density, and power generation. Predictions of the measured data were made by the ISC-AERMOD software package and by using the ISCST3 model option. Finally, comparison was made between measured data against international standards.

124
2220
On One Application of Hybrid Methods For Solving Volterra Integral Equations
Abstract:
As is known, one of the priority directions of research works of natural sciences is introduction of applied section of contemporary mathematics as approximate and numerical methods to solving integral equation into practice. We fare with the solving of integral equation while studying many phenomena of nature to whose numerically solving by the methods of quadrature are mainly applied. Taking into account some deficiency of methods of quadrature for finding the solution of integral equation some sciences suggested of the multistep methods with constant coefficients. Unlike these papers, here we consider application of hybrid methods to the numerical solution of Volterra integral equation. The efficiency of the suggested method is proved and a concrete method with accuracy order p = 4 is constructed. This method in more precise than the corresponding known methods.
123
13334
Scheduling a Flexible Flow Shops Problem using DEA
Abstract:
This paper considers a scheduling problem in flexible flow shops environment with the aim of minimizing two important criteria including makespan and cumulative tardiness of jobs. Since the proposed problem is known as an Np-hard problem in literature, we have to develop a meta-heuristic to solve it. We considered general structure of Genetic Algorithm (GA) and developed a new version of that based on Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Two objective functions assumed as two different inputs for each Decision Making Unit (DMU). In this paper we focused on efficiency score of DMUs and efficient frontier concept in DEA technique. After introducing the method we defined two different scenarios with considering two types of mutation operator. Also we provided an experimental design with some computational results to show the performance of algorithm. The results show that the algorithm implements in a reasonable time.
122
138
Experimental Study of Subsurface Erosion in River Banks
Abstract:
Subsurface erosion in river banks and its details, in spite of its occurrence in various parts of the world has rarely been paid attention by researchers. In this paper, quantitative concept of the subsurface bank erosion has been investigated for vertical banks. Vertical banks were simulated experimentally by considering a sandy erodible layer overlaid by clayey one under uniformly distributed constant overhead pressure. Results of the experiments are indicated that rate of sandy layer erosion is decreased by an increase in overburden; likewise, substituting 20% of coarse (3.5 mm) sand layer bed material by fine material (1.4 mm) may lead to a decrease in erosion rate by one-third. This signifies the importance of the bed material composition effect on sandy layers erosion due to subsurface erosion in river banks.
121
6681
Developing ESL Students' Writing
Abstract:
Some of the students' problems in writing skill stem from inadequate preparation for the writing assignment. Students should be taught how to write well when they arrive in language classes. Having selected a topic, the students examine and explore the theme from as large a variety of viewpoints as their background and imagination make possible. Another strategy is that the students prepare an Outline before writing the paper. The comparison between the two mentioned thought provoking techniques was carried out between the two class groups –students of Islamic Azad University of Dezful who were studying “Writing 2" as their main course. Each class group was assigned to write five compositions separately in different periods of time. Then a t-test for each pair of exams between the two class groups showed that the t-observed in each pair was more than the t-critical. Consequently, the first hypothesis which states those who utilize Brainstorming as a thought provoking technique in prewriting phase are more successful than those who outline the papers before writing was verified.
120
11187
Observer Based Control of a Class of Nonlinear Fractional Order Systems using LMI
Abstract:
Design of an observer based controller for a class of fractional order systems has been done. Fractional order mathematics is used to express the system and the proposed observer. Fractional order Lyapunov theorem is used to derive the closed-loop asymptotic stability. The gains of the observer and observer based controller are derived systematically using the linear matrix inequality approach. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate validity and effectiveness of the proposed observer based controller.
119
12595
Exergy Analysis of a Cogeneration Plant
Abstract:
Cogeneration may be defined as a system which contains electricity production and regain of the thermo value of exhaust gases simultaneously. The examination is based on the data-s of an active cogeneration plant. This study, it is aimed to determine which component of the system should be revised first to raise the efficiency and decrease the loss of exergy. For this purpose, second law analysis of thermodynamics is applied to each component due to consider the effects of environmental conditions and take the quality of energy into consideration as well as the quantity of it. The exergy balance equations are produced and exergy loss is calculated for each component. 44,44 % loss of exergy in heat exchanger, 29,59 % in combustion chamber, 18,68 % in steam boiler, 5,25 % in gas turbine and 2,03 % in compressor is calculated.
118
11188
Electroremediation of Cu-Contaminated Soil
Abstract:

This study investigated the removal efficiency of electrokinetic remediation of copper-contaminated soil at different combinations of enhancement reagents used as anolyte and catholyte. Sodium hydroxide (at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 M concentrations) and distilled water were used as anolyte, while lactic acid (at 0.01, 0.1, and 0.5 M concentrations), ammonium citrate (also at 0.01, 0.1, and 0.5 M concentrations) and distilled water were used as catholyte. A continuous voltage application (1.0 VDC/cm) was employed for 240 hours for each experiment. The copper content of the catholyte was determined at the end of the 240-hour period. Optimization was carried out with a Response Surface Methodology - Optimal Design, including F test, and multiple comparison method, to determine which pair of anolyte-catholyte was the most significant for the removal efficiency. "1.0 M NaOH" was found to be the most significant anolyte while it was established that lactic acid was the most significant type of catholyte to be used for the most successful electrokinetic experiments. Concentrations of lactic acid should be at the range of 0.1 M to 0.5 M to achieve maximum percent removal values.

117
12804
Flux Cored Arc Welding Parameter Optimization of AISI 316L (N) Austenitic Stainless Steel
Abstract:
Bead-on-plate welds were carried out on AISI 316L (N) austenitic stainless steel (ASS) using flux cored arc welding (FCAW) process. The bead on plates weld was conducted as per L25 orthogonal array. In this paper, the weld bead geometry such as depth of penetration (DOP), bead width (BW) and weld reinforcement (R) of AISI 316L (N) ASS are investigated. Taguchi approach is used as statistical design of experiment (DOE) technique for optimizing the selected welding input parameters. Grey relational analysis and desirability approach are applied to optimize the input parameters considering multiple output variables simultaneously. Confirmation experiment has also been conducted to validate the optimized parameters.
116
15976
Interdisciplinary Principles of Field-Like Coordination in the Case of Self-Organized Social Systems1
Abstract:

This interdisciplinary research aims to distinguish universal scale-free and field-like fundamental principles of selforganization observable across many disciplines like computer science, neuroscience, microbiology, social science, etc. Based on these universal principles we provide basic premises and postulates for designing holistic social simulation models. We also introduce pervasive information field (PIF) concept, which serves as a simulation media for contextual information storage, dynamic distribution and organization in social complex networks. PIF concept specifically is targeted for field-like uncoupled and indirect interactions among social agents capable of affecting and perceiving broadcasted contextual information. Proposed approach is expressive enough to represent contextual broadcasted information in a form locally accessible and immediately usable by network agents. This paper gives some prospective vision how system-s resources (tangible and intangible) could be simulated as oscillating processes immersed in the all pervasive information field.

115
14294
Preparation and Evaluation of New Nanocatalysts for Selective Oxidation of H2S to Sulfur
Abstract:
Selective oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur in a fixed bed reactor over newly synthesized alumina nanocatalysts was physio-chemically investigated and results compared with a commercial Claus catalyst. Amongst these new materials, Al2O3- supported sodium oxide prepared with wet chemical technique and Al2O3 nanocatalyst prepared with spray pyrolysis method were the most active catalysts for selective oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur. Other prepared nanocatalysts were quickly deactivated, mainly due to the interaction with H2S and conversion into sulfides.
114
4205
Developing a Statistical Model for Electromagnetic Environment for Mobile Wireless Networks
Abstract:
The analysis of electromagnetic environment using deterministic mathematical models is characterized by the impossibility of analyzing a large number of interacting network stations with a priori unknown parameters, and this is characteristic, for example, of mobile wireless communication networks. One of the tasks of the tools used in designing, planning and optimization of mobile wireless network is to carry out simulation of electromagnetic environment based on mathematical modelling methods, including computer experiment, and to estimate its effect on radio communication devices. This paper proposes the development of a statistical model of electromagnetic environment of a mobile wireless communication network by describing the parameters and factors affecting it including the propagation channel and their statistical models.
113
4596
Factors of Effective Business Software Systems Development and Enhancement Projects Work Effort Estimation
Abstract:
Majority of Business Software Systems (BSS) Development and Enhancement Projects (D&EP) fail to meet criteria of their effectiveness, what leads to the considerable financial losses. One of the fundamental reasons for such projects- exceptionally low success rate are improperly derived estimates for their costs and time. In the case of BSS D&EP these attributes are determined by the work effort, meanwhile reliable and objective effort estimation still appears to be a great challenge to the software engineering. Thus this paper is aimed at presenting the most important synthetic conclusions coming from the author-s own studies concerning the main factors of effective BSS D&EP work effort estimation. Thanks to the rational investment decisions made on the basis of reliable and objective criteria it is possible to reduce losses caused not only by abandoned projects but also by large scale of overrunning the time and costs of BSS D&EP execution.
112
3316
Influence of Rolling Temperature on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Cryorolled Al-Mg-Si Alloy
Abstract:

An effect of rolling temperature on the mechanical properties and microstructural evolution of an Al-Mg-Si alloy was studied. The material was rolled up to a true strain of ~0.7 at three different temperatures viz; room temperature, liquid propanol and liquid nitrogen. The liquid nitrogen rolled sample exhibited superior properties with a yield and tensile strength of 332 MPa and 364 MPa, respectively, with a reasonably good ductility of ~9%. The liquid nitrogen rolled sample showed around 54 MPa increase in tensile strength without much reduction in the ductility as compared to the as received T6 condition alloy. The microstructural details revealed equiaxed grains in the annealed and solutionized sample and elongated grains in the rolled samples. In addition, the cryorolled samples exhibited fine grain structure compared to the room temperature rolled samples.

111
4128
Real Time Speed Estimation of Vehicles
Abstract:

this paper gives a novel approach towards real-time speed estimation of multiple traffic vehicles using fuzzy logic and image processing techniques with proper arrangement of camera parameters. The described algorithm consists of several important steps. First, the background is estimated by computing median over time window of specific frames. Second, the foreground is extracted using fuzzy similarity approach (FSA) between estimated background pixels and the current frame pixels containing foreground and background. Third, the traffic lanes are divided into two parts for both direction vehicles for parallel processing. Finally, the speeds of vehicles are estimated by Maximum a Posterior Probability (MAP) estimator. True ground speed is determined by utilizing infrared sensors for three different vehicles and the results are compared to the proposed algorithm with an accuracy of ± 0.74 kmph.

110
8595
A Quantitative Tool for Analyze Process Design
Abstract:

Some quality control tools use non metric subjective information coming from experts, who qualify the intensity of relations existing inside processes, but without quantifying them. In this paper we have developed a quality control analytic tool, measuring the impact or strength of the relationship between process operations and product characteristics. The tool includes two models: a qualitative model, allowing relationships description and analysis; and a formal quantitative model, by means of which relationship quantification is achieved. In the first one, concepts from the Graphs Theory were applied to identify those process elements which can be sources of variation, that is, those quality characteristics or operations that have some sort of prelacy over the others and that should become control items. Also the most dependent elements can be identified, that is those elements receiving the effects of elements identified as variation sources. If controls are focused in those dependent elements, efficiency of control is compromised by the fact that we are controlling effects, not causes. The second model applied adapts the multivariate statistical technique of Covariance Structural Analysis. This approach allowed us to quantify the relationships. The computer package LISREL was used to obtain statistics and to validate the model.

109
4995
Creep Constitutive Equation for 2- Materials of Weldment-304L Stainless Steel
Abstract:
In this paper, creep constitutive equations of base (Parent) and weld materials of the weldment for cold-drawn 304L stainless steel have been obtained experimentally. For this purpose, test samples have been generated from cold drawn bars and weld material according to the ASTM standard. The creep behavior and properties have been examined for these materials by conducting uniaxial creep tests. Constant temperatures and constant load uni-axial creep tests have been carried out at two high temperatures, 680 and 720 oC, subjected to constant loads, which produce initial stresses ranging from 240 to 360 MPa. The experimental data have been used to obtain the creep constitutive parameters using numerical optimization techniques.
108
5613
Sustainable Development and Kish Island Environment Protection, using Wind Energy
Abstract:
Kish Islands in South of Iran is located in coastal water near Hormozgan Province. Based on the wind 3-hour statistics in Kish station, the mean annual windspeed in this Island is 8.6 knot (4.3 m/s). The maximum windspeed recorded in this stations 47 knot (23.5 m/s). In 45.7 percent of recorded times, windspeed has been Zero or less than 8 knot which is not suitable to use the wind energy. But in 54.3 percent of recorded times, windspeed has been more than 8 knot and suitable to use wind energy to run turbines. In 40.2 percent of recorded times, windspeed has been between 8 to 16 knot, in 13 percent of times between 16 to 24 knot and in 1 percent of times it has been higher than 24 knot. In this station, the direction of winds higher than 8 is west and wind direction in Kish station is stable in most times of the year.With regard to high – speed and stable direction winds during the year and also shallow coasts near this is land, it is possible to build offshore wind farms near Kish Island and utilize wind energy produce the electricity required in this Island during most of the year.
107
10716
Biological Soil Conservation Planning by Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation Techniques (Case Study: Bonkuh Watershed in Iran)
Abstract:
This paper discusses site selection process for biological soil conservation planning. It was supported by a valuefocused approach and spatial multi-criteria evaluation techniques. A first set of spatial criteria was used to design a number of potential sites. Next, a new set of spatial and non-spatial criteria was employed, including the natural factors and the financial costs, together with the degree of suitability for the Bonkuh watershed to biological soil conservation planning and to recommend the most acceptable program. The whole process was facilitated by a new software tool that supports spatial multiple criteria evaluation, or SMCE in GIS software (ILWIS). The application of this tool, combined with a continual feedback by the public attentions, has provided an effective methodology to solve complex decisional problem in biological soil conservation planning.
106
11967
Damage Evolution of Underground Structural Reinforced Concrete Small-Scale Static-Loading Experiments
Abstract:
Small-scale RC models of both piles and tunnel ducts were produced as mockups of reality and loaded under soil confinement conditionsto investigate the damage evolution of structural RC interacting with soil. Experimental verifications usinga 3D nonlinear FE analysis program called COM3D, which was developed at the University of Tokyo, are introduced. This analysis has been used in practice for seismic performance assessment of underground ducts and in-ground LNG storage tanks in consideration of soil-structure interactionunder static and dynamic loading. Varying modes of failure of RCpilessubjected to different magnitudes of soil confinement were successfully reproduced in the proposed small-scale experiments and numerically simulated as well. Analytical simulation was applied to RC tunnel mockups under a wide variety of depth and soil confinement conditions, and reasonable matching was confirmed.
105
1971
Design and Simulation of Low Speed Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) Machine
Abstract:
In this paper presented initial design of Low Speed Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) Machine with Non-Slotted TORUS topology type by use of certain algorithm (Appendix). Validation of design algorithm studied by means of selected data of an initial prototype machine. Analytically design calculation carried out by means of design algorithm and obtained results compared with results of Finite Element Method (FEM).
104
12298
Quality of Service Evaluation using a Combination of Fuzzy C-Means and Regression Model
Abstract:
In this study, a network quality of service (QoS) evaluation system was proposed. The system used a combination of fuzzy C-means (FCM) and regression model to analyse and assess the QoS in a simulated network. Network QoS parameters of multimedia applications were intelligently analysed by FCM clustering algorithm. The QoS parameters for each FCM cluster centre were then inputted to a regression model in order to quantify the overall QoS. The proposed QoS evaluation system provided valuable information about the network-s QoS patterns and based on this information, the overall network-s QoS was effectively quantified.
103
12713
Power System Voltage Control using LP and Artificial Neural Network
Abstract:
Optimization and control of reactive power distribution in the power systems leads to the better operation of the reactive power resources. Reactive power control reduces considerably the power losses and effective loads and improves the power factor of the power systems. Another important reason of the reactive power control is improving the voltage profile of the power system. In this paper, voltage and reactive power control using Neural Network techniques have been applied to the 33 shines- Tehran Electric Company. In this suggested ANN, the voltages of PQ shines have been considered as the input of the ANN. Also, the generators voltages, tap transformers and shunt compensators have been considered as the output of ANN. Results of this techniques have been compared with the Linear Programming. Minimization of the transmission line power losses has been considered as the objective function of the linear programming technique. The comparison of the results of the ANN technique with the LP shows that the ANN technique improves the precision and reduces the computation time. ANN technique also has a simple structure and this causes to use the operator experience.
102
11672
Finite Element Simulation of Multi-Stage Deep Drawing Processes and Comparison with Experimental Results
Abstract:
The plastic forming process of sheet plate takes an important place in forming metals. The traditional techniques of tool design for sheet forming operations used in industry are experimental and expensive methods. Prediction of the forming results, determination of the punching force, blank holder forces and the thickness distribution of the sheet metal will decrease the production cost and time of the material to be formed. In this paper, multi-stage deep drawing simulation of an Industrial Part has been presented with finite element method. The entire production steps with additional operations such as intermediate annealing and springback has been simulated by ABAQUS software under axisymmetric conditions. The simulation results such as sheet thickness distribution, Punch force and residual stresses have been extracted in any stages and sheet thickness distribution was compared with experimental results. It was found through comparison of results, the FE model have proven to be in close agreement with those of experiment.
101
3313
Study of Electro-Optical Properties of ZnS Nanoparticles Prepared by Colloidal Particles Method
Abstract:
ZnS nanoparticles of different size have been synthesized using a colloidal particles method. Zns nanoparticles prepared with capping agent (mercaptoethanol) then were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The particle size of the nanoparticles calculated from the XRD patterns has been found in the range 1.85-2.44nm. Absorption spectra have been obtained using UV-Vis spectrophotometer to find the optical band gap and the obtained values have been founded to being range 3.83-4.59eV. It was also found that energy band gap increase with the increase in molar capping agent solution.
Keywords:
100
9635
Plasmonic Absorption Enhancement in Au/CdS Nanocomposite
Abstract:
Composite nanostructures of metal core/semiconductor shell (Au/CdS) configuration were prepared using organometalic method. UV-Vis spectra for the Au/CdS colloids show initially two well separated bands, corresponding to surface plasmon of the Au core, and the exciton of CdS shell. The absorption of CdS shell is enhanced, while the Au plasmon band is suppressed as the shell thickness increases. The shell sizes were estimated from the optical spectra using the effective mass approximation model (EMA), and compared to the sizes of the Au core and CdS shell measured by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The changes in the absorption features are discussed in terms of gradual increase in the coupling strength of the Au core surface plasmon and the exciton in the CdS. leading to charge transfer and modification of electron oscillation in Au core.
99
13569
Analysis of a Fluid Behavior in a Rectangular Enclosure under the Effect of Magnetic Field
Abstract:
In this research, a 2-D computational analysis of steady state free convection in a rectangular enclosure filled with an electrically conducting fluid under Effect of Magnetic Field has been performed. The governing equations (mass, momentum, and energy) are formulated and solved by a finite volume method (FVM) subjected to different boundary conditions. A parametric study has been conducted to consider the influence of Grashof number (Gr), Prantdl number (Pr) and the orientation of magnetic field on the flow and heat transfer characteristics. It is observed that Nusselt number (Nu) and heat flux will increase with increasing Grashof and Prandtl numbers and decreasing the slope of the orientation of magnetic field.
98
10167
Lateral Crushing of Square and Rectangular Metallic Tubes under Different Quasi-Static Conditions
Abstract:

Impact is one of very important subjects which always have been considered in mechanical science. Nature of impact is such that which makes its control a hard task. Therefore it is required to present the transfer of impact to other vulnerable part of a structure, when it is necessary, one of the best method of absorbing energy of impact, is by using Thin-walled tubes these tubes collapses under impact and with absorption of energy, it prevents the damage to other parts.Purpose of recent study is to survey the deformation and energy absorption of tubes with different type of cross section (rectangular or square) and with similar volumes, height, mean cross section thickness, and material under loading with different speeds. Lateral loading of tubes are quasi-static type and beside as numerical analysis, also experimental experiences has been performed to evaluate the accuracy of the results. Results from the surveys is indicates that in a same conditions which mentioned above, samples with square cross section ,absorb more energy compare to rectangular cross section, and also by increscent in speed of loading, energy absorption would be more.

97
4366
Mathematical Modelling of Venturi Scrubber for Ammonia Absorption
Abstract:
In this study, the dispersed model is used to predict gas phase concentration, liquid drop concentration. The venturi scrubber efficiency is calculated by gas phase concentration. The modified model has been validated with available experimental data of Johnstone, Field and Tasler for a range of throat gas velocities, liquid to gas ratios and particle diameters and is used to study the effect of some design parameters on collection efficiency.
96
6894
Application of Whole Genome Amplification Technique for Genotype Analysis of Bovine Embryos
Abstract:
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest toward the use of bovine genotyped embryos for commercial embryo transfer programs. Biopsy of a few cells in morulla stage is essential for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Low amount of DNA have limited performing the several molecular analyses within PGD analyses. Whole genome amplification (WGA) promises to eliminate this problem. We evaluated the possibility and performance of an improved primer extension preamplification (I-PEP) method with a range of starting bovine genomic DNA from 1-8 cells into the WGA reaction. We optimized a short and simple I-PEP (ssI-PEP) procedure (~3h). This optimized WGA method was assessed by 6 loci specific polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), included restriction fragments length polymorphism (RFLP). Optimized WGA procedure possesses enough sensitivity for molecular genetic analyses through the few input cells. This is a new era for generating characterized bovine embryos in preimplantation stage.
95
3914
Energy Saving Suction Hood
Abstract:

Public awareness towards green energy are on the rise and this can be prove by many product being manufactured or prerequired to be made as energy saving devices mainly to save consumer from spending more on utility billing. These schemes are popular nowadays and many homemade appliances are turned into energy saving gadget which attracts the attention of consumers. Knowing the public demands and pattern towards purchasing home appliances thus the idea of “energy saving suction hood (ESSH)" is proposed. The ESSH can be used in many places that require smoke ventilation or even to reduce the room temperature as many conventional suction hoods (CSH) do, but this device works automatically by the usage of sensors that detects the smoke/temperature and automatically spins the exhaust fan. As it turns, the mechanical rotation rotates the AC generator which is coupled together with the fan and then charges the battery. The innovation of this product is, it does not rely on the utility supply as it is also hook up with a solar panel which also charges the battery, Secondly, it generates energy as the exhaust fan mechanically rotates. Thirdly, an energy loop back feature is introduced to this system which will supply for the ventilator fan. Another major innovation is towards interfacing this device with an in house production of generator. This generator is produced by proper design on stator as well as rotor to reduce the losses. A comparison is made between the ESSH and the CSH and result shows that the ESSH saves 172.8kWh/year of utility supply which is used by CSH. This amount of energy can save RM 3.14 from monthly utility bill and a total of RM 37.67 per year. In fact this product can generate 175 Watt of power from generator(75W) and solar panel(100W) that can be used either to supply other household appliances and/or to loop back to supply the fans motor. The innovation of this system is essential for future production of other equipment by using the loopback power method and turning most equipment into a standalone system.

94
11528
Effect of Nano-Silver on Growth of Saffron in Flooding Stress
Abstract:
Saffron (Crocus sativus) is cultivated as spices, medicinal and aromatic plant species. At autumn season, heavy rainfall can cause flooding stress and inhibits growth of saffron. Thus this research was conducted to study the effect of silver ion (as an ethylene inhibitor) on growth of saffron under flooding conditions. The corms of saffron were soaked with one concentration of nano silver (0, 40, 80 or 120 ppm) and then planting under flooding stress or non flooding stress conditions. Results showed that number of roots, root length, root fresh and dry weight, leaves fresh and dry weight were reduced by 10 day flooding stress. Soaking saffron corms with 40 or 80 ppm concentration of nano silver rewarded the effect of flooding stress on the root number, by increasing it. Furthermore, 40 ppm of nano silver increased root length in stress. Nano silver 80 ppm in flooding stress, increased leaves dry weight.
93
8286
Influence of Fiber Packing on Transverse Plastic Properties of Metal Matrix Composites
Abstract:
The present paper concerns with the influence of fiber packing on the transverse plastic properties of metal matrix composites. A micromechanical modeling procedure is used to predict the effective mechanical properties of composite materials at large tensile and compressive deformations. Microstructure is represented by a repeating unit cell (RUC). Two fiber arrays are considered including ideal square fiber packing and random fiber packing defined by random sequential algorithm. The micromechanical modeling procedure is implemented for graphite/aluminum metal matrix composite in which the reinforcement behaves as elastic, isotropic solids and the matrix is modeled as an isotropic elastic-plastic solid following the von Mises criterion with isotropic hardening and the Ramberg-Osgood relationship between equivalent true stress and logarithmic strain. The deformation is increased to a considerable value to evaluate both elastic and plastic behaviors of metal matrix composites. The yields strength and true elastic-plastic stress are determined for graphite/aluminum composites.
92
1331
Heat Transfer Modeling in Multi-Layer Cookware using Finite Element Method
Abstract:
The high temperature degree and uniform Temperature Distribution (TD) on surface of cookware which contact with food are effective factors for improving cookware application. Additionally, the ability of pan material in retaining the heat and nonreactivity with foods are other significant properties. It is difficult for single material to meet a wide variety of demands such as superior thermal and chemical properties. Multi-Layer Plate (MLP) makes more regular TD. In this study the main objectives are to find the best structure (single or multi-layer) and materials to provide maximum temperature degree and uniform TD up side surface of pan. And also heat retaining of used metals with goal of improving the thermal quality of pan to economize the energy. To achieve this aim were employed Finite Element Method (FEM) for analyzing transient thermal behavior of applied materials. The analysis has been extended for different metals, we achieved the best temperature profile and heat retaining in Copper/ Stainless Steel MLP.
91
5885
Analytical Solution of Time-Harmonic Torsional Vibration of a Cylindrical Cavity in a Half-Space
Abstract:
In this article an isotropic linear elastic half-space with a cylindrical cavity of finite length is considered to be under the effect of a ring shape time-harmonic torsion force applied at an arbitrary depth on the surface of the cavity. The equation of equilibrium has been written in a cylindrical coordinate system. By means of Fourier cosine integral transform, the non-zero displacement component is obtained in the transformed domain. With the aid of the inversion theorem of the Fourier cosine integral transform, the displacement is obtained in the real domain. With the aid of boundary conditions, the involved boundary value problem for the fundamental solution is reduced to a generalized Cauchy singular integral equation. Integral representation of the stress and displacement are obtained, and it is shown that their degenerated form to the static problem coincides with existing solutions in the literature.
90
4316
Optimization of Energy Consumption in Sequential Distillation Column
Abstract:
Distillation column is one of the most common operations in process industries and is while the most expensive unit of the amount of energy consumption. Many ideas have been presented in the related literature for optimizing energy consumption in distillation columns. This paper studies the different heat integration methods in a distillation column which separate Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, and C9+. Three schemes of heat integration including, indirect sequence (IQ), indirect sequence with forward energy integration (IQF), and indirect sequence with backward energy integration (IQB) has been studied in this paper. Using shortcut method these heat integration schemes were simulated with Aspen HYSYS software and compared with each other with regarding economic considerations. The result shows that the energy consumption has been reduced 33% in IQF and 28% in IQB in comparison with IQ scheme. Also the economic result shows that the total annual cost has been reduced 12% in IQF and 8% in IQB regarding with IQ scheme. Therefore, the IQF scheme is most economic than IQB and IQ scheme.
89
12401
Numerical Study of MHD Effects on Drop Formation in a T-Shaped Microchannel
Abstract:
The effect of a uniform magnetic field on the formation of drops of specific size has been investigated numerically in a T-shaped microchannel. Previous researches indicated that the drop sizes of secondary stream decreases, with increasing main stream flow rate and decreasing interfacial tension. In the present study the effect of a uniform magnetic field on the main stream is considered, and it is proposed that by increasing the Hartmann number, the size of the drops of the secondary stream will be decreased.
88
2439
Designing and Implementing a Novel Scheduler for Multiprocessor System using Genetic Algorithm
Abstract:

System is using multiple processors for computing and information processing, is increasing rapidly speed operation of these systems compared with single processor systems, very significant impact on system performance is increased .important differences to yield a single multi-processor cpu, the scheduling policies, to reduce the implementation time of all processes. Notwithstanding the famous algorithms such as SPT, LPT, LSPT and RLPT for scheduling and there, but none led to the answer are not optimal.In this paper scheduling using genetic algorithms and innovative way to finish the whole process faster that we do and the result compared with three algorithms we mentioned.

87
11424
Investigation of Dimethyl Ether Solubility in Liquid Hexadecane by UNIFAC Method
Abstract:
It is shown that a modified UNIFAC model can be applied to predict solubility of hydrocarbon gases and vapors in hydrocarbon solvents. Very good agreement with experimental data has been achieved. In this work we try to find best way for predicting dimethyl ether solubility in liquid paraffin by using group contribution theory.
86
1488
Failure Analysis of Methanol Evaporator
Abstract:
Thermal water hammer is a special type of water hammer which rarely occurs in heat exchangers. In biphasic fluids, if steam bubbles are surrounded by condensate, regarding lower condensate temperature than steam, they will suddenly collapse. As a result, the vacuum caused by an extreme change in volume lead to movement of the condensates in all directions and their collision the force produced by this collision leads to a severe stress in the pipe wall. This phenomenon is a special type of water hammer. According to fluid mechanics, this phenomenon is a particular type of transient flows during which abrupt change of fluid leads to sudden pressure change inside the tube. In this paper, the mechanism of abrupt failure of 80 tubes of 481 tubes of a methanol heat exchanger is discussed. Initially, due to excessive temperature differences between heat transfer fluids and simultaneous failure of 80 tubes, thermal shock was presupposed as the reason of failure. Deeper investigation on cross-section of failed tubes showed that failure was, ductile type of failure, so the first hypothesis was rejected. Further analysis and more accurate experiments revealed that failure of tubes caused by thermal water hammer. Finally, the causes of thermal water hammer and various solutions to avoid such mechanism are discussed.
85
3195
Effect of Various Nozzle Profiles on Performance of a Two Phase Flow Jet Pump
Abstract:

This paper reports on the results of experimental investigations on the performance of a jet pump operated under selected primary flows to optimize the related parameters. For this purpose a two-phase flow jet pump was used employing various profiles of nozzles as the primary device which was designed, fabricated and used along with the combination of mixing tube and diffuser. The profiles employed were circular, conical, and elliptical. The diameter of the nozzle used was 4 mm. The area ratio of the jet pump was 0.16. The test facility created for this purpose was an open loop continuous circulation system. Performance of the jet pump was obtained as iso-efficiency curves on characteristic curves drawn for various water flow rates. To perform the suction capability, evacuation test was conducted at best efficiency point for all the profiles.

84
11007
Dynamic Modeling of Underplateform Damper used in Turbomachinery
Abstract:
The present work deals with the structural analysis of turbine blades and modeling of turbine blades. A common failure mode for turbine machines is high cycle of fatigue of compressor and turbine blades due to high dynamic stresses caused by blade vibration and resonance within the operation range of the machinery. In this work, proper damping system will be analyzed to reduce the vibrating blade. The main focus of the work is the modeling of under platform damper to evaluate the dynamic analysis of turbine-blade vibrations. The system is analyzed using Bond graph technique. Bond graph is one of the most convenient ways to represent a system from the physical aspect in foreground. It has advantage of putting together multi-energy domains of a system in a single representation in a unified manner. The bond graph model of dry friction damper is simulated on SYMBOLS-shakti® software. In this work, the blades are modeled as Timoshenko beam. Blade Vibrations under different working conditions are being analyzed numerically.
83
5695
STM Spectroscopy of Alloyed Nanocrystal Composite CdSxSe1-X
Abstract:
Nanocrystals (NC) alloyed composite CdSxSe1-x(x=0 to 1) have been prepared using the chemical solution deposition technique. The energy band gap of these alloyed nanocrystals of approximately the same size, have been determined by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) technique at room temperature. The values of the energy band gap obtained directly using STS are compared to those measured by optical spectroscopy. Increasing the molar fraction ratio x from 0 to 1 causes clearly observed increase in the band gap of the alloyed composite nanocrystal. Vegard-s law was applied to calculate the parameters of the effective mass approximation (EMA) model and the dimension obtained were compared to the values measured by STM. The good agreement of the calculated and measured values is a direct result of applying Vegard's law in the nanocomposites.
82
1404
Characteristics of Turbulent Round Jets in its Potential-Core Region
Abstract:
In this work, stationary hot-wire measurements are carried out to investigate the characteristics of a round free jet in its potential core region (0 ≤ x/d ≤ 10). Measurements are carried out on an incompressible round jet for a range of Reynolds numbers from 4000 to 8000, calculated based on the jet exit mean velocity and the nozzle diameter. The effect of flow velocity on the development characteristics of the jet in the core region is analyzed. Timeaveraged statistics, spectra of velocity and its higher order moments are presented and explained.
81
13661
Novel Design and Analysis of a Brake Rotor
Abstract:
Over the course of the past century, the global automotive industry-s stance towards safety has evolved from one of contempt to one nearing reverence. A suspension system that provides safe handling and cornering capabilities can, with the help of an efficient braking system, improve safety to a large extent. The aim of this research is to propose a new automotive brake rotor design and to compare it with automotive vented disk rotor. Static structural and transient thermal analysis have been carried out on the vented disk rotor and proposed rotor designs to evaluate and compare their performance. Finite element analysis was employed for both static structural and transient thermal analysis. Structural analysis was carried out to study the stress and deformation pattern of the rotors under extreme loads. Time varying temperature load was applied on the rotors and the temperature distribution was analysed considering cooling parameters (convection and radiation). This dissertation illustrates the use of Finite Element Methods to examine models, concluding with a comparative study of the proposed rotor design and the conventional vented disk rotor for structural stability and thermal efficiency.
80
13446
Effect of Prandtl Number on Natural Convection Heat Transfer from a Heated Semi-Circular Cylinder
Abstract:
Natural convection heat transfer from a heated horizontal semi-circular cylinder (flat surface upward) has been investigated for the following ranges of conditions; Grashof number, and Prandtl number. The governing partial differential equations (continuity, Navier-Stokes and energy equations) have been solved numerically using a finite volume formulation. In addition, the role of the type of the thermal boundary condition imposed at cylinder surface, namely, constant wall temperature (CWT) and constant heat flux (CHF) are explored. Natural convection heat transfer from a heated horizontal semi-circular cylinder (flat surface upward) has been investigated for the following ranges of conditions; Grashof number, and Prandtl number, . The governing partial differential equations (continuity, Navier-Stokes and energy equations) have been solved numerically using a finite volume formulation. In addition, the role of the type of the thermal boundary condition imposed at cylinder surface, namely, constant wall temperature (CWT) and constant heat flux (CHF) are explored. The resulting flow and temperature fields are visualized in terms of the streamline and isotherm patterns in the proximity of the cylinder. The flow remains attached to the cylinder surface over the range of conditions spanned here except that for and ; at these conditions, a separated flow region is observed when the condition of the constant wall temperature is prescribed on the surface of the cylinder. The heat transfer characteristics are analyzed in terms of the local and average Nusselt numbers. The maximum value of the local Nusselt number always occurs at the corner points whereas it is found to be minimum at the rear stagnation point on the flat surface. Overall, the average Nusselt number increases with Grashof number and/ or Prandtl number in accordance with the scaling considerations. The numerical results are used to develop simple correlations as functions of Grashof and Prandtl number thereby enabling the interpolation of the present numerical results for the intermediate values of the Prandtl or Grashof numbers for both thermal boundary conditions.
79
10132
A Novel Logarithmic Current-Controlled Current Amplifier (LCCA)
Abstract:
A new OTA-based logarithmic-control variable gain current amplifier (LCCA) is presented. It consists of two Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) and two PMOS transistors biased in weak inversion region. The circuit operates from 0.6V DC power supply and consumes 0.6 μW. The linear-dB controllable output range is 43 dB with maximum error less than 0.5dB. The functionality of the proposed design was confirmed using HSPICE in 0.35μm CMOS process technology.
78
7833
Using Technology with a New Model of Management Development by Simulation of Neural Network and its Application on Intelligent Schools
Abstract:
Intelligent schools are those which use IT devices and technologies as media software, hardware and networks to improve learning process. On the other hand management improvement is best described as the process from which managers learn and improve their skills not only to benefit themselves but also their employing organizations Here, we present a model Management improvement System that has been applied on some schools and have made strict improvement.
77
7189
Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer and Flow of Nano Fluids in Horizontal Circular Tube
Abstract:
We have measured the pressure drop and convective heat transfer coefficient of water – based AL(25nm),AL2O3(30nm) and CuO(50nm) Nanofluids flowing through a uniform heated circular tube in the fully developed laminar flow regime. The experimental results show that the data for Nanofluids friction factor show a good agreement with analytical prediction from the Darcy's equation for single-phase flow. After reducing the experimental results to the form of Reynolds, Rayleigh and Nusselt numbers. The results show the local Nusselt number and temperature have distribution with the non-dimensional axial distance from the tube entry. Study decided that thenNanofluid as Newtonian fluids through the design of the linear relationship between shear stress and the rate of stress has been the study of three chains of the Nanofluid with different concentrations and where the AL, AL2O3 and CuO – water ranging from (0.25 - 2.5 vol %). In addition to measuring the four properties of the Nanofluid in practice so as to ensure the validity of equations of properties developed by the researchers in this area and these properties is viscosity, specific heat, and density and found that the difference does not exceed 3.5% for the experimental equations between them and the practical. The study also demonstrated that the amount of the increase in heat transfer coefficient for three types of Nano fluid is AL, AL2O3, and CuO – Water and these ratios are respectively (45%, 32%, 25%) with insulation and without insulation (36%, 23%, 19%), and the statement of any of the cases the best increase in heat transfer has been proven that using insulation is better than not using it. I have been using three types of Nano particles and one metallic Nanoparticle and two oxide Nanoparticle and a statement, whichever gives the best increase in heat transfer.
76
1631
Elastic-Plastic Contact Analysis of Single Layer Solid Rough Surface Model using FEM
Abstract:
Evaluation of contact pressure, surface and subsurface contact stresses are essential to know the functional response of surface coatings and the contact behavior mainly depends on surface roughness, material property, thickness of layer and the manner of loading. Contact parameter evaluation of real rough surface contacts mostly relies on statistical single asperity contact approaches. In this work, a three dimensional layered solid rough surface in contact with a rigid flat is modeled and analyzed using finite element method. The rough surface of layered solid is generated by FFT approach. The generated rough surface is exported to a finite element method based ANSYS package through which the bottom up solid modeling is employed to create a deformable solid model with a layered solid rough surface on top. The discretization and contact analysis are carried by using the same ANSYS package. The elastic, elastoplastic and plastic deformations are continuous in the present finite element method unlike many other contact models. The Young-s modulus to yield strength ratio of layer is varied in the present work to observe the contact parameters effect while keeping the surface roughness and substrate material properties as constant. The contacting asperities attain elastic, elastoplastic and plastic states with their continuity and asperity interaction phenomena is inherently included. The resultant contact parameters show that neighboring asperity interaction and the Young-s modulus to yield strength ratio of layer influence the bulk deformation consequently affect the interface strength.
75
5680
Fluidity of A713 Cast Alloy with and without Scrap Addition using Double Spiral Fluidity Test: A Comparison
Abstract:
Recycling of aluminum alloys often decrease fluidity, consequently influence the castability of the alloy. In this study, the fluidity of Al-Zn alloys, such as the standard A713 alloy with and without scrap addition has been investigated. The scrap added was comprised of contaminated alloy turning chips. Fluidity measurements were performed with double spiral fluidity test consisting of gravity casting of double spirals in green sand moulds with good reproducibility. The influence of recycled alloy on fluidity has been compared with that of the virgin alloy and the results showed that the fluidity decreased with the increase in recycled alloy at minimum pouring temperatures. Interestingly, an appreciable improvement in the fluidity was observed at maximum pouring temperature, especially for coated spirals.
74
4478
Kinetics of Aggregation in Media with Memory
Abstract:
In the paper we submit the non-local modification of kinetic Smoluchowski equation for binary aggregation applying to dispersed media having memory. Our supposition consists in that that intensity of evolution of clusters is supposed to be a function of the product of concentrations of the lowest orders clusters at different moments. The new form of kinetic equation for aggregation is derived on the base of the transfer kernels approach. This approach allows considering the influence of relaxation times hierarchy on kinetics of aggregation process in media with memory.
73
11963
Using Artificial Neural Network and Leudeking-Piret Model in the Kinetic Modeling of Microbial Production of Poly-β- Hydroxybutyrate
Abstract:
Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is one of the most famous biopolymers that has various applications in production of biodegradable carriers. The most important strategy for enhancing efficiency in production process and reducing the price of PHB, is the accurate expression of kinetic model of products formation and parameters that are effective on it, such as Dry Cell Weight (DCW) and substrate consumption. Considering the high capabilities of artificial neural networks in modeling and simulation of non-linear systems such as biological and chemical industries that mainly are multivariable systems, kinetic modeling of microbial production of PHB that is a complex and non-linear biological process, the three layers perceptron neural network model was used in this study. Artificial neural network educates itself and finds the hidden laws behind the data with mapping based on experimental data, of dry cell weight, substrate concentration as input and PHB concentration as output. For training the network, a series of experimental data for PHB production from Hydrogenophaga Pseudoflava by glucose carbon source was used. After training the network, two other experimental data sets that have not intervened in the network education, including dry cell concentration and substrate concentration were applied as inputs to the network, and PHB concentration was predicted by the network. Comparison of predicted data by network and experimental data, indicated a high precision predicted for both fructose and whey carbon sources. Also in present study for better understanding of the ability of neural network in modeling of biological processes, microbial production kinetic of PHB by Leudeking-Piret experimental equation was modeled. The Observed result indicated an accurate prediction of PHB concentration by artificial neural network higher than Leudeking- Piret model.
72
2587
Application of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) in Maintaining Comfort Temperature inside an Automobile
Abstract:
This paper presents the modeling results of an innovative system for the temperature control in the interior compartment of a stationary automobile facing the solar energy from the sun. A very thin layer of PCM inside a pouch placed in the ceiling of the car in which the heating energy is absorbed and release with melting and solidification of phase change materials. As a result the temperature of the car interior is maintained in the comfort condition. The amount of required PCM has been calculated to be about 755 g. The PCM-temperature controlling system is simple and has a potential to be implemented as a practical solution to prevent undesirable heating of the automobile-s cabin.
71
1747
Prediction of Soil Hydraulic Conductivity from Particle-Size Distribution
Abstract:
Hydraulic conductivity is one parameter important for predicting the movement of water and contaminants dissolved in the water through the soil. The hydraulic conductivity is measured on soil samples in the lab and sometimes tests carried out in the field. The hydraulic conductivity has been related to soil particle diameter by a number of investigators. In this study, 25 set of soil samples with sand texture. The results show approximately success in predicting hydraulic conductivity from particle diameters data. The following relationship obtained from multiple linear regressions on data (R2 = 0.52): Where d10, d50 and d60, are the soil particle diameter (mm) that 10%, 50% and 60% of all soil particles are finer (smaller) by weight and Ks, saturated hydraulic conductivity is expressed in m/day. The results of regression analysis showed that d10 play a more significant role with respect to Ks, saturated hydraulic conductivity (m/day), and has been named as the effective parameter in Ks calculation.
70
5369
Arrival and Departure Scheduling at Hub Airports Considering Airlines Level
Abstract:
As the air traffic increases at a hub airport, some flights cannot land or depart at their preferred target time. This event happens because the airport runways become occupied to near their capacity. It results in extra costs for both passengers and airlines because of the loss of connecting flights or more waiting, more fuel consumption, rescheduling crew members, etc. Hence, devising an appropriate scheduling method that determines a suitable runway and time for each flight in order to efficiently use the hub capacity and minimize the related costs is of great importance. In this paper, we present a mixed-integer zero-one model for scheduling a set of mixed landing and departing flights (despite of most previous studies considered only landings). According to the fact that the flight cost is strongly affected by the level of airline, we consider different airline categories in our model. This model presents a single objective minimizing the total sum of three terms, namely 1) the weighted deviation from targets, 2) the scheduled time of the last flight (i.e., makespan), and 3) the unbalancing the workload on runways. We solve 10 simulated instances of different sizes up to 30 flights and 4 runways. Optimal solutions are obtained in a reasonable time, which are satisfactory in comparison with the traditional rule, namely First- Come-First-Serve (FCFS) that is far apart from optimality in most cases.
69
14867
Simulation of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in the Inclined Enclosure
Abstract:

Mixed convection in two-dimensional shallow rectangular enclosure is considered. The top hot wall moves with constant velocity while the cold bottom wall has no motion. Simulations are performed for Richardson number ranging from Ri = 0.001 to 100 and for Reynolds number keeping fixed at Re = 408.21. Under these conditions cavity encompasses three regimes: dominating forced, mixed and free convection flow. The Prandtl number is set to 6 and the effects of cavity inclination on the flow and heat transfer are studied for different Richardson number. With increasing the inclination angle, interesting behavior of the flow and thermal fields are observed. The streamlines and isotherm plots and the variation of the Nusselt numbers on the hot wall are presented. The average Nusselt number is found to increase with cavity inclination for Ri ³ 1 . Also it is shown that the average Nusselt number changes mildly with the cavity inclination in the dominant forced convection regime but it increases considerably in the regime with dominant natural convection.

68
3198
Preparation of Porous Carbon Particles using a Spray-Drying Method with Colloidal Template
Abstract:
spherical porous carbon particles with controllable porosity with a mean size of 2.5m have been prepared using a spray drying method with organic particle colloidal template. As a precursor, a mixing solution of carbon nanopowder and polystyrene (PS) particles as a template was used. The result showed that the particles with a good porous structure could be obtained. The pore size and shape (spherical) were identical to the initial template, giving a potential way for further developments. The control of particle porosity was also possible and reported in this paper, in which this control could be achieved by means of PS concentration.
67
7756
Design of an Augmented Automatic Choosing Control by Lyapunov Functions Using Gradient Optimization Automatic Choosing Functions
Abstract:
In this paper we consider a nonlinear feedback control called augmented automatic choosing control (AACC) using the gradient optimization automatic choosing functions for nonlinear systems. Constant terms which arise from sectionwise linearization of a given nonlinear system are treated as coefficients of a stable zero dynamics. Parameters included in the control are suboptimally selected by expanding a stable region in the sense of Lyapunov with the aid of the genetic algorithm. This approach is applied to a field excitation control problem of power system to demonstrate the splendidness of the AACC. Simulation results show that the new controller can improve performance remarkably well.
66
4341
Development and Optimization of Automated Dry-Wafer Separation
Abstract:
In a state-of-the-art industrial production line of photovoltaic products the handling and automation processes are of particular importance and implication. While processing a fully functional crystalline solar cell an as-cut photovoltaic wafer is subject to numerous repeated handling steps. With respect to stronger requirements in productivity and decreasing rejections due to defects the mechanical stress on the thin wafers has to be reduced to a minimum as the fragility increases by decreasing wafer thicknesses. In relation to the increasing wafer fragility, researches at the Fraunhofer Institutes IPA and CSP showed a negative correlation between multiple handling processes and the wafer integrity. Recent work therefore focused on the analysis and optimization of the dry wafer stack separation process with compressed air. The achievement of a wafer sensitive process capability and a high production throughput rate is the basic motivation in this research.
65
273
A Design of Electronically Tunable Voltagemode Universal Filter with High Input Impedance
Abstract:
This article presents a voltage-mode universal biquadratic filter performing simultaneous 3 standard functions: lowpass, high-pass and band-pass functions, employing differential different current conveyor (DDCC) and current controlled current conveyor (CCCII) as active element. The features of the circuit are that: the quality factor and pole frequency can be tuned independently via the input bias currents: the circuit description is very simple, consisting of 1 DDCC, 2 CCCIIs, 2 electronic resistors and 2 grounded capacitors. Without requiring component matching conditions, the proposed circuit is very appropriate to further develop into an integrated circuit. The PSPICE simulation results are depicted. The given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation.
64
5945
Realization of Electronically Tunable Currentmode First-order Allpass Filter and Its Application
Abstract:

This article presents a resistorless current-mode firstorder allpass filter based on second generation current controlled current conveyors (CCCIIs). The features of the circuit are that: the pole frequency can be electronically controlled via the input bias current: the circuit description is very simple, consisting of 2 CCCIIs and single grounded capacitor, without any external resistors and component matching requirements. Consequently, the proposed circuit is very appropriate to further develop into an integrated circuit. Low input and high output impedances of the proposed configuration enable the circuit to be cascaded in current-mode without additional current buffers. The PSpice simulation results are depicted. The given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation. The application example as a current-mode quadrature oscillator is included.

63
11307
Application of Tacit Knowledge from Professional Packaging Designer for Teaching Packaging Design
Abstract:

In the package design industry, there are a lot of tacit knowledge resided within each designer. The objectives are to capture them and compile it to be used as a teaching resource and to create a video clip of package design process as well as to evaluate its quality and learning effectiveness. Interview were used as a technique for capturing knowledge in brand design concept, differentiation, recognition, rank of recognition factor, consumer survey, knowledge about marketing, research, graphic design, the effect of color, and law and regulation. Video clip about package design were created. The clip consisted of both the speech and clip of actual process. The quality of the video in term of media was ranked as good while the content was ranked as excellent. The students- score on post-test was significantly greater than that of pretest (p>0.001).

62
8884
A Study of Gas Metal Arc Welding Affecting Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel AISI 304
Abstract:
The objective of this research was to study influence parameters affecting to mechanical property of austenitic stainless steel grade 304 (AISI 304) with Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW). The research was applying factorial design experiment, which have following interested parameters: welding current at 80, 90, and 100 Amps, welding speeds at 250, 300, and 350 mm/min, and shield gas of 75% Ar + 25% CO2, 70% Ar + 25% CO2 + 5% O2 and 69.5% Ar + 25% CO2 + 5% O2 + 0.5% He gas. The study was done in following aspects: ultimate tensile strength and elongation. A research study of ultimate tensile strength found that main factor effect, which had the highest strength to AISI 304 welding was shield gas of 70% Ar + 25% CO2 + 5% O2 at average of 954.81 N/mm2. Result of the highest elongation was showed significantly different at interaction effect between shield gas of 69.5%Ar+25%CO2+5%O2+.5%He and welding speed at 250 mm/min at 47.94%.
61
13079
Numerical Analysis of Hydrogen Transport using a Hydrogen-Enhanced Localized Plasticity Mechanism
Abstract:
In this study, the hydrogen transport phenomenon was numerically evaluated by using hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity (HELP) mechanisms. Two dominant governing equations, namely, the hydrogen transport model and the elasto-plastic model, were introduced. In addition, the implicitly formulated equations of the governing equations were implemented into ABAQUS UMAT user-defined subroutines. The simulation results were compared to published results to validate the proposed method.
60
9483
Calculation of Reorder Point Level under Stochastic Parameters: A Case Study in Healthcare Area
Abstract:
We consider a single-echelon, single-item inventory system where both demand and lead-time are stochastic. Continuous review policy is used to control the inventory system. The objective is to calculate the reorder point level under stochastic parameters. A case study is presented in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.
59
910
Modeling of Session Initiation Protocol Invite Transaction using Colored Petri Nets
Abstract:
Wireless mobile communications have experienced the phenomenal growth through last decades. The advances in wireless mobile technologies have brought about a demand for high quality multimedia applications and services. For such applications and services to work, signaling protocol is required for establishing, maintaining and tearing down multimedia sessions. The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application layer signaling protocols, based on request/response transaction model. This paper considers SIP INVITE transaction over an unreliable medium, since it has been recently modified in Request for Comments (RFC) 6026. In order to help in assuring that the functional correctness of this modification is achieved, the SIP INVITE transaction is modeled and analyzed using Colored Petri Nets (CPNs). Based on the model analysis, it is concluded that the SIP INVITE transaction is free of livelocks and dead codes, and in the same time it has both desirable and undesirable deadlocks. Therefore, SIP INVITE transaction should be subjected for additional updates in order to eliminate undesirable deadlocks. In order to reduce the cost of implementation and maintenance of SIP, additional remodeling of the SIP INVITE transaction is recommended.
58
12527
Detecting the Capacity Reserve in an Overhead Line
Abstract:

There are various solutions for improving existing overhead line systems with the general purpose of increasing their limited capacity. The capacity reserve of the existing overhead lines is an important problem that must be considered from different aspects. The paper contains a comparative analysis of the mechanical and thermal limitations of an existing overhead line based on certain calculation conditions characterizing the examined variants. The methodology of the proposed estimation of the permissible conductor temperature and maximum load current is described in detail. The transmission line model consists of specific information of an existing overhead line of the Latvian power network. The main purpose of the simulation tasks is to find an additional capacity reserve by using accurate mathematical models. The results of the obtained data are presented.

57
5557
Parametric Analysis in the Electronic Sensor Frequency Adjustment Process
Abstract:
The use of electronic sensors in the electronics industry has become increasingly popular over the past few years, and it has become a high competition product. The frequency adjustment process is regarded as one of the most important process in the electronic sensor manufacturing process. Due to inaccuracies in the frequency adjustment process, up to 80% waste can be caused due to rework processes; therefore, this study aims to provide a preliminary understanding of the role of parameters used in the frequency adjustment process, and also make suggestions in order to further improve performance. Four parameters are considered in this study: air pressure, dispensing time, vacuum force, and the distance between the needle tip and the product. A full factorial design for experiment 2k was considered to determine those parameters that significantly affect the accuracy of the frequency adjustment process, where a deviation in the frequency after adjustment and the target frequency is expected to be 0 kHz. The experiment was conducted on two levels, using two replications and with five center-points added. In total, 37 experiments were carried out. The results reveal that air pressure and dispensing time significantly affect the frequency adjustment process. The mathematical relationship between these two parameters was formulated, and the optimal parameters for air pressure and dispensing time were found to be 0.45 MPa and 458 ms, respectively. The optimal parameters were examined by carrying out a confirmation experiment in which an average deviation of 0.082 kHz was achieved.
56
7670
A Thought on Exotic Statistical Distributions
Authors:
Abstract:
The statistical distributions are modeled in explaining nature of various types of data sets. Although these distributions are mostly uni-modal, it is quite common to see multiple modes in the observed distribution of the underlying variables, which make the precise modeling unrealistic. The observed data do not exhibit smoothness not necessarily due to randomness, but could also be due to non-randomness resulting in zigzag curves, oscillations, humps etc. The present paper argues that trigonometric functions, which have not been used in probability functions of distributions so far, have the potential to take care of this, if incorporated in the distribution appropriately. A simple distribution (named as, Sinoform Distribution), involving trigonometric functions, is illustrated in the paper with a data set. The importance of trigonometric functions is demonstrated in the paper, which have the characteristics to make statistical distributions exotic. It is possible to have multiple modes, oscillations and zigzag curves in the density, which could be suitable to explain the underlying nature of select data set.
55
15318
Online Learning Activities Kit on Plants in Thai Literature in Compliance with the School Botanical Garden of Plant Genetic Conservation Project under the Royal Initiative of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn
Abstract:
This research was aimed to develop and determine the quality of online learning activities kit as well as to examine the learning achievement of students and their satisfaction towards the kit through authentic assessment. The tools in this research contained online learning activities kit on plant in Thai literature in compliance with the School Botanical Garden of Plant Genetic Conservation Project under the Royal Initiative of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, the assessment form, the learning achievement test, the satisfaction form and the authentic assessment form. The population consisted of 40 students in the second range of primary years (Prathomsuksa 4 to 6) at Ban Khao Rak School, Suratthani Province, Thailand. The research results showed that the content quality of the developed online learning activities kit as assessed by the experts was 4.70 on average or at very high level. The pre-test and post-test comparison was made to examine the learning achievement and it revealed that the post-test score was higher than the pre-test score with statistical significance at the .01 level. The satisfaction of the sampling group towards the online learning activities kit was 4.74 or at the highest level. The authentic assessment showed an average of 1.69 or at good level. Therefore, the online learning activities kit on plant in Thai literature in compliance with the School Botanical Garden of Plant Genetic Conservation Project under the Royal Initiative of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn could be used in real classroom situations.
54
8001
Real-Time 3D City Generation using Shape Grammars with LOD Variations
Abstract:
Creating3D environments, including characters and cities, is a significantly time consuming process due to a large amount of workinvolved in designing and modelling.There have been a number of attempts to automatically generate 3D objects employing shape grammars. However it is still too early to apply the mechanism to real problems such as real-time computer games.The purpose of this research is to introduce a time efficient and cost effective method to automatically generatevarious 3D objects for real-time 3D games. This Shape grammar-based real-time City Generation (RCG) model is a conceptual model for generating 3Denvironments in real-time and can be applied to 3D gamesoranimations. The RCG system can generate even a large cityby applying fundamental principles of shape grammars to building elementsin various levels of detailin real-time.
53
5387
A Study on Mode of Collapse of Metallic Shells Having Combined Tube-Frusta Geometry Subjected to Axial Compression
Authors:
Abstract:
The present paper deals with the experimental and computational study of axial collapse of the aluminum metallic shells having combined tube-frusta geometry between two parallel plates. Shells were having bottom two third lengths as frusta and remaining top one third lengths as tube. Shells were compressed to recognize their modes of collapse and associated energy absorption capability. An axisymmetric Finite Element computational model of collapse process is presented and analysed, using a non-linear FE code FORGE2. Six noded isoparametric triangular elements were used to discretize the deforming shell. The material of the shells was idealized as rigid visco-plastic. To validate the computational model experimental and computed results of the deformed shapes and their corresponding load-compression and energy-compression curves were compared. With the help of the obtained results progress of the axisymmetric mode of collapse has been presented, analysed and discussed.
52
1235
Properties of Composite Nanofiber Produced by Single and Coaxial Nozzle Method used for Electrospinning Technique
Abstract:
In this study, single nozzle method used for electrospinning technique which composite polymer solution with cellulose nanowiskers (CNW) was treated by ultrasonic sonificator have been compared with coaxial (double) nozzle method, in terms of mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of composite nanofiber. The effect of water content in composite polymer solution on properties of nanofiber has also been examined. It has been seen that single nozzle method which polymer solution does not contain water has better results than that of coaxial method, in terms of mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of nanofiber. However, it is necessary to make an optimization study on setting condition of ultrasonic treatment to get better dispersion of CNW in composite nanofiber and to get better mechanical and thermal properties
51
6393
Remote Rehabilitation Development Status in China–To Eliminate the Disabled People`s Space Obstacles
Abstract:
The remote diagnosis and remote medical smoked to part. In China, in accordance with the requirements of different applications of remote diagnosis and Relates to the technical difference, which can be divided into special purpose remote diagnosis and treatment system, the remote will Referral system, remote medical consultation system, remote rehabilitation technology and remote operation technology. In this article, will introduce China for the special purpose of service remote diagnosis and treatment system and technology, including: China disabled status and virtual reality technology; China 's domestic family medical care system and China 's current situation of the development of telemedicine.
50
9340
Quantitative Analysis of Construction Waste in the City of Novi Sad, Serbia
Abstract:
This paper introduces a method of calculating the quantities of construction materials and construction waste on site in city of Novi Sad. In buildings is about 40% of the total weight of materials that are in circulation in the world economic space. The best solution for this waste is to be stored at source, at the point of generation. There are several treatment options for this type of waste, reduction at source, reuse, recycling. Beside its negative effects on the environment, construction waste can be and resource. Novi Sad is divided in 16 single family resident zones and 10 multi family resident zones. For every zone of the city, quantities of used construction materials and construction waste were obtained. Rational use of natural resources is an essential factor in applying the principles of development with savings.
49
8030
Mathematical Simulation of Acid Concentration Effects during Acid Nitric Leaching of Cobalt from a Mixed Cobalt-Copper Oxide
Abstract:
Cobalt was acid nitric leached from a mixed cobaltcopper oxide with variable acid concentration. Resulting experimental data were used to analyze effects of increase in acid concentration, based on a shrinking core model of the process. The mathematical simulation demonstrated that the time rate of the dissolution mechanism is an increasing function of acid concentration. It was also shown that the magnitude of the acid concentration effect is time dependent and the increase in acid concentration is more effective at earlier stage of the dissolution than at later stage. The remaining process parameters are comprehensively affected by acid concentration and their interaction is synergetic.
48
13638
Smartphones for In-home Diagnostics in Telemedicine
Authors:
Abstract:
Many contemporary telemedical applications rely on regular consultations over the phone or video conferencing which consumes valuable resources such as the time of the doctors. Some applications or treatments allow automated diagnostics on the patient side which only notifies the doctors in case a significant worsening of patient’s condition is measured. Such programs can save valuable resources but an important implementation issue is how to ensure effective and cheap diagnostics on the patient side. First, specific diagnostic devices on patient side are expensive and second, they need to be user-˜friendly to encourage patient’s cooperation and reduce errors in usage which may cause noise in diagnostic data. This article proposes the use of modern smartphones and various build-in or attachable sensors as universal diagnostic devices applicable in a wider range of telemedical programs and demonstrates their application on a case-study – a program for schizophrenic relapse prevention.
47
3376
Formation of (Ga,Mn)N Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor by Manganese Ion Implantation
Abstract:
Un-doped GaN film of thickness 1.90 mm, grown on sapphire substrate were uniformly implanted with 325 keV Mn+ ions for various fluences varying from 1.75 x 1015 - 2.0 x 1016 ions cm-2 at 3500 C substrate temperature. The structural, morphological and magnetic properties of Mn ion implanted gallium nitride samples were studied using XRD, AFM and SQUID techniques. XRD of the sample implanted with various ion fluences showed the presence of different magnetic phases of Ga3Mn, Ga0.6Mn0.4 and Mn4N. However, the compositions of these phases were found to be depended on the ion fluence. AFM images of non-implanted sample showed micrograph with rms surface roughness 2.17 nm. Whereas samples implanted with the various fluences showed the presence of nano clusters on the surface of GaN. The shape, size and density of the clusters were found to vary with respect to ion fluence. Magnetic moment versus applied field curves of the samples implanted with various fluences exhibit the hysteresis loops. The Curie temperature estimated from zero field cooled and field cooled curves for the samples implanted with the fluence of 1.75 x 1015, 1.5 x 1016 and 2.0 x 1016 ions cm-2 was found to be 309 K, 342 K and 350 K respectively.
46
6882
Numerical Analysis of the Influence of Airfoil Asymmetry on VAWT Performance
Abstract:
This paper presents a model for the evaluation of energy performance and aerodynamic forces acting on a three-bladed small vertical axis Darrieus wind turbine depending on blade chord curvature with respect to rotor axis. The adopted survey methodology is based on an analytical code coupled to a solid modeling software, capable of generating the desired blade geometry depending on the blade design geometric parameters, which is linked to a finite volume CFD code for the calculation of rotor performance. After describing and validating the model with experimental data, the results of numerical simulations are proposed on the bases of two different blade profile architectures, which are respectively characterized by a straight chord and by a curved one, having a chord radius equal to rotor external circumference. A CFD campaign of analysis is completed for three blade-candidate airfoil sections, that is the recently-developed DU 06-W-200 cambered blade profile, a classical symmetrical NACA 0021 and its derived cambered airfoil, characterized by a curved chord, having a chord radius equal to rotor external circumference. The effects of blade chord curvature on angle of attack, blade tangential and normal forces are first investigated and then the overall rotor torque and power are analyzed as a function of blade azimuthal position, achieving a numerical quantification of the influence of blade camber on overall rotor performance.
45
12820
Effect of Blade Number on a Straight-Bladed Vertical-Axis Darreius Wind Turbine
Abstract:
This paper presents a mean for reducing the torque variation during the revolution of a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) by increasing the blade number. For this purpose, twodimensional CDF analysis have been performed on a straight-bladed Darreius-type rotor. After describing the computational model, a complete campaign of simulations based on full RANS unsteady calculations is proposed for a three, four and five-bladed rotor architecture characterized by a NACA 0025 airfoil. For each proposed rotor configuration, flow field characteristics are investigated at several values of tip speed ratio, allowing a quantification of the influence of blade number on flow geometric features and dynamic quantities, such as rotor torque and power. Finally, torque and power curves are compared for the analyzed architectures, achieving a quantification of the effect of blade number on overall rotor performance.
44
10363
Development of New Cooling System using Nacelle Duct
Abstract:
In this paper, a new cooling system using a nacelle duct is proposed for the mechanical room in the household refrigerator. The conventional mechanical room consists of a condenser, a compressor and an axial fan. The axial fan is mainly responsible for cooling the condenser and the compressor. The new cooling system is developed by replacing the axial fan with the nacelle duct including the small centrifugal fan. The parametric study is carried out to find the optimum designs of the nacelle duct in terms of performance and efficiency. Through this study, it is revealed that the new system can reduce the space, electrical power and noise compared with the conventional system
43
2513
CFD Modeling of High Temperature Seal Chamber
Abstract:
The purpose of this work is fast design optimization of the seal chamber. The study includes the mass transfer between lower and upper chamber on seal chamber for hot water application pumps. The use of Fluent 12.1 commercial code made it possible to capture complex flow with heat-mass transfer, radiation, Tailor instability, and buoyancy effect. Realizable k-epsilon model was used for turbulence modeling. Radiation heat losses were taken into account. The temperature distribution at seal region is predicted with respect to heat addition. Results show the possibilities of the model simplifications by excluding the water domain in low chamber from calculations. CFD simulations permit to improve seal chamber design to meet target water temperature around the seal. This study can be used for the analysis of different seal chamber configurations.
42
6207
Stabilization and Control of a UAV Flight Attitude Angles using the Backstepping Method
Authors:
Abstract:
The paper presents the design of a mini-UAV attitude controller using the backstepping method. Starting from the nonlinear dynamic equations of the mini-UAV, by using the backstepping method, the author of this paper obtained the expressions of the elevator, rudder and aileron deflections, which stabilize the UAV, at each moment, to the desired values of the attitude angles. The attitude controller controls the attitude angles, the angular rates, the angular accelerations and other variables that describe the UAV longitudinal and lateral motions. To design the nonlinear controller, by using the backstepping technique, the nonlinear equations and the Lyapunov analysis have been directly used. The designed controller has been implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment and its effectiveness has been tested with a campaign of numerical simulations using data from the UAV flight tests. The obtained results are very good and they are better than the ones found in previous works.
41
3229
Numerical Simulation of the Flow Field around a Vertical Flat Plate of Infinite Extent
Abstract:
This paper presents a CFD analysis of the flow field around a thin flat plate of infinite span inclined at 90° to a fluid stream of infinite extent. Numerical predictions have been compared to experimental measurements, in order to assess the potential of the finite volume code of determining the aerodynamic forces acting on a bluff body invested by a fluid stream of infinite extent. Several turbulence models and spatial node distributions have been tested. Flow field characteristics in the neighborhood of the flat plate have been investigated, allowing the development of a preliminary procedure to be used as guidance in selecting the appropriate grid configuration and the corresponding turbulence model for the prediction of the flow field over a two-dimensional vertical flat plate.
40
8683
User Experience Evolution Lifecycle Framework
Abstract:
Perceptions of quality from both designers and users perspective have now stretched beyond the traditional usability, incorporating abstract and subjective concepts. This has led to a shift in human computer interaction research communities- focus; a shift that focuses on achieving user experience (UX) by not only fulfilling conventional usability needs but also those that go beyond them. The term UX, although widely spread and given significant importance, lacks consensus in its unified definition. In this paper, we survey various UX definitions and modeling frameworks and examine them as the foundation for proposing a UX evolution lifecycle framework for understanding UX in detail. In the proposed framework we identify the building blocks of UX and discuss how UX evolves in various phases. The framework can be used as a tool to understand experience requirements and evaluate them, resulting in better UX design and hence improved user satisfaction.
39
180
Geochemical Assessment of Metal Concentrations in Mangrove Sediments along Mumbai Coast, India
Abstract:
Two short sediment cores collected from mangrove areas of Manori and Thane creeks along Mumbai coast were analysed for sediment composition and metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni, Zn, Cr and V). The statistical analysis of Pearson correlation matrix proved that there is a significant relationship between metal concentration and finer grain size in Manori creek while poor correlation was observed in Thane creek. Based on the enrichment factor, the present metal to background metal ratios clearly reflected maximum enrichment of Cu and Pb in Manori creek and Mn in Thane creek. Geoaccumulation index calculated indicate that the study area is unpolluted with respect to Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn and Cr in both the cores while moderately polluted with Cu and Pb in Manori creek. Based on contamination degree, both the core sediments were found to be considerably contaminated with metals.
38
12443
The Effect of Cyclone Shape and Dust Collector on Gas-Solid Flow and Performance
Abstract:
Numerical analysis of flow characteristics and separation efficiency in a high-efficiency cyclone has been performed. Several models based on the experimental observation for a design purpose were proposed. However, the model is only estimated the cyclone's performance under the limited environments; it is difficult to obtain a general model for all types of cyclones. The purpose of this study is to find out the flow characteristics and separation efficiency numerically. The Reynolds stress model (RSM) was employed instead of a standard k-ε or a k-ω model which was suitable for isotropic turbulence and it could predict the pressure drop and the Rankine vortex very well. For small particles, there were three significant components (entrance of vortex finder, cone, and dust collector) for the particle separation. In the present work, the particle re-entraining phenomenon from the dust collector to the cyclone body was observed after considerable time. This re-entrainment degraded the separation efficiency and was one of the significant factors for the separation efficiency of the cyclone.
37
3283
Behavior of Media Exposure and Participation in Environmental Activities of King Mongkut-s University of Technology Thonburi Dormitory Students
Abstract:
The purposes of this research were 1) to investigate behavior of media exposure and participation in environmental activities of King Mongkut-s University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT) dormitory students, 2) to compare the correlation between faculties and participation in environmental activities of KMUTT dormitory students, and 3) to compare the correlation between media exposure and participation in environmental activities of KMUTT dormitory students. The tool used for collecting data was questionnaire. The research findings revealed that dormitory students were mostly exposed to the environmental media via public relations boards for general media and KMUTT dormitory media. Dormitory students were daily exposed to media via websites on the internet and weekly for other media. Dormitory students participation in the environmental activities was at high level (x = 3.65) on an individual basis and was at medium level (x = 2.76) on a collective basis. Faculties did not correlate with the participation in environmental activities of dormitory students at the .01 statistical level and media exposure via various media correlated with participation in environmental activities of dormitory students at the .01 statistical level.
36
14624
The Construction of Interactive Computer Multimedia Instruction on “Basic Japanese Vocabulary“
Abstract:
The study entitled “The Construction of Interactive Computer Multimedia Instruction on Basic Japanese Vocabulary" was aimed: 1) To construct the interactive computer multimedia instruction on Basic Japanese Vocabulary, 2) To find out multimedia-s quality, 3) To examine the student-s satisfaction and 4) To study the learning achievement in Basic Japanese vocabulary. The sampling group used in this study was composed of 40 1st year student in Educational Communications and Technology Department, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkut-s University of Technology Thonburi, in the academic year 2553 B.E. (2010). According to research results, we found that 1). The quality assessment by 3 mass media experts was at 4.72 on average or at high level. 2) In terms of contents, the evaluation by 3 experts was at 4.81 on average or at high level. 3) In terms of achievement, there was a statistical significance between before and after the treatment at the .05 level. 4) The satisfaction of students towards the interactive computer multimedia Instruction on “Basic Japanese Vocabulary" was 4.35 on average, or at high level.
35
2831
ROC Analysis of PVC Detection Algorithm using ECG and Vector-ECG Charateristics
Abstract:
ECG analysis method was developed using ROC analysis of PVC detecting algorithm. ECG signal of MIT-BIH arrhythmia database was analyzed by MATLAB. First of all, the baseline was removed by median filter to preprocess the ECG signal. R peaks were detected for ECG analysis method, and normal VCG was extracted for VCG analysis method. Four PVC detecting algorithm was analyzed by ROC curve, which parameters are maximum amplitude of QRS complex, width of QRS complex, r-r interval and geometric mean of VCG. To set cut-off value of parameters, ROC curve was estimated by true-positive rate (sensitivity) and false-positive rate. sensitivity and false negative rate (specificity) of ROC curve calculated, and ECG was analyzed using cut-off value which was estimated from ROC curve. As a result, PVC detecting algorithm of VCG geometric mean have high availability, and PVC could be detected more accurately with amplitude and width of QRS complex.
34
10486
Improvement of Photoluminescence Uniformity of Porous Silicon by using Stirring Anodization Process
Abstract:
The electrolyte stirring method of anodization etching process for manufacturing porous silicon (PS) is reported in this work. Two experimental setups of nature air stirring (PS-ASM) and electrolyte stirring (PS-ESM) are employed to clarify the influence of stirring mechanisms on electrochemical etching process. Compared to traditional fabrication without any stirring apparatus (PS-TM), a large plateau region of PS surface structure is obtained from samples with both stirring methods by the 3D-profiler measurement. Moreover, the light emission response is also improved by both proposed electrolyte stirring methods due to the cycling force in electrolyte could effectively enhance etch-carrier distribution while the electrochemical etching process is made. According to the analysis of statistical calculation of photoluminescence (PL) intensity, lower standard deviations are obtained from PS-samples with studied stirring methods, i.e. the uniformity of PL-intensity is effectively improved. The calculated deviations of PL-intensity are 93.2, 74.5 and 64, respectively, for PS-TM, PS-ASM and PS-ESM.
33
4974
Elasto-Visco-Plastic-Damage Model for Pre-Strained 304L Stainless Steel Subjected to Low Temperature
Abstract:

Primary barrier of membrane type LNG containment system consist of corrugated 304L stainless steel. This 304L stainless steel is austenitic stainless steel which shows different material behaviors owing to phase transformation during the plastic work. Even though corrugated primary barriers are subjected to significant amounts of pre-strain due to press working, quantitative mechanical behavior on the effect of pre-straining at cryogenic temperatures are not available. In this study, pre-strain level and pre-strain temperature dependent tensile tests are carried to investigate mechanical behaviors. Also, constitutive equations with material parameters are suggested for a verification study.

32
12145
Impregnation of Cupper into Kanuma Volcanic Ash Soil to Improve Mercury Sorption Capacity
Abstract:
The present study attempted to improve the Mercury (Hg) sorption capacity of kanuma volcanic ash soil (KVAS) by impregnating the cupper (Cu). Impregnation was executed by 1 and 5% Cu powder and sorption characterization of optimum Hg removing Cu impregnated KVAS was performed under different operational conditions, contact time, solution pH, sorbent dosage and Hg concentration using the batch operation studies. The 1% Cu impregnated KVAS pronounced optimum improvement (79%) in removing Hg from water compare to control. The present investigation determined the equilibrium state of maximum Hg adsorption at 6 h contact period. The adsorption revealed a pH dependent response and pH 3.5 showed maximum sorption capacity of Hg. Freundlich isotherm model is well fitted with the experimental data than that of Langmuir isotherm. It can be concluded that the Cu impregnation improves the Hg sorption capacity of KVAS and 1% Cu impregnated KVAS could be employed as cost-effective adsorbent media for treating Hg contaminated water.
31
648
Structure and Magnetic Properties of Nanocomposite Fe2O3/TiO2 Catalysts Fabricated by Heterogeneous Precipitation
Abstract:
The aim of our work is to study phase composition, particle size and magnetic response of Fe2O3/TiO2 nanocomposites with respect to the final annealing temperature. Those nanomaterials are considered as smart catalysts, separable from a liquid/gaseous phase by applied magnetic field. The starting product was obtained by an ecologically acceptable route, based on heterogeneous precipitation of the TiO2 on modified g-Fe2O3 nanocrystals dispersed in water. The precursor was subsequently annealed on air at temperatures ranging from 200 oC to 900 oC. The samples were investigated by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (S-PXRD), magnetic measurements and Mössbauer spectroscopy. As evidenced by S-PXRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy, increasing the annealing temperature causes evolution of the phase composition from anatase/maghemite to rutile/hematite, finally above 700 oC the pseudobrookite (Fe2TiO5) also forms. The apparent particle size of the various Fe2O3/TiO2 phases has been determined from the highquality S-PXRD data by using two different approaches: the Rietveld refinement and the Debye method. Magnetic response of the samples is discussed in considering the phase composition and the particle size.
30
14687
Angle Analyzer of an Encoder using the LabVIEW
Abstract:
As we make progressive products for good works, and future industries want to get higher speed and resolution from various developments in the robotics as well as precise control system, the concept of control feedback is getting more important. Within a range of industrial developments, the concept is most responsible for the high reliability of a device. We explain an efficient analyzing method of a rotary encoder such as an incremental type encoder and absolute type encoder using the LabVIEW program
29
13654
Treatment of Inorganic Filler Surface by Silane-Coupling Agent: Investigation of Treatment Condition and Analysis of Bonding State of Reacted Agent
Abstract:
It is well known that enhancing interfacial adhesion between inorganic filler and matrix resin in a composite lead to favorable properties such as excellent mechanical properties, high thermal resistance, prominent electric insulation, low expansion coefficient, and so on. But it should be avoided that much excess of coupling agent is reacted due to a negative impact of their final composite-s properties. There is no report to achieve classification of the bonding state excepting investigation of coating layer thickness. Therefore, the analysis of the bonding state of the coupling agent reacted with the filler surface such as BN particles with less functional group and silica particles having much functional group was performed by thermal gravimetric analysis and pyrolysis GC/MS. The reacted number of functional groups on the silane-coupling agent was classified as a result of the analysis. Thus, we succeeded in classifying the reacted number of the functional groups as a result of this study.
28
10562
Experimental Investigation of the Transient Cooling Characteristics of an Industrial Glass Tempering Unit
Abstract:
Energy consumption rate during the cooling process of industrial glass tempering process is considerably high. In this experimental study the effect of dimensionless jet to jet distance (S/D) and jet to plate distance (H/D) on the cooling time have been investigated. In the experiments 4 mm thick glass samples have been used. Cooling unit consists of 16 mutually placed seamless aluminum nozzles of 8 mm in diameter and 80 mm in length. Nozzles were in staggered arrangement. Experiments were conducted with circular jets for H/D values between 1 and 10, and for S/D values between 2 and 10. During the experiments Reynolds number has been kept constant at 30000. Experimental results showed that the longest cooling time with 87 seconds has been observed in the experiments for S/D=10 and H/D=10 values, while the shortest cooling time with 42.5 seconds has been measured in the experiments for S/D=2 and H/D=4 values.
27
2022
Confronting the Uncertainty of Systemic Innovation in Public Welfare Services
Authors:
Abstract:
Faced with social and health system capacity constraints and rising and changing demand for welfare services, governments and welfare providers are increasingly relying on innovation to help support and enhance services. However, the evidence reported by several studies indicates that the realization of that potential is not an easy task. Innovations can be deemed inherently complex to implement and operate, because many of them involve a combination of technological and organizational renewal within an environment featuring a diversity of stakeholders. Many public welfare service innovations are markedly systemic in their nature, which means that they emerge from, and must address, the complex interplay between political, administrative, technological, institutional and legal issues. This paper suggests that stakeholders dealing with systemic innovation in welfare services must deal with ambiguous and incomplete information in circumstances of uncertainty. Employing a literature review methodology and case study, this paper identifies, categorizes and discusses different aspects of the uncertainty of systemic innovation in public welfare services, and argues that uncertainty can be classified into eight categories: technological uncertainty, market uncertainty, regulatory/institutional uncertainty, social/political uncertainty, acceptance/legitimacy uncertainty, managerial uncertainty, timing uncertainty and consequence uncertainty.
26
6500
Steady-State Analysis and Control of Double Feed Induction Motor
Abstract:
This paper explores steady-state characteristics of grid-connected doubly fed induction motor (DFIM) in case of unity power factor operation. Based on the synchronized mathematical model, analytic determination of the control laws is presented and illustrated by various figures to understand the effect of the applied rotor voltage on the speed and the active power. On other hand, unlike previous works where the stator resistance was neglected, in this work, stator resistance is included such that the equations can be applied to small wind turbine generators which are becoming more popular. Finally the work is crowned by integration of the studied induction generator in a wind system where an open loop control is proposed confers a remarkable simplicity of implementation compared to the known methods.
25
2004
A Study on Evaluation of Strut Type Suspension Noise Caused by Rubber Degradation
Abstract:

When cars are released from the factory, strut noises are very small and therefore it is difficult to perceive them. As the use time and travel distance increase, however, strut noises get larger so as to cause users much uneasiness. The noises generated at the field include engine noises and flow noises and therefore it is difficult to clearly discern the noises generated from struts. This study developed a test method which can reproduce field strut noises in the lab. Using the newly developed noise evaluation test, this study analyzed the effects that insulator performance degradation and failure can have on car noises. The study also confirmed that the insulator durability test by the simple back-and-forth motion cannot completely reflect the state of the parts failure in the field. Based on this, the study also confirmed that field noises can be reproduced through a durability test that considers heat aging.

24
8422
Observers Design for Systems Modelled by Bond Graphs with Multivariable Monotone Nonlinearities
Abstract:
A methodology to design a nonlinear observer in a bond graph approach is proposed. The class of nonlinear observer with multivariable nonlinearities is considered. A junction structure of the bond graph observer is proposed. The proposed methodology to an electrical transformer and a DC motor including the nonlinear saturation is applied. Nonlinear observers for the transformer and DC motor based on multivariable circle criterion in the physical domain are proposed. In order to show the saturation effects on the transformer and DC motor, simulation results are obtained. Finally, the paper describes that convergence of the estimates to the true states is achieved.
23
11795
A Class of Recurrent Sequences Exhibiting Some Exciting Properties of Balancing Numbers
Abstract:
The balancing numbers are natural numbers n satisfying the Diophantine equation 1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + (n - 1) = (n + 1) + (n + 2) + · · · + (n + r); r is the balancer corresponding to the balancing number n.The nth balancing number is denoted by Bn and the sequence {Bn}1 n=1 satisfies the recurrence relation Bn+1 = 6Bn-Bn-1. The balancing numbers posses some curious properties, some like Fibonacci numbers and some others are more interesting. This paper is a study of recurrent sequence {xn}1 n=1 satisfying the recurrence relation xn+1 = Axn - Bxn-1 and possessing some curious properties like the balancing numbers.
22
11599
Heuristics Analysis for Distributed Scheduling using MONARC Simulation Tool
Authors:
Abstract:
Simulation is a very powerful method used for highperformance and high-quality design in distributed system, and now maybe the only one, considering the heterogeneity, complexity and cost of distributed systems. In Grid environments, foe example, it is hard and even impossible to perform scheduler performance evaluation in a repeatable and controllable manner as resources and users are distributed across multiple organizations with their own policies. In addition, Grid test-beds are limited and creating an adequately-sized test-bed is expensive and time consuming. Scalability, reliability and fault-tolerance become important requirements for distributed systems in order to support distributed computation. A distributed system with such characteristics is called dependable. Large environments, like Cloud, offer unique advantages, such as low cost, dependability and satisfy QoS for all users. Resource management in large environments address performant scheduling algorithm guided by QoS constrains. This paper presents the performance evaluation of scheduling heuristics guided by different optimization criteria. The algorithms for distributed scheduling are analyzed in order to satisfy users constrains considering in the same time independent capabilities of resources. This analysis acts like a profiling step for algorithm calibration. The performance evaluation is based on simulation. The simulator is MONARC, a powerful tool for large scale distributed systems simulation. The novelty of this paper consists in synthetic analysis results that offer guidelines for scheduler service configuration and sustain the empirical-based decision. The results could be used in decisions regarding optimizations to existing Grid DAG Scheduling and for selecting the proper algorithm for DAG scheduling in various actual situations.
21
14614
Numerical Analysis of Rapid Gas Decompression in Pure Nitrogen using 1D and 3D Transient Mathematical Models of Gas Flow in Pipes
Abstract:
The paper presents a numerical investigation on the rapid gas decompression in pure nitrogen which is made by using the one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) mathematical models of transient compressible non-isothermal fluid flow in pipes. A 1D transient mathematical model of compressible thermal multicomponent fluid mixture flow in pipes is presented. The set of the mass, momentum and enthalpy conservation equations for gas phase is solved in the model. Thermo-physical properties of multicomponent gas mixture are calculated by solving the Equation of State (EOS) model. The Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK-EOS) model is chosen. This model is successfully validated on the experimental data [1] and shows a good agreement with measurements. A 3D transient mathematical model of compressible thermal single-component gas flow in pipes, which is built by using the CFD Fluent code (ANSYS), is presented in the paper. The set of unsteady Reynolds-averaged conservation equations for gas phase is solved. Thermo-physical properties of single-component gas are calculated by solving the Real Gas Equation of State (EOS) model. The simplest case of gas decompression in pure nitrogen is simulated using both 1D and 3D models. The ability of both models to simulate the process of rapid decompression with a high order of agreement with each other is tested. Both, 1D and 3D numerical results show a good agreement between each other. The numerical investigation shows that 3D CFD model is very helpful in order to validate 1D simulation results if the experimental data is absent or limited.
20
14177
Mathematical Modeling of Non-Isothermal Multi-Component Fluid Flow in Pipes Applying to Rapid Gas Decompression in Rich and Base Gases
Abstract:
The paper presents a one-dimensional transient mathematical model of compressible non-isothermal multicomponent fluid mixture flow in a pipe. The set of the mass, momentum and enthalpy conservation equations for gas phase is solved in the model. Thermo-physical properties of multi-component gas mixture are calculated by solving the Equation of State (EOS) model. The Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK-EOS) model is chosen. Gas mixture viscosity is calculated on the basis of the Lee-Gonzales- Eakin (LGE) correlation. Numerical analysis of rapid gas decompression process in rich and base natural gases is made on the basis of the proposed mathematical model. The model is successfully validated on the experimental data [1]. The proposed mathematical model shows a very good agreement with the experimental data [1] in a wide range of pressure values and predicts the decompression in rich and base gas mixtures much better than analytical and mathematical models, which are available from the open source literature.
19
10680
Instability of Soliton Solutions to the Schamel-nonlinear Schrödinger Equation
Abstract:

A variational method is used to obtain the growth rate of a transverse long-wavelength perturbation applied to the soliton solution of a nonlinear Schr¨odinger equation with a three-half order potential. We demonstrate numerically that this unstable perturbed soliton will eventually transform into a cylindrical soliton.

18
4100
Power Minimization in Decode-and-XOR-Forward Two-Way Relay Networks
Abstract:

We consider a two-way relay network where two sources exchange information. A relay helps the two sources exchange information using the decode-and-XOR-forward protocol. We investigate the power minimization problem with minimum rate constraints. The system needs two time slots and in each time slot the required rate pair should be achievable. The power consumption is minimized in each time slot and we obtained the closed form solution. The simulation results confirm that the proposed power allocation scheme consumes lower total power than the conventional schemes.

17
8599
MONARC: A Case Study on Simulation Analysis for LHC Activities
Authors:
Abstract:
The scale, complexity and worldwide geographical spread of the LHC computing and data analysis problems are unprecedented in scientific research. The complexity of processing and accessing this data is increased substantially by the size and global span of the major experiments, combined with the limited wide area network bandwidth available. We present the latest generation of the MONARC (MOdels of Networked Analysis at Regional Centers) simulation framework, as a design and modeling tool for large scale distributed systems applied to HEP experiments. We present simulation experiments designed to evaluate the capabilities of the current real-world distributed infrastructure to support existing physics analysis processes and the means by which the experiments bands together to meet the technical challenges posed by the storage, access and computing requirements of LHC data analysis within the CMS experiment.
16
9571
A Novel Optimized JTAG Interface Circuit Design
Abstract:

This paper describes a novel optimized JTAG interface circuit between a JTAG controller and target IC. Being able to access JTAG using only one or two pins, this circuit does not change the original boundary scanning test frequency of target IC. Compared with the traditional JTAG interface which based on IEEE std. 1149.1, this reduced pin technology is more applicability in pin limited devices, and it is easier to control the scale of target IC for the designer.

15
10882
A Physics-Based Model for Fast Recovery Diodes with Lifetime Control and Emitter Efficiency Reduction
Abstract:
This paper presents a physics-based model for the high-voltage fast recovery diodes. The model provides a good trade-off between reverse recovery time and forward voltage drop realized through a combination of lifetime control and emitter efficiency reduction techniques. The minority carrier lifetime can be extracted from the reverse recovery transient response and forward characteristics. This paper also shows that decreasing the amount of the excess carriers stored in the drift region will result in softer characteristics which can be achieved using a lower doping level. The developed model is verified by experiment and the measurement data agrees well with the model.
14
7823
Optimization of Thermal and Discretization Parameters in Laser Welding Simulation Nd:YAG Applied for Shin Plate Transparent Mode Of DP600
Abstract:
Three dimensional analysis of thermal model in laser full penetration welding, Nd:YAG, by transparent mode DP600 alloy steel 1.25mm of thickness and gap of 0.1mm. Three models studied the influence of thermal dependent temperature properties, thermal independent temperature and the effect of peak value of specific heat at phase transformation temperature, AC1, on the transient temperature. Another seven models studied the influence of discretization, meshes on the temperature distribution in weld plate. It is shown that for the effects of thermal properties, the errors less 4% of maximum temperature in FZ and HAZ have identified. The minimum value of discretization are at least one third increment per radius for temporal discretization and the spatial discretization requires two elements per radius and four elements through thickness of the assembled plate, which therefore represent the minimum requirements of modeling for the laser welding in order to get minimum errors less than 5% compared to the fine mesh.
13
13936
Study of Sugarcane Bagasse Pretreatment with Sulfuric Acid as a Step of Cellulose Obtaining
Abstract:
To produce sugar and ethanol, sugarcane processing generates several agricultural residues, being straw and bagasse is considered as the main among them. And what to do with this residues has been subject of many studies and experiences in an industry that, in recent years, highlighted by the ability to transform waste into valuable products such as electric power. Cellulose is the main component of these materials. It is the most common organic polymer and represents about 1.5 x 1012 tons of total production of biomass per year and is considered an almost inexhaustible source of raw material. Pretreatment with mineral acids is one of the most widely used as stage of cellulose extraction from lignocellulosic materials for solubilizing most of the hemicellulose content. This study had as goal to find the best reaction time of sugarcane bagasse pretreatment with sulfuric acid in order to minimize the losses of cellulose concomitantly with the highest possible removal of hemicellulose and lignin. It was found that the best time for this reaction was 40 minutes, in which it was reached a loss of hemicelluloses around 70% and lignin and cellulose, around 15%. Over this time, it was verified that the cellulose loss increased and there was no loss of lignin and hemicellulose.
12
2362
Accelerating Sparse Matrix Vector Multiplication on Many-Core GPUs
Abstract:
Many-core GPUs provide high computing ability and substantial bandwidth; however, optimizing irregular applications like SpMV on GPUs becomes a difficult but meaningful task. In this paper, we propose a novel method to improve the performance of SpMV on GPUs. A new storage format called HYB-R is proposed to exploit GPU architecture more efficiently. The COO portion of the matrix is partitioned recursively into a ELL portion and a COO portion in the process of creating HYB-R format to ensure that there are as many non-zeros as possible in ELL format. The method of partitioning the matrix is an important problem for HYB-R kernel, so we also try to tune the parameters to partition the matrix for higher performance. Experimental results show that our method can get better performance than the fastest kernel (HYB) in NVIDIA-s SpMV library with as high as 17% speedup.
11
8690
Stress, Perceived Social Support, Coping Capability and Depression: A Study of Local and Foreign Students in the Malaysian Context
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of perceived social support and stress on the coping capability and level of depression of foreign and local students in Malaysia. Using convenience sampling, 200 students from three universities in Selangor, Malaysia participated in the study. The results of this study revealed that there was a significant relationship between perceived social support and coping capability. It is also found that there is a negative relationship between coping capability and depression. Further, stress and depression are positively related whereas stress and coping capability are negatively related. Lastly, there is no significant difference for the stress level and coping capability amongst local and foreign students.
10
11682
A Traffic Simulation Package Based on Travel Demand
Abstract:
In this paper we propose a new traffic simulation package, TDMSim, which supports both macroscopic and microscopic simulation on free-flowing and regulated traffic systems. Both simulators are based on travel demands, which specify the numbers of vehicles departing from origins to arrive at different destinations. The microscopic simulator implements the carfollowing model given the pre-defined routes of the vehicles but also supports the rerouting of vehicles. We also propose a macroscopic simulator which is built in integration with the microscopic simulator to allow the simulation to be scaled for larger networks without sacrificing the precision achievable through the microscopic simulator. The macroscopic simulator also enables the reuse of previous simulation results when simulating traffic on the same networks at later time. Validations have been conducted to show the correctness of both simulators.
9
14190
A Hidden Markov Model for Modeling Pavement Deterioration under Incomplete Monitoring Data
Abstract:
In this paper, the potential use of an exponential hidden Markov model to model a hidden pavement deterioration process, i.e. one that is not directly measurable, is investigated. It is assumed that the evolution of the physical condition, which is the hidden process, and the evolution of the values of pavement distress indicators, can be adequately described using discrete condition states and modeled as a Markov processes. It is also assumed that condition data can be collected by visual inspections over time and represented continuously using an exponential distribution. The advantage of using such a model in decision making process is illustrated through an empirical study using real world data.
8
2686
Comparison of Different Gas Turbine Inlet Air Cooling Methods
Abstract:
Gas turbine air inlet cooling is a useful method for increasing output for regions where significant power demand and highest electricity prices occur during the warm months. Inlet air cooling increases the power output by taking advantage of the gas turbine-s feature of higher mass flow rate when the compressor inlet temperature decreases. Different methods are available for reducing gas turbine inlet temperature. There are two basic systems currently available for inlet cooling. The first and most cost-effective system is evaporative cooling. Evaporative coolers make use of the evaporation of water to reduce the gas turbine-s inlet air temperature. The second system employs various ways to chill the inlet air. In this method, the cooling medium flows through a heat exchanger located in the inlet duct to remove heat from the inlet air. However, the evaporative cooling is limited by wet-bulb temperature while the chilling can cool the inlet air to temperatures that are lower than the wet bulb temperature. In the present work, a thermodynamic model of a gas turbine is built to calculate heat rate, power output and thermal efficiency at different inlet air temperature conditions. Computational results are compared with ISO conditions herein called "base-case". Therefore, the two cooling methods are implemented and solved for different inlet conditions (inlet temperature and relative humidity). Evaporative cooler and absorption chiller systems results show that when the ambient temperature is extremely high with low relative humidity (requiring a large temperature reduction) the chiller is the more suitable cooling solution. The net increment in the power output as a function of the temperature decrease for each cooling method is also obtained.
7
145
Analyzing and Comparing the Hot-spot Thermal Models of HV/LV Prefabricated and Outdoor Oil-Immersed Power Transformers
Abstract:
The most important parameter in transformers life expectancy is the hot-spot temperature level which accelerates the rate of aging of the insulation. The aim of this paper is to present thermal models for transformers loaded at prefabricated MV/LV transformer substations and outdoor situations. The hot-spot temperature of transformers is studied using their top-oil temperature rise models. The thermal models proposed for hot-spot and top-oil temperatures of different operating situations are compared. Since the thermal transfer is different for indoor and outdoor transformers considering their operating conditions, their hot-spot thermal models differ from each other. The proposed thermal models are verified by the results obtained from the experiments carried out on a typical 1600 kVA, 30 /0.4 kV, ONAN transformer for both indoor and outdoor situations.
6
15228
A Fuzzy Dynamic Load Balancing Algorithm for Homogenous Distributed Systems
Abstract:
Load balancing in distributed computer systems is the process of redistributing the work load among processors in the system to improve system performance. Most of previous research in using fuzzy logic for the purpose of load balancing has only concentrated in utilizing fuzzy logic concepts in describing processors load and tasks execution length. The responsibility of the fuzzy-based load balancing process itself, however, has not been discussed and in most reported work is assumed to be performed in a distributed fashion by all nodes in the network. This paper proposes a new fuzzy dynamic load balancing algorithm for homogenous distributed systems. The proposed algorithm utilizes fuzzy logic in dealing with inaccurate load information, making load distribution decisions, and maintaining overall system stability. In terms of control, we propose a new approach that specifies how, when, and by which node the load balancing is implemented. Our approach is called Centralized-But-Distributed (CBD).
5
1443
Concurrency without Locking in Parallel Hash Structures used for Data Processing
Abstract:
Various mechanisms providing mutual exclusion and thread synchronization can be used to support parallel processing within a single computer. Instead of using locks, semaphores, barriers or other traditional approaches in this paper we focus on alternative ways for making better use of modern multithreaded architectures and preparing hash tables for concurrent accesses. Hash structures will be used to demonstrate and compare two entirely different approaches (rule based cooperation and hardware synchronization support) to an efficient parallel implementation using traditional locks. Comparison includes implementation details, performance ranking and scalability issues. We aim at understanding the effects the parallelization schemes have on the execution environment with special focus on the memory system and memory access characteristics.
4
2993
Development of the Algorithm for Detecting Falls during Daily Activity using 2 Tri-Axial Accelerometers
Abstract:
Falls are the primary cause of accidents in people over the age of 65, and frequently lead to serious injuries. Since the early detection of falls is an important step to alert and protect the aging population, a variety of research on detecting falls was carried out including the use of accelerators, gyroscopes and tilt sensors. In exiting studies, falls were detected using an accelerometer with errors. In this study, the proposed method for detecting falls was to use two accelerometers to reject wrong falls detection. As falls are accompanied by the acceleration of gravity and rotational motion, the falls in this study were detected by using the z-axial acceleration differences between two sites. The falls were detected by calculating the difference between the analyses of accelerometers placed on two different positions on the chest of the subject. The parameters of the maximum difference of accelerations (diff_Z) and the integration of accelerations in a defined region (Sum_diff_Z) were used to form the fall detection algorithm. The falls and the activities of daily living (ADL) could be distinguished by using the proposed parameters without errors in spite of the impact and the change in the positions of the accelerometers. By comparing each of the axial accelerations, the directions of falls and the condition of the subject afterwards could be determined.In this study, by using two accelerometers without errors attached to two sites to detect falls, the usefulness of the proposed fall detection algorithm parameters, diff_Z and Sum_diff_Z, were confirmed.
3
1524
Finding Approximate Tandem Repeats with the Burrows-Wheeler Transform
Abstract:
Approximate tandem repeats in a genomic sequence are two or more contiguous, similar copies of a pattern of nucleotides. They are used in DNA mapping, studying molecular evolution mechanisms, forensic analysis and research in diagnosis of inherited diseases. All their functions are still investigated and not well defined, but increasing biological databases together with tools for identification of these repeats may lead to discovery of their specific role or correlation with particular features. This paper presents a new approach for finding approximate tandem repeats in a given sequence, where the similarity between consecutive repeats is measured using the Hamming distance. It is an enhancement of a method for finding exact tandem repeats in DNA sequences based on the Burrows- Wheeler transform.
2
311
Petrology and Geochemistry of Granitic Rocks in South Sulawesi, Indonesia: Implication for Origin of Magma and Geodynamic Setting
Abstract:
Petrology and geochemical characteristics of granitic rocks from South Sulawesi, especially from Polewaliand Masamba area are presented in order to elucidate their origin of magma and geodynamic setting. The granitic rocks in these areas are dominated by granodiorite and granite in composition. Quartz, K-feldspar and plagioclase occur as major phases with hornblende and biotite as major ferromagnesian minerals. All of the samples were plotted in calc-alkaline field, show metaluminous affinity and typical of I-type granitic rock. Harker diagram indicates that granitic rocks experienced fractional crystallization during magmatic evolution. Both groups displayed an extreme enrichment of LILE, LREE and a slight negative Eu anomaly which resemble upper continental crust affinity. They were produced from partial melting of upper continental crust and have close relationship of sources composition within a suite. The geochemical characteristics explained the arc related subduction environment which later give an evidence of continent-continent collision between Australia-derived microcontinent and Sundalandto form continental arc environment.
1
14724
Automated Particle Picking based on Correlation Peak Shape Analysis and Iterative Classification
Abstract:
Cryo-electron microscopy (CEM) in combination with single particle analysis (SPA) is a widely used technique for elucidating structural details of macromolecular assemblies at closeto- atomic resolutions. However, development of automated software for SPA processing is still vital since thousands to millions of individual particle images need to be processed. Here, we present our workflow for automated particle picking. Our approach integrates peak shape analysis to the classical correlation and an iterative approach to separate macromolecules and background by classification. This particle selection workflow furthermore provides a robust means for SPA with little user interaction. Processing simulated and experimental data assesses performance of the presented tools.
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