Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 249

A Fast Replica Placement Methodology for Large-scale Distributed Computing Systems

Fine-grained data replication over the Internet allows duplication of frequently accessed data objects, as opposed to entire sites, to certain locations so as to improve the performance of largescale content distribution systems. In a distributed system, agents representing their sites try to maximize their own benefit since they are driven by different goals such as to minimize their communication costs, latency, etc. In this paper, we will use game theoretical techniques and in particular auctions to identify a bidding mechanism that encapsulates the selfishness of the agents, while having a controlling hand over them. In essence, the proposed game theory based mechanism is the study of what happens when independent agents act selfishly and how to control them to maximize the overall performance. A bidding mechanism asks how one can design systems so that agents- selfish behavior results in the desired system-wide goals. Experimental results reveal that this mechanism provides excellent solution quality, while maintaining fast execution time. The comparisons are recorded against some well known techniques such as greedy, branch and bound, game theoretical auctions and genetic algorithms.

Clustering Approach to Unveiling Relationships between Gene Regulatory Networks

Reverse engineering of genetic regulatory network involves the modeling of the given gene expression data into a form of the network. Computationally it is possible to have the relationships between genes, so called gene regulatory networks (GRNs), that can help to find the genomics and proteomics based diagnostic approach for any disease. In this paper, clustering based method has been used to reconstruct genetic regulatory network from time series gene expression data. Supercoiled data set from Escherichia coli has been taken to demonstrate the proposed method.

An Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Trading among Enterprises -The Tokyo Cap and Trade Program-
This study aims to propose three evaluation methods to evaluate the Tokyo Cap and Trade Program when emissions trading is performed virtually among enterprises, focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2), which is the only emitted greenhouse gas that tends to increase. The first method clarifies the optimum reduction rate for the highest cost benefit, the second discusses emissions trading among enterprises through market trading, and the third verifies long-term emissions trading during the term of the plan (2010-2019), checking the validity of emissions trading partly using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The findings of this study can be summarized in the following three points. 1. Since the total cost benefit is the greatest at a 44% reduction rate, it is possible to set it more highly than that of the Tokyo Cap and Trade Program to get more total cost benefit. 2. At a 44% reduction rate, among 320 enterprises, 8 purchasing enterprises and 245 sales enterprises gain profits from emissions trading, and 67 enterprises perform voluntary reduction without conducting emissions trading. Therefore, to further promote emissions trading, it is necessary to increase the sales volumes of emissions trading in addition to sales enterprises by increasing the number of purchasing enterprises. 3. Compared to short-term emissions trading, there are few enterprises which benefit in each year through the long-term emissions trading of the Tokyo Cap and Trade Program. Only 81 enterprises at the most can gain profits from emissions trading in FY 2019. Therefore, by setting the reduction rate more highly, it is necessary to increase the number of enterprises that participate in emissions trading and benefit from the restraint of CO2 emissions.
Identification of Ductile Damage Parameters for Austenitic Steel
The modeling of inelastic behavior of plastic materials requires measurements providing information on material response to different multiaxial loading conditions. Different triaxiality conditions and values of Lode parameters have to be covered for complex description of the material plastic behavior. Samples geometries providing material plastic behavoiur over the range of interest are proposed with the use of FEM analysis. Round samples with 3 different notches and smooth surface are used together with butterfly type of samples tested at angle ranging for 0 to 90°. Identification of ductile damage parameters is carried out on the basis of obtained experimental data for austenitic stainless steel. The obtained material plastic damage parameters are subsequently applied to FEM simulation of notched CT normally samples used for fracture mechanics testing and results from the simulation are compared with real tests.
Metal Streak Analysis with different Acquisition Settings in Postoperative Spine Imaging: A Phantom Study
CT assessment of postoperative spine is challenging in the presence of metal streak artifacts that could deteriorate the quality of CT images. In this paper, we studied the influence of different acquisition parameters on the magnitude of metal streaking. A water-bath phantom was constructed with metal insertion similar with postoperative spine assessment. The phantom was scanned with different acquisition settings and acquired data were reconstructed using various reconstruction settings. Standardized ROIs were defined within streaking region for image analysis. The result shows increased kVp and mAs enhanced SNR values by reducing image noise. Sharper kernel enhanced image quality compared to smooth kernel, but produced more noise in the images with higher CT fluctuation. The noise between both kernels were significantly different (P
Uniform Heating during Focused Ultrasound Thermal Therapy
The focal spot of a high intensity focused ultrasound transducer is small. To heat a large target volume, multiple treatment spots are required. If the power of each treatment spot is fixed, it could results in insufficient heating of initial spots and over-heating of later ones, which is caused by the thermal diffusion. Hence, to produce a uniform heated volume, the delivered energy of each treatment spot should be properly adjusted. In this study, we proposed an iterative, extrapolation technique to adjust the required ultrasound energy of each treatment spot. Three different scanning pathways were used to evaluate the performance of this technique. Results indicate that by using the proposed technique, uniform heating volume could be obtained.
Retrospective Synthetic Focusing with Correlation Weighting for Very High Frame Rate Ultrasound

The need of high frame-rate imaging has been triggered by the new applications of ultrasound imaging to transient elastography and real-time 3D ultrasound. Using plane wave excitation (PWE) is one of the methods to achieve very high frame-rate imaging since an image can be formed with a single insonification. However, due to the lack of transmit focusing, the image quality with PWE is lower compared with those using conventional focused transmission. To solve this problem, we propose a filter-retrieved transmit focusing (FRF) technique combined with cross-correlation weighting (FRF+CC weighting) for high frame-rate imaging with PWE. A restrospective focusing filter is designed to simultaneously minimize the predefined sidelobe energy associated with single PWE and the filter energy related to the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). This filter attempts to maintain the mainlobe signals and to reduce the sidelobe ones, which gives similar mainlobe signals and different sidelobes between the original PWE and the FRF baseband data. Normalized cross-correlation coefficient at zero lag is calculated to quantify the degree of similarity at each imaging point and used as a weighting matrix to the FRF baseband data to further suppress sidelobes, thus improving the filter-retrieved focusing quality.

The use of a Bespoke Computer Game For Teaching Analogue Electronics
An implementation of a design for a game based virtual learning environment is described. The game is developed for a course in analogue electronics, and the topic is the design of a power supply. This task can be solved in a number of different ways, with certain constraints, giving the students a certain amount of freedom, although the game is designed not to facilitate trial-and error approach. The use of storytelling and a virtual gaming environment provides the student with the learning material in a MMORPG environment. The game is tested on a group of second year electrical engineering students with good results.
Active Intra-ONU Scheduling with Cooperative Prediction Mechanism in EPONs
Dynamic bandwidth allocation in EPONs can be generally separated into inter-ONU scheduling and intra-ONU scheduling. In our previous work, the active intra-ONU scheduling (AS) utilizes multiple queue reports (QRs) in each report message to cooperate with the inter-ONU scheduling and makes the granted bandwidth fully utilized without leaving unused slot remainder (USR). This scheme successfully solves the USR problem originating from the inseparability of Ethernet frame. However, without proper setting of threshold value in AS, the number of QRs constrained by the IEEE 802.3ah standard is not enough, especially in the unbalanced traffic environment. This limitation may be solved by enlarging the threshold value. The large threshold implies the large gap between the adjacent QRs, thus resulting in the large difference between the best granted bandwidth and the real granted bandwidth. In this paper, we integrate AS with a cooperative prediction mechanism and distribute multiple QRs to reduce the penalty brought by the prediction error. Furthermore, to improve the QoS and save the usage of queue reports, the highest priority (EF) traffic which comes during the waiting time is granted automatically by OLT and is not considered in the requested bandwidth of ONU. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme has better performance metrics in terms of bandwidth utilization and average delay for different classes of packets.
New Concept for the Overall use of Renewable Energy
The development and application of wind power for renewable energy has attracted growing interest in recent years. Renewable energy sources are attracting much alteration as they can reduce both environmental damage and dependence on fossil fuels. With the growing need for sustainable energy supplies, a case is made for decentralized, stand-alone power supplies (SAPS) as an alternative to power grids. In the era which traditional petroleum energy resource decreasing and the green house affect significant increasing, the development and usage of regenerative resources is inevitable. Due to the contribution of the pioneers, the development of regenerative resources already has a remarkable achievement; however, in the view of economy and quantity, it is still a long road for regenerative energy to replace traditional petroleum energy. In our prospective, in stead of investigate larger regenerative energy equipment, it is much wiser to think about the blind side and breakthrough of the current technique.
Development of a Novel Pneumatic Hybrid Engine
Although electrical motors are still the main devices used in vehicular exhaust comprises more than 95 percent of the air pollution in Taiwan's largest city, Taipei. On average, all commuters in Taipei travel 13.6 km daily, while motorcycle commuters travel 12.2 km. The convenience and mobility of motorcycles makes them irreplaceable in Taiwan city traffic but they add significantly to air pollution problems. In order to improve air pollution conditions, some new types of vehicles have been proposed, such as fuel cell driven and hybrid energy vehicles. In this study, we develop a model pneumatic hybrid motorcycle system and simulate its acceleration and mileage (km/L) performance. The results show that the pneumatic hybrid motorcycle can improve efficiency.
Method of Intelligent Fault Diagnosis of Preload Loss for Single Nut Ball Screws through the Sensed Vibration Signals
This paper proposes method of diagnosing ball screw preload loss through the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) and Multiscale entropy (MSE) process. The proposed method can diagnose ball screw preload loss through vibration signals when the machine tool is in operation. Maximum dynamic preload of 2 %, 4 %, and 6 % ball screws were predesigned, manufactured, and tested experimentally. Signal patterns are discussed and revealed using Empirical Mode Decomposition(EMD)with the Hilbert Spectrum. Different preload features are extracted and discriminated using HHT. The irregularity development of a ball screw with preload loss is determined and abstracted using MSE based on complexity perception. Experiment results show that the proposed method can predict the status of ball screw preload loss. Smart sensing for the health of the ball screw is also possible based on a comparative evaluation of MSE by the signal processing and pattern matching of EMD/HHT. This diagnosis method realizes the purposes of prognostic effectiveness on knowing the preload loss and utilizing convenience.
Eye-Gesture Analysis for Driver Hazard Awareness
Because road traffic accidents are a major source of death worldwide, attempts have been made to create Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) able to detect vehicle, driver and environmental conditions that are cues for possible potential accidents. This paper presents continued work on a novel Nonintrusive Intelligent Driver Assistance and Safety System (Ni-DASS) for assessing driver attention and hazard awareness. It uses two onboard CCD cameras – one observing the road and the other observing the driver-s face. The windscreen is divided into cells and analysis of the driver-s eye-gaze patterns allows Ni-DASS to determine the windscreen cell the driver is focusing on using eye-gesture templates. Intersecting the driver-s field of view through the observed windscreen cell with subsections of the camera-s field of view containing a potential hazard allows Ni-DASS to estimate the probability that the driver has actually observed the hazard. Results have shown that the proposed technique is an accurate enough measure of driver observation to be useful in ADAS systems.
An Assessment of Software Process Optimization Compared to International Best Practice in Bangladesh
The challenge for software development house in Bangladesh is to find a path of using minimum process rather than CMMI or ISO type gigantic practice and process area. The small and medium size organization in Bangladesh wants to ensure minimum basic Software Process Improvement (SPI) in day to day operational activities. Perhaps, the basic practices will ensure to realize their company's improvement goals. This paper focuses on the key issues in basic software practices for small and medium size software organizations, who are unable to effort the CMMI, ISO, ITIL etc. compliance certifications. This research also suggests a basic software process practices model for Bangladesh and it will show the mapping of our suggestions with international best practice. In this IT competitive world for software process improvement, Small and medium size software companies that require collaboration and strengthening to transform their current perspective into inseparable global IT scenario. This research performed some investigations and analysis on some projects- life cycle, current good practice, effective approach, reality and pain area of practitioners, etc. We did some reasoning, root cause analysis, comparative analysis of various approach, method, practice and justifications of CMMI and real life. We did avoid reinventing the wheel, where our focus is for minimal practice, which will ensure a dignified satisfaction between organizations and software customer.
Efficient Hardware Implementation of an Elliptic Curve Cryptographic Processor Over GF (2 163)

A new and highly efficient architecture for elliptic curve scalar point multiplication which is optimized for a binary field recommended by NIST and is well-suited for elliptic curve cryptographic (ECC) applications is presented. To achieve the maximum architectural and timing improvements we have reorganized and reordered the critical path of the Lopez-Dahab scalar point multiplication architecture such that logic structures are implemented in parallel and operations in the critical path are diverted to noncritical paths. With G=41, the proposed design is capable of performing a field multiplication over the extension field with degree 163 in 11.92 s with the maximum achievable frequency of 251 MHz on Xilinx Virtex-4 (XC4VLX200) while 22% of the chip area is occupied, where G is the digit size of the underlying digit-serial finite field multiplier.

Laboratory Scale Extraction of Sugar Cane using High Electric Field Pulses
The aim of this study was to extract sugar from sugarcane using high electric field pulse (HELP) as a non-thermal cell permeabilization method. The result of this study showed that it is possible to permeablize sugar cane cells using HELP at very short times (less than 10 sec.) and at room temperature. Increasing the field strength (from 0.5kV/cm to 2kV/cm) and pulse number (1 to 12) led to increasing the permeabilization of sugar cane cells. The energy consumption during HELP treatment of sugar cane (2.4 kJ/kg) was about 100 times less compared to thermal cell disintegration at 85
A Generalized Coordination Setting Method for Distribution Systems with Closed-loop

The protection issues in distribution systems with open and closed-loop are studied, and a generalized protection setting scheme based on the traditional over current protection theories is proposed to meet the new requirements. The setting method is expected to be easier realized using computer program, so that the on-line adaptive setting for coordination in distribution system can be implemented. An automatic setting program is created and several cases are taken into practice. The setting results are verified by the coordination curves of the protective devices which are plotted using MATLAB.

Experiment and Simulation of Laser Effect on Thermal Field of Porcine Liver

In medical therapy, laser has been widely used to conduct cosmetic, tumor and other treatments. During the process of laser irradiation, there may be thermal damage caused by excessive laser exposure. Thus, the establishment of a complete thermal analysis model is clinically helpful to physicians in reference data. In this study, porcine liver in place of tissue was subjected to laser irradiation to set up the experimental data considering the explored impact on surface thermal field and thermal damage region under different conditions of power, laser irradiation time, and distance between laser and porcine liver. In the experimental process, the surface temperature distribution of the porcine lever was measured by the infrared thermal imager. In the part of simulation, the bio heat transfer Pennes-s equation was solved by software SYSWELD applying in welding process. The double ellipsoid function as a laser source term is firstly considered in the prediction for surface thermal field and internal tissue damage. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data to validate the mathematical model established here in.

High Capacity Data Hiding based on Predictor and Histogram Modification
In this paper, we propose a high capacity image hiding technology based on pixel prediction and the difference of modified histogram. This approach is used the pixel prediction and the difference of modified histogram to calculate the best embedding point. This approach can improve the predictive accuracy and increase the pixel difference to advance the hiding capacity. We also use the histogram modification to prevent the overflow and underflow. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method within the same average hiding capacity can still keep high quality of image and low distortion
Face Localization and Recognition in Varied Expressions and Illumination

In this paper, we propose a robust scheme to work face alignment and recognition under various influences. For face representation, illumination influence and variable expressions are the important factors, especially the accuracy of facial localization and face recognition. In order to solve those of factors, we propose a robust approach to overcome these problems. This approach consists of two phases. One phase is preprocessed for face images by means of the proposed illumination normalization method. The location of facial features can fit more efficient and fast based on the proposed image blending. On the other hand, based on template matching, we further improve the active shape models (called as IASM) to locate the face shape more precise which can gain the recognized rate in the next phase. The other phase is to process feature extraction by using principal component analysis and face recognition by using support vector machine classifiers. The results show that this proposed method can obtain good facial localization and face recognition with varied illumination and local distortion.

Experimental Analysis on Electrical and Photometric Performances of Commercially Available Integrated Compact Fluorescent Lamp
Lighting upgrades involve relatively lower costs which allow the benefits to be spread more widely than is possible with any other energy efficiency measure. In order to popularize the adoption of CFL in Taiwan, the authority proposes to implement a new energy efficient lamp comparative label system. The current study was accordingly undertaken to investigate the factors affecting the performance and the deviation of actual and labeled performance of commercially available integrated CFLs. In this paper, standard test methods to determine the electrical and photometric performances of CFL were developed based on CIE 84-1989 and CIE 60901-1987, then 55 selected CFLs from market were tested. The results show that with higher color temperature of CFLs lower efficacy are achieved. It was noticed that the most packaging of CFL often lack the information of Color Rendering Index. Also, there was no correlation between price and performance of the CFLs was indicated in this work. The results of this paper might help consumers to make more informed CFL-purchasing decisions.
Comparison of Evolutionary Algorithms and their Hybrids Applied to MarioAI

Researchers have been applying artificial/ computational intelligence (AI/CI) methods to computer games. In this research field, further researchesare required to compare AI/CI methods with respect to each game application. In thispaper, we report our experimental result on the comparison of evolution strategy, genetic algorithm and their hybrids, applied to evolving controller agents for MarioAI. GA revealed its advantage in our experiment, whereas the expected ability of ES in exploiting (fine-tuning) solutions was not clearly observed. The blend crossover operator and the mutation operator of GA might contribute well to explore the vast search space.

Evaluation of Evolution Strategy, Genetic Algorithm and their Hybrid on Evolving Simulated Car Racing Controllers
Researchers have been applying tional intelligence (AI/CI) methods to computer games. In this research field, further researchesare required to compare AI/CI methods with respect to each game application. In th our experimental result on the comparison of three evolutionary algorithms – evolution strategy, genetic algorithm, and their hybrid applied to evolving controller agents for the CIG 2007 Simulated Car Racing competition. Our experimental result shows that, premature convergence of solutions was observed in the case of ES, and GA outperformed ES in the last half of generations. Besides, a hybrid which uses GA first and ES next evolved the best solution among the whole solutions being generated. This result shows the ability of GA in globally searching promising areas in the early stage and the ability of ES in locally searching the focused area (fine-tuning solutions).
A New Proportional - Pursuit Coupled Guidance Law with Actuator Delay Compensation
The aim of this paper is to present a new three-dimensional proportional-pursuit coupled (PP) guidance law to track highly maneuverable aircraft. Utilizing a 3-D polar coordinate frame, the PP guidance law is formed by collecting proportional navigation guidance in Z-R plane and pursuit guidance in X-Y plane. Feedback linearization control method to solve the guidance accelerations is used to implement PP guidance. In order to compensate the actuator time delay, the time delay compensated version of PP guidance law (CPP) was derived and proved the effectiveness of modifying the problem of high acceleration in the final phase of pursuit guidance and improving the weak robustness of proportional navigation. The simulation results for intercepting Max G turn situation show that the proposed proportional-pursuit coupled guidance law guidance law with actuator delay compensation (CPP) possesses satisfactory robustness and performance.
Kinematic Analysis of Roll Motion for a Strut/SLA Suspension System

The roll center is one of the key parameters for designing a suspension. Several driving characteristics are affected significantly by the migration of the roll center during the suspension-s motion. The strut/SLA (strut/short-long-arm) suspension, which is widely used in production cars, combines the space-saving characteristics of a MacPherson strut suspension with some of the preferred handling characteristics of an SLA suspension. In this study, a front strut/SLA suspension is modeled by ADAMS/Car software. Kinematic roll analysis is then employed to investigate how the rolling characteristics change under the wheel travel and steering input. The related parameters, including the roll center height, roll camber gain, toe change, scrub radius and wheel track width change, are analyzed and discussed. It is found that the strut/SLA suspension clearly has a higher roll center than strut and SLA suspensions do. The variations in the roll center height under roll analysis are very different as the wheel travel displacement and steering angle are added. The results of the roll camber gain, scrub radius and wheel track width change are considered satisfactory. However, the toe change is too large and needs fine-tuning through a sensitivity analysis.

Capacitive ECG Measurement by Conductive Fabric Tape

Capacitive electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement is an attractive approach for long-term health monitoring. However, there is little literature available on its implementation, especially for multichannel system in standard ECG leads. This paper begins from the design criteria for capacitive ECG measurement and presents a multichannel limb-lead capacitive ECG system with conductive fabric tapes pasted on a double layer PCB as the capacitive sensors. The proposed prototype system incorporates a capacitive driven-body (CDB) circuit to reduce the common-mode power-line interference (PLI). The presented prototype system has been verified to be stable by theoretic analysis and practical long-term experiments. The signal quality is competitive to that acquired by commercial ECG machines. The feasible size and distance of capacitive sensor have also been evaluated by a series of tests. From the test results, it is suggested to be greater than 60 cm2 in sensor size and be smaller than 1.5 mm in distance for capacitive ECG measurement.

Efficient Design Optimization of Multi-State Flow Network for Multiple Commodities

The network of delivering commodities has been an important design problem in our daily lives and many transportation applications. The delivery performance is evaluated based on the system reliability of delivering commodities from a source node to a sink node in the network. The system reliability is thus maximized to find the optimal routing. However, the design problem is not simple because (1) each path segment has randomly distributed attributes; (2) there are multiple commodities that consume various path capacities; (3) the optimal routing must successfully complete the delivery process within the allowable time constraints. In this paper, we want to focus on the design optimization of the Multi-State Flow Network (MSFN) for multiple commodities. We propose an efficient approach to evaluate the system reliability in the MSFN with respect to randomly distributed path attributes and find the optimal routing subject to the allowable time constraints. The delivery rates, also known as delivery currents, of the path segments are evaluated and the minimal-current arcs are eliminated to reduce the complexity of the MSFN. Accordingly, the correct optimal routing is found and the worst-case reliability is evaluated. It has been shown that the reliability of the optimal routing is at least higher than worst-case measure. Two benchmark examples are utilized to demonstrate the proposed method. The comparisons between the original and the reduced networks show that the proposed method is very efficient.

Human Interactive E-learning Systems using Head Posture Images

This paper explains a novel approach to human interactive e-learning systems using head posture images. Students- face and hair information are used to identify a human presence and estimate the gaze direction. We then define the human-computer interaction level and test the definition using ten students and seventy different posture images. The experimental results show that head posture images provide adequate information for increasing human-computer interaction in e-learning systems.

Analysis of Aiming Performance for Games Using Mapping Method of Corneal Reflections Based on Two Different Light Sources

Fundamental motivation of this paper is how gaze estimation can be utilized effectively regarding an application to games. In games, precise estimation is not always important in aiming targets but an ability to move a cursor to an aiming target accurately is also significant. Incidentally, from a game producing point of view, a separate expression of a head movement and gaze movement sometimes becomes advantageous to expressing sense of presence. A case that panning a background image associated with a head movement and moving a cursor according to gaze movement can be a representative example. On the other hand, widely used technique of POG estimation is based on a relative position between a center of corneal reflection of infrared light sources and a center of pupil. However, a calculation of a center of pupil requires relatively complicated image processing, and therefore, a calculation delay is a concern, since to minimize a delay of inputting data is one of the most significant requirements in games. In this paper, a method to estimate a head movement by only using corneal reflections of two infrared light sources in different locations is proposed. Furthermore, a method to control a cursor using gaze movement as well as a head movement is proposed. By using game-like-applications, proposed methods are evaluated and, as a result, a similar performance to conventional methods is confirmed and an aiming control with lower computation power and stressless intuitive operation is obtained.

Improvement of Blood Detection Accuracy using Image Processing Techniques suitable for Capsule Endoscopy

Bleeding in the digestive duct is an important diagnostic parameter for patients. Blood in the endoscopic image can be determined by investigating the color tone of blood due to the degree of oxygenation, under- or over- illumination, food debris and secretions, etc. However, we found that how to pre-process raw images obtained from the capsule detectors was very important. We applied various image process methods suitable for the capsule endoscopic image in order to remove noises and unbalanced sensitivities for the image pixels. The results showed that much improvement was achieved by additional pre-processing techniques on the algorithm of determining bleeding areas.

Research on Strategy for Automated Scaleless-Map Compilation

As a tool for human spatial cognition and thinking, the map has been playing an important role. Maps are perhaps as fundamental to society as language and the written word. Economic and social development requires extensive and in-depth understanding of their own living environment, from the scope of the overall global to urban housing. This has brought unprecedented opportunities and challenges for traditional cartography . This paper first proposed the concept of scaleless-map and its basic characteristics, through the analysis of the existing multi-scale representation techniques. Then some strategies are presented for automated mapping compilation. Taking into account the demand of automated map compilation, detailed proposed the software - WJ workstation must have four technical features, which are generalization operators, symbol primitives, dynamically annotation and mapping process template. This paper provides a more systematic new idea and solution to improve the intelligence and automation of the scaleless cartography.

A Design Framework for Event Recommendation in Novice Low-Literacy Communities

The proliferation of user-generated content (UGC) results in huge opportunities to explore event patterns. However, existing event recommendation systems primarily focus on advanced information technology users. Little work has been done to address novice and low-literacy users. The next billion users providing and consuming UGC are likely to include communities from developing countries who are ready to use affordable technologies for subsistence goals. Therefore, we propose a design framework for providing event recommendations to address the needs of such users. Grounded in information integration theory (IIT), our framework advocates that effective event recommendation is supported by systems capable of (1) reliable information gathering through structured user input, (2) accurate sense making through spatial-temporal analytics, and (3) intuitive information dissemination through interactive visualization techniques. A mobile pest management application is developed as an instantiation of the design framework. Our preliminary study suggests a set of design principles for novice and low-literacy users.

Forest Growth Simulation: Tropical Rain Forest Stand Table Projection

The study on the tree growth for four species groups of commercial timber in Koh Kong province, Cambodia-s tropical rainforest is described. The simulation for these four groups had been successfully developed in the 5-year interval through year-60. Data were obtained from twenty permanent sample plots in the duration of thirteen years. The aim for this study was to develop stand table simulation system of tree growth by the species group. There were five steps involved in the development of the tree growth simulation: aggregate the tree species into meaningful groups by using cluster analysis; allocate the trees in the diameter classes by the species group; observe the diameter movement of the species group. The diameter growth rate, mortality rate and recruitment rate were calculated by using some mathematical formula. Simulation equation had been created by combining those parameters. Result showed the dissimilarity of the diameter growth among species groups.

Typical Day Prediction Model for Output Power and Energy Efficiency of a Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaic System

A novel typical day prediction model have been built and validated by the measured data of a grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) system in Macau. Unlike conventional statistical method used by previous study on PV systems which get results by averaging nearby continuous points, the present typical day statistical method obtain the value at every minute in a typical day by averaging discontinuous points at the same minute in different days. This typical day statistical method based on discontinuous point averaging makes it possible for us to obtain the Gaussian shape dynamical distributions for solar irradiance and output power in a yearly or monthly typical day. Based on the yearly typical day statistical analysis results, the maximum possible accumulated output energy in a year with on site climate conditions and the corresponding optimal PV system running time are obtained. Periodic Gaussian shape prediction models for solar irradiance, output energy and system energy efficiency have been built and their coefficients have been determined based on the yearly, maximum and minimum monthly typical day Gaussian distribution parameters, which are obtained from iterations for minimum Root Mean Squared Deviation (RMSD). With the present model, the dynamical effects due to time difference in a day are kept and the day to day uncertainty due to weather changing are smoothed but still included. The periodic Gaussian shape correlations for solar irradiance, output power and system energy efficiency have been compared favorably with data of the PV system in Macau and proved to be an improvement than previous models.

Numerical Modeling of Steel-Composite Hybrid Tubes Subject to Static and Dynamic Loading

The commercial finite element program LS-DYNA was employed to evaluate the response and energy absorbing capacity of cylindrical metal tubes that are externally wrapped with composite. The effects of composite wall thickness, loading conditions and fiber ply orientation were examined. The results demonstrate that a wrapped composite can be utilized effectively to enhance the crushing characteristics and energy absorbing capacity of the tubes. Increasing the thickness of the composite increases the mean force and the specific energy absorption under both static and dynamic crushing. The ply pattern affects the energy absorption capacity and the failure mode of the metal tube and the composite material property is also significant in determining energy absorption efficiency.

Auto-Parking System via Intelligent Computation Intelligence

In this paper, an intelligent automatic parking control method is proposed. First, the dynamical equation of the rear parking control is derived. Then a fuzzy logic control is proposed to perform the parking planning process. Further, a rear neural network is proposed for the steering control. Through the simulations and experiments, the intelligent auto-parking mode controllers have been shown to achieve the demanded goals with satisfactory control performance and to guarantee the system robustness under parametric variations and external disturbances. To improve some shortcomings and limitations in conventional parking mode control and further to reduce consumption time and prime cost.

An LMI Approach of Robust H∞ Fuzzy State-Feedback Controller Design for HIV/AIDS Infection System with Dual Drug Dosages

This paper examines the problem of designing robust H controllers for for HIV/AIDS infection system with dual drug dosages described by a Takagi-Sugeno (S) fuzzy model. Based on a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, we develop an H controller which guarantees the L2-gain of the mapping from the exogenous input noise to the regulated output to be less than some prescribed value for the system. A sufficient condition of the controller for this system is given in term of Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs). The effectiveness of the proposed controller design methodology is finally demonstrated through simulation results. It has been shown that the anti-HIV vaccines are critically important in reducing the infected cells.

The Balanced Hamiltonian Cycle on the Toroidal Mesh Graphs

The balanced Hamiltonian cycle problemis a quiet new topic of graph theorem. Given a graph G = (V, E), whose edge set can be partitioned into k dimensions, for positive integer k and a Hamiltonian cycle C on G. The set of all i-dimensional edge of C, which is a subset by E(C), is denoted as Ei(C).

Reducing Humic Acid and Disinfection By-products in Raw Water using a Bio-activated Carbon Filter

For stricter drinking water regulations in the future, reducing the humic acid and disinfection byproducts in raw water, namely, trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) is worthy for research. To investigate the removal of waterborne organic material using a lab-scale of bio-activated carbon filter under different EBCT, the concentrations of humic acid prepared were 0.01, 0.03, 0.06, 0.12, 0.17, 0.23, and 0.29 mg/L. Then we conducted experiments using a pilot plant with in-field of the serially connected bio-activated carbon filters and hollow fiber membrane processes employed in traditional water purification plants. Results showed under low TOC conditions of humic acid in influent (0.69 to 1.03 mg TOC/L) with an EBCT of 30 min, 40 min, and 50 min, TOC removal rates increases with greater EBCT, attaining about 39 % removal rate. The removal rate of THMs and HAAs by BACF was 54.8 % and 89.0 %, respectively.

Synthesis of Aragonite Superstructure from Steelmaking Slag via Indirect CO2 Mineral Sequestration

Using steelmaking slag as a raw material, aragonite superstructure product had been synthesized via an indirect CO2 mineral sequestration rout. It mainly involved two separate steps, in which the element of calcium is first selectively leached from steelmaking slag by a novel leaching media consisting of organic solvent Tributyl phosphate (TBP), acetic acid, and ultra-purity water, followed by enhanced carbonation in a separate step for aragonite superstructure production as well as efficiency recovery of leaching media. Based on the different leaching medium employed in the steelmaking slag leaching process, two typical products were collected from the enhanced carbonation step. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. It reveals that the needle-like aragonite crystals self-organized into aragonite superstructure particles including aragonite microspheres as well as dumbbell-like spherical particles, can be obtained from the steelmaking slag with the purity over 99%.

The Mutated Distance between Two Mixture Trees

The evolutionary tree is an important topic in bioinformation. In 2006, Chen and Lindsay proposed a new method to build the mixture tree from DNA sequences. Mixture tree is a new type evolutionary tree, and it has two additional information besides the information of ordinary evolutionary tree. One of the information is time parameter, and the other is the set of mutated sites. In 2008, Lin and Juan proposed an algorithm to compute the distance between two mixture trees. Their algorithm computes the distance with only considering the time parameter between two mixture trees. In this paper, we proposes a method to measure the similarity of two mixture trees with considering the set of mutated sites and develops two algorithm to compute the distance between two mixture trees. The time complexity of these two proposed algorithms are O(n2 × max{h(T1), h(T2)}) and O(n2), respectively

Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Noise-Reduction Transformer

The present paper deals with the analysis and development of noise-reduction transformer that has a filter function for conductive noise transmission. Two types of prototype noise-reduction transformers with two different output voltages are proposed. To determine an optimum design for the noise-reduction transformer, noise attenuation characteristics are discussed based on the experiments and the equivalent circuit analysis. The analysis gives a relation between the circuit parameters and the noise attenuation. High performance step-down noise-reduction transformer for direct power supply to electronics equipment is developed. The input voltage of the transformer is 100 V and the output voltage is 5 V. Frequency characteristics of noise attenuation are discussed, and prevention of pulse noise transmission is demonstrated. Normal mode noise attenuation of this transformer is –80 dB, and common mode exceeds –90 dB. The step-down noise-reduction transformer eliminates pulse noise efficiently.

Influence of Hydraulic Retention Time on Biogas Production from Frozen Seafood Wastewater using Decanter Cake as Anaerobic Co-digestion Material

In this research, an anaerobic co-digestion using decanter cake from palm oil mill industry to improve the biogas production from frozen seafood wastewater is studied using Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) process. The experiments were conducted in laboratory-scale. The suitable Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) was observed in CSTR experiments with 24 hours of mixing time using the mechanical mixer. The HRT of CSTR process impacts on the efficiency of biogas production. The best performance for biogas production using CSTR process was the anaerobic codigestion for 20 days of HRT with the maximum methane production rate of 1.86 l/d and the average maximum methane production of 64.6%. The result can be concluded that the decanter cake can improve biogas productivity of frozen seafood wastewater.

2-D Ablated Plasma Production Process for Pulsed Ion Beam-Solid Target Interaction

This paper presents a 2-D hydrodynamic model of the ablated plasma when irradiating a 50 μm Al solid target with a single pulsed ion beam. The Lagrange method is used to solve the moving fluid for the ablated plasma production and formation mechanism. In the calculations, a 10-ns-single-pulsed of ion beam with a total energy density of 120 J/cm2, is used. The results show that the ablated plasma was formed after 2 ns of ion beam irradiation and it started to expand right after 4-6 ns. In addition, the 2-D model give a better understanding of pulsed ion beam-solid target ablated plasma production and expansion process clearer.

The Frame Analysis and Testing for Student Formula

The objective of this paper is to study the analysis and testing for determining the torsional stiffness of the student formula-s space frame. From past study, the space frame for Chulalongkorn University Student Formula team used in 2011 TSAE Auto Challenge Student Formula in Thailand was designed by considering required mass and torsional stiffness based on the numerical method and experimental method. The numerical result was compared with the experimental results to verify the torsional stiffness of the space frame. It can be seen from the large error of torsional stiffness of 2011 frame that the experimental result can not verify by the numerical analysis due to the different between the numerical model and experimental setting. In this paper, the numerical analysis and experiment of the same 2011 frame model is performed by improving the model setting. The improvement of both numerical analysis and experiment are discussed to confirm that the models from both methods are same. After the frame was analyzed and tested, the results are compared to verify the torsional stiffness of the frame. It can be concluded that the improved analysis and experiments can used to verify the torsional stiffness of the space frame.

Spine Evaluation Device with Visual Feedback

The posteroanterior manipulation technique is usually include in the procedure of the lumbar spine to evaluate the intervertebral motion according to mechanical resistance. The mechanical device with visual feedback was proposed that allows one to analysis the lumbar segments mobility “in vivo" facilitating for the therapist to take its treatment evolution. The measuring system uses load cell and displacement sensor to estimate spine stiffness. In this work, the device was tested by 2 therapists, female, applying posteroanterior force techniques to 5 volunteers, female, with frequency of approximately 1.2-1.8 Hz. A test-retest procedure was used for 2 periods of day. The visual feedback results small variation of forces and cycle time during 6 cycles rhythmic application. The stiffness values showed good agreement between test-retest procedures when used same order of maximum forces.

Dynamics and Control of a Chaotic Electromagnetic System

In this paper, different nonlinear dynamics analysis techniques are employed to unveil the rich nonlinear phenomena of the electromagnetic system. In particular, bifurcation diagrams, time responses, phase portraits, Poincare maps, power spectrum analysis, and the construction of basins of attraction are all powerful and effective tools for nonlinear dynamics problems. We also employ the method of Lyapunov exponents to show the occurrence of chaotic motion and to verify those numerical simulation results. Finally, two cases of a chaotic electromagnetic system being effectively controlled by a reference signal or being synchronized to another nonlinear electromagnetic system are presented.

Enabling Automated Deployment for Cluster Computing in Distributed PC Classrooms

The rapid improvement of the microprocessor and network has made it possible for the PC cluster to compete with conventional supercomputers. Lots of high throughput type of applications can be satisfied by using the current desktop PCs, especially for those in PC classrooms, and leave the supercomputers for the demands from large scale high performance parallel computations. This paper presents our development on enabling an automated deployment mechanism for cluster computing to utilize the computing power of PCs such as reside in PC classroom. After well deployment, these PCs can be transformed into a pre-configured cluster computing resource immediately without touching the existing education/training environment installed on these PCs. Thus, the training activities will not be affected by this additional activity to harvest idle computing cycles. The time and manpower required to build and manage a computing platform in geographically distributed PC classrooms also can be reduced by this development.

Enhance Halorespiration in Rhodopseudomonas palustris with Cytochrome P450cam System from Pseudomonas putida

To decompose organochlorides by bioremediation, co-culture biohydrogen producer and dehalogenation microorganisms is a useful method. In this study, we combined these two characteristics from a biohydrogen producer, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, and a dehalogenation microorganism, Pseudomonas putida, to enchance halorespiration in R. palustris. The genes encoding cytochrome P450cam system (camC, camA, and camB) from P. putida were expressed in R. palustris with designated expression plasmid. All tested strains were cultured to log phase then presented pentachloroethane (PCA) in media. The vector control strain could degrade PCA about 78% after 16 hours, however, the cytochrome P450cam system expressed strain, CGA-camCAB, could completely degrade PCA in 12 hours. While taking chlorinated aromatic, 3-chlorobenzoate, as sole carbon source or present benzoate as co-substrate, CGA-camCAB presented faster growth rate than vector control strain.

Analysis of Cost Estimation and Payment Systems for Consultant Contracts in the US, Japan, China and the UK

Determining reasonable fees is the main objective of designing the cost estimation and payment systems for consultant contracts. However, project clients utilize different cost estimation and payment systems because of their varying views on the reasonableness of consultant fees. This study reviews the cost estimation and payment systems of consultant contracts for five countries, including the US (Washington State Department of Transportation), Japan (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism), China (Engineering Design Charging Standard) and UK (Her Majesty's Treasure). Specifically, this work investigates the budgeting process, contractor selection method, contractual price negotiation process, cost review, and cost-control concept of the systems used in these countries. The main finding indicates that that project client-s view on whether the fee is high will affect the way he controls it. In the US, the fee is commonly considered to be high. As a result, stringent auditing system (low flexibility given to the consultant) is then applied. In the UK, the fee is viewed to be low by comparing it to the total life-cycle project cost. Thus, a system that has high flexibility in budgeting and cost reviewing is given to the consultant. In terms of the flexibility allowed for the consultant, the systems applied in Japan and China fall between those of the US and UK. Both the US and UK systems are helpful in determining a reasonable fee. However, in the US system, rigid auditing standards must be established and additional cost-audit manpower is required. In the UK system, sufficient historical cost data should be needed to evaluate the reasonableness of the consultant-s proposed fee

Pathway to Reduce Industrial Energy Intensity for Energy Conservation at Chinese Provincial Level

Using logarithmic mean Divisia decomposition technique, this paper analyzes the change in industrial energy intensity of Fujian Province in China, based on data sets of added value and energy consumption for 35 selected industrial sub-sectors from 1999 to 2009. The change in industrial energy intensity is decomposed into intensity effect and structure effect. Results show that the industrial energy intensity of Fujian Province has achieved a reduction of 51% over the past ten years. The structural change, a shift in the mix of industrial sub-sectors, made overwhelming contribution to the reduction. The impact of energy efficiency’s improvement was relatively small. However, the aggregate industrial energy intensity was very sensitive to both the changes in energy intensity and in production share of energy-intensive sub-sectors, such as production and supply of electric power, steam and hot water. Pathway to reduce industrial energy intensity for energy conservation in Fujian Province is proposed in the end.

A Study on the Removal of Trace Organic Matter in Water Treatment Procedures Using Powder-activated Carbon Biofilm

This study uses natural water and the surface properties of powdered activated carbon to acclimatize organics, forming biofilms on the surface of powdered activated carbon. To investigate the influence of different hydraulic retention times on the removal efficacy of trace organics in raw water, and to determine the optimal hydraulic retention time of a biological powdered activated carbon system, this study selects ozone-treated water processed by Feng-shan Advanced Water Purification Plant in southern Taiwan for the experiment. The evaluation indicators include assimilable organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and total organic carbon. The results of this study can improve the quality of drinking water treated using advanced water purification procedures.

Use of NMMO Pretreatment for Biogas Production from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

Pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) with N-Methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) to enhance biogas production was investigated. The pretreatments were performed at 90 and 120ºC for 1, 3, and 5 h using three different concentrations of NMMO of 73%, 79%, and 85%. The pretreated OPEFB was subsequently anaerobically digested to produce biogas. After pretreatment, there were no significant changes of the main composition of OPEFB and the maximum total solid recovery was 92%. The amorphous phase was increased up to 78% at pretreatment condition using 85% NMMO solution for 3 h at 120oC. In general, higher concentration of NMMO and higher temperature resulted in increased amorphous form and higher biogas production. The best results of biogas production reached enhancement of methane yield of 148% compared to the untreated OPEFB and increased in digestion of 94% compared to starch as reference.

Dynamic Voltage Stability Estimation using Particle Filter
Estimation of voltage stability based on optimal filtering method is presented. PV curve is used as a tool for voltage stability analysis. Dynamic voltage stability estimation is done by using particle filter method. Optimum value (nose point) of PV curve can be estimated by estimating parameter of PV curve equation optimal value represents critical voltage and condition at specified point of measurement. Voltage stability is then estimated by analyzing loading margin condition c stimating equation. This maximum loading ecified dynamically.
Fuzzy Risk-Based Life Cycle Assessment for Estimating Environmental Aspects in EMS
Environmental aspects plays a central role in environmental management system (EMS) because it is the basis for the identification of an organization-s environmental targets. The existing methods for the assessment of environmental aspects are grouped into three categories: risk assessment-based (RA-based), LCA-based and criterion-based methods. To combine the benefits of these three categories of research, this study proposes an integrated framework, combining RA-, LCA- and criterion-based methods. The integrated framework incorporates LCA techniques for the identification of the causal linkage for aspect, pathway, receptor and impact, uses fuzzy logic to assess aspects, considers fuzzy conditions, in likelihood assessment, and employs a new multi-criteria decision analysis method - multi-criteria and multi-connection comprehensive assessment (MMCA) - to estimate significant aspects in EMS. The proposed model is verified, using a real case study and the results show that this method successfully prioritizes the environmental aspects.
Mutually Independent Hamiltonian Cycles of Cn x Cn

In a graph G, a cycle is Hamiltonian cycle if it contain all vertices of G. Two Hamiltonian cycles C_1 = ⟨u_0, u_1, u_2, ..., u_{n−1}, u_0⟩ and C_2 = ⟨v_0, v_1, v_2, ..., v_{n−1}, v_0⟩ in G are independent if u_0 = v_0, u_i = ̸ v_i for all 1 ≤ i ≤ n−1. In G, a set of Hamiltonian cycles C = {C_1, C_2, ..., C_k} is mutually independent if any two Hamiltonian cycles of C are independent. The mutually independent Hamiltonicity IHC(G), = k means there exist a maximum integer k such that there exists k-mutually independent Hamiltonian cycles start from any vertex of G. In this paper, we prove that IHC(C_n × C_n) = 4, for n ≥ 3.

Evaluation of Chromium Contamination in the Sediments of Jen-Gen River Mouth, Taiwan

This study was conducted using the data collected at the mouth of Jen-Gen River to investigate and analyze chromium (Cr) contained in the sediments, and to evaluate the accumulation of Cr and the degree of its potential risk. The results show that samples collected at all monitoring stations near the mouth of Jen-Gen River contain 92–567 mg/kg of Cr with average of 366±166 mg/kg. The spatial distribution of Cr reveals that the Cr concentration is relatively high in the river mouth region, and gradually diminishes toward the harbor region. This indicates that upstream industrial and municipal wastewater discharges along the river bank are major sources of pollution. The accumulation factor and potential ecological risk index indicate that the sedimentation at Jen-Gen River mouth has the most serious degree of Cr accumulation and the highest ecological potential risk.

Low-complexity Integer Frequency Offset Synchronization for OFDMA System
This paper presents a integer frequency offset (IFO) estimation scheme for the 3GPP long term evolution (LTE) downlink system. Firstly, the conventional joint detection method for IFO and sector cell index (CID) information is introduced. Secondly, an IFO estimation without explicit sector CID information is proposed, which can operate jointly with the proposed IFO estimation and reduce the time delay in comparison with the conventional joint method. Also, the proposed method is computationally efficient and has almost similar performance in comparison with the conventional method over the Pedestrian and Vehicular channel models.
Developing Safety Behavior Practice Suitable for Thai Industrial Operators

The objective of this study was to develop safety practices which is suitable for Thai industrial operators from Incident and Injury Free, IIF to create safety behavior and reduce the un-safe records in the petroleum industry. A number of 310 technicians i.e., 295 males and 15 females, in service maintenance section participated in this program. The safety attitude level and safety behavior level for pre-attended and post-attended the developed safety practices of the technicians were evaluated using questionnaire procedure and on-site observation. After applied the developed practice program, both of the safety attitudes and safety behavior were increased to be at very good level and good level, respectively. Evaluating the follow-up unsafe records, it was found that the injury was reduced from 0.11 to 0 case/month, the medical treatment case was reduced from 0.22 to 0 case/month and the first aid case was reduced from 1 to 0.33 case/month. The developed safety working practice was successfully implemented to Thai industrial operators.

Experimental Results about the Dynamics of the Generalized Belief Propagation Used on LDPC Codes

In the context of channel coding, the Generalized Belief Propagation (GBP) is an iterative algorithm used to recover the transmission bits sent through a noisy channel. To ensure a reliable transmission, we apply a map on the bits, that is called a code. This code induces artificial correlations between the bits to send, and it can be modeled by a graph whose nodes are the bits and the edges are the correlations. This graph, called Tanner graph, is used for most of the decoding algorithms like Belief Propagation or Gallager-B. The GBP is based on a non unic transformation of the Tanner graph into a so called region-graph. A clear advantage of the GBP over the other algorithms is the freedom in the construction of this graph. In this article, we explain a particular construction for specific graph topologies that involves relevant performance of the GBP. Moreover, we investigate the behavior of the GBP considered as a dynamic system in order to understand the way it evolves in terms of the time and in terms of the noise power of the channel. To this end we make use of classical measures and we introduce a new measure called the hyperspheres method that enables to know the size of the attractors.

School Homework and its Relationship with Student Academic Achievement in Malaysia

School homework has been synonymous with students- life in Chinese national type primary schools in Malaysia. Although many reports in the press claimed that students were burdened with too much of it, homework continues to be a common practice in national type schools that is believed to contribute to academic achievement. This study is conducted to identify the relationship between the burden of school homework and academic achievement among pupils in Chinese National Type Primary School in the state of Perak, Malaysia. A total of 284 students (142 from urban and 142 from rural) respectively were chosen as participants in this study. Variables of gender and location (urban/rural areas) has shown significant difference in student academic achievement. Female Chinese student from rural areas showed a higher mean score than males from urban area. Therefore, the Chinese language teachers should give appropriate and relevant homework to primary school students to achieve good academic performance.

Engineering Geological Characteristics of Soil Materials, East Nile Delta, Egypt
This paper is concerned with the study of mineralogy and engineering characteristics of soil materials derived from the eastern part of Nile Delta. The clay minerals of the studied soil by using X- ray diffraction are mainly illite (average 72.6 %) and kaolinite (average 2.6 %), expandable portion in illite-smectite mixed layer (average 7 %). Smectite is more abundant in fluviatile clays, whereas kaolinite is more abundant in lagoonal clays. On the other hand, illite and illite-smectite are more abundant in marine clays. The geotechnical results show that the soil under study consists mainly of about 0.3 % gravel, 5 % sand, 51.5 % silt and 42.2 % clay in average. The average shrinkage limit attains 11 % whereas the average value of the plasticity index is 23.4 %. The free swelling ranges from 40 % to 75 % and has a value of 55 % giving an indication about the inadequacy of such soil under foundations. From a construction point of view, the soil under investigation poses many problems even under light foundations due to the swelling and shrinkage. Such swelling and shrinkage is due to the high content of soil materials in the expandable clay minerals of illite and smectite. Based on the results of the present and earlier studies, trial application of soil stabilisation is recommended.
Development Prospects of Education System in Modernization
the article analyzes the development prospects of education system in Kazakhstan. Education is among key sources of culture and social mobility. Modern education must become civic which means availability of high quality education to all people irrespective of their racial, ethnic, religious, social, gender and any other differences. Socially focused nature of modernization of Kazakhstan-s society is predicated upon formation of a civic education model in the future. Kazakhstan-s education system undergoes intensive reforms first of all intended to achieve international education standards and integration into the global educational and information space.
Detecting and Tracking Vehicles in Airborne Videos
In this work, we present an automatic vehicle detection system for airborne videos using combined features. We propose a pixel-wise classification method for vehicle detection using Dynamic Bayesian Networks. In spite of performing pixel-wise classification, relations among neighboring pixels in a region are preserved in the feature extraction process. The main novelty of the detection scheme is that the extracted combined features comprise not only pixel-level information but also region-level information. Afterwards, tracking is performed on the detected vehicles. Tracking is performed using efficient Kalman filter with dynamic particle sampling. Experiments were conducted on a wide variety of airborne videos. We do not assume prior information of camera heights, orientation, and target object sizes in the proposed framework. The results demonstrate flexibility and good generalization abilities of the proposed method on a challenging dataset.
Ultrasound Assisted Method to Increase the Aluminum Dissolve Rate from Acidified Water
Aluminum salt that is generally presents as a solid phase in the water purification sludge (WPS) can be dissolved, recovering a liquid phase, by adding strong acid to the sludge solution. According to the reaction kinetics, when reactant is in the form of small particles with a large specific surface area, or when the reaction temperature is high, the quantity of dissolved aluminum salt or reaction rate, respectively are high. Therefore, in this investigation, water purification sludge (WPS) solution was treated with ultrasonic waves to break down the sludge, and different acids (1 N HCl and 1 N H2SO4) were used to acidify it. Acid dosages that yielded the solution pH of less than two were used. The results thus obtained indicate that the quantity of dissolved aluminum in H2SO4-acidified solution exceeded that in HCl-acidified solution. Additionally, ultrasonic treatment increased the rate of dissolution of aluminum and the amount dissolved. The quantity of aluminum dissolved at 60℃ was 1.5 to 2.0 times higher than that at 25℃.
Reduction of Chloride Dioxide in Paper Bleaching using Peroxide Activation
All around the world pulp and paper industries are the biggest plant production with the environmental pollution as the biggest challenge facing the pulp manufacturing operations. The concern among these industries is to produce a high volume of papers with the high quality standard and of low cost without affecting the environment. This result obtained from this bleaching study show that the activation of peroxide was an effective method of reducing the total applied charge of chlorine dioxide which is harmful to our environment and also show that softwood and hardwood Kraft pulps responded linearly to the peroxide treatments. During the bleaching process the production plant produce chlorines. Under the trial stages chloride dioxide has been reduced by 3 kg/ton to reduce the brightness from 65% ISO to 60% ISO of pulp and the dosing point returned to the E stage charges by pre-treating Kraft pulps with hydrogen peroxide. The pulp and paper industry has developed elemental chlorine free (ECF) and totally chlorine free (TCF) bleaching, in their quest for being environmental friendly, they have been looking at ways to turn their ECF process into a TCF process while still being competitive. This prompted the research to investigate the capability of the hydrogen peroxide as catalyst to reduce chloride dioxide.
Formation and Development of a New System of Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the Globalization
The concept of the new government should focus on forming a new relationship between public servants and citizens of the state, formed on the principles of transparency, accountability, protection of citizens' rights. These principles are laid down in the problem of administrative reform in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Also, this wish arises, contributing to the improvement of the system of political management in our country. For the full realization of the goals is necessary to develop a special state program designed to improve the regulatory framework for public service, improving training, retraining and advanced training of civil servants, forming a system of incentives in public service and other activities aimed at achieving the efficiency of the entire system government.
The Role of State in Combating Religious Extremism and Terrorism
terrorism and extremism are among the most dangerous and difficult to forecast the phenomena of our time, which are becoming more diverse forms and rampant. Terrorist attacks often produce mass casualties, involve the destruction of material and spiritual values, beyond the recovery times, sow hatred among nations, provoke war, mistrust and hatred between the social and national groups, which sometimes can not be overcome within a generation. Currently, the countries of Central Asia are a topical issue – the threat of terrorism and religious extremism, which grow not only in our area, but throughout the world. Of course, in each of the terrorist threat is assessed differently. In our country the problem of terrorism should not be acutely. Thus, after independence and sovereignty of Kazakhstan has chosen the path of democracy, progress and free economy. With the policy of the President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev and well-organized political and economic reforms, there has been economic growth and rising living standards, socio-political stability, ensured civil peace and accord in society [1].
The U.S. and Western Europe Role in Resolving the Religious Conflicts in Central Asia

The modern world is experiencing fundamental and dynamic changes. The transformation of international relations; the end of confrontation and successive overcoming of the Cold War consequences have expanded possible international cooperation. The global nuclear conflict threat has been minimized, while a tendency to establish a unipolar world structure with the U.S. economic and power domination is growing. The current world system of international relations, apparently is secular. However, the religious beliefs of one or another nations play a certain (sometimes a key) role, both in the domestic affairs of the individual countries and in the development of bilateral ties. Political situation in Central Asia has been characterized by new factors such as international terrorism; religious extremism and radicalism; narcotrafficking and illicit arms trade of a global character immediately threaten to peace and political stability in Central Asia. The role and influence of Islamic fundamentalism is increasing; political ethnocentrism and the associated aggravation of inter-ethnic relations, the ambiguity of national interests and objectives of major geo-political groups in the Central Asian region regarding the division the political influence, emerge. This article approaches the following issues: the role of Islam in Central Asia; destabilizing factors in Central Asia; Islamic movements in Central Asia, Western Europe and the United States; the United States, Western Europe and Central Asia: religion, politics, ideology, and the US-Central Asia antiterrorism and religious extremism cooperation.

Islam in Kazakhstan: Modern Trends and Stages of Development

According to the majority and to stereotypes in a simple everyman religious processes in the world in general, and Kazakhstan in particular, have only negative trends. The main reason for the author's opinion is seen in the fact that the media in the pursuit of ratings and sensation, more inclined to highlight the negative aspects of events in the country and the world of processes forgetting or casually mentioning the positive initiatives and achievements. That is why the article is mainly revealed positive trends in mind that the problems of fanaticism, terrorism and the confrontation of society on various issues, a lot has been written and detailed. This article describes the stages in the development of relations between religion and state, as well as institutionalization, networking and assistance in the correct orientation of religious activities in the country.

Adopting Procedural Animation Technology to Generate Locomotion of Quadruped Characters in Dynamic Environments
A procedural-animation-based approach which rapidly synthesize the adaptive locomotion for quadruped characters that they can walk or run in any directions on an uneven terrain within a dynamic environment was proposed. We devise practical motion models of the quadruped animals for adapting to a varied terrain in a real-time manner. While synthesizing locomotion, we choose the corresponding motion models by means of the footstep prediction of the current state in the dynamic environment, adjust the key-frames of the motion models relying on the terrain-s attributes, calculate the collision-free legs- trajectories, and interpolate the key-frames according to the legs- trajectories. Finally, we apply dynamic time warping to each part of motion for seamlessly concatenating all desired transition motions to complete the whole locomotion. We reduce the time cost of producing the locomotion and takes virtual characters to fit in with dynamic environments no matter when the environments are changed by users.
A Design of Array Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Coil System
This research proposed a new design of helmet-shaped array transcranial magnetic stimulation coil system. It was constructed using several sagittal directional wires and several coronal directional wires. By varying the current direction and strength on each wire, this array coil system could be constructed into the circular coil and figure-eight coil of different size. Also, this proposed coil system can flexibly not only change the stimulation location, range, type and strength, but also change the shape and the channel number of coil dynamically.
Evaluating per-user Fairness of Goal-Oriented Parallel Computer Job Scheduling Policies
Fair share objective has been included into the goaloriented parallel computer job scheduling policy recently. However, the previous work only presented the overall scheduling performance. Thus, the per-user performance of the policy is still lacking. In this work, the details of per-user fair share performance under the Tradeoff-fs(Tx:avgX) policy will be further evaluated. A basic fair share priority backfill policy namely RelShare(1d) is also studied. The performance of all policies is collected using an event-driven simulator with three real job traces as input. The experimental results show that the high demand users are usually benefited under most policies because their jobs are large or they have a lot of jobs. In the large job case, one job executed may result in over-share during that period. In the other case, the jobs may be backfilled for performances. However, the users with a mixture of jobs may suffer because if the smaller jobs are executing the priority of the remaining jobs from the same user will be lower. Further analysis does not show any significant impact of users with a lot of jobs or users with a large runtime approximation error.
Solar Energy Collection using a Double-layer Roof
The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficiency of a double-layer roof in collecting solar energy as an application to the areas such as raising high-end temperature of organic Rankine cycle (ORC). The by-product of the solar roof is to reduce building air-conditioning loads. The experimental apparatus are arranged to evaluate the effects of the solar roof in absorbing solar energy. The flow channel is basically formed by an aluminum plate on top of a plywood plate. The geometric configurations in which the effects of absorbing energy is analyzed include: a bare uncovered aluminum plate, a glass-covered aluminum plate, a glass-covered/black-painted aluminum plate, a plate with variable lengths, a flow channel with stuffed material (in an attempt on enhancement of heat conduction), and a flow channel with variable slanted angles. The experimental results show that the efficiency of energy collection varies from 0.6 % to 11 % for the geometric configurations mentioned above. An additional study is carried out using CFD simulation to investigate the effects of fins on the aluminum plate. It shows that due to vastly enhanced heat conduction, the efficiency can reach ~23 % if 50 fins are installed on the aluminum plate. The study shows that a double-layer roof can efficiently absorb solar energy and substantially reduce building air-conditioning loads. On the high end of an organic Rankine cycle, a solar pond is used to replace the warm surface water of the sea as OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion) is the driving energy for the ORC. The energy collected from the double-layered solar roof can be pumped into the pond and raise the pond temperature as the pond surface area is equivalently increased by nearly one-fourth of the total area of the double-layer solar roof. The effect of raising solar pond temperature is especially prominent if the double-layer solar roofs are installed in a community area.
Preparation of Polylactic Acid Graft Polyvinyl Acetate Compatibilizers for 50/50 Starch/PLLA Blending
Polylactic acid-g-polyvinyl acetate (PLLA-g-PVAc) was used as a compatibilizer for 50/50 starch/PLLA blend. PLLA-g- PVAc with different mol% of PVAc contents were prepared by grafting PVAc onto PLLA backbone via free radical polymerization in solution process. Various conditions such as type and the amount of initiator, monomer concentration, polymerization time and temperature were studied. Results showed that the highest mol% of PVAc grafting (16 mol%) was achieved by conducting graft copolymerization in toluene at 110°C for 10 h using DCP as an initiator. Chemical structure of the PVAc grafted PLLA was confirmed by 1H NMR. Blending of modified starch and PLLA in the presence compatibilizer with different amounts and mol% PVAc was acquired using internal mixer at 160°C for 15 min. Effects of PVAc content and the amount of compatibilizer on mechanical properties of polymer blend were studied. Results revealed that tensile strength and tensile modulus of polymer blend with higher PVAc grafting content compatibilizer showed better properties than that of lower PVAc grafting content compatibilizer. The amount of compatibilizer was found optimized in the range of 0.5-1.0 Wt% depending on the mol% PVAc.
Effect of Lubrication on the Quantity of Heat Emission of two Spur Gears in Meshing
This paper investigates the effects of lubrication on the quantity of heat emission of two spur gear. System with and without lubrication effected on the quantity of heat induced on the gear box (oil - bearings – gears). Both of lubrication and speed of motor are affected on the performance of gears. Research investigated the lubrication on the system with and without loading as well as the wear of gears and bearing's conditions. Gear box investigated includes the motor, pump, two spur gears, two shafts; speed change used pulleys and belts. Load used equal one weight ones of gear. Lubrication mechanism used jet system (upper and lower jet). Gear box we used system of jet lubrication is perpendicular direction of the contact line between two teeth. Results appeared in this work that the lubrication is the vital parameter which is affected on the performance and durability of gears and bearings. In macroscopic observation, we noted that damage of bearings happened during the absence of lubrication as well as abrasive of wear of teeth. Higher speed of motor without lubrication increased the noise, but in the presence of lubrication was decreased.
Audio User Interface for Visually Impaired Computer Users: in a Two Dimensional Audio Environment
In this paper we discuss a set of guidelines which could be adapted when designing an audio user interface for the visually impaired. It is based on an audio environment that is focused on audio positioning. Unlike current applications which only interpret Graphical User Interface (GUI) for the visually impaired, this particular audio environment bypasses GUI to provide a direct auditory output. It presents the capability of two dimensional (2D) navigation on audio interfaces. This paper highlights the significance of a 2D audio environment with spatial information in the context of the visually impaired. A thorough usability study has been conducted to prove the applicability of proposed design guidelines for these auditory interfaces. While proving these guidelines, previously unearthed design aspects have been revealed in this study.
Vertical Micromirror Fabrication by X-ray Lithography for Single Mode Optical Fiber Switching Applications
Inthis paper, design and fabrication of vertical micromirror for optical switching applications of single mode optical fibers are proposed. The structure of micromirror will be created from negative photoresist (SU-8) on X-ray lithography using X-ray from synchrotron light source. The properties of X-ray from synchrotron light source are high-energy electrons which can construct materials that have a high aspect ratio. In addition, the technique of gold coating of reflective material has been used for change direction of light between two pairs of optical fibers. At a wavelength of 1310 nm with minimum average loss of 5.305 dB is obtained.
Investigation of Shear Thickening Liquid Protection Fibrous Material
The stab resistance performance of newly developed fabric composites composed of hexagonal paper honeycombs, filled with shear thickening fluid (STF), and woven Kevlar® fabric or UHMPE was investigated in this study. The STF was prepared by dispersing submicron SiO2 particles into polyethylene glycol (PEG). Our results indicate that the STF-Kevlar composite possessed lower penetration depth than that of neat Kevlar. In other words, the STF-Kevlar composite can attain the same energy level in stab-resistance test with fewer layers of Kevlar fabrics than that of the neat Kevlar fabrics. It also indicates that STF can be used for the fabrication of flexible body armors and can provide improved protection against stab threats. We found that the stab resistance of the STF-Kevlar composite increases with the increase of SiO2 concentration in STF. Moreover, the silica particles functionalized with silane coupling agent can further improve the stab resistance.
Energy Evaluation and Utilization of Cassava Peel for Lactating Dairy Cows
The experiment was then conducted to investigate the effect of cassava peel addition in the concentrate on the performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty four Holstein Friesian crossbred (>87.5% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows in mid lactation; averaging 12.2+2.1 kg of milk, 119+45 days in milk, 44.1+6.2 months old and 449+33 kg live weight, were stratified for milk yield, days in milk, age, stage of lactation and body weight, and then randomly allocated to three treatment groups. The first, second and third groups were fed concentrates containing the respective cassava peel, 0, 20 and 40%. All cows were fed ad libitum corn silage and freely access to clean water. Dry matter intake, 4%FCM, milk composition and body weight change were affected (P
An Analysis of Economic Capital Allocation of Global Banks

There are three main ways of categorizing capital in banking operations: accounting, regulatory and economic capital. However, the 2008-2009 global crisis has shown that none of these categories adequately reflects the real risks of bank operations, especially in light of the failures Bear Stearns, Lehman Brothers or Northern Rock. This paper deals with the economic capital allocation of global banks. In theory, economic capital should reflect the real risks of a bank and should be publicly available. Yet, as discovered during the global financial crisis, even when economic capital information was publicly disclosed, the underlying assumptions rendered the information useless. Specifically, some global banks that reported relatively high levels of economic capital before the crisis went bankrupt or had to be bailed-out by their government. And, only 15 out of 50 global banks reported their economic capital during the 2007-2010 period. In this paper, we analyze the changes in reported bank economic capital disclosure during this period. We conclude that relative shares of credit and business risks increased in 2010 compared to 2007, while both operational and market risks decreased their shares on the total economic capital of top-rated global banks. Generally speaking, higher levels of disclosure and transparency of bank operations are required to obtain more confidence from stakeholders. Moreover, additional risks such as liquidity risks should be included in these disclosures.

Comparison of FAHP and TOPSIS for Evacuation Capability Assessment of High-rise Buildings
A lot of computer-based methods have been developed to assess the evacuation capability (EC) of high-rise buildings. Because softwares are time-consuming and not proper for on scene applications, we adopted two methods, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) and technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS), for EC assessment of a high-rise building in Jinan. The EC scores obtained with the two methods and the evacuation time acquired with Pathfinder 2009 for floors 47-60 of the building were compared with each other. The results show that FAHP performs better than TOPSIS for EC assessment of high-rise buildings, especially in the aspect of dealing with the effect of occupant type and distance to exit on EC, tackling complex problem with multi-level structure of criteria, and requiring less amount of computation. However, both FAHP and TOPSIS failed to appropriately handle the situation where the exit width changes while occupants are few.
Methods of Estimating the Equilibrium Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER)
There are many debates now regarding undervalued and overvalued currencies currently traded on the world financial market. This paper contributes to these debates from a theoretical point of view. We present the three most commonly used methods of estimating the equilibrium real effective exchange rate (REER): macroeconomic balance approach, external sustainability approach and equilibrium real effective exchange rate approach in the reduced form. Moreover, we discuss key concepts of the calculation of the real exchange rate (RER) based on applied explanatory variables: nominal exchange rates, terms of trade and tradable and non-tradable goods. Last but not least, we discuss the three main driving forces behind real exchange rates movements which include terms of trade, relative productivity growth and the interest rate differential.
Modeling of the Internet Film Piracy - Preliminary Report

This paper covers various aspects of film piracy over the Internet. In order to successfully deal with this matter, it is needed to recognize motivational factors related to film piracy. Thus, this study discusses group factors that could motivate individuals to engage in pirate activities. Furthermore, the paper discusses the theoretical effect on box office revenues and explains it on a proposed scheme of solutions for decreasing revenues. The article also maps the scheme of incentive motivational anti-piracy campaigns. Moreover, the paper proposes the preliminary scheme for system dynamic modeling of the Internet film piracy. Scheme is developed as a model of behaviors, influences and relations among the elements pertaining to the Internet film piracy.

Energy Based Temperature Profile for Heat Transfer Analysis of Concrete Section Exposed to Fire on One Side
For fire safety purposes, the fire resistance and the structural behavior of reinforced concrete members are assessed to satisfy specific fire performance criteria. The available prescribed provisions are based on standard fire load. Under various fire scenarios, engineers are in need of both heat transfer analysis and structural analysis. For heat transfer analysis, the study proposed a modified finite difference method to evaluate the temperature profile within a cross section. The research conducted is limited to concrete sections exposed to a fire on their one side. The method is based on the energy conservation principle and a pre-determined power function of the temperature profile. The power value of 2.7 is found to be a suitable value for concrete sections. The temperature profiles of the proposed method are only slightly deviate from those of the experiment, the FEM and the FDM for various fire loads such as ASTM E 119, ASTM 1529, BS EN 1991-1-2 and 550 oC. The proposed method is useful to avoid incontinence of the large matrix system of the typical finite difference method to solve the temperature profile. Furthermore, design engineers can simply apply the proposed method in regular spreadsheet software.
A Short Reflection on the Strengths and Weaknesses of Simulation Optimization

The paper provides the basic overview of simulation optimization. The procedure of its practical using is demonstrated on the real example in simulator Witness. The simulation optimization is presented as a good tool for solving many problems in real praxis especially in production systems. The authors also characterize their own experiences and they mention the strengths and weakness of simulation optimization.

Modeling the Vapor Pressure of Biodiesel Fuels
The composition, vapour pressure, and heat capacity of nine biodiesel fuels from different sources were measured. The vapour pressure of the biodiesel fuels is modeled assuming an ideal liquid phase of the fatty acid methyl esters constituting the fuel. New methodologies to calculate the vapour pressure and ideal gas and liquid heat capacities of the biodiesel fuel constituents are proposed. Two alternative optimization scenarios are evaluated: 1) vapour pressure only; 2) vapour pressure constrained with liquid heat capacity. Without physical constraints, significant errors in liquid heat capacity predictions were found whereas the constrained correlation accurately fit both vapour pressure and liquid heat capacity.
Enhancement of Essential Oil from Agarwood by Subcritical Water Extraction and Pretreatments on Hydrodistillation

The traditional method for essential oil extraction from agarwood (Aquilaria Crassna) is to soak it in water and follow with hydrodistillation. The effect of various agarwood pretreatments: ethanol, acid, alkaline, enzymes, and ultrasound, and the effect of subcritical water extraction(SWE) was studied to compare with the traditional method. The major compositions of agarwood oil from hydrodistillation were aroma compounds as follow: aristol-9-en-8- one (21.53%), selina-3, 7(11)-diene (12.96%), τ-himachalene (9.28%), β-guaiene (5.79%), hexadecanoic acid (4.90%) and guaia- 3,9-diene (4.21%). Whereas agarwood oil from pretreatments with ethanol and ultrasound, and SWE got fatty acid compounds. Extraction of agarwood oil using these pretreatments could improve the agarwood oil yields up to 2 times that of the traditional method. The components of the pretreated sample with diluted acid (H2SO4) at pH 4 gave quite similar results as the traditional method. Therefore, the enhancement of essential oil from agarwood depends on requirement of type of extracted oil that involved extraction methods.

Thermal and Visual Performance of Solar Control Film
The use of solar control film on windows as one of solar passive strategies for building have becoming important and is gaining recognition. Malaysia located close to equator is having warm humid climate with long sunshine hours and abundant solar radiation throughout the year. Hence, befitting solar control on windows is absolutely necessary to capture the daylight whilst moderating thermal impact and eliminating glare problems. This is one of the energy efficient strategies to achieve thermal and visual comfort in buildings. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effect of window solar controls on thermal and visual performance of naturally ventilated buildings. This was conducted via field data monitoring using a test building facility. Four types of window glazing systems were used with three types of solar control films. Data were analysed for thermal and visual impact with reference to thermal and optical characteristics of the films. Results show that for each glazing system, the surface temperature of windows are influenced by the Solar Energy Absorption property, the indoor air temperature are influenced by the Solar Energy Transmittance and Solar Energy Reflectance, and the daylighting by Visible Light Transmission and Shading Coefficient. Further investigations are underway to determine the mathematical relation between thermal energy and visual performance with the thermal and optical characteristics of solar control films.
Fabricating Protruded Micro-features on AA6061 Substrates by Hot Embossing Method

Metallic micro parts are playing an important role in micro-fabrication industry. Recently, we have demonstrated a new deformation mechanism for micro-formability of polycrystalline materials. Different depressed micro-features smaller than the grain size have been successfully fabricated on 6061 aluminum alloy (AA6061) substrates with good fidelity. To further verify this proposed deformation mechanism that grain size is not a limiting factor, we demonstrate here that in addition of depressed features, protruded micro-features on a polycrystalline substrate can similarly be fabricated.

Effects of Mold Surface Roughness on Compressible Flow of Micro-Injection Molding

Polymer melt compressibility and mold surface roughness, which are generally ignored during the filling stage of the conventional injection molding, may become increasingly significant in micro injection molding where the parts become smaller. By employing the 2.5D generalized Hele-Shaw model, we presented here the effects of polymer compressibility and mold surface roughness on mold-filling in a micro-thickness cavity. To elucidate the effects of surface roughness, numerical investigations were conducted using a cavity flat plate which has two halves with different surface roughness. This allows the comparison of flow field on two different halves under identical processing conditions but with different roughness. Results show that polymer compressibility and mold surface roughness have effects on mold filling in micro injection molding. There is in shrinkage reduction as the density is increased due to polymer melt compressibility during the filling stage.

Basic Research for Distinguishing Small Retinal Hemorrhages from Dust Artifact by using Hue, Lightness, and Saturation Color Space
To distinguish small retinal hemorrhages in early diabetic retinopathy from dust artifacts, we analyzed hue, lightness, and saturation (HLS) color spaces. The fundus of 5 patients with diabetic retinopathy was photographed. For the initial experiment, we placed 4 different colored papers on the ceiling of a darkroom. Using each color, 10 fragments of house dust particles on a magnifier were photographed. The colored papers were removed, and 3 different colored light bulbs were suspended from the ceiling. Ten fragments of house dust particles on the camera-s object lens were photographed. We then constructed an experimental device that can photograph artificial eyes. Five fragments of house dust particles under the ocher fundus of the artificial eye were photographed. On analyzing HLS color space of the dust artifact, lightness and saturation were found to be highly sensitive. However, hue was not highly sensitive.
Retaining Structural System Active Vibration Control
This study presents an active vibration control technique to reduce the earthquake responses of a retained structural system. The proposed technique is a synthesis of the adaptive input estimation method (AIEM) and linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller. The AIEM can estimate an unknown system input online. The LQG controller offers optimal control forces to suppress wall-structural system vibration. The numerical results show robust performance in the active vibration control technique.
The Design of Self-evolving Artificial Immune System II for Permutation Flow-shop Problem
Artificial Immune System is adopted as a Heuristic Algorithm to solve the combinatorial problems for decades. Nevertheless, many of these applications took advantage of the benefit for applications but seldom proposed approaches for enhancing the efficiency. In this paper, we continue the previous research to develop a Self-evolving Artificial Immune System II via coordinating the T and B cell in Immune System and built a block-based artificial chromosome for speeding up the computation time and better performance for different complexities of problems. Through the design of Plasma cell and clonal selection which are relative the function of the Immune Response. The Immune Response will help the AIS have the global and local searching ability and preventing trapped in local optima. From the experimental result, the significant performance validates the SEAIS II is effective when solving the permutation flows-hop problems.
Behavioral Signature Generation using Shadow Honeypot
A novel behavioral detection framework is proposed to detect zero day buffer overflow vulnerabilities (based on network behavioral signatures) using zero-day exploits, instead of the signature-based or anomaly-based detection solutions currently available for IDPS techniques. At first we present the detection model that uses shadow honeypot. Our system is used for the online processing of network attacks and generating a behavior detection profile. The detection profile represents the dataset of 112 types of metrics describing the exact behavior of malware in the network. In this paper we present the examples of generating behavioral signatures for two attacks – a buffer overflow exploit on FTP server and well known Conficker worm. We demonstrated the visualization of important aspects by showing the differences between valid behavior and the attacks. Based on these metrics we can detect attacks with a very high probability of success, the process of detection is however very expensive.
Towards Cloud Computing Anatomy
Cloud Computing has recently emerged as a compelling paradigm for managing and delivering services over the internet. The rise of Cloud Computing is rapidly changing the landscape of information technology, and ultimately turning the longheld promise of utility computing into a reality. As the development of Cloud Computing paradigm is speedily progressing, concepts, and terminologies are becoming imprecise and ambiguous, as well as different technologies are interfering. Thus, it becomes crucial to clarify the key concepts and definitions. In this paper, we present the anatomy of Cloud Computing, covering its essential concepts, prominent characteristics, its affects, architectural design and key technologies. We differentiate various service and deployment models. Also, significant challenges and risks need are tackled in order to guarantee the long-term success of Cloud Computing. The aim of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the anatomy of Cloud Computing and pave the way for further research in this area.
Researches on Simulation and Validation of Airborne Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System

In this paper, enhanced ground proximity warning simulation and validation system is designed and implemented. First, based on square grid and sub-grid structure, the global digital terrain database is designed and constructed. Terrain data searching is implemented through querying the latitude and longitude bands and separated zones of global terrain database with the current aircraft position. A combination of dynamic scheduling and hierarchical scheduling is adopted to schedule the terrain data, and the terrain data can be read and delete dynamically in the memory. Secondly, according to the scope, distance, approach speed information etc. to the dangerous terrain in front, and using security profiles calculating method, collision threat detection is executed in real-time, and provides caution and warning alarm. According to this scheme, the implementation of the enhanced ground proximity warning simulation system is realized. Simulations are carried out to verify a good real-time in terrain display and alarm trigger, and the results show simulation system is realized correctly, reasonably and stable.

Hydrogen Integration in Petrochemical Complexes, Using Modified Automated Targeting Method
Owing to extensive use of hydrogen in refining or petrochemical units, it is essential to manage hydrogen network in order to make the most efficient utilization of hydrogen. On the other hand, hydrogen is an important byproduct not properly used through petrochemical complexes and mostly sent to the fuel system. A few works have been reported in literature to improve hydrogen network for petrochemical complexes. In this study a comprehensive analysis is carried out on petrochemical units using a modified automated targeting technique which is applied to determine the minimum hydrogen consumption. Having applied the modified targeting method in two petrochemical cases, the results showed a significant reduction in required fresh hydrogen.
Effects of Energy Consumption on Indoor Air Quality

Continuous measurements and multivariate methods are applied in researching the effects of energy consumption on indoor air quality (IAQ) in a Finnish one-family house. Measured data used in this study was collected continuously in a house in Kuopio, Eastern Finland, during fourteen months long period. Consumption parameters measured were the consumptions of district heat, electricity and water. Indoor parameters gathered were temperature, relative humidity (RH), the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) and differential air pressure. In this study, self-organizing map (SOM) and Sammon's mapping were applied to resolve the effects of energy consumption on indoor air quality. Namely, the SOM was qualified as a suitable method having a property to summarize the multivariable dependencies into easily observable two-dimensional map. Accompanying that, the Sammon's mapping method was used to cluster pre-processed data to find similarities of the variables, expressing distances and groups in the data. The methods used were able to distinguish 7 different clusters characterizing indoor air quality and energy efficiency in the study house. The results indicate, that the cost implications in euros of heating and electricity energy vary according to the differential pressure, concentration of carbon dioxide, temperature and season.

The Surface Adsorption of Nano-pore Template
This paper aims to fabricated high quality anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) film by anodization method. AAO pore size, pore density, and film thickness can be controlled in 10~500 nm, 108~1011 pore.cm-2, and 1~100 μm. AAO volume and surface area can be computed based on structural parameters such as thickness, pore size, pore density, and sample size. Base on the thetorical calculation, AAO has 100 μm thickness with 15 nm, 60 nm, and 500 nm pore diameters AAO surface areas are 1225.2 cm2, 3204.4 cm2, and 549.7 cm2, respectively. The large unit surface area which is useful for adsorption application. When AAO adsorbed pH indictor of bromphenol blue presented a sensitive pH detection of solution change. This testing method can further be used for the precise measurement of biotechnology, convenience measurement of industrial engineering.
Investigation of Behavior on the Contact Surface of the Tire and Ground by CFD Simulation

Tread design has evolved over the years to achieve the common tread pattern used in current vehicles. However, to meet safety and comfort requirements, tread design considers more than one design factor. Tread design must consider the grip and drainage, and the manner in which to reduce rolling noise, which is one of the main factors considered by manufacturers. The main objective of this study was the application the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique to simulate the contact surface of the tire and ground. The results demonstrated an air-Pumping and large pressure drop effect in the process of contact surface. The results also revealed that the pressure can be used to analyze sound pressure level (SPL).

Analytical and Experimental Study on the Effect of Air-Core Coil Parameters on Magnetic Force Used in a Linear Optical Scanner
Today air-core coils (ACC) are a viable alternative to ferrite-core coils in a range of applications due to their low induction effect. An analytical study was carried out and the results were used as a guide to understand the relationship between the magnet-coil distance and the resulting attractive magnetic force. Four different ACC models were fabricated for experimental study. The variation in the models included the dimensions, the number of coil turns and the current supply to the coil. Comparison between the analytical and experimental results for all the models shows an average discrepancy of less than 10%. An optimized ACC design was selected for the scanner which can provide maximum magnetic force.
The Role of Private Equity during Global Crises
The term private equity usually refers to any type of equity investment in an asset in which the equity is not freely tradable on a public stock market. Some researchers believe that private equity contributed to the extent of the crisis and increased the pace of its spread over the world. We do not agree with this. On the other hand, we argue that during the economic recession private equity might become an important source of funds for firms with special needs (e.g. for firms seeking buyout financing, venture capital, expansion capital or distress debt financing). However, over-regulation of private equity in both the European Union and the US can slow down this specific funding channel to the economy and deepen credit crunch during global crises.
Health Risk Assessment in Lead Battery Smelter Factory: A Bayesian Belief Network Method
This paper proposes the use of Bayesian belief networks (BBN) as a higher level of health risk assessment for a dumping site of lead battery smelter factory. On the basis of the epidemiological studies, the actual hospital attendance records and expert experiences, the BBN is capable of capturing the probabilistic relationships between the hazardous substances and their adverse health effects, and accordingly inferring the morbidity of the adverse health effects. The provision of the morbidity rates of the related diseases is more informative and can alleviate the drawbacks of conventional methods.
Combing LCIA and Fuzzy Risk Assessment for Environmental Impact Assessment

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a procedure tool of environmental management for identifying, predicting, evaluating and mitigating the adverse effects of development proposals. EIA reports usually analyze how the amounts or concentrations of pollutants obey the relevant standards. Actually, many analytical tools can deepen the analysis of environmental impacts in EIA reports, such as life cycle assessment (LCA) and environmental risk assessment (ERA). Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is one of steps in LCA to introduce the causal relationships among environmental hazards and damage. Incorporating the LCIA concept into ERA as an integrated tool for EIA can extend the focus of the regulatory compliance of environmental impacts to determine of the significance of environmental impacts. Sometimes, when using integrated tools, it is necessary to consider fuzzy situations due to insufficient information; therefore, ERA should be generalized to fuzzy risk assessment (FRA). Finally, the use of the proposed methodology is demonstrated through the study case of the expansion plan of the world-s largest plastics processing factory.

Development of Non-functional Requirements for Decision Support Systems
Decision Support System (DSS) are interactive software systems that are built to assist the management of an organization in the decision making process when faced with nonroutine problems in a specific application domain. Non-functional requirements (NFRs) for a DSS deal with the desirable qualities and restrictions that the DSS functionalities must satisfy. Unlike the functional requirements, which are tangible functionalities provided by the DSS, NFRs are often hidden and transparent to DSS users but affect the quality of the provided functionalities. NFRs are often overlooked or added later to the system in an ad hoc manner, leading to a poor overall quality of the system. In this paper, we discuss the development of NFRs as part of the requirements engineering phase of the system development life cycle of DSSs. To help eliciting NFRs, we provide a comprehensive taxonomy of NFRs for DSSs.
Principal Component Analysis for the Characterization in the Application of Some Soil Properties
The objective of this research is to study principal component analysis for classification of 67 soil samples collected from different agricultural areas in the western part of Thailand. Six soil properties were measured on the soil samples and are used as original variables. Principal component analysis is applied to reduce the number of original variables. A model based on the first two principal components accounts for 72.24% of total variance. Score plots of first two principal components were used to map with agricultural areas divided into horticulture, field crops and wetland. The results showed some relationships between soil properties and agricultural areas. PCA was shown to be a useful tool for agricultural areas classification based on soil properties.
Adsorption of Inorganic Salt by Granular Activated Carbon and Related Prediction Models
In recent years, the underground water sources in southern Taiwan have become salinized because of saltwater intrusions. This study explores the adsorption characteristics of activated carbon on salinizing inorganic salts using isothermal adsorption experiments and provides a model analysis. The temperature range for the isothermal adsorption experiments ranged between 5 to 45 ℃, and the amount adsorbed varied between 28.21 to 33.87 mg/g. All experimental data of adsorption can be fitted to both the Langmuir and the Freundlich models. The thermodynamic parameters for per chlorate onto granular activated carbon were calculated as -0.99 to -1.11 kcal/mol for DG°, -0.6 kcal/mol for DH°, and 1.21 to 1.84 kcal/mol for DS°. This shows that the adsorption process of granular activated carbon is spontaneously exothermic. The observation of adsorption behaviors under low ionic strength, low pH values, and low temperatures is beneficial to the adsorption removal of perchlorate with granular activated carbon.
The Study of Fabricating the Field Emission Lamps with Carbon nano-Materials

Fabrication and efficiency enhancement of non-mercury, high efficiency and green field emission lamps using carbon nano-materials such as carbon nanotubes as cathode field emitters was studied. Phosphor was coated on the ITO glass or metal substrates as the anode. The luminescence efficiency enhancement was carried out by upgrading the uniform of the emitters, improving electron and thermal conductivity of the phosphor and the optimization of the design of different cathode/anode configurations. After evaluation of the aforementioned parameters, the luminescence efficiency of the field emission lamps was raised.

Implementation of Security Algorithms for u-Health Monitoring System
Data security in u-Health system can be an important issue because wireless network is vulnerable to hacking. However, it is not easy to implement a proper security algorithm in an embedded u-health monitoring because of hardware constraints such as low performance, power consumption and limited memory size and etc. To secure data that contain personal and biosignal information, we implemented several security algorithms such as Blowfish, data encryption standard (DES), advanced encryption standard (AES) and Rivest Cipher 4 (RC4) for our u-Health monitoring system and the results were successful. Under the same experimental conditions, we compared these algorithms. RC4 had the fastest execution time. Memory usage was the most efficient for DES. However, considering performance and safety capability, however, we concluded that AES was the most appropriate algorithm for a personal u-Health monitoring system.
Combine a Population-based Incremental Learning with Artificial Immune System for Intrusion Detection System

This research focus on the intrusion detection system (IDS) development which using artificial immune system (AIS) with population based incremental learning (PBIL). AIS have powerful distinguished capability to extirpate antigen when the antigen intrude into human body. The PBIL is based on past learning experience to adjust new learning. Therefore we propose an intrusion detection system call PBIL-AIS which combine two approaches of PBIL and AIS to evolution computing. In AIS part we design three mechanisms such as clonal selection, negative selection and antibody level to intensify AIS performance. In experimental result, our PBIL-AIS IDS can capture high accuracy when an intrusion connection attacks.

Building a Trend Based Segmentation Method with SVR Model for Stock Turning Detection

This research focus on developing a new segmentation method for improving forecasting model which is call trend based segmentation method (TBSM). Generally, the piece-wise linear representation (PLR) can finds some of pair of trading points is well for time series data, but in the complicated stock environment it is not well for stock forecasting because of the stock has more trends of trading. If we consider the trends of trading in stock price for the trading signal which it will improve the precision of forecasting model. Therefore, a TBSM with SVR model used to detect the trading points for various stocks of Taiwanese and America under different trend tendencies. The experimental results show our trading system is more profitable and can be implemented in real time of stock market

Biokinetics of Coping Mechanism of Freshwater tilapia following Exposure to Waterborne and Dietary Copper
The purpose of this study was to understand the main sources of copper (Cu) accumulation in target organs of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and to investigate how the organism mediate the process of Cu accumulation under prolonged conditions. By measuring both dietary and waterborne Cu accumulation and total concentrations in tilapia with biokinetic modeling approach, we were able to clarify the biokinetic coping mechanisms for the long term Cu accumulation. This study showed that water and food are both the major source of Cu for the muscle and liver of tilapia. This implied that control the Cu concentration in these two routes will be correlated to the Cu bioavailability for tilapia. We found that exposure duration and level of waterborne Cu drove the Cu accumulation in tilapia. The ability for Cu biouptake and depuration in organs of tilapia were actively mediated under prolonged exposure conditions. Generally, the uptake rate, depuration rate and net bioaccumulation ability in all selected organs decreased with the increasing level of waterborne Cu and extension of exposure duration.Muscle tissues accounted for over 50%of the total accumulated Cu and played a key role in buffering the Cu burden in the initial period of exposure, alternatively, the liver acted a more important role in the storage of Cu with the extension of exposures. We concluded that assumption of the constant biokinetic rates could lead to incorrect predictions with overestimating the long-term Cu accumulation in ecotoxicological risk assessments.
The Application of Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) on the Czech Financial Market
The impact assessment in its various forms has recently become a very important part of policy-making and legislation in many different countries. Regulatory impact assessment (RIA) is yet another set of analytical methods deployed in the legislation of the European Union, of many developed countries as well as in many developing ones such as Mexico, Malaysia and Philippines. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical background for economic models in regulatory impact assessment and an overview of their application especially on the financial market in the Czech Republic. We found out an inadequate application of these models, what makes room for further research in this field.
File System-Based Data Protection Approach
As data to be stored in storage subsystems tremendously increases, data protection techniques have become more important than ever, to provide data availability and reliability. In this paper, we present the file system-based data protection (WOWSnap) that has been implemented using WORM (Write-Once-Read-Many) scheme. In the WOWSnap, once WORM files have been created, only the privileged read requests to them are allowed to protect data against any intentional/accidental intrusions. Furthermore, all WORM files are related to their protection cycle that is a time period during which WORM files should securely be protected. Once their protection cycle is expired, the WORM files are automatically moved to the general-purpose data section without any user interference. This prevents the WORM data section from being consumed by unnecessary files. We evaluated the performance of WOWSnap on Linux cluster.
Wireless Building Monitoring and Control System
The building sector is the largest energy consumer and CO2 emitter in the European Union (EU) and therefore the active reduction of energy consumption and elimination of energy wastage are among the main goals in it. Healthy housing and energy efficiency are affected by many factors which set challenges to monitoring, control and research of indoor air quality (IAQ) and energy consumption, especially in old buildings. These challenges include measurement and equipment costs, for example. Additionally, the measurement results are difficult to interpret and their usage in the ventilation control is also limited when taking into account the energy efficiency of housing at the same time. The main goal of this study is to develop a cost-effective building monitoring and control system especially for old buildings. The starting point or keyword of the development process is a wireless system; otherwise the installation costs become too high. As the main result, this paper describes an idea of a wireless building monitoring and control system. The first prototype of the system has been installed in 10 residential buildings and in 10 school buildings located in the City of Kuopio, Finland.
New Triangle-Ring UWB Bandpass Filter with Sharp Roll-Off and Dual Notched Bands

This paper presents a new ultra-wideband (UWB) bandpass filter (BPF) with sharp roll-off and dual-notched bands. The filter consists of a triangle ring multi-mode resonator (MMR) with the stub-loaded resonator (SLR) for controlling the two transmission zeros at 2.8 / 11 GHz, the embedded open-circuited stub and the asymmetric tight coupled input/output (I/O) lines for introducing the dual notched bands at 5.2 / 6.8 GHz. The attenuation slope in the lower and higher passband edges of the proposed filter show 160- and 153-dB/GHz, respectively. This study mainly provides a simple method to design a UWB bandpass filter with high passband selectivity and dual-notched bands for satisfying the Federal Communications Commission (FCC-defined) indoor UWB specification

Planning the Building Evacuation Routes by a Spatial Network

The previous proposed evacuation routing approaches usually divide the space into multiple interlinked zones. However, it may be harder to clearly and objectively define the margins of each zone. This paper proposes an approach that connects locations of necessary guidance into a spatial network. In doing so, evacuation routes can be constructed based on the links between starting points, turning nodes, and terminal points. This approach more conforms to the real-life evacuation behavior. The feasibility of the proposed approach is evaluated through a case of one floor in a hospital building. Results indicate that the proposed approach provides valuable suggestions for evacuation planning.

Research Trend Analysis – A Sample in the Field of Information Systems

As research performance in academia is treated as one of indices for national competency, many countries devote much attention and resources to increasing their research performance. Understand the research trend is the basic step to improve the research performance. The goal of this research is to design an analysis system to evaluate research trends from analyzing data from different countries. In this paper, information system researches in Taiwan and other countries, including Asian countries and prominent countries represented by the Group of Eight (G8) is used as example. Our research found the trends are varied in different countries. Our research suggested that Taiwan-s scholars can pay more attention to interdisciplinary applications and try to increase their collaboration with other countries, in order to increase Taiwan's competency in the area of information science.

Calculation of Voided Slabs Rigidities
A theoretical study of the rigidities of slabs with circular voids oriented in the longitudinal and in the transverse direction is discussed. Equations are presented for predicting the bending and torsional rigidities of the voided slabs. This paper summarizes the results of an extensive literature search and initial review of the current methods of analyzing voided slab. The various methods of calculating the equivalent plate parameters, which are necessary for two-dimensional analysis, are also reviewed. Static deflections on voided slabs are shown to be in good agreement with proposed equation.
MHD Falkner-Skan Boundary Layer Flow with Internal Heat Generation or Absorption
This paper examines the forced convection flow of incompressible, electrically conducting viscous fluid past a sharp wedge in the presence of heat generation or absorption with an applied magnetic field. The system of partial differential equations governing Falkner - Skan wedge flow and heat transfer is first transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations which is later solved using an implicit finite - difference scheme, along with quasilinearization technique. Numerical computations are performed for air (Pr = 0.7) and displayed graphically to illustrate the influence of pertinent physical parameters on local skin friction and heat transfer coefficients and, also on, velocity and temperature fields. It is observed that the magnetic field increases both the coefficients of skin friction and heat transfer. The effect of heat generation or absorption is found to be very significant on heat transfer, but its effect on the skin friction is negligible. Indeed, the occurrence of overshoot is noticed in the temperature profiles during heat generation process, causing the reversal in the direction of heat transfer.
SDVAR Algorithm for Detecting Fraud in Telecommunications
This paper presents a procedure for estimating VAR using Sequential Discounting VAR (SDVAR) algorithm for online model learning to detect fraudulent acts using the telecommunications call detailed records (CDR). The volatility of the VAR is observed allowing for non-linearity, outliers and change points based on the works of [1]. This paper extends their procedure from univariate to multivariate time series. A simulation and a case study for detecting telecommunications fraud using CDR illustrate the use of the algorithm in the bivariate setting.
Mixing Behaviors of Wet Granular Materials in Gas Fluidized Beds
The mixing behaviors of dry and wet granular materials in gas fluidized bed systems were investigated computationally using the combined Computational Fluid Dynamics and Discrete Element Method (CFD-DEM). Dry particles were observed to mix fairly rapidly during the fluidization process due to vigorous relative motions between particles induced by the flow of gas. In contrast, due to the presence of strong cohesive forces arising from capillary liquid bridges between wet particles, the mixing efficiencies of wet granular materials under similar operating conditions were observed to be reduced significantly.
Simulation of Activity Stream inside Energy Social Business Environment using Assemblage Theory and Simplicial Complex Tool
Social, mobility and information aggregation inside business environment need to converge to reach the next step of collaboration to enhance interaction and innovation. The following article is based on the “Assemblage" concept seen as a framework to formalize new user interfaces and applications. The area of research is the Energy Social Business Environment, especially the Energy Smart Grids, which are considered as functional and technical foundations of the revolution of the Energy Sector of tomorrow. The assemblages are modelized by means of mereology and simplicial complexes. Its objective is to offer new central attention and decision-making tools to end-users.
Creation of a New Software used for Palletizing Process
This article gives a short preview of the new software created especially for palletizing process in automated production systems. Each chapter of this article is about problem solving in development of modules in Java programming language. First part describes structure of the software, its modules and data flow between them. Second part describes all deployment methods, which are implemented in the software. Next chapter is about twodimensional editor created for manipulation with objects in each layer of the load and gives calculations for collision control. Module of virtual reality used for three-dimensional preview and creation of the load is described in the fifth chapter. The last part of this article describes communication and data flow between control system of the robot, vision system and software.
Experimental Study of Thermal Environment in a Room with Mixing Ventilation
This paper reports an experimental study on a sleeping thermal manikin in a room equipped with a mixing ventilation system. In the experimental work, heat loss from the sleeping thermal manikin was measured under different conditions. The supply air temperature was in a range of 17°C to 27°C. Apart from the heat loss of the sleeping thermal manikin, the velocity distributions and temperature distributions were also measured in the experiments for subsequent analysis.
Teaching Students the Black Magic of Electromagnetic Compatibility

Introducing Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic Compatibility, or “The Art of Black Magic", for engineering students might be a terrifying experience both for students and tutors. Removing the obstacle of large, expensive facilities like a fully fitted EMC laboratory and hours of complex theory, this paper demonstrates a design of a laboratory setup for student exercises, giving students experience in the basics of EMC/EMI problems that may challenge the functionality and stability of embedded system designs. This is done using a simple laboratory installation and basic measurement equipment such as a medium cost digital storage oscilloscope, at the cost of not knowing the exact magnitude of the noise components, but rather if the noise is significant or not, as well as the source of the noise. A group of students have performed a trial exercise with good results and feedback.

Study of Aero-thermal Effects with Heat Radiation in Optical Side Window
In hypersonic environments, the aerothermal effect makes it difficult for the optical side windows of optical guided missiles to withstand high heat. This produces cracking or breaking, resulting in an inability to function. This study used computational fluid mechanics to investigate the external cooling jet conditions of optical side windows. The turbulent models k-ε and k-ω were simulated. To be in better accord with actual aerothermal environments, a thermal radiation model was added to examine suitable amounts of external coolants and the optical window problems of aero-thermodynamics. The simulation results indicate that when there are no external cooling jets, because airflow on the optical window and the tail groove produce vortices, the temperatures in these two locations reach a peak of approximately 1600 K. When the external cooling jets worked at 0.15 kg/s, the surface temperature of the optical windows dropped to approximately 280 K. When adding thermal radiation conditions, because heat flux dissipation was faster, the surface temperature of the optical windows fell from 280 K to approximately 260 K. The difference in influence of the different turbulence models k-ε and k-ω on optical window surface temperature was not significant.
Copper Contamination in the Sediments of Northern Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan

The distribution, enrichment, accumulation, and potential ecological risk of copper (Cu) in the surface sediments of northern Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan were investigated. Sediment samples from 12 locations of northern Kaohsiung Harbor were collected and characterized for Cu, aluminum, water content, organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorous, total grease and grain size. Results showed that the Cu concentrations varied from 6.9–244 mg/kg with an average of 109±66 mg/kg. The spatial distribution of Cu reveals that the Cu concentration is relatively high in the river mouth region, and gradually diminishes toward the harbor entrance region. This indicates that upstream industrial and municipal wastewater discharges along the river bank are major sources of Cu pollution. Results from the enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index analyses imply that the sediments collected from the river mouth can be characterized between moderate and moderately severe degree enrichment and between none to medium and moderate accumulation of Cu, respectively. However, results of potential ecological risk index indicate that the sediment has low ecological potential risk.

Distribution and Source of PAHs in Surface Sediments of Canon River Mouth, Taiwan
Surface sediment samples were collected from the Canon River mouth, Taiwan and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total PAHs concentrations varied from 337 to 1,252 ng/g dry weight, with a mean concentration of 827 ng/g dry weight. The spatial distribution of PAHs reveals that the PAHs concentration is relatively high in the river mouth region, and gradually diminishes toward the harbor region. Diagnostic ratios showed that the possible source of PAHs in the Canon River mouth could be petroleum combustion. The toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQcarc) of PAHs varied from 47 to 112 ng TEQ/g dry weight. Higher total TEQcarc values were found in the river mouth region. As compared with the US Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs), the observed levels of PAHs at Canon River mouth were lower than the effects range low (ERL), and would probably not exert adverse biological effects.
Evaluation of Zinc Status in the Sediments of the Kaohsiung Ocean Disposal Site, Taiwan
The distribution, enrichment, and accumulation of zinc (Zn) in the sediments of Kaohsiung Ocean Disposal Site (KODS), Taiwan were investigated. Sediment samples from two outer disposal site stations and nine disposed stations in the KODS were collected per quarterly in 2009 and characterized for Zn, aluminum, organic matter, and grain size. Results showed that the mean Zn concentrations varied from 48 mg/kg to 456 mg/kg. Results from the enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) analyses imply that the sediments collected from the KODS can be characterized between moderate and moderately severe degree enrichment and between none and none to medium accumulation of Zn, respectively. However, results of potential ecological risk index indicate that the sediment has low ecological potential risk. The EF, Igeo, and Zn concentrations at the disposed stations were slightly higher than those at outer disposal site. This indicated that the disposed area centers may be subjected to the disposal impaction of harbor dredged sediments.
Application of Smart Temperature Information Material for The Evaluation of Heat Storage Capacity and Insulation Capacity of Exterior Walls

The heat storage capacity of concrete in building shells is a major reason for excessively large electricity consumption induced by indoor air conditioning. In this research, the previously developed Smart Temperature Information Material (STIM) is embedded in two groups of exterior wall specimens (the control group contains reinforced concrete exterior walls and the experimental group consists of tiled exterior walls). Long term temperature measurements within the concrete are taken by the embedded STIM. Temperature differences between the control group and the experimental group in walls facing the four cardinal directions (east, west, south, and north) are evaluated. This study aims to provide a basic reference for the design of exterior walls and the selection of heat insulation materials.

Applying Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process for Evaluating Service Quality of Online Auction
This paper applies fuzzy AHP to evaluate the service quality of online auction. Service quality is a composition of various criteria. Among them many intangible attributes are difficult to measure. This characteristic introduces the obstacles for respondents on reply in the survey. So as to overcome this problem, we invite fuzzy set theory into the measurement of performance and use AHP in obtaining criteria. We found the most concerned dimension of service quality is Transaction Safety Mechanism and the least is Charge Item. Other criteria such as information security, accuracy and information are too vital.
The Research of Fuzzy Classification Rules Applied to CRM
In the era of great competition, understanding and satisfying customers- requirements are the critical tasks for a company to make a profits. Customer relationship management (CRM) thus becomes an important business issue at present. With the help of the data mining techniques, the manager can explore and analyze from a large quantity of data to discover meaningful patterns and rules. Among all methods, well-known association rule is most commonly seen. This paper is based on Apriori algorithm and uses genetic algorithms combining a data mining method to discover fuzzy classification rules. The mined results can be applied in CRM to help decision marker make correct business decisions for marketing strategies.
Development of Low-Profile Antenna for Mini UAV with Reconnaissance Mission
Microstrip antennas are conformable to planar and nonplanar surfaces, simple and inexpensive to fabricate using modern printed-circuit technology. Circular polarization of low-profile microstrip patch with high bandwidth is achieved in this research through the use of a three-cross-arms branch-line coupler with sequential rotated arrays, another low-profile antenna of hollow cylinder is also proposed and the function of reconnaissance with microstrip antenna on Mini UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) are evaluated in practical flight test.
Development of Decision Support System for House Evaluation and Purchasing
Home is important for Chinese people. Because the information regarding the house attributes and surrounding environments is incomplete in most real estate agency, most house buyers are difficult to consider the overall factors effectively and only can search candidates by sorting-based approach. This study aims to develop a decision support system for housing purchasing, in which surrounding facilities of each house are quantified. Then, all considered house factors and customer preferences are incorporated into Simple Multi-Attribute Ranking Technique (SMART) to support the housing evaluation. To evaluate the validity of proposed approach, an empirical study was conducted from a real estate agency. Based on the customer requirement and preferences, the proposed approach can identify better candidate house with consider the overall house attributes and surrounding facilities.
A Low Noise Microwave Filter with Minimum Distortion
In this paper, a low noise microwave bandpass filter (BPF) is presented. This filter is fabricated by modifying the conventional cross-coupled structure. The spurious response is improved by using the end open coupled lines, and the influence of the noise is minimized. Impedance matrix of the open end coupled circuit clarifies the characteristic of the suppression of the spurious response. The rejection of spurious suppression region of the proposed filter is greater than 20 dB from 3-13 GHz. The measured results of the fabricated filter confirm the concepts of the proposed design and exhibits high performance.
The Development of Chulalongkorn University's SAE Student Formula's Space Frame
The objective of this paper is to present the development of the frame of Chulalongkorn University team in TSAE Auto Challenge Student Formula and Student Formula SAE Competition of Japan. Chulalongkorn University's SAE team, has established since year 2003, joined many competitions since year 2006 and became the leading team in Thailand. Through these 5 years, space frame was the most selected and developed year by year through six frame designs. In this paper, the discussions on the conceptual design of these frames are introduced, focusing on the mass and torsional stiffness improvement. The torsional stiffness test was performed on the real used frames and the results are compared. It can be seen that the 2010-2011 frame is firstly designed based on the analysis and experiment that considered the required mass and torsional stiffness. From the torsional stiffness results, it can be concluded that the frames were developed including the decreasing of mass and the increasing torsional stiffness by applying many techniques.
Generator Damage Recognition Based on Artificial Neural Network
This article simulates the wind generator set which has two fault bearing collar rail destruction and the gear box oil leak fault. The electric current signal which produced by the generator, We use Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) as well as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) obtains the frequency range-s signal figure and characteristic value. The last step is use a kind of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classifies which determination fault signal's type and reason. The ANN purpose of the automatic identification wind generator set fault..
Behavior of RC Buildings to Tsunami Action
The present report describes the characteristics of damages and behavior of reinforced concrete buildings during the tsunami action. The discussion is based on the field damage survey in selected cities located on the coast of the zone affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. This earthquake is the most powerful know earthquake that has hit Japan with a magnitude 9.0 and with epicenter located at 129 km of Sendai city (off the coast). The earthquake triggered a destructive tsunami with run up height of up to 40 meters that mainly affect cities located on the Pacific Ocean coast of the Tohoku region (north-east region of Japan). Reinforced concrete buildings in general resist the tsunami without collapse however the non-structural elements like panels and ceilings were severely damaged. The analysis of damages has permitted to understand the behavior of RC buildings under tsunami attack, and has also permitted to establish recommendations for their use to take refuge from tsunami in places where natural topography makes impossible to reach hilltops or other safer places.
Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell by Plasma Spray
This paper aims to scale up Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) production using a commonly available industrial material – stainless steel - and industrial plasma equipment. A working DSSC electrode formed by (1) coating titania nanotube (TiO2 NT) film on 304 stainless steel substrate using a plasma spray technique; then, (2) filling the nano-pores of the TiO2 NT film using a TiF4 sol-gel method. A DSSC device consists of an anode absorbed photosensitive dye (N3), a transparent conductive cathode with platinum (Pt) nano-catalytic particles adhered to its surface, and an electrolytic solution sealed between the anode and the transparent conductive cathode. The photo-current conversion efficiency of the DSSC sample was tested under an AM 1.5 Solar Simulator. The sample has a short current (Isc) of 0.83 mA cm-2, open voltage (Voc) of 0.81V, filling factor (FF) of 0.52, and conversion efficiency (η) of 2.18% on a 0.16 cm2 DSSC work-piece.
Modification and Characterization of Bacterial Cellulose Biopolymer as Proton Conducting Membrane
This study describes the preparation of a novel proton conducting membranes based on bacterial cellulose (BC) modified by grafting of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1 -propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) through UV-induced graft polymerization. These AMPS-g-BC membranes have been characterized by various techniques including FTIR, SEM and TGA, to find their successful grafting of AMPS on BC, surface morphology and thermal stability, respectively. Physical properties of AMPS-g-BC membranes have been assessed in terms of Lamda value( λ ), ion exchange capacity(IEC) and proton conductivity. The relationship between degree of grafting and AMPS concentration used for grafting has been determined by weight gain method. An optimum proton conductivity equal to 2.89x10-2 S cm-1 and IEC value equal to 1.79 mmol g-1 have been obtained when 20 wt% AMPS concentration is used for grafting (i.e. the corresponding membrane is notated as AMPS20-g-BC).
Comparison of Response Surface Designs in a Spherical Region
The objective of the research is to study and compare response surface designs: Central composite designs (CCD), Box- Behnken designs (BBD), Small composite designs (SCD), Hybrid designs, and Uniform shell designs (USD) over sets of reduced models when the design is in a spherical region for 3 and 4 design variables. The two optimality criteria ( D and G ) are considered which larger values imply a better design. The comparison of design optimality criteria of the response surface designs across the full second order model and sets of reduced models for 3 and 4 factors based on the two criteria are presented.
Optimum Design of an Absorption Heat Pump Integrated with a Kraft Industry using Genetic Algorithm
In this study the integration of an absorption heat pump (AHP) with the concentration section of an industrial pulp and paper process is investigated using pinch technology. The optimum design of the proposed water-lithium bromide AHP is then achieved by minimizing the total annual cost. A comprehensive optimization is carried out by relaxation of all stream pressure drops as well as heat exchanger areas involving in AHP structure. It is shown that by applying genetic algorithm optimizer, the total annual cost of the proposed AHP is decreased by 18% compared to one resulted from simulation.
Evolutionary Origin of the αC Helix in Integrins
Integrins are a large family of multidomain α/β cell signaling receptors. Some integrins contain an additional inserted I domain, whose earliest expression appears to be with the chordates, since they are observed in the urochordates Ciona intestinalis (vase tunicate) and Halocynthia roretzi (sea pineapple), but not in integrins of earlier diverging species. The domain-s presence is viewed as a hallmark of integrins of higher metazoans, however in vertebrates, there are clearly three structurally-different classes: integrins without I domains, and two groups of integrins with I domains but separable by the presence or absence of an additional αC helix. For example, the αI domains in collagen-binding integrins from Osteichthyes (bony fish) and all higher vertebrates contain the specific αC helix, whereas the αI domains in non-collagen binding integrins from vertebrates and the αI domains from earlier diverging urochordate integrins, i.e. tunicates, do not. Unfortunately, within the early chordates, there is an evolutionary gap due to extinctions between the tunicates and cartilaginous fish. This, coupled with a knowledge gap due to the lack of complete genomic data from surviving species, means that the origin of collagen-binding αC-containing αI domains remains unknown. Here, we analyzed two available genomes from Callorhinchus milii (ghost shark/elephant shark; Chondrichthyes – cartilaginous fish) and Petromyzon marinus (sea lamprey; Agnathostomata), and several available Expression Sequence Tags from two Chondrichthyes species: Raja erinacea (little skate) and Squalus acanthias (dogfish shark); and Eptatretus burgeri (inshore hagfish; Agnathostomata), which evolutionary reside between the urochordates and osteichthyes. In P. marinus, we observed several fragments coding for the αC-containing αI domain, allowing us to shed more light on the evolution of the collagen-binding integrins.
Optimal Prices under Revenue Sharing Contract in a Supply Chain with Direct Channel
Westudy a dual-channel supply chain under decentralized setting in which manufacturer sells to retailer and to customers directly usingan online channel. A customer chooses the purchase-channel based on price and service quality. Also, to buy product from the retail store, the customer incurs a transportation cost influenced by the fluctuating gasoline cost. Both companies are under the revenue sharing contract. In this contract the retailer share a portion of the revenue to the manufacturer while the manufacturer will charge the lower wholesales price. The numerical result shows that the effects of gasoline costs, the revenue sharing ratio and the wholesale price play an important role in determining optimal prices. The result shows that when the gasoline price fluctuatesthe optimal on-line priceis relatively stable while the optimal retail price moves in the opposite direction of the gasoline prices.
Energy Consumption in Forward Osmosis Desalination Compared to other Desalination Techniques
The draw solute separation process in Forward Osmosis desalination was simulated in Aspen Plus chemical process modeling software, to estimate the energy consumption and compare it with other desalination processes, mainly the Reverse Osmosis process which is currently most prevalent. The electrolytic chemistry for the system was retrieved using the Elec – NRTL property method in the Aspen Plus database. Electrical equivalent of energy required in the Forward Osmosis desalination technique was estimated and compared with the prevalent desalination techniques.
Experimental Investigation of a Novel Reaction in Reduction of Sulfates by Natural Gas as a Reducing Agent
In a pilot plant scale of a fluidized bed reactor, a reduction reaction of sodium sulfate by natural gas has been investigated. Natural gas is applied in this study as a reductant. Feed density, feed mass flow rate, natural gas and air flow rate (independent parameters)and temperature of bed and CO concentration in inlet and outlet of reactor (dependent parameters) were monitored and recorded at steady state. The residence time was adjusted close to value of traditional reaction [1]. An artificial neural network (ANN) was established to study dependency of yield and carbon gradient on operating parameters. Resultant 97% accuracy of applied ANN is a good prove that natural gas can be used as a reducing agent. Predicted ANN model for relation between other sources carbon gradient (accuracy 74%) indicates there is not a meaningful relation between other sources carbon variation and reduction process which means carbon in granule does not have significant effect on the reaction yield.
Envelope Echo Signal of Metal Sphere in the Fresh Water
An envelope echo signal measurement is proposed in this paper using echo signal observation from the 200 kHz echo sounder receiver. The envelope signal without any object is compared with the envelope signal of the sphere. Two diameter size steel ball (3.1 cm & 2.2 cm) and two diameter size air filled stainless steel ball (4.8 cm & 7.4 cm) used in this experiment. The target was positioned about 0.5 m and 1.0 meter from the transducer face using nylon rope. From the echo observation in time domain, it is obviously shown that echo signal structure is different between the size, distance and type of metal sphere. The amplitude envelope voltage for the bigger sphere is higher compare to the small sphere and it confirm that the bigger sphere have higher target strength compare to the small sphere. Although the structure signal without any object are different compare to the signal from the sphere, the reflected signal from the tank floor increase linearly with the sphere size. We considered this event happened because of the object position approximately to the tank floor.
Information Quality Evaluation Framework: Extending ISO 25012 Data Quality Model
The world wide web coupled with the ever-increasing sophistication of online technologies and software applications puts greater emphasis on the need of even more sophisticated and consistent quality requirements modeling than traditional software applications. Web sites and Web applications (WebApps) are becoming more information driven and content-oriented raising the concern about their information quality (InQ). The consistent and consolidated modeling of InQ requirements for WebApps at different stages of the life cycle still poses a challenge. This paper proposes an approach to specify InQ requirements for WebApps by reusing and extending the ISO 25012:2008(E) data quality model. We also discuss learnability aspect of information quality for the WebApps. The proposed ISO 25012 based InQ framework is a step towards a standardized approach to evaluate WebApps InQ.
Cloud Computing-s Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) Delivery Model Benefits Technical Courses in Higher Education
Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) is a form of cloud computing that relieves the user of the burden of hardware and software installation and management. SaaS can be used at the course level to enhance curricula and student experience. When cloud computing and SaaS are included in educational literature, the focus is typically on implementing administrative functions. Yet, SaaS can make more immediate and substantial contributions to the technical course content in educational offerings. This paper explores cloud computing and SaaS, provides examples, reports on experiences using SaaS to offer specialized software in courses, and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of using SaaS at the course level. The paper contributes to the literature in higher education by analyzing the major technical concepts, potential, and constraints for using SaaS to deliver specialized software at the course level. Further it may enable more educators and students to benefit from this emerging technology.
Cytotaxonomy and Morphology of Chironomid Larvae (Diptera, Chironomidae) in Armenia
In the study of chironomids in Armenia several species of Orthocladiinae subfamily of Cricotopus genus, Diamesinae subfamily of Diamesa genus, and Chironominae subfamily of Chironomus genus, have been identified. In the Cricotopus genus two sibling species were found, not distinguishable by larval morphological features, but clearly distinct cytogenetically.
Translation of Phraseological Units in Abai Kunanbayev-s Poems
Abai Kunanbayev (1845-1904) was a great Kazakh poet, composer and philosopher. Abai's main contribution to Kazakh culture and folklore lies in his poetry, which expresses great nationalism and grew out of Kazakh folk culture. Before him, most Kazakh poetry was oral, echoing the nomadic habits of the people of the Kazakh steppes. We want to introduce to abroad our country, its history, tradition and culture. We can introduce it only through translations. Only by reading the Kazakh works can foreign people know who are kazakhs, the style of their life, their thoughts and so on. All information comes only through translation. The main requirement to a good translation is that it should be natural or that it should read as smoothly as the original. Literary translation should be adequate, should follow the original to the fullest. Translators have to be loyal to original text, they shouldn-t give the way to liberty.
Rigid and Non-rigid Registration of Binary Objects using the Weighted Ratio Image
This paper presents the application of a signal intensity independent similarity criterion for rigid and non-rigid body registration of binary objects. The criterion is defined as the weighted ratio image of two images. The ratio is computed on a voxel per voxel basis and weighting is performed by setting the raios between signal and background voxels to a standard high value. The mean squared value of the weighted ratio is computed over the union of the signal areas of the two images and it is minimized using the Chebyshev polynomial approximation.
Social Aggravations during the Period of Medieval Wars in Europe
This article makes and attempt to disclose the dynamics of development of social interactions in an aggravated environment in relation to the distinctive features of religious wars and their negative impact to the society. Crisis situations that took place in all spheres of social life are described, on the grounds of which the author comes to specific conclusions.
Unified, Low-Cost Analysis Framework for the Cycling Situation in Cities
We propose a low-cost uniform analysis framework allowing comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the bicycling experience within and between cities. A primary component is an expedient, one-page mobility survey from which mode share is calculated. The bicycle mode share of many cities remains unknown, creating a serious barrier for both scientists and policy makers aiming to understand and increase rates of bicycling. Because of its low cost and expedience, this framework could be replicated widely, uniformly filling the data gap. The framework has been applied to 13 Central European cities with success. Data is collected on multiple modes with specific questions regarding both behavior and quality of travel experience. Individual preferences are also collected, examining the conditions under which respondents would change behavior to adopt more sustainable modes (bicycling or public transportation). A broad analysis opportunity results, intended to inform policy choices.
The Necessity of Optimized Management on Surface Water Sources of Zayanderood Basin
One of the efficient factors in comprehensive development of an area is to provide water sources and on the other hand the appropriate management of them. Population growth and nourishment security for such a population necessitate the achievement of constant development besides the reforming of traditional management in order to increase the profit of sources; In this case, the constant exploitation of sources for the next generations will be considered in this program. The achievement of this development without the consideration and possibility of water development will be too difficult. Zayanderood basin with 41500 areas in square kilometers contains 7 sub-basins and 20 units of hydrologic. In this basin area, from the entire environment descending, just a small part will enter into the river currents and the rest will be out of efficient usage by various ways. The most important surface current of this basin is Zayanderood River with 403 kilometers length which is originated from east slopes of Zagros mount and after draining of this basin area it will enter into Gaavkhooni pond. The existence of various sources and consumptions of water in Zayanderood basin, water transfer of the other basin areas into this basin, of course the contradiction between the upper and lower beneficiaries, the existence of worthwhile natural ecosystems such as Gaavkhooni swamp in this basin area and finally, the drought condition and lack of water in this area all necessitate the existence of comprehensive management of water sources in this central basin area of Iran as this method is a kind of management which considers the development and the management of water sources as an equilibrant way to increase the economical and social benefits. In this study, it is tried to survey the network of surface water sources of basin in upper and lower sections; at the most, according to the difficulties and deficiencies of an efficient management of water sources in this basin area, besides the difficulties of water draining and the destructive phenomenon of flood-water, the appropriate guidelines according to the region conditions are presented in order to prevent the deviation of water in upper sections and development of regions in lower sections of Zayanderood dam.
Performance Enhancement of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by MgO Coating on TiO2 Electrodes
TiO2/MgO composite films were prepared by coating the magnesium acetate solution in the pores of mesoporous TiO2 films using a dip coating method. Concentrations of magnesium acetate solution were varied in a range of 1x10-4 – 1x10-1 M. The TiO2/MgO composite films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscropy (TEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS) , transient voltage decay and I-V test. The TiO2 films and TiO2/MgO composite films were immersed in a 0.3 mM N719 dye solution. The Dye-sensitized solar cells with the TiO2/MgO/N719 structure showed an optimal concentration of magnesium acetate solution of 1x10-3 M resulting in the MgO film estimated thickness of 0.0963 nm and giving the maximum efficiency of 4.85%. The improved efficiency of dyesensitized solar cell was due to the magnesium oxide film as the wide band gap coating decays the electron back transfer to the triiodide electrolyte and reduce charge recombination.
A new Heuristic Algorithm for the Dynamic Facility Layout Problem with Budget Constraint
In this research, we have developed a new efficient heuristic algorithm for the dynamic facility layout problem with budget constraint (DFLPB). This heuristic algorithm combines two mathematical programming methods such as discrete event simulation and linear integer programming (IP) to obtain a near optimum solution. In the proposed algorithm, the non-linear model of the DFLP has been changed to a pure integer programming (PIP) model. Then, the optimal solution of the PIP model has been used in a simulation model that has been designed in a similar manner as the DFLP for determining the probability of assigning a facility to a location. After a sufficient number of runs, the simulation model obtains near optimum solutions. Finally, to verify the performance of the algorithm, several test problems have been solved. The results show that the proposed algorithm is more efficient in terms of speed and accuracy than other heuristic algorithms presented in previous works found in the literature.
Compressive Properties of a Synthetic Bone Substitute for Vertebral Cancellous Bone
Transpedicular screw fixation in spinal fractures, degenerative changes, or deformities is a well-established procedure. However, important rate of fixation failure due to screw bending, loosening, or pullout are still reported particularly in weak bone stock in osteoporosis. To overcome the problem, mechanism of failure has to be fully investigated in vitro. Post-mortem human subjects are less accessible and animal cadavers comprise limitations due to different geometry and mechanical properties. Therefore, the development of a synthetic model mimicking the realistic human vertebra is highly demanded. A bone surrogate, composed of Polyurethane (PU) foam analogous to cancellous bone porous structure, was tested for 3 different densities in this study. The mechanical properties were investigated under uniaxial compression test by minimizing the end artifacts on specimens. The results indicated that PU foam of 0.32 g.cm-3 density has comparable mechanical properties to human cancellous bone in terms of young-s modulus and yield strength. Therefore, the obtained information can be considered as primary step for developing a realistic cancellous bone of human vertebral body. Further evaluations are also recommended for other density groups.
The Situation in the Public Procurement Market in Post-Communist Countries: The Case of the Czech Republic
Public procurement is one of the most important areas in the public sector that introduces a possibility for a corruption. Due to the volume of the funds that are allocated through this institution (in the EU countries it is between 10 – 15% of GDP), it has very serious implications for the efficiency of public expenditures and the overall economic efficiency as well. Indicators that are usually used for the measurement of the corruption (such as Corruption Perceptions Index - CPI) show that the worst situation is in the post-communist countries and Mediterranean countries. The presented paper uses the Czech Republic as an example of a post-communist country and analyses the factors which influence the scope of corruption in public procurement. Moreover, the paper discusses indicators that could point at the public procurement market inefficiency. The presented results show that post-communist states use the institute of public contracts significantly more than the old member countries of the continental Europe. It has a very important implication because it gives more space for corruption. Furthermore, it appears that the inefficient functioning of public procurement market is clearly manifested in the low number of bids, low level of market transparency and an ineffective control system. Some of the observed indicators are statistically significantly correlated with the CPI.
Simulation Design of Separator for the Treatment of Emulsions
A prototype model of an emulsion separator was designed and manufactured. Generally, it is a cylinder filled with different fractal modules. The emulsion was fed into the reactor by a peristaltic pump through an inlet placed at the boundary between the two phases. For hydrodynamic design and sizing of the reactor the assumptions of the theory of filtration were used and methods to describe the separation process were developed. Based on this methodology and using numerical methods and software of Autodesk the process is simulated in different operating modes. The basic hydrodynamic characteristics - speed and performance for different types of fractal systems and decisions to optimize the design of the reactor were also defined.
Effect of Water- Cement Ratio (w/c) on Mechanical Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete (Case Study)
Nowadays, the performance required for concrete structures is more complicated and diversified. Self-compacting concrete is a fluid mixture suitable for placing in structures with congested reinforcement without vibration. Self-compacting concrete development must ensure a good balance between deformability and stability. Also, compatibility is affected by the characteristics of materials and the mix proportions; it becomes necessary to evolve a procedure for mix design of SCC. This paper presents an experimental procedure for the design of self-compacting concrete mixes with different water-cement ratios (w/c) and other constant ratios by local materials. The test results for acceptance characteristics of self-compacting concrete such as slump flow, V-funnel and L-Box are presented. Further, compressive strength, tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of specimens were also determined and results are included here
E-Learning Platform with SPICE Web Service

When studying electronics, hands-on experience is considered to be very valuable for a better understanding of the concepts of electricity and electronics. Students lacking sufficient time in the lab are often put at disadvantage. A way to overcome this, is by using interactive multimedia in a virtual environment. Instead of proposing another new ad-hoc simulator for e-learning, we propose in this paper an e-learning platform integrating the SPICE simulator as a web service. This enables to make use of all the functions of the de-facto standard simulator SPICE inelectronics when developing new simulations.

Segmentation of Ascending and Descending Aorta in CTA Images
In this study, a new and fast algorithm for Ascending Aorta (AscA) and Descending Aorta (DesA) segmentation is presented using Computed Tomography Angiography images. This process is quite important especially at the detection of aortic plaques, aneurysms, calcification or stenosis. The applied method has been carried out at four steps. At first step, lung segmentation is achieved. At the second one, Mediastinum Region (MR) is detected to use in the segmentation. At the third one, images have been applied optimal threshold and components which are outside of the MR were removed. Lastly, identifying and segmentation of AscA and DesA have been carried out. The performance of the applied method is found quite well for radiologists and it gives enough results to the surgeries medically.
Dynamic Response of a Water Tower Composed of Interlocked Panels
Earthquakes produce some of the most violent loading situations that a structure can be subjected to and if a structure fails under these loads then inevitably human life is put at risk. One of the most common methods by which a structure fails under seismic loading is at the connection of structural elements. The research presented in this paper investigates the interlock systems as a novel method for building structures. The main objective of this experimental study wasto determine the dynamic characteristics and the seismic behaviour of the proposed structures compared to conventional structural systemsduring seismic motions. Results of this study indicate that the interlock mechanism of the panels influences the behaviour of lateral load-resisting systems of the structures during earthquakes, contributing to better structural flexibility and easier maintenance.
The Effect of e-learning on the Promotion of Optoelectronics Technology and Daily Livings Literacy among Students in Universities of Technology
This study aims to analyze the effect of e-learning on photonics technology and daily livings among college students. The course contents of photonics technology and daily livings are first drafted based on research discussions and expert interviews. Having expert questionnaires with Delphi Technique for three times, the knowledge units and items for the course of photonics technology and daily livings are established. The e-learning materials and the drafts of instructional strategies, academic achievement, and learning attitude scales are then developed. With expert inspection, reliability and validity test, and experimental instructions, the scales and the material are further revised. Finally, the formal instructions are implemented to test the effect of different instructional methods on the academic achievement of photonics technology and daily livings among students in universities of technology. The research results show that e-learning could effectively promote academic achievement and learning attitude, and the students with e-learning obviously outperform the ones with trandition instructions.
The Leaves of a Tree
In this article, models based on quantitative analysis, physical geometry and regression analysis are established, by using analytic hierarchy process analysis, fuzzy cluster analysis, fuzzy photographic and data fitting. The reasons of various leaf shapes among different species and the differences between the leaf shapes on same tree have been solved by using software, such as Eviews, VB and Matlab. We also successfully estimate the leaf mass of a tree and the correlation with the tree profile.
Factors Influencing Environmental Management Practices Among Hotels in Malaysia

This paper attempts to investigate the factors that influence hotel managers- attitudes towards sustainable tourism practices (STP) in Kuala Lumpur and the state of Selangor in Malaysia. The study distributes 104 questionnaires to hotels ranging from one star to five-star categories including budget hotels. Out of this figure, 60 copies of the questionnaires were returned and analyzed. The finding revealed that of all the seven factors investigated, only the variables measuring incentives and knowledge have significantly influenced sustainable tourism practices in the country. Therefore, government and other green bodies within the country should continue to provide hotels with incentives for sound technologies. Moreover, the government agencies should continue to educate hoteliers on the relevance of environmental protection for the successful implementation of sustainable tourism practices.

Family Bonding and Self-Concept: An Indirect Effect Mediated by School Experiences among Students
School experiences, family bonding and self-concept had always been a crucial factor in influencing all aspects of a student-s development. The purpose of this study is to develop and to validate a priori model of self-concept among students. The study was tested empirically using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to validate the structural model. To address these concerns, 1167 students were randomly selected and utilized the Cognitive Psycho-Social University of Malaya instrument (2009).Resulted demonstrated there is indirect effect from family bonding to self-concept through school experiences among secondary school students as a mediator. Besides school experiences, there is a direct effect from family bonding to self-concept and family bonding to school experiences among students.
Transmit Sub-aperture Optimization in MSTA Ultrasound Imaging Method
The paper presents the optimization problem for the multi-element synthetic transmit aperture method (MSTA) in ultrasound imaging applications. The optimal choice of the transmit aperture size is performed as a trade-off between the lateral resolution, penetration depth and the frame rate. Results of the analysis obtained by a developed optimization algorithm are presented. Maximum penetration depth and the best lateral resolution at given depths are chosen as the optimization criteria. The optimization algorithm was tested using synthetic aperture data of point reflectors simulated by Filed II program for Matlab® for the case of 5MHz 128-element linear transducer array with 0.48 mm pitch are presented. The visualization of experimentally obtained synthetic aperture data of a tissue mimicking phantom and in vitro measurements of the beef liver are also shown. The data were obtained using the SonixTOUCH Research systemequipped with a linear 4MHz 128 element transducerwith 0.3 mm element pitch, 0.28 mm element width and 70% fractional bandwidth was excited by one sine cycle pulse burst of transducer's center frequency.
An Improved Integer Frequency Offset Estimator using the P1 Symbol for OFDM System
This paper suggests an improved integer frequency offset (IFO) estimation scheme using P1 symbol for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based the second generation terrestrial digital video broadcasting (DVB-T2) system. Proposed IFO estimator is designed by a low-complexity blind IFO estimation scheme, which is implemented with complex additions. Also, we propose active carriers (ACs) selection scheme in order to prevent performance degradation in blind IFO estimation. The simulation results show that under the AWGN and TU6 channels, the proposed method has low complexity than conventional method and almost similar performance in comparison with the conventional method.
A Robust Frequency Offset Estimation Scheme for OFDM System with Cyclic Delay Diversity
Cyclic delay diversity (CDD) is a simple technique to intentionally increase frequency selectivity of channels for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM).This paper proposes a residual carrier frequency offset (RFO) estimation scheme for OFDMbased broadcasting system using CDD. In order to improve the RFO estimation, this paper addresses a decision scheme of the amount of cyclic delay and pilot pattern used to estimate the RFO. By computer simulation, the proposed estimator is shown to benefit form propoerly chosen delay parameter and perform robustly.
Simulation of Agri-Food Supply Chains
Supply chain management has become more challenging with the emerging trend of globalization and sustainability. Lately, research related to perishable products supply chains, in particular agricultural food products, has emerged. This is attributed to the additional complexity of managing this type of supply chains with the recently increased concern of public health, food quality, food safety, demand and price variability, and the limited lifetime of these products. Inventory management for agrifood supply chains is of vital importance due to the product perishability and customers- strive for quality. This paper concentrates on developing a simulation model of a real life case study of a two echelon production-distribution system for agri-food products. The objective is to improve a set of performance measures by developing a simulation model that helps in evaluating and analysing the performance of these supply chains. Simulation results showed that it can help in improving overall system performance.
A Study on Mechanical Properties of Fiberboard Made of Durian Rind through Latex with Phenolic Resin as Binding Agent
This study was aimed to study the probability about the production of fiberboard made of durian rind through latex with phenolic resin as binding agent. The durian rind underwent the boiling process with NaOH [7], [8] and then the fiber from durian rind was formed into fiberboard through heat press. This means that durian rind could be used as replacement for plywood in plywood industry by using durian fiber as composite material with adhesive substance. This research would study the probability about the production of fiberboard made of durian rind through latex with phenolic resin as binding agent. At first, durian rind was split, exposed to light, boiled and steamed in order to gain durian fiber. Then, fiberboard was tested with the density of 600 Kg/m3 and 800 Kg/m3. in order to find a suitable ratio of durian fiber and latex. Afterwards, mechanical properties were tested according to the standards of ASTM and JIS A5905-1994. After the suitable ratio was known, the test results would be compared with medium density fiberboard (MDF) and other related research studies. According to the results, fiberboard made of durian rind through latex with phenolic resin at the density of 800 Kg/m3 at ratio of 1:1, the moisture was measured to be 5.05% with specific gravity (ASTM D 2395-07a) of 0.81, density (JIS A 5905-1994) of 0.88 g/m3, tensile strength, hardness (ASTM D2240), flexibility or elongation at break yielded similar values as the ones by medium density fiberboard (MDF).
Optimal Algorithm for Constructing the Delaunay Triangulation in Ed

In this paper we propose a new approach to constructing the Delaunay Triangulation and the optimum algorithm for the case of multidimensional spaces (d ≥ 2). Analysing the modern state, it is possible to draw a conclusion, that the ideas for the existing effective algorithms developed for the case of d ≥ 2 are not simple to generalize on a multidimensional case, without the loss of efficiency. We offer for the solving this problem an effective algorithm that satisfies all the given requirements. But theoretical complexity of the problem it is impossible to improve as the Worst - Case Optimality for algorithms of solving such a problem is proved.

Effect of Wood Vinegar for Controlling on Housefly (Musca domestica L.)
Raw wood vinegar was purified by both standing and filtering methods. Toxicity tests were conducted under laboratory conditions by the topical application method (contact poison) and feeding method (stomach poison). Larvicidal activities of wood vinegar at four different concentrations (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %) were studied against second instar larvae of housefly (Musca domestica L.). Four replicates were maintained for all treatments and controls. Larval mortality was recorded up to 96 hours and compared with the larval survivability by two methods of larvicidal bioassay. Percent pupation and percent adult emergence were observed in treated M. domestica. The study revealed that the feeding method gave higher efficiency compared with the topical application method. Larval mortality increased with increasing concentration of wood vinegar and the duration of exposure. No mortality was found in treated M. domestica larvae at minimum 10% concentration of wood vinegar through the experiments. The treated larvae were maintained up to pupa and adult emergence. At 30% maximum concentration larval duration was extended to 11 days in M. domestica for topical application method and 9 days for feeding method. Similarly the pupal durations were also increased with increased concentrations (16 and 24 days for topical application method and feeding method respectively at 30% concentration) of the treatments.
Sustainable Urban Transport Management and Its Strategies
Rapid process of urbanism development has increased the demand for some infrastructures such as supplying potable water, electricity network and transportation facilities and etc. Nonefficiency of the existing system with parallel managements of urban traffic management has increased the gap between supply and demand of traffic facilities. A sustainable transport system requires some activities more important than air pollution control, traffic or fuel consumption reduction and the studies show that there is no unique solution for solving complicated transportation problems and solving such a problem needs a comprehensive, dynamic and reliable mechanism. Sustainable transport management considers the effects of transportation development on economic efficiency, environmental issues, resources consumption, land use and social justice and helps reduction of environmental effects, increase of transportation system efficiency as well as improvement of social life and aims to enhance efficiency, goods transportation, provide services with minimum access problems that cannot be realized without reorganization of strategies, policies and plans.
Construction of Attitude Reference Benchmark for Test of Star Sensor Based on Precise Timing
To satisfy the need of outfield tests of star sensors, a method is put forward to construct the reference attitude benchmark. Firstly, its basic principle is introduced; Then, all the separate conversion matrixes are deduced, which include: the conversion matrix responsible for the transformation from the Earth Centered Inertial frame i to the Earth-centered Earth-fixed frame w according to the time of an atomic clock, the conversion matrix from frame w to the geographic frame t, and the matrix from frame t to the platform frame p, so the attitude matrix of the benchmark platform relative to the frame i can be obtained using all the three matrixes as the multiplicative factors; Next, the attitude matrix of the star sensor relative to frame i is got when the mounting matrix from frame p to the star sensor frame s is calibrated, and the reference attitude angles for star sensor outfield tests can be calculated from the transformation from frame i to frame s; Finally, the computer program is finished to solve the reference attitudes, and the error curves are drawn about the three axis attitude angles whose absolute maximum error is just 0.25ÔÇ│. The analysis on each loop and the final simulating results manifest that the method by precise timing to acquire the absolute reference attitude is feasible for star sensor outfield tests.
A Follow up Study on the Elderly Survivors - Mental Health Two Years after the Wenchuan Earthquake

Background: This investigated the mental health of the elderly survivors six months, ten months and two years after the “5.12 Wenchuan" earthquake. Methods: Two hundred and thirty-two physically healthy older survivors from earthquake-affected Mianyang County were interviewed. The measures included the Revised Impact of Event Scale (IES-R, Chinese version, for PTSD) and a Chinese Mental Health Inventory for the Elderly (MHIE). A repeated measures ANOVA test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The follow-up group had a statistically significant lower IES-R score and lower MHIE score than the initial group ten months after the earthquake. Two years later, the score of IES-R in follow-up group were still lower than that of non-follow-up group, but no differences were significant on the score of MHIE between groups. Furthermore, a negative relationship was found between scores of IES-R and MHIE. Conclusion: The earthquake has had a persistent negative impact on older survivors- mental health within the two-year period and that although the PTSD level declined significantly with time, it did not disappear completely.

Dynamic Slope Scaling Procedure for Stochastic Integer Programming Problem
Mathematical programming has been applied to various problems. For many actual problems, the assumption that the parameters involved are deterministic known data is often unjustified. In such cases, these data contain uncertainty and are thus represented as random variables, since they represent information about the future. Decision-making under uncertainty involves potential risk. Stochastic programming is a commonly used method for optimization under uncertainty. A stochastic programming problem with recourse is referred to as a two-stage stochastic problem. In this study, we consider a stochastic programming problem with simple integer recourse in which the value of the recourse variable is restricted to a multiple of a nonnegative integer. The algorithm of a dynamic slope scaling procedure for solving this problem is developed by using a property of the expected recourse function. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is quite efficient. The stochastic programming model defined in this paper is quite useful for a variety of design and operational problems.
Design Aesthetics of Mobile Interface
Mobiles are considered to be the most frequently used electronic items in world after electricity. It is probably the only device that can be used by any gender with no age limits depending on its functionality. This paper present the interactive interface of Mobile and particularly aiming the use of advanced phones which are also called smart phones. With the changes in the trend where users are now moving from ordinary mobiles to the one with touch screens and facilities such as WiFi and internet browsing.
An Experimental Study on Development of the Connection System of Concrete Barriers Applicable to Modular Bridge
Although many studies on the assembly technology of the bridge construction have dealt mostly with on the pier, girder or the deck of the bridge, studies on the prefabricated barrier have rarely been performed. For understanding structural characteristics and application of the concrete barrier in the modular bridge, which is an assembly of structure members, static loading test was performed. Structural performances as a road barrier of the three methods, conventional cast-in-place(ST), vertical bolt connection(BVC) and horizontal bolt connection(BHC) were evaluated and compared through the analyses of load-displacement curves, strain curves of the steel, concrete strain curves and the visual appearances of crack patterns. The vertical bolt connection(BVC) method demonstrated comparable performance as an alternative to conventional cast-in-place(ST) while providing all the advantages of prefabricated technology. Necessities for the future improvement in nuts enforcement as well as legal standard and regulation are also addressed.
Determinants for Success in Expatriation of Malaysian International Corporations
Malaysian corporations going global increased many folds. The shift from domestic to international operations requires increased expatriation to achieve global business goals. Therefore, this study aims to identify the determinants for success in expatriation of Malaysian international corporations. There are certain attributes necessary for a global employee to succeed in international assignment. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to 327 respondents with a response rate of 35.2 percent. The results indicated that most Malaysian manufacturers are involved in expatriation. For a global employee to succeed in an international assignment, the ability to work in international teams was identified and ranked as the most important factor in determining the effectiveness of expatriation followed by language proficiency, adaptability to the international assignment and expatriate sensitivity to cultural elements. The results support previous research with regard to the importance of an effective expatriation selection process in order for a company-s international expansion strategy to succeed.
Full Potential Study of Electronic and Optical Properties of NdF3
We report the electronic structure and optical properties of NdF3 compound. Our calculations are based on density functional theory (DFT) using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method with the inclusion of spin orbit coupling. We employed the local spin density approximation (LSDA) and Coulomb-corrected local spin density approximation, known for treating the highly correlated 4f electrons properly, is able to reproduce the correct insulating ground state. We find that the standard LSDA approach is incapable of correctly describing the electronic properties of such materials since it positions the f-bands incorrectly resulting in an incorrect metallic ground state. On the other hand, LSDA + U approximation, known for treating the highly correlated 4f electrons properly, is able to reproduce the correct insulating ground state. Interestingly, however, we do not find any significant differences in the optical properties calculated using LSDA, and LSDA + U suggesting that the 4f electrons do not play a decisive role in the optical properties of these compounds. The reflectivity for NdF3 compound stays low till 7 eV which is consistent with their large energy gaps. The calculated energy gaps are in good agreement with experiments. Our calculated reflectivity compares well with the experimental data and the results are analyzed in the light of band to band transitions.
Detection of Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains Pollution in Red Deer Meat in Latvia and Determination the Compatibility of VT1, VT2, eae A Genes in their Isolate
Tasks of the work were study the possible E.coli contamination in red deer meat, identify pathogenic strains from isolated E.coli, determine their incidence in red deer meat and determine the presence of VT1, VT2 and eaeA genes for the pathogenic E.coli. 8 (10%) samples were randomly selected from 80 analysed isolates of E.coli and PCR reaction was performed on them. PCR was done both on initial materials – samples of red deer meat - and for already isolated liqueurs. Two of analysed venison samples contain verotoxin-producing strains of E. coli. It means that this meat is not safe to consumer. It was proven by the sequestration reaction of E. coli and by comparison of the obtained results with the database of microorganism genome available on the internet that the isolated culture corresponds to region 16S rDNS of E. coli thus presenting correctness of the microbiological methods.
Psychological Structure of “Aitys“ as a Process of Oral Creative Competition in Kazakh Traditional Folklore

the aim of this study was to analyze ethnopsychological content of “Aitys" as a process of creative competition in Kazakh traditional folklore by means of Transaction analysis (three types of Ego states are Parent, Adult and Child). “Aitys" is as sources of Kazakh national self-consciousness and form of oral Kazakh national creativity. Comparative psychological analysis of classical and modern “aityses" is carried out. Empirical proved that the victory in “Aitys" is provided with a position of egostate “Adult".

Conjunctive Surface Runoff and Groundwater Management in Salinity Soils
This research was conducted in the Lower Namkam Irrigation Project situated in the Namkam River Basin in Thailand. Degradation of groundwater quality in some areas is caused by saline soil spots beneath ground surface. However, the tail regulated gate structure on the Namkam River, a lateral stream of the Mekong River. It is aimed for maintaining water level in the river at +137.5 to +138.5 m (MSL) and flow to the irrigation canals based on a gravity system since July 2009. It might leach some saline soil spots from underground to soil surface if lack of understanding of the conjunctive surface water and groundwater behaviors. This research has been conducted by continuously the observing of both shallow and deep groundwater level and quality from existing observation wells. The simulation of surface water was carried out using a hydrologic modeling system (HEC-HMS) to compute the ungauged side flow catchments as the lateral flows for the river system model (HEC-RAS). The constant water levels in the upstream of the operated gate caused a slight rising up of shallow groundwater level when compared to the water table. However, the groundwater levels in the confined aquifers remained less impacted than in the shallow aquifers but groundwater levels in late of wet season in some wells were higher than the phreatic surface. This causes salinization of the groundwater at the soil surface and might affect some crops. This research aims for the balance of water stage in the river and efficient groundwater utilization in this area.
PPP in Light Rail Transit Systems in Spain

Light rail systems have proliferated in Spain in the last decade, following a tendency that is common not only in other European countries but also in other parts of the world. This paper reviews the benefits of light rail systems, both related to environmental issues and mobility issues. It analyses the evolution of light rail projects in Spain and shows that light rail systems in this country have evolved towards an extensive use of public-private partnerships. The analysis of the Spanish projects, however, does not contribute any conclusive evidence about whether public-private partnerships have been more efficient than publicly owned enterprises in building and operating light rail systems.

A New Approach to Design Policies for the Adoption of Alternative Fuel-Technology Powertrains
Planning the transition period for the adoption of alternative fuel-technology powertrains is a challenging task that requires sophisticated analysis tools. In this study, a system dynamic approach was applied to analyze the bi-directional interaction between the development of the refueling station network and vehicle sales. Besides, the developed model was used to estimate the transition cost to reach a predefined target (share of alternative fuel vehicles) in different scenarios. Several scenarios have been analyzed to investigate the effectiveness and cost of incentives on the initial price of vehicles, and on the evolution of fuel and refueling stations. Obtained results show that a combined set of incentives will be more effective than just a single specific type of incentives.
Factors Influencing B2c eCommerce Diffusion
Despite the fact that B2c eCommerce has become important in numerous economies, its adoption varies from country to country. This paper aims to identify the factors affecting (enabling or inhibiting) B2c eCommerce and to determine their quantitative impact on the diffusion of online sales across countries. A dynamic panel model analyzing the relationship between 13 factors (Macroeconomic, Demographic, Socio-Cultural, Infrastructural and Offer related) stemming from a complete literature analysis and the B2c eCommerce value in 45 countries over 9 years has been developed. Having a positive correlation coefficient, GDP, mobile penetration, Internet user penetration and credit card penetration resulted as enabling drivers of the B2c eCommerce value across countries, whereas, having a negative correlation coefficient,equal distribution of income and the development of traditional retailing network act as inhibiting factors.
Organizational Decision Based on Business Intelligence
Nowadays, obtaining traditional statistics and reports is not adequate for the needs of organizational managers. The managers need to analyze and to transform the raw data into knowledge in the world filled with information. Therefore in this regard various processes have been developed. In the meantime the artificial intelligence-based processes are used and the new topics such as business intelligence and knowledge discovery have emerged. In the current paper it is sought to study the business intelligence and its applications in the organizations.
Process Development of Safe and Ready-to-eat Raw Oyster Meat by Irradiation Technology
White scar oyster (Crassostrea belcheri) is often eaten raw and being the leading vehicle for foodborne disease, especially Salmonella Weltevreden which exposed the prominent and most resistant to radiation. Gamma irradiation at a low dose of 1 kGy was enough to eliminate S. Weltevreden contaminated in oyster meat at a level up to 5 log CFU/g while it still retain the raw characteristics and equivalent sensory quality as the non-irradiated one. Process development of ready-to-eat chilled oyster meat was conducted by shucking the meat, individually packed in plastic bags, subjected to 1 kGy gamma radiation at chilled condition and then stored in 4oC refrigerated temperature. Microbiological determination showed the absence of S. Weltevreden (5 log CFU/g initial inoculated) along the whole storage time of 30 days. Sensory evaluation indicated the decreasing in sensory scores along storage time which determining the product shelf life to be 18 days compared to 15 days of nonirradiated one. The most advantage of developed process was to provide the safe raw oyster to consumers and in addition sensory quality retained and 3-day extension shelf life also exist.
Uncertainty Propagation and Sensitivity Analysis During Calibration of an Integrated Land Use and Transport Model
In this work, propagation of uncertainty during calibration process of TRANUS, an integrated land use and transport model (ILUTM), has been investigated. It has also been examined, through a sensitivity analysis, which input parameters affect the variation of the outputs the most. Moreover, a probabilistic verification methodology of calibration process, which equates the observed and calculated production, has been proposed. The model chosen as an application is the model of the city of Grenoble, France. For sensitivity analysis and uncertainty propagation, Monte Carlo method was employed, and a statistical hypothesis test was used for verification. The parameters of the induced demand function in TRANUS, were assumed as uncertain in the present case. It was found that, if during calibration, TRANUS converges, then with a high probability the calibration process is verified. Moreover, a weak correlation was found between the inputs and the outputs of the calibration process. The total effect of the inputs on outputs was investigated, and the output variation was found to be dictated by only a few input parameters.
Sex Differences in Thyroid Gland Structure of Rabbits
The aim of the present investigation was to compare sex differences in thyroid gland structure of rabbits. Five adult male and five adult female (3.1-3.5 kg body weight) New Zealand white rabbits were used in the experiment. Results showed that at light microscopic level, there was no sex difference in microscopic appearance of the thyroid glands. At electron microscopic level, however, the mitochondria and the microvilli of the follicular cells are more numerous and the Golgi complex is also more extensive in male rabbits in comparison to females. Results obtained from micrometric measurements showed that the volume density of the follicles is higher in males than in females, but the differences are not statistically significant .The volume density of epithelium and the height of follicular cells are significantly greater in males than in females and reverse is true about the volume density of interstitium (p
Histological Structure of the Thyroid Gland in Duck: A Light and Electron Microscopic Study
The present investigation aimed to study the histomorphometric characterizations of the thyroid gland of the duck. Five adult male and five adult female ducks were used in the experiment. Results showed that the overall histological structure of the thyroid gland of the duck were similar to those of the other vertebrae. The gland consisted of roughly spherical randomly distributed micro and macrofollicles with very little interstitial tissue between them. Each follicle is lined by a single layer of epithelial cells enclosing a cavity, the follicular cavity, which is filled with colloid. Ultrastructural findings showed that the apical surface of the follicular cells bears a variable number of short, irregularly distributed microvilli which are apparently more numerous on the columnar cells than on the lower, relatively inactive cells. Mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum occupy the subnuclear region of the follicular cell, whereas the Golgi complex, free ribosomes and colloid droplets were found in the apical cytoplasm. At light or electron microscopic levels, there was no sex difference in histomorphometric characteristics of the thyroid glands.ls.
The Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ) with Turkish Sample: Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analysis

The propose of this study is to investigate the factor structures of the W-DEQ, originally developed on UK and Swedish women, were confirmed in Turkish samples, and to obtain a new modified factor structure appropriate to Turkish culture. Statistical analyses of the data obtained were performed using SPSS© for Windows version 13.0 and the SAS statistical software Version 9.1. Both confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis of W-DEQ were performed in the study. Factor analysis yielded four factors related to hope, fear, lack of positive anticipation and riskiness. The alpha estimates of the total W-DEQ score were somewhat higher, being 0.92 for the parous and 0.90 for the nulliparous sample. These are well above the accepted limit of 0.70 and indicate excellent levels of internal reliability, thus showing that the questions were appropriate to the Turkish culture and useful scale for the evaluation of fear of childbirth in Turkish pregnants.

Multicriteria Synthesis of a Polycentric Knee Prosthesis For Transfemoral Amputees
In one of the prosthesis designs for lower limb transfemoral amputations artificial knee joints with polycentric mechanisms are used. Such prostheses are characterized by high stability during the stance phase of the movement. The existing variety of polycentric mechanisms indicates the possibility of finding the optimal prosthesis design satisfying several quality criteria.In this paper we present a multicriteria method for the synthesis of the artifical polycentric knee mechanism based on the uniform systematic study of the design parameters space and on the analysis of Pareto optimal solutions.
Awareness of Reading Strategies among EFL Learners at Bangkok University
This questionnaire-based study, aimed to measure and compare the awareness of English reading strategies among EFL learners at Bangkok University (BU) classified by their gender, field of study, and English learning experience. Proportional stratified random sampling was employed to formulate a sample of 380 BU students. The data were statistically analyzed in terms of the mean and standard deviation. t-Test analysis was used to find differences in awareness of reading strategies between two groups (-male and female- /-science and social-science students). In addition, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare reading strategy awareness among BU students with different lengths of English learning experience. The results of this study indicated that the overall awareness of reading strategies of EFL learners at BU was at a high level (ðÑ = 3.60) and that there was no statistically significant difference between males and females, and among students who have different lengths of English learning experience at the significance level of 0.05. However, significant differences among students coming from different fields of study were found at the same level of significance.
The Effects of Food Deprivation on Hematological Indices and Blood Indicators of Liver Function in Oxyleotris marmorata
Oxyleotris marmorata is considered as undomesticated fish, and its culture occasionally faces a problem of food deprivation. The present study aims to evaluate alteration of hematological indices, blood chemical associated with liver function during 4 weeks of fasting. A non-linear relationships between fasting days and hematological parameters (red blood cell number; y = - 0.002x2 + 0.041x + 1.249; R2=0.915, P0.05), mean corpuscular volume; y = -0.180x2 + 2.183x + 149.61; R2=0.732, P>0.05, mean corpuscular hemoglobin; y = -0.041x2 + 0.862x + 29.864; R2=0.818, P>0.05 and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration; y = - 0.044x2 + 0.711x + 21.580; R2=0.730, P>0.05) were demonstrated. Significant change in hematocrit (Ht) during fasting period was observed. Ht elevated sharply increase at the first weeks of fasting period. Higher Ht also was detected during week 2-4 of fasting time. The significant reduction of hepatosomatic index was observed (y = - 0.007x2 - 0.096x + 1.414; R2=0.968, P0.05, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase; y = 0.005x2 – 0.201x2 + 1.297x + 33.256; R2=1, P0.05). Taken together, prolonged fasting has deleterious effects on hematological indices, liver mass and enzyme associated in liver function. The marked adverse effects occurred after the first week of fasting state.
Cross-cultural Analysis of the Strategy of Tolerance in the Republic of Kazakhstan

The modern Kazakh society is characterized by strengthen cross-cultural communication, the emergence of new powerful subcultures, accelerated change in social systems and values. The socio-political reforms in all fields have changed the quality of social relationships and spiritual life.Cross-cultural approach involves the analysis of different types of behavior and communication, including the manifestation of the conflict, and the formation of marginal destructive stereotypes.

Solving Differential's Equation of Carrier Load on Semiconductor
The most suitable Semiconductor detector, Cadmium Zinc Teloraid , has unique properties because of high Atomic number and wide Brand Gap . It has been tried in this project with different processes such as Lead , Diffusion , Produce and Recombination , effect of Trapping and injection carrier of CdZnTe , to get hole and then present a complete answer of it . Then we should investigate the movement of carrier ( Electron – Hole ) by using above answer.
Poverty Measurement by Islamic Institutions
Islamic institutions in Malaysia play a variety of socioeconomic roles such as poverty alleviation. To perform this role, these institutions face a major task in identifying the poverty group. Most of these institutions measure and operationalize poverty from the monetary perspective using variables such as income, expenditure or consumption. In practice, most Islamic institutions in Malaysia use the monetary approach in measuring poverty through the conventional Poverty Line Income (PLI) method and recently, the had al kifayah (HAK) method using total necessities of a household from an Islamic perspective. The objective of this paper is to present the PLI and also the HAK method. This micro-data study would highlight the similarities and differences of both the methods.A survey aided by a structured questionnaire was carried out on 260 selected head of households in the state of Selangor. The paper highlights several demographic factors that are associated with the three monetary indicators in the study, namely income, PLI and HAK. In addition, the study found that these monetary variables are significantly related with each other.
Effect of Acid Adaptation on the Survival of Three Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains under Simulated Gastric Condition and their Protein Expression Profiles
In this study, three strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (690, BCRC 13023 and BCRC 13025) were subjected to acid adaptation at pH 5.5 for 90 min. The survival of acid-adapted and non-adapted V. parahaemolyticus strains under simulated gastric condition and their protein expression profiles were investigated. Results showed that acid adaptation increased the survival of the test V. parahaemolyticus strains after exposure to simulated gastric juice (pH 3). Additionally, acid adaptation also affected the protein expression in these V. parahaemolyticus strains. Nine proteins, identified as atpA, atpB, DnaK, GroEL, OmpU, enolase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, phosphoglycerate kinase and triosephosphate isomerase, were induced by acid adaptation in two or three of the test strains. These acid-adaptive proteins may play important regulatory roles in the acid tolerance response (ATR) of V. parahaemolyticus.
Interaction at a Distance – An Approach for Redesigning for Distance Education
Different forms of interaction are an integral part of modern courses. Traditional courses held on-campus might focus on teacher-student interaction, or student-student interaction, or both. However when these traditional on-campus courses are to be held as distance courses there is a risk that these well-designed interactions will be difficult or impossible to uphold. For example, studentstudent interaction in traditional project assignments might not work well if the students are scattered across the world. Thus, even a welldesigned traditional on-site course cannot without modification be turned into a distance course. Traditional on-site courses simply have to be redesigned to become true distance courses. This paper describes a structured approach which facilitates the redesign of a traditional course into a distance course. The approach is based on that the desired forms of course flexibility are identified, and thereafter that the course activities are redesigned to facilitate interaction in a distance course. The approach is making use of known patterns of pedagogic interaction and existing guidelines for distance education design. The approach is illustrated with an example course in the field of information systems design.
Ecotourism, Expansion, alongside with Dominant Function of Khark (kharg) and Kharko Islands
In recent decade's tourism industry is one of main reasons of the social and economical development for many countries; so these countries try to gain more portion of it for themselves. The excessive natural and cultural touristy potentialities in Iran made this country to be one of the most attractive sightseeing areas, although; Iran has got the lowest rate of tourists. Khark Island is about 32 km. It is a beautiful coral reef coast; about 98% of oil export has been done through this place. The ecotourism potentialities of Khark and Kharko Islands (about 3.7km far from Khark) are the reason to consider ecotourism and the main activity in these islands which is exporting oil at the same time. This article refers to way of measuring the geographical coordination of the place, and the potentialities, ecotourism attraction of the islands and introduces some ideas in order to expand tourism in the islands.
State Programs Analysis and Social Crisis Management in the Republic of Kazakhstan: A Descriptive Study
The article is about government programs and projects and their description which are aimed at improving the socioeconomic situation in the Republic of Kazakhstan. A brief historical overview, as well as information about current socio-economic, political and transitional contexts of the country are provided. Two theories were described in the article to inform this descriptive study. According to the United Nation's Development Reports for 2005 and 2011, the country's human development index (HDI) rose by several points despite the socio-economic and political imbalances taking place in the republic since it gained its independence in 1991. It is stated in the article that government support programs are one of the crucial factors that increase the population welfare which in its turn may lead to reduction of social crisis processes in the country.
Assembly Process Algorithms of Flexible Cell
This paper deals about four items assembly process of linear drive. This assembly will be realized in flexible assembly cell on Institute of Manufacturing Systems and Applied Mechanics. There is defined manufacturing cell, individual actuators created our flexible cell. Next chapter is about control type, detailed describe a sequence control type, which will be used in mentioned flexible assembly cell. All cell control is divided in individual steps instructions. There instructions illustrate table number III.
The Cognitive Neuroscience of Vigilance – A Test of Temporal Decrement in the Attention Networks Test (ANT)
The aim of this study was to test whether the Attention Networks Test (ANT) showed temporal decrements in performance. Vigilance tasks typically show such decrements, which may reflect impairments in executive control resulting from cognitive fatigue. The ANT assesses executive control, as well as alerting and orienting. Thus, it was hypothesized that ANT executive control would deteriorate over time. Manipulations including task condition (trial composition) and masking were included in the experimental design in an attempt to increase performance decrements. However, results showed that there is no temporal decrement on the ANT. The roles of task demands, cognitive fatigue and participant motivation in producing this result are discussed. The ANT may not be an effective tool for investigating temporal decrement in attention.
GIS-based Approach for Land-Use Analysis: A Case Study
Geographical Information Systems are an integral part of planning in modern technical systems. Nowadays referred to as Spatial Decision Support Systems, as they allow synergy database management systems and models within a single user interface machine and they are important tools in spatial design for evaluating policies and programs at all levels of administration. This work refers to the creation of a Geographical Information System in the context of a broader research in the area of influence of an under construction station of the new metro in the Greek city of Thessaloniki, which included statistical and multivariate data analysis and diagrammatic representation, mapping and interpretation of the results.
Content-based Retrieval of Medical Images
With the advance of multimedia and diagnostic images technologies, the number of radiographic images is increasing constantly. The medical field demands sophisticated systems for search and retrieval of the produced multimedia document. This paper presents an ongoing research that focuses on the semantic content of radiographic image documents to facilitate semantic-based radiographic image indexing and a retrieval system. The proposed model would divide a radiographic image document, based on its semantic content, and would be converted into a logical structure or a semantic structure. The logical structure represents the overall organization of information. The semantic structure, which is bound to logical structure, is composed of semantic objects with interrelationships in the various spaces in the radiographic image.
Study of Environmental Effects on Sunflower Oil Percent based on Graphical Method
Biplot can be used to evaluate cultivars for their oil percent potential and stability and to evaluate trial sites for their discriminating ability and representativeness. Multi-environmental trial (MET) data for oil percent of 10 open pollinating sunflower cultivars were analyzed to investigate the genotype-environment interactions. The genotypes were evaluated in four locations with different climatic conditions in Iran in 2010. In each location, a Randomized Complete Block design with four replications was used. According to both mean and stability, Zaria, Master and R453, had highest performances among all cultivars. The graphical analysis identified best cultivar for each environment. Cultivars Berezans and Record performed best in Khoy and Islamabad. Zaria and R453 were the best genotypes in Sari and Karaj followed by Master and Favorit. The GGE bi-plot indicated two mega-environments, group one contained Karaj, Khoy and Islamabad and the second group contained Sari. The best discriminating location was Karaj followed with Khoy, Islamabad and Sari. The best representative genotypes were Zaria, R453, Master and Favorit. Ranking of ten cultivars based their oil percent was as Zaria > R453 ≈ Master ≈ Favorit > Record ≈ Berezans > Sor > Lakumka > Bulg3 > Bulg5.
Some Remarkable Properties of a Hopfield Neural Network with Time Delay
It is known that an analog Hopfield neural network with time delay can generate the outputs which are similar to the human electroencephalogram. To gain deeper insights into the mechanisms of rhythm generation by the Hopfield neural networks and to study the effects of noise on their activities, we investigated the behaviors of the networks with symmetric and asymmetric interneuron connections. The neural network under the study consists of 10 identical neurons. For symmetric (fully connected) networks all interneuron connections aij = +1; the interneuron connections for asymmetric networks form an upper triangular matrix with non-zero entries aij = +1. The behavior of the network is described by 10 differential equations, which are solved numerically. The results of simulations demonstrate some remarkable properties of a Hopfield neural network, such as linear growth of outputs, dependence of synchronization properties on the connection type, huge amplification of oscillation by the external uniform noise, and the capability of the neural network to transform one type of noise to another.
Video Quality Assessment using Visual Attention Approach for Sign Language
Visual information is very important in human perception of surrounding world. Video is one of the most common ways to capture visual information. The video capability has many benefits and can be used in various applications. For the most part, the video information is used to bring entertainment and help to relax, moreover, it can improve the quality of life of deaf people. Visual information is crucial for hearing impaired people, it allows them to communicate personally, using the sign language; some parts of the person being spoken to, are more important than others (e.g. hands, face). Therefore, the information about visually relevant parts of the image, allows us to design objective metric for this specific case. In this paper, we present an example of an objective metric based on human visual attention and detection of salient object in the observed scene.
E-learning and m-learning: Africa-s Search for a Suitable Concept in the Era of Cloud Computing?
This paper is an exploration of the conceptual confusion between E-learning and M-learning particularly in Africa. Section I provides a background to the development of E-learning and M-learning. Section II focuses on the conceptual analysis as it applies to Africa. It is with an investigative and expansive mind that this paper is elaborated to respond to a profound question of the suitability of the concepts in a particular era in Africa. The aim of this paper is therefore to shed light on which concept best suits the unique situation of Africa in the era of cloud computing.
Highly Efficient White Light-emitting Diodes Based on Layered Quantum Dot-Phosphor Nanocomposites as Converting Materials
This paper reports on the enhanced photoluminescence (PL) of nanocomposites through the layered structuring of phosphor and quantum dot (QD). Green phosphor of Sr2SiO4:Eu, red QDs of CdSe/CdS/CdZnS/ZnS core-multishell, and thermo-curable resin were used for this study. Two kinds of composite (layered and mixed) were prepared, and the schemes for optical energy transfer between QD and phosphor were suggested and investigated based on PL decay characteristics. It was found that the layered structure is more effective than the mixed one in the respects of PL intensity, PL decay and thermal loss. When this layered nanocomposite (QDs on phosphor) is used to make white light emitting diode (LED), the brightness is increased by 37 %, and the color rendering index (CRI) value is raised to 88.4 compared to the mixed case of 80.4.
Economical Operation of Hydro-Thermal Power System based on Multi-path Adaptive Tabu Search
An economic operation scheduling problem of a hydro-thermal power generation system has been properly solved by the proposed multipath adaptive tabu search algorithm (MATS). Four reservoirs with their own hydro plants and another one thermal plant are integrated to be a studied system used to formulate the objective function under complicated constraints, eg water managements, power balance and thermal generator limits. MATS with four subsearch units (ATSs) and two stages of discarding mechanism (DM), has been setting and trying to solve the problem through 25 trials under function evaluation criterion. It is shown that MATS can provide superior results with respect to single ATS and other previous methods, genetic algorithms (GA) and differential evolution (DE).
Collaborative Web Platform for Rich Media Educational Material Creation
This paper describes a platform that faces the main research areas for e-learning educational contents. Reusability tackles the possibility to use contents in different courses reducing costs and exploiting available data from repositories. In our approach the production of educational material is based on templates to reuse learning objects. In terms of interoperability the main challenge lays on reaching the audience through different platforms. E-learning solution must track social consumption evolution where nowadays lots of multimedia contents are accessed through the social networks. Our work faces it by implementing a platform for generation of multimedia presentations focused on the new paradigm related to social media. The system produces videos-courses on top of web standard SMIL (Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language) ready to be published and shared. Regarding interfaces it is mandatory to satisfy user needs and ease communication. To overcome it the platform deploys virtual teachers that provide natural interfaces while multimodal features remove barriers to pupils with disabilities.
Robust Human Rights Governance: Developing International Criteria
Many states are now committed to implementing international human rights standards domestically. In terms of practical governance, how might effectiveness be measured? A facevalue answer can be found in domestic laws and institutions relating to human rights. However, this article provides two further tools to help states assess their status on the spectrum of robust to fragile human rights governance. The first recognises that each state has its own 'human rights history' and the ideal end stage is robust human rights governance, and the second is developing criteria to assess robustness. Although a New Zealand case study is used to illustrate these tools, the widespread adoption of human rights standards by many states inevitably means that the issues are relevant to other countries. This is even though there will always be varying degrees of similarity-difference in constitutional background and developed or emerging human rights systems.
A Game Design Framework for Vocational Education
Serious games have proven to be a useful instrument to engage learners and increase motivation. Nevertheless, a broadly accepted, practical instructional design approach to serious games does not exist. In this paper, we introduce the use of an instructional design model that has not been applied to serious games yet, and has some advantages compared to other design approaches. We present the case of mechanics mechatronics education to illustrate the close match with timing and role of knowledge and information that the instructional design model prescribes and how this has been translated to a rigidly structured game design. The structured approach answers the learning needs of applicable knowledge within the target group. It combines advantages of simulations with strengths of entertainment games to foster learner-s motivation in the best possible way. A prototype of the game will be evaluated along a well-respected evaluation method within an advanced test setting including test and control group.
Segmental and Subsegmental Lung Vessel Segmentation in CTA Images
In this paper, a novel and fast algorithm for segmental and subsegmental lung vessel segmentation is introduced using Computed Tomography Angiography images. This process is quite important especially at the detection of pulmonary embolism, lung nodule, and interstitial lung disease. The applied method has been realized at five steps. At the first step, lung segmentation is achieved. At the second one, images are threshold and differences between the images are detected. At the third one, left and right lungs are gathered with the differences which are attained in the second step and Exact Lung Image (ELI) is achieved. At the fourth one, image, which is threshold for vessel, is gathered with the ELI. Lastly, identifying and segmentation of segmental and subsegmental lung vessel have been carried out thanks to image which is obtained in the fourth step. The performance of the applied method is found quite well for radiologists and it gives enough results to the surgeries medically.
Identification and Classification of Plastic Resins using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy
In this paper, an automated system is presented for identification and separation of plastic resins based on near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy. For identification and separation among resins, a "Two-Filter" identification method is proposed that is capable to distinguish among polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high density polyethylene (HDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS). Through surveying effects of parameters such as surface contamination, sample thickness, label and cap existence, it was obvious that the "Two-Filter" method has a high efficiency in identification of resins. It is shown that accurate identification and separation of five major resins can be obtained through calculating the relative reflectance at two wavelengths in the NIR region.
A Novel Single-Wavelength All-Optical Flip-Flop Employing Single SOA-MZI
In this paper, by exploiting a single semiconductor optical amplifier-Mach Zehnder Interferometer (SOA-MZI), an integratable all-optical flip-flop (AOFF) is proposed. It is composed of a SOA-MZI with a bidirectional coupler at the output. Output signals of both bar and crossbar of the SOA-MZI is fed back to SOAs located in the arms of the Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI). The injected photon-rates to the SOAs are modulated by feedback signals in order to form optical flip-flop. According to numerical analysis, Gaussian optical pulses with the energy of 15.2 fJ and 20 ps duration with the full width at half-maximum criterion, can switch the states of the SR-AOFF. Also simulation results show that the SR-AOFF has the contrast ratio of 8.5 dB between two states with the transition time of nearly 20 ps.
Value Stream Oriented Inventory Management
Producing companies aspire to high delivery availability despite appearing disruptions. To ensure high delivery availability safety stocksare required. Howeversafety stock leads to additional capital commitment and compensates disruptions instead of solving the reasons.The intention is to increase the stability in production by configuring the production planning and control systematically. Thus the safety stock can be reduced. The largest proportion of inventory in producing companies is caused by batch inventory, schedule deviations and variability of demand rates.These reasons for high inventory levels can be reduced by configuring the production planning and control specifically. Hence the inventory level can be reduced. This is enabled by synchronizing the lot size straightening the demand as well as optimizing the releasing order, sequencing and capacity control.
Development of Road Maintenance Management System Based on WebGIS

Based on an analysis of the current research and application of Road maintenance, geographic information system (WebGIS) and ArcGIS Server, the platform overhead construction for Road maintenance development is studied and the key issues are presented, including the organization and design of spatial data on the basis of the geodatabase technology, middleware technology, tiles cache index technology and dynamic segmentation of WebGIS. Road maintenance geographic information platform is put forward through the researching ideas of analysis of the system design. The design and application of WebGIS system are discussed on the basis of a case study of BaNan district of Chongqing highway maintenance management .The feasibility of the theories and methods are validated through the system.

Characterization and Evaluation of the Activity of Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV from the Black-Bellied Hornet Vespa basalis

Characterization and evaluation of the activity of Vespa basalis DPP-IV, which expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda 21 cells. The expression of rDPP-IV was confirmed by SDS–PAGE, Western blot analyses, LC-MS/MS and measurement of its peptidase specificity. One-step purification by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and the total amount of rDPP-IV recovered was approximately 6.4mg per liter from infected culture medium; an equivalent amount would be produced by 1x109 infected Sf21 insect cells. Through the affinity purification led to highly stable rDPP-IV enzyme was recovered and with significant peptidase activity. The rDPP-IV exhibited classical Michaelis–Menten kinetics, with kcat/Km in the range of 10-500 mM-1×S-1 for the five synthetic substrates and optimum substrate is Ala-Pro-pNA. As expected in inhibition assay, the enzymatic activity of rDPP-IV was significantly reduced by 80 or 60% in the presence of sitagliptin (a DPP-IV inhibitor) or PMSF (a serine protease inhibitor), but was not apparently affected by iodoacetamide (a cysteine protease inhibitor).

Effect of Hormonal Manipulations on the Pattern of the Vaginal Tissue Structure

Design of experiments made for correlated the hormonal activity of steroids and their effect on the vaginal structure properties. Vaginal wall consists of distinct layers of cells which strongly differ regarding growth in answer to steroid hormones. The presence study carried out for functional evaluation and sustained replacement effect of the reproductive hormones on the vaginal morphometry in the rabbit. Rabbits were maintained control (Co) or ovariectomized (Ovz) and continuously treated with estradiol (Ovz E) and estradiol mixture with testosterone (Ovz ET). Relative to control rabbits with the distinct tissue distribution pattern, ovariectomized animals displayed declined epithelial thickness and atrophy of the muscularis layer that cause the vaginal wall thinning. Estradiol treatment of Orz rabbits inverted these changes to status of the preovariectomy. Histometric measurements in Ovz ET group completely including of thickness of the epithelial and muscular layers was greater in comparison to that of control animals.

Dependence of Virtual Subjects Reflection from the Features of Coping Behavior of Students

In the globalization process, when the struggle for minds and values of the people is taking place, the impact of the virtual space can cause unexpected effects and consequences in the process of adjustment of young people in this world. Their special significance is defined by unconscious influence on the underlying process of meaning and therefore the values preached by them are much more effective and affect both the personal characteristics and the peculiarities of adjustment process. Related to this the challenge is to identify factors influencing the reflection characteristics of virtual subjects and measures their impact on the personal characteristics of the students.

Fin Spacing Effect of the Tube Fin Heat Exchanger at the Floor Heating Convector
This article deals with numerical simulation of the floor heating convector in 3D. Numerical simulation is focused on cooling mode of the floor heating convector. Geometrical model represents section of the heat exchanger – two fins with the gap between, pipes are not involved. Two types of fin are examined – sinusoidal and angular shape with different fin spacing. Results of fin spacing in case of constant Reynolds number are presented. For the numerical simulation was used commercial software Ansys Fluent.
Developing a Research Framework for Investigating the Transparency of ePortfolios
This paper describes the evolution of strategies to evaluate ePortfolios in an online Master-s of Education (M.Ed.) degree in Instructional Technology. The ePortfolios are required as a culminating activity for students in the program. By using Web 2.0 tools to develop the ePortfolios, students are able to showcase their technical skills, integrate national standards, demonstrate their professional understandings, and reflect on their individual learning. Faculty have created assessment strategies to evaluate student achievement of these skills. To further develop ePortfolios as a tool promoting authentic learning, faculty are moving toward integrating transparency as part of the evaluation process.
A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis of e-Learning Acceptance Model

This study reports results of a meta-analytic path analysis e-learning Acceptance Model with k = 27 studies, Databases searched included Information Sciences Institute (ISI) website. Variables recorded included perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, attitude toward behavior, and behavioral intention to use e-learning. A correlation matrix of these variables was derived from meta-analytic data and then analyzed by using structural path analysis to test the fitness of the e-learning acceptance model to the observed aggregated data. Results showed the revised hypothesized model to be a reasonable, good fit to aggregated data. Furthermore, discussions and implications are given in this article.

An Adverse Model for Price Discrimination in the Case of Monopoly
We consider a Principal-Agent model with the Principal being a seller who does not know perfectly how much the buyer (the Agent) is willing to pay for the good. The buyer-s preferences are hence his private information. The model corresponds to the nonlinear pricing problem of Maskin and Riley. We assume there are three types of Agents. The model is solved using “informational rents" as variables. In the last section we present the main characteristics of the optimal contracts in asymmetric information and some possible extensions of the model.
Concurrent Access to Complex Entities
In this paper we present a way of controlling the concurrent access to data in a distributed application using the Pessimistic Offline Lock design pattern. In our case, the application processes a complex entity, which contains in a hierarchical structure different other entities (objects). It will be shown how the complex entity and the contained entities must be locked in order to control the concurrent access to data.
A Methodology for Creating a Conceptual Model Under Uncertainty

This article deals with the conceptual modeling under uncertainty. First, the division of information systems with their definition will be described, focusing on those where the construction of a conceptual model is suitable for the design of future information system database. Furthermore, the disadvantages of the traditional approach in creating a conceptual model and database design will be analyzed. A comprehensive methodology for the creation of a conceptual model based on analysis of client requirements and the selection of a suitable domain model is proposed here. This article presents the expert system used for the construction of a conceptual model and is a suitable tool for database designers to create a conceptual model.

A Methodology for Data Migration between Different Database Management Systems

In present days the area of data migration is very topical. Current tools for data migration in the area of relational database have several disadvantages that are presented in this paper. We propose a methodology for data migration of the database tables and their data between various types of relational database systems (RDBMS). The proposed methodology contains an expert system. The expert system contains a knowledge base that is composed of IFTHEN rules and based on the input data suggests appropriate data types of columns of database tables. The proposed tool, which contains an expert system, also includes the possibility of optimizing the data types in the target RDBMS database tables based on processed data of the source RDBMS database tables. The proposed expert system is shown on data migration of selected database of the source RDBMS to the target RDBMS.

Piezoelectric Polarization Effect on Debye Frequency and Temperature in Nitride Wurtzites
We have investigated the effect of piezoelectric (PZ) polarization property in binary as well as in ternary wurtzite nitrides. It is found that with the presence of PZ polarization property, the phonon group velocity is modified. The change in phonon group velocity due to PZ polarization effect directly depends on piezoelectric tensor value. Using different piezoelectric tensor values recommended by different workers in the literature, percent change in group velocities of phonons has been estimated. The Debye temperatures and frequencies of binary nitrides GaN, AlN and InN are also calculated using the modified group velocities. For ternary nitrides AlxGa(1-x)N, InxGa(1-x)N and InxAl(1-x)N, the phonon group velocities have been calculated as a functions of composition. A small positive bowing is observed in phonon group velocities of ternary alloys. Percent variations in phonon group velocities are also calculated for a straightforward comparison among ternary nitrides. The results are expected to show a change in phonon relaxation rates and thermal conductivity of III-nitrides when piezoelectric polarization property is taken into consideration.
Decision Support System for Suppliers

Supplier selection is a multi criteria decision-making process that comprises tangible and intangible factors. The majority of previous supplier selection techniques do not consider strategic perspective. Besides, uncertainty is one of the most important obstacles in supplier selection. For the first, time in this paper, the idea of the algorithm " Knapsack " is used to select suppliers Moreover, an attempt has to be made to take the advantage of a simple numerical method for solving model .This is an innovation to resolve any ambiguity in choosing suppliers. This model has been tried in the suppliers selected in a competitive environment and according to all desired standards of quality and quantity to show the efficiency of the model, an industry sample has been uses.

Results of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy under Spinal Anesthesia
Recently, there has been a considerable increase in the number of procedures carried out under regional anesthesia. However, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) procedures are usually performed under general anesthesia. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of PCNL under spinal anesthesia in patients with renal calculi. We describe our 9 years experience of performing PCNL under spinal anesthesia for 387 patients with large stones of the upper urinary tract, with regard to the effectiveness and side effects. All patients received spinal anesthetics (Lidocain 5%, or Bupivacaine 0.75%) and underwent PCNL in prone position. The success rate was 94.1%. The incidence of complications was 11.6%. PCNL under spinal anesthesia is feasible, safe, and well-tolerated in management of patients with renal stones.
Virtual Learning Process Environment: Cohort Analytics for Learning and Learning Processes

Traditional higher-education classrooms allow lecturers to observe students- behaviours and responses to a particular pedagogy during learning in a way that can influence changes to the pedagogical approach. Within current e-learning systems it is difficult to perform continuous analysis of the cohort-s behavioural tendency, making real-time pedagogical decisions difficult. This paper presents a Virtual Learning Process Environment (VLPE) based on the Business Process Management (BPM) conceptual framework. Within the VLPE, course designers can model various education pedagogies in the form of learning process workflows using an intuitive flow diagram interface. These diagrams are used to visually track the learning progresses of a cohort of students. This helps assess the effectiveness of the chosen pedagogy, providing the information required to improve course design. A case scenario of a cohort of students is presented and quantitative statistical analysis of their learning process performance is gathered and displayed in realtime using dashboards.

The Flashbulb Memory of the Positive and Negative Events: Wenchuan Earthquake and Acceptance to College

53 college students answered questions regarding the circumstances in which they first heard about the news of Wenchuan earthquake or the news of their acceptance to college which took place approximately one year ago, and answered again two years later. The number of details recalled about their circumstances for both events was high and didn-t decline two years later. However, consistency in reported details over two years was low. Participants were more likely to construct central (e.g., Where were you?) than peripheral information (What were you wearing?), and the confidence of the central information was higher than peripheral information, which indicated that they constructed more when they were more confident.

Iranian Bazaars: The Illustration of Stable Thoughts

"Bazaar" is a Persian word from the language of Iranians of 2500 years ago which has entered the languages of other countries. “Bazaar", the trading or marketing place with the architectural principles and concerns, was formed in Iran because of the long experience of marketing. This has become a valuable inheritance of Islamic ideological civilization and Iranian advanced architecture and a model of Islamic-marketing places with spectacular elements and parts, and the place for economical, social and cultural exchanges. “Bazaars" are found in cities of Iran and many Islamic countries in west of Asia and north of Africa. With the stable structure and function as a symbol of social values, this place has become the economic center and the illustration of stable architecture and advanced principles. “Bazaars" as the heart of Iranian cities economy with several major and minor rows of shops, in closed and open areas, along a fixed line or branches with beautiful arcs, patios, and frameworks are among the main national inheritance of Iran and one of the important Iranian architectural treasures because of its Iranian nobility.

Antibacterial Activity of Ethanol Extract from Some Thai Medicinal Plants against Campylobacter Jejuni
In this study, the forty Thai medicinal plants were used to screen the antibacterial activity against Campylobacter jejuni. Crude 95% ethanolic extracts of each plant were prepared. Antibacterial activity was investigated by the disc diffusion assay, and MICs and MBCs were determined by broth microdilution. The results of antibacterial screening showed that five plants have activity against C.jejuni including Adenanthera pavonina L., Moringa oleifera Lam., Annona squamosa L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Eupotorium odortum L. The extraction of A. pavonina L. and A. squamosa L. produced an outstanding against C. jejuni, inhibiting growth at 62.5-125 and 250-500 μg/mL, respectively. The MBCs of two extracts were just 4-fold higher than MICs against C. jejuni, suggesting the extracts are bactericidal against this species. These results indicate that A. pavonina and A. squamosa could potentially be used in modern applications aimed at treatment or prevention of foodborne disease from C. jejuni.
Water Demand Prediction for Touristic Mecca City in Saudi Arabia using Neural Networks
Saudi Arabia is an arid country which depends on costly desalination plants to satisfy the growing residential water demand. Prediction of water demand is usually a challenging task because the forecast model should consider variations in economic progress, climate conditions and population growth. The task is further complicated knowing that Mecca city is visited regularly by large numbers during specific months in the year due to religious occasions. In this paper, a neural networks model is proposed to handle the prediction of the monthly and yearly water demand for Mecca city, Saudi Arabia. The proposed model will be developed based on historic records of water production and estimated visitors- distribution. The driving variables for the model include annuallyvarying variables such as household income, household density, and city population, and monthly-varying variables such as expected number of visitors each month and maximum monthly temperature.
The Influence of Surface Roughness of Drawbead on Non-Symmetry Deep Drawing Cold Rolled Steel Sheet

This study was aimed to explain the influence of surface roughness of the drawbead on non-symmetry deep drawing cold rolled steel sheet to improve the drawability of cold rolled steel sheet. The variables used in this study included semi-circle drawbead with 3 levels of surface roughness which are 6.127 mm Ra, 0.963 mm Ra and 0.152 mm Ra and cold rolled steel sheet according to 3 grades of the JIS standards which are SPCC, SPCE and SPCD with the thickness of 1.0 mm and the blankholder force which is 50% of the drawing force and the depth of 50 mm. According to the test results, when there was the increase in the surface roughness of drawbead, there would be the increase in deep drawing force, especially the SPCC cold rolled steel sheet. This is similar to the increase in the equivalent strain and the wall thickness distribution when the surface roughness of the drawbead increased. It could be concluded that the surface roughness of drawbead has an influence on deep drawing cold rolled steel sheet, especially the drawing force, the equivalent strain and the wall thickness distribution.

Happiness Understanding Depending on Features of Coping Behavior

The importance of happiness understanding research is caused by cardinal changes experiences in system of people values in the post-Soviet countries territory. «The time of changes», which characterized with destruction of old values and not creativeness of new, stimulating experiences by the person of existential vacuum. The given research is actual not only in connection with sense formation, but also in connection with necessity creatively to adapt in integrative space. According to numerous works [1,2,3], we define happiness as the peak experience connected with satisfaction correlated system of needs, dependent on style of subject's coping behavior.

Psychological Research of Ethnic Prejudices
In the article the experience of principle new technology development of ethnopsychological experiment on the basis of using other virtual independent experimental variables is presented. It is shown that ethnic prejudices are the result of forming and development of specific semantic barriers, arising up in the conditions of interethnic co-operation and people-s communication. Their overcoming is more successful in the conditions of the special organized process of teaching in a polyethnic environment, characteristic for the modern institute
Recent Outbreaks of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Chickens and Ducks in Egypt: Pathological Study
Clinically, chickens showed progressively developed clinical signs represented by sever cyanosis of the comb and wattles with hemorrhage at the shanks, depression, and ruffling feathers with loss of appetite and high daily mortalities. The ducks showed severe neurological signs as torticollus, seizures and inability to stand with mild signs of diarrhea and depression. Grossly, chickens showed hemorrhages and congestion in most of the organs particularly lung, liver, spleen, trachea and kidney. The examined ducks showed multiple petechial hemorrhages, multifocal hemorrhagic necrosis in the pancreas, pulmonary edema, congestion and hemorrhage in meninges and congestion in the skeletal muscles. Histopathology revealed severe congestion and hemorrhages in most of the organs particularly lung, liver and kidney. Microscopic erosive tracheitis, sever pulmonary congestion and perivascular oedema and lymphogranulocytic pneumonia were constant. The liver showed hepatocyts necrosis and lympho-granulocytic infiltration. The kidney showed renal tubular necrosis and diffuse congestion. Multifocal, neuronal necrosis, hemorrhages, multifocal glial nodules, lympho- histiocytic perivascular cuffing, and occasional neuronophagia were observed in the cerebrum. Other organs showed moderate changes.
Nonlinear Conduction in Pure and Doped ZnO Varistors
We report here structural, mechanical and I-V characteristics of Zn1-xMxO ceramic samples with various x and M. It is found that the considered dopants does not influence the wellknown peaks related to wurtzite structure of ZnO ceramics, while the shape and size of grains are clearly affected. Average crystalline diameters, deduced from XRD are between 42 nm and 54 nm, which are 70 times lower than those obtained from SEM micrographs. Interestingly, the potential barrier could be formed by adding Cu up to 0.20, and it is completely deformed by 0.025 Ni additions. The breakdown field could be enhanced up to 4138 V/cm by 0.025 Cu additions, followed by a decrease with further increase of Cu . On the other hand a gradual decrease in VHN is reported for both dopants and their values are higher in Ni samples as compared to Cu samples. The electrical conductivity is generally improved by Ni, while addition of Cu improved it only in the over doped region (≥ 0.10). These results are discussed in terms of the difference of valency and ferromagnetic ordering for both dopants as compared to undoped sample.
Land Use around Metro Stations: A Case Study
Transport and land use are two systems that are mutually influenced. Their interaction is a complex process associated with continuous feedback. The paper examines the existing land use around an under construction metro station of the new metro network of Thessaloniki, Greece, through the use of field investigations, around the station-s predefined location. Moreover, except from the analytical land use recording, a sampling questionnaire survey is addressed to several selected enterprises of the study area. The survey aims to specify the characteristics of the enterprises, the trip patterns of their employees and clients, as well as the stated preferences towards the changes the new metro station is considered to bring to the area. The interpretation of the interrelationships among selected data from the questionnaire survey takes place using the method of Principal Components Analysis for Categorical Data. The followed methodology and the survey-s results contribute to the enrichment of the relevant bibliography concerning the way the creation of a new metro station can have an impact on the land use pattern of an area, by examining the situation before the operation of the station.
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