Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 229

Evolutionary Techniques for Model Order Reduction of Large Scale Linear Systems

Recently, genetic algorithms (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique have attracted considerable attention among various modern heuristic optimization techniques. The GA has been popular in academia and the industry mainly because of its intuitiveness, ease of implementation, and the ability to effectively solve highly non-linear, mixed integer optimization problems that are typical of complex engineering systems. PSO technique is a relatively recent heuristic search method whose mechanics are inspired by the swarming or collaborative behavior of biological populations. In this paper both PSO and GA optimization are employed for finding stable reduced order models of single-input- single-output large-scale linear systems. Both the techniques guarantee stability of reduced order model if the original high order model is stable. PSO method is based on the minimization of the Integral Squared Error (ISE) between the transient responses of original higher order model and the reduced order model pertaining to a unit step input. Both the methods are illustrated through numerical example from literature and the results are compared with recently published conventional model reduction technique.

Control Strategy of SRM Converters for Power Quality Improvement

The selection of control strategy depends on the converters of the drive including power, speed, performance and the possible system costs. A number of attempts were therefore made in recent times to develop novel power electronic converter structures for SRM drives, based on the utilization. Many of the converters with variable speed drives have no input power factor correction circuits. This results in harmonic pollution of the utility supply, which should be avoided. The effect of power factor variation in terms of harmonic content is also analyzed in this study. The proposed topologies were simulated using MATLAB / Simulink software package and the results are obtained.

Power System Stability Improvement by Simultaneous Tuning of PSS and SVC Based Damping Controllers Employing Differential Evolution Algorithm

Power-system stability improvement by simultaneous tuning of power system stabilizer (PSS) and a Static Var Compensator (SVC) based damping controller is thoroughly investigated in this paper. Both local and remote signals with associated time delays are considered in the present study. The design problem of the proposed controller is formulated as an optimization problem, and differential evolution (DE) algorithm is employed to search for the optimal controller parameters. The performances of the proposed controllers are evaluated under different disturbances for both single-machine infinite bus power system and multi-machine power system. The performance of the proposed controllers with variations in the signal transmission delays has also been investigated. The proposed stabilizers are tested on a weakly connected power system subjected to different disturbances. Nonlinear simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control schemes over a wide range of loading conditions and disturbances. Further, the proposed design approach is found to be robust and improves stability effectively even under small disturbance conditions.

Design, Analysis and Modeling of Dual Band Microstrip Loop Antenna Using Defective Ground Plane

Present wireless communication demands compact and intelligent devices with multitasking capabilities at affordable cost. The focus in the presented paper is on a dual band antenna for wireless communication with the capability of operating at two frequency bands with same structure. Two resonance frequencies are observed with the second operation band at 4.2GHz approximately three times the first resonance frequency at 1.5GHz. Structure is simple loop of microstrip line with characteristic impedance 50 ohms. The proposed antenna is designed using defective ground structure (DGS) and shows the nearly one third reductions in size as compared to without DGS. This antenna was simulated on electromagnetic (EM) simulation software and fabricated using microwave integrated circuit technique on RT-Duroid dielectric substrate (εr= 2.22) of thickness (H=15 mils). The designed antenna was tested on automatic network analyzer and shows the good agreement with simulated results. The proposed structure is modeled into an equivalent electrical circuit and simulated on circuit simulator. Subsequently, theoretical analysis was carried out and simulated. The simulated, measured, equivalent circuit response, and theoretical results shows good resemblance. The bands of operation draw many potential applications in today’s wireless communication.

Intelligent Temperature Controller for Water-Bath System

Conventional controller’s usually required a prior knowledge of mathematical modelling of the process. The inaccuracy of mathematical modelling degrades the performance of the process, especially for non-linear and complex control problem. The process used is Water-Bath system, which is most widely used and nonlinear to some extent. For Water-Bath system, it is necessary to attain desired temperature within a specified period of time to avoid the overshoot and absolute error, with better temperature tracking capability, else the process is disturbed.

To overcome above difficulties intelligent controllers, Fuzzy Logic (FL) and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), are proposed in this paper. The Fuzzy controller is designed to work with knowledge in the form of linguistic control rules. But the translation of these linguistic rules into the framework of fuzzy set theory depends on the choice of certain parameters, for which no formal method is known. To design ANFIS, Fuzzy-Inference-System is combined with learning capability of Neural-Network.

It is analyzed that ANFIS is best suitable for adaptive temperature control of above system. As compared to PID and FLC, ANFIS produces a stable control signal. It has much better temperature tracking capability with almost zero overshoot and minimum absolute error.

The Digital Filing Cabinet–A GIS Based Management Solution Tool for the Land Surveyor and Engineer

This paper explains how the New Jersey Institute of Technology surveying student team members designed and created an interactive GIS map, the purpose of which is to be useful to the land surveyor and engineer for project management. This was achieved by building a research and storage database that can be easily integrated into any land surveyor’s current operations through the use of ArcGIS 10, Arc Catalog, and AutoCAD. This GIS database allows for visual representation and information querying for multiple job sites, and simple access to uploaded data, which is geospatially referenced to each individual job site or project. It can also be utilized by engineers to determine design criteria, or to store important files. This cost-effective approach to a surveying map not only saves time, but saves physical storage space and paper resources.

Generalized d-q Model of n-Phase Induction Motor Drive

This paper presents a generalized d-q model of n- phase induction motor drive. Multi -phase (n-phase) induction motor (more than three phases) drives possess several advantages over conventional three-phase drives, such as reduced current/phase without increasing voltage/phase, lower torque pulsation, higher torque density, fault tolerance, stability, high efficiency and lower current ripple. When the number of phases increases, it is also possible to increase the power in the same frame. In this paper, a generalized dq-axis model is developed in Matlab/Simulink for an n-phase induction motor. The simulation results are presented for 5, 6, 7, 9 and 12 phase induction motor under varying load conditions. Transient response of the multi-phase induction motors are given for different number of phases. Fault tolerant feature is also analyzed for 5-phase induction motor drive.

Hydrodynamics of Bubbly Flow in a Modified Reactor

This article reports on hydrodynamic, mass transfer performances of fine bubble in a modified reactor. The quality of mixing in the modified reactor is discussed in the paper. Mass transfer efficiency based on quality of mixing is enunciated. To interpret the gas phase volume fraction and the quality of mixing is the empirical models for the modified system are developed.

Study of Carbon Monoxide Oxidation in a Monolithic Converter

Combustion of fuels in industrial and transport sector has lead to an alarming release of polluting gases to the atmosphere. Carbon monoxide is one such pollutant, which is formed as a result of incomplete oxidation of the fuel. In order to analyze the effect of catalyst on the reduction of CO emissions to the atmosphere, two catalysts Mn2O3 and Hopcalite are considered. A model was formed based on mass and energy balance equations. Results show that Hopcalite catalyst as compared to Mn2O3 catalyst helped in faster conversion of the polluting gas as the operating temperature of the hopcalite catalyst is much lower as compared to the operating temperature of Mn2O3 catalyst.

Floristic Richness of the Tropical Coast of Northern Andhra Pradesh along Bay of Bengal, a Treasure to be Conserved

Coastal zone combines terrestrial, marine and atmospheric factors and gives rise to unique landforms that play an important role in long-term sustainability of the hinterland and economy of maritime nations. World over, efforts have been put forth to understand plants of the seacoasts. In India also, plants of several geographical entities have been well documented, but works devoted to plant communities of the vast tropical coast of India and its States are still insufficient. Therefore, an inventory of plants flourishing in a stretch of ~450km of the Coastal Regulatory Zone I encompassing a total of 84 villages in 6 revenue Districts of northern Andhra Pradesh (15o42’06”N, 80o51’03”E to 19o05’51”N, 84o47’44”E) along Bay of Bengal was carried out. The study revealed presence of a total of 364 species belonging to 225 genera under 71 families. In addition to inventory, zonation pattern, ethnobotany, and certain interesting ecological facts are included.

Optimization of Lipase Production Using Bacillus subtilis by Response Surface Methodology

A total of 6 isolates of Bacillus subtilis were isolated from oil mill waste collected in Namakkal district, Tamilnadu, India. The isolated bacteria were screened using lipase screening medium containing Tween 80. BS-3 isolate exhibited a greater clear zone than the others, indicating higher lipase activity. Therefore, this isolate was selected for media optimization studies. Ten process variables were screened using Plackett–Burman design and were further optimized by central composite design of response surface methodology for lipase production in submerged fermentation. Maximum lipase production of 16.627 U/min/ml were predicted in medium containing yeast extract (9.3636g), CaCl2 (0.8986g) and incubation periods (1.813 days). A mean value of 16.98 ± 0.2286 U/min/ml of lipase was acquired from real experiments.

Numerical Solution of Second-Order Ordinary Differential Equations by Improved Runge-Kutta Nystrom Method

In this paper we developed the Improved Runge-Kutta Nystrom (IRKN) method for solving second order ordinary differential equations. The methods are two step in nature and require lower number of function evaluations per step compared with the existing Runge-Kutta Nystrom (RKN) methods. Therefore, the methods are computationally more efficient at achieving the higher order of local accuracy. Algebraic order conditions of the method are obtained and the third and fourth order method are derived with two and three stages respectively. The numerical results are given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method compared to the existing RKN methods.

Investigation of the Aerodynamic Characters of Ducted Fan System

This paper investigates the aerodynamic characters of a model ducted fan system, analyses the basic principle of the effect of thrust promotion and torque reduction, discovers the relationship between the revolutions per minute(RPM) of the fan and the characters of thrust, as well as system torque. Firstly a model ducted fan has been designed and manufactured according to the specific structure of flow field, then CFD simulation has been carried out to analyze such aerodynamics, finally bench tests have been used to validate the simulation results and system configuration.

Lower Bounds of Some Small Ramsey Numbers
For positive integer s and t, the Ramsey number R(s, t) is the least positive integer n such that for every graph G of order n, either G contains Ks as a subgraph or G contains Kt as a subgraph. We construct the circulant graphs and use them to obtain lower bounds of some small Ramsey numbers.
Confidence Intervals for the Normal Mean with Known Coefficient of Variation

In this paper we proposed two new confidence intervals for the normal population mean with known coefficient of variation. This situation occurs normally in environment and agriculture experiments where the scientist knows the coefficient of variation of their experiments. We propose two new confidence intervals for this problem based on the recent work of Searls [5] and the new method proposed in this paper for the first time. We derive analytic expressions for the coverage probability and the expected length of each confidence interval. Monte Carlo simulation will be used to assess the performance of these intervals based on their expected lengths.

Toxicity Test of Ag+, Nano-Ag0 and Nano- Ag2O Using Green Algae (Chlorella sp.) and Water Flea (Moina macrocopa)

The research objective was to study the toxicity of silver nanoparticles in aquatic organisms. Three forms of free silver ion nanoparticles (Ag+), silver nano particles (nano-Ag0) and silver oxide nanoparticles (nano Ag2O) were examined for toxic effects with Chlorella sp. and Moina macrocopa. The results showed that the toxicity of three silver ion forms to both organisms was examined

Some Geodesics in Open Surfaces Classified by Clairaut's Relation

In this paper, we studied some properties of geodesic on some open surfaces: Hyperboloid, Paraboloid and Funnel Surface. Geodesic equation in the v-Clairaut parameterization was calculated and reduced to definite integral. Some geodesics on some open surfaces as mention above were classified by Clairaut's relation.

Vortex Formation in Lid-driven Cavity with Disturbance Block

In this paper, numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effect of disturbance block on flow field of the classical square lid-driven cavity. Attentions are focused on vortex formation and studying the effect of block position on its structure. Corner vortices are different upon block position and new vortices are produced because of the block. Finite volume method is used to solve Navier-Stokes equations and PISO algorithm is employed for the linkage of velocity and pressure. Verification and grid independency of results are reported. Stream lines are sketched to visualize vortex structure in different block positions.

Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contamination in Sediment and Wastewater from the Imam Khomeini and Razi Petrochemical Companies- Iran

The present study was performed in Musa bay (northern part of the Persian Gulf) around the coastal area of Bandare-Imam Khomeini and Razi Petrochemical Companies. Sediment samples and effluent samples were collected from the selected stations, from June 2009 to June 2010. The samples were analyzed to determine the degree of hydrocarbon contamination. The average level of TPH concentration in the study area was more than the natural background value at all of the stations, especially at station BI1 which was the main effluent outlet of Bandar-e- Imam Khomeini petrochemical company. Also the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon was monitored in the effluents of aforementioned petrochemical companies and the results showed that the concentration of TPH in the effluents of Bandar-e- Imam Khomeini petrochemical company was greater than Razi petrochemical company which is may be related to the products of Bandar-e- Imam Khomeini petrochemical company (aromatics, polymers, chemicals, fuel).

Patterns of Sports Supplement Use among Iranian Female Athletes

Supplement use is common in athletes. Besides their cost, they may have side effects on health and performance. 250 questionnaires were distributed among female athletes (mean age 27.08 years). The questionnaire aimed to explore the frequency, type, believes, attitudes and knowledge regarding dietary supplements. Knowledge was good in 30.3%, fair in 60.2%, and poor in 9.1% of respondents. 65.3% of athletes did not use supplements regularly. The most widely used supplements were vitamins (48.4%), minerals (42.9%), energy supplements (21.3%), and herbals (20.9%). 68.9% of athletes believed in their efficacy. 34.4% experienced performance enhancement and 6.8% of reported side effects. 68.2% reported little knowledge and 60.9% were eager to learn more. In conclusion, many of the female athletes believe in the efficacy of supplements and think they are an unavoidable part of competitive sports. However, their information is not sufficient. We have to stress on education, consulting sessions, and rational prescription.

Analyzing the Relation of Community Group for Research Paper Bookmarking by Using Association Rule

Currently searching through internet is very popular especially in a field of academic. A huge of educational information such as research papers are overload for user. So community-base web sites have been developed to help user search information more easily from process of customizing a web site to need each specifies user or set of user. In this paper propose to use association rule analyze the community group on research paper bookmarking. A set of design goals for community group frameworks is developed and discussed. Additionally Researcher analyzes the initial relation by using association rule discovery between the antecedent and the consequent of a rule in the groups of user for generate the idea to improve ranking search result and development recommender system.

Nonconforming Control Charts for Zero-Inflated Poisson Distribution

This paper developed the c-Chart based on a Zero- Inflated Poisson (ZIP) processes that approximated by a geometric distribution with parameter p. The p estimated that fit for ZIP distribution used in calculated the mean, median, and variance of geometric distribution for constructed the c-Chart by three difference methods. For cg-Chart, developed c-Chart by used the mean and variance of the geometric distribution constructed control limits. For cmg-Chart, the mean used for constructed the control limits. The cme- Chart, developed control limits of c-Chart from median and variance values of geometric distribution. The performance of charts considered from the Average Run Length and Average Coverage Probability. We found that for an in-control process, the cg-Chart is superior for low level of mean at all level of proportion zero. For an out-of-control process, the cmg-Chart and cme-Chart are the best for mean = 2, 3 and 4 at all level of parameter.

The Energy Impacts of Using Top-Light Daylighting Systems for Academic Buildings in Tropical Climate

Careful design and selection of daylighting systems can greatly help in reducing not only artificial lighting use, but also decrease cooling energy consumption and, therefore, potential for downsizing air-conditioning systems. This paper aims to evaluate the energy performance of two types of top-light daylighting systems due to the integration of daylight together with artificial lighting in an existing examinaton hall in University Kebangsaan Malaysia, based on a hot and humid climate. Computer simulation models have been created for building case study (base case) and the two types of toplight daylighting designs for building energy performance evaluation using the VisualDOE 4.0 building energy simulation program. The finding revealed that daylighting through top-light systems is a very beneficial design strategy in reducing annual lighting energy consumption and the overall total annual energy consumption.

A Study on the Average Information Ratio of Perfect Secret-Sharing Schemes for Access Structures Based On Bipartite Graphs

A perfect secret-sharing scheme is a method to distribute a secret among a set of participants in such a way that only qualified subsets of participants can recover the secret and the joint share of participants in any unqualified subset is statistically independent of the secret. The collection of all qualified subsets is called the access structure of the perfect secret-sharing scheme. In a graph-based access structure, each vertex of a graph G represents a participant and each edge of G represents a minimal qualified subset. The average information ratio of a perfect secret-sharing scheme  realizing the access structure based on G is defined as AR = (Pv2V (G) H(v))/(|V (G)|H(s)), where s is the secret and v is the share of v, both are random variables from  and H is the Shannon entropy. The infimum of the average information ratio of all possible perfect secret-sharing schemes realizing a given access structure is called the optimal average information ratio of that access structure. Most known results about the optimal average information ratio give upper bounds or lower bounds on it. In this present structures based on bipartite graphs and determine the exact values of the optimal average information ratio of some infinite classes of them.

The Effect of a Nutrient Fortified Oat Drink on Iron, Zinc, Vitamin A, and Vitamin C Status among Filipino Children

The effectiveness of consuming a nutrient fortified oat drink on iron, zinc, vitamin A and vitamin C status was assessed among a cohort of school-aged Filipino children. Ultimate study implementation permitted only a within-subject comparison of change in nutritional status after four months of consuming a nutrient fortified oat drink. Thirty-eight anemic children (5-8 years) consumed an oat drink fortified with iron as NaFeEDTA, zinc, vitamin A and vitamin C for 120 days. Height, weight, serum nutrient levels, anemia status and dietary intake were assessed pre and post intervention. Thirty-four anemic children completed the intervention. After 4 months of intervention, prevalence of anemia decreased by 68% and significant improvements in iron and vitamin A status were observed. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the fortified oat drink in alleviating anemia in young children and highlight the value of fortification programs

Influence of Solution Chemistry on Adsorption of Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) on Boehmite

The persistent nature of perfluorochemicals (PFCs) has attracted global concern in recent years. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are the most commonly found PFC compounds, and thus their fate and transport play key roles in PFC distribution in the natural environment. The kinetic behavior of PFOS or PFOA on boehmite consists of a fast adsorption process followed by a slow adsorption process which may be attributed to the slow transport of PFOS or PFOA into the boehmite pore surface. The adsorption isotherms estimated the maximum adsorption capacities of PFOS and PFOA on boehmite as 0.877 μg/m2 and 0.633 μg/m2, with the difference primarily due to their different functional groups. The increase of solution pH led to a moderate decrease of PFOS and PFOA adsorption, owing to the increase of ligand exchange reactions and the decrease of electrostatic interactions. The presence of NaCl in solution demonstrated negative effects for PFOS and PFOA adsorption on boehmite surfaces, with potential mechanisms being electrical double layer compression, competitive adsorption of chloride.

The Fuel Consumption and Non Linear Model Metropolitan and Large City Transportation System
The national economy development affects the vehicle ownership which ultimately increases fuel consumption. The rise of the vehicle ownership is dominated by the increasing number of motorcycles. This research aims to analyze and identify the characteristics of fuel consumption, the city transportation system, and to analyze the relationship and the effect of the city transportation system on the fuel consumption. A multivariable analysis is used in this study. The data analysis techniques include: a Multivariate Multivariable Analysis by using the R software. More than 84% of fuel on Java is consumed in metropolitan and large cities. The city transportation system variables that strongly effect the fuel consumption are population, public vehicles, private vehicles and private bus. This method can be developed to control the fuel consumption by considering the urban transport system and city tipology. The effect can reducing subsidy on the fuel consumption, increasing state economic.
People Empowerment in Livelihood Activities toward Sustainable Coastal Resource Management in Indonesia

Coastal resource management, community empowerment and socio economic development are the cornerstones for uplifting the lives of coastal area inhabitants. This paper aims to identify the positive impacts of coastal management projects toward fishermen-s economic well-being, to analyze the role of fishermen and their families in effecting economic change and to analyze the roles of stakeholders in managing coastal resources. Structured and semi-structured questionnaires were prepared to obtain qualitative data, and interviews were conducted with fishermen. Findings show that community empowerment and conservation of coastal resources through local and central government projects have exerted positive impact on the coastal community. Some activities involved women who are more active particularly in “off-fishing" season. Traditionally, local fishermen together with local stakeholders have set up a zoning system to minimize conflicts between fishermen. In addition, zoning is used to protect certain ecosystems that can provide benefits well into the future.

Subjective Assessment about Super Resolution Image Resolution
Super resolution (SR) technologies are now being applied to video to improve resolution. Some TV sets are now equipped with SR functions. However, it is not known if super resolution image reconstruction (SRR) for TV really works or not. Super resolution with non-linear signal processing (SRNL) has recently been proposed. SRR and SRNL are the only methods for processing video signals in real time. The results from subjective assessments of SSR and SRNL are described in this paper. SRR video was produced in simulations with quarter precision motion vectors and 100 iterations. These are ideal conditions for SRR. We found that the image quality of SRNL is better than that of SRR even though SRR was processed under ideal conditions.
Long-Term Treatment of Puerariae Radix Extract Ameliorated Hyperparathyroidism Induced by Ovariectomy in Mature Female Rats
Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a disorder characterized by the progressive bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal women. This imbalance affects calcium–phosphate metabolism and results in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Purariae Radix (PR), the root of P. lobata (Wild.) Ohwi, is one of the earliest medicinal herbs employed in ancient China. PR contains a high quantity of isoflavones and their glycosides, which are regarded as phytoestrogen. Few investigations of PR are related to its osteoprotective effects. The present study is designed to administer PR water extract to ovariectomized (OVX) female rats, for the investigation of its possibly protective actions on bone and to delineate the potential mechanisms involved. Our results demonstrated that long-term treatment of PR could not significantly improve bone properties, whereas it greatly ameliorated the condition of secondary hyperparathyroidism induced by ovariectomy in those animals. PR might be useful as alternative regimen for protecting against postmenopausal bone loss.
Separation of Dissolved Gas for Breathing of a Human against Sudden Waves Using Hollow Fiber Membranes

The separation of dissolved gas including dissolved oxygen can be used in breathing for a human under water. When one is suddenly wrecked or meets a tsunami, one is instantly drowned and cannot breathe under water. To avoid this crisis, when we meet waves, the dissolved gas separated from water by wave is used, while air can be used to breathe when we are about to escape from water. In this thesis, we investigated the separation characteristics of dissolved gas using the pipe type of hollow fiber membrane with polypropylene and the nude type of one with polysulfone. The hollow fiber membranes with good characteristics under water are used to separate the dissolved gas. The hollow fiber membranes with good characteristics in an air are used to transfer air. The combination of membranes with good separation characteristics under water and good transferring one in an air is used to breathe instantly under water to be alive at crisis. These results showed that polypropylene represented better performance than polysulfone under both of air and water conditions.

Investigation into Behavior of Suspen-Domes in Comparison with Single-Layer Domes

Prestressing in structure increases ratio of load-bearing capacity to weight. Suspendomes are single-layer braced domes reinforced with cable and strut. Prestressing of cables alter value and distribution of stress in structure. In this study two configuration, diamatic and lamella domes is selected. Investigated domes have span of 100m with rise-to-span ratios of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3. Single layer domes loaded under service load combinations according to ISO code. After geometric nonlinear analysis, models are designed with tubular and I-shaped sections then reinforced with cable and strut and converted to suspendomes. Displacements and stresses of some groups of nodes and elements in all of single-layer domes and suspendomes for three load combinations, symmetric snow, asymmetric snow and wind are compared. Variation due to suspending system is investigated. Suspendomes are redesigned and minimum possible weight after addition of cable and strut is obtained.

Behavior Factor of Flat Double-Layer Space Structures

Flat double-layer grid is from category of space structures that are formed from two flat layers connected together with diagonal members. Increased stiffness and better seismic resistance in relation to other space structures are advantages of flat double layer space structures. The objective of this study is assessment and calculation of Behavior factor of flat double layer space structures. With regarding that these structures are used widely but Behavior factor used to design these structures against seismic force is not determined and exact, the necessity of study is obvious. This study is theoretical. In this study we used structures with span length of 16m and 20 m. All connections are pivotal. ANSYS software is used to non-linear analysis of structures.

Tool Wear of Titanium/Tungsten/Silicon/Aluminum-based-coated end Mill Cutters in Millin Hardened Steel
In turning hardened steel, polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (cBN) compacts are widely used, due to their higher hardness and higher thermal conductivity. However, in milling hardened steel, fracture of cBN cutting tools readily occurs because they have poor fracture toughness. Therefore, coated cemented carbide tools, which have good fracture toughness and wear resistance, are generally widely used. In this study, hardened steel (ASTM D2, JIS SKD11, 60HRC) was milled with three physical vapor deposition (PVD)-coated cemented carbide end mill cutters in order to determine effective tool materials for cutting hardened steel at high cutting speeds. The coating films used were (Ti,W)N/(Ti,W,Si)N and (Ti,W)N/(Ti,W,Si,Al)N coating films. (Ti,W,Si,Al)N is a new type of coating film. The inner layer of the (Ti,W)N/(Ti,W,Si)N and (Ti,W)N/(Ti,W,Si,Al)N coating system is (Ti,W)N coating film, and the outer layer is (Ti,W,Si)N and (Ti,W,Si,Al)N coating films, respectively. Furthermore, commercial (Ti,Al)N-based coating film was also used. The following results were obtained: (1) In milling hardened steel at a cutting speed of 3.33 m/s, the tool wear width of the (Ti,W)N/(Ti,W,Si,Al)N-coated tool was smaller than that of the (Ti,W)N/(Ti,W,Si)N-coated tool. And, compared with the commercial (Ti,Al)N, the tool wear width of the (Ti,W)N/(Ti,W,Si,Al)N-coated tool was smaller than that of the (Ti,Al)N-coated tool. (2) The tool wear of the (Ti,W)N/(Ti,W,Si,Al)N-coated tool increased with an increase in cutting speed. (3) The (Ti,W)N/(Ti,W,Si,Al)N-coated cemented carbide was an effective tool material for high-speed cutting below a cutting speed of 3.33 m/s.
A New Algorithm to Stereo Correspondence Using Rank Transform and Morphology Based On Genetic Algorithm
This paper presents a novel algorithm of stereo correspondence with rank transform. In this algorithm we used the genetic algorithm to achieve the accurate disparity map. Genetic algorithms are efficient search methods based on principles of population genetic, i.e. mating, chromosome crossover, gene mutation, and natural selection. Finally morphology is employed to remove the errors and discontinuities.
Design of Multiple Clouds Based Global Performance Evaluation Service Broker System

According to dramatic growth of internet services, an easy and prompt service deployment has been important for internet service providers to successfully maintain time-to-market. Before global service deployment, they have to pay the big cost for service evaluation to make a decision of the proper system location, system scale, service delay and so on. But, intra-Lab evaluation tends to have big gaps in the measured data compared with the realistic situation, because it is very difficult to accurately expect the local service environment, network congestion, service delay, network bandwidth and other factors. Therefore, to resolve or ease the upper problems, we propose multiple cloud based GPES Broker system and use case that helps internet service providers to alleviate the above problems in beta release phase and to make a prompt decision for their service launching. By supporting more realistic and reliable evaluation information, the proposed GPES Broker system saves the service release cost and enables internet service provider to make a prompt decision about their service launching to various remote regions.

Vapor Bubble Dynamics in Upward Subcooled Flow Boiling During Void Evolution
Bubble generation was observed using a high-speed camera in subcooled flow boiling at low void fraction. Constant heat flux was applied on one side of an upward rectangular channel to make heated test channel. Water as a working fluid from high subcooling to near saturation temperature was injected step by step to investigate bubble behavior during void development. Experiments were performed in two different pressures condition close to 2bar and 4bar. It was observed that in high subcooling when boiling was commenced, bubble after nucleation departed its origin and slid beside heated surface. In an observation window mean release frequency of bubble fb,mean, nucleation site Ns and mean bubble volume Vb,mean in each step of experiments were measured to investigate wall vaporization rate. It was found that in proximity of PNVG vaporization rate was increased significantly in compare with condensation rate which remained in low value.
Inhibition on Conidial Germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes and Pestalotiopsis eugeniae by Bacillus subtilis LB5
The effect of antifungal compound from Bacillus subtilis strain LB5 was tested against conidial germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Pestalotiopsis eugeniae, causal agent of anthracnose and fruit rot of wax apple, respectively. Observation under scanning electron microscope and light compound microscope revealed that conidial germination was completely inhibited when treated with culture broth, culture filtrate, or crude extract from strain LB5. Identification of purified antifungal compound produced by strain LB5 in cell-free supernatant by nuclear magnetic resonance and fast atom bombardment showed that the active compound was iturin A-2.
A Novel Feedback-Based Integrated FiWi Networks Architecture by Centralized Interlink-ONU Communication

Integrated fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks are a viable solution that can deliver the high profile quadruple play services. Passive optical networks (PON) networks integrated with wireless access networks provide ubiquitous characteristics for high bandwidth applications. Operation of PON improves by employing a variety of multiplexing techniques. One of it is time division/wavelength division multiplexed (TDM/WDM) architecture that improves the performance of optical-wireless access networks. This paper proposes a novel feedback-based TDM/WDM-PON architecture and introduces a model of integrated PON-FiWi networks. Feedback-based link architecture is an efficient solution to improves the performance of optical-line-terminal (OLT) and interlink optical-network-units (ONUs) communication. Furthermore, the feedback-based WDM/TDM-PON architecture is compared with existing architectures in terms of capacity of network throughput.

Elections Management Information Communication System Voter Ballot

Abovepresented work deals with the new scope of application of information and communication technologies for the improvement of the election process in the biased environment. We are introducing a new concept of construction of the information-communication system for the election participant. It consists of four main components: Software, Physical Infrastructure, Structured Information and the Trained Stuff. The Structured Information is the bases of the whole system and is the collection of all possible events (irregularities among them) at the polling stations, which are structured in special templates, forms and integrated in mobile devices.The software represents a package of analytic modules, which operates with the dynamic database. The application of modern communication technologies facilities the immediate exchange of information and of relevant documents between the polling stations and the Server of the participant. No less important is the training of the staff for the proper functioning of the system. The e-training system with various modules should be applied in this respect. The presented methodology is primarily focused on the election processes in the countries of emerging democracies.It can be regarded as the tool for the monitoring of elections process by the political organization(s) and as one of the instruments to foster the spread of democracy in these countries.

A Software of Intrusion Detection Mechanism for Virtual Platforms
Security is an interesting and significance issue for popular virtual platforms, such as virtualization cluster and cloud platforms. Virtualization is the powerful technology for cloud computing services, there are a lot of benefits by using virtual machine tools which be called hypervisors, such as it can quickly deploy all kinds of virtual Operating Systems in single platform, able to control all virtual system resources effectively, cost down for system platform deployment, ability of customization, high elasticity and high reliability. However, some important security problems need to take care and resolved in virtual platforms that include terrible viruses, evil programs, illegal operations and intrusion behavior. In this paper, we present useful Intrusion Detection Mechanism (IDM) software that not only can auto to analyze all system-s operations with the accounting journal database, but also is able to monitor the system-s state for virtual platforms.
Raman Scattering and PL Studies on AlGaN/GaN HEMT Layers on 200 mm Si(111)

The crystalline quality of the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structure grown on a 200 mm silicon substrate has been investigated using UV-visible micro- Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL). The visible Raman scattering probes the whole nitride stack with the Si substrate and shows the presence of a small component of residual in-plane stress in the thick GaN buffer resulting from a wafer bowing, while the UV micro-Raman indicates a tensile interfacial stress induced at the top GaN/AlGaN/AlN layers. PL shows a good crystal quality GaN channel where the yellow band intensity is very low compared to that of the near-band-edge transition. The uniformity of this sample is shown by measurements from several points across the epiwafer.

A 1.8 V RF CMOS Active Inductor with 0.18 um CMOS Technology

A active inductor in CMOS techonology with a supply voltage of 1.8V is presented. The value of the inductance L can be in the range from 0.12nH to 0.25nH in high frequency(HF). The proposed active inductor is designed in TSMC 0.18-um CMOS technology. The power dissipation of this inductor can retain constant at all operating frequency bands and consume around 20mW from 1.8V power supply. Inductors designed by integrated circuit occupy much smaller area, for this reason,attracted researchers attention for more than decade. In this design we used Advanced Designed System (ADS) for simulating cicuit.

An Automation of Check Focusing on CRUD for Requirements Analysis Model in UML
A key to success of high quality software development is to define valid and feasible requirements specification. We have proposed a method of model-driven requirements analysis using Unified Modeling Language (UML). The main feature of our method is to automatically generate a Web user interface mock-up from UML requirements analysis model so that we can confirm validity of input/output data for each page and page transition on the system by directly operating the mock-up. This paper proposes a support method to check the validity of a data life cycle by using a model checking tool “UPPAAL" focusing on CRUD (Create, Read, Update and Delete). Exhaustive checking improves the quality of requirements analysis model which are validated by the customers through automatically generated mock-up. The effectiveness of our method is discussed by a case study of requirements modeling of two small projects which are a library management system and a supportive sales system for text books in a university.
Interaction of Electroosmotic Flow on Isotachophoretic Transport of Ions

A numerical study on the influence of electroosmotic flow on analyte preconcentration by isotachophoresis ( ITP) is made. We consider that the double layer induced electroosmotic flow ( EOF) counterbalance the electrophoretic velocity and a stationary ITP stacked zones results. We solve the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the Nernst-Planck equations to determine the local convective velocity and the preconcentration dynamics of ions. Our numerical algorithm is based on a finite volume method along with a secondorder upwind scheme. The present numerical algorithm can capture the the sharp boundaries of step-changes ( plateau mode) or zones of steep gradients ( peak mode) accurately. The convection of ions due to EOF reduces the resolution of the ITP transition zones and produces a dispersion in analyte zones. The role of the electrokinetic parameters which induces dispersion is analyzed. A one-dimensional model for the area-averaged concentrations based on the Taylor-Aristype effective diffusivity is found to be in good agreement with the computed solutions.

A Model of Market Segmentation for the Customers of Mellat Bank in Iran
If organizations like Mellat Bank want to identify its customer market completely to reach its specified goals, it can segment the market to offer the product package to the right segment. Our objective is to offer a segmentation model for Iran banking market in Mellat bank view. The methodology of this project is combined by “segmentation on the basis of four part-quality variables" and “segmentation on the basis of different in means". Required data are gathered from E-Systems and researcher personal observation. Finally, the research offers the organization that at first step form a four dimensional matrix with 756 segments using four variables named value-based, behavioral, activity style, and activity level, and at the second step calculate the means of profit for every cell of matrix in two distinguished work level (levels α1:normal condition and α2: high pressure condition) and compare the segments by checking two conditions that are 1- homogeneity every segment with its sub segment and 2- heterogeneity with other segments, and so it can do the necessary segmentation process. After all, the last offer (more explained by an operational example and feedback algorithm) is to test and update the model because of dynamic environment, technology, and banking system.
Headspace Solid-phase Microextraction of Volatile and Furanic Compounds in Coated Fish Sticks: Effect of the Extraction Temperature

This work evaluated the effect of temperature on headspace solid-phase microextraction of volatile and furanic compounds in coated fish sticks. The major goal was the analysis of the samples as consumed, to reproduce volatile compounds people feel when consuming those products. Extraction at 37 ºC (the human body temperature) throughout the HS-SPME analysis of volatile and furanic compounds in coated fish was compared with higher extraction temperatures, which are frequently used for this kind of determinations. The profile of volatile compounds found in deepfried (F) and non-fried (NF) coated fish at 37 and 50 ºC was different from that obtained at 80 ºC. Concerning furan and its derivatives, an extra formation of these compounds was observed at higher extraction temperatures. The analysis of volatile and furanic compounds in fish coated sticks simulating the cooking and eating conditions can be reliably carried out setting the headspace absorption temperature at 37 ºC.

Model Inversion of a Two Degrees of Freedom Linearized PUMA from Bicausal Bond Graphs
A bond graph model of a two degrees of freedom PUMA is described. System inversion gives the system input required to generate a given system output. In order to get the system inversion of the PUMA manipulator, a linearization of the nonlinear bond graph is obtained. Hence, the bicausality of the linearized bond graph of the PUMA manipulator is applied. Thus, the bicausal bond graph provides a systematic way of generating the equations of the system inversion. Simulation results to verify the calculated input for a given output are shown.
Assessment of Channel Unavailability Effect on the Wireless Networks Teletraffic Modeling and Analysis
Whereas cellular wireless communication systems are subject to short-and long-term fading. The effect of wireless channel has largely been ignored in most of the teletraffic assessment researches. In this paper, a mathematical teletraffic model is proposed to estimate blocking and forced termination probabilities of cellular wireless networks as a result of teletraffic behavior as well as the outage of the propagation channel. To evaluate the proposed teletraffic model, gamma inter-arrival and general service time distributions have been considered based on wireless channel fading effect. The performance is evaluated and compared with the classical model. The proposed model is dedicated and investigated in different operational conditions. These conditions will consider not only the arrival rate process, but also, the different faded channels models.
Edit Distance Algorithm to Increase Storage Efficiency of Javanese Corpora
Since the one-to-one word translator does not have the facility to translate pragmatic aspects of Javanese, the parallel text alignment model described uses a phrase pair combination. The algorithm aligns the parallel text automatically from the beginning to the end of each sentence. Even though the results of the phrase pair combination outperform the previous algorithm, it is still inefficient. Recording all possible combinations consume more space in the database and time consuming. The original algorithm is modified by applying the edit distance coefficient to improve the data-storage efficiency. As a result, the data-storage consumption is 90% reduced as well as its learning period (42s).
Assessment of Irrigation Practices at Main Irrigation Network in the Nile Delta
The improvement of irrigation systems in the Nile Delta is one of the most important attempts in Egypt to implement more effective irrigation technology by improving the existing irrigation networks. Demand delivery system in the existing irrigation network is using of mechanical gates structures to automatically divert water from one portion of an agricultural field to another in the desired amount and sequence. This paper discusses evaluating main irrigation networks system under the government managed before and after improvement systems in the Nile Delta. The overall results indicate that policy of using the demand delivery concept through irrigation networks is successful by improving water delivery performance among them than the rotation delivery concept that used before. It is provided fair share of water delivery among irrigation districts and available water in the end of irrigation network, although this system located in an end of irrigation networks in the Nile Delta.
Preliminary Views on the Determinants of the Cost of Capital for the Emergent Market of Romania
This paper investigates several factors affecting the cost of capital for listed Romanian companies. Although there is a large amount of literature investigating the drivers of the cost of capital internationally, there is currently little evidence from emergent markets. Based on a sample of 19 Romanian listed companies followed by financial analysts for the years 2008-2010, according to Thomson Reuters- I/B/E/S data base, the paper confirms the international trends, showing that size, corporate governance policies, and growth are negatively correlated with the cost of capital.
Application of a Dual Satellite Geolocation System on Locating Sweeping Interference
This paper describes an application of a dual satellite geolocation (DSG) system on identifying and locating the unknown source of uplink sweeping interference. The geolocation system integrates the method of joint time difference of arrival (TDOA) and frequency difference of arrival (FDOA) with ephemeris correction technique which successfully demonstrated high accuracy in interference source location. The factors affecting the location error were also discussed.
Implementing a Visual Servoing System for Robot Controlling
Nowadays, with the emerging of the new applications like robot control in image processing, artificial vision for visual servoing is a rapidly growing discipline and Human-machine interaction plays a significant role for controlling the robot. This paper presents a new algorithm based on spatio-temporal volumes for visual servoing aims to control robots. In this algorithm, after applying necessary pre-processing on video frames, a spatio-temporal volume is constructed for each gesture and feature vector is extracted. These volumes are then analyzed for matching in two consecutive stages. For hand gesture recognition and classification we tested different classifiers including k-Nearest neighbor, learning vector quantization and back propagation neural networks. We tested the proposed algorithm with the collected data set and results showed the correct gesture recognition rate of 99.58 percent. We also tested the algorithm with noisy images and algorithm showed the correct recognition rate of 97.92 percent in noisy images.
Establish a Methodology for Testing and Optimizing GPRS Performance Case Study: Libya GSM
The main goal of this paper is to establish a methodology for testing and optimizing GPRS performance over Libya GSM network as well as to propose a suitable optimization technique to improve performance. Some measurements of download, upload, throughput, round-trip time, reliability, handover, security enhancement and packet loss over a GPRS access network were carried out. Measured values are compared to the theoretical values that could be calculated beforehand. This data should be processed and delivered by the server across the wireless network to the client. The client on the fly takes those pieces of the data and process immediately. Also, we illustrate the results by describing the main parameters that affect the quality of service. Finally, Libya-s two mobile operators, Libyana Mobile Phone and Al-Madar al- Jadeed Company are selected as a case study to validate our methodology.
Hydrodynamic Analysis of Reservoir Due to Vertical Component of Earthquake Using an Analytical Solution

This paper presents an analytical solution to get a reliable estimation of the hydrodynamic pressure on gravity dams induced by vertical component earthquake when solving the fluid and dam interaction problem. Presented analytical technique is presented for calculation of earthquake-induced hydrodynamic pressure in the reservoir of gravity dams allowing for water compressibility and wave absorption at the reservoir bottom. This new analytical solution can take into account the effect of bottom material on seismic response of gravity dams. It is concluded that because the vertical component of ground motion causes significant hydrodynamic forces in the horizontal direction on a vertical upstream face, responses to the vertical component of ground motion are of special importance in analysis of concrete gravity dams subjected to earthquakes.

The Urban Transportation Systems in Two Cities Located in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

The State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, will hold two important events in the nearby future. In 2014 it will have the final game of the Football World Cup, and in 2016 it will be holding the Olympic Games. Therefore, the public transportation system (mainly buses) is of a major concern to the Rio de Janeiro State authorities-. The main objective of this work is to compare the quality of service of the bus companies operating in the cities of ItaperunaandCampos, both cities situated in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The outcome of thiscomparison, based on the opinion of the bus users, has shownthemdispleased with the quality of the service provided by the bus companies operating in both cities. It is urgent the need to find possible practical alternatives to minimize the consequences of the main problems detected in this work. With these practical alternatives available, we will be able to offer to the Rio de Janeiro State authorities- suggestions about possible solutions to the main problems identified in this survey, as well as the time of implantation and costs of these solutions.

Design of the Production Line Based On RFID through 3D Modeling

Radio-frequency identification has entered as a beneficial means with conforming GS1 standards to provide the best solutions in the manufacturing area. It competes with other automated identification technologies e.g. barcodes and smart cards with regard to high speed scanning, reliability and accuracy as well. The purpose of this study is to improve production line-s performance by implementing RFID system in the manufacturing area on the basis of radio-frequency identification (RFID) system by 3D modeling in the program Cinema 4D R13 which provides obvious graphical scenes for users to portray their applications. Finally, with regard to improving system performance, it shows how RFID appears as a well-suited technology in a comparison of the barcode scanner to handle different kinds of raw materials in the production line base on logical process.

An Example of Post-Harvest Thermotherapy as a Non-Chemical Method of Pathogen Control on Apples of Topaz Cultivar in Storage

Huge losses in apple production are caused by pathogens that cannot be seen shortly after harvest. After-harvest thermotherapy treatments can considerably improve control of storage diseases on apples and become an alternative to chemical pesticides. In the years 2010-2012 carried out research in this area. Apples of 'Topaz' cultivar were harvested at optimal maturity time for long storage and subject to water bath treatment at 45, 50, 52, 55°C for 60, 120, 180 and 240 seconds. The control was untreated fruits. After 12 and 24 weeks and during so called simulated trade turnover the fruits were checked for their condition and the originators of diseases were determined by using the standard phytopathological methods. The most common originator of 'Topaz' apple infection during storage were the fungi of genus Gloeosporium. In this paper it was proven that for effective protection of 'Topaz' apples against diseases, thermotherapy by using water treatments at temperature range of 50-52°C is quite sufficient.

Evaluation of the Effect of Rotor Solidity on the Performance of a H-Darrieus Turbine Adopting a Blade Element-Momentum Algorithm
The present study aims to evaluating the effect of rotor solidity - in terms of chord length for a given rotor diameter - on the performances of a small vertical axis Darrieus wind turbine. The proposed work focuses on both power production and rotor power coefficient, considering also the structural constraints deriving from the centrifugal forces due to rotor angular velocity. Also the smoothness of the resulting power curves have been investigated, in order to evaluate the controllability of the corresponding rotor architectures.
Direct Measurements of Wind Data over 100 Meters above the Ground in the Site of Lendinara, Italy
The wind resource in the Italian site of Lendinara (RO) is analyzed through a systematic anemometric campaign performed on the top of the bell tower, at an altitude of over 100 m above the ground. Both the average wind speed and the Weibull distribution are computed. The resulting average wind velocity is in accordance with the numerical predictions of the Italian Wind Atlas, confirming the accuracy of the extrapolation of wind data adopted for the evaluation of wind potential at higher altitudes with respect to the commonly placed measurement stations.
Numerical Simulation of the Turbulent Flow over a Three-Dimensional Flat Roof

The flow field over a flat roof model building has been numerically investigated in order to determine threedimensional CFD guidelines for the calculation of the turbulent flow over a structure immersed in an atmospheric boundary layer. To this purpose, a complete validation campaign has been performed through a systematic comparison of numerical simulations with wind tunnel experimental data. Wind tunnel measurements and numerical predictions have been compared for five different vertical positions, respectively from the upstream leading edge to the downstream bottom edge of the analyzed model. Flow field characteristics in the neighborhood of the building model have been numerically investigated, allowing a quantification of the capabilities of the CFD code to predict the flow separation and the extension of the recirculation regions. The proposed calculations have allowed the development of a preliminary procedure to be used as guidance in selecting the appropriate grid configuration and corresponding turbulence model for the prediction of the flow field over a three-dimensional roof architecture dominated by flow separation.

Preliminary Assessment of Feasibility of a Wind Energy Conversion System for a Martian Probe or Surface Rover
Nuclear energy sources have been widely used in the past decades in order to power spacecraft subsystems. Nevertheless, their use has attracted controversy because of the risk of harmful material released into the atmosphere if an accident were to occur during the launch phase of the mission, leading to the general adoption of photovoltaic systems. As compared to solar cells, wind turbines have a great advantage on Mars, as they can continuously produce power both during dust storms and at night-time: this paper focuses on the potential of a wind energy conversion system (WECS) considering the atmospheric conditions on Mars. Wind potential on Martian surface has been estimated, as well as the average energy requirements of a Martian probe or surface rover. Finally, the expected daily energy output of the WECS has been computed on the basis of both the swept area of the rotor and the equivalent wind speed at the landing site.
Transmission Performance of Millimeter Wave Multiband OFDM UWB Wireless Signal over Fiber System
Performance of millimeter-wave (mm-wave) multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) ultrawideband (UWB) signal generation using frequency quadrupling technique and transmission over fiber is experimentally investigated. The frequency quadrupling is achived by using only one Mach- Zehnder modulator (MZM) that is biased at maximum transmission (MATB) point. At the output, a frequency quadrupling signal is obtained then sent to a second MZM. This MZM is used for MBOFDM UWB signal modulation. In this work, we demonstrate 30- GHz mm-wave wireless that carries three-bands OFDM UWB signals, and error vector magnitude (EVM) is used to analyze the transmission quality. It is found that our proposed technique leads to an improvement of 3.5 dB in EVM at 40% of local oscillator (LO) modulation with comparison to the technique using two cascaded MZMs biased at minimum transmission (MITB) point.
Application of Reliability Prediction Model Adapted for the Analysis of the ERP System

This paper presents the possibilities of using Weibull statistical distribution in modeling the distribution of defects in ERP systems. There follows a case study, which examines helpdesk records of defects that were reported as the result of one ERP subsystem upgrade. The result of the applied modeling is in modeling the reliability of the ERP system from a user perspective with estimated parameters like expected maximum number of defects in one day or predicted minimum of defects between two upgrades. Applied measurement-based analysis framework is proved to be suitable in predicting future states of the reliability of the observed ERP subsystems.

Various Information Obtained from Acoustic Emissions Owing to Discharges in XLPE Cable
An acoustic emission (AE) technique is useful for detection of partial discharges (PDs) at a joint and a terminal section of a cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable. For AE technique, it is not difficult to detect a PD using AE sensors. However, it is difficult to grasp whether the detected AE signal is owing to a single discharge or not. Additionally, when an AE technique is applied at a terminal section of a XLPE cable in salt pollution district, for example, there is possibility of detection of AE signals owing to creeping discharges on the surface of electric power apparatus. In this study, we evaluated AE signals in order to grasp what kind of information we can get from detected AE signals. The results showed that envelop detection of AE signal and a period which some AE signals were continuously detected were good indexes for estimating state-of-discharge.
Characteristics of Maximum Gliding Endurance Path for High-Altitude Solar UAVs

Gliding during night without electric power is an efficient method to enhance endurance performance of solar aircrafts. The properties of maximum gliding endurance path are studied in this paper. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem about maximum endurance can be sustained by certain potential energy storage with dynamic equations and aerodynamic parameter constrains. The optimal gliding path is generated based on gauss pseudo-spectral method. In order to analyse relationship between altitude, velocity of solar UAVs and its endurance performance, the lift coefficient in interval of [0.4, 1.2] and flight envelopes between 0~30km are investigated. Results show that broad range of lift coefficient can improve solar aircrafts- long endurance performance, and it is possible for a solar aircraft to achieve the aim of long endurance during whole night just by potential energy storage.

Removal of Pharmaceutical Compounds by a Sequential Treatment of Ozonation Followed by Fenton Process: Influence of the Water Matrix
A sequential treatment of ozonation followed by a Fenton or photo-Fenton process, using black light lamps (365 nm) in this latter case, has been applied to remove a mixture of pharmaceutical compounds and the generated by-products both in ultrapure and secondary treated wastewater. The scientifictechnological innovation of this study stems from the in situ generation of hydrogen peroxide from the direct ozonation of pharmaceuticals, and can later be used in the application of Fenton and photo-Fenton processes. The compounds selected as models were sulfamethoxazol and acetaminophen. It should be remarked that the use of a second process is necessary as a result of the low mineralization yield reached by the exclusive application of ozone. Therefore, the influence of the water matrix has been studied in terms of hydrogen peroxide concentration, individual compound concentration and total organic carbon removed. Moreover, the concentration of different iron species in solution has been measured.
The Quality Maintenance and Extending Storage Life of Mango Fruit after Postharvest Treatments

The quality attributes and storage life of 'Jinhwang' mango fruit can be effectively maintained with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) application and/or chitosan coating. 'Jinhwang' mango fruit was treated with 5 μl l-1 1-MCP for 12 h, dipped with 0.5 % chitosan, 5 μl l-1 1-MCP combine with 0.5 % chitosan and untreated (control) then stored at 10oC. Mango treated with 1-MCP maintained firmness, sucrose and starch content. Chitosan coating delayed firmness loss, sucrose content and the fruit decay when compare with control. Application of 1-MCP combine with chitosan also delayed firmness loss, sucrose content and starch content during storage. Furthermore, chitosan coating and combine treatment prolonged storage life of mango up to 29 days after storage while 1-MCP extended to 28 days after storage. Therefore, using all application of chitosan coating or 1-MCP combine with chitosan or 1-MCP in mango at 10oC is a feasible technology for maintains quality and prolongs storage life in order to expand marketability and export options.

Bowden Cable Based Powered Ball and Socket Wrist Actuator
A 2-Degrees of freedom powered prosthetic wrist actuator has been proposed that can provide the Abduction/Adduction & Flexion/Extension movements of the human wrist. The basic structure of the actuator is a Ball and Socket joint and the force is transmitted from the DC geared servo motors to the joint through the Bowden cables. The proposed design is capable of providing the required DOF in both axes i.e. 85° & 90° in flexion extension axis. The size and weight of the actuator lies within the ranges of an average human being-s wrist.
An Approach of Control System for Automated Storage and Retrieval System (AS/RS)
Automated storage and retrieval systems (AS/RS) become frequently used systems in warehouses. There has been a transition from human based forklift applications to fast and safe AS/RS applications in firm-s warehouse systems. In this study, basic components and automation systems of the AS/RS are examined. Proposed system's automation components and their tasks in the system control algorithm were stated. According to this control algorithm the control system structure was obtained.
Incorporation Mechanism of Stabilizing Simulated Lead-Laden Sludge in Aluminum-Rich Ceramics

This study investigated a strategy of blending lead-laden sludge and Al-rich precursors to reduce the release of metals from the stabilized products. Using PbO as the simulated lead-laden sludge to sinter with γ-Al2O3 by Pb:Al molar ratios of 1:2 and 1:12, PbAl2O4 and PbAl12O19 were formed as final products during the sintering process, respectively. By firing the PbO + γ-Al2O3 mixtures with different Pb/Al molar ratios at 600 to 1000 °C, the lead transformation was determined through X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. In Pb/Al molar ratio of 1/2 system, the formation of PbAl2O4 is initiated at 700 °C, but an effective formation was observed above 750 °C. An intermediate phase, Pb9Al8O21, was detected in the temperature range of 800-900 °C. However, different incorporation behavior for sintering PbO with Al-rich precursors at a Pb/Al molar ratio of 1/12 was observed during the formation of PbAl12O19 in this system. In the sintering process, both temperature and time effect on the formation of PbAl2O4 and PbAl12O19 phases were estimated. Finally, a prolonged leaching test modified from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-s toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was used to evaluate the durability of PbO, Pb9Al8O21, PbAl2O4 and PbAl12O19 phases. Comparison for the leaching results of the four phases demonstrated the higher intrinsic resistance of PbAl12O19 against acid attack.

A Digitally Programmable Voltage-mode Multifunction Biquad Filter with Single-Output
This article proposes a voltage-mode multifunction filter using differential voltage current controllable current conveyor transconductance amplifier (DV-CCCCTA). The features of the circuit are that: the quality factor and pole frequency can be tuned independently via the values of capacitors: the circuit description is very simple, consisting of merely 1 DV-CCCCTA, and 2 capacitors. Without any component matching conditions, the proposed circuit is very appropriate to further develop into an integrated circuit. Additionally, each function response can be selected by suitably selecting input signals with digital method. The PSpice simulation results are depicted. The given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation.
Identifying the Objectives of Outsourcing Logistics Services as a Basis for Measuring Its Financial and Operational Performance

Logistics outsourcing is a growing trend and measuring its performance, a challenge. It must be consistent with the objectives set for logistics outsourcing, but we have found no objective-based performance measurement system. We have conducted a comprehensive review of the specialist literature to cover this gap, which has led us to identify and define these objectives. The outcome is that we have obtained a list of the most relevant objectives and their descriptions. This will enable us to analyse in a future study whether the indicators used for measuring logistics outsourcing performance are consistent with the objectives pursued with the outsourcing. If this is not the case, a proposal will be made for a set of financial and operational indicators to measure performance in logistics outsourcing that take the goals being pursued into account.

Kinematic and Dynamic Analysis of a Lower Limb Exoskeleton
This paper will provide the kinematic and dynamic analysis of a lower limb exoskeleton. The forward and inverse kinematics of proposed exoskeleton is performed using Denevit and Hartenberg method. The torques required for the actuators will be calculated using Lagrangian formulation technique. This research can be used to design the control of the proposed exoskeleton.
Drying of Papaya (Carica papaya L.) Using a Microwave-vacuum Dryer

In present work, drying characteristics of fresh papaya (Carica papaya L.) was studied to understand the dehydration process and its behavior. Drying experiments were carried out by a laboratory scaled microwave-vacuum oven. The parameters affecting drying characteristics including operating modes (continuous, pulsed), microwave power (400 and 800 W), and vacuum pressure (20, 30, and 40 cmHg) were investigated. For pulsed mode, two levels of power-off time (60 and 120 s) were used while the power-on time was fixed at 60 s and the vacuum pressure was fixed at 40 cmHg. For both operating modes, the effects of drying conditions on drying time, drying rate, and effective diffusivity were investigated. The results showed high microwave power, high vacuum, and pulsed mode of 60 s-on/60 s-off favored drying rate as shown by the shorten drying time and increased effective diffusivity. The drying characteristics were then described by Page-s model, which showed a good agreement with experimental data.

Data Migration between Document-Oriented and Relational Databases
Current tools for data migration between documentoriented and relational databases have several disadvantages. We propose a new approach for data migration between documentoriented and relational databases. During data migration the relational schema of the target (relational database) is automatically created from collection of XML documents. Proposed approach is verified on data migration between document-oriented database IBM Lotus/ Notes Domino and relational database implemented in relational database management system (RDBMS) MySQL.
New Laguerre-s Type Method for Solving of a Polynomial Equations Systems
In this paper we present a substantiation of a new Laguerre-s type iterative method for solving of a nonlinear polynomial equations systems with real coefficients. The problems of its implementation, including relating to the structural choice of initial approximations, were considered. Test examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the method at the solving of many practical problems solving.
The Comparisons of Average Outgoing Quality Limit between the MCSP-2-C and MCSP-C
This paper presents a comparison of average outgoing quality limit of the MCSP-2-C plan with MCSP-C when MCSP-2-C has been developed from MCSP-C. The parameters used in MCSP-2- C are: i (the clearance number), c (the acceptance number), m (the number of conforming units to be found before allowing c nonconforming units in the sampling inspection), f1 and f2 (the sampling frequency at level 1 and 2, respectively). The average outgoing quality limit (AOQL) values from two plans were compared and we found that for all sets of i, r, and c values, MCSP-2-C gives higher values than MCSP-C. For all sets of i, r, and c values, the average outgoing quality values of MCSP-C and MCSP-2-C are similar when p is low or high but is difference when p is moderate.
Convergence of National Regulations with IFRS for SMEs: Empirical Evidences in the Case of Romania
The IFRS for Small and Medium-sized Entities (SMEs) was issued in July 2009 and currently regulators are considering various implementation strategies of this standard. Romania is a member of the European Union since 2007, thus accounting regulations were issued in order to ensure compliance with the European Accounting Directives. As the European Commission rejected recently the mandatory use of IFRS for SMEs, regulatory bodies from the Member States have to decide if the standard will affect or not the accounting practices of SMEs from their countries. Recently IASB invited stakeholders to discuss the revision of IFRS for SMEs. Empirical studies on the differences and similarities between national standards and IFRS for SMEs could inform decision makers on the actual level of convergence in different countries. The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidences on the convergence of the Romanian regulations with IFRS for SMEs analyzing the results in the context of the last revisions proposed to the EU Accounting Directives.
Design and Development of Automatic Leveling and Equalizing Hoist Device for Spacecraft
To solve the quick and accurate level-adjusting problem in the process of spacecraft precise mating, automatic leveling and equalizing hoist device for spacecraft is developed. Based on lifting point adjustment by utilizing XY-workbench, the leveling and equalizing controller by a self-adaptive control algorithm is proposed. By simulation analysis and lifting test using engineering prototype, validity and reliability of the hoist device is verified, which can meet the precision mating requirements of practical applications for spacecraft.
Analysis and Flight Test for Small Inflatable Wing Design

This article discusses stress analysis and the shape characteristics of the inflatable wing, and then introduces the design method of inflatable wing, in order to accurately approximate a standard airfoil. It specifically analyses the aerodynamic characteristics of the inflatable wing with the method of CFD, along with comparing to standard airfoil, afterwards we carries out the manufacture of inflatable wing and the flight test.

Comparative Study of Drip and Furrow Irrigation Methods at Farmer-s Field in Umarkot
An experiment was conducted on the comparative study of drip and furrow irrigation methods at the farmer-s field in Umar Kot. The total area under experiment about 4000m2 was divided into two equal portions. One portion about 40m X 50m was occupied by drip and the other portion about 40m X 50m by furrow irrigation method. Soil at the experimental site was clay loam in texture for 0-60cm depth; average dry bulk density and field capacity was 1.16g/cm3 and 28.5% respectively. The results reveal that the drip irrigation method saved 56.4% water and gave 22% more yield as compared to that of furrow irrigation method. Higher water use efficiency about 4.87 was obtained in drip irrigation method; whereas lower water used efficiency about 1.66 was obtained in furrow irrigation method. The present study suggests farming community to adopt drip irrigation method instead of old traditional flooding methods.
Using Morphological and Microsatellite (SSR) Markers to Assess the Genetic Diversity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)
Utilization of diverse germplasm is needed to enhance the genetic diversity of cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic relationships of 98 alfalfa germplasm accessions using morphological traits and SSR markers. From the 98 tested populations, 81 were locals originating in Europe, 17 were introduced from USA, Australia, New Zealand and Canada. Three primers generated 67 polymorphic bands. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) was very high (> 0.90) over all three used primer combinations. Cluster analysis using Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Means (UPGMA) and Jaccard´s coefficient grouped the accessions into 2 major clusters with 4 sub-clusters with no correlation between genetic and morphological diversity. The SSR analysis clearly indicated that even with three polymorphic primers, reliable estimation of genetic diversity could be obtained.
Effect of Butachlor on the Microbial Population of Direct Sown Rice

Field experiments were conducted at Annamalai University Experimental Farm, Department of Agronomy; to device suitable weed control measures for direct seeded puddled rice and to study the effect of the weed control measures on the soil microbial population. The treatments comprised of incorporation of pressmud @ 6.25 t ha-1 and application of herbicide butachlor @1.5 kg a. i. ha- 1 with and without safener 4 days after sowing (DAS), 8 DAS alone and also in conjunction with hand weeding at 30 DAS. Hand weeding twice and a weedy check were also maintained. At maximum tillering stage, the population of bacteria was significantly reduced by butachlor application. The injury to microbes caused by herbicide disappeared with the advancement of crop's age and at flowering stage of crop, there was no significant difference among the treatments. The fungal and actinomycetes population remained unaltered by weed control treatments at both the stages of observation.

Mapping Soil Fertility at Different Scales to Support Sustainable Brazilian Agriculture
Most agricultural crops cultivated in Brazil are highly nutrient demanding. Brazilian soils are generally acidic with low base saturation and available nutrients. Demand for fertilizer application has increased because the national agricultural sector expansion. To improve productivity without environmental impact, there is the need for the utilization of novel procedures and techniques to optimize fertilizer application. This includes the digital soil mapping and GIS application applied to mapping in different scales. This paper is based on research, realized during 2005 to 2010 by Brazilian Corporation for Agricultural Research (EMBRAPA) and its partners. The purpose was to map soil fertility in national and regional scales. A soil profile data set in national scale (1:5,000,000) was constructed from the soil archives of Embrapa Soils, Rio de Janeiro and in the regional scale (1:250,000) from COMIGO Cooperative soil data set, Rio Verde, Brazil. The mapping was doing using ArcGIS 9.1 tools from ESRI.
Fatty Acids Composition of Elk, Deer, Roe Deer and Wild Boar Meat Hunted in Latvia
A game animals – elk (Alces alces), deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) or wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) - every autumn and winter period provide an excellent investment, diversification of many consumer meals. In last years consumption and assortiment of game meat products significantly increase. Investigations about biochemical composition of game meat are not very much. The meat of wild animals is more favourable for human health because it has lower saturated fatty acids content, but higher content of protein. Therefore the aim of investigations was to compare biochemical composition of ungulates obtained in Latvia.Investigations were carried out in wild animals different regions of Latvia. In the studied samples protein, intramuscular fat, fatty acids and cholesterol were determined. The biochemical analysis of 54 samples were done. Results of analysis showed that protein content 22.36 – 22.92% of all types of meat samples is not different statistically, significantly lower fat content 1.33 ± 0.88% had elk meat samples and 1.59 ± 0.59% roe deer samples. Content of cholesterol was various 64.41 – 95.07% in the ruminant meat samples of different species. From the dietetic point of view the best composition of fatty acids has meat samples of roe deer.
Evaluation of Antifungal Potential of Cenchrus pennisetiformis for the Management of Macrophomina phaseolina
Macrophomina phaseolina is a devastating soil-borne fungal plant pathogen that causes charcoal rot disease in many economically important crops worldwide. So far, no registered fungicide is available against this plant pathogen. This study was planned to examine the antifungal activity of an allelopathic grass Cenchrus pennisetiformis (Hochst. & Steud.) Wipff. for the management of M. phaseolina isolated from cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] plants suffering from charcoal rot disease. Different parts of the plants viz. inflorescence, shoot and root were extracted in methanol. Laboratory bioassays were carried out using different concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0, …, 3.0 g mL-1) of methanolic extracts of the test allelopathic grass species to assess the antifungal activity against the pathogen. In general, extracts of all parts of the grass exhibited antifungal activity. All the concentrations of methanolic extracts of shoot and root significantly reduced fungal biomass by 20–73% and 40–80%, respectively. Methanolic shoot extract was fractionated using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Different concentrations of these fractions (3.125, 6.25, …, 200 mg mL-1) were analyzed for their antifungal activity. All the concentrations of n-hexane fraction significantly reduced fungal biomass by 15–96% over corresponding control treatments. Higher concentrations (12.5–200 mg mL-1) of chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol also reduced the fungal biomass significantly by 29–100%, 46–100% and 24–100%, respectively.
A Research of the Influence that MP3 Sound Gives EEG of the Person
Currently, many types of no-reversible compressed sound source, represented by MP3 (MPEG Audio Layer-3) are popular in the world and they are widely used to make the music file size smaller. The sound data created in this way has less information as compared to pre-compressed data. The objective of this study is by analyzing EEG to determine if people can recognize such difference as differences in sound. A measurement system that can measure and analyze EEG when a subject listens to music were experimentally developed. And ten subjects were studied with this system. In this experiment, a WAVE formatted music data and a MP3 compressed music data that is made from the WAVE formatted data were prepared. Each subject was made to hear these music sources at the same volume. From the results of this experiment, clear differences were confirmed between two wound sources.
Toward Strengthening Social Resilience: A Case Study on Recovery of Capture Fisheries after Asia's Tsunami in Aceh, Indonesia

Social resilience has role to govern the local community and coastal fisheries resources toward sustainable fisheries development in tsunami affected area. This paper asses, explore and investigates of indigenous institutions, external and internal facilitators toward strengthening social resilience. Identification of the genuine organizations role had been conducted twice by using Rapid Assessment Appraisal, Focus Group Discussion, and in-depth interview for collecting primary and secondary data. Local wisdom had a contribution and adaptable to rebound social resilience. The Panglima Laot Lhok (sea commander) had determined and adapted role on recovery of the fishing community, particularly facilitated aid delivery to fishermen, as shown in anchovy fisheries relief case in Krueng Raya Bay. Toke Bangku (financial trader) had stimulated for reinforcement of advance payment and market channel. The other institutions supported upon linking and bridging connectivity among stakeholders. Collaborative governance can avoid conflict, reduce donor dependency and strengthen social resilience within fishing community.

Analysis and Categorization of e-Learning Activities Based On Meaningful Learning Characteristics

Learning is the acquisition of new mental schemata, knowledge, abilities and skills which can be used to solve problems potentially more successfully. The learning process is optimum when it is assisted and personalized. Learning is not a single activity, but should involve many possible activities to make learning become meaningful. Many e-learning applications provide facilities to support teaching and learning activities. One way to identify whether the e-learning system is being used by the learners is through the number of hits that can be obtained from the e-learning system's log data. However, we cannot rely solely to the number of hits in order to determine whether learning had occurred meaningfully. This is due to the fact that meaningful learning should engage five characteristics namely active, constructive, intentional, authentic and cooperative. This paper aims to analyze the e-learning activities that is meaningful to learning. By focusing on the meaningful learning characteristics, we match it to the corresponding Moodle e-learning activities. This analysis discovers the activities that have high impact to meaningful learning, as well as activities that are less meaningful. The high impact activities is given high weights since it become important to meaningful learning, while the low impact has less weight and said to be supportive e-learning activities. The result of this analysis helps us categorize which e-learning activities that are meaningful to learning and guide us to measure the effectiveness of e-learning usage.

Effects of Microwave Heating on Biogas Production, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Volatile Solids Solubilization of Food Residues

This paper presents the results of the preliminary investigation of microwave (MW) irradiation pretreatments on the anaerobic digestion of food residues using biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays. Low solids systems with a total solids (TS) content ranging from 5.0-10.0% were analyzed. The inoculum to bulk mass of substrates to water ratio was 1:2:2 (mass basis). The experimental conditions for pretreatments were as follows: a control (no MW irradiation), two runs with MW irradiation for 15 and 30 minutes at 320 W, and another two runs with MW irradiation at 528 W for 30 and 60 minutes. The cumulative biogas production were 6.3 L and 8.7 L for 15min/320 W and 30min/320 W MW irradiation conditions, respectively, and 10.5 L and 11.4 L biogas for 30min/528 W and 60min/528 W, respectively, as compared to the control giving 5.8 L biogas. Both an increase in exposure time of irradiation and power of MW had increased the rate and yield of biogas. Singlefactor ANOVA tests (p<0.05) indicated that the variations in VS, TS, COD and cumulative biogas generation were significantly different for the pretreatment conditions. Results from this study indicated that MW irradiation had enhanced the biogas production and degradation of total solids with a significant improvement in VS and COD solubilization.

Optimization of Breast Tumor Cells Isolation Efficiency and Purity by Membrane Filtration
Size based filtration is one of the common methods employed to isolate circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from whole blood. It is well known that this method suffers from isolation efficiency to purity tradeoff. However, this tradeoff is poorly understood. In this paper, we present the design and manufacturing of a special rectangular slit filter. The filter was designed to retain maximal amounts of nucleated cells, while minimizing the pressure on cells, thereby preserving their morphology. The key parameter, namely, input pressure, was optimized to retain the maximal number of tumor cells, whilst maximizing the depletion of normal blood cells (red and white blood cells and platelets). Our results indicate that for a slit geometry of 5 × 40 μm on a 13 mm circular membrane with a fill factor of 21%, a pressure of 6.9 mBar yields the optimum for maximizing isolation of MCF-7 and depletion of normal blood cells.
The Performance of an 802.11g/Wi-Fi Network Whilst Streaming Voice Content
A simple network model is developed in OPNET to study the performance of the Wi-Fi protocol. The model is simulated in OPNET and performance factors such as load, throughput and delay are analysed from the model. Four applications such as oracle, http, ftp and voice are applied over the Wireless LAN network to determine the throughput. The voice application utilises a considerable amount of bandwidth of up to 5Mbps, as a result the 802.11g standard of the Wi-Fi protocol was chosen which can support a data rate of up to 54Mbps. Results indicate that when the load in the Wi-Fi network is increased the queuing delay on the point-to-point links in the Wi-Fi network significantly reduces until it is comparable to that of WiMAX. In conclusion, the queuing delay of the Wi-Fi protocol for the network model simulated was about 0.00001secs comparable to WiMAX network values.
The Effect of Granule Size on the Digestibility of Wheat Starch Using an in vitro Model

Wheat has a bimodal starch granule population and the dependency of the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis on particle size has been investigated. Ungelatinised wheaten starch granules were separated into two populations by sedimentation and decantation. Particle size was analysed by laser diffraction and morphological characteristics were viewed using SEM. The sedimentation technique though lengthy, gave satisfactory separation of the granules. Samples (<10μm, >10μm and original) were digested with a-amylase using a dialysis model. Granules of <10μm showed significantly higher rate of reducing sugar release than those >10μm (p<0.05). In contrast, the rate was not significantly different between the original sample and granules >10μm. Moreover, the digestion rate was dependent on particle size whereby smaller granules produced higher rate of release. The methodology and results reported here can be used as a basis for further evaluations designed to delay the release of glucose during the digestion of native starches.

Transimpedance Amplifier for Integrated 3D Ultrasound Biomicroscope Applications

This paper presents the design and implementation of a fully integrated transimpedance amplifier (TIA) as the analog frontend receiver for Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers (CMUTs) for ultrasound biomicroscope imaging application. The amplifier is designed to amplify the received signals from 17.5MHz to 52.5MHz with a center frequency of 35MHz. The TIA was fabricated in GF 0.18μm 1P6M 30V high voltage process. The measurement results show that the designed amplifier can reach a transimpedance gain of 61.08dBΩ and operating frequency from 17.5MHz to 100MHz with 1VP-P output voltage under 6V power supply.

Solving Part Type Selection and Loading Problem in Flexible Manufacturing System Using Real Coded Genetic Algorithms – Part II: Optimization

This paper presents modeling and optimization of two NP-hard problems in flexible manufacturing system (FMS), part type selection problem and loading problem. Due to the complexity and extent of the problems, the paper was split into two parts. The first part of the papers has discussed the modeling of the problems and showed how the real coded genetic algorithms (RCGA) can be applied to solve the problems. This second part discusses the effectiveness of the RCGA which uses an array of real numbers as chromosome representation. The novel proposed chromosome representation produces only feasible solutions which minimize a computational time needed by GA to push its population toward feasible search space or repair infeasible chromosomes. The proposed RCGA improves the FMS performance by considering two objectives, maximizing system throughput and maintaining the balance of the system (minimizing system unbalance). The resulted objective values are compared to the optimum values produced by branch-and-bound method. The experiments show that the proposed RCGA could reach near optimum solutions in a reasonable amount of time.

Solving Part Type Selection and Loading Problem in Flexible Manufacturing System Using Real Coded Genetic Algorithms – Part I: Modeling
This paper and its companion (Part 2) deal with modeling and optimization of two NP-hard problems in production planning of flexible manufacturing system (FMS), part type selection problem and loading problem. The part type selection problem and the loading problem are strongly related and heavily influence the system-s efficiency and productivity. The complexity of the problems is harder when flexibilities of operations such as the possibility of operation processed on alternative machines with alternative tools are considered. These problems have been modeled and solved simultaneously by using real coded genetic algorithms (RCGA) which uses an array of real numbers as chromosome representation. These real numbers can be converted into part type sequence and machines that are used to process the part types. This first part of the papers focuses on the modeling of the problems and discussing how the novel chromosome representation can be applied to solve the problems. The second part will discuss the effectiveness of the RCGA to solve various test bed problems.
Dextran Modified Silicon Photonic Microring Resonator Sensors
We present a dextran modified silicon microring resonator sensor for high density antibody immobilization. An array of sensors consisting of three sensor rings and a reference ring was fabricated and its surface sensitivity and the limit of detection were obtained using polyelectrolyte multilayers. The mass sensitivity and the limit of detection of the fabricated sensor ring are 0.35 nm/ng mm-2 and 42.8 pg/mm2 in air, respectively. Dextran modified sensor surface was successfully prepared by covalent grafting of oxidized dextran on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) modified silicon sensor surface. The antibody immobilization on hydrogel dextran matrix improves 40% compared to traditional antibody immobilization method via APTES and glutaraldehyde linkage.
Kaikaku - Radical Improvement in Production
Considering today-s increasing speed of change, radical and innovative improvement - Kaikaku, is a necessity parallel to continuous incremental improvement - Kaizen, especially for SME-s in order to attain the competitive edge needed to be profitable. During 2011, a qualitative single case study with the objective of realizing a kaikaku in production has been conducted. The case study was run as a one year project using a collaborative approach including both researchers and company representatives. The case study was conducted with the purpose of gaining further knowledge about kaikaku realization as well as its implications. The empirical results provide insights about the great productivity results achieved by applying a specific kaikaku realization approach. However, it also sheds light on the difficulty and contradiction of combining innovation management and production system development.
An Assessment of Food Control System and Development Perspective: The Case of Myanmar

Food control measures are critical in fostering food safety management of a nation. However, no academic study has been undertaken to assess the food control system of Myanmar up to now. The objective of this research paper was to assess the food control system with in depth examination of five key components using desktop analysis and short survey from related food safety program organizations including regulators and inspectors. Study showed that the existing food control system is conventional, mainly focusing on primary health care approach while relying on reactive measures. The achievements of food control work have been limited to a certain extent due to insufficienttechnical capacity that is needed to upgrade staffs, laboratory equipment and technical assistance etc. associated with various sectors. Assessing food control measures is the first step in the integration of food safety management, this paper could assist policy makers in providing information for enhancing the safety and quality of food produced and consumed in Myanmar.

Highly Sensitive Label Free Biosensor for Tumor Necrosis Factor
We present a label-free biosensor based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for the detection of proinflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α). Secretion of TNF-α has been correlated to the onset of various diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn-s disease etc. Gold electrodes were patterned on a silicon substrate and self assembled monolayer of dithiobis-succinimidyl propionate was used to develop the biosensor which achieved a detection limit of ~57fM. A linear relationship was also observed between increasing TNF-α concentrations and chargetransfer resistance within a dynamic range of 1pg/ml – 1ng/ml.
Comparative Analysis of Diversity and Similarity Indices with Special Relevance to Vegetations around Sewage Drains
Indices summarizing community structure are used to evaluate fundamental community ecology, species interaction, biogeographical factors, and environmental stress. Some of these indices are insensitive to gross community changes induced by contaminants of pollution. Diversity indices and similarity indices are reviewed considering their ecological application, both theoretical and practical. For some useful indices, empirical equations are given to calculate the expected maximum value of the indices to which the observed values can be related at any combination of sample sizes at the experimental sites. This paper examines the effects of sample size and diversity on the expected values of diversity indices and similarity indices, using various formulae. It has been shown that all indices are strongly affected by sample size and diversity. In some indices, this influence is greater than the others and an attempt has been made to deal with these influences.
Simulation Games in Business Process Management Education
Business process management (BPM) has become widely accepted within business community as a means for improving business performance. However, it is of the highest importance to incorporate BPM as part of the curriculum at the university level education in order to achieve the appropriate acceptance of the method. Goal of the paper is to determine the current state of education in business process management (BPM) at the Croatian universities and abroad. It investigates the applied forms of instruction and teaching methods and gives several proposals for BPM courses improvement. Since majority of undergraduate and postgraduate students have limited understanding of business processes and lack of any practical experience, there is a need for introducing new teaching approaches. Therefore, we offer some suggestions for further improvement, among which the introduction of simulation games environment in BPM education is strongly recommended.
Analysis on Influence of Gravity on Convection Heat Transfer in Manned Spacecraft during Terrestrial Test
How to simulate experimentally the air flow and heat transfer under microgravity on the ground is important, which has not been completely solved so far. Influence of gravity on air natural convection results in convection heat transfer on ground difference from that on orbit. In order to obtain air temperature and velocity deviations of manned spacecraft during terrestrial thermal test, dimensionless number analysis and numerical simulation analysis are performed. The calculated temperature distribution and velocity distribution of the horizontal test cases are compared to the vertical cases. The results show that the influence of gravity is neglected for facility drawer racks and more obvious for vertical cabins.
Realization of Electronically Tunable Current- Mode Multiphase Sinusoidal Oscillators Using CFTAs

An implementation of current-mode multiphase sinusoidal oscillators is presented. Using CFTA-based lossy integrators, odd and odd/even phase systems can be realized with following advantages. The condition of oscillation and frequency of oscillation can be orthogonally tuned. The high output impedances facilitate easy driving an external load without additional current buffers. The proposed MSOs provide odd or even phase signals that are equally spaced in phase and equal amplitude. The circuit requires one CFTA, one resistor and one grounded capacitor per phase without additional current amplifier. The results of PSPICE simulations using CMOS CFTA are included to verify theory.

Root System Production and Aboveground Biomass Production of Chosen Cover Crops
The most planted cover crops in the Czech Republic are mustard (Sinapis alba) and phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth.). A field trial was executed to evaluate root system size (RSS) in eight varieties of mustard and five varieties of phacelia on two locations, in three BBCH phases and in two years. The relationship between RSS and aboveground biomass was inquired. The root system was assessed by measuring its electric capacity. Aboveground mass and root samples to be evaluated by means of a digital image analysis were recovered in the BBCH phase 70. The yield of aboveground biomass of mustard was always statistically significantly higher than that of phacelia. Mustard showed a statistically significant negative correlation between root length density (RLD) within 10 cm and aboveground biomass weight (r = - 0.46*). Phacelia featured a statistically significant correlation between aboveground biomass production and nitrate nitrogen content in soil (r=0.782**).
The Innovative Information System for Systemic Approach of the Sustainability in the Enterprise
This paper presents an innovative computer system that contributes to sustainable development of the enterprise. The research refers to a rethinking of traditional systems of collaboration and risk assessment, present in any organization, leading to a sustainable enterprise. This concept integrates emerging tools that allow the implementation and exploitation of the collective intelligence of the enterprise, allowing the exchange of contextual, agile and simplified information, and collaboration with networks of customers and partners in an environment where risks are controlled. Risk assessment is done in a systemic way: the enterprise as the system compared to the contained departments and the enterprise as a subsystem compared to: families of international standards and sustainability-s responsibilities. The enterprise, in this systemic vision, responds to the requirements that any existing system to operate continuously in an indefinite future without reaching key resource depletion. The research is done by integrating collaborative science, engineering, management, psychology, obtaining thus a cornerstone of sustainable development of the enterprise.
Effect of Rearing Systems on Fatty Acid Composition and Cholesterol Content of Thai Indigenous Chicken Meat
The experiment was conducted to study the effect of rearing systems on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of Thai indigenous chicken meat. Three hundred and sixty chicks were allocated to 2 different rearing systems: conventional, housing in an indoor pen (5 birds/m2); free-range, housing in an indoor pen (5 birds/m2) with access to a grass paddock (1 bird/m2) from 8 wk of age until slaughter. All birds were provided with the same diet during the experimental period. At 16 wk of age, 24 birds per group were slaughtered to evaluate the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of breast and thigh meat. The results showed that the proportion of SFA, MUFA and PUFA in breast and thigh meat were not different among groups (P>0.05). However, the proportion of n-3 fatty acids was higher and the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids was lower in free-range system than in conventional system (P0.05). The data indicated that the free-range system could increase the proportion of n-3 fatty acids, but no effect on cholesterol content in Thai indigenous chicken meat.
Features of Party Construction in the Course of Political Modernization of Kazakhstan
This article considers the main features of party construction in the course of political modernization of Kazakhstan. Along with consideration of party construction author analyzed how the transformation of the party system was fulfilled in Kazakhstan. Besides the basic stages in the course of party construction were explained by the author. The statistical data is cited.
Dynamic Mesh Based Airfoil Design Optimization

A method of dynamic mesh based airfoil optimization is proposed according to the drawbacks of surrogate model based airfoil optimization. Programs are designed to achieve the dynamic mesh. Boundary condition is add by integrating commercial software Pointwise, meanwhile the CFD calculation is carried out by commercial software Fluent. The data exchange and communication between the software and programs referred above have been accomplished, and the whole optimization process is performed in iSIGHT platform. A simplified airfoil optimization study case is brought out to show that aerodynamic performances of airfoil have been significantly improved, even save massive repeat operations and increase the robustness and credibility of the optimization result. The case above proclaims that dynamic mesh based airfoil optimization is an effective and high efficient method.

A Fast Code Acquisition Scheme for O-CDMA Systems
This paper proposes a fast code acquisition scheme for optical code division multiple access (O-CDMA) systems. Unlike the conventional scheme, the proposed scheme employs multiple thresholds providing a shorter mean acquisition time (MAT) performance. The simulation results show that the MAT of the proposed scheme is shorter than that of the conventional scheme.
A Side-Peak Cancellation Scheme for CBOC Code Acquisition
In this paper, we propose a side-peak cancellation scheme for code acquisition of composite binary offset carrier (CBOC) signals. We first model the family of CBOC signals in a generic form, and then, propose a side-peak cancellation scheme by combining correlation functions between the divided sub-carrier and received signals. From numerical results, it is shown that the proposed scheme removes the side-peak completely, and moreover, the resulting correlation function demonstrates the better power ratio performance than the CBOC autocorrelation.
Fabrication of Microfluidic Device for Quantitative Monitoring of Algal Cell Behavior Using X-ray LIGA Technology

In this paper, a simple microfluidic device for monitoring algal cell behavior is proposed. An array of algal microwells is fabricated by PDMS soft-lithography using X-ray LIGA mold, placed on a glass substrate. Two layers of replicated PDMS and substrate are attached by oxygen plasma bonding, creating a microchannel for the microfluidic system. Algal cell are loaded into the microfluidic device, which provides positive charge on the bottom surface of wells. Algal cells, which are negative charged, can be attracted to the bottom of the wells via electrostatic interaction. By varying the concentration of algal cells in the loading suspension, it is possible to obtain wells with a single cell. Liquid medium for cells monitoring are flown continuously over the wells, providing nutrient and waste exchange between the well and the main flow. This device could lead to the uncovering of the quantitative biology of the algae, which is a key to effective and extensive algal utilizations in the field of biotechnology, food industry and bioenergy research and developments.

Phase Noise Impact on BER in Space Communication

This paper deals with the modeling and the evaluation of a multiplicative phase noise influence on the bit error ratio in a general space communication system. Our research is focused on systems with multi-state phase shift keying modulation techniques and it turns out, that the phase noise significantly affects the bit error rate, especially for higher signal to noise ratios. These results come from a system model created in Matlab environment and are shown in a form of constellation diagrams and bit error rate dependencies. The change of a user data bit rate is also considered and included into simulation results. Obtained outcomes confirm theoretical presumptions.

Possibilities of Delimitation of City Centers Using GIS

The article describes problems of city centers with regard to possibilities of their delimitation in a GIS environment. First the definitions and delimitations of a city centre which are in use are mentioned, furthermore a chosen case study (the historical centre of Olomouc city in the Czech Republic) is employed to describe the methods of delimitation in use. In addition to describing the current state, the article also deals with possibilities of delimitation of a city centre in GIS environment by means of several chosen approaches. The authors describe, compare and discuss the chosen methods and assess the achieved results and also applicability of the designed methods for other cities.

On the Dynamic Behaviour of a Four-Bar Linkage Driven by a Velocity Controlled DC Motor

The dynamic behaviour of a four-bar linkage driven by a velocity controlled DC motor is discussed in the paper. In particular the author presents the results obtained by means of a specifically developed software, which implements the mathematical models of all components of the system (linkage, transmission, electric motor, control devices). The use of this software enables a more efficient design approach, since it allows the designer to check, in a simple and immediate way, the dynamic behaviour of the mechanism, arising from different values of the system parameters.

Electrical and Magnetic Modelling of a Power Transformer: A Bond Graph Approach
Bond graph models of an electrical transformer including the nonlinear saturation are presented. The transformer using electrical and magnetic circuits are modelled. These models determine the relation between self and mutual inductances, and the leakage and magnetizing inductances of power transformers with two windings using the properties of a bond graph. The equivalence between electrical and magnetic variables is given. The modelling and analysis using this methodology to three phase power transformers can be extended.
A Positioning Matrix to Assess and to Develop CSR Strategies
A company CSR commitment, as stated in its Social Report is, actually, perceived by its stakeholders?And in what measure? Moreover, are stakeholders satisfied with the company CSR efforts? Indeed, business returns from Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices, such as company reputation and customer loyalty, depend heavily on how stakeholders perceive the company social conduct. In this paper, we propose a methodology to assess a company CSR commitment based on Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) indicators, Content Analysis and a CSR positioning matrix. We evaluate three aspects of CSR: the company commitment disclosed through its Social Report; the company commitment perceived by its stakeholders; the CSR commitment that stakeholders require to the company. The positioning of the company under study in the CSR matrix is based on the comparison among the three commitment aspects (disclosed, perceived, required) and it allows assessment and development of CSR strategies.
2D Spherical Spaces for Face Relighting under Harsh Illumination
In this paper, we propose a robust face relighting technique by using spherical space properties. The proposed method is done for reducing the illumination effects on face recognition. Given a single 2D face image, we relight the face object by extracting the nine spherical harmonic bases and the face spherical illumination coefficients. First, an internal training illumination database is generated by computing face albedo and face normal from 2D images under different lighting conditions. Based on the generated database, we analyze the target face pixels and compare them with the training bootstrap by using pre-generated tiles. In this work, practical real time processing speed and small image size were considered when designing the framework. In contrast to other works, our technique requires no 3D face models for the training process and takes a single 2D image as an input. Experimental results on publicly available databases show that the proposed technique works well under severe lighting conditions with significant improvements on the face recognition rates.
Mathematical Modeling of the Influence of Hydrothermal Processes in the Water Reservoir
In this paper presents the mathematical model of hydrothermal processes in thermal power plant with different wind direction scenarios in the water reservoir, which is solved by the Navier - Stokes and temperature equations for an incompressible fluid in a stratified medium. Numerical algorithm based on the method of splitting by physical parameters. Three dimensional Poisson equation is solved with Fourier method by combination of tridiagonal matrix method (Thomas algorithm).
Ablation, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Fiber/Phenolic Matrix Composites

In this study, an ablation, mechanical and thermal properties of a rocket motor insulation from phenolic/ fiber matrix composites forming a laminate with different fiber between fiberglass and locally available synthetic fibers. The phenolic/ fiber matrix composites was mechanics and thermal properties by means of tensile strength, ablation, TGA and DSC. The design of thermal insulation involves several factors.Determined the mechanical properties according to MIL-I-24768: Density >1.3 g/cm3, Tensile strength >103 MPa and Ablation <0.14 mm/s to optimization formulation of phenolic binder, fiber glass reinforcement and other ingredients were conducted after that the insulation prototype was formed and cured. It was found that the density of phenolic/fiberglass composites and phenolic/ synthetic fiber composite was 1.66 and 1.41 g/cm3 respectively. The ablative of phenolic/fiberglass composites and phenolic/ synthetic fiber composite was 0.13 and 0.06 mm/s respectively.

Pervasiveness of Aflatoxin in Peanuts Growing in the Area of Pothohar, Pakistan
Mycotoxin (aflatoxins) contamination of peanuts is a great concern for human health. A total of 72 samples of unripe, roasted, and salty peanuts were collected randomly from Pothohar plateau of Pakistan for the assessment of aflatoxin. Samples were dried, ground and extracted by acetonitrile (84%). The filtered extracts were cleaned up by MycoSep-226 and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with flourescence detector. Quantification limit of Aflatoxin was 1 μg/kg and 70% Recovery was observed in spiked samples in the range 1–10 μg/kg. The screening of mycotoxins indicated that aflatoxins were present in most of the samples being detected in 82%, in concentrations from 14.25 μg/kg to 98.80 μg/kg. Optimal conditions for mycotoxin production and fungal growth are frequently found in the crop fields as well as in store houses. Human exposure of such toxin can be controlled by pointed out such awareness and implemented the regulations.
Transformerless AC-DC Converter
This paper compares the recent transformerless ACDC power converter architectures and provides an assessment of each. A prototype of one of the transformerless AC-DC converter architecture is also presented depicting the feasibility of a small form factor, power supply design. In this paper component selection guidelines to achieve high efficiency AC-DC power conversion are also discussed.
Implementation of On-Line Cutting Stock Problem on NC Machines

Introduction applicability of high-speed cutting stock problem (CSP) is presented in this paper. Due to the orders continued coming in from various on-line ways for a professional cutting company, to stay competitive, such a business has to focus on sustained production at high levels. In others words, operators have to keep the machine running to stay ahead of the pack. Therefore, the continuous stock cutting problem with setup is proposed to minimize the cutting time and pattern changing time to meet the on-line given demand. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to solve the problem directly by using cutting patterns directly. A major advantage of the proposed method in series on-line production is that the system can adjust the cutting plan according to the floating orders. Examples with multiple items are demonstrated. The results show considerable efficiency and reliability in high-speed cutting of CSP.

Just-In-Time for Reducing Inventory Costs throughout a Supply Chain: A Case Study
Supply Chain Management (SCM) is the integration between manufacturer, transporter and customer in order to form one seamless chain that allows smooth flow of raw materials, information and products throughout the entire network that help in minimizing all related efforts and costs. The main objective of this paper is to develop a model that can accept a specified number of spare-parts within the supply chain, simulating its inventory operations throughout all stages in order to minimize the inventory holding costs, base-stock, safety-stock, and to find the optimum quantity of inventory levels, thereby suggesting a way forward to adapt some factors of Just-In-Time to minimizing the inventory costs throughout the entire supply chain. The model has been developed using Micro- Soft Excel & Visual Basic in order to study inventory allocations in any network of the supply chain. The application and reproducibility of this model were tested by comparing the actual system that was implemented in the case study with the results of the developed model. The findings showed that the total inventory costs of the developed model are about 50% less than the actual costs of the inventory items within the case study.
Remediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon-contaminated Soil Slurry by Fenton Oxidation
Theobjective of this study was to evaluate the optimal treatment condition of Fenton oxidation process to removal contaminant in soil slurry contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. This research studied somefactors that affect the removal efficiency of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil slurry including molar ratio of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to ferrous ion(Fe2+), pH condition and reaction time.The resultsdemonstrated that the optimum condition was that the molar ratio of H2O2:Fe3+ was 200:1,the pHwas 4.0and the rate of reaction was increasing rapidly from starting point to 7th hour and destruction kinetic rate (k) was 0.24 h-1. Approximately 96% of petroleum hydrocarbon was observed(initialtotal petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration = 70±7gkg-1)
Low resistivity Hf/Al/Ni/Au Ohmic Contact Scheme to n-Type GaN
The electrical and structural properties of Hf/Al/Ni/Au (20/100/25/50 nm) ohmic contact to n-GaN are reported in this study. Specific contact resistivities of Hf/Al/Ni/Au based contacts have been investigated as a function of annealing temperature and achieve the lowest value of 1.09´10-6 Ω·cm2 after annealing at 650 oC in vacuum. A detailed mechanism of ohmic contact formation is discussed. By using different chemical analyses, it is anticipated that the formation of Hf-Al-N alloy might be responsible to form low temperature ohmic contacts for the Hf-based scheme to n-GaN.
Influence of Number Parallels Paths of a Winding on Overvoltage in the Asynchronous Motors Fed by PWM- converters
This work is devoted to the calculation of the undulatory parameters and the study of the influence of te number parallel path of a winding on overvoltage compared to the frame and between turns (sections) in a multiturn random winding of an asynchronous motors supplied with PWM- converters.
Endeavoring Innovation via Research and Development Management: A Case of Iranian Industrial Sector
This study aims at investigating factors in research and development (R&D) growth and exploring the role of R&D management in enhancing social innovation and productivity improvement in Iran-s industrial sector. It basically explores the common types of R&D activities and the industries which benefited the most from active R&D units in Iran. The researchers generated qualitative analyses obtained from primary and secondary data. The primary data have been retrieved through interviews with five key players (Managing Director, Internal Manager, General Manager, Executive Manager, and Project Manager) in the industrial sector. The secondary data acquired from an investigation on Mazandaran, a province of northern Iran. The findings highlight Iran-s focuses of R & D on cost reduction and upgrading productivity. Industries that have benefited the most from active R&D units are metallic, machinery and equipment design, and automotive. We rank order the primary effects of R&D on productivity improvement as follows, industry improvement, economic growth, using professional human resources, generating productivity and creativity culture, creating a competitive and innovative environment, and increasing people-s knowledge. Generally, low budget dedication and insufficient supply of highly skilled scientists and engineers are two important obstacles for R&D in Iran. Whereas, R&D has resulted in improvement in Iranian society, transfer of contemporary knowledge into the international market is still lacking.
Impact of Personality and Loneliness on Life: Role of Online Flow Experiences
The present study examines the mediating effect of online flow experience on the relationship between extraversionintroversion, locus of control and loneliness, and depression and satisfaction with life. The data was obtained using a structured questionnaire prepared by adapting standardized scales available from a sample of 102 engineering students from different technical institutions at Bhubaneswar, India. The results indicate that there is a positive significant relationship between introversion, external locus of control, loneliness, depression and online flow experience, and extraversion, internal locus of control and satisfaction with life. The results also suggest that online flow experience mediates the relationship between the aforementioned variables.
Investigating Quality Metrics for Multimedia Traffic in OLSR Routing Protocol
An Ad hoc wireless network comprises of mobile terminals linked and communicating with each other sans the aid of traditional infrastructure. Optimized Link State Protocol (OLSR) is a proactive routing protocol, in which routes are discovered/updated continuously so that they are available when needed. Hello messages generated by a node seeks information about its neighbor and if the latter fails to respond to a specified number of hello messages regulated by neighborhood hold time, the node is forced to assume that the neighbor is not in range. This paper proposes to evaluate OLSR routing protocol in a random mobility network having various neighborhood hold time intervals. The throughput and delivery ratio are also evaluated to learn about its efficiency for multimedia loads.
Silicon-based Low-Power Reconfigurable Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer (ROADM)
We demonstrate a 1×4 coarse wavelength division-multiplexing (CWDM) planar concave grating multiplexer/demultiplexer and its application in re-configurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM) system in silicon-on-insulator substrate. The wavelengths of the demonstrated concave grating multiplexer align well with the ITU-T standard. We demonstrate a prototype of ROADM comprising two such concave gratings and four wide-band thermo-optical MZI switches. Undercut technology which removes the underneath silicon substrate is adopted in optical switches in order to minimize the operation power. For all the thermal heaters, the operation voltage is smaller than 1.5 V, and the switch power is ~2.4 mW. High throughput pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) data transmission with up to 100 Gb/s is demonstrated, showing the high-performance ROADM functionality.
Resistor-less Current-mode Universal Biquad Filter Using CCTAs and Grounded Capacitors

This article presents a current-mode universal biquadratic filter. The proposed circuit can apparently provide standard functions of the biquad filter: low-pass, high-pass, bandpass, band-reject and all-pass functions. The circuit uses 4 current controlled transconductance amplifiers (CCTAs) and 2 grounded capacitors. In addition, the pole frequency and quality factor can be adjusted by electronic method by adjusting the bias currents of the CCTA. The proposed circuit uses only grounded capacitors without additional external resistors, the proposed circuit is considerably appropriate to further developing into an integrated circuit. The results of PSPICE simulation program are corresponding to the theoretical analysis.

Structured Phospholipids from Commercial Soybean Lecithin Containing Omega-3 Fatty Acids Reduces Atherosclerosis Risk in Male Sprague dawley Rats which Fed with an Atherogenic Diet
Structured phospholipids from commercial soybean lecithin with oil enriched omega-3 fatty acid form by product of tuna canning is alternative procedure to provides the stability of omega-3 fatty acid structure and increase these bioactive function in metabolism. Best treatment condition was obtain in 18 hours acidolysis reaction with 30% enzyme concentration, which EPADHA incorporation level was 127,47 mg/g and incorporation percentage of EPA-DHA was 51,04% at phospholipids structure. This structured phospolipids could reduce atherosclerosis risk in male Sprague dawley rat. Provision of structured phospholipids has significant effect (α = 0.05) on changes in lipid profile, intima-media thickness of aorta rats (male Sprague dawley) fed atherogenic diet. Structured phospholipids intake can lower total cholesterol 78.36 mg/dL, total triglycerides 94,57 mg/dL, LDL levels 87.08 mg/dL and increased HDL level as much as 12,64 mg/dL in 10 weeks cares. Structured phospholipids intake also can prevent the thickening of the intima-media layer of the aorta.
Investigating the Determinants of Purchase Intention in C2C E-Commerce
This study aims to examine the determinants of purchase intention in C2C e-commerce. Specifically the role of instant messaging in the C2C e-commerce contextis investigated. In addition to instant messaging, we brought in two antecedents of purchase intention - trust and customer satisfaction - to establish a theoretical research model. Structural equation modeling using LISREL was used to analyze the data.We discussed the research findings and suggested some implications for researchers and practitioners.
Functional Lipids and Bioactive Compounds from Oil Rich Indigenous Seeds
Indian subcontinent has a plethora of traditional medicine systems that provide promising solutions to lifestyle disorders in an 'all natural way'. Spices and oilseeds hold prominence in Indian cuisine hence the focus of the current study was to evaluate the bioactive molecules from Linum usitatissinum (LU), Lepidium sativum (LS), Nigella sativa (NS) and Guizotia abyssinica (GA) seeds. The seeds were characterized for functional lipids like omega-3 fatty acid, antioxidant capacity, phenolic compounds, dietary fiber and anti-nutritional factors. Analysis of the seeds revealed LU and LS to be a rich source of α-linolenic acid (41.85 ± 0.33%, 26.71 ± 0.63%), an omega 3 fatty acid (using GCMS). While studying antioxidant potential NS seeds demonstrated highest antioxidant ability (61.68 ± 0.21 TEAC/ 100 gm DW) due to the presence of phenolics and terpenes as assayed by the Mass spectral analysis. When screened for anti-nutritional factor cyanogenic glycoside, LS seeds showed content as high as 1674 ± 54 mg HCN / kg. GA is a probable good source of a stable vegetable oil (SFA: PUFA 1:2.3). The seeds showed diversified bioactive profile and hence further studies to use different bio molecules in tandem for the development of a possible 'nutraceutical cocktail' have been initiated..
Production Throughput Modeling under Five Uncertain Variables Using Bayesian Inference

Throughput is an important measure of performance of production system. Analyzing and modeling of production throughput is complex in today-s dynamic production systems due to uncertainties of production system. The main reasons are that uncertainties are materialized when the production line faces changes in setup time, machinery break down, lead time of manufacturing, and scraps. Besides, demand changes are fluctuating from time to time for each product type. These uncertainties affect the production performance. This paper proposes Bayesian inference for throughput modeling under five production uncertainties. Bayesian model utilized prior distributions related to previous information about the uncertainties where likelihood distributions are associated to the observed data. Gibbs sampling algorithm as the robust procedure of Monte Carlo Markov chain was employed for sampling unknown parameters and estimating the posterior mean of uncertainties. The Bayesian model was validated with respect to convergence and efficiency of its outputs. The results presented that the proposed Bayesian models were capable to predict the production throughput with accuracy of 98.3%.

A Numerical Study on Heat Transfer in Laminar Pulsed Slot Jets Impinging on a Surface
Numerical simulations are performed for laminar continuous and pulsed jets impinging on a surface in order to investigate the effects of pulsing frequency on the heat transfer characteristics. The time-averaged Nusselt number of pulsed jets is larger in the impinging jet region as compared to the continuous jet, while it is smaller in the outer wall jet region. At the stagnation point, the mean and RMS Nusselt numbers become larger and smaller, respectively, as the pulsing frequency increases. Unsteady behaviors of vortical fluid motions and temperature field are also investigated to understand the underlying mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement.
Passive Cooling of Building by using Solar Chimney

Natural ventilation is an important means to improve indoor thermal comfort and reduce the energy consumption. A solar chimney system is an enhancing natural draft device, which uses solar radiation to heat the air inside the chimney, thereby converting the thermal energy into kinetic energy. The present study considered some parameters such as chimney width and solar intensity, which were believed to have a significant effect on space ventilation. Fluent CFD software was used to predict buoyant air flow and flow rates in the cavities. The results were compared with available published experimental and theoretical data from the literature. There was an acceptable trend match between the present results and the published data for the room air change per hour, ACH. Further, it was noticed that the solar intensity has a more significant effect on ACH.

A DEA Model for Performance Evaluation in The Presence of Time Lag Effect
Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is a methodology that computes efficiency values for decision making units (DMU) in a given period by comparing the outputs with the inputs. In many cases, there are some time lag between the consumption of inputs and the production of outputs. For a long-term research project, it is hard to avoid the production lead time phenomenon. This time lag effect should be considered in evaluating the performance of organizations. This paper suggests a model to calculate efficiency values for the performance evaluation problem with time lag. In the experimental part, the proposed methods are compared with the CCR and an existing time lag model using the data set of the 21st century frontier R&D program which is a long-term national R&D program of Korea.
Investigation of Growth Parameters of Soybean Cultivars in Different Weeding Regimes
In a field experiment, growth parameters of soybean cultivars in different weeding regimes was investigated. The trial was split plot in a randomized complete block design. The four cultivars and two lines of soybean (Glycine max L.) including: Sahar, Hill, Sari, Telar, 032 and 033 in main plot and weeding regime consist of no weeding (control), one weeding (35 days after planting) and two weeding (35+20 days after planting) were randomized in sub plot. The results showed that during the growth season 033 had the highest dry matter in two weeding. In two weeding regime the dry matter decreased. ). In all weeding regimes 033 had the highest CGR (Figs. 3a, 3b and 3c), which cleared this cultivar ability compare to the others. This cultivar by increasing its leaf area could do more photosynthesis, so, have a higher CGR.
Effect of Cultivars and Weeding Regimes on Soybean Yields

To study the performance of soybean (Glycine max L.) cultivars in varying weeding regimes, a field experiment was conducted in 2010. The experiment was split plot in a randomized complete block design with 3 replicates. The four cultivars and two lines of soybean including: Sahar, Hill, Sari, Telar, 032 and 033 in main plot and weeding regime consist of no weeding (control), one weeding (35 days after planting) and two weeding (35+20 days after planting) were randomized in sub plot. In weed infested plots inevitably had the highest yield reduction in all varieties. On the other hand, plots weeded twice showed the best performance for all cultivars and lines. Although 033 had the highest yield over weeding regimes, but Hill was the best cultivar in suppression of weeds, which indicated the competitiveness of this cultivar. Double weeding, with the use of competitive soybean cultivars would be an effective approach for producing yield.

Microneedles-Mediated Transdermal Delivery
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential of hollow microneedles for enhancing the transdermal delivery of Bovine Serum Albumin (MW~66,000 Da)-Fluorescein Isothiocyanate (BSA-FITC) conjugate, a hydrophilic large molecular compound. Moreover, the effect of different formulations was evaluated. The series of binary mixtures composed of propylene glycol (PG) and pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solution (PBS) was prepared and used as a medium for BSA-FITC. The results showed that there was no permeation of BSA-FITC solution across the neonatal porcine skin without using hollow microneedles, whereas the cumulative amount of BSA-FITC released at 8 h through the neonatal porcine skin was about 60-70% when using hollow microneedles. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the higher volume of PG in binary mixtures injected, the lower cumulative amount of BSA-FITC released and release rate of BSA-FITC from skin. These release profiles of BSA-FITC in binary mixtures were expressed by Fick-s law of diffusion. These results suggest the utilization of hollow microneedle to enhance transdermal delivery of protein and provide useful information for designing an effective hollow microneedle system.
Double Layer Polarization and Non-Linear Electroosmosis in and around a Charged Permeable Aggregate

We have studied the migration of a charged permeable aggregate in electrolyte under the influence of an axial electric field and pressure gradient. The migration of the positively charged aggregate leads to a deformation of the anionic cloud around it. The hydrodynamics of the aggregate is governed by the interaction of electroosmotic flow in and around the particle, hydrodynamic friction and electric force experienced by the aggregate. We have computed the non-linear Nernest-Planck equations coupled with the Dracy- Brinkman extended Navier-Stokes equations and Poisson equation for electric field through a finite volume method. The permeability of the aggregate enable the counterion penetration. The penetration of counterions depends on the volume charge density of the aggregate and ionic concentration of electrolytes at a fixed field strength. The retardation effect due to the double layer polarization increases the drag force compared to an uncharged aggregate. Increase in migration sped from the electrophretic velocity of the aggregate produces further asymmetry in charge cloud and reduces the electric body force exerted on the particle. The permeability of the particle have relatively little influence on the electric body force when Double layer is relatively thin. The impact of the key parameters of electrokinetics on the hydrodynamics of the aggregate is analyzed.

Silicon-Waveguide Based Silicide Schottky- Barrier Infrared Detector for on-Chip Applications

We prove detailed analysis of a waveguide-based Schottky barrier photodetector (SBPD) where a thin silicide film is put on the top of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) channel waveguide to absorb light propagating along the waveguide. Taking both the confinement factor of light absorption and the wall scanning induced gain of the photoexcited carriers into account, an optimized silicide thickness is extracted to maximize the effective gain, thereby the responsivity. For typical lengths of the thin silicide film (10-20 Ðçm), the optimized thickness is estimated to be in the range of 1-2 nm, and only about 50-80% light power is absorbed to reach the maximum responsivity. Resonant waveguide-based SBPDs are proposed, which consist of a microloop, microdisc, or microring waveguide structure to allow light multiply propagating along the circular Si waveguide beneath the thin silicide film. Simulation results suggest that such resonant waveguide-based SBPDs have much higher repsonsivity at the resonant wavelengths as compared to the straight waveguidebased detectors. Some experimental results about Si waveguide-based SBPD are also reported.

CMOS-Compatible Silicon Nanoplasmonics for On-Chip Integration

Although silicon photonic devices provide a significantly larger bandwidth and dissipate a substantially less power than the electronic devices, they suffer from a large size due to the fundamental diffraction limit and the weak optical response of Si. A potential solution is to exploit Si plasmonics, which may not only miniaturize the photonic device far beyond the diffraction limit, but also enhance the optical response in Si due to the electromagnetic field confinement. In this paper, we discuss and summarize the recently developed metal-insulator-Si-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic waveguide as well as various passive and active plasmonic components based on this waveguide, including coupler, bend, power splitter, ring resonator, MZI, modulator, detector, etc. All these plasmonic components are CMOS compatible and could be integrated with electronic and conventional dielectric photonic devices on the same SOI chip. More potential plasmonic devices as well as plasmonic nanocircuits with complex functionalities are also addressed.

Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies on Biosorption of Cd (II) and Pb (II) from Aqueous Solution Using a Spore Forming Bacillus Isolated from Wastewater of a Leather Factory
The equilibrium, thermodynamics and kinetics of the biosorption of Cd (II) and Pb(II) by a Spore Forming Bacillus (MGL 75) were investigated at different experimental conditions. The Langmuir and Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equilibrium adsorption models were applied to describe the biosorption of the metal ions by MGL 75 biomass. The Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better than the other models. Maximum adsorption capacities q max for lead (II) and cadmium (II) were found equal to 158.73mg/g and 91.74 mg/g by Langmuir model. The values of the mean free energy determined with the D-R equation showed that adsorption process is a physiosorption process. The thermodynamic parameters Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°), and entropy (ΔS°) changes were also calculated, and the values indicated that the biosorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Experiment data were also used to study biosorption kinetics using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Kinetic parameters, rate constants, equilibrium sorption capacities and related correlation coefficients were calculated and discussed. The results showed that the biosorption processes of both metal ions followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics.
Effect Comparison of Speckle Noise Reduction Filters on 2D-Echocardigraphic Images

Echocardiography imaging is one of the most common diagnostic tests that are widely used for assessing the abnormalities of the regional heart ventricle function. The main goal of the image enhancement task in 2D-echocardiography (2DE) is to solve two major anatomical structure problems; speckle noise and low quality. Therefore, speckle noise reduction is one of the important steps that used as a pre-processing to reduce the distortion effects in 2DE image segmentation. In this paper, we present the common filters that based on some form of low-pass spatial smoothing filters such as Mean, Gaussian, and Median. The Laplacian filter was used as a high-pass sharpening filter. A comparative analysis was presented to test the effectiveness of these filters after being applied to original 2DE images of 4-chamber and 2-chamber views. Three statistical quantity measures: root mean square error (RMSE), peak signal-to-ratio (PSNR) and signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) are used to evaluate the filter performance quantitatively on the output enhanced image.

Explanatory of Relationship between Learning Motivation and Learning Performance
In this paper, the relationship between learning motivation and learning performance is explored by using exchange theory. The relationship is concluded that external performance can raise learning motivation and then increase learning performance. The internal performance should be not completely neglected and the external performance should be not attached important excessively. The parents need self-study and must be also reeducated. The existing education must be improved in raise of internal performance. The incorrect learning thinking will mislead the students, parents, and educators of next generation, when the students obtain good learning performance in the learning environment with excess stimulants. Over operation of external performance will result abnormal learning thinking and violating learning goal. Learning is not only to obtain performance. Learning quality and learning performance will be limited as without learning motivation. The best learning motivation is, the best learning performance is. The learning for reward is not good for learning performance. Strategies of promoting life-long learning are including the encouraging for learner, establishment of good interaction learning environment, and the advertisement of the merit and the importance of life-long learning, which can let the learner with the correct learning motivation.
Temperature Sensor IC Design for Intracranial Monitoring Device

A precision CMOS chopping amplifier is adopted in this work to improve a CMOS temperature sensor high sensitive enough for intracranial temperature monitoring. An amplified temperature sensitivity of 18.8 ± 3*0.2 mV/oC is attained over the temperature range from 20 oC to 80 oC from a given 10 samples of the same wafer. The analog frontend design outputs the temperature dependent and the temperature independent signals which can be directly interfaced to a 10 bit ADC to accomplish an accurate temperature instrumentation system.

Effect of the Machine Frame Structures on the Frequency Responses of Spindle Tool
Chatter vibration has been a troublesome problem for a machine tool toward the high precision and high speed machining. Essentially, the machining performance is determined by the dynamic characteristics of the machine tool structure and dynamics of cutting process. Therefore the dynamic vibration behavior of spindle tool system greatly determines the performance of machine tool. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influences of the machine frame structure on the dynamic frequency of spindle tool unit through finite element modeling approach. To this end, a realistic finite element model of the vertical milling system was created by incorporated the spindle-bearing model into the spindle head stock of the machine frame. Using this model, the dynamic characteristics of the milling machines with different structural designs of spindle head stock and identical spindle tool unit were demonstrated. The results of the finite element modeling reveal that the spindle tool unit behaves more compliant when the excited frequency approaches the natural mode of the spindle tool; while the spindle tool show a higher dynamic stiffness at lower frequency that may be initiated by the structural mode of milling head. Under this condition, it is concluded that the structural configuration of spindle head stock associated with the vertical column of milling machine plays an important role in determining the machining dynamics of the spindle unit.
An Inductive Coupling Based CMOS Wireless Powering Link for Implantable Biomedical Applications

A closed-loop controlled wireless power transmission circuit block for implantable biomedical applications is described in this paper. The circuit consists of one front-end rectifier, power management sub-block including bandgap reference and low drop-out regulators (LDOs) as well as transmission power detection / feedback circuits. Simulation result shows that the front-end rectifier achieves 80% power efficiency with 750-mV single-end peak-to-peak input voltage and 1.28-V output voltage under load current of 4 mA. The power management block can supply 1.8mA average load current under 1V consuming only 12μW power, which is equivalent to 99.3% power efficiency. The wireless power transmission block described in this paper achieves a maximum power efficiency of 80%. The wireless power transmission circuit block is designed and implemented using UMC 65-nm CMOS/RF process. It occupies 1 mm × 1.2 mm silicon area.

An Anatomically-Based Model of the Nerves in the Human Foot

Sensory nerves in the foot play an important part in the diagnosis of various neuropathydisorders, especially in diabetes mellitus.However, a detailed description of the anatomical distribution of the nerves is currently lacking. A computationalmodel of the afferent nerves inthe foot may bea useful tool for the study of diabetic neuropathy. In this study, we present the development of an anatomically-based model of various major sensory nerves of the sole and dorsal sidesof the foot. In addition, we presentan algorithm for generating synthetic somatosensory nerve networks in the big-toe region of a right foot model. The algorithm was based on a modified version of the Monte Carlo algorithm, with the capability of being able to vary the intra-epidermal nerve fiber density in differentregionsof the foot model. Preliminary results from the combinedmodel show the realistic anatomical structure of the major nerves as well as the smaller somatosensory nerves of the foot. The model may now be developed to investigate the functional outcomes of structural neuropathyindiabetic patients.

Reducing Sugar Production from Durian Peel by Hydrochloric Acid Hydrolysis
Agricultural waste is mainly composed of cellulose and hemicelluloses which can be converted to sugars. The inexpensive reducing sugar from durian peel was obtained by hydrolysis with HCl concentration at 0.5-2.0% (v/v). The hydrolysis range of time was for 15-60 min when the mixture was autoclaved at 121 °C. The result showed that acid hydrolysis efficiency (AHE) highest to 80.99% at condition is 2.0%concentration for 15 min. Reducing sugar highest to 56.07 g/litre at condition is 2.0% concentration for 45min. Total sugar highest to 59.83 g/litre at condition is 2.0%concentration for 45min, which was not significant (p < 0.05) with condition 2.0% concentration for 30 min and 1.5 % concentration for 45 and 60 min. The increase in concentration increased AHE, reducing sugar and total sugar. The hydrolysis time had no effect on AHE, reducing sugar and total sugar. The maximum reducing sugars of each concentration were at hydrolysis time 45 min .The hydrolysated were analysis by HPLC, the results revealed that the principle of sugar were glucose, fructose and xylose.
Designing a Rescue System for Earthquake-Stricken Area with the Aim of Facilitation and Accelerating Accessibilities (Case Study: City of Tehran)

Natural disasters, including earthquake, kill many people around the world every year. Society rescue actions, which start after the earthquake and are called LAST in abbreviation, include locating, access, stabilization and transportation. In the present article, we have studied the process of local accessibility to the injured and transporting them to health care centers. With regard the heavy traffic load due to earthquake, the destruction of connecting roads and bridges and the heavy debris in alleys and street, which put the lives of the injured and the people buried under the debris in danger, accelerating the rescue actions and facilitating the accessibilities are of great importance, obviously. Tehran, the capital of Iran, is among the crowded cities in the world and is the center of extensive economic, political, cultural and social activities. Tehran has a population of about 9.5 millions and because of the immigration of people from the surrounding cities. Furthermore, considering the fact that Tehran is located on two important and large faults, a 6 Richter magnitude earthquake in this city could lead to the greatest catastrophe during the entire human history. The present study is a kind of review and a major part of the required information for it, has been obtained from libraries all of the rescue vehicles around the world, including rescue helicopters, ambulances, fire fighting vehicles and rescue boats, and their applied technology, and also the robots specifically designed for the rescue system and the advantages and disadvantages of them, have been investigated. The studies show that there is a significant relationship between the rescue team-s arrival time at the incident zone and the number of saved people; so that, if the duration of burial under debris 30 minutes, the probability of survival is %99.3, after a day is %81, after 2days is %19 and after 5days is %7.4. The exiting transport systems all have some defects. If these defects are removed, more people could be saved each hour and the preparedness against natural disasters is increased. In this study, transport system has been designed for the rescue team and the injured; which could carry the rescue team to the incident zone and the injured to the health care centers. In addition, this system is able to fly in the air and move on the earth as well; so that the destruction of roads and the heavy traffic load could not prevent the rescue team from arriving early at the incident zone. The system also has the equipment required firebird for debris removing, optimum transport of the injured and first aid.

Numerical Analysis of Flow past Circular Cylinder with Triangular and Rectangular Wake Splitter
In the present work flow past circular cylinder and cylinder with rectangular and triangular wake splitter is studied to improve aerodynamic parameters. The Comparison of drag coefficient is tabulated for bare cylinder, cylinder with rectangular and triangular wake splitters. Flow past circular cylinder and cylinder with triangular and rectangular wake splitter is performed at Reynoldsnumber 5, 20, 40, 50,80, 100.An incompressible PISO finite volume code employing a non-staggered grid arrangement is used, a second order upwind scheme is used for convective terms. The time discretization is implicit and a Second order Crank-Nicholson scheme is employed. Length of wake splitter in both configurations is taken to be equal to diameter of cylinder. Wake length is found to be less with rectangular wake splitter when compared to bare cylinder and cylinder with triangular wake splitter. Coefficient of drag is found to be less for triangular wake splitter when compared to bare cylinder & cylinder with rectangular wake splitter.
Carbon Isotope Discrimination, A Tool for Screening of Salinity Tolerance of Genotypes
This study carried out in order to investigate the effects of salinity on carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) of shoots and roots of four sugar beet cultivars (cv) including Madison (British origin) and three Iranian culivars (7233-P12, 7233-P21 and 7233-P29). Plants were grown in sand culture medium in greenhouse conditions. Plants irrigated with saline water (tap water as control, 50 mM, 150 mM, 250 mM and 350 mM of NaCl + CaCl2 in 5 to 1 molar ratio) from 4 leaves stage for 16 weeks. Carbon isotope discrimination significantly decreased with increasing salinity. Significant differences of Δ between shoot and root were observed in all cvs and all levels of salinity. Madison cv showed lower Δ in shoot and root than other three cvs at all levels of salinity expect control, but cv 7233-P29 had significantly higher Δ values at saline conditions of 150 mM and above. Therefore, Δ might be applicable, as a useful tool, for study of salinity tolerance of sugar beet genotypes.
Numerical Study of Oxygen Enrichment on NO Pollution Spread in a Combustion Chamber
In this study, a 3D combustion chamber was simulated using FLUENT 6.32. Aim to obtain detailed information on combustion characteristics and _ nitrogen oxides in the furnace and the effect of oxygen enrichment in a combustion process. Oxygenenriched combustion is an effective way to reduce emissions. This paper analyzes NO emission, including thermal NO and prompt NO. Flow rate ratio of air to fuel is varied as 1.3, 3.2 and 5.1 and the oxygen enriched flow rates are 28, 54 and 68 lit/min. The 3D Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations with standard k-ε turbulence model are solved together by Fluent 6.32 software. First order upwind scheme is used to model governing equations and the SIMPLE algorithm is used as pressure velocity coupling. Results show that for AF=1.3, increase the oxygen flow rate of oxygen reduction in NO emissions is Lance. Moreover, in a fixed oxygen enrichment condition, increasing the air to fuel ratio will increase the temperature peak, but not the NO emission rate. As a result, oxygen enrichment can reduce the NO emission at this kind of furnace in low air to fuel rates.
Simulation of Natural Convection in Concentric Annuli between an Outer Inclined Square Enclosure and an Inner Horizontal Cylinder
In this work, the natural convection in a concentric annulus between a cold outer inclined square enclosure and heated inner circular cylinder is simulated for two-dimensional steady state. The Boussinesq approximation was applied to model the buoyancy-driven effect and the governing equations were solved using the time marching approach staggered by body fitted coordinates. The coordinate transformation from the physical domain to the computational domain is set up by an analytical expression. Numerical results for Rayleigh numbers 103 , 104 , 105 and 106, aspect ratios 1.5 , 3.0 and 4.5 for seven different inclination angles for the outer square enclosure 0o , -30o , -45o , -60o , -90o , -135o , -180o are presented as well. The computed flow and temperature fields were demonstrated in the form of streamlines, isotherms and Nusselt numbers variation. It is found that both the aspect ratio and the Rayleigh number are critical to the patterns of flow and thermal fields. At all Rayleigh numbers angle of inclination has nominal effect on heat transfer.
Implemented 5-bit 125-MS/s Successive Approximation Register ADC on FPGA
Implemented 5-bit 125-MS/s successive approximation register (SAR) analog to digital converter (ADC) on FPGA is presented in this paper.The design and modeling of a high performance SAR analog to digital converter are based on monotonic capacitor switching procedure algorithm .Spartan 3 FPGA is chosen for implementing SAR analog to digital converter algorithm. SAR VHDL program writes in Xilinx and modelsim uses for showing results.
Mobile Learning Adoption in Saudi Arabia
This paper investigates the use of mobile phones and tablets for learning purposes among university students in Saudi Arabia. For this purpose, an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is proposed to analyze the adoption of mobile devices and smart phones by Saudi university students for accessing course materials, searching the web for information related to their discipline, sharing knowledge, conducting assignments etc.
Classification of the Latin Alphabet as Pattern on ARToolkit Markers for Augmented Reality Applications

augmented reality is a technique used to insert virtual objects in real scenes. One of the most used libraries in the area is the ARToolkit library. It is based on the recognition of the markers that are in the form of squares with a pattern inside. This pattern which is mostly textual is source of confusing. In this paper, we present the results of a classification of Latin characters as a pattern on the ARToolkit markers to know the most distinguishable among them.

Fuzzy C-Means Clustering Algorithm for Voltage Stability in Large Power Systems
The steady-state operation of maintaining voltage stability is done by switching various controllers scattered all over the power network. When a contingency occurs, whether forced or unforced, the dispatcher is to alleviate the problem in a minimum time, cost, and effort. Persistent problem may lead to blackout. The dispatcher is to have the appropriate switching of controllers in terms of type, location, and size to remove the contingency and maintain voltage stability. Wrong switching may worsen the problem and that may lead to blackout. This work proposed and used a Fuzzy CMeans Clustering (FCMC) to assist the dispatcher in the decision making. The FCMC is used in the static voltage stability to map instantaneously a contingency to a set of controllers where the types, locations, and amount of switching are induced.
Modeling the Effect of Inlet Manifold Pipes Bending Angle on SI Engine Performance
the intension in this work is to investigate the effect of different bending manifold pipes on engine performance for different engine speed. Power, Torque, and BSFC were calculated and presented to show the effect of varying bending pipes angles on them for all cases considered. A special program used to carry out the calculations. A simulation model for 4-cylinders spark ignition engine with turbocharger has been built and calculated. The analysis of the results shows that for 120o angle the torque increases about 40% at 3000 rpm and 25% at 4000 rpm without changing in fuel consumption. For 90o angle the increment in torque is about 10 %. For the same bending angle the increment in brake power is around 40% at 3000 rpm and 25% at 4000 rpm. The increment in fuel consumption is about 12% for 60o and 30% for 90o between (6000- 7000) rpm.
The Effect of Stress Biaxiality on Crack Shape Development
The development of shape and size of a crack in a pressure vessel under uniaxial and biaxial loadings is important in fitness-for-service evaluations such as leak-before-break. In this work finite element modelling was used to evaluate the mean stress and the J-integral around a front of a surface-breaking crack. A procedure on the basis of ductile tearing resistance curves of high and low constrained fracture mechanics geometries was developed to estimate the amount of ductile crack extension for surface-breaking cracks and to show the evolution of the initial crack shape. The results showed non-uniform constraint levels and crack driving forces around the crack front at large deformation levels. It was also shown that initially semi-elliptical surface cracks under biaxial load developed higher constraint levels around the crack front than in uniaxial tension. However similar crack shapes were observed with more extensions associated with cracks under biaxial loading.
Numerical Modeling and Computer Simulation of Ground Movement above Underground Mine

This paper describes topic of computer simulation with regard to the ground movement above an underground mine. Simulation made with software package ADINA for nonlinear elastic-plastic analysis with finite elements method. The one of representative profiles from Mine 'Stara Jama' in Zenica has been investigated. A collection and selection of both geo-mechanical data and geometric parameters of the mine was necessary for performing these simulations. Results of estimation have been compared with measured values (vertical displacement of surface), and then simulation performed with assumed dynamic and dimensions of excavation, over a period of time. Results are presented with bitmaps and charts.

Antimicrobial Effect of Essential oil of Plant Trigonella focnum greacum on some Bacteria Pathogens
The plant world is the source of many medicines. Recently, researchers have estimated that there are approximately 400,000 plant species worldwide, of which about a quarter or a third have been used by societies for medicinal purposes. The human uses of plants for thousands of years to treat various ailments, in many developing countries, much of the population trust in traditional doctors and their collections of medicinal plants to treat them. Essential oils have many therapeutic properties. In herbal medicine, they are used for their antiseptic properties against infectious diseases of fungal origin, against dermatophytes, those of bacterial origin. The aim of our study is to determine the antimicrobial effect of essential oils of the plant Trigonella focnum greacum on some pathogenic bacteria, it is a medicinal plant used in traditional therapy. The test adopted is based on the diffusion method on solid medium (Antibiogram), this method determines the sensitivity or resistance of a microorganism vis-à-vis the extract studied. Our study reveals that the essential oil of the plant Trigonella focnum greacum has a different effect on the resistance of germs. For staphiloccocus Pseudomonnas aeroginosa and Krebsilla, are moderately sensitive strains, also Escherichia coli and Candida albicans represents a high sensitivity. By against Proteus is a strain that represents a weak sensitivity.
A Parametric Study on Deoiling Hydrocyclones Flow Field

Hydrocyclones flow field study is conducted by performing a parametric study. Effect of cone angle on deoiling hydrocyclones flow behaviour is studied in this research. Flow field of hydrocyclone is obtained by three-dimensional simulations with OpenFOAM code. Because of anisotropic behaviour of flow inside hydrocyclones LES is a suitable method to predict the flow field since it resolves large scales and model isotropic small scales. Large eddy simulation is used to predict the flow behavior of three different cone angles. Differences in tangential velocity and pressure distribution are reported in some figures.

Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties of Barberry Fruits Extracts Using Maceration and Subcritical Water Extraction (SWE)

The quality and shelf life of foods of containing lipids (fats and oils) significantly reduces due to rancidity.Applications of natural antioxidants are one of the most effective manners to prevent the oxidation of oils and lipids. The antioxidant properties of juice extracted from barberry fruit (Berberris vulgaris.L) using maceration and SWE (10 bars and 120 - 180°C) methods were investigated and compared with conventional method. The amount of phenolic compound and reduction power of all samples were determined and the data were statistically analyzed using multifactor design. The results showed that the total amount of phenolic compound increased with increasing of pressure and temprature from 1861.9 to 2439.1 (mg Gallic acid /100gr Dry matter). The ability of reduction power of SWE obtained antioxidant extract compared with BHA (synthetic antioxidant) and ascorbic acid (natural antioxidant). There were significant differences among reduction power of extracts and there were remarkable difference with BHA and Ascorbic acid (P<0.01).

Development of Greenhouse Analysis Tools for Home Agriculture Project
This paper presents the development of analysis tools for Home Agriculture project. The tools are required for monitoring the condition of greenhouse which involves two components: measurement hardware and data analysis engine. Measurement hardware is functioned to measure environment parameters such as temperature, humidity, air quality, dust and etc while analysis tool is used to analyse and interpret the integrated data against the condition of weather, quality of health, irradiance, quality of soil and etc. The current development of the tools is completed for off-line data recorded technique. The data is saved in MMC and transferred via ZigBee to Environment Data Manager (EDM) for data analysis. EDM converts the raw data and plot three combination graphs. It has been applied in monitoring three months data measurement for irradiance, temperature and humidity of the greenhouse..
Simulation of Non-Linear Behavior of Shear Wall under Seismic Loading

The seismic response of steel shear wall system considering nonlinearity effects using finite element method is investigated in this paper. The non-linear finite element analysis has potential as usable and reliable means for analyzing of civil structures with the availability of computer technology. In this research the large displacements and materially nonlinear behavior of shear wall is presented with developing of finite element code. A numerical model based on the finite element method for the seismic analysis of shear wall is presented with developing of finite element code in this research. To develop the finite element code, the standard Galerkin weighted residual formulation is used. Two-dimensional plane stress model and total Lagrangian formulation was carried out to present the shear wall response and the Newton-Raphson method is applied for the solution of nonlinear transient equations. The presented model in this paper can be developed for analysis of civil engineering structures with different material behavior and complicated geometry.

Numerical Simulation of Convective Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow through Porous Media with Different Moving and Heated Walls
The present study is concerned with the free convective two dimensional flow and heat transfer, within the framework of Boussinesq approximation, in anisotropic fluid filled porous rectangular enclosure subjected to end-to-end temperature difference have been investigated using Lattice Boltzmann method fornon-Darcy flow model. Effects of the moving lid direction (top, bottom, left, and right wall moving in the negative and positive x&ydirections), number of moving walls (one or two opposite walls), the sliding wall velocity, and four different constant temperatures opposite walls cases (two surfaces are being insulated and the twoother surfaces areimposed to be at constant hot and cold temperature)have been conducted. The results obtained are discussed in terms of the Nusselt number, vectors, contours, and isotherms.
Free Convective Heat Transfer in an Enclosure Filled with Porous Media with and without Insulated Moving Wall
The present work is concerned with the free convective two dimensional flow and heat transfer, in isotropic fluid filled porous rectangular enclosure with differentially heated walls for steady state incompressible flow have been investigated for non- Darcy flow model. Effects of Darcy number (0.0001 £Da£ 10), Rayleigh number (10 £Ra£ 5000), and aspect ratio (0.25 £AR£ 4), for a range of porosity (0.4 £e£ 0.9) with and without moving lower wall have been studied. The cavity was insulated at the lower and upper surfaces. The right and left heated surfaces allows convective transport through the porous medium, generating a thermal stratification and flow circulations. It was found that the Darcy number, Rayleigh number, aspect ratio, and porosity considerably influenced characteristics of flow and heat transfer mechanisms. The results obtained are discussed in terms of the Nusselt number, vectors, contours, and isotherms.
Investigation of Phytoextraction Coefficient Different Combination of Heavy Metals in Barley and Alfalfa
Two seperate experiments by barley and alfalfa were conducted to a 2×8 factorial completely randomised design, with four replicates. Factors were inoculation (M) with Gomus mosseae or uninoculation (M0) and seven levels of contaminants (Co, Cd, Pb and combinations) plus an uncontaminated control treatment (C). Heavy metals in plant tissues and soil were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES) (Variant- Liberty 150AX Turbo). Phytoextraction coefficient of contaminants calculated by concentration of heavy metals in the shoot (mgkg-1) / concentration of heavy metals in soil (mgkg-1). In the barley, the highest rate of phytoextraction coefficient of Pb, Cd and Co was in M0Pb, M0PbCoCd and MCo, respectively (P
Leaf Chlorophyll of Corn, Sweet basil and Borage under Intercropping System in Weed Interference
Intercropping is one of the sustainable agricultural factors. The SPAD meter can be used to predict nitrogen index reliably, it may also be a useful tool for assessing the relative impact of weeds on crops. In order to study the effect of weeds on SPAD in corn (Zea mays L.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and borage (Borago officinalis L.) in intercropping system, a factorial experiment was conducted in three replications in 2011. Experimental factors were included intercropping of corn with sweet basil and borage in different ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100 corn: borage or sweet basil) and weed infestation (weed control and weed interference). The results showed that intercropping of corn with sweet basil and borage increased the SPAD value of corn compare to monoculture in weed interference condition. Sweet basil SPAD value in weed control treatments (43.66) was more than weed interference treatments (40.17). Corn could increase the borage SPAD value compare to monoculture in weed interference treatments.
Stress Relaxation of Date at Different Temperature and Moisture Content of Product: A New Approach
Iran is one of the greatest producers of date in the world. However due to lack of information about its viscoelastic properties, much of the production downgraded during harvesting and postharvesting processes. In this study the effect of temperature and moisture content of product were investigated on stress relaxation characteristics. Therefore, the freshly harvested date (kabkab) at tamar stage were put in controlled environment chamber to obtain different temperature levels (25, 35, 45, and 55 0C) and moisture contents (8.5, 8.7, 9.2, 15.3, 20, 32.2 %d.b.). A texture analyzer TAXT2 (Stable Microsystems, UK) was used to apply uniaxial compression tests. A chamber capable to control temperature was designed and fabricated around the plunger of texture analyzer to control the temperature during the experiment. As a new approach a CCD camera (A4tech, 30 fps) was mounted on a cylindrical glass probe to scan and record contact area between date and disk. Afterwards, pictures were analyzed using image processing toolbox of Matlab software. Individual date fruit was uniaxially compressed at speed of 1 mm/s. The constant strain of 30% of thickness of date was applied to the horizontally oriented fruit. To select a suitable model for describing stress relaxation of date, experimental data were fitted with three famous stress relaxation models including the generalized Maxwell, Nussinovitch, and Pelege. The constant in mentioned model were determined and correlated with temperature and moisture content of product using non-linear regression analysis. It was found that Generalized Maxwell and Nussinovitch models appropriately describe viscoelastic characteristics of date fruits as compared to Peleg mode.
Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Rough Rice Drying in Infrared-assisted Hot Air Dryer Using Artificial Neural Network

Drying characteristics of rough rice (variety of lenjan) with an initial moisture content of 25% dry basis (db) was studied in a hot air dryer assisted by infrared heating. Three arrival air temperatures (30, 40 and 500C) and four infrared radiation intensities (0, 0.2 , 0.4 and 0.6 W/cm2) and three arrival air speeds (0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 m.s-1) were studied. Bending strength of brown rice kernel, percentage of cracked kernels and time of drying were measured and evaluated. The results showed that increasing the drying arrival air temperature and radiation intensity of infrared resulted decrease in drying time. High bending strength and low percentage of cracked kernel was obtained when paddy was dried by hot air assisted infrared dryer. Between this factors and their interactive effect were a significant difference (p<0.01). An intensity level of 0.2 W/cm2 was found to be optimum for radiation drying. Furthermore, in the present study, the application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for predicting the moisture content during drying (output parameter for ANN modeling) was investigated. Infrared Radiation intensity, drying air temperature, arrival air speed and drying time were considered as input parameters for the model. An ANN model with two hidden layers with 8 and 14 neurons were selected for studying the influence of transfer functions and training algorithms. The results revealed that a network with the Tansig (hyperbolic tangent sigmoid) transfer function and trainlm (Levenberg-Marquardt) back propagation algorithm made the most accurate predictions for the paddy drying system. Mean square error (MSE) was calculated and found that the random errors were within and acceptable range of ±5% with coefficient of determination (R2) of 99%.

Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Jujube Fruit
In this study, some physical and mechanical properties of jujube fruits, were measured and compared at constant moisture content of 15.5% w.b. The results showed that the mean length, width and thickness of jujube fruits were 18.88, 16.79 and 15.9 mm, respectively. The mean projected areas of jujube perpendicular to length, width, and thickness were 147.01, 224.08 and 274.60 mm2, respectively. The mean mass and volume were 1.51 g and 2672.80 mm3, respectively. The arithmetic mean diameter, geometric mean diameter and equivalent diameter varied from 14.53 to 20 mm, 14.5 to 19.94 mm, and 14.52 to 19.97 mm, respectively. The sphericity, aspect ratio and surface area of jujube fruits were 0.91, 0.89 and 926.28 mm2, respectively. Whole fruit density, bulk density and porosity of jujube fruits were measured and found to be 1.52 g/cm3, 0.3 g/cm3 and 79.3%, respectively. The angle of repose of jujube fruit was 14.66° (±0.58°). The static coefficient of friction on galvanized iron steel was higher than that on plywood and lower than that on glass surface. The values of rupture force, deformation, hardness and energy absorbed were found to be between 11.13-19.91N, 2.53- 4.82mm, 3.06-5.81N mm and 20.13-39.08 N/mm, respectively.
Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Russian Olive Fruit
Physical and mechanical properties of Russian olive fruits were measured at moisture content of 14.43% w.b. The results revealed that the mean length, width and thickness of Russian olive fruits were 20.72, 15.73 and 14.69mm, respectively. Mean mass and volume of Russian olive fruits were measured as 1.45 g and 2.55 cm3, respectively. The sphericity, aspect ratio and surface area were calculated as 0.81, 0.72 and 8.96 cm2, respectively, while arithmetic mean diameter, geometric mean diameter and equivalent diameter of Russian olive fruits were 17.05, 16.83 and 16.84 mm, respectively. Whole fruit density, bulk density and porosity of jujube fruits were measured and found to be 1.01 g/cm3, 0.29 g/cm3 and 69.5%, respectively. The values of static coefficient of friction on three surfaces of glass, galvanized iron and plywood were 0.35, 0.36 and 0.43, respectively. The skin color (L*, a*, b*) varied from 9.92 to 16.08; 2.04 to 3.91 and 1.12 to 3.83, respectively. The values of rupture force, deformation, energy absorbed and hardness were found to be between 12.14-16.85 N, 2.16-4.25 mm, 3.42-6.99 N mm and 17.1-23.85 N/mm.
Self-evolving Neural Networks Based On PSO and JPSO Algorithms

A self-evolution algorithm for optimizing neural networks using a combination of PSO and JPSO is proposed. The algorithm optimizes both the network topology and parameters simultaneously with the aim of achieving desired accuracy with less complicated networks. The performance of the proposed approach is compared with conventional back-propagation networks using several synthetic functions, with better results in the case of the former. The proposed algorithm is also implemented on slope stability problem to estimate the critical factor of safety. Based on the results obtained, the proposed self evolving network produced a better estimate of critical safety factor in comparison to conventional BPN network.

Maximizer of the Posterior Marginal Estimate of Phase Unwrapping Based On Statistical Mechanics of the Q-Ising Model

We constructed a method of phase unwrapping for a typical wave-front by utilizing the maximizer of the posterior marginal (MPM) estimate corresponding to equilibrium statistical mechanics of the three-state Ising model on a square lattice on the basis of an analogy between statistical mechanics and Bayesian inference. We investigated the static properties of an MPM estimate from a phase diagram using Monte Carlo simulation for a typical wave-front with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry. The simulations clarified that the surface-consistency conditions were useful for extending the phase where the MPM estimate was successful in phase unwrapping with a high degree of accuracy and that introducing prior information into the MPM estimate also made it possible to extend the phase under the constraint of the surface-consistency conditions with a high degree of accuracy. We also found that the MPM estimate could be used to reconstruct the original wave-fronts more smoothly, if we appropriately tuned hyper-parameters corresponding to temperature to utilize fluctuations around the MAP solution. Also, from the viewpoint of statistical mechanics of the Q-Ising model, we found that the MPM estimate was regarded as a method for searching the ground state by utilizing thermal fluctuations under the constraint of the surface-consistency condition.

Integration of Resistive Switching Memory Cell with Vertical Nanowire Transistor
We integrate TiN/Ni/HfO2/Si RRAM cell with a vertical gate-all-around (GAA) nanowire transistor to achieve compact 4F2 footprint in a 1T1R configuration. The tip of the Si nanowire (source of the transistor) serves as bottom electrode of the memory cell. Fabricated devices with nanowire diameter ~ 50nm demonstrate ultra-low current/power switching; unipolar switching with 10μA/30μW SET and 20μA/30μW RESET and bipolar switching with 20nA/85nW SET and 0.2nA/0.7nW RESET. Further, the switching current is found to scale with nanowire diameter making the architecture promising for future scaling.
Dynamic Analysis of the Dome with Arches and Rings from Romexpo Bucharest
The dome with ribs and rings, which covers the ROMEXPO pavilion from Bucharest, was designed after the collapse of the single layer reticulated dome. In this paper, it was made the checking of the structure, under the dynamic loads with three recorded accelerograms calibrated according to Romanian seismic design code P100-1/2006. Under the action the dynamic loadings, it was made a time-history analysis to determine the zones where the plastic hinges appear, at what accelerations and their position on the structure. The studied dome is formed by 32 spatial semi arches and three rings: one circular ring located at the top of the dome and another two rings, design as trusses, the first near the supports and the second as an intermediate rings above the skylights. Above the skylights up to the top, the dome is tight together with purlins and bracings.
The Robot Hand System that can Control Grasping Power by SEMG
SEMG (Surface Electromyogram) is one of the bio-signals and is generated from the muscle. And there are many research results that use forearm EMG to detect hand motions. In this paper, we will talk about our developed the robot hand system that can control grasping power by SEMG. In our system, we suppose that muscle power is proportional to the amplitude of SEMG. The power is estimated and the grip power of a robot hand is able to be controlled using estimated muscle power in our system. In addition, to perform a more precise control can be considered to build a closed loop feedback system as an object to a subject to pressure from the edge of hand. Our objectives of this study are the development of a method that makes perfect detection of the hand grip force possible using SEMG patterns, and applying this method to the man-machine interface.
The Comparation of Activation Nuclear Factor Kappa Beta (NFKB) at Rattus Novergicus Strain Wistar Induced by Various Duration High Fat Diet (HFD)
NFκB is a transcription factor regulating many function of the vessel wall. In the normal condition , NFκB is revealed diffuse cytoplasmic expressionsuggesting that the system is inactive. The presence of activation NFκB provide a potential pathway for the rapid transcriptional of a variety of genes encoding cytokines, growth factors, adhesion molecules and procoagulatory factors. It is likely to play an important role in chronic inflamatory disease involved atherosclerosis. There are many stimuli with the potential to active NFκB, including hyperlipidemia. We used 24 mice which was divided in 6 groups. The HFD given by et libitum procedure during 2, 4, and 6 months. The parameters in this study were the amount of NFKB activation ,H2O2 as ROS and VCAM-1 as a product of NFKB activation. H2O2 colorimetryc assay performed directly using Anti Rat H2O2 ELISA Kit. The NFKB and VCAM-1 detection obtained from aorta mice, measured by ELISA kit and imunohistochemistry. There was a significant difference activation of H2O2, NFKB and VCAM-1 level at induce HFD after 2, 4 and 6 months. It suggest that HFD induce ROS formation and increase the activation of NFKB as one of atherosclerosis marker that caused by hyperlipidemia as classical atheroschlerosis risk factor.
Straight Line Defect Detection with Feed Forward Neural Network

Nowadays, hard disk is one of the most popular storage components. In hard disk industry, the hard disk drive must pass various complex processes and tested systems. In each step, there are some failures. To reduce waste from these failures, we must find the root cause of those failures. Conventionall data analysis method is not effective enough to analyze the large capacity of data. In this paper, we proposed the Hough method for straight line detection that helps to detect straight line defect patterns that occurs in hard disk drive. The proposed method will help to increase more speed and accuracy in failure analysis.

Application of Artificial Neural Network to Classification Surface Water Quality
Water quality is a subject of ongoing concern. Deterioration of water quality has initiated serious management efforts in many countries. This study endeavors to automatically classify water quality. The water quality classes are evaluated using 6 factor indices. These factors are pH value (pH), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Nitrate Nitrogen (NO3N), Ammonia Nitrogen (NH3N) and Total Coliform (TColiform). The methodology involves applying data mining techniques using multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network models. The data consisted of 11 sites of canals in Dusit district in Bangkok, Thailand. The data is obtained from the Department of Drainage and Sewerage Bangkok Metropolitan Administration during 2007-2011. The results of multilayer perceptron neural network exhibit a high accuracy multilayer perception rate at 96.52% in classifying the water quality of Dusit district canal in Bangkok Subsequently, this encouraging result could be applied with plan and management source of water quality.
A Novel Method for Areal Surface Roughness Measurement

An area-integrating method that uses the technique of total integrated light scatter for evaluating the root mean square height of the surface Sq has been presented in the paper. It is based on the measurement of the scatter power using a flat photodiode integrator rather than an optical sphere or a hemisphere. By this means, one can obtain much less expensive and smaller instruments than traditional ones. Thanks to this, they could find their application for surface control purposes, particularly in small and medium size enterprises. A description of the functioning of the measuring unit as well as the impact caused by different factors on its properties is presented first. Next, results of measurements of the Sq values performed for optical, silicon and metal samples have been shown. It has been also proven that they are in a good agreement with the results obtained using the Ulbricht sphere instrument.

Towards a New Era of Sustainability in the Automotive Industry: Strategic Human Resource Management and Green Technology Innovation

Although automotive industry has brought different beneficiaries to human life, it is being pointed out as one of the major cause of global air pollution which resulted in climate change, smog, green house gases (GHGs), and human diseases by many reasons. Since auto industry is one of the largest consumers of fossil fuels, the realization of green innovations is becoming a crucial choice to meet the challenges towards sustainable development. Recently, many auto manufacturers have embarked on green technology initiatives to gain a competitive advantage in the global market; however, innovative manufacturing systems and technologies can enhance operational performance only if the human resource management is in place to elicit the motivation of the employees and develop their organizational expertise. No organization can perform at peak levels unless each employee is committed to the company goals and works as an effective team member. Strategic human resource practices are the primary means by which firms can shape the skills, attitudes, and behavior of individuals to align with the business strategic objectives. This study investigates on the comprehensive approach of multiple advanced technology innovations and human resource management at Toyota Motor Corporation as the market leader of full hybrid technology in the automotive industry. Then, HRM framework of the company is described and three sets of human resource practices that support the innovation-oriented HR system, presented. Finally, a conceptual framework for innovativeness in green technology in automotive industry by applying a deliberate strategic HR management system and knowledge management with the intervening factors of organizational culture, knowledge application and knowledge sharing is proposed.

Comparative Evaluation of the Biopharmaceutical and Chemical Equivalence of the Some Commercial Brands of Paracetamol Tablets

Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) tablets are popular OTC products among patients as analgesics and antipyretics. Paracetamol is marketed by a lot of suppliers around the world. The aim of the present investigation was to compare between many types of paracetamol tablets obtained from different suppliers (six brands produced by different pharmaceutical companies in middle east countries, and Panadol® manufactured in Ireland), by different quality control tests according to USP pharmacopeia.Using Non official tests-hardness and friability; official tests- disintegration, dissolution, and drug content. Additionally, evaluate the influence of temperatures 4°C, 25°C and 40°C at 75% relative humidity on the stability of the same brands in their original packaging has been conducted for two months. The results revealed that all paracetamol tablet brands complied with the official USP specifications. In conclusion, paracetamol tablets preferred to be stored at 25°C. All the tested brands being biopharmaceutically and chemically equivalent.

Diffusion and Impact of Business Analytics: A Conceptual Framework
We discuss a theoretical conceptual framework to help understand how the new business analytics technologies have diffused in firms. We draw on three theoretical perspectives for this purpose. They are innovation diffusion theory, IT Business Value and the technology-organization-environment theory. We develop a conceptual framework that helps understand the interlinkages among factors affecting diffusion of business analytics and its impact on performance.
Programmable Logic Controller for Cassava Centrifugal Machine
Chaiyaphum Starch Co. Ltd. is one of many starch manufacturers that has introduced machinery to aid in manufacturing. Even though machinery has replaced many elements and is now a significant part in manufacturing processes, problems that must be solved with respect to current process flow to increase efficiency still exist. The paper-s aim is to increase productivity while maintaining desired quality of starch, by redesigning the flipping machine-s mechanical control system which has grossly low functional lifetime. Such problems stem from the mechanical control system-s bearings, as fluids and humidity can access into said bearing directly, in tandem with vibrations from the machine-s function itself. The wheel which is used to sense starch thickness occasionally falls from its shaft, due to high speed rotation during operation, while the shaft may bend from impact when processing dried bread. Redesigning its mechanical control system has increased its efficiency, allowing quality thickness measurement while increasing functional lifetime an additional 62 days.
Application of Kansei Engineering and Association Rules Mining in Product Design
The Kansei engineering is a technology which converts human feelings into quantitative terms and helps designers develop new products that meet customers- expectation. Standard Kansei engineering procedure involves finding relationships between human feelings and design elements of which many researchers have found forward and backward relationship through various soft computing techniques. In this paper, we proposed the framework of Kansei engineering linking relationship not only between human feelings and design elements, but also the whole part of product, by constructing association rules. In this experiment, we obtain input from emotion score that subjects rate when they see the whole part of the product by applying semantic differentials. Then, association rules are constructed to discover the combination of design element which affects the human feeling. The results of our experiment suggest the pattern of relationship of design elements according to human feelings which can be derived from the whole part of product.
Low Power Digital System for Reconfigurable Neural Recording System
A digital system is proposed for low power 100- channel neural recording system in this paper, which consists of 100 amplifiers, 100 analog-to-digital converters (ADC), digital controller and baseband, transceiver for data link and RF command link. The proposed system is designed in a 0.18 μm CMOS process and 65 nm CMOS process.
System Identification and Control the Azimuth Angle of the Platform of MLRS by PID Controller
This paper presents the system identification by physical-s law method and designs the controller for the Azimuth Angle Control of the Platform of the Multi-Launcher Rocket System (MLRS) by Root Locus technique. The plant mathematical model was approximated using MATLAB for simulation and analyze the system. The controller proposes the implementation of PID Controller using Programmable Logic Control (PLC) for control the plant. PID Controllers are widely applicable in industrial sectors and can be set up easily and operate optimally for enhanced productivity, improved quality and reduce maintenance requirement. The results from simulation and experiments show that the proposed a PID Controller to control the elevation angle that has superior control performance by the setting time less than 12 sec, the rise time less than 1.6 sec., and zero steady state. Furthermore, the system has a high over shoot that will be continue development.
Adsorption Capacity of Chitosan Beads in Toxic Solutions
The efficiency of chitosan beads processed from 4 marine animal shells; white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), mud crab (Scylla sp.), horseshoe crab (Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda), and cuttlefish bone (Sepia sp.), for the adsorption experiments of ammonia and formaldehyde were investigated. The porosities of chitosan from the shells looked like beads were distinctly examined under SEM. The original pores of those shells on the surface areas compose of evenly fine pores. The shell beads of cuttlefish bone and horseshoe crab show the larger probably even porosity, while on those white leg shrimp and mud crab contain various large and fine pores. The best adsorption at pH 9 in 18 mg/l ammonia at 2 hours yield on cuttlefish bone, horseshoe crab, mud crab and white leg shrimp with the average percent of 59.12, 51.45, 45.66 and 43.52, respectively. Within 30 minutes the formaldehyde absorbers (at pH 5 in 8 μg/ml) revealed 46.27, 26.56, and 18.04 percent capacities in cuttlefish bone, mud crab and white leg shrimp beads; while 22.44 percent in the horseshoe crab at pH 7. The adsorption capacities and the amounts of beads showed a positive correlation. The adsorption capacity relationship between pH and the gas concentrations were affected by these qualities of chitosan beads.
Effect of Band Contact on the Temperature Distribution for Dry Friction Clutch
In this study, the two dimensional heat conduction problem for the dry friction clutch disc is modeled mathematically analysis and is solved numerically using finite element method, to determine the temperature field when band contacts occurs between the rubbing surfaces during the operation of an automotive clutch. Temperature calculation have been made for contact area of different band width and the results obtained compared with these attained when complete contact occurs. Furthermore, the effects of slipping time and sliding velocity function are investigated as well. Both single and repeated engagements made at regular interval are considered.
The Lymphocytes Number in the Blood of Kwashiorkor Rat Model Induced by Oral Immunization with 38-kDa Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein
Kwashiorkor is one of nutritional problem in Indonesia, which lead to decrease immune system. This condition causes susceptibility to infectious disease, especially tuberculosis. Development of new tuberculosis vaccine will be an important strategy to eliminate tuberculosis in kwashiorkor. Previous research showed that 38-kDa Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein is one of the potent immunogen. However, the role of oral immunization with 38- kDa Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein to the number of lymphocytes in the rat model of kwashiorkor is still unknown. We used kwashiorkor rat model groups with 4% and 2% low protein diet. Oral immunization with 38-kDa Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein given with 2 booster every week. The lymphocytes number were measured by flowcytometry. There was no significant difference between the number of lymphocytes in the normal rat group and the kwashiorkor rat groups. It may reveal the role of 38-kDa Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein as a potent immunogen that can increase the lymphocytes number from kwashiorkor rat model same as normal rat.
Numerical Simulation of Electric and Hydrodynamic Fields Distribution in a Dielectric Liquids Electrofilter Cell
In this paper a numerical simulation of electric and hydrodynamic fields distribution in an electrofilter for dielectric liquids cell is made. The simulation is made with the purpose to determine the trajectory of particles that moves under the action of external force in an electric and hydrodynamic field created inside of an electrofilter for dielectric liquids. Particle trajectory is analyzed for a dielectric liquid-solid particles suspension.
Quantifying and Adjusting the Effects of Publication Bias in Continuous Meta-Analysis

This study uses simulated meta-analysis to assess the effects of publication bias on meta-analysis estimates and to evaluate the efficacy of the trim and fill method in adjusting for these biases. The estimated effect sizes and the standard error were evaluated in terms of the statistical bias and the coverage probability. The results demonstrate that if publication bias is not adjusted it could lead to up to 40% bias in the treatment effect estimates. Utilization of the trim and fill method could reduce the bias in the overall estimate by more than half. The method is optimum in presence of moderate underlying bias but has minimal effects in presence of low and severe publication bias. Additionally, the trim and fill method improves the coverage probability by more than half when subjected to the same level of publication bias as those of the unadjusted data. The method however tends to produce false positive results and will incorrectly adjust the data for publication bias up to 45 % of the time. Nonetheless, the bias introduced into the estimates due to this adjustment is minimal

Graphic Watermarking, Security Feature in Cadastral Content Management
The paper shows the necessity to increase the security level for paper management in the cadastral field by using specific graphical watermarks. Using the graphical watermarking will increase the security in the cadastral content management; furthermore any altered document will be validated afterwards of its originality by checking the graphic watermark. If, by any reasons the document is changed for counterfeiting, it is invalidated and found that is an illegal copy due to the graphic check of the watermarking, check made at pixel level
Board Members' Financial Education and Firms' Performance: Empirical Evidence for Bucharest Stock Exchange Companies

After the accounting scandals and the financial crisis, regulators have stressed the need for more financial experts on boards. Several studies conducted in countries with developed capital markets report positive effects of board financial competencies. As each country offers a different context and specific institutional factors this paper addresses the subject in the context of Romania. The Romanian capital market offers an interesting research field because of the heterogeneity of listed firms. After analyzing board members education based on public information posted on listed companies websites and their annual reports we found a positive association between the proportion of board members holding a postgraduate degree in financial fields and market based performance measured by Tobin q. We found also that the proportion of Board members holding degrees in financial fields is higher in bigger firms and firms with more concentrated ownership.

On the Operation Mechanism and Device Modeling of AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs)
In this work, the physical based device model of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) has been established and the corresponding device operation behavior has been investigated also by using Sentaurus TCAD from Synopsys. Advanced AlGaN/GaN hetero-structures with GaN cap layer and AlN spacer have been considered and the GaN cap layer and AlN spacer are found taking important roles on the gate leakage blocking and off-state breakdown voltage enhancement.
Shot Detection Using Modified Dugad Model

In this paper we present a modification to existed model of threshold for shot cut detection, which is able to adapt itself to the sequence statistics and operate in real time, because it use for calculation only previously evaluated frames. The efficiency of proposed modified adaptive threshold scheme was verified through extensive test experiment with several similarity metrics and achieved results were compared to the results reached by the original model. According to results proposed threshold scheme reached higher accuracy than existed original model.

Influence of Cultivar and Storage Conditions in Anthocyanin Content and Radical-Scavenging Activity of Strawberry Jams
The strawberry jam is rich in bioactive compounds. It is economically and commercially important and widely consumed. Different strawberries cultivars can be used for its preparation, however, a careful selection should be performed to guarantee the preservation of bioactive compounds during jam storage. Two strawberry cultivars (Camarosa and American 13) were analyzed by HPLC, three anthocyanins: cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3- glucoside and pelargonidin-3-rutinoside were quantified. Camarosa strawberries presented significantly higher concentration of anthocyanins (p
Tomographic Images Reconstruction Simulation for Defects Detection in Specimen
This paper is the tomographic images reconstruction simulation for defects detection in specimen. The specimen is the thin cylindrical steel contained with low density materials. The defects in material are simulated in three shapes.The specimen image function will be transformed to projection data. Radon transform and its inverse provide the mathematical for reconstructing tomographic images from projection data. The result of the simulation show that the reconstruction images is complete for defect detection.
3G WCDMA Mobile Network DoS Attack and Detection Technology
Currently, there has been a 3G mobile networks data traffic explosion due to the large increase in the number of smartphone users. Unlike a traditional wired infrastructure, 3G mobile networks have limited wireless resources and signaling procedures for complex wireless resource management. And mobile network security for various abnormal and malicious traffic technologies was not ready. So Malicious or potentially malicious traffic originating from mobile malware infected smart devices can cause serious problems to the 3G mobile networks, such as DoS and scanning attack in wired networks. This paper describes the DoS security threat in the 3G mobile network and proposes a detection technology.
Face Image Coding Using Face Prototyping

In this paper we present a novel approach for face image coding. The proposed method makes a use of the features of video encoders like motion prediction. At first encoder selects appropriate prototype from the database and warps it according to features of encoding face. Warped prototype is placed as first I frame. Encoding face is placed as second frame as P frame type. Information about features positions, color change, selected prototype and data flow of P frame will be sent to decoder. The condition is both encoder and decoder own the same database of prototypes. We have run experiment with H.264 video encoder and obtained results were compared to results achieved by JPEG and JPEG2000. Obtained results show that our approach is able to achieve 3 times lower bitrate and two times higher PSNR in comparison with JPEG. According to comparison with JPEG2000 the bitrate was very similar, but subjective quality achieved by proposed method is better.

The Finite Difference Scheme for the Suspended String Equation with the Nonlinear Damping Term
A numerical solution of the initial boundary value problem of the suspended string vibrating equation with the particular nonlinear damping term based on the finite difference scheme is presented in this paper. The investigation of how the second and third power terms of the nonlinear term affect the vibration characteristic. We compare the vibration amplitude as a result of the third power nonlinear damping with the second power obtained from previous report provided that the same initial shape and initial velocities are assumed. The comparison results show that the vibration amplitude is inversely proportional to the coefficient of the damping term for the third power nonlinear damping case, while the vibration amplitude is proportional to the coefficient of the damping term in the second power nonlinear damping case.
Activities of Alkaline Phosphatase and Ca2+ATPase over the Molting Cycle of mud Crab (Scylla serrata)

The activities of alkaline phosphatase and Ca2+ATPase in mud crab (Scylla serrata) collected from a soft-shell crab farm in Chantaburi Province, Thailand, in several stages of molting cycle were observed. The results showed that the activity of alkaline phosphatase in gill after molting was highly significant (p<0.05) comparing to those at intermolt and premolt stages. The activity profiles of alkaline phosphatase in integument and haemolymph were similar showing a decrease from intermolt to 2- week premolt stage and increased during 2-day premolt to 6-h postmolt stage before dropping at 7-day postmolt stage, while this enzyme in the gill was quite low at intermolt and premolt stages. For Ca2+ATPase, the activity profiles in gill and integument corresponded to the molting variation, especially the activities increased during 5-7 day postmolt stage were at highly significant levels (p<0.05) comparing to those at premolt and early postmolt stages. The highest activity of Ca2+ATPase in haemolymph was found at 2-week premolt stage (p<0.05). Changes in alkaline phosphatase and Ca2+ATPase activities over the molting cycle clearly indicated their active functions on calcification.

An Enhanced Situational Awareness of AUV's Mission by Multirate Neural Control

This paper focuses on a critical component of the situational awareness (SA), the neural control of depth flight of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). Constant depth flight is a challenging but important task for AUVs to achieve high level of autonomy under adverse conditions. With the SA strategy, we proposed a multirate neural control of an AUV trajectory using neural network model reference controller for a nontrivial mid-small size AUV "r2D4" stochastic model. This control system has been demonstrated and evaluated by simulation of diving maneuvers using software package Simulink. From the simulation results it can be seen that the chosen AUV model is stable in the presence of high noise, and also can be concluded that the fast SA of similar AUV systems with economy in energy of batteries can be asserted during the underwater missions in search-and-rescue operations.

Ultra Fast Solid State Ground Fault Isolator

Personnel protection devices are cardinal in safety hazard applications. They are widely used in home, office and in industry environments to reduce the risk of lethal shock to human being and equipment safety. This paper briefly reviews various personnel protection devices also describes the basic working principle of conventional ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) or ground fault isolator (GFI), its disadvantages and ways to overcome the disadvantages with solid-state relay (SSR) based GFI with ultrafast response up on fault implemented in printed circuit board. This solid state GFI comprises discrete MOSFET based alternating current (AC) switches, linear optical amplifier, photovoltaic isolator and sense resistor. In conventional GFI, current transformer is employed as a sensing element to detect the difference in current flow between live and neutral conductor. If there is no fault in equipment powered through GFI, due to insulation failure of internal wires and windings of motors, both live and neutral currents will be equal in magnitude and opposite in phase.

The Effect of Ethylene Glycol to Soy Polyurethane Foam Classifications
Soy polyol obtained from hydroxylation of soy epoxide with ethylene glycol were prepared as pre-polyurethane. The two step process method were applied in the polyurethane synthesis. The blending of soy polyol with synthetic polyol then simultaneously carried out to TDI (2,4): MDI (4,4-) (80:20), blowing agent, and surfactant. Ethylene glycol were not taking part in the polyurethane synthesis. The inclusion of ethylene glycol were used as a control. Characterization of polyurethane foam through impact resillience, indentation deflection, and density can visualize the polyurethane classifications.
Further Thoughtson a Sequential Life Testing Approach Using an Inverse Weibull Model

In this paper we will develop further the sequential life test approach presented in a previous article by [1] using an underlying two parameter Inverse Weibull sampling distribution. The location parameter or minimum life will be considered equal to zero. Once again we will provide rules for making one of the three possible decisions as each observation becomes available; that is: accept the null hypothesis H0; reject the null hypothesis H0; or obtain additional information by making another observation. The product being analyzed is a new electronic component. There is little information available about the possible values the parameters of the corresponding Inverse Weibull underlying sampling distribution could have.To estimate the shape and the scale parameters of the underlying Inverse Weibull model we will use a maximum likelihood approach for censored failure data. A new example will further develop the proposed sequential life testing approach.

Server Virtualization Using User Behavior Model Focus on Provisioning Concept

Server provisioning is one of the most attractive topics in virtualization systems. Virtualization is a method of running multiple independent virtual operating systems on a single physical computer. It is a way of maximizing physical resources to maximize the investment in hardware. Additionally, it can help to consolidate servers, improve hardware utilization and reduce the consumption of power and physical space in the data center. However, management of heterogeneous workloads, especially for resource utilization of the server, or so called provisioning becomes a challenge. In this paper, a new concept for managing workloads based on user behavior is presented. The experimental results show that user behaviors are different in each type of service workload and time. Understanding user behaviors may improve the efficiency of management in provisioning concept. This preliminary study may be an approach to improve management of data centers running heterogeneous workloads for provisioning in virtualization system.

Agrowaste: Phytosterol from Durian Seed
Presence of phytosterol compound in Durian seed (Durio zibethinus) or known as King of fruits has been discovered from screening work using reagent test. Further analysis work has been carried out using mass spectrometer in order to support the priliminary finding. Isolation and purification of the major phytosterol has been carried out using an open column chromatography. The separation was monitored using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Major isolated compounds and purified phytosterol were identified using mass spectrometer and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). This novel finding could promote utilization of durian seeds as a functional ingredient in food products through production of standardized extract based on phytosterol content.
Effects of Different Plant Densities on the Yield and Quality of Second Crop Sesame
Sesame is one of the oldest and most important oil crops as main crop and second crop agriculture. This study was carried out to determine the effects of different inter- and intra-row spacings on the yield and yield components on second crop sesame; was set up in Antalya West Mediterranean Agricultural Research Institue in 2009. Muganlı 57 sesame cultivar was used as plant material. The field experiment was set up in a split plot design and row spacings (30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 cm) were assigned to the main plots and and intra-row spacings (5, 10, 20 and 30 cm) were assigned to the subplots. Seed yield, oil ratio, oil yield, protein ratio and protein yield were investigated. In general, wided inter row spacings and intra-row spacings, resulted in decreased seed yield, oil yield and protein yield. The highest seed yield, oil yield and protein yield (respectively, 1115.0 kg ha-1, 551.3 kg ha-1, 224.7 kg ha-1) were obtained from 30x5 cm plant density while the lowest seed yield, oil yield and protein yield (respectively, 677.0 kg ha-1, 327.0 kg ha-1, 130.0 kg ha-1) were recorded from 70x30 cm plant density. As a result, in terms of oil yield for second crop sesame agriculture, 30 cm row spacing, and 5 cm intra row spacing are the most suitable plant densities.
Benchmarking: Performance on ALPS and Formosa Clusters
This paper presents the benchmarking results and performance evaluation of differentclustersbuilt atthe National Center for High-Performance Computingin Taiwan. Performance of processor, memory subsystem andinterconnect is a critical factor in the overall performance of high performance computing platforms. The evaluation compares different system architecture and software platforms. Most supercomputer used HPL to benchmark their system performance, in accordance with the requirement of the TOP500 List. In this paper we consider system memory access factors that affect benchmark performance, such as processor and memory performance.We hope these works will provide useful information for future development and construct cluster system.
The Effect of Rotational Speed and Shaft Eccentric on Looseness of Bearing
This research was to study effect of rotational speed and eccentric factors, which were affected on looseness of bearing. The experiment was conducted on three rotational speeds and five eccentric distances with 5 replications. The results showed that influenced factor affected to looseness of bearing was rotational speed and eccentric distance which showed statistical significant. Higher rotational speed would cause on high looseness. Moreover, more eccentric distance, more looseness of bearing. Using bearing at high rotational with high eccentric of shaft would be affected bearing fault more than lower rotational speed. The prediction equation of looseness was generated by regression analysis. The prediction has an effected to the looseness of bearing at 91.5%.
Intercultural Mediation Training and the Training Process of Common Sense Leaders by the Leadership of Universities Communication and Artistic Campaigns
It is quite essential to form dialogue mechanisms and dialogue channels to solve intercultural communication issues. Therefore, every country should develop a intercultural education project which aims to resolve international communication issues. For proper mediation training, the first step is to reach an agreement on the actors to run the project. The strongest mediation mechanisms in the world should be analyzed and initiated within the educational policies. A communication-based mediation model should be developed for international mediation training. Mediators can use their convincing communication skills as a part of this model. At the first, fundamental stages of the mediation training should be specified within the scope of the model. Another important topic at this point is common sence and peace leaders to act as an ombudsman in this process. Especially for solving some social issues and conflicts, common sense leaders acting as an ombudsman would lead to effective communication. In mediation training that is run by universities and non-governmental organizations, another phase is to focus on conducting the meetings. In intercultural mediation training, one of the most critical topics is to conduct the meeting traffic and performing a shuttle diplomacy. Meeting traffic is where the mediator organizes meetings with the parties with initiative powers, in order to contribute to the solution of the issue, and schedule these meetings. In this notice titled “ Intercultural mediation training and the training process of common sense leaders by the leadership of universities communication and artistic campaigns" , communication models and strategies about this topic will be constructed and an intercultural art activities and perspectives will be presented.
Ecological Risk Assessment of Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the North Port, Malaysia
The pollution of sediments sampled from the North Port by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated. Concentrations of PAHs estimated in the port sediments ranged from 199 to 2851.2 μg/kg dw. The highest concentration was found which is closed to the Berth line, this locations affected by intensive shipping activities and Land based runoff and they were dominated by the high molecular weight PAHs (4–6- rings). Source identification showed that PAHs originated mostly from the pyrogenic source either from the combustion of fossil fuels, grass, wood and coal (majority of the samples). Ecological Risk Assessment on the port sediments presented that slightly adverse ecological effects to biological community are expected to occur at the vicinity of the stations 1 and 4. Thus PAHs are not considered as pollutants of concern in the North Port.
A Ring-Shaped Tri-Axial Force Sensor for Minimally Invasive Surgery

This paper presents the design of a ring-shaped tri-axial fore sensor that can be incorporated into the tip of a guidewire for use in minimally invasive surgery (MIS). The designed sensor comprises a ring-shaped structure located at the center of four cantilever beams. The ringdesign allows surgical tools to be easily passed through which largely simplified the integration process. Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are used aspiezoresistive sensing elementsembeddedon the four cantilevers of the sensor to detect the resistance change caused by the applied load.An integration scheme with new designed guidewire tip structure having two coils at the distal end is presented. Finite element modeling has been employed in the sensor design to find the maximum stress location in order to put the SiNWs at the high stress regions to obtain maximum output. A maximum applicable force of 5 mN is found from modeling. The interaction mechanism between the designed sensor and a steel wire has been modeled by FEM. A linear relationship between the applied load on the steel wire and the induced stress on the SiNWs were observed.

Diversification of the Monogeneans (Platyhelminthes) in Indian Freshwater Fish Families
Present communication deals with general distribution and diversification of Monogenean families parasitizing different freshwater fish families of India. Levels of monogenean parasitism and their diversity are significantly greater in Indian fishes. The most monogeneans parasitized family of fish is Cyprinidae and most dactylogyrids parasitise cyprinids. The family dactylogyridae has more species than any other monogenean family and frequently associated with cyprinid, silurids and bagrids families. Of the various 52 families of freshwater fishes from India, only the Anguillidae, Balitoridae, Chacidae, Chanidae, Channidae, Cobitidae, Coiidae, Erethistidae, Megalopidae, Pristidae, Psilorhynchidae, Salmonidae, Schileidae, Sparidae, Synodontidae and Terapontidae were found to be free of infection with monogeneans. The present study takes a broad look at monogenean diversity in the freshwater fishes of India.
A Micro-Watt Second Order Filter for a Chopper Stabilized MEMS Pressure Sensor Interface
This paper describes a low-power second-order filter for a continuous-time chopper stabilized capacitive sensor interface, integrated with a fully differential post-CMOS surface-micromachined MEMS pressure sensor. The circuit uses a single-ended folded-cascode operational amplifier and two GM-C filters connected in cascade. The circuit is realized in a 0.18 μm CMOS process and offers differential to single-ended conversion. The novelty of the scheme is the cascade of two GM-C filters to achieve a second-order filter while minimizing power dissipation. The simulated filter cutoff frequency is 1.14 kHz at common-mode voltage 1.65 V, operating from a 3.3 V supply while dissipating 172μW of power. The filter achieves an operating range of 1V for an output load of 1MOhm and 10pF.
Trends in Competitiveness of the Thai Printing Industry
Since the world printing industry has to confront globalization with a constant change, the Thai printing industry, as a small but increasingly significant part of the world printing industry, cannot inevitably escape but has to encounter with the similar change and also the need to revamp its production processes, designs and technology to make them more appealing to both international and domestic market. The essential question is what is the Thai competitive edge in the printing industry in changing environment? This research is aimed to study the Thai level of competitive edge in terms of marketing, technology, environment friendly, and the level of satisfaction of the process of using printing machines. To access the extent to which is the trends in competitiveness of Thai printing industry, both quantitative and qualitative study were conducted. The quantitative analysis was restricted to 100 respondents. The qualitative analysis was restricted to a focus group of 10 individuals from various backgrounds in the Thai printing industry. The findings from the quantitative analysis revealed that the overall mean scores are 4.53, 4.10, and 3.50 for the competitiveness of marketing, the competitiveness of technology, and the competitiveness of being environment friendly respectively. However, the level of satisfaction for the process of using machines has a mean score only 3.20. The findings from the qualitative analysis have revealed that target customers have increasingly reordered due to their contentment in both low prices and the acceptable quality of the products. Moreover, the Thai printing industry has a tendency to convert to ambient green technology which is friendly to the environment. The Thai printing industry is choosing to produce or substitute with products that are less damaging to the environment. It is also found that the Thai printing industry has been transformed into a very competitive industry which bargaining power rests on consumers who have a variety of choices.
Optimal Distribution of Lift Gas in Gas Lifted Oil Field Using MPC and Unscented Kalman Filter

In gas lifted oil fields, the lift gas should be distributed optimally among the wells which share gas from a common source to maximize total oil production. One of the objectives of the paper is to show that a linear MPC consisting of a control objective and an economic objective can be used both as an optimizer and a controller for gas lifted systems. The MPC is based on linearized model of the oil field developed from first principles modeling. Simulation results show that the total oil production is increased by 3.4%. Difficulties in accurately measuring the bottom hole pressure using sensors in harsh operating conditions can be resolved by using an Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) for estimation. In oil fields where input disturbance (total supply of gas) is not measured, UKF can also be used for disturbance estimation. Increased total oil production due to optimization leads to increased profit.

Note on the Necessity of the Patch Test

We present a simple nonconforming approximation of the linear two–point boundary value problem which violates patch test requirements. Nevertheless the solutions, obtained from these type of approximations, converge to the exact solution.

Second Order Admissibilities in Multi-parameter Logistic Regression Model
In multi-parameter family of distributions, conditions for a modified maximum likelihood estimator to be second order admissible are given. Applying these results to the multi-parameter logistic regression model, it is shown that the maximum likelihood estimator is always second order inadmissible. Also, conditions for the Berkson estimator to be second order admissible are given.
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