Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 197

197
5482
Size Dependence of 1D Superconductivity in NbN Nanowires on Suspended Carbon Nanotubes
Abstract:

We report the size dependence of 1D superconductivity in ultrathin (10-130 nm) nanowires produced by coating suspended carbon nanotubes with a superconducting NbN thin film. The resistance-temperature characteristic curves for samples with ≧25 nm wire width show the superconducting transition. On the other hand, for the samples with 10-nm width, the superconducting transition is not exhibited owing to the quantum size effect. The differential resistance vs. current density characteristic curves show some peak, indicating that Josephson junctions are formed in nanowires. The presence of the Josephson junctions is well explained by the measurement of the magnetic field dependence of the critical current. These understanding allow for the further expansion of the potential application of NbN, which is utilized for single photon detectors and so on.

196
6184
Flow Characteristics of Pulp Liquid in Straight Ducts
Authors:
Abstract:
An experimental investigation was performed on pulp liquid flow in straight ducts with a square cross section. Fully developed steady flow was visualized and the fiber concentration was obtained using a light-section method developed by the author et al. The obtained results reveal quantitatively, in a definite form, the distribution of the fiber concentration. From the results and measurements of pressure loss, it is found that the flow characteristics of pulp liquid in ducts can be classified into five patterns. The relationships among the distributions of mean and fluctuation of fiber concentration, the pressure loss and the flow velocity are discussed, and then the features for each pattern are extracted. The degree of nonuniformity of the fiber concentration, which is indicated by the standard deviation of its distribution, is decreased from 0.3 to 0.05 with an increase in the velocity of the tested pulp liquid from 0.4 to 0.8%.
195
3364
Legal Education as Forming Factor of Legal Culture in Kazakhstan Modern Society
Abstract:
Forming a legal culture among citizens is a complicated and lengthy process, influencing all spheres of social life. It includes promoting justice, learning rights and duties, the introduction of juridical norms and knowledge, and also a process of developing a system of legal acts and constitutional norms. Currently, the evaluative and emotional influence of attempts to establish a legal culture among the citizens of Kazakhstan is limited by real legal practice. As a result, the values essential to a sound civil society are absent from the consciousness of the Kazakh people who are thus, in turn, not able to develop respect for these values. One of the disadvantages of the modern Kazakh educational system is a tendency to underrate the actual forces shaping the worldview of Kazakh youths. The mass-media, which are going through a personnel crisis, cannot provide society with the legal and political information necessary to form the sort of legal culture required for a true civil society.
194
9662
Mathematical modeling of Bi-Substrate Enzymatic Reactions with Ping-Pong Mechanism in the Presence of Competitive Inhibitors
Abstract:
The mathematical modeling of different biological processes is usually used to predict or assess behavior of systems in which these processes take place. This study deals with mathematical and computer modeling of bi-substrate enzymatic reactions with ping-pong mechanism, which play an important role in different biochemical pathways. Besides that, three models of competitive inhibition were designed using different software packages. The main objective of this study is to represent the results from in silico investigation of bi-substrate enzymatic reactions with ordered pingpong mechanism in the presence of competitive inhibitors, as well as to describe in details the inhibition effects. The simulation of the models with certain kinetic parameters allowed investigating the behavior of reactions as well as determined some interesting aspects concerning influence of different cases of competitive inhibition. Simultaneous presence of two inhibitors, competitive to the S1 and S2 substrates have been studied. Moreover, we have found the pattern of simultaneous influence of both inhibitors.
193
11097
Image Restoration in Non-Linear Filtering Domain using MDB approach
Abstract:

This paper proposes a new technique based on nonlinear Minmax Detector Based (MDB) filter for image restoration. The aim of image enhancement is to reconstruct the true image from the corrupted image. The process of image acquisition frequently leads to degradation and the quality of the digitized image becomes inferior to the original image. Image degradation can be due to the addition of different types of noise in the original image. Image noise can be modeled of many types and impulse noise is one of them. Impulse noise generates pixels with gray value not consistent with their local neighborhood. It appears as a sprinkle of both light and dark or only light spots in the image. Filtering is a technique for enhancing the image. Linear filter is the filtering in which the value of an output pixel is a linear combination of neighborhood values, which can produce blur in the image. Thus a variety of smoothing techniques have been developed that are non linear. Median filter is the one of the most popular non-linear filter. When considering a small neighborhood it is highly efficient but for large window and in case of high noise it gives rise to more blurring to image. The Centre Weighted Mean (CWM) filter has got a better average performance over the median filter. However the original pixel corrupted and noise reduction is substantial under high noise condition. Hence this technique has also blurring affect on the image. To illustrate the superiority of the proposed approach, the proposed new scheme has been simulated along with the standard ones and various restored performance measures have been compared.

192
9997179
A Prediction-Based Reversible Watermarking for MRI Images
Abstract:

Reversible watermarking is a special branch of image watermarking, that is able to recover the original image after extracting the watermark from the image. In this paper, an adaptive prediction-based reversible watermarking scheme is presented, in order to increase the payload capacity of MRI medical images. The scheme divides the image into two parts, Region of Interest (ROI) and Region of Non-Interest (RONI). Two bits are embedded in each embeddable pixel of RONI and one bit is embedded in each embeddable pixel of ROI. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme is able to achieve high embedding capacity. This is mainly caused by two reasons. First, the pixels that were excluded from data embedding due to overflow/underflow are used for data embedding. Second, large location map that need to be added to watermark data as overhead is eliminated and thus lower data embedding capacity is prevented. Moreover, the scheme provides good visual quality to the watermarked image.

191
9997803
A Novel Model for Simultaneously Minimising Costs and Risks in Just-in-Time Systems Using Multi-Backup Suppliers: Part 2- Results
Abstract:

This paper implements the inventory model developed in the first part of this paper in a simplified problem to simultaneously reduce costs and risks in JIT systems. This model is developed to ascertain an optimal ordering strategy for procuring raw materials by using regular multi-external and local backup suppliers to reduce the total cost of the products, and at the same time to reduce the risks arising from this cost reduction within production systems. A comparison between the cost of using the JIT system and using the proposed inventory model shows the superiority of the use of the inventory model.

190
9996973
Adaptive WiFi Fingerprinting for Location Approximation
Abstract:

WiFi has become an essential technology that is widely used nowadays. It is famous due to its convenience to be used with mobile devices. This is especially true for Internet users worldwide that use WiFi connections. There are many location based services that are available nowadays which uses Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) signal fingerprinting. A common example that is gaining popularity in this era would be Foursquare. In this work, the WiFi signal would be used to estimate the user or client’s location. Similar to GPS, fingerprinting method needs a floor plan to increase the accuracy of location estimation. Still, the factor of inconsistent WiFi signal makes the estimation defer at different time intervals. Given so, an adaptive method is needed to obtain the most accurate signal at all times. WiFi signals are heavily distorted by external factors such as physical objects, radio frequency interference, electrical interference, and environmental factors to name a few. Due to these factors, this work uses a method of reducing the signal noise and estimation using the Nearest Neighbour based on past activities of the signal to increase the signal accuracy up to more than 80%. The repository yet increases the accuracy by using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) pattern matching. The repository acts as the server cum support of the client side application decision. Numerous previous works has adapted the methods of collecting signal strengths in the repository over the years, but mostly were just static. In this work, proposed solutions on how the adaptive method is done to match the signal received to the data in the repository are highlighted. With the said approach, location estimation can be done more accurately. Adaptive update allows the latest location fingerprint to be stored in the repository. Furthermore, any redundant location fingerprints are removed and only the updated version of the fingerprint is stored in the repository. How the location estimation of the user can be predicted would be highlighted more in the proposed solution section. After some studies on previous works, it is found that the Artificial Neural Network is the most feasible method to deploy in updating the repository and making it adaptive. The Artificial Neural Network functions are to do the pattern matching of the WiFi signal to the existing data available in the repository.

189
9996972
Improved Ant Colony Optimization for Solving Reliability Redundancy Allocation Problems
Abstract:

This paper presents an improved ant colony optimization (IACO) for solving the reliability redundancy allocation problem (RAP) in order to maximize system reliability. To improve the performance of ACO algorithm, two additional techniques, i.e. neighborhood search, and re-initialization process are presented. To show its efficiency and effectiveness, the proposed IACO is applied to solve three RAPs. Additionally, the results of the proposed IACO are compared with those of the conventional heuristic approaches i.e. genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO) and ant colony optimization (ACO). The experimental results show that the proposed IACO approach is comparatively capable of obtaining higher quality solution and faster computational time.

188
9997796
A Novel Model for Simultaneously Minimising Costs and Risks in Just-in-Time Systems Using Multi-Backup Suppliers: Part 1- Modelling
Abstract:

Just-In-Time (JIT) is a lean manufacturing tool, which provides the benefits of efficiency, and of minimizing unnecessary costs for many organisations. However, the risks arising from these benefits have been disregarded. These risks impact on system processes disrupting the whole supply chain. This paper proposes an inventory model that can simultaneously reduce costs and risks in JIT systems. This model is developed to ascertain an optimal ordering strategy for procuring raw materials by using regular multi-external and local backup suppliers to reduce the total cost of the products, and at the same time to reduce the risks arising from this cost reduction within production systems. Some results that will be illustrated in the second part of this paper are presented.

187
9996971
Fractional Masks Based On Generalized Fractional Differential Operator for Image Denoising
Abstract:

This paper introduces an image denoising algorithm based on generalized Srivastava-Owa fractional differential operator for removing Gaussian noise in digital images. The structures of nxn fractional masks are constructed by this algorithm. Experiments show that, the capability of the denoising algorithm by fractional differential-based approach appears efficient to smooth the Gaussian noisy images for different noisy levels. The denoising performance is measured by using peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) for the denoising images. The results showed an improved performance (higher PSNR values) when compared with standard Gaussian smoothing filter.

186
9996970
PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems Using Orthogonal Eigenvector Matrix
Abstract:

OFDM systems are known to have a high PAPR (Peak-to-Average Power Ratio) compared with single-carrier systems. In fact, the high PAPR is one of the most detrimental aspects in the OFDM system, as it can cause power degradation (Inband distortion) and spectral spreading (Out-of-band radiation). In this paper, from the foundation of the PAPR analysis an effective method of PAPR reduction has been proposed based on Orthogonal Eigenvector Matrix (OEM) transform. Extensive computer simulations show that a PAPR reduction of up to 4.4 dB can be obtained without introducing in-band distortion or out-of-band radiation in the system.

185
9996969
Challenges and Opportunities in Nuclear Energy: Promising Option in Turkey?
Abstract:

Dramatic growth in the population requires a parallel increase in the total installed capacity of electricity. Diversity, independency of resources and global warming call for installing renewable and nuclear energy plants. Several types of energy plants exist in Turkey; however, nuclear energy with its several attractive features is not utilized at all. This study presents the available energy resources in Turkey and reviews major challenges and opportunities in nuclear energy. At the end of this paper, some conclusions are stated.

184
9996965
Optimal Placement of DG in Distribution System to Mitigate Power Quality Disturbances
Abstract:

Distributed Generation (DG) systems are considered an integral part in future distribution system planning. Appropriate size and location of distributed generation plays a significant role in minimizing power losses in distribution systems. Among the benefits of distributed generation is the reduction in active power losses, which can improve the system performance, reliability and power quality. In this paper, Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is proposed to determine the optimal DG-unit size and location by loss sensitivity index in order to minimize the real power loss, total harmonic distortion (THD) and voltage sag index improvement. Simulation study is conducted on 69-bus radial test system to verify the efficacy of the proposed method.

183
9996962
Spark Breakdown Voltage and Surface Degradation of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Electrode Surfaces
Abstract:

Silicon substrates coated with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were experimentally investigated to determine spark breakdown voltages relative to uncoated surfaces, the degree of surface degradation associated with the spark discharge, and techniques to minimize the surface degradation. The results may be applicable to instruments or processes that use MWCNT as a means of increasing local electric field strength and where spark breakdown is a possibility that might affect the devices’ performance or longevity. MWCNTs were shown to reduce the breakdown voltage of a 1mm gap in air by 30-50%. The relative decrease in breakdown voltage was maintained over gap distances of 0.5 to 2mm and gauge pressures of 0 to 4 bar. Degradation of the MWCNT coated surfaces was observed. Several techniques to improve durability were investigated. These included: chromium and gold-palladium coatings, tube annealing, and embedding clusters of MWCNT in a ceramic matrix.

182
9996961
Influence of Composition and Austempering Temperature on Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron
Abstract:

Present investigations involve a systematic study on the machinability of austempered ductile irons (ADI) developed from four commercially viable ductile irons alloyed with different contents of 0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 wt.% of Ni. The influence of Ni content, amount of retained austenite and hardness of ADI on machining behavior has been conducted systematically. Austempering heat treatment was carried out for 120 minutes at four temperatures- 270oC, 320oC, 370oC or 420oC, after austenitization at 900oC for 120 min. Milling tests were performed and machinability index, cutting forces and surface roughness measurements were used to evaluate the machinability. Higher cutting forces, lower machinability index and the poorer surface roughness of the samples austempered at lower temperatures indicated that austempering at higher temperatures resulted in better machinability. The machinability of samples austempered at 420oC, which contained higher fractions of retained austenite, was superior to that of samples austempered at lower temperatures, indicating that hardness is an important factor in assessing machinability in addition to high carbon austenite content. The ADI with 0.6% Ni, austempered at 420°C for 120 minutes, demonstrated best machinability.

181
9996960
Compliance Modelling and Optimization of Kerf during WEDM of Al7075/SiCP Metal Matrix Composite
Abstract:

This investigation presents the formulation of kerf (width of slit) and optimal control parameter settings of wire electrochemical discharge machining which results minimum possible kerf while machining Al7075/SiCp MMCs. WEDM is proved its efficiency and effectiveness to cut the hard ceramic reinforced MMCs within the permissible budget. Among the distinct performance measures of WEDM process, kerf is an important performance characteristic which determines the dimensional accuracy of the machined component while producing high precision components. The lack of available of the machinability information such advanced MMCs result the more experimentation in the manufacturing industries. Therefore, extensive experimental investigations are essential to provide the database of effect of various control parameters on the kerf while machining such advanced MMCs in WEDM. Literature reviled the significance some of the electrical parameters which are prominent on kerf for machining distinct conventional materials. However, the significance of reinforced particulate size and volume fraction on kerf is highlighted in this work while machining MMCs along with the machining parameters of pulse-on time, pulse-off time and wire tension. Usually, the dimensional tolerances of machined components are decided at the design stage and a machinist pay attention to produce the required dimensional tolerances by setting appropriate machining control variables. However, it is highly difficult to determine the optimal machining settings for such advanced materials on the shop floor. Therefore, in the view of precision of cut, kerf (cutting width) is considered as the measure of performance for the model. It was found from the literature that, the machining conditions of higher fractions of large size SiCp resulting less kerf where as high values of pulse-on time result in a high kerf. A response surface model is used to predict the relative significance of various control variables on kerf. Consequently, a powerful artificial intelligence called genetic algorithms (GA) is used to determine the best combination of the control variable settings. In the next step the conformation test was conducted for the optimal parameter settings and found good agreement between the GA kerf and measured kerf. Hence, it is clearly reveal that the effectiveness and accuracy of the developed model and program to analyze the kerf and to determine its optimal process parameters. The results obtained in this work states that, the resulted optimized parameters are capable of machining the Al7075/SiCp MMCs more efficiently and with better dimensional accuracy.

180
9996959
Application of De-Laval Nozzle Transonic Flow Field Computation Approaches
Abstract:

A supersonic expansion cannot be achieved within a convergent-divergent nozzle if the flow velocity does not reach that of the sound at the throat. The computation of the flow field characteristics at the throat is thus essential to the nozzle developed thrust value and therefore to the aircraft or rocket it propels. Several approaches were developed in order to describe the transonic expansion, which takes place through the throat of a De-Laval convergent-divergent nozzle. They all allow reaching good results but showing a major shortcoming represented by their inability to describe the transonic flow field for nozzles having a small throat radius. The approach initially developed by Kliegel & Levine uses the velocity series development in terms of the normalized throat radius added to unity instead of solely the normalized throat radius or the traditional small disturbances theory approach. The present investigation carries out the application of these three approaches for different throat radiuses of curvature. The method using the normalized throat radius added to unity shows better results when applied to geometries integrating small throat radiuses.

179
9996958
Active Segment Selection Method in EEG Classification Using Fractal Features
Abstract:

BCI (Brain Computer Interface) is a communication machine that translates brain massages to computer commands. These machines with the help of computer programs can recognize the tasks that are imagined. Feature extraction is an important stage of the process in EEG classification that can effect in accuracy and the computation time of processing the signals. In this study we process the signal in three steps of active segment selection, fractal feature extraction, and classification. One of the great challenges in BCI applications is to improve classification accuracy and computation time together. In this paper, we have used student’s 2D sample t-statistics on continuous wavelet transforms for active segment selection to reduce the computation time. In the next level, the features are extracted from some famous fractal dimension estimation of the signal. These fractal features are Katz and Higuchi. In the classification stage we used ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) classifier, FKNN (Fuzzy K-Nearest Neighbors), LDA (Linear Discriminate Analysis), and SVM (Support Vector Machines). We resulted that active segment selection method would reduce the computation time and Fractal dimension features with ANFIS analysis on selected active segments is the best among investigated methods in EEG classification.

178
9996957
Degree of Milling Effects on the Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Flours, Physicochemical Properties and Kinetics of Starch Digestion
Abstract:

Two types of crushing were applied to grains of red sorghum: manual crushing using a mortar and pestle of kitchen and mechanical crushing using a hammer mill. The flours obtained at the end of these various crushing were filtered and subdivided in different fractions according to the diameters of the mesh of the sieves (0.16mm; 0.25mm; 0.315mm; 0.4mm, and 0.63mm…). Some physical, chemical and nutritional traits of these flours were evaluated using Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). In vitro digestibility of these flours was also studied with freezing of flour 1% like substrate and α-amylase from B. licheniformis (E.C.3.2.1.1; Megazyme, Wicklow, Ireland). The results revealed that the batches of flours which have the finest diameters as 0.16mm; 0.25mm are the richest one in nutrients and are also the most digestible. Also mechanical crushing is the best mean to obtain significant amount of flours. In conclusion, the type of crushing and the size of the particles have an impact on the final concentration of some nutrients of the flours obtained. Indeed, the finest particles (0.16mm – 0.25mm 0.315mm) obtained after sifting of the flours are more nutritive and have a better digestibility than others size. So the finest particles could be advised for management of cereals namely the sorghum for the production of the infantile foods.

177
9996956
Variable Rate Superorthogonal Turbo Code with the OVSF Code Tree
Abstract:

When using modern Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) in mobile communications, the user must be able to vary the transmission rate of users to allocate bandwidth efficiently. In this work, Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes are used with the same principles applied in a low-rate superorthogonal turbo code due to their variable-length properties. The introduced system is the Variable Rate Superorthogonal Turbo Code (VRSTC) where puncturing is not performed on the encoder’s final output but rather before selecting the output to achieve higher rates. Due to bandwidth expansion, the codes outperform an ordinary turbo code in the AWGN channel. Simulations results show decreased performance compared to those obtained with the employment of Walsh-Hadamard codes. However, with OVSF codes, the VRSTC system keeps the orthogonality of codewords whilst producing variable rate codes contrary to Walsh-Hadamard codes where puncturing is usually performed on the final output.

176
9996951
Predicting Dispersion Coefficient in Free-Flowing Zones of Rivers by Genetic Programming
Abstract:

Transient storage zones along the flow paths of rivers have great influence on the dispersion of pollutants that are either accidentally or otherwise led into them. The speed with which these pollution clouds get transported and dispersed downstream is, to a large extent, explained by the longitudinal dispersion coefficients in the free-flowing zones of rivers (Kf). In the present work, a new empirical expression for Kf has been derived employing genetic programming (GP) on published dispersion data. The proposed expression uses few hydraulic and geometric characteristics of a river that are readily available to field engineers. Based on various performance indices, the proposed expression is found superior to other existing expression for Kf.

175
9996950
Evaluation of Stormwater Quantity and Quality Control through Constructed Mini Wet Pond: A Case Study
Abstract:

One of the Best Management Practices (BMPs) promoted in Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA) published by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) in 2001 is through the construction of wet ponds in new development projects for water quantity and quality control. Therefore, this paper aims to demonstrate a case study on evaluation of a constructed mini wet pond located at Sekolah Rendah Kebangsaan Seksyen 2, Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia in both stormwater quantity and quality aspect particularly to reduce the peak discharge by temporary storing and gradual release of stormwater runoff from an outlet structure or other release mechanism. The evaluation technique will be using InfoWorks Collection System (CS) as the numerical modeling approach for water quantity aspect. Statistical test by comparing the correlation coefficient (R2), mean error (ME), mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used to evaluate the model in simulating the peak discharge changes. Results demonstrated that there will be a reduction in peak flow at 11 % to 15% and time to peak flow is slower by 5 minutes through a wet pond. For water quality aspect, a survey on biological indicator of water quality carried out depicts that the pond is within the range of rather clean to clean water with the score of 5.3. This study indicates that a constructed wet pond with wetland facilities is able to help in managing water quantity and stormwater generated pollution at source, towards achieving ecologically sustainable development in urban areas.

174
9996949
Effects of Heavy Pumping and Artificial Groundwater Recharge Pond on the Aquifer System of Langat Basin, Malaysia
Abstract:

The paper aims at evaluating the effects of heavy groundwater withdrawal and artificial groundwater recharge of an ex-mining pond to the aquifer system of the Langat Basin through the three-dimensional (3D) numerical modeling. Many mining sites have been left behind from the massive mining exploitations in Malaysia during the England colonization era and from the last few decades. These sites are able to accommodate more than a million cubic meters of water from precipitation, runoff, groundwater, and river. Most of the time, the mining sites are turned into ponds for recreational activities. In the current study, an artificial groundwater recharge from an ex-mining pond in the Langat Basin was proposed due to its capacity to store >50 million m3 of water. The location of the pond is near the Langat River and opposite a steel company where >4 million gallons of groundwater is withdrawn on a daily basis. The 3D numerical simulation was developed using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). The calibrated model (error about 0.7 m) was utilized to simulate two scenarios (1) Case 1: artificial recharge pond with no pumping and (2) Case 2: artificial pond with pumping. The results showed that in Case 1, the pond played a very important role in supplying additional water to the aquifer and river. About 90,916 m3/d of water from the pond, 1,173 m3/d from the Langat River, and 67,424 m3/d from the direct recharge of precipitation infiltrated into the aquifer system. In Case 2, due to the abstraction of groundwater from a company, it caused a steep depression around the wells, river, and pond. The result of the water budget showed an increase rate of inflow in the pond and river with 92,493m3/d and 3,881m3/d respectively. The outcome of the current study provides useful information of the aquifer behavior of the Langat Basin.

173
9996948
Identification of Micromechanical Fracture Model for Predicting Fracture Performance of Steel Wires for Civil Engineering Applications
Abstract:

The fracture performance of steel wires for civil engineering applications remains a major concern in civil engineering construction and maintenance of wire reinforced structures. The need to employ approaches that simulate micromechanical material processes which characterizes fracture in civil structures has been emphasized recently in the literature. However, choosing from the numerous micromechanics-based fracture models, and identifying their applicability and reliability remains an issue that still needs to be addressed in a greater depth. Laboratory tensile testing and finite element tensile testing simulations with the shear, ductile and Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman’s micromechanics-based models conducted in this work reveal that the shear fracture model is an appropriate fracture model to predict the fracture performance of steel wires used for civil engineering applications. The need to consider the capability of the micromechanics-based fracture model to predict the “cup and cone” fracture exhibited by the wire in choosing the appropriate fracture model is demonstrated.

172
9996947
Evaluating and Measuring the Performance Parameters of Agricultural Wheels
Abstract:

Evaluating and measuring the performance parameters of wheels and tillage equipments under controlled conditions obligates the use of soil bin facility. In this research designing, constructing and evaluating a single-wheel tester has been studied inside a soil bin. The tested wheel was directly driven by the electric motor. Vertical load was applied by a power bolt on wheel. This tester can measure required draft force, the depth of tire sinkage, contact area between wheel and soil, and soil stress at different depths and in the both alongside and perpendicular to the direction of traversing. In order to evaluate the system preparation, traction force was measured by the connected S-shaped load cell as arms between the wheel-tester and carriage. Treatments of forward speed, slip, and vertical load at a constant pressure were investigated in a complete randomized block design. The results indicated that the traction force increased at constant wheel load. The results revealed that the maximum traction force was observed within the %15 of slip.

171
9996945
Cloning and Functional Characterization of Promoter Elements of the D Hordein Gene from the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by Bioinformatic Tools
Abstract:

The low level of foreign genes expression in transgenic plants is a key factor that limits plant genetic engineering. Because of the critical regulatory activity of the promoters on gene transcription, they are studied extensively to improve the efficiency of the plant transgenic system. The strong constitutive promoters, such as CaMV 35S promoter and Ubiqutin 1 maize are usually used in plant biotechnology research. However the expression level of the foreign genes in all tissues is often undesirable. But using a strong seed-specific promoter to limit gene expression in the seed solves such problems. The purpose of this study is to isolate one of the seed specific promoters of Hordeum vulgare. So one of the common varieties of Hordeum vulgare in Iran was selected and their genomes extracted then the D-Hordein promoter amplified using the specific designed primers. Then the amplified fragment of the insert cloned in an appropriate vector and then transformed to E. coli. At last for the final admission of accuracy the cloned fragments sent for sequencing. Sequencing analysis showed that the cloned fragment DHPcontained motifs; like TATA box, CAAT-box, CCGTCC-box, AMYBOX1 and E-box etc., which constituted the seed-specific promoter activity. The results were compared with sequences existing in data banks. D-Hordein promoters of Alger has 99% similarity at 100 % coverage. The results also showed that D-Hordein promoter of barley and HMW promoter of wheat are too similar.

170
9996942
Description of Unsteady Flows in the Cuboid Container
Abstract:

This part of study deals with description of unsteady isothermal melt flow in the container with cuboid shape. This melt flow is driven by rotating magnetic field. Input data (instantaneous velocities, grid coordinates and Lorentz forces) were obtained from in-house CFD code (called NS-FEM3D) which uses DDES method of computing. Description of the flow was performed by contours of Lorentz forces and caused velocity field. Taylor magnetic numbers of the flow were used 1.10^6, 5.10^6 and 1.10^7, flow was in 3D turbulent flow regime.

169
9996939
The Dialectical Unity of Capital and Non-Capital: The Role of Overpopulation in Popular Rebellion Today
Abstract:

Throughout its history, Capital has established a decisive form of discrimination that has effectively strengthened its power against Labor: discrimination between an endogenous labor force (integrated, with certain guarantees and rights in the capitalist nexus) and an exogenous labor force (yet to be incorporated or incorporated as ‘heterochthonous’, without such guarantees and rights). We refer to the historical incorporation of the exogenous population from the non-capitalist to the capitalist nexus (with the consequent replaceability of the endogenous labor force) as absolute mobility.

The more possibilities Capital has of accessing a population in the non-capitalist nexus and of being able to incorporate it through absolute mobility into the capitalist nexus, the greater its unilaterality or class domination. In contrast, when these possibilities run dry, Capital is more inclined towards reformism or negotiation.

However, this absolute mobility has historically been combined with relative mobility of the labor force, which includes various processes of which labor force migration is a fundamental component.

This paper holds that both types of mobility are at the core of class struggles.

168
9996938
Investigating the Areas of Self-Reflection in Malaysian Students’ Personal Blogs: A Case Study
Abstract:

This case study investigates the areas of self-reflection through the written content of four university students’ blogs. The study was undertaken to explore the categories of self-reflection in relation to the use of blogs. Data collection methods included downloading students’ blog entries and recording individual interviews to further support the data. Data was analyzed using computer assisted qualitative data analysis software, Nvivo, to categories and code the data. The categories of self-reflection revealed in the findings showed that university students used blogs to reflect on (1) life in varsity, (2) emotions and feelings, (3) various relationships, (4) personal growth, (5) spirituality, (6) health conditions, (7) busyness with daily chores, (8) gifts for people and themselves and (9) personal interests. Overall, all four of the students had positive experiences and felt satisfied using blogs for self-reflection.

167
9996937
Cognitive Emotion Regulation in Children Is Attributable to Parenting Style, Not to Family Type and Child’s Gender
Abstract:

The study aimed to investigate whether cognitive emotion regulation in children varies with parenting style, family type and gender. Toward this end, cognitive emotion regulation and perceived parenting style of 206 school children were measured. Standard regression analyses of data revealed that the models were significant and explained 17.3% of the variance in adaptive emotion regulation (Adjusted R²=0.173; F=9.579, p<.001), and 7.1% of the variance in less adaptive emotion regulation (Adjusted R²=.071, F=4.135, p=.001). Results showed that children’s cognitive emotion regulation is functionally associated with parenting style, but not with family type and their gender. Amongst three types of parenting, authoritative parenting was the strongest predictor of the overall adaptive emotion regulation while authoritarian parenting was the strongest predictor of the overall less adaptive emotion regulation. Permissive parenting has impact neither on adaptive nor on less adaptive emotion regulation. The findings would have important implications for parents, caregivers, child psychologists, and other professionals working with children or adolescents.

166
9996936
The American Christian Right Women’s Advocacy Groups and US Foreign Policy
Abstract:

The paper examines two women advocacy groups of the American Christian Right, namely: Concerned Women for America (CWA) and Eagle Forum. Focus will be placed on their interests in American foreign policy and global social policy particularly during the George W. Bush administration. It examines the organizations’ historical backgrounds, and study their agendas, issues and forms of international engagement which relate to American foreign policy. The paper shows that the Christian Right movement is not a monolithic movement in term of its focus, objectives or activism. Despite their diversity, various actions of these advocacy groups have strengthened the role of the Christian Right in exerting its influence on US foreign policy. Finally, it contends that, although traditionally the Christian Right advocacy groups’ motives for activism are strongly based on the Bible and Judeo–Christian values, the arguments and ideas behind their present struggle are presented in a very nationalistic, secular and pragmatic vein.

165
9996935
Biomass and Productivity Studies of Up-Land and Low-Land Vegetation in the Neglected Margin of a Tropical Lake
Abstract:

Present paper deals with an evaluation of magnitude of changes in biomass and net primary productivity at ‘Gujar Tal’ sloppy lake margin at Jaunpur in tropical semi-arid region of eastern U.P. (India). The study site abandoned or neglected lands (50 ×125 m) was divided into two zones, i.e. upper zone (up-land) and lower zone (low-land). Maximum biomass in the upper zone of dominant weed Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf. was 207.47 g m-2 and ‘rest weeds’ was 457.45 g m-2 both in the month of September. In contrast, the peak biomass value in the lower zone of dominant weed Oryza rufipogon Griff. was 1571.44 g m-2 in October and ‘rest weeds’ 270.65 g m-2 in February. Among the two zones, the peak total community biomass was observed 1655.62 g m-2 (October) in the lower zone while its peak value for the upper zone 457.45 g m-2 (September) was comparatively low. Maximum percentage contribution of dominant weeds (D. bipinnata and O. rufipogon) in the respective upper and lower zones and ‘rest weeds’ in both the zones varied in different months in the total community biomass. The peak net primary productivity of dominant weed (D. bipinnata) was 2.09g m-2 day-1 (September) and ‘rest weeds’ was 2.37 g m-2 day-1 (August) in the upper zone, while the lower zone for O. rufipogon was 5.25 g m-2 day-1 (June) as this zone was inundated later and ‘rest weeds’ was 2.08 g m-2 day-1 (January, 2009). The annual net production of total community at site I was highest, 409.58 g m-2 yr-1 in the upper zone followed by 395.58 g m-2 per eight month in the lower zone as this zone was flooded with water during rainy season. The site significance of variations in biomass in relation to plant species was tested by analysis of variance. It was significant between months in all the two zones (p<0.01 and p<0.05).

164
9996933
Effect of Various Pollen Sources to Ability Fruit Set and Quality in ‘Long Red B’ Wax Apple
Abstract:

By hand pollination was conducted to evaluated different pollen sources and their affects on fruit set and quality of wax apple. The following parameters were recorded: fruit set, seed set, fruit characteristics. Results showed that fruit set percentage with seed were significantly high in ‘Long Red B’ when ‘Black’, ‘Thyto’ were used as pollen parents. Pollen of ‘Black’, ‘Thyto’ resulted in high fruit weight, fruit diameter, fruit length, bigger flesh thickness, better total soluble solids as compared with other pollens. The observation of pollen-growth in vitro revealed that pollen germination at 15% sucrose concentration are required for optimum pollen germination with the high pollen germination were found in ‘Black’, ‘Thyto’. From the result, we concluded that ‘Black’, ‘Thyto’ were proved to be good pollinizers in ‘Long Red B’. Therefore, artificial cross-pollination using ‘Black’, ‘Thyto’ as pollinizers were strongly recommended for ‘Long Red B’ cultivar in wax apple orchard.

163
9996931
On the Modeling and State Estimation for Dynamic Power System
Abstract:

This paper investigates a method for the state estimation of nonlinear systems described by a class of differential-algebraic equation (DAE) models using the extended Kalman filter. The method involves the use of a transformation from a DAE to ordinary differential equation (ODE). A relevant dynamic power system model using decoupled techniques will be proposed. The estimation technique consists of a state estimator based on the EKF technique as well as the local stability analysis. High performances are illustrated through a simulation study applied on IEEE 13 buses test system.

162
9996930
Linear Programming Application in Unit Commitment of Wind Farms with Considering Uncertainties
Abstract:

Due to uncertainty of wind velocity, wind power generators don’t have deterministic output power. Utilizing wind power generation and thermal power plants together create new concerns for operation engineers of power systems. In this paper, a model is presented to implement the uncertainty of load and generated wind power which can be utilized in power system operation planning. Stochastic behavior of parameters is simulated by generating scenarios that can be solved by deterministic method. A mixed-integer linear programming method is used for solving deterministic generation scheduling problem. The proposed approach is applied to a 12-unit test system including 10 thermal units and 2 wind farms. The results show affectivity of piecewise linear model in unit commitment problems. Also using linear programming causes a considerable reduction in calculation times and guarantees convergence to the global optimum. Neglecting the uncertainty of wind velocity causes higher cost assessment of generation scheduling.

161
9996929
GPS and SMS-Based Child Tracking System Using Smart Phone
Abstract:

Recently many cases of missing children between ages 14 and 17 years are reported. Parents always worry about the possibility of kidnapping of their children. This paper proposes an Android based solution to aid parents to track their children in real time. Nowadays, most mobile phones are equipped with location services capabilities allowing us to get the device’s geographic position in real time. The proposed solution takes the advantage of the location services provided by mobile phone since most of kids carry mobile phones. The mobile application use the GPS and SMS services found in Android mobile phones. It allows the parent to get their child’s location on a real time map. The system consists of two sides, child side and parent side. A parent’s device main duty is to send a request location SMS to the child’s device to get the location of the child. On the other hand, the child’s device main responsibility is to reply the GPS position to the parent’s device upon request.

160
17220
Differential Evolution Based Optimal Choice and Location of Facts Devices in Restructured Power System
Abstract:

This paper deals with the optimal choice and location of FACTS devices in deregulated power systems using Differential Evolution algorithm. The main objective of this paper is to achieve the power system economic generation allocation and dispatch in deregulated electricity market. Using the proposed method, the locations of the FACTS devices, their types and ratings are optimized simultaneously. Different kinds of FACTS devices such as TCSC and SVC are simulated in this study. Furthermore, their investment costs are also considered. Simulation results validate the capability of this new approach in minimizing the overall system cost function, which includes the investment costs of the FACTS devices and the bid offers of the market participants. The proposed algorithm is an effective and practical method for the choice and location of suitable FACTS devices in deregulated electricity market.

159
9996928
Pectoral Muscles Suppression in Digital Mammograms Using Hybridization of Soft Computing Methods
Abstract:

Breast region segmentation is an essential prerequisite in computerized analysis of mammograms. It aims at separating the breast tissue from the background of the mammogram and it includes two independent segmentations. The first segments the background region which usually contains annotations, labels and frames from the whole breast region, while the second removes the pectoral muscle portion (present in Medio Lateral Oblique (MLO) views) from the rest of the breast tissue. In this paper we propose hybridization of Connected Component Labeling (CCL), Fuzzy, and Straight line methods. Our proposed methods worked good for separating pectoral region. After removal pectoral muscle from the mammogram, further processing is confined to the breast region alone. To demonstrate the validity of our segmentation algorithm, it is extensively tested using over 322 mammographic images from the Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) database. The segmentation results were evaluated using a Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Hausdroff Distance (HD), Probabilistic Rand Index (PRI), Local Consistency Error (LCE) and Tanimoto Coefficient (TC). The hybridization of fuzzy with straight line method is given more than 96% of the curve segmentations to be adequate or better. In addition a comparison with similar approaches from the state of the art has been given, obtaining slightly improved results. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

158
17219
Optimal Choice and Location of Multi Type Facts Devices in Deregulated Electricity Market Using Evolutionary Programming Method
Abstract:

This paper deals with the optimal choice and allocation of multi FACTS devices in Deregulated power system using Evolutionary Programming method. The objective is to achieve the power system economic generation allocation and dispatch in deregulated electricity market. Using the proposed method, the locations of the FACTS devices, their types and ratings are optimized simultaneously. Different kinds of FACTS devices are simulated in this study such as UPFC, TCSC, TCPST, and SVC. Simulation results validate the capability of this new approach in minimizing the overall system cost function, which includes the investment costs of the FACTS devices and the bid offers of the market participants. The proposed algorithm is an effective and practical method for the choice and allocation of FACTS devices in deregulated electricity market environment. The standard data of IEEE 14 Bus systems has been taken into account and simulated with aid of MAT-lab software and results were obtained.

157
9996922
Current-Mode Resistorless SIMO Universal Filter and Four-Phase Quadrature Oscillator
Authors:
Abstract:

In this paper, a new CMOS current-mode single input and multi-outputs (SIMO) universal filter and quadrature oscillator with a similar circuit are proposed. The circuits only consist of three Current differencing transconductance amplifiers (CDTA) and two grounded capacitors, which are resistorless, and they are suitable for monolithic integration. The universal filter uses minimum CDTAs and passive elements to realize SIMO type low-pass (LP), high-pass (HP), band-pass (BP) band-stop (BS) and all-pass (AP) filter functions simultaneously without any component matching conditions. The angular frequency (ω0) and the quality factor (Q) of the proposed filter can be electronically controlled and tuned orthogonal. By some modifications of the filter, a new current-mode four-phase quadrature oscillator (QO) can be obtained easily. The condition of oscillation (CO) and frequency of oscillation (FO) of the QO can be controlled electronically and independently through the bias current of the CDTAs, and it is suitable for variable frequency oscillator. Moreover, all the passive and active sensitivities of the circuits are low. SPICE simulation results are included to confirm the theory.

156
17213
Performance Evaluation of Faculties of Islamic Azad University of Zahedan Branch Based-On Two-Component DEA
Authors:
Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the faculties of Islamic Azad University of Zahedan Branch based on two-component (teaching and research) decision making units (DMUs) in data envelopment analysis (DEA). Nowadays it is obvious that most of the systems as DMUs do not act as a simple inputoutput structure. Instead, if they have been studied more delicately, they include network structure. University is such a network in which different sections i.e. teaching, research, students and office work as a parallel structure. They consume some inputs of university commonly and some others individually. Then, they produce both dependent and independent outputs. These DMUs are called two-component DMUs with network structure. In this paper, performance of the faculties of Zahedan branch is calculated by using relative efficiency model and also, a formula to compute relative efficiencies teaching and research components based on DEA are offered.

155
9996921
A New Hybrid K-Mean-Quick Reduct Algorithm for Gene Selection
Abstract:

Feature selection is a process to select features which are more informative. It is one of the important steps in knowledge discovery. The problem is that all genes are not important in gene expression data. Some of the genes may be redundant, and others may be irrelevant and noisy. Here a novel approach is proposed Hybrid K-Mean-Quick Reduct (KMQR) algorithm for gene selection from gene expression data. In this study, the entire dataset is divided into clusters by applying K-Means algorithm. Each cluster contains similar genes. The high class discriminated genes has been selected based on their degree of dependence by applying Quick Reduct algorithm to all the clusters. Average Correlation Value (ACV) is calculated for the high class discriminated genes. The clusters which have the ACV value as 1 is determined as significant clusters, whose classification accuracy will be equal or high when comparing to the accuracy of the entire dataset. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using WEKA classifiers and compared. The proposed work shows that the high classification accuracy.

154
17133
Effects of Slip Condition and Peripheral Layer on Couple Stress Fluid Flow through a Channel with Mild Stenosis
Abstract:

Steady incompressible couple stress fluid flow through two dimensional symmetric channel with stenosis is investigated. The flow consisting of a core region to be a couple stress fluid and a peripheral layer of plasma (Newtonian fluid). Assuming the stenosis to be mild, the equations governing the flow of the proposed model are solved using the slip boundary condition and closed form expressions for the flow characteristics (the dimensionless resistance to flow and wall shear stress at the maximum height of stenosis) are derived. The effects of various parameters on these flow variables have been studied. It is observed that the resistance to flow as well as the wall shear stress increase with the height of stenosis, viscosity ratio and Darcy number. However, the trend is reversed as the slip and the couple stress parameter increase.

153
9996920
A Resistorless High Input Impedance First Order All-Pass Filter Using CCCIIs
Abstract:

A new first order all-pass filter topology realized using current controlled current conveyors (CCCIIs) is introduced in this paper. Offered benefits are the high-impedance of the input node, the absence of external resistors because of the usage of CCCIIs with positive and negative intrinsic resistances, the presence of only grounded capacitors, and the capability of electronic adjustment of the phase shift through a single bias current. The correct operation of the introduced topology is conformed through simulation results, while its behavior is evaluated through comparison results.

152
17235
Coordinated Design of PSS and STATCOM for Power System Stability Improvement Using Bacteria Foraging Algorithm
Abstract:

This paper presents the coordinated controller design of static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) and power system stabilizers (PSSs) for power system stability improvement. Coordinated design problem of STATCOM-based controller with multiple PSSs is formulated as an optimization problem and optimal controller parameters are obtained using bacteria foraging optimization algorithm. By minimizing the proposed objective function, in which the speed deviations between generators are involved; stability performance of the system is improved. The nonlinear simulation results show that coordinated design of STATCOM-based controller and PSSs improve greatly the system damping oscillations and consequently stability improvement.

151
9996915
Synthesis and Simulation of Enhanced Buffer Router vs. Virtual Channel Router in NOC ON Cadence
Abstract:

This paper presents a synthesis and simulation of proposed enhanced buffer. The design provides advantages of both buffer and bufferless network for that two cross bar switches are used. The concept of virtual channel (VC) is eliminated from the previous design by using an efficient flow-control scheme that uses the storage already present in pipelined channels in place of explicit input VCBs. This can be addressed by providing enhanced buffers on the bufferless link and creating two virtual networks. With this approach, VCBs act as distributed FIFO buffers. Without VCBs or VCs, deadlock prevention is achieved by duplicating physical channels. An enhanced buffer provides a function of hand shaking by providing a ready valid handshake signal and two bit storage. Through this design the power is reduced to 15.65% and delay is reduced to 97.88% with respect to virtual channel router.

150
9996914
A Java Based Discrete Event Simulation Library
Abstract:

This paper describes important features of JAPROSIM, a free and open source simulation library implemented in Java programming language. It provides a framework for building discrete event simulation models. The process interaction world view adopted by JAPROSIM is discussed. We present the architecture and major components of the simulation library. A pedagogical example is given in order to illustrate how to use JAPROSIM for building discrete event simulation models. Further motivations are discussed and suggestions for improving our work are given.

149
9996913
Optimal Transmission Network Usage and Loss Allocation Using Matrices Methodology and Cooperative Game Theory
Abstract:

Restructuring of Electricity supply industry introduced many issues such as transmission pricing, transmission loss allocation and congestion management. Many methodologies and algorithms were proposed for addressing these issues. In this paper a power flow tracing based method is proposed which involves Matrices methodology for the transmission usage and loss allocation for generators and demands. This method provides loss allocation in a direct way because all the computation is previously done for usage allocation. The proposed method is simple and easy to implement in a large power system. Further it is less computational because it requires matrix inversion only a single time. After usage and loss allocation cooperative game theory is applied to results for finding efficient economic signals. Nucleolus and Shapely value approach is used for optimal allocation of results. Results are shown for the IEEE 6 bus system and IEEE 14 bus system.

148
9996912
Design and Optimization of a Microstrip Patch Antenna for Increased Bandwidth
Abstract:

With the ever-increasing need for wireless communication and the emergence of many systems, it is important to design broadband antennas to cover a wide frequency range. The aim of this paper is to design a broadband patch antenna, employing the three techniques of slotting, adding directly coupled parasitic elements, and fractal EBG structures. The bandwidth is improved from 9.32% to 23.77%. A wideband ranging from 4.15 GHz to 5.27 GHz is obtained. Also a comparative analysis of embedding EBG structures at different heights is also done. The composite effect of integrating these techniques in the design provides a simple and efficient method for obtaining low profile, broadband, high gain antenna. By the addition of parasitic elements the bandwidth was increased to only 18.04%. Later on by embedding EBG structures the bandwidth was increased up to 23.77%. The design is suitable for variety of wireless applications like WLAN and Radar Applications.

147
9996911
Performance Analysis of Adaptive OFDM Pre and Post-FTT Beamforming System
Abstract:

In mobile communication systems, performance and capacity are affected by multi-path fading, delay spread and Co-Channel Interference (CCI). For this reason Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and adaptive antenna array are used is required. The goal of the OFDM is to improve the system performance against Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI). An array of adaptive antennas has been employed to suppress CCI by spatial technique. To suppress CCI in OFDM systems two main schemes the pre-FFT and the post-FFT have been proposed. In this paper, through a system level simulation, the behavior of the pre-FFT and post-FFT beamformers for OFDM system has been investigated based on two algorithms namely, Least Mean Squares (LMS) and Recursive Least Squares (RLS). The performance of the system is also discussed in multipath fading channel system specified by 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE).

146
9996910
Parallel Text Processing: Alignment of Indonesian to Javanese Language
Abstract:

Parallel text alignment is proposed as a way of aligning bahasa Indonesia to words in Javanese. Since the one-to-one word translator does not have the facility to translate pragmatic aspects of Javanese, the parallel text alignment model described uses a phrase pair combination. The algorithm aligns the parallel text automatically from the beginning to the end of each sentence. Even though the results of the phrase pair combination outperform the previous algorithm, it is still inefficient. Recording all possible combinations consume more space in the database and time consuming. The original algorithm is modified by applying the edit distance coefficient to improve the data-storage efficiency. As a result, the data-storage consumption is 90% reduced as well as its learning period (42s).

145
9996893
Scope of BOD, Nitrogen and Phosphorous Removal through Plant-Soil Interaction in the Wetland
Abstract:

Constructed and natural wetlands are being used extensively to treat different types of wastewater including the domestic one. Considerable removal efficiency has been achieved for a variety of pollutants like BOD, nitrogen and phosphorous in the wetlands. Wetland treatment appears to be the best choice for treatment or pre-treatment of wastewater because of the low maintenance cost and simplicity of operation. Wetlands are the natural exporters of organic carbon on account of decomposition of organic matter. The emergent plants like reeds, bulrushes and cattails are commonly used in constructed wetland for the treatment process providing surface for bacterial growth, filtration of solids, nutrient uptake and oxygenation to promote nitrification as well as denitrification. The present paper explored different scopes of organic matter (BOD), nitrogen and phosphorous removal from wastewater through wetlands. Emphasis is given to look into the soil chemistry for tracing the behavior of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in the wetland. Due consideration is also made to see the viability for upgrading the BOD, nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency through different classical modifications of wetland.

144
9996768
Low Cost IMU \ GPS Integration Using Kalman Filtering for Land Vehicle Navigation Application
Abstract:

Land vehicle navigation system technology is a subject of great interest today. Global Positioning System (GPS) is a common choice for positioning in such systems. However, GPS alone is incapable of providing continuous and reliable positioning, because of its inherent dependency on external electromagnetic signals. Inertial Navigation is the implementation of inertial sensors to determine the position and orientation of a vehicle. As such, inertial navigation has unbounded error growth since the error accumulates at each step. Thus in order to contain these errors some form of external aiding is required. The availability of low cost Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) inertial sensors is now making it feasible to develop Inertial Navigation System (INS) using an inertial measurement unit (IMU), in conjunction with GPS to fulfill the demands of such systems. Typically IMU’s are very expensive systems; however this INS will use “low cost” components. Unfortunately with low cost also comes low performance and is the main reason for the inclusion of GPS and Kalman filtering into the system. The aim of this paper is to develop a GPS/MEMS INS integrated system, which is able to provide a navigation solution with accuracy levels appropriate for land vehicle navigation. The primary piece of equipment used was a MEMS-based Crista IMU (from Cloud Cap Technology Inc.) and a Garmin GPS 18 PC (which is both a receiver and antenna). The integration of GPS with INS can be implemented using a Kalman filter in loosely coupled mode. In this integration mode the INS error states, together with any navigation state (position, velocity, and attitude) and other unknown parameters of interest, are estimated using GPS measurements. All important equations regarding navigation are presented along with discussion.

Keywords:
143
9996748
STATCOM based Damping Controller in Power Systems for Enhance the Power System Stability
Abstract:

This paper describes the power-system stability improvement by a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) based damping controller with Differential evolution (DE) algorithm is used to find out the optimal controller parameters. The present study considered both local and remote signals with associated time delays. The performances of the proposed controllers have been compared with different disturbances for both single-machine infinite bus power system and multi-machine power system. The performance of the proposed controllers with variations in the signal transmission delays has also been investigated. To show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller the Simulation results are presented under different disturbances and loading conditions.

142
9996746
Modeling the Influence of Socioeconomic and Land-Use Factors on Mode Choice: A Comparison of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and Melbourne, Australia
Abstract:

Metropolitan areas have suffered from traffic problems, which have steadily increased in many monocentric cities. Urban expansion, population growth, and road network development have resulted in a structural shift toward urban sprawl, increasing commuters’ dependence on private modes of transport. This paper aims to model the influence of socioeconomic and land-use factors on mode choice using a multinomial and nested logit model. Land-use patterns—such as residential, commercial, retail, educational and employment related—affect the choice of mode and destination in the short and medium term. Socioeconomic factors—such as age, gender, income, household size, and house type—also affect choice, while residential location is affected in the long term. Riyadh in Saudi Arabia and Melbourne in Australia were chosen as case studies. Riyadh is a car-dependent city with limited public transport, whereas Melbourne has good public transport but an increase in car dependence. Aggregate level land-use data and disaggregate level individual, household, and journey-to-work data are used to determine the effects of land use and socioeconomic factors on mode choice. The model results determined that urban sprawl is the main factor that affects mode choice, income, and house type.

141
17409
Notes on Vibration Design for Piezoelectric Cooling Fan
Abstract:

This paper discusses some notes on the vibration design for the piezoelectric cooling fan. After reviewing the fundamental formulas of the cantilever Euler beam, it is not easy to find the optimal design of the piezoelectric fan. The experiments also show the complicated results of the vibration behavior and air flow.

140
16901
Comparison of Knowledge Regarding Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Cervical Cancer in Students with or without Sexual Intercourse
Abstract:

The aim of our study was to compare knowledge of regarding HPV and cervical cancer in female student of 18 to 26 years old, with or without sexual intercourse. We conducted a questionnaire survey of the students (N=568), in Faculty of Natural Sciences, Tirana, Albania. Sexually experienced students were more likely to have heard of risk factors such as multiple sex partners, sexual intercourse before age 18, having contracted any sexually transmitted diseases, having genital warts, smoking cigarettes, use of oral contraceptive, poor diet or nutrition and using tampons. No significant sexually experience differences were observed in knowledge of the way of transmission of the virus associated with cervical cancer knowledge, the virus associated with cervical cancer knowledge, the prevention of cervical cancer knowledge. On the other hand strong significant sexually experience differences were observed in knowledge of the diagnostic way of cervical cancer and what HPV can cause knowledge.

139
16971
Bi-linear Complementarity Problem
Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new linear complementarity problem named as bi-linear complementarity problem (BLCP) and the method for solving BLCP. In addition, the algorithm for error estimation of BLCP is also given. Numerical experiments show that the algorithm is efficient.

138
16897
Effects of Ice and Seawater Storing Conditions on the Sensory, Chemical and Microbiological Quality of the Mediterranean Hake (Merluccius merluccius) During Post-Catch Handling and Distribution
Abstract:

Changes in the sensory, chemical and microbiological quality of the Mediterranean hake during post-catch handling and distribution were investigated. 115 fish samples were seasonally received during three stages of the transfer route from the sea to the consumer and two storage methods were recorded, seawater and ice storage. Microbiological evaluation revealed higher status for the ice stored samples regarding heterotrophic bacteria (2.68 log cfu/g and 1.92 log cfu/g at 22oC and 37°C respectively) and psychrotrophic counts (3.20 log cfu/g), with statistically significant differences among storage methods. Sensory evaluation also revealed higher status for the ice stored samples with a mean quality index of 0.17 and a spoilage time estimated at 30 hours, in contrast to seawater storage, which varied from 0.28 to 0.3, and a 14-hour estimated spoilage. Detected pathogens were identified mainly in the seawater stored samples, posing questions on the quality of the product reaching the seafood markets.

137
16777
Preconditioned Jacobi Method for Fuzzy Linear Systems
Abstract:

A preconditioned Jacobi (PJ) method is provided for solving fuzzy linear systems whose coefficient matrices are crisp Mmatrices and the right-hand side columns are arbitrary fuzzy number vectors. The iterative algorithm is given for the preconditioned Jacobi method. The convergence is analyzed with convergence theorems. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the procedure and show the effectiveness and efficiency of the method.

136
16774
On Fuzzy Weakly-Closed Sets
Abstract:

A new class of fuzzy closed sets, namely fuzzy weakly closed set in a fuzzy topological space is introduced and it is established that this class of fuzzy closed sets lies between fuzzy closed sets and fuzzy generalized closed sets. Alongwith the study of fundamental results of such closed sets, we define and characterize fuzzy weakly compact space and fuzzy weakly closed space.

135
16770
On Convergence Property of MINRES Method for Solving a Complex Shifted Hermitian Linear System
Abstract:

We discuss the convergence property of the minimum residual (MINRES) method for the solution of complex shifted Hermitian system (αI + H)x = f. Our convergence analysis shows that the method has a faster convergence than that for real shifted Hermitian system (Re(α)I + H)x = f under the condition Re(α) + λmin(H) > 0, and a larger imaginary part of the shift α has a better convergence property. Numerical experiments show such convergence properties.

134
16769
A New Robust Stability Criterion for Dynamical Neural Networks with Mixed Time Delays
Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate the problem of the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for a class of neural networks, the neutral system has mixed time delays and parameter uncertainties. Under the assumption that the activation functions are globally Lipschitz continuous, we drive a new criterion for the robust stability of a class of neural networks with time delays by utilizing the Lyapunov stability theorems and the Homomorphic mapping theorem. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and the advantage of the proposed main results.

133
16768
Soft Connected Spaces and Soft Paracompact Spaces
Authors:
Abstract:

Soft topological spaces are considered as mathematical tools for dealing with uncertainties, and a fuzzy topological space is a special case of the soft topological space. The purpose of this paper is to study soft topological spaces. We introduce some new concepts in soft topological spaces such as soft closed mapping, soft open mappings, soft connected spaces and soft paracompact spaces. We also redefine the concept of soft points such that it is reasonable in soft topological spaces. Moreover, some basic properties of these concepts are explored.

132
16976
Explicit Solutions and Stability of Linear Differential Equations with multiple Delays
Authors:
Abstract:

We give an explicit formula for the general solution of a one dimensional linear delay differential equation with multiple delays, which are integer multiples of the smallest delay. For an equation of this class with two delays, we derive two equations with single delays, whose stability is sufficient for the stability of the equation with two delays. This presents a new approach to the study of the stability of such systems. This approach avoids requirement of the knowledge of the location of the characteristic roots of the equation with multiple delays which are generally more difficult to determine, compared to the location of the characteristic roots of equations with a single delay.

131
16975
Robust Coherent Noise Suppression by Point Estimation of the Cauchy Location Parameter
Abstract:

This paper introduces a new point estimation algorithm, with particular focus on coherent noise suppression, given several measurements of the device under test where it is assumed that 1) the noise is first-order stationery and 2) the device under test is linear and time-invariant. The algorithm exploits the robustness of the Pitman estimator of the Cauchy location parameter through the initial scaling of the test signal by a centred Gaussian variable of predetermined variance. It is illustrated through mathematical derivations and simulation results that the proposed algorithm is more accurate and consistently robust to outliers for different tailed density functions than the conventional methods of sample mean (coherent averaging technique) and sample median search.

130
16765
Strongly ω-Gorenstein Modules
Abstract:

We introduce the notion of strongly ω -Gorenstein modules, where ω is a faithfully balanced self-orthogonal module. This gives a common generalization of both Gorenstein projective (injective) modules and ω-Gorenstein modules. We investigate some characterizations of strongly ω -Gorenstein modules. Consequently, some properties under change of rings are obtained.

129
16764
n− Strongly Gorenstein Projective, Injective and Flat Modules
Abstract:

Let R be a ring and n a fixed positive integer, we investigate the properties of n-strongly Gorenstein projective, injective and flat modules. Using the homological theory , we prove that the tensor product of an n-strongly Gorenstein projective (flat) right R -module and projective (flat) left R-module is also n-strongly Gorenstein projective (flat). Let R be a coherent ring ,we prove that the character module of an n -strongly Gorenstein flat left R -module is an n-strongly Gorenstein injective right R -module . At last, let R be a commutative ring and S a multiplicatively closed set of R , we establish the relation between n -strongly Gorenstein projective (injective , flat ) R -modules and n-strongly Gorenstein projective (injective , flat ) S−1R-modules. All conclusions in this paper is helpful for the research of Gorenstein dimensions in future.

128
16762
Hybrid Function Method for Solving Nonlinear Fredholm Integral Equations of the Second Kind
Abstract:

A numerical method for solving nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of second kind is proposed. The Fredholm type equations which have many applications in mathematical physics are then considered. The method is based on hybrid function  approximations. The properties of hybrid of block-pulse functions and Chebyshev polynomials are presented and are utilized to reduce the computation of nonlinear Fredholm integral equations to a system of nonlinear. Some numerical examples are selected to illustrate the effectiveness and simplicity of the method.

127
16981
Fixed Point Theorems for Set Valued Mappings in Partially Ordered Metric Spaces
Abstract:

Let (X,) be a partially ordered set and d be a metric on X such that (X, d) is a complete metric space. Assume that X satisfies; if a non-decreasing sequence xn → x in X, then xn  x, for all n. Let F be a set valued mapping from X into X with nonempty closed bounded values satisfying; (i) there exists κ ∈ (0, 1) with D(F(x), F(y)) ≤ κd(x, y), for all x  y, (ii) if d(x, y) < ε < 1 for some y ∈ F(x) then x  y, (iii) there exists x0 ∈ X, and some x1 ∈ F(x0) with x0  x1 such that d(x0, x1) < 1. It is shown that F has a fixed point. Several consequences are also obtained.

126
16980
A Special Algorithm to Approximate the Square Root of Positive Integer
Abstract:

The paper concerns a special approximate algorithm of the square root of the specific positive integer, which is built by the use of the property of positive integer solution of the Pell’s equation, together with using some elementary theorems of matrices, and then takes it to compare with general used the Newton’s method and give a practical numerical example and error analysis; it is unexpected to find its special property: the significant figure of the approximation value of the square root of positive integer will increase one digit by one. It is well useful in some occasions.

125
7036
Conjugate Heat Transfer in an Enclosure Containing a Polygon Object
Abstract:
Conjugate natural convection in a differentially heated square enclosure containing a polygon shaped object is studied numerically in this article. The effect of various polygon types on the fluid flow and thermal performance of the enclosure is addressed for different thermal conductivities. The governing equations are modeled and solved numerically using the built-in finite element method of COMSOL software. It is found that the heat transfer rate remains stable by varying the polygon types.
124
7744
Velocity Filter Banks using 3-D FFT
Abstract:
In this paper a bank of velocity filters is devised to be used for isolating a moving object with specific velocity in a sequence of frames. The approach used is a 3-D FFT based experimental procedure without applying any theoretical concept from velocity filters. Accordingly, velocity filters are built using the spectral signature of each separate moving object. Experimentation reveals the capabilities of the constructed filter bank to separate moving objects as far as the amplitude as well as the direction of the velocity are concerned.
123
831
Granularity Analysis for Spatio-Temporal Web Sensors
Authors:
Abstract:
In recent years, many researches to mine the exploding Web world, especially User Generated Content (UGC) such as weblogs, for knowledge about various phenomena and events in the physical world have been done actively, and also Web services with the Web-mined knowledge have begun to be developed for the public. However, there are few detailed investigations on how accurately Web-mined data reflect physical-world data. It must be problematic to idolatrously utilize the Web-mined data in public Web services without ensuring their accuracy sufficiently. Therefore, this paper introduces the simplest Web Sensor and spatiotemporallynormalized Web Sensor to extract spatiotemporal data about a target phenomenon from weblogs searched by keyword(s) representing the target phenomenon, and tries to validate the potential and reliability of the Web-sensed spatiotemporal data by four kinds of granularity analyses of coefficient correlation with temperature, rainfall, snowfall, and earthquake statistics per day by region of Japan Meteorological Agency as physical-world data: spatial granularity (region-s population density), temporal granularity (time period, e.g., per day vs. per week), representation granularity (e.g., “rain" vs. “heavy rain"), and media granularity (weblogs vs. microblogs such as Tweets).
122
10921
Personal Knowledge Management among Adult Learners: Behind the Scene of Social Network
Abstract:
The burst of Web 2.0 technology and social networking tools manifest different styles of learning and managing knowledge among both knowledge workers and adult learners. In the Western countries, open-learning concept has been made popular due to the ease of use and the reach that the technology provides. In Malaysia, there are still some gaps between the learners- acceptance of technology and the full implementation of the technology in the education system. There is a need to understand how adult learners, who are knowledge workers, manage their personal knowledge via social networking tools, especially in their learning process. Four processes of personal knowledge management (PKM) and four cognitive enablers are proposed supported by analysed data on adult learners in a university. The model derived from these processes and enablers is tested and presented, with recommendations on features to be included in adult learners- learning environment.
121
857
Calculation of the Forces Acting on the Knee Joint When Rising from Kneeling Positions (Effects of the Leg Alignment and the Arm Assistance on the Knee Joint Forces)
Abstract:
Knee joint forces are available by in vivo measurement using an instrumented knee prosthesis for small to moderate knee flexion but not for high flexion yet. We created a 2D mathematical model of the lower limb incorporating several new features such as a patello-femoral mechanism, a thigh-calf contact at high knee flexion and co-contracting muscles' force ratio, then used it to determine knee joint forces arising from high knee flexions in four kneeling conditions: rising with legs in parallel, with one foot forward, with or without arm use. With arms used, the maximum values of knee joint force decreased to about 60% of those with arms not used. When rising with one foot forward, if arms are not used, the forward leg sustains a force as large as that sustained when rising with legs parallel.
120
4193
Traffic Violation Detection System based on RFID
Abstract:

Road Traffic Accidents are a major cause of disability and death throughout the world. The control of intelligent vehicles in order to reduce human error and boost ease congestion is not accomplished solely by the aid of human resources. The present article is an attempt to introduce an intelligent control system based on RFID technology. By the help of RFID technology, vehicles are connected to computerized systems, intelligent light poles and other available hardware along the way. In this project, intelligent control system is capable of tracking all vehicles, crisis management and control, traffic guidance and recording Driving offences along the highway.

119
2852
Synthesis of Sterile and Pyrogen Free Biogenic Magnetic Nanoparticles: Biotechnological Potential of Magnetotactic Bacteria for Production of Nanomaterials
Abstract:
Today, biogenic magnetite nanoparticles among magnetic nanoparticles have unique attracted attention because of their magnetic characteristics and potential applications in various fields such as therapeutic and diagnostic. A well known example of these biogenic nanoparticles is magnetosomes of magnetotactic bacteria. In this research, we used two different types of technique for the isolation and purification of magnetosome nanoparticles from the isolated magnetotactic bacterial cells, heat-alkaline treatment and sonication. Also we evaluated pyrogen content and sterility of synthesized the isolated individual magnetosome by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate test and direct impedimetric method respectively.
118
9039
A Green Chemical Technique for the Synthesis of Magnetic Nanoparticles by Magnetotactic Bacteria
Abstract:
Bacterial magnetic nanoparticles have great useful potential in biotechnological and biomedical applications. In this study, a liquid growth medium was modified for cultivation a fastidious magnetotactic bacterium that has been isolated from Anzali lagoon, Iran in our previous research. These modifications include change in vitamin, mineral, carbon sources and etcetera. In our experience, the serum bottles and designed air-tight laboratory bottles were used to create microaerobic conditions in order to development of a method for scale-up experiment. This information may serve as a guide to green chemistry based biological protocols for the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles with control over the chemical composition, morphology and size.
117
535
Adaptive Impedance Control for Unknown Time-Varying Environment Position and Stiffness
Abstract:

This study is concerned with a new adaptive impedance control strategy to compensate for unknown time-varying environment stiffness and position. The uncertainties are expressed by Function Approximation Technique (FAT), which allows the update laws to be derived easily using Lyapunov stability theory. Computer simulation results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

116
11601
Preliminary Overview of Data Mining Technology for Knowledge Management System in Institutions of Higher Learning
Abstract:

Data mining has been integrated into application systems to enhance the quality of the decision-making process. This study aims to focus on the integration of data mining technology and Knowledge Management System (KMS), due to the ability of data mining technology to create useful knowledge from large volumes of data. Meanwhile, KMS vitally support the creation and use of knowledge. The integration of data mining technology and KMS are popularly used in business for enhancing and sustaining organizational performance. However, there is a lack of studies that applied data mining technology and KMS in the education sector; particularly students- academic performance since this could reflect the IHL performance. Realizing its importance, this study seeks to integrate data mining technology and KMS to promote an effective management of knowledge within IHLs. Several concepts from literature are adapted, for proposing the new integrative data mining technology and KMS framework to an IHL.

115
8015
A Combinatorial Approach to Planning Manufacturing Safety Programme
Abstract:

Despite many success stories of manufacturing safety, many organizations are still reluctant, perceiving it as cost increasing and time consuming. The clear contributor may be due to the use of lagging indicators rather than leading indicator measures. The study therefore proposes a combinatorial model for determining the best safety strategy. A combination theory and cost benefit analysis was employed to develop a monetary saving / loss function in terms value of preventions and cost of prevention strategy. Documentations, interviews and structured questionnaire were employed to collect information on Before-And-After safety programme records from a Tobacco company between periods of 1993-2001(for pre-safety) and 2002-2008 (safety period) for the model application. Three combinatorial alternatives A, B, C were obtained resulting into 4, 6 and 4 strategies respectively with PPE and Training being predominant. A total of 728 accidents were recorded for a 9 year period of pre-safety programme and 163 accidents were recorded for 7 years period of safety programme. Six preventions activities (alternative B) yielded the best results. However, all the years of operation experienced except year 2004. The study provides a leading resources for planning successful safety programme

114
13321
Performance Analysis of Adaptive LMS Filter through Regression Analysis using SystemC
Abstract:

The LMS adaptive filter has several parameters which can affect their performance. From among these parameters, most papers handle the step size parameter for controlling the performance. In this paper, we approach three parameters: step-size, filter tap-size and filter form. The regression analysis is used for defining the relation between parameters and performance of LMS adaptive filter with using the system level simulation results. The results present that all parameters have performance trends in each own particular form, which can be estimated from equations drawn by regression analysis.

113
14479
Pleurotus Ostreatus for Durability Test of Rubber and Sengon Woods using Indonesian National Standard and Japanese Standard Methods
Abstract:

This study aims to determine the level of resistance of Hevea brasiliensis and Paraserianthes falcataria (synonym: Falcataria molucana) against wood rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus based on Indonesian standard SNI 01.7207-2006 and Japanese standard JIS K 1571-2004. The variables measured were visual appearance and weight loss percentage of wood based on longitudinal and cross section fiber directions of rubber wood and sengon wood. Measurement of oven dry weight loss of wood samples performed after 12 weeks incubation. Replication performed was 10 times at each treatment combination. The results based on SNI 01.7207-2006, weight loss value of H. brasiliensis and P. falcataria wood with fiber direction longitudinal were 23,12 and 22,25% respectively and cross section were 20,77 and 18,76% respectively, and all were classified to resistance class IV (no resistance). The results based on JIS K 1571-2004, weight loss value of both woods with fiber direction cross section were 10,95 and 14,20% respectively.

112
796
National Specific of Idioms in Kazakh and Korean Languages
Abstract:

It is well known that the phraseology of a language - the phenomenon of identity. This uniqueness is due to the fact that "there are idioms image-based views of reality that shows mainly of everyday empirical, historical and spiritual experience of a language community, associated with its cultural traditions. The article says that the phraseological units very clearly show the image of the people and give us a great view of the national identity. With the phraseology of the Kazakh and Korean language can understand the mentality of the nation, identity, perception of people. It is in the phraseological units can surprise the culture and customs of the people. Phraseological units store and transmit information about the level of material and spiritual culture of the people, his life, past and present, the development of society in general. And in Korean and Kazakh languages idioms occupy a particularly important role.

111
13368
Political Preconditions for National Values of the Kazakhstan Nation
Abstract:

Article is devoted to the problem of Kazakhstan people national values in the conditions of the Republic of Kazakhstan independence. Formation of ethnos national values is viewed as the mandatory constituent of this process in contemporary conditions. The article shows the dynamics of forming socialspiritual basis of Kazakhstan people-s national values. It depicts peculiarities of interethnic relations in poly-ethnic and multiconfessional Kazakhstan. The study reviews in every detail various directions of the state social policy development in the sphere of national values. It is aimed to consolidation of the society to achieve the shared objective, i.e. building democratic and civilized state. The author discloses peculiarities of ethnos national values development using specific sources. It is underlined that renewal and modernization of Kazakhstan society represents new stage in the national value development, and its typical feature is integration process based on peoples- friendship, cultural principles of interethnic communication.

110
3576
Experimental Studies on Multiphase Flow in Porous Media and Pore Wettability
Abstract:

Multiphase flow transport in porous medium is very common and significant in science and engineering applications. For example, in CO2 Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery processes, CO2 has to be delivered to the pore spaces in reservoirs and aquifers. CO2 storage and enhance oil recovery are actually displacement processes, in which oil or water is displaced by CO2. This displacement is controlled by pore size, chemical and physical properties of pore surfaces and fluids, and also pore wettability. In this study, a technique was developed to measure the pressure profile for driving gas/liquid to displace water in pores. Through this pressure profile, the impact of pore size on the multiphase flow transport and displacement can be analyzed. The other rig developed can be used to measure the static and dynamic pore wettability and investigate the effects of pore size, surface tension, viscosity and chemical structure of liquids on pore wettability.

109
7282
Dynamic Features Selection for Heart Disease Classification
Authors:
Abstract:
The healthcare environment is generally perceived as being information rich yet knowledge poor. However, there is a lack of effective analysis tools to discover hidden relationships and trends in data. In fact, valuable knowledge can be discovered from application of data mining techniques in healthcare system. In this study, a proficient methodology for the extraction of significant patterns from the Coronary Heart Disease warehouses for heart attack prediction, which unfortunately continues to be a leading cause of mortality in the whole world, has been presented. For this purpose, we propose to enumerate dynamically the optimal subsets of the reduced features of high interest by using rough sets technique associated to dynamic programming. Therefore, we propose to validate the classification using Random Forest (RF) decision tree to identify the risky heart disease cases. This work is based on a large amount of data collected from several clinical institutions based on the medical profile of patient. Moreover, the experts- knowledge in this field has been taken into consideration in order to define the disease, its risk factors, and to establish significant knowledge relationships among the medical factors. A computer-aided system is developed for this purpose based on a population of 525 adults. The performance of the proposed model is analyzed and evaluated based on set of benchmark techniques applied in this classification problem.
108
1425
The Boundary Theory between Laminar and Turbulent Flows
Abstract:
The basis of this paper is the assumption, that graviton is a measurable entity of molecular gravitational acceleration and this is not a hypothetical entity. The adoption of this assumption as an axiom is tantamount to fully opening the previously locked door to the boundary theory between laminar and turbulent flows. It leads to the theorem, that the division of flows of Newtonian (viscous) fluids into laminar and turbulent is true only, if the fluid is influenced by a powerful, external force field. The mathematical interpretation of this theorem, presented in this paper shows, that the boundary between laminar and turbulent flow can be determined theoretically. This is a novelty, because thus far the said boundary was determined empirically only and the reasons for its existence were unknown.
107
5221
Ground System Software for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles on Android Device
Abstract:

A Ground Control System (GCS), which controls Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and monitors their missionrelated data, is one of the major components of UAVs. In fact, some traditional GCSs were built on an expensive, complicated hardware infrastructure with workstations and PCs. In contrast, a GCS on a portable device – such as an Android phone or tablet – takes advantage of its light-weight hardware and the rich User Interface supported by the Android Operating System. We implemented that kind of GCS and called it Ground System Software (GSS) in this paper. In operation, our GSS communicates with UAVs or other GSS via TCP/IP connection to get mission-related data, visualizes it on the device-s screen, and saves the data in its own database. Our study showed that this kind of system will become a potential instrument in UAV-related systems and this kind of topic will appear in many research studies in the near future.

106
10883
ASLT Method for Beer Accelerated Shelf-Life Determination
Abstract:

The aim of current research was to investigate ASLT method suitability for accelerated beer shelf-life determination. The research was accomplished on popular Latvian beer: light filtrated and unfiltered pasteurized beer with alcohol content 5.2%; dark filtrated pasteurized beer with alcohol content 4.2% with shelf-life five months. Bottled in dark glass bottles beer samples were storage during 20 weeks at several temperature regimes: +10±1 °C, +20±1 °C, +30±1 °C, +40±1 °C. Samples quality parameters as physically-chemical and microbiological was tested every two weeks using standard methods. It is possible to determine beer shelf-life rapidly during storage at +30±1 °C for filtered pasteurized light beer by 2.5 times, unfiltered pasteurized light beer by 1.4 times and for filtered pasteurized dark beer by 1.7 times. During preset experiments it was proved, that it is possible to determine beer shelf-life rapidly using ASLT method if beer storage temperature could be increased by +10±1 °C.

105
2379
Modular Workflow System for HPC Applications
Abstract:
Nowadays, HPC, Grid and Cloud systems are evolving very rapidly. However, the development of infrastructure solutions related to HPC is lagging behind. While the existing infrastructure is sufficient for simple cases, many computational problems have more complex requirements.Such computational experiments use different resources simultaneously to start a large number of computational jobs.These resources are heterogeneous. They have different purposes, architectures, performance and used software.Users need a convenient tool that allows to describe and to run complex computational experiments under conditions of HPC environment. This paper introduces a modularworkflow system called SEGL which makes it possible to run complex computational experiments under conditions of a real HPC organization. The system can be used in a great number of organizations, which provide HPC power. Significant requirements to this system are high efficiency and interoperability with the existing HPC infrastructure of the organization without any changes.
104
8384
Preservation of Carbon Dioxide Clathrate Hydrate Coexisting with Sucrose at Temperatures below the Water Freezing Point under Atmospheric Pressure
Abstract:
This paper reports the influence of sucrose on the preservation of CO2 hydrate crystal samples. The particle diameter of hydrate samples were 1.0 and 5.6-8.0 mm. Mass fraction of sucrose in the sample was 0.16. The samples were stored at the aerated condition under atmospheric pressure and at the temperature of 253 or 258 K. The results indicated that the mass fractions of CO2 hydrate in the samples with sucrose were 0.10 ± 0.03 at the end of 3-week preservation, regardless of temperature and particle diameter. Mass fraction of CO2 hydrate in the samples with sucrose was higher than that of pure CO2 hydrate for 1.0 mm particle diameter, while was lower than that of pure CO2 hydrate for 5.6-8.0 mm particle diameter. Discussion is made on the influence of sucrose on the dissociation of CO2 hydrate and the resulting formation of ice.
103
12132
Author's Approach to the Problem of Correctional Speech Therapy with Children Suffering from Alalia
Abstract:
In this article we present a methodology which enables preschool and primary school unlanguaged children to remember words, phrases and texts with the help of graphic signs - letters, syllables and words. Reading for a child becomes a support for speech development. Teaching is based on the principle "from simple to complex", "a letter - a syllable - a word - a proposal - a text." Availability of multi-level texts allows using this methodology for working with children who have different levels of speech development.
102
8095
Performance Evaluation of an Aboveground LNG Storage Tank Cover using Nondestructive and Destructive Tests
Abstract:

In this study, a new procedure for inspecting damages on LNG storage tanks was proposed with the use of structural diagnostic techniques: i.e., nondestructive inspection techniques such as macrography, the hammer sounding test, the Schmidt hammer test, and the ultrasonic pulse velocity test, and destructive inspection techniques such as the compressive strength test, the chloride penetration test, and the carbonation test. From the analysis of all the test results, it was concluded that the LNG storage tank cover was in good condition. Such results were also compared with the Korean concrete standard specifications and design values. In addition, the remaining life of the LNG storage tank was estimated by using existing models. Based on the results, an LNG storage tank cover performance evaluation procedure was suggested.

101
12381
Emergency Response Plan Establishment and Computerization through the Analysis of the Disasters Occurring on Long-Span Bridges by Type
Abstract:

In this paper, a strategy for long-span bridge disaster response was developed, divided into risk analysis, business impact analysis, and emergency response plan. At the risk analysis stage, the critical risk was estimated. The critical risk was “car accident."The critical process by critical-risk classification was assessed at the business impact analysis stage. The critical process was the task related to the road conditions and traffic safety. Based on the results of the precedent analysis, an emergency response plan was established. By making the order of the standard operating procedures clear, an effective plan for dealing with disaster was formulated. Finally, a prototype software was developed based on the research findings. This study laid the foundation of an information-technology-based disaster response guideline and is significant in that it computerized the disaster response plan to improve the plan-s accessibility.

100
15017
Game-Tree Simplification by Pattern Matching and Its Acceleration Approach using an FPGA
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a Connect6 solver which adopts a hybrid approach based on a tree-search algorithm and image processing techniques. The solver must deal with the complicated computation and provide high performance in order to make real-time decisions. The proposed approach enables the solver to be implemented on a single Spartan-6 XC6SLX45 FPGA produced by XILINX without using any external devices. The compact implementation is achieved through image processing techniques to optimize a tree-search algorithm of the Connect6 game. The tree search is widely used in computer games and the optimal search brings the best move in every turn of a computer game. Thus, many tree-search algorithms such as Minimax algorithm and artificial intelligence approaches have been widely proposed in this field. However, there is one fundamental problem in this area; the computation time increases rapidly in response to the growth of the game tree. It means the larger the game tree is, the bigger the circuit size is because of their highly parallel computation characteristics. Here, this paper aims to reduce the size of a Connect6 game tree using image processing techniques and its position symmetric property. The proposed solver is composed of four computational modules: a two-dimensional checkmate strategy checker, a template matching module, a skilful-line predictor, and a next-move selector. These modules work well together in selecting next moves from some candidates and the total amount of their circuits is small. The details of the hardware design for an FPGA implementation are described and the performance of this design is also shown in this paper.
99
7166
Surface Roughness of Flange Contact to the 25A-size Metal Gasket by using FEM Simulation
Abstract:
The previous study of new metal gasket that contact width and contact stress an important design parameter for optimizing metal gasket performance. The optimum design based on an elastic and plastic contact stress was founded. However, the influence of flange surface roughness had not been investigated thoroughly. The flange has many kinds of surface roughness. In this study, we conducted a gasket model include a flange surface roughness effect. A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution. A uniform quadratic mesh used for meshing the gasket material and a gradually quadrilateral mesh used for meshing the flange. The gasket model was simulated by using two simulation stages which is forming and tightening simulation. A simulation result shows that a smoother of surface roughness has higher slope for force per unit length. This mean a squeezed against between flange and gasket will be strong. The slope of force per unit length for gasket 400-MPa mode was higher than the gasket 0-MPa mode.
98
10013
Modes of Collapse of Compress–Expand Member under Axial Loading
Abstract:
In this paper, a study on the modes of collapse of compress- expand members are presented. Compress- expand member is a compact, multiple-combined cylinders, to be proposed as energy absorbers. Previous studies on the compress- expand member have clarified its energy absorption efficiency, proposed an approximate equation to describe its deformation characteristics and also highlighted the improvement that it has brought. However, for the member to be practical, the actual range of geometrical dimension that it can maintain its applicability must be investigated. In this study, using a virtualized materials that comply the bilinear hardening law, Finite element Method (FEM) analysis on the collapse modes of compress- expand member have been conducted. Deformation maps that plotted the member's collapse modes with regards to the member's geometric and material parameters were then presented in order to determine the dimensional range of each collapse modes.
97
11386
Motivation Factors in Distance Education
Abstract:

This study describes the relationship between motivation factors and academic performance among distance education students enrolled in a postgraduate nursing course. Students (n=96) participated in a survey that assesses student's motivational orientations from a cognitive perspective using a selfadministered questionnaire based on Pintrich-s Motivation Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MLSQ). Results showed students- motivational factors are highest on task value (6.44, 0.71); followed by intrinsic goal orientation (6.20, 0.76), control beliefs (6.02, 0.89); extrinsic goal orientation (5.85, 1.13); self-efficacy for learning and performance (5.62, 0.84), and finally, test anxiety (4.21, 1.37). Weak positive correlations were found between academic performance and intrinsic goal orientation (r=0.13), extrinsic goal orientation (r=0.04), task value (r=0.09), control beliefs (r=0.02), and self-efficacy (r=0.05), while there was weak negative correlation with test anxiety (r=-0.04). Conclusions from the study indicate the need to focus on improving tasks and targeting intrinsic goal orientations of students to courses since these were positively correlated with academic performance and downplay the use of tests since these were negatively correlated with academic performance.

96
15693
Approximate Tension Buckling Capacity of Thin Edge-Cracked Web Plate Subjected to Pure Bending
Abstract:
The presence of a vertical edge-crack within a web plate subjected to pure bending induces local compressive stresses about the crack which may cause tension buckling. Approximate theoretical expressions were derived for the critical far-field tensile stress and bending moment capacity of an edge-cracked web plate associated with tension buckling. These expressions were validated with finite element analyses and used to investigate the possibility of tension buckling in web-cracked trial girders. It was found that tension buckling is an unlikely occurrence unless the web is relatively thin or the crack is very long.
95
9794
Influence of Ambiguity Cluster on Quality Improvement in Image Compression
Abstract:
Image coding based on clustering provides immediate access to targeted features of interest in a high quality decoded image. This approach is useful for intelligent devices, as well as for multimedia content-based description standards. The result of image clustering cannot be precise in some positions especially on pixels with edge information which produce ambiguity among the clusters. Even with a good enhancement operator based on PDE, the quality of the decoded image will highly depend on the clustering process. In this paper, we introduce an ambiguity cluster in image coding to represent pixels with vagueness properties. The presence of such cluster allows preserving some details inherent to edges as well for uncertain pixels. It will also be very useful during the decoding phase in which an anisotropic diffusion operator, such as Perona-Malik, enhances the quality of the restored image. This work also offers a comparative study to demonstrate the effectiveness of a fuzzy clustering technique in detecting the ambiguity cluster without losing lot of the essential image information. Several experiments have been carried out to demonstrate the usefulness of ambiguity concept in image compression. The coding results and the performance of the proposed algorithms are discussed in terms of the peak signal-tonoise ratio and the quantity of ambiguous pixels.
94
4798
The Defects Reduction in Injection Molding by Fuzzy Logic based Machine Selection System
Abstract:
The effective machine-job assignment of injection molding machines is very important for industry because it is not only directly affects the quality of the product but also the performance and lifetime of the machine as well. The phase of machine selection was mostly done by professionals or experienced planners, so the possibility of matching a job with an inappropriate machine might occur when it was conducted by an inexperienced person. It could lead to an uneconomical plan and defects. This research aimed to develop a machine selection system for plastic injection machines as a tool to help in decision making of the user. This proposed system could be used both in normal times and in times of emergency. Fuzzy logic principle is applied to deal with uncertainty and mechanical factors in the selection of both quantity and quality criteria. The six criteria were obtained from a plastic manufacturer's case study to construct a system based on fuzzy logic theory using MATLAB. The results showed that the system was able to reduce the defects of Short Shot and Sink Mark to 24.0% and 8.0% and the total defects was reduced around 8.7% per month.
93
6749
Determination of a Fair Price for Blood Transportation by Applying the Vehicle Routing Problem: A Case for National Blood Center, Thailand
Abstract:
The National Blood Center, Thai Red Cross Society is responsible for providing blood to hospitals all over the country. When any hospital needs blood, it will have to send the vehicle to pick up at the NBC. There are a lot of vehicles to pick up blood at the NBC every day. Each vehicle is usually empty for inbound trip and a little loaded for outbound. The NBC realized such waste or loss and there have been the third party offered to distribute blood and charge for fee. This paper proposes to apply the vehicle routing problem (VRP) for estimating the fair price. The idea is tested with the real data during seven-day period of 6 – 12 July 2010 to estimate the fair price for transporting blood in Bangkok Metropolitan Region.
92
13192
An Artificial Neural Network Model for Earthquake Prediction and Relations between Environmental Parameters and Earthquakes
Abstract:

Earthquakes are natural phenomena that occur with influence of a lot of parameters such as seismic activity, changing in the ground waters' motion, changing in the water-s temperature, etc. On the other hand, the radon gas concentrations in soil vary as nonlinear generally with earthquakes. Continuous measurement of the soil radon gas is very important for determination of characteristic of the seismic activity. The radon gas changes as continuous with strain occurring within the Earth-s surface during an earthquake and effects from the physical and the chemical processes such as soil structure, soil permeability, soil temperature, the barometric pressure, etc. Therefore, at the modeling researches are notsufficient to knowthe concentration ofradon gas. In this research, we determined relationships between radon emissions based on the environmental parameters and earthquakes occurring along the East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ), Turkiye and predicted magnitudes of some earthquakes with the artificial neural network (ANN) model.

91
13264
Implementation of Response Surface Methodology using in Small Brown Rice Peeling Machine: Part I
Abstract:

Implementation of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to study the effects of two factor (rubber clearance and round per minute) in brown rice peeling machine of The optimal BROKENS yield (19.02, average of three repeats),.The optimized composition derived from RSM regression was analyzed using Regression analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). At a significant level α = 0.05, the values of Regression coefficient, R 2 (adj)were 97.35 % and standard deviation were 1.09513. The independent variables are initial rubber clearance, and round per minute parameters namely. The investigating responses are final rubber clearance, and round per minute (RPM). The restriction of the optimization is the designated.

90
15784
Moving from Rule-based to Principle-based in Public Sector: Preparers' Perspective
Abstract:

The move from cash accounting to accrual accounting, or rule-based to principle-based accounting, by many governments is part of an ongoing efforts in promoting a more business-like and performance-focused public sector. Using questionnaire responses from preparers of financial statements of public universities in Malaysia, this study examines the implementation challenges and benefits of principle-based accounting. Results from these responses suggest that most respondents perceived significant costs would be incurred in relation to staff training and recruitment of staffs with relevant technical knowledge. In addition, most respondents also perceived that there will be significant changes in the current accounting system and structure in order to comply with the principle-based accounting requirements. However, most respondents perceived that these changes might not result in significant benefits for management purposes, for example, financial management, budgeting and allocation of resources. Nevertheless, most respondents perceived that principle-based accounting information would facilitate the monitoring function of the board. The general perception is that adoption of principle-based accounting information is not significantly useful than rule-based accounting information is expected to change over time as preparers of the financial statements gradually understand and appreciate the benefits of principle-based accounting information. This infers that the perceived usefulness of different accounting system is a function of familiarity by the preparers.

89
3972
Use of Item Response Theory in Medical Surgical Nursing Achievement Examination
Authors:
Abstract:
Medical Surgical Nursing is one of the major subjects in nursing. This study examined the validity and reliability of the achievement examination utilizing the Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory. The study answered the following objectives specifically : ( a) To establish the validity and reliability of the achievement examination utilizing Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory ; ( b ) To determine the dimensionality measure of items and ( c ) to compare the item difficulty and item discrimination of the Medical Surgical Nursing Achievement examination using Classical Test Theory ( CTT ) and Item Response Theory ( IRT ). The developed instrument was administered to fourth year nursing students (N= 136) of a private university in Manila. The findings yielded the following results: The achievement examination is reliable both using CTT and IRT. The findings indicate person and item statistics from two frameworks are quite alike. The achievement examination formed a unidimensional construct.
88
10733
Determinants of Aggression among Young Adolescents
Authors:
Abstract:
Aggression is a multi- factorial concept and multilevel in nature. The Young Adolescent is being influenced by family, school and community. This paper is aimed to determine the following: aggression level among young adolescents, difference of level of aggression on school and year levels and to determine the correlates of aggression. There were 142 high school students from two different national highs schools (Region 3 and National Capital Region).Convenience sampling was use in this study. The following measures were used namely: Aggression Scale, Parental Support Fighting Scale, Positive Behavior Scale and Exposure to Violence and Trauma questionnaire. There was no significant difference in aggression level among different year level and schools. The findings of the study suggested that high level of community violence and having low parental support for non-aggressive behavior contribute to the prediction of aggression.
87
6867
Regional Economy under the Prism of National Security
Abstract:
This article is devoted to the problems of the disproportional development of regions in the Republic Kazakhstan. The threats proceeding from problem regions, make strong impact on the country-s sustainable development, therefore they are necessary to be considered at the level of national security.
86
9592
Parallel-Distributed Software Implementation of Buchberger Algorithm
Abstract:
Grobner basis calculation forms a key part of computational commutative algebra and many other areas. One important ramification of the theory of Grobner basis provides a means to solve a system of non-linear equations. This is why it has become very important in the areas where the solution of non-linear equations is needed, for instance in algebraic cryptanalysis and coding theory. This paper explores on a parallel-distributed implementation for Grobner basis calculation over GF(2). For doing so Buchberger algorithm is used. OpenMP and MPI-C language constructs have been used to implement the scheme. Some relevant results have been furnished to compare the performances between the standalone and hybrid (parallel-distributed) implementation.
85
2113
Study and Design of Patient Flow at the Medicine Department of a University Hospital
Abstract:

Most, if not all, public hospitals in Thailand have encountered a common problem regarding the increasing demand for medical services. The increasing number of patients causes so much strain on the hospital-s services, over-crowded, overloaded working hours, staff fatigue, medical error and long waiting time. This research studied the characteristics of operational processes of the medical care services at the medicine department in a large public university hospital. The research focuses on details regarding methods, procedures, processes, resources, and time management in overall processes. The simulation model is used as a tool to analyze the impact of various improvement strategies.

84
11922
Performance Enhancement Employing Vertical Beamforming for FFR Technique
Abstract:
This paper proposes a vertical beamforming concept to a cellular network employing Fractional Frequency Reuse technique including with cell sectorization. Two different beams are utilized in cell-center and cell-edge, separately. The proposed concept is validated through computer simulation in term of SINR and channel capacity. Also, comparison when utilizing horizontal and vertical beam formation is in focus. The obtained results indicate that the proposed concept can improve the performance of the cellular networks comparing with the one using horizontal beamforming.
83
4162
Mass Customization in Supply Chain Management Environment: A Review
Abstract:
In the supply chain management customer is the most significant component and mass customization is mostly related to customers because it is the capability of any industry or organization to deliver highly customized products and its services to the respective customers with flexibility and integration, providing such a variety of products that nearly everyone can find what they want. Today all over the world many companies and markets are facing varied situations that at one side customers are demanding that their orders should be completed as quickly as possible while on other hand it requires highly customized products and services. By applying mass customization some companies face unwanted cost and complexity. Now they are realizing that they should completely examine what kind of customization would be best suited for their companies. In this paper authors review some approaches and principles which show effect in supply chain management that can be adopted and used by companies for quickly meeting the customer orders at reduced cost, with minimum amount of inventory and maximum efficiency.
82
14910
Cross-Industry Innovations–Systematic Identification of Ideas for Radical Problem Solving
Abstract:
Creativity is often based on an unorthodox recombination of knowledge; in fact: 80% of all innovations use given knowledge and put it into a new combination. Cross-industry innovations follow this way of thinking and bring together problems and solution ideas from different industries. Therefore analogies and search strategies have to be developed. Taking this path, the questions where to search, what to search and how to search have to be answered. Afterwards, the gathered information can be used within a planned search process. Identified solution ideas have to be assessed and analyzed in detail for the success promising adaption planning.
81
15344
Organizational Management Model based on Knowledge Management, Talent Management and Technology Management Framework “Gomak“
Abstract:
This paper aims to present a framework for the organizational knowledge management, which seeks to deploy a standardized structure for the integrated management of knowledge is a common language based on domains, processes and global indicators inspired by the COBIT framework 5 (ISACA, 2012), which supports the integration of three technologies, enterprise information architecture (EIA), the business process modeling (BPM) and service-oriented architecture (SOA). The Gomak Framework is a management platform that seeks to integrate the information technology infrastructure, the structure of applications, information infrastructure, and business logic and business model to support a sound strategy of organizational knowledge management, low process-based approach and concurrent engineering. Concurrent engineering (CE) is a systematic approach to integrated product development that respond to customer expectations, involving all perspectives in parallel, from the beginning of the product life cycle. (European Space Agency, 2000).
80
5229
Territorial Availability of Social and Economic Infrastructure in Kazakhstan: Comparative Analysis of Urban and Rural Households
Abstract:
The market transformation in Kazakhstan during the last two decades has essentially strengthened a gap between development of urban and rural areas. Implementation of market institutes, transition from public financing to paid rendering of social services, change of forms of financing of social and economic infrastructure have led to strengthening of an economic inequality of social groups, including growth of stratification of the city and the village. Sociological survey of urban and rural households in Almaty city and villages of Almaty region has been carried out within the international research project “Livelihoods Strategies of Private Households in Central Asia: A Rural–Urban Comparison in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan" (Germany, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan). The analysis of statistical data and results of sociological research of urban and rural households allows us to reveal issues of territorial development, to investigate an availability of medical, educational and other services in the city and the village, to reveal an evaluation urban and rural dwellers of living conditions, to compare economic strategies of households in the city and the village.
79
2277
A Novel Pilot Scheme for Frequency Offset and Channel Estimation in 2x2 MIMO-OFDM
Abstract:
The Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO) due to timevarying fading channel is the main cause of the loss of orthogonality among OFDM subcarriers which is linked to inter-carrier interference (ICI). Hence, it is necessary to precisely estimate and compensate the CFO. Especially for mobile broadband communications, CFO and channel gain also have to be estimated and tracked to maintain the system performance. Thus, synchronization pilots are embedded in every OFDM symbol to track the variations. In this paper, we present the pilot scheme for both channel and CFO estimation where channel estimation process can be carried out with only one OFDM symbol. Additional, the proposed pilot scheme also provides better performance in CFO estimation comparing with the conventional orthogonal pilot scheme due to the increasing of signal-tointerference ratio.
78
5766
Knowledge Based Concept Analysis Method using Concept Maps and UML: Security Notion Case
Abstract:

One of the most ancient humankind concerns is knowledge formalization i.e. what a concept is. Concept Analysis, a branch of analytical philosophy, relies on the purpose of decompose the elements, relations and meanings of a concept. This paper aims at presenting a method to make a concept analysis obtaining a knowledge representation suitable to be processed by a computer system using either object-oriented or ontology technologies. Security notion is, usually, known as a set of different concepts related to “some kind of protection". Our method concludes that a more general framework for the concept, despite it is dynamic, is possible and any particular definition (instantiation) depends on the elements used by its construction instead of the concept itself.

77
10565
Talent in Autism: Cognitive Style based on Weak Central Coherence and Special Sensory Characteristics in State of Kuwait: Case Study
Abstract:
The study aimed to identify the nature of autistic talent, the manifestations of their weak central coherence, and their sensory characteristics. The case study consisted of four talented autistic males. Two of them in drawing, one in clay formation and one in jigsaw puzzle. Tools of data collection were Group Embedded Figures Test, Block Design Test, Sensory Profile Checklist Revised, Interview forms and direct observation. Results indicated that talent among autistics emerges in limited domain and being extraordinary for each case. Also overlapping construction properties. Indeed, they show three perceptual aspects of weak central coherence: The weak in visual spatial-constructional coherence, the weak in perceptual coherence and the weak in verbal – semantic coherence. Moreover, the majority of the study cases used the three strategies of weak central coherence (segmentation, obliqueness and rotation). As for the sensory characteristics, all study cases have numbers of that characteristics that especially emerges in the visual system.
76
14686
Inelastic Strength of Laterally Unsupported Top- Loaded Built-Up Slender Beams
Abstract:
Lateral-torsional buckling (LTB) is one of the phenomenae controlling the ultimate bending strength of steel Ibeams carrying distributed loads on top flange. Built-up I-sections are used as main beams and distributors. This study investigates the ultimate bending strength of such beams with sections of different classes including slender elements. The nominal strengths of the selected beams are calculated for different unsupported lengths according to the Provisions of the American Institute of Steel Constructions (AISC-LRFD). These calculations are compared with results of a nonlinear inelastic study using accurate FE model for this type of loading. The goal is to investigate the performance of the provisions for the selected sections. Continuous distributed load at the top flange of the beams was applied at the FE model. Imperfections of different values are implemented to the FE model to examine their effect on the LTB of beams at failure, and hence, their effect on the ultimate strength of beams. The study also introduces a procedure for evaluating the performance of the provisions compared with the accurate FEA results of the selected sections. A simplified design procedure is given and recommendations for future code updates are made.
75
12174
A Discrete Filtering Algorithm for Impulse Wave Parameter Estimation
Abstract:

This paper presents a new method for estimating the mean curve of impulse voltage waveforms that are recorded during impulse tests. In practice, these waveforms are distorted by noise, oscillations and overshoot. The problem is formulated as an estimation problem. Estimation of the current signal parameters is achieved using a fast and accurate technique. The method is based on discrete dynamic filtering algorithm (DDF). The main advantage of the proposed technique is its ability in producing the estimates in a very short time and at a very high degree of accuracy. The algorithm uses sets of digital samples of the recorded impulse waveform. The proposed technique has been tested using simulated data of practical waveforms. Effects of number of samples and data window size are studied. Results are reported and discussed.

74
14322
Equatorial Symmetry of Chaotic Solutions in Boussinesq Convection in a Rotating Spherical Shell
Abstract:
We investigate properties of convective solutions of the Boussinesq thermal convection in a moderately rotating spherical shell allowing the inner and outer sphere rotation due to the viscous torque of the fluid. The ratio of the inner and outer radii of the spheres, the Prandtl number and the Taylor number are fixed to 0.4, 1 and 5002, respectively. The inertial moments of the inner and outer spheres are fixed to about 0.22 and 100, respectively. The Rayleigh number is varied from 2.6 × 104 to 3.4 × 104. In this parameter range, convective solutions transit from equatorially symmetric quasiperiodic ones to equatorially asymmetric chaotic ones as the Rayleigh number is increased. The transition route in the system allowing rotation of both the spheres is different from that in the co-rotating system, which means the inner and outer spheres rotate with the same constant angular velocity: the convective solutions transit as equatorially symmetric quasi-periodic solution → equatorially symmetric chaotic solution → equatorially asymmetric chaotic solution in the system allowing both the spheres rotation, while equatorially symmetric quasi-periodic solution → equatorially asymmetric quasiperiodic solution → equatorially asymmetric chaotic solution in the co-rotating system.
73
7694
Preservation of Molecular Ozone in a Clathrate Hydrate : Three-Phase (Gas + Liquid + Hydrate) Equilibrium Measurements for O3 + O2 + CO2 + H2O Systems
Abstract:
This paper reports the three-phase (gas + liquid + hydrate) equilibrium pressure versus temperature data for a (O3 + O2 + CO2 + H2O) system for developing the hydrate-based technology to preserve ozone, a chemically unstable substance, for various industrial, medical and consumer uses. These data cover the temperature range from 272 K to 277 K, corresponding to pressures from 1.6 MPa to 3.1 MPa, for each of the three different (O3 + O2)-to-CO2 or O2-to-CO2 molar ratios in the gas phase, which are approximately 4 : 6, 5 : 5, respectively. The mole fraction of ozone in the gas phase was ~0.03 , which are the densest ozone fraction to artificially form O3 containing hydrate ever reported in the literature. Based on these data, the formation of hydrate containing high-concentration ozone, as high as 1 mass %, will be expected.
72
8441
Design Process of the Fixing Pipes in the Guide Pipe Anchor System for Cable-Stayed Bridges
Abstract:
For the efficient and safe use of the cable-stayed bridge, a design based on the detailed local analysis of the cable anchor system is required. Also, a theoretical design process for the anchor system should be prepared and reviewed. Generally, the size of the fixing pipe in the anchor system is decided according to the specifications prepared by cable-manufacturing companies, and accordingly, there is difficulty determining the initial inner diameters of the fixing pipes. As such, there is no choice but to use the products with the existing sizes. In this study, the existing design process of the fixing pipe, is a type of guide pipe anchor in the cable anchor system, is reviewed, a formula determining the thickness of the fixing pipe is proposed, and the convenience and validity of the suggested equation is compared with the results of the existing designs to verify its convenience and validity.
71
15910
Evaluation of Factors Affecting Freezing Point of Milk
Abstract:
The freezing point of milk is in important indicator of the milk quality. The freezing point of milk is determined primarily to prove milk adulteration with water and to determine the amount of water in it. Chemical composition and properties of milk, thermal treatment and presence of any substance can influence freezing point of product. There are different substances, which can be added to milk with main purpose to prolong shelf-life of raw milk. There are detergent, preservatives, formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, antibiotics, sodium carbonate, and hydrogen peroxide. Therefore the aim of the present study was to determine freezing point of milk, skimmed milk, pasteurized milk and milk with different substances (formaldehyde, antibiotics, sodium carbonate, hydrogen peroxide, disinfectant, and detergent) in different concentrations. The thermal treatment and different undesirable substances presence in milk have significant influence on freezing point of it.
70
2764
A Methodology to Analyze Technology Convergence: Patent-Citation Based Technology Input-Output Analysis
Abstract:

This research proposes a methodology for patent-citation-based technology input-output analysis by applying the patent information to input-output analysis developed for the dependencies among different industries. For this analysis, a technology relationship matrix and its components, as well as input and technology inducement coefficients, are constructed using patent information. Then, a technology inducement coefficient is calculated by normalizing the degree of citation from certain IPCs to the different IPCs (International patent classification) or to the same IPCs. Finally, we construct a Dependency Structure Matrix (DSM) based on the technology inducement coefficient to suggest a useful application for this methodology.

69
10805
Online Collaboration Learning: A Way to Enhance Students' Achievement at Kingdom of Bahrain
Abstract:

The increasing recognition of the need for education to be closely aligned with team playing, project based learning and problem solving approaches has increase the interest in collaborative learning among university and college instructors. Using online collaboration learning in learning can enhance the outcome and achievement of students as well as improve their communication, critical thinking and personnel skills. The current research aims at examining the effect of OCL on the student's achievement at Kingdom of Bahrain. Numbers of objectives were set to achieve the aim of the research include: investigating the current situation regarding the collaborative learning and OCL at the Kingdom of Bahrain by identifying the advantages and effectiveness of OCL as a learning tool over traditional learning, examining the factors that affect OCL as well as examining the impact of OCL on the student's achievement. To achieve these objectives, quantitative method was adopted. Two hundred and thirty one questionnaires were distributed to students in different local and private universities at Kingdom of Bahrain. The findings of the research show that most of the students prefer to use FTFCL in learning and that OCL is already adopted in some universities especially in University of Bahrain. Moreover, the most factors affecting the adopted OCL are perceived readiness, and guidance and support.

68
10898
Identifying Potential Partnership for Open Innovation by using Bibliographic Coupling and Keyword Vector Mapping
Abstract:
As open innovation has received increasingly attention in the management of innovation, the importance of identifying potential partnership is increasing. This paper suggests a methodology to identify the interested parties as one of Innovation intermediaries to enable open innovation with patent network. To implement the methodology, multi-stage patent citation analysis such as bibliographic coupling and information visualization method such as keyword vector mapping are utilized. This paper has contribution in that it can present meaningful collaboration keywords to identified potential partners in network since not only citation information but also patent textual information is used.
67
2046
Exploring the Determinants for Successful Collaboration of SMEs
Abstract:
The goal of this research is discovering the determinants of the success or failure of external cooperation in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). For this, a survey was given to 190 SMEs that experienced external cooperation within the last 3 years. A logistic regression model was used to derive organizational or strategic characteristics that significantly influence whether external collaboration of domestic SMEs is successful or not. Results suggest that research and development (R&D) features in general characteristics (both idea creation and discovering market opportunities) that focused on and emphasized indirected-market stakeholders (such as complementary companies and affiliates) and strategies in innovative strategic characteristics raise the probability of successful external cooperation. This can be used meaningfully to build a policy or strategy for inducing successful external cooperation or to understand the innovation of SMEs.
66
5578
A Linearization and Decomposition Based Approach to Minimize the Non-Productive Time in Transfer Lines
Abstract:
We address the balancing problem of transfer lines in this paper to find the optimal line balancing that minimizes the nonproductive time. We focus on the tool change time and face orientation change time both of which influence the makespane. We consider machine capacity limitations and technological constraints associated with the manufacturing process of auto cylinder heads. The problem is represented by a mixed integer programming model that aims at distributing the design features to workstations and sequencing the machining processes at a minimum non-productive time. The proposed model is solved by an algorithm established using linearization schemes and Benders- decomposition approach. The experiments show the efficiency of the algorithm in reaching the exact solution of small and medium problem instances at reasonable time.
65
7648
Problems and Possible Solutions with the Development of a Computer Model of Quantum Theory
Authors:
Abstract:
A computer model of Quantum Theory (QT) has been developed by the author. Major goal of the computer model was support and demonstration of an as large as possible scope of QT. This includes simulations for the major QT (Gedanken-) experiments such as, for example, the famous double-slit experiment. Besides the anticipated difficulties with (1) transforming exacting mathematics into a computer program, two further types of problems showed up, namely (2) areas where QT provides a complete mathematical formalism, but when it comes to concrete applications the equations are not solvable at all, or only with extremely high effort; (3) QT rules which are formulated in natural language and which do not seem to be translatable to precise mathematical expressions, nor to a computer program. The paper lists problems in all three categories and describes also the possible solutions or circumventions developed for the computer model.
64
15006
A Functional Interpretation of Quantum Theory
Authors:
Abstract:
In this paper a functional interpretation of quantum theory (QT) with emphasis on quantum field theory (QFT) is proposed. Besides the usual statements on relations between a functions initial state and final state, a functional interpretation also contains a description of the dynamic evolution of the function. That is, it describes how things function. The proposed functional interpretation of QT/QFT has been developed in the context of the author-s work towards a computer model of QT with the goal of supporting the largest possible scope of QT concepts. In the course of this work, the author encountered a number of problems inherent in the translation of quantum physics into a computer program. He came to the conclusion that the goal of supporting the major QT concepts can only be satisfied, if the present model of QT is supplemented by a "functional interpretation" of QT/QFT. The paper describes a proposal for that
63
11471
Project Management Success for Contractors
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the implementation of Project Management practices by UiTM contractors to ensure project success. A questionnaire survey was administered to 120 UiTM contractors in Malaysia. The purpose of this method was to gather information on the contractors- project background and project management skills. It was found that all of the contractors had basic knowledge and understanding of project management skills. It is suggested that a reasonable project plan and an appropriate organizational structure are influential factors for project success. It is recommended that the contractors need to have an effective program of work and up to date information system are emphasized.
62
9285
Innovation Development of Food Market of Kazakhstan
Abstract:
Currently, one of the main directions is developing of development based on the clustering of economic operations of Kazakhstan, providing for the organization and concentration of production capacity in one region or the most optimal system. In the modern economic literature clustering is regarded as one of the most effective tools to ensure competitive businesses, and improve their business itself.
61
4825
The Cinema in Turkey During 1940s
Authors:
Abstract:
The cinema in Turkey during the 1940s was shaped under the Second World War conditions. The amateur film makers from different socioeconomic roots experienced movie production in those years. Having similar socioeconomic characteristics and autobiographies, each of them has a different understanding of cinema. Nevertheless, they joined in making movies which address native culture and audience. They narrated indigenous stories with native music, amateur players and simple settings. Although the martial law, censorship and economical deficiencies, they started to produce films in the Second World War. The cinematographers of the 1940s usually called as thetransition period cinematographers in Turkey, producing in the passage between the period of thetheatre playersand the period of thenational cinema. But, 1940- 1950 period of Turkish cinema should be defined not as a transition but a period of forming the professional conscioussness in cinema.
60
8403
Virtual Assembly in a Semi-Immersive Environment
Abstract:
Virtual Assembly (VA) is one of the key technologies in advanced manufacturing field. It is a promising application of virtual reality in design and manufacturing field. It has drawn much interest from industries and research institutes in the last two decades. This paper describes a process for integrating an interactive Virtual Reality-based assembly simulation of a digital mockup with the CAD/CAM infrastructure. The necessary hardware and software preconditions for the process are explained so that it can easily be adopted by non VR experts. The article outlines how assembly simulation can improve the CAD/CAM procedures and structures; how CAD model preparations have to be carried out and which virtual environment requirements have to be fulfilled. The issue of data transfer is also explained in the paper. The other challenges and requirements like anti-aliasing and collision detection have also been explained. Finally, a VA simulation has been carried out for a ball valve assembly and a car door assembly with the help of Vizard virtual reality toolkit in a semi-immersive environment and their performance analysis has been done on different workstations to evaluate the importance of graphical processing unit (GPU) in the field of VA.
59
2231
Large Vibration Amplitudes of Circular Functionally Graded Thin Plates Resting on Winkler Elastic Foundations
Abstract:
This paper describes a study of geometrically nonlinear free vibration of thin circular functionally graded (CFGP) plates resting on Winkler elastic foundations. The material properties of the functionally graded composites examined here are assumed to be graded smoothly and continuously through the direction of the plate thickness according to a power law and are estimated using the rule of mixture. The theoretical model is based on the classical Plate theory and the Von-Kármán geometrical nonlinearity assumptions. An homogenization procedure (HP) is developed to reduce the problem considered here to that of isotropic homogeneous circular plates resting on Winkler foundation. Hamilton-s principle is applied and a multimode approach is derived to calculate the fundamental nonlinear frequency parameters which are found to be in a good agreement with the published results. On the other hand, the influence of the foundation parameters on the nonlinear fundamental frequency has also been analysed.
58
10566
Bifurcations and Chaotic Solutions of Two-dimensional Zonal Jet Flow on a Rotating Sphere
Abstract:
We study bifurcation structure of the zonal jet flow the streamfunction of which is expressed by a single spherical harmonics on a rotating sphere. In the non-rotating case, we find that a steady traveling wave solution arises from the zonal jet flow through Hopf bifurcation. As the Reynolds number increases, several traveling solutions arise only through the pitchfork bifurcations and at high Reynolds number the bifurcating solutions become Hopf unstable. In the rotating case, on the other hand, under the stabilizing effect of rotation, as the absolute value of rotation rate increases, the number of the bifurcating solutions arising from the zonal jet flow decreases monotonically. We also carry out time integration to study unsteady solutions at high Reynolds number and find that in the non-rotating case the unsteady solutions are chaotic, while not in the rotating cases calculated. This result reflects the general tendency that the rotation stabilizes nonlinear solutions of Navier-Stokes equations.
57
10571
Effect of Cladding and Secondary Members on the Elastic Stability of Main Columns
Abstract:
The corrugated steel cladding used to cover most of steel buildings is considered as non-structural element. This research will reflect the effect of cladding as a shear diaphragm in increasing the normal elastic capacity of columns. This study is important because of the lack of information of the behavior of cladding and secondary members in various codes. Mathematical models for six different cases are carried by software. The results extracted from the program have been plotted showing the effects of different variables on the ultimate load of column. The variables considered in our research are the spacing between columns and the thickness of the corrugated sheet representing the sheet stiffness.
56
3303
Preparing Project Managers to Achieve Project Success - Human Management Perspective
Abstract:
The evolution in project management was triggered by the changes in management philosophy and practices in order to maintain competitive advantage and continuous success in the field. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the practicality of cognitive style and unlearning approach in influencing the achievement of project success by project managers. It introduces the concept of planning, knowing and creating style from cognitive style field in the light of achieving time, cost, quality and stakeholders appreciation in project success context. Further it takes up a discussion of the unlearning approach as a moderator in enhancing the relationship between cognitive style and project success. The paper bases itself on literature review from established disciplines like psychology, sociology and philosophy regarding cognitive style, unlearning and project success in general. The analysis and synthesis of literature in the subject area a conceptual paper is utilized as the basis of future research to form a comprehensive framework for project managers in enhancing the project management competency.
55
1035
Evaluation of Linear and Geometrically Nonlinear Static and Dynamic Analysis of Thin Shells by Flat Shell Finite Elements
Abstract:
The choice of finite element to use in order to predict nonlinear static or dynamic response of complex structures becomes an important factor. Then, the main goal of this research work is to focus a study on the effect of the in-plane rotational degrees of freedom in linear and geometrically non linear static and dynamic analysis of thin shell structures by flat shell finite elements. In this purpose: First, simple triangular and quadrilateral flat shell finite elements are implemented in an incremental formulation based on the updated lagrangian corotational description for geometrically nonlinear analysis. The triangular element is a combination of DKT and CST elements, while the quadrilateral is a combination of DKQ and the bilinear quadrilateral membrane element. In both elements, the sixth degree of freedom is handled via introducing fictitious stiffness. Secondly, in the same code, the sixth degrees of freedom in these elements is handled differently where the in-plane rotational d.o.f is considered as an effective d.o.f in the in-plane filed interpolation. Our goal is to compare resulting shell elements. Third, the analysis is enlarged to dynamic linear analysis by direct integration using Newmark-s implicit method. Finally, the linear dynamic analysis is extended to geometrically nonlinear dynamic analysis where Newmark-s method is used to integrate equations of motion and the Newton-Raphson method is employed for iterating within each time step increment until equilibrium is achieved. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the interpolation of the in-plane rotational d.o.f. and present deficiencies of using fictitious stiffness in dynamic linear and nonlinear analysis.
54
2943
Neuroblasts Micropatterning on Nanostructural Modified Chitosan Membranes
Abstract:
The study describes chitosan membrane platform modified with nanostructure pattern which using nanotechnology to fabricate. The cell-substrate interaction between neuro-2a neuroblasts cell lines and chitosan membrane (flat, nanostructure and nanostructure pattern types) was investigated. The adhered morphology of neuro-2a cells depends on the topography of chitosan surface. We have found that neuro-2a showed different morphogenesis when cells adhered on flat and nanostructure chitosan membrane. The cell projected area of neuro-2a on flat chitosan membrane is larger than on nanostructure chitosan membrane. In addition, neuro-2a cells preferred to adhere on flat chitosan surface region than on nanostructure chitosan membrane to immobilize and differentiation. The experiment suggests surface topography can be used as a critical mechanism to isolate group of neuro-2a to a particular rectangle area on chitosan membrane. Our finding will provide a platform to take patch clamp to record electrophysiological behavior about neurons in vitro in the future.
53
14822
Texture Feature Extraction of Infrared River Ice Images using Second-Order Spatial Statistics
Abstract:

Ice cover County has a significant impact on rivers as it affects with the ice melting capacity which results in flooding, restrict navigation, modify the ecosystem and microclimate. River ices are made up of different ice types with varying ice thickness, so surveillance of river ice plays an important role. River ice types are captured using infrared imaging camera which captures the images even during the night times. In this paper the river ice infrared texture images are analysed using first-order statistical methods and secondorder statistical methods. The second order statistical methods considered are spatial gray level dependence method, gray level run length method and gray level difference method. The performance of the feature extraction methods are evaluated by using Probabilistic Neural Network classifier and it is found that the first-order statistical method and second-order statistical method yields low accuracy. So the features extracted from the first-order statistical method and second-order statistical method are combined and it is observed that the result of these combined features (First order statistical method + gray level run length method) provides higher accuracy when compared with the features from the first-order statistical method and second-order statistical method alone.

52
5252
The Emotional Language and Temperamental Traits
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to describe the associations between the temperamental traits and the narrative emotional expression. The Temperament Questionnaire was used: The FCB-TI of Zawadzki & Strelau. A sample of 85 persons described three emotional situations: love. hate, and anxiety. This study analyzes the verbal form of expression by means of a written account of emotions. The relationship between the narratives of love, hate and anxiety and temperament characteristics were studied. Results indicate that vigorousness (VI), perseverance (PE), sensory sensitivity (SS), emotional reactivity (ER), endurance (EN) and activeness (AC) have a significant impact on the emotional expression in narratives. The temperamental traits are linked to the form of emotional language. It means that temperament has an impact on cognitive representations of emotions.
51
4450
Can a Development Bank Improve the Governance of Investee Companies? Evidence from BNDES in Brazil
Abstract:
There are many studies in the literature on institutional investors- efforts to improve corporate governance, generally focused on the role of pension funds and private equity firms. There are only a few studies that analyze the influence of development banks in the governance of investee companies. The objective of this research is to examine the role of the Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES) in the governance of listed companies. Our analysis provides evidence that companies in which BNDES is a shareholder have better governance.
50
14227
Performance Analysis of a Series of Adaptive Filters in Non-Stationary Environment for Noise Cancelling Setup
Abstract:
One of the essential components of much of DSP application is noise cancellation. Changes in real time signals are quite rapid and swift. In noise cancellation, a reference signal which is an approximation of noise signal (that corrupts the original information signal) is obtained and then subtracted from the noise bearing signal to obtain a noise free signal. This approximation of noise signal is obtained through adaptive filters which are self adjusting. As the changes in real time signals are abrupt, this needs adaptive algorithm that converges fast and is stable. Least mean square (LMS) and normalized LMS (NLMS) are two widely used algorithms because of their plainness in calculations and implementation. But their convergence rates are small. Adaptive averaging filters (AFA) are also used because they have high convergence, but they are less stable. This paper provides the comparative study of LMS and Normalized NLMS, AFA and new enhanced average adaptive (Average NLMS-ANLMS) filters for noise cancelling application using speech signals.
Keywords:
49
3064
Effect of Oxygen Annealing on the Surface Defects and Photoconductivity of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanowire Array
Abstract:
Post growth annealing of solution grown ZnO nanowire array is performed under controlled oxygen ambience. The role of annealing over surface defects and their consequence on dark/photo-conductivity and photosensitivity of nanowire array is investigated. Surface defect properties are explored using various measurement tools such as contact angle, photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy and XPS measurements. The contact angle of the NW films reduces due to oxygen annealing and nanowire film surface changes from hydrophobic (96°) to hydrophilic (16°). Raman and XPS spectroscopy reveal that oxygen annealing improves the crystal quality of the nanowire films. The defect band emission intensity (relative to band edge emission, ID/IUV) reduces from 1.3 to 0.2 after annealing at 600 °C at 10 SCCM flow of oxygen. An order enhancement in dark conductivity is observed in O2 annealed samples, while photoconductivity is found to be slightly reduced due to lower concentration of surface related oxygen defects.
48
14832
Analysis of Wi-Fi Access Networks Situation in the City Area
Abstract:
With increasing number of wireless devices like laptops, Wi-Fi Web Cams, network extenders, etc., a new kind of problems appeared, mostly related to poor Wi-Fi throughput or communication problems. In this paper an investigation on wireless networks and it-s saturation in Vilnius City and its surrounding is presented, covering the main problems of wireless saturation and network load during day. Also an investigation on wireless channel selection and noise levels were made, showing the impact of neighbor AP to signal and noise levels and how it changes during the day.
47
1101
Biosignal Measurement using Personal Area Network based on Human Body Communication
Abstract:
In this study, we introduced a communication system where human body was used as medium through which data were transferred. Multiple biosignal sensing units were attached to a subject and wireless personal area network was formed. Data of the sensing units were shared among them. We used wideband pulse communication that was simple, low-power consuming and high data rated. Each unit functioned as independent communication device or node. A method of channel search and communication among the modes was developed. A protocol of carrier sense multiple access/collision detect was implemented in order to avoid data collision or interferences. Biosignal sensing units should be located at different locations due to the nature of biosignal origin. Our research provided a flexibility of collecting data without using electrical wires. More non-constrained measurement was accomplished which was more suitable for u-Health monitoring.
46
4115
Capture and Feedback in Flying Disc Throw with use of Kinect
Abstract:

This paper proposes a three-dimensional motion capture and feedback system of flying disc throwing action learners with use of Kinect device. Rather than conventional 3-D motion capture system, Kinect has advantages of cost merit, easy system development and operation. A novice learner of flying disc is trained to keep arm movement in steady height, to twist the waist, and to stretch the elbow according to the waist angle. The proposing system captures learners- body movement, checks their skeleton positions in pre-motion / motion / post-motion in several ways, and displays feedback messages to refine their actions.

45
1774
Effect of FES Cycling Training on Spasticity in Spinal Cord Injured Subjects
Abstract:
Training with Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) has both physiological and psychological benefits for spinal cord injured subjects. Commonly used methods for quantification of spasticity have shown controversial reliability. In this study we propose a method for quick determination of spasticity in spinal cord injured subjects on a cycling and measurement system. 23 patients did training sessions on an instrumented mobile FES cycle three times a week over two months as part of their clinical rehabilitation program. Spasticity (MAS) and the legs resistance to the pedaling motion were assessed before and after the FES training and measurements were done on the subjects ability to pedal with our without motor assistance. Measurements with test persons with incomplete spastic paraplegia have shown that spasticity is decreased after a 30 min cycling training with functional electrical stimulation (FES).
44
7361
Applying Genetic Algorithms for Inventory Lot-Sizing Problem with Supplier Selection under Storage Space
Abstract:
The objective of this research is to calculate the optimal inventory lot-sizing for each supplier and minimize the total inventory cost which includes joint purchase cost of the products, transaction cost for the suppliers, and holding cost for remaining inventory. Genetic algorithms (GAs) are applied to the multi-product and multi-period inventory lot-sizing problems with supplier selection under storage space. Also a maximum storage space for the decision maker in each period is considered. The decision maker needs to determine what products to order in what quantities with which suppliers in which periods. It is assumed that demand of multiple products is known over a planning horizon. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer programming and is solved with the GAs. The detailed computation results are presented.
43
1061
Continuity Microplating using Image Processing
Abstract:
A real time image-guided electroplating system is proposed in this paper. Unlike previous electroplating systems, instead of using the intermittent mode to electroplate 500um long copper specimen, a CCD camera and a motion controller are used to adjust anode-cathode distance to obtain better results. Since the image of the gap distance is highly deteriorated due to complex chemical-electrical operation inside the electrolyte, to determine the gap distance, an image processing algorithm is developed and mainly based on the entropy and energy values. In addition, the color and incidence direction of light source are also discussed to help the image process in this paper. From the experiment results, the specimens created by the proposed system show better structure, better uniformity and better finishing surface compared to those by previous intermittent electroplating setup.
42
10306
Development of Manufacturing Simulation Model for Semiconductor Fabrication
Abstract:
This research presents the development of simulation modeling for WIP management in semiconductor fabrication. Manufacturing simulation modeling is needed for productivity optimization analysis due to the complex process flows involved more than 35 percent re-entrance processing steps more than 15 times at same equipment. Furthermore, semiconductor fabrication required to produce high product mixed with total processing steps varies from 300 to 800 steps and cycle time between 30 to 70 days. Besides the complexity, expansive wafer cost that potentially impact the company profits margin once miss due date is another motivation to explore options to experiment any analysis using simulation modeling. In this paper, the simulation model is developed using existing commercial software platform AutoSched AP, with customized integration with Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) and Advanced Productivity Family (APF) for data collections used to configure the model parameters and data source. Model parameters such as processing steps cycle time, equipment performance, handling time, efficiency of operator are collected through this customization. Once the parameters are validated, few customizations are made to ensure the prior model is executed. The accuracy for the simulation model is validated with the actual output per day for all equipments. The comparison analysis from result of the simulation model compared to actual for achieved 95 percent accuracy for 30 days. This model later was used to perform various what if analysis to understand impacts on cycle time and overall output. By using this simulation model, complex manufacturing environment like semiconductor fabrication (fab) now have alternative source of validation for any new requirements impact analysis.
41
9821
Betel Nut Beauty in Taiwan: Chinese Tourists- Perspective
Abstract:
Tourists- eyes will often be attracted by the unique phenomenon of the roadsides: betel nut beauties (pronounced as binlang xishi in Mandarin), if they drive on the roads of Taiwan. Sitting in the neon-lit glass stalls with attractive dress on the roadsides, betel nut beauties usually sell betel nuts to the passing truckers or car drivers with much of their efforts. Moreover, in order to attract peoples- eyesight and increase the sales volume, the young girls are in skimpy clothing to promote betel nuts or beverages to their customers. Therefore, when the Chinese tourists come to Taiwan, to see the unique betel nut beauty phenomenon has become one of their greatly interested things or even a “must see". This paper describes betel but beauties in Taiwan, explained why the Chinese tourists like to see them in Taiwan and proposed propositions for examination.
40
3426
Authenticity Issues of Social Media: Credibility, Quality and Reality
Abstract:
Social media has led to paradigm shifts in ways people work and do business, interact and socialize, learn and obtain knowledge. So much so that social media has established itself as an important spatial extension of this nation-s historicity and challenges. Regardless of the enabling reputation and recommendation features through social networks embedded in the social media system, the overflow of broadcasted and publicized media contents turns the table around from engendering trust to doubting the trust system. When the trust is at doubt, the effects include deactivation of accounts and creation of multiple profiles, which lead to the overflow of 'ghost' contents (i.e. “the abundance of abandoned ships"). In most literature, the study of trust can be related to culture; hence the difference between Western-s “openness" and Eastern-s “blue-chip" concepts in networking and relationships. From a survey on issues and challenges among Malaysian social media users, 'authenticity' emerges as one of the main factors that causes and is caused by other factors. The other issue that has surfaced is credibility either in terms of message/content and source. Another is the quality of the knowledge that is shared. This paper explores the terrains of this critical space which in recent years has been dominated increasingly by, arguably, social networks embedded in the social media system, the overflow of broadcasted and publicized media content.
39
1655
Evaluate Aging Effect of SBS Modified Bitumen
Abstract:
One of the important factors of cracks on the asphalt pavements is bitumen aging that associated with the loss of volatile components and oxidation of asphalt binder. This paper is about effect of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene (SBS) polymer on asphalt aging In order to decrease asphalt aging effects. For this purpose samples of base bitumen and SBS modified bitumen aged according to the rolling thin film oven test (RTFOT) and pressure aging vessel (PAV), respectively. Properties of each sample were evaluated using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, n-heptane precipitation, viscosity test, softening point test and penetration test. FT-IR Analysis, showed lower oxidation of SBS modified bitumen than base bitumen, after aging.
38
303
Study of Single Network Adjustment Using QOCA Software in Korea
Abstract:
For this study, this researcher conducted a precision network adjustment with QOCA, the precision network adjustment software developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory, to perform an integrated network adjustment on the Unified Control Points managed by the National Geographic Information Institute. Towards this end, 275 Unified Control Points observed in 2008 were selected before a network adjustment is performed on those 275 Unified Control Points. The RMSE on the discrepancies of coordinates as compared to the results of GLOBK was ±6.07mm along the N axis, ±2.68mm along the E axis and ±6.49mm along the U axis.
37
6903
High Temperature Deformation Behavior of Cr-containing Superplastic Iron Aluminide
Abstract:
Superplastic deformation and high temperature load relaxation behavior of coarse-grained iron aluminides with the composition of Fe-28 at.% Al have been investigated. A series of load relaxation and tensile tests were conducted at temperatures ranging from 600 to 850oC. The flow curves obtained from load relaxation tests were found to have a sigmoidal shape and to exhibit stress vs. strain rate data in a very wide strain rate range from 10-7/s to 10-2/s. Tensile tests have been conducted at various initial strain rates ranging from 3×10-5/s to 1×10-2/s. Maximum elongation of ~500 % was obtained at the initial strain rate of 3×10-5/s and the maximum strain rate sensitivity was found to be 0.68 at 850oC in binary Fe-28Al alloy. Microstructure observation through the optical microscopy (OM) and the electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) technique has been carried out on the deformed specimens and it has revealed the evidences for grain boundary migration and grain refinement to occur during superplastic deformation, suggesting the dynamic recrystallization mechanism. The addition of Cr by the amount of 5 at.% appeared to deteriorate the superplasticity of the binary iron aluminide. By applying the internal variable theory of structural superplasticity, the addition of Cr has been revealed to lower the contribution of the frictional resistance to dislocation glide during high temperature deformation of the Fe3Al alloy.
36
8895
An Efficient Classification Method for Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Images
Abstract:
This paper proposes an efficient method to classify inverse synthetic aperture (ISAR) images. Because ISAR images can be translated and rotated in the 2-dimensional image place, invariance to the two factors is indispensable for successful classification. The proposed method achieves invariance to translation and rotation of ISAR images using a combination of two-dimensional Fourier transform, polar mapping and correlation-based alignment of the image. Classification is conducted using a simple matching score classifier. In simulations using the real ISAR images of five scaled models measured in a compact range, the proposed method yields classification ratios higher than 97 %.
35
3948
A Model for Optimal Design of Mixed Renewable Warranty Policy for Non-Repairable Weibull Life Products under Conflict between Customer and Manufacturer Interests
Abstract:
A model is presented to find the optimal design of the mixed renewable warranty policy for non-repairable Weibull life products. The optimal design considers the conflict of interests between the customer and the manufacturer: the customer interests are longer full rebate coverage period and longer total warranty coverage period, the manufacturer interests are lower warranty cost and lower risk. The design factors are full rebate and total warranty coverage periods. Results showed that mixed policy is better than full rebate policy in terms of risk and total warranty coverage period in all of the three bathtub regions. In addition, results showed that linear policy is better than mixed policy in infant mortality and constant failure regions while the mixed policy is better than linear policy in ageing region of the model. Furthermore, the results showed that using burn-in period for infant mortality products reduces warranty cost and risk.
34
9726
Effects of Corrosion on Reinforced Concrete Beams with Silica Fume and Polypropylene Fibre
Abstract:

Reinforced concrete has good durability and excellent structural performance. But there are cases of early deterioration due to a number of factors, one prominent factor being corrosion of steel reinforcement. The process of corrosion sets in due to ingress of moisture, oxygen and other ingredients into the body of concrete, which is unsound, permeable and absorbent. Cracks due to structural and other causes such as creep, shrinkage, etc also allow ingress of moisture and other harmful ingredients and thus accelerate the rate of corrosion. There are several interactive factors both external and internal, which lead to corrosion of reinforcement and ultimately failure of structures. Suitable addition of mineral admixture like silica fume (SF) in concrete improves the strength and durability of concrete due to considerable improvement in the microstructure of concrete composites, especially at the transition zone. Secondary reinforcement in the form of fibre is added to concrete, which provides three dimensional random reinforcement in the entire mass of concrete. Reinforced concrete beams of size 0.1 m X 0.15 m and length 1m have been cast using M 35 grade of concrete. The beams after curing process were subjected to corrosion process by impressing an external Direct Current (Galvanostatic Method) for a period of 15 days under stressed and unstressed conditions. The corroded beams were tested by applying two point loads to determine the ultimate load carrying capacity and cracking pattern and the results of specimens were compared with that of the companion specimens. Gravimetric method is used to quantify corrosion that has occurred.

33
458
Collection of Untraditionally Developed Academic IT Services in Eastern Europe
Abstract:
Deep and radical social reforms of the last century-s nineties in many Eastern European countries caused changes in Information Technology-s (IT) field. Inefficient information technologies were rapidly replaced with forefront IT solutions, e.g., in Eastern European countries there is a high level penetration of qualitative high-speed Internet. The authors have taken part in the introduction of those changes in Latvia-s leading IT research institute. Grounding on their experience authors in this paper offer an IT services based model for analysis the mentioned changes- and development processes in the higher education and research fields, i.e., for research e-infrastructure-s development. Compare to the international practice such services were developed in Eastern Europe in an untraditional way, which provided swift and positive technological changes.
32
11919
The Effect of Postural Anomalies on SAQ, Muscular Strength and Flexibility Performance of the Semipro Soccer Athletes
Abstract:
The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of a footballer-s postural on selected physical fitness components. Twenty-one (21) subjects of the university male footballers under the Sport Excellence Center programme were photographed using qualitative analysis. The postural variables were stratified manually into normal and anomalies group and their flexibility, strength and SAQ performance were compared using the Mann-Whitney Test. The AROM assessment and SAQ test reported no significance difference (Z=-.398, p=0.711, p>0.05), similar to the lower body strength was shown with no significance different (Z=-.493, p=0.640, p>0.05). In contrast, only 1 RM strength test for the upper body strength test shown with a significance different (Z=- 2.537, p=0.009, p
31
6401
The Determinants and Outcomes of Pathological Internet use (PIU) among Urban Millennial Teens: A Theoretical Framework
Abstract:

The rapid adoption of Internet has turned the Millennial Teens- life like a lightning speed. Empirical evidence has illustrated that Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among them ensure long-term success to the market players in the children industry. However, it creates concerns among their care takers as it generates mental disorder among some of them. The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of PIU and identify its outcomes among urban Millennial Teens. It aims to develop a theoretical framework based on a modified Media System Dependency (MSD) Theory that integrates important systems and components that determine and resulted from PIU.

30
8171
Piezomechanical Systems for Algae Cell Ultrasonication
Abstract:
Nowadays for algae cell ultrasonication the longitudinal ultrasonic piezosystems are used. In this paper a possibility of creating unique ultrasonic piezoelectric system, which would allow reducing energy losses and concentrating this energy to a small closed volume are proposed. The current vibrating systems whose ultrasonic energy is concentrated inside of hollow cylinder in which water-algae mixture is flowing. Two, three or multiply ultrasonic composite systems to concentrate total energy into a hollow cylinder to creating strong algae cell ultrasonication are used. The experiments and numerical FEM analysis results using diskshaped transducer and the first biological test results on algae cell disruption by ultrasonication are presented as well.
29
4038
An FPGA Implementation of Intelligent Visual Based Fall Detection
Abstract:
Falling has been one of the major concerns and threats to the independence of the elderly in their daily lives. With the worldwide significant growth of the aging population, it is essential to have a promising solution of fall detection which is able to operate at high accuracy in real-time and supports large scale implementation using multiple cameras. Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is a highly promising tool to be used as a hardware accelerator in many emerging embedded vision based system. Thus, it is the main objective of this paper to present an FPGA-based solution of visual based fall detection to meet stringent real-time requirements with high accuracy. The hardware architecture of visual based fall detection which utilizes the pixel locality to reduce memory accesses is proposed. By exploiting the parallel and pipeline architecture of FPGA, our hardware implementation of visual based fall detection using FGPA is able to achieve a performance of 60fps for a series of video analytical functions at VGA resolutions (640x480). The results of this work show that FPGA has great potentials and impacts in enabling large scale vision system in the future healthcare industry due to its flexibility and scalability.
28
11808
Investigation of Multiple Material Gate Impact on Short Channel Effects and Reliability of Nanoscale SOI MOSFETs
Abstract:
In this paper the features of multiple material gate silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs are presented and compared with single material gate silicon-on-insulator MOSFET structures. The results indicate that the multiple material gate structures reduce short channel effects such as drain induce barrier lowering, hot electron effect and better current characteristics in comparison with single material structures
27
15869
Reformulations of Big Bang-Big Crunch Algorithm for Discrete Structural Design Optimization
Abstract:
In the present study the efficiency of Big Bang-Big Crunch (BB-BC) algorithm is investigated in discrete structural design optimization. It is shown that a standard version of the BB-BC algorithm is sometimes unable to produce reasonable solutions to problems from discrete structural design optimization. Two reformulations of the algorithm, which are referred to as modified BB-BC (MBB-BC) and exponential BB-BC (EBB-BC), are introduced to enhance the capability of the standard algorithm in locating good solutions for steel truss and frame type structures, respectively. The performances of the proposed algorithms are experimented and compared to its standard version as well as some other algorithms over several practical design examples. In these examples, steel structures are sized for minimum weight subject to stress, stability and displacement limitations according to the provisions of AISC-ASD.
26
5819
Adaptive Impedance Control for Unknown Non-Flat Environment
Abstract:
This paper presents a new adaptive impedance control strategy, based on Function Approximation Technique (FAT) to compensate for unknown non-flat environment shape or time-varying environment location. The target impedance in the force controllable direction is modified by incorporating adaptive compensators and the uncertainties are represented by FAT, allowing the update law to be derived easily. The force error feedback is utilized in the estimation and the accurate knowledge of the environment parameters are not required by the algorithm. It is shown mathematically that the stability of the controller is guaranteed based on Lyapunov theory. Simulation results presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed controller.
25
3586
Service Quality vs. Customer Satisfaction: Perspectives of Visitors to a Public University Library
Abstract:
This study proposes a conceptual model and empirically tests the relationships between customers and librarians (i.e. tangibles, responsiveness, assurance, reliability and empathy) with a dependent variable (customer satisfaction) regarding library services. The SERVQUAL instrument was administered to 100 respondents which comprises of staff and students at a public higher learning institution in the Federal Territory of Labuan, Malaysia. They were public university library users. Results revealed that all service quality dimensions tested were significant and influenced customer satisfaction of visitors to a public university library. Assurance is the most important factor that influences customer satisfaction with the services rendered by the librarian. It is imperative for the library management to take note that the top five service attributes that gained greatest attention from library visitors- perspective includes employee willingness to help customers, availability of customer representatives online for response to queries, library staff actively and promptly provide services, signs in the building are clear and library staff are friendly and courteous. This study provides valuable results concerning the determinants of the service quality and customer satisfaction of public university library services from the users' perspective.
24
8117
Production of IAA by Bradyrhizobium sp.
Abstract:
The objective of this research was to determine the potency of indigenous acid-aluminium tolerant Bradyrhizobium japonicum as producer of indole acetic acid (IAA) and applied it as nitrogen fixation on local soybeans viz Anjasmoro, Tanggamus (yellow soybean seeds), and Detam (black soybean seed). Three isolates of acid-aluminium tolerant Bradyrhizobium japonicum (BJ) were used in this research, i.e. BJ 11 (wt), BJ 11 (19) - BJ 11(wt) mutant, and USDA 110 as a reference isolate. All of isolates tested to produce the IAA by using Salkowsky method. Effect of IAA production by each of B. japonicum was tested on growth pouch and greenhouse using three varieties of soybean. All isolates could grow well and produce IAA on yeast mannitol broth (YMB) medium in the presence of 0.5 mM L-tryptophan. BJ 11 (19) produced the highest of IAA at 4 days incubation compared to BJ 11 (wt) and USDA 110. All tested isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have showed effect on stimulating the formation of root nodules in soybean varieties grown on Leonard bottle. The concentration of IAA on root nodules of soybean symbiotic with B. japonicum was significantly different with control, except on the treatment using Tanggamus soybean.
23
855
An Assessment of Ozone Levels in Typical Urban Areas in the Malaysian Peninsular
Abstract:
Air quality studies were carried out in the towns of Putrajaya, Petaling Jaya and Nilai in the Malaysian Peninsular. In this study, the variations of Ozone (O3) concentrations over a four year period (2008-2011) were investigated using data obtained from the Malaysian Department of the Environment (DOE). This study aims to identify and describe the daily and monthly variations of O3 concentrations at the monitoring sites mentioned. The SPPS program (Statistical Package for the Social Science) was used to analyze this data in order to obtain the variations of O3 and also to clarify the relationship between the stations. The findings of the study revealed that the highest concentration of O3 occurred during the midday and afternoon (between 13:00-15:00 hrs). The comparison between stations also showed that highest O3 concentrations were recorded in Putrajaya. The comparisons of average and maximum concentrations of O3 for the three stations showed that the strongest significant correlation was recorded in the Petaling Jaya station with the value R2= 0.667. Results from this study indicate that in the urban areas of Peninsular Malaysia, the concentration of O3 depends on the concentration of NOx. Furthermore, HYSPLIT back trajectories (-72h) indicated that air-mass transport patterns can also influence the O3 concentration in the areas studied.
22
8553
A Standalone WebGL Supporting Architecture
Authors:
Abstract:
WebGL is typically used with web browsers. In this paper, we represent a standalone WebGL execution environment, where the original WebGL source codes show the same result to those of WebGL-capable web browsers. This standalone environment enables us to run WebGL programs without web browsers and/or internet connections. Our implementation shows the same rendering results with typical web browser outputs. This standalone environment is suitable for low-tier devices and/or debugging purposes.
21
15362
An Implementation of Stipple Operations
Authors:
Abstract:
Stipples are desired for pattern fillings and transparency effects. In contrast, some graphics standards, including OpenGL ES 1.1 and 2.0, omitted this feature. We represent details of providing line stipples and polygon stipples, through combining texture mapping and alpha blending functions. We start from the OpenGL-specified stipple-related API functions. The details of mathematical transformations are explained to get the correct texture coordinates. Then, the overall algorithm is represented, and its implementation results are followed. We accomplished both of line and polygon stipples, and verified its result with conformance test routines.
20
1385
Evaluation of Green Roof System for Green Building Projects in Malaysia
Abstract:
The implementations of green roof have been widely used in the developed countries such as Germany, United Kingdom, United States and Canada. Green roof have many benefits such as aesthetic and economic value, ecological gain which are optimization of storm water management, urban heat island mitigation and energy conservation. In term of pollution, green roof can control the air and noise pollution in urban cities. The application of green roof in Malaysian building has been studied with the previous work of green roof either in Malaysia or other Asian region as like Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan and several other countries that have similar climate and environment as in Malaysia. These technologies of adapting green roof have been compared to the Green Building Index (GBI) of Malaysian buildings. The study has concentrated on the technical aspect of green roof system having focused on i) waste & recyclable materials ii) types of plants and method of planting and iii) green roof as tool to reduce storm water runoff. The finding of these areas will be compared to the suitability in achieving good practice of the GBI in Malaysia. Results show that most of the method are based on the countries own climate and environment. This suggests that the method of using green roof must adhere to the tropical climate of Malaysia. Suggestion of this research will be viewed in term of the sustainability of the green roof. Further research can be developed to implement the best method and application in Malaysian climate especially in urban cities and township.
19
14862
Differences in Goal Scoring and Passing Sequences between Winning and Losing Team in UEFA-EURO Championship 2012
Abstract:
The objective of current study is to investigate the differences of winning and losing teams in terms of goal scoring and passing sequences. Total of 31 matches from UEFA-EURO 2012 were analyzed and 5 matches were excluded from analysis due to matches end up drawn. There are two groups of variable used in the study which is; i. the goal scoring variable and: ii. passing sequences variable. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon matched pair rank test with significant value set at p < 0.05. Current study found the timing of goal scored was significantly higher for winning team at 1st half (Z=-3.416, p=.001) and 2nd half (Z=-3.252, p=.001). The scoring frequency was also found to be increase as time progressed and the last 15 minutes of the game was the time interval the most goals scored. The indicators that were significantly differences between winning and losing team were the goal scored (Z=-4.578, p=.000), the head (Z=-2.500, p=.012), the right foot (Z=-3.788,p=.000), corner (Z=-.2.126,p=.033), open play (Z=-3.744,p=.000), inside the penalty box (Z=-4.174, p=.000) , attackers (Z=-2.976, p=.003) and also the midfielders (Z=-3.400, p=.001). Regarding the passing sequences, there are significance difference between both teams in short passing sequences (Z=-.4.141, p=.000). While for the long passing, there were no significance difference (Z=-.1.795, p=.073). The data gathered in present study can be used by the coaches to construct detailed training program based on their objectives.
18
7358
Improved Hill Climbing and Simulated Annealing Algorithms for Size Optimization of Trusses
Abstract:
Truss optimization problem has been vastly studied during the past 30 years and many different methods have been proposed for this problem. Even though most of these methods assume that the design variables are continuously valued, in reality, the design variables of optimization problems such as cross-sectional areas are discretely valued. In this paper, an improved hill climbing and an improved simulated annealing algorithm have been proposed to solve the truss optimization problem with discrete values for crosssectional areas. Obtained results have been compared to other methods in the literature and the comparison represents that the proposed methods can be used more efficiently than other proposed methods
17
4091
A Comparative Study of PV Models in Matlab/Simulink
Abstract:
Solar energy has a major role in renewable energy resources. Solar Cell as a basement of solar system has attracted lots of research. To conduct a study about solar energy system, an authenticated model is required. Diode base PV models are widely used by researchers. These models are classified based on the number of diodes used in them. Single and two-diode models are well studied. Single-diode models may have two, three or four elements. In this study, these solar cell models are examined and the simulation results are compared to each other. All PV models are re-designed in the Matlab/Simulink software and they examined by certain test conditions and parameters. This paper provides comparative studies of these models and it tries to compare the simulation results with manufacturer-s data sheet to investigate model validity and accuracy. The results show a four- element single-diode model is accurate and has moderate complexity in contrast to the two-diode model with higher complexity and accuracy
16
9805
Finite Element Modeling to Predict the Effect of Nose Radius on the Equivalent Strain (PEEQ) for Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)
Abstract:

In present work, prediction the effect of nose radius, rz (mm) on the equivalent strain (PEEQ) and surface finish during the machining of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) through orthogonal cutting process. The results were performed at several of the nose radiuses, rz (mm) while the cutting speed, vc (m/min), feed rate, f (mm/tooth) and depth of cut, d (mm) were remained constant. The equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) was estimated by using finite element modeling (FEM) and applied through ABAQUS/EXPLICIT software. The simulation results led to conclude that the equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) was increased and surface roughness (Ra) decreased when increasing nose radius, rz (mm) during the machining of titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) in dry cutting conditions.

15
187
Parameters Estimation of Double Diode Solar Cell Model
Abstract:

A new technique based on Pattern search optimization is proposed for estimating different solar cell parameters in this paper. The estimated parameters are the generated photocurrent, saturation current, series resistance, shunt resistance, and ideality factor. The proposed approach is tested and validated using double diode model to show its potential. Performance of the developed approach is quite interesting which signifies its potential as a promising estimation tool.

14
6997
Relative Contribution of Livestock Species to Meat Supply in Bauchi Metropolis, Bauchi, Nigeria
Abstract:

Primary and secondary data from the Bauchi abattoir were utilized to determine the relative contributions of different livestock species to meat supply in Bauchi Metropolis. Daily livestock slaughter figures for five months (June – October 2011) indicated that more goats (64.0) were slaughtered than either sheep (47.3) or cattle (41.30) each day (P<0.001) and fewer (P<0.05) animals (45.65) were slaughtered daily in June than either in August (57.07) or October (55.95). Five year (2006 – 2010) monthly slaughter records indicated that both species and year had significant (P<0.001) effects on number of animals slaughtered. More goats (2727.8) were slaughtered than either sheep (731.09) or cattle (520.06) each month and more animals were slaughtered in 2006 (1847.72/month) than in 2008, 2009 and 2010 (997.67, 1029.13 and 1273.75/month respectively). In terms of total carcass output, cattle accounted for 61-80% of the meat supply obtained from ruminant animals slaughtered at the Bauchi abattoir.

13
14455
SystemC Modeling of Adaptive Least Mean Square Filter
Abstract:
In this paper, we demonstrate the adaptive least-mean-square (LMS) filter modeling using SystemC. SystemC is a modeling language that allows designer to model both hardware and software component and makes it possible to design from high level system of abstraction to low level system of abstraction. We produced five adaptive least-mean-square filter models that are classed as five abstraction levels using SystemC proceeding from the abstract model to the more concrete model.
12
10851
A Multi-Agent Framework for Data Mining
Abstract:
A generic and extendible Multi-Agent Data Mining (MADM) framework, MADMF (the Multi-Agent Data Mining Framework) is described. The central feature of the framework is that it avoids the use of agreed meta-language formats by supporting a framework of wrappers. The advantage offered is that the framework is easily extendible, so that further data agents and mining agents can simply be added to the framework. A demonstration MADMF framework is currently available. The paper includes details of the MADMF architecture and the wrapper principle incorporated into it. A full description and evaluation of the framework-s operation is provided by considering two MADM scenarios.
11
14220
Dissipation of Higher Mode using Numerical Integration Algorithm in Dynamic Analysis
Abstract:
In general dynamic analyses, lower mode response is of interest, however the higher modes of spatially discretized equations generally do not represent the real behavior and not affects to global response much. Some implicit algorithms, therefore, are introduced to filter out the high-frequency modes using intended numerical error. The objective of this study is to introduce the P-method and PC α-method to compare that with dissipation method and Newmark method through the stability analysis and numerical example. PC α-method gives more accuracy than other methods because it based on the α-method inherits the superior properties of the implicit α-method. In finite element analysis, the PC α-method is more useful than other methods because it is the explicit scheme and it achieves the second order accuracy and numerical damping simultaneously.
10
11382
Mainland Chinese Customers' Intention toward Medical Tourism in Taiwan
Abstract:
This study proposes and tests a rescapturing elements of perceived gain and loss that, by perceived value of medical tourism products, influencintention of potential customers. Data from 301 usable qwere tested against the research model using the structmodeling approach. The results indicated that perceivedkey predictor of customer intentions. As for benefimedical quality, service quality and enjoyment wcomponents that significantly influenced the perceptiRegarding sacrifice, the effects of perceived risk on pewere significant. The findings can provide insights intohow destination countries can make medical tourism a wfor themselves and international patients.KeywordsMedical tourism, perceived valueintention.
9
12950
Research Topic Map Construction
Abstract:
While the explosive increase in information published on the Web, researchers have to filter information when searching for conference related information. To make it easier for users to search related information, this paper uses Topic Maps and social information to implement ontology since ontology can provide the formalisms and knowledge structuring for comprehensive and transportable machine understanding that digital information requires. Besides enhancing information in Topic Maps, this paper proposes a method of constructing research Topic Maps considering social information. First, extract conference data from the web. Then extract conference topics and the relationships between them through the proposed method. Finally visualize it for users to search and browse. This paper uses ontology, containing abundant of knowledge hierarchy structure, to facilitate researchers getting useful search results. However, most previous ontology construction methods didn-t take “people" into account. So this paper also analyzes the social information which helps researchers find the possibilities of cooperation/combination as well as associations between research topics, and tries to offer better results.
8
2502
The Utility of Wavelet Transform in Surface Electromyography Feature Extraction -A Comparative Study of Different Mother Wavelets
Abstract:

Electromyography (EMG) signal processing has been investigated remarkably regarding various applications such as in rehabilitation systems. Specifically, wavelet transform has served as a powerful technique to scrutinize EMG signals since wavelet transform is consistent with the nature of EMG as a non-stationary signal. In this paper, the efficiency of wavelet transform in surface EMG feature extraction is investigated from four levels of wavelet decomposition and a comparative study between different mother wavelets had been done. To recognize the best function and level of wavelet analysis, two evaluation criteria, scatter plot and RES index are recruited. Hereupon, four wavelet families, namely, Daubechies, Coiflets, Symlets and Biorthogonal are studied in wavelet decomposition stage. Consequently, the results show that only features from first and second level of wavelet decomposition yields good performance and some functions of various wavelet families can lead to an improvement in separability class of different hand movements.

7
2278
Experimental Testing of Composite Tubes with Different Corrugation Profile Subjected to Lateral Compression Load
Abstract:
This paper presents the effect of corrugation profile geometry on the crushing behavior, energy absorption, failure mechanism, and failure mode of woven roving glass fibre/epoxy laminated composite tube. Experimental investigations were carried out on composite tubes with three different profile shapes: sinusoidal, triangular and trapezoidal. The tubes were subjected to lateral compressive loading. On the addition to a radial corrugated composite tube, cylindrical composite tube, were fabricated and tested under the same condition in order to know the effect of corrugation geometry. Typical histories of their deformation are presented. Behavior of tubes as regards the peak crushing load, energy absorbed and mode of crushing has been discussed. The results show that the behavior of the tube under lateral compression load is influenced by the geometry of the tube itself.
6
5971
Kinematic Optimal Design on a New Robotic Platform for Stair Climbing
Abstract:
Stair climbing is one of critical issues for field robots to widen applicable areas. This paper presents optimal design on kinematic parameters of a new robotic platform for stair climbing. The robotic platform climbs various stairs by body flip locomotion with caterpillar type main platform. Kinematic parameters such as platform length, platform height, and caterpillar rotation speed are optimized to maximize stair climbing stability. Three types of stairs are used to simulate typical user conditions. The optimal design process is conducted based on Taguchi methodology, and resulting parameters with optimized objective function are presented. In near future, a prototype is assembled for real environment testing.
5
4604
Evaluation of Performance Requirements for Seismic Design of Piping System
Abstract:
The cost of damage to the non-structural systems in critical facilities like nuclear power plants and hospitals can exceed 80% of the total cost of damage during an earthquake. The failure of nonstructural components, especially, piping systems led to leakage of water and subsequent shut-down of hospitals immediately after the event. Consequently, the evaluation of performance of these types of structural configurations has become necessary to mitigate the risk and to achieve reliable designs. This paper focuses on a methodology to evaluate the static and dynamic characteristics of complex actual piping system based on NFPA-13 and SMACNA guidelines. The result of this study revealed that current piping system subjected to design lateral force and design spectrum based on UBC-97 was failed in both cases and mode shapes between piping system and building structure were very different
4
14708
The Impact Behavior of the Predecessor and Successor on the Transmission of Family Businesses in Tunisia
Authors:
Abstract:
Nowadays, financial and economic crises are growing more and reach more countries and sectors. These events have, as a result, a considerable impact on the activities of the firms which think unstable and in danger. But besides this heavy uncertainty which weighs on the different firms, the family firm, object of our research, is not only confronted with these external difficulties but also with an internal challenge and of size: that of transmission. Indeed, the transmission of an organization from one generation to another can succeed as it can fail; leaving considerable damage. Our research registers as part of these problems since we tried to understand relation between the behavior of two main actors of the process of succession, predecessor and successor; and the success of transmission.
3
2692
A New Load Frequency Controller based on Parallel Fuzzy PI with Conventional PD (FPI-PD)
Abstract:
The artificial intelligent controller in power system plays as most important rule for many applications such as system operation and its control specially Load Frequency Controller (LFC). The main objective of LFC is to keep the frequency and tie-line power close to their decidable bounds in case of disturbance. In this paper, parallel fuzzy PI adaptive with conventional PD technique for Load Frequency Control system was proposed. PSO optimization method used to optimize both of scale fuzzy PI and tuning of PD. Two equal interconnected power system areas were used as a test system. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed controller compared with different PID and classical fuzzy PI controllers in terms of speed response and damping frequency.
2
9256
Theoretical Study on Torsional Strengthening of Multi-cell RC Box Girders
Abstract:
A new analytical method to predict the torsional capacity and behavior of R.C multi-cell box girders strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets is presented. Modification was done on the Softened Truss Model (STM) in the proposed method; the concrete torsional problem is solved by combining the equilibrium conditions, compatibility conditions and constitutive laws of materials by taking into account the confinement of concrete with CFRP sheets. A specific algorithm is developed to predict the torsional behavior of reinforced concrete multi-cell box girders with or without strengthening by CFRP sheets. Applications of the developed method as an assessment tool to strengthened multicell box girders with CFRP and first analytical example that demonstrate the contribution of the CFRP materials on the torsional response is also included.
1
10080
Post Elevated Temperature Effect on the Strength and Microstructure of Thin High Performance Cementitious Composites (THPCC)
Abstract:
Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) lack in thermal resistance under elevated temperatures in the event of fire. This phenomenon led to the lining of strengthened concrete with thin high performance cementitious composites (THPCC) to protect the substrate against elevated temperature. Elevated temperature effects on THPCC, based on different cementitious materials have been studied in the past but high-alumina cement (HAC)-based THPCC have not been well characterized. This research study will focus on the THPCC based on HAC replaced by 60%, 70%, 80% and 85% of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). Samples were evaluated by the measurement of their mechanical strength (28 & 56 days of curing) after exposed to 400°C, 600°C and 28°C of room temperature for comparison and corroborated by their microstructure study. Results showed that among all mixtures, the mix containing only HAC showed the highest compressive strength after exposed to 600°C as compared to other mixtures. However, the tensile strength of THPCC made of HAC and 60% GGBS content was comparable to the THPCC with HAC only after exposed to 600°C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images of THPCC accompanying Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis revealed that the microstructure deteriorated considerably after exposure to elevated temperatures which led to the decrease in mechanical strength.
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