Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 360

360
4815
Conventional and PSO Based Approaches for Model Reduction of SISO Discrete Systems
Abstract:

Reduction of Single Input Single Output (SISO) discrete systems into lower order model, using a conventional and an evolutionary technique is presented in this paper. In the conventional technique, the mixed advantages of Modified Cauer Form (MCF) and differentiation are used. In this method the original discrete system is, first, converted into equivalent continuous system by applying bilinear transformation. The denominator of the equivalent continuous system and its reciprocal are differentiated successively, the reduced denominator of the desired order is obtained by combining the differentiated polynomials. The numerator is obtained by matching the quotients of MCF. The reduced continuous system is converted back into discrete system using inverse bilinear transformation. In the evolutionary technique method, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is employed to reduce the higher order model. PSO method is based on the minimization of the Integral Squared Error (ISE) between the transient responses of original higher order model and the reduced order model pertaining to a unit step input. Both the methods are illustrated through numerical example.

359
9997607
Implication and Genetic Variations on Lipid Profile of the Fasting Respondent
Abstract:

PPARs function as regulators of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. The aim of the study was to compare the lipid profile between two phases of fasting and to examine the frequency and relationship of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, PPARα gene polymorphisms to lipid profile in fasting respondents. We conducted a case-control study protocol, which included 21 healthy volunteers without gender discrimination at the age of 18 years old. 3 ml of blood sample was drawn before the fasting phase and during the fasting phase (in Ramadhan month). 1ml of serum for the lipid profile was analyzed by using the automated chemistry analyser (Olympus, AU 400) and the data were analysed using the Paired T-Test (SPSS ver.20). DNA was extracted and PCR was conducted utilising 6 sets of primer. Primers were designed within 6 exons of interest in PPARα gene. Genetic and metabolic characteristics of fasting respondents and controls were estimated and compared. Fasting respondents were significantly have lowered the LDL levels (p=0.03). There were no polymorphisms detected except in exon 1 with 5% of this population study respectively. The polymorphisms in exon 1 of the PPARα gene were found in low frequency. Regarding the 1375G/T and 1386G/T polymorphisms in the exon 1 of the PPARα gene, the T-allele in fasting phase had no association with the decreased LDL levels (Fisher Exact Test). However this association is more promising when the sample size is larger in order to elucidate the precise impact of the polymorphisms on lipid profile in the population. In conclusion, the PPARα gene polymorphisms do not appear to affect the LDL of fasting respondents.

358
9997374
Preparation and Physical Characterization of Nanocomposites of PLA / Layered Silicates
Abstract:

This work was focused in to study the compatibility, dispersion and exfoliation of modified nanoclays in biodegradable polymers and evaluate its effect on the physical, mechanical and thermal properties on the biodegradable matrix used. The formulations have been developed with polylactic acid (PLA) and organically modified montmorillonite-type commercial nanoclays (Cloisite 15, Cloisite 20, and Cloisite 30B) in the presence of a plasticizer agent, specifically Polyethylene Glycol of low molecular weight. Different compositions were evaluated, in order to identify the influence of each nanoclayin the polymeric matrix. The mixtures were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (DRX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Tensile Test. These tests have allowed understanding the behavior of each of the mixtures developed.

357
16633
CFD Investigation of Interface Location in Stirred Tanks with a Concave Impeller
Abstract:

In this work study the location of interface in a stirred vessel with a Concave impeller by computational fluid dynamic was presented. To modeling rotating the impeller, sliding mesh (SM) technique was used and standard k-ε model was selected for turbulence closure. Mean tangential, radial and axial velocities and also turbulent kinetic energy (k) and turbulent dissipation rate (ε) in various points of tank was investigated. Results show sensitivity of system to location of interface and radius of 7 to 10cm for interface in the vessel with existence characteristics cause to increase the accuracy of simulation.

356
9996814
Exploiting Non Circularity for Angle Estimation in Bistatic MIMO Radar Systems
Abstract:

The traditional second order statistics approach of using only the hermitian covariance for non circular signals, does not take advantage of the information contained in the complementary covariance of these signals. Radar systems often use non circular signals such as Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) signals. Their noncicular property can be exploited together with the dual centrosymmetry of the bistatic MIMO radar system to improve angle estimation performance. We construct an augmented matrix from the received data vectors using both the positive definite hermitian covariance matrix and the complementary covariance matrix. The Unitary ESPRIT technique is then applied to the signal subspace of the augmented covariance matrix for automatically paired Direction-of-arrival (DOA) and Direction-of-Departure (DOD) angle estimates. The number of targets that can be detected is twice that obtainable with the conventional ESPRIT approach. Simulation results show the effectiveness of this method in terms of increase in resolution and the number of targets that can be detected.

355
16632
Interface Location in Single Phase Stirred Tanks
Abstract:

In this work, study the location of interface in a stirred vessel with Rushton impeller by computational fluid dynamic was presented. To modeling rotating the impeller, sliding mesh (SM) technique was used and standard k-ε model was selected for turbulence closure. Mean tangential, radial and axial velocities and also turbulent kinetic energy (k) and turbulent dissipation rate (ε) in various points of tank was investigated. Results show sensitivity of system to location of interface and radius of 7 to 10cm for interface in the vessel with existence characteristics cause to increase the accuracy of simulation.

354
9715
The Effect of Education Level on Psychological Empowerment and Burnout-The Mediating Role of Workplace Learning Behaviors
Abstract:
The study investigates the relationship between education level, workplace learning behaviors, psychological empowerment and burnout in a sample of 191 teachers. We hypothesized that education level will positively affect psychological state of increased empowerment and decreased burnout, and we purposed that these effects will be mediated by workplace learning behaviors. We used multiple regression analyses to test the model that included also the 6 following control variables: The teachers' age, gender, and teaching tenure; the schools' religious level, the pupils' needs: regular/ special needs, and the class level: elementary/ high school. The results support the purposed mediating model.
353
17402
Effect of Organic-waste Compost Addition on Leaching of Mineral Nitrogen from Arable Land and Plant Production
Abstract:

Application of compost in agriculture is very desirable worldwide. In the Czech Republic, compost is the most often used to improve soil structure and increase the content of soil organic matter, but the effects of compost addition on the fate of mineral nitrogen are only scarcely described. This paper deals with possibility of using combined application of compost, mineral and organic fertilizers to reduce the leaching of mineral nitrogen from arable land. To demonstrate the effect of compost addition on leaching of mineral nitrogen, we performed the pot experiment. As a model crop, Lactuca sativa L. was used and cultivated for 35 days in climate chamber in thoroughly homogenized arable soil. Ten variants of the experiment were prepared; two control variants (pure arable soil and arable soil with added compost), four variants with different doses of mineral and organic fertilizers and four variants of the same doses of mineral and organic fertilizers with the addition of compos. The highest decrease of mineral nitrogen leaching was observed by the simultaneous applications of soluble humic substances and compost to soil samples, about 417% in comparison with the control variant. Application of these organic compounds also supported microbial activity and nitrogen immobilization documented by the highest soil respiration and by the highest value of the index of nitrogen availability. The production of plant biomass after this application was not the highest due to microbial competition for the nutrients in soil, but was 24% higher in comparison with the control variant. To support these promising results the experiment should be repeated in field conditions.

352
16631
Simultaneous HPAM/SDS Injection in Heterogeneous/Layered Models
Abstract:

Although lots of experiments have been done in enhanced oil recovery, the number of experiments which consider the effects of local and global heterogeneity on efficiency of enhanced oil recovery based on the polymer-surfactant flooding is low and rarely done. In this research, we have done numerous experiments of water flooding and polymer-surfactant flooding on a five spot glass micromodel in different conditions such as different positions of layers. In these experiments, five different micromodels with three different pore structures are designed. Three models with different layer orientation, one homogenous model and one heterogeneous model are designed. In order to import the effect of heterogeneity of porous media, three types of pore structures are distributed accidentally and with equal ratio throughout heterogeneous micromodel network according to random normal distribution. The results show that maximum EOR recovery factor will happen in a situation where the layers are orthogonal to the path of mainstream and the minimum EOR recovery factor will happen in a situation where the model is heterogeneous. This experiments show that in polymer-surfactant flooding, with increase of angles of layers the EOR recovery factor will increase and this recovery factor is strongly affected by local heterogeneity around the injection zone.

351
6712
On the Oil Repellency of Nanotextured Aluminum Surface
Abstract:
Two different superhydrophobic surfaces were elaborated and their oil repellency behavior was evaluated using several liquid with different surface tension. A silicone rubber/SiO2 nanocomposite coated (A) on aluminum substrate by “spin-coating" and the sample B was an anodized aluminum surface covered by Teflon-like coating. A high static contact angle about ∼162° was measured for two prepared surfaces on which the water droplet rolloff. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the presence of micro/nanostructures for both sample A and B similar to that of lotus leaf. However the sample A presented significantly different behaviour of wettability against the low surface tension liquid. Sample A has been wetted totally by oil (dodecan) droplet while sample B showed oleophobic behaviour. Oleophobic property of Teflon like coating can be contributed to the presence of CF2 and CF3 functional group which was shown by XPS analysis.
350
17231
How Stock Market Reacts to Guidance Revisions and Actual Earnings Surprises
Abstract:

According to the existing literature, companies manage analysts’ expectations of their future earnings by issuing pessimistic earnings guidance to meet the expectations. Consequently, one could expect that markets price this pessimistic bias in advance and penalize companies more for lowering the guidance than reward for beating the guidance. In this paper we confirm this empirically. In addition we show that although guidance revisions have a statistically significant relation to stock returns, that is not the case with the actual earnings surprise. Reason for this could be that, after the annual earnings report also information on future earnings power is given at the same time.

349
8061
Algorithm for Bleeding Determination Based On Object Recognition and Local Color Features in Capsule Endoscopy
Abstract:
Automatic determination of blood in less bright or noisy capsule endoscopic images is difficult due to low S/N ratio. Especially it may not be accurate to analyze these images due to the influence of external disturbance. Therefore, we proposed detection methods that are not dependent only on color bands. In locating bleeding regions, the identification of object outlines in the frame and features of their local colors were taken into consideration. The results showed that the capability of detecting bleeding was much improved.
348
8614
Acoustic Analysis with Consideration of Damping Effects of Air Viscosity in Sound Pathway
Abstract:
Sound pathways in the enclosures of small earphones are very narrow. In such narrow pathways, the speed of sound propagation and the phase of sound waves change because of the air viscosity. We have developed a new finite element method that includes the effects of damping due to air viscosity for modeling the sound pathway. This method is developed as an extension of the existing finite element method for porous sound-absorbing materials. The numerical calculation results using the proposed finite element method are validated against the existing calculation methods.
347
3300
Ontology Development of e-Learning Moodle for Social Learning Network Analysis
Abstract:
Social learning network analysis has drawn attention for most researcher on e-learning research domain. This is due to the fact that it has the capability to identify the behavior of student during their social interaction inside e-learning. Normally, the social network analysis (SNA) is treating the students' interaction merely as node and edge with less meaning. This paper focuses on providing an ontology structure of e-learning Moodle that can enrich the relationships among students, as well as between the students and the teacher. This ontology structure brings great benefit to the future development of e-learning system.
346
15488
LumaCert: Conception and Creation of New Digital Certificate for Online User Authentication in e-Banking Systems
Abstract:
Electronic banking must be secure and easy to use and many banks heavily advertise an apparent of 100% secure system which is contestable in many points. In this work, an alternative approach to the design of e-banking system, through a new solution for user authentication and security with digital certificate called LumaCert is introduced. The certificate applies new algorithm for asymmetric encryption by utilizing two mathematical operators called Pentors and UltraPentors. The public and private key in this algorithm represent a quadruple of parameters which are directly dependent from the above mentioned operators. The strength of the algorithm resides in the inability to find the respective Pentor and UltraPentor operator from the mentioned parameters.
345
1038
Aggressive Interactions in Hospital Emergency Units
Abstract:

International literature emphasizes on the concern regarding the phenomenon of aggression in hospital. This paper focuses on the reality of aggressive interactions reigning within an emergency triage involving three chaps of protagonists: the professionals, the patients and their carers. The data collection was made from a grid of observation, in which the various variables exposed in the literature were integrated. They observations took place around the clock, for three weeks, at the rate of one week a month. In this research 331 aggressive interactions have been listed and analyzed by means of the software SPSS. This research is one of the very few continuous observation surveys in the literature. It shows the various human factors at play in the emergence of aggressive interaction. The data may be used both for taking steps in primary prevention, thanks to the analysis of interaction modes, and in secondary prevention by integrating the useful results in situational prevention.

344
13971
Finite Element Analysis for Damped Vibration Properties of Panels Laminated Porous Media
Abstract:
A numerical method is proposed to calculate damping properties for sound-proof structures involving elastic body, viscoelastic body, and porous media. For elastic and viscoelastic body displacement is modeled using conventional finite elements including complex modulus of elasticity. Both effective density and bulk modulus have complex quantities to represent damped sound fields in the porous media. Particle displacement in the porous media is discretised using finite element method. Displacement vectors as common unknown variables are solved under coupled condition between elastic body, viscoelastic body and porous media. Further, explicit expressions of modal loss factor for the mixed structures are derived using asymptotic method. Eigenvalue analysis and frequency responded were calculated for automotive test panel laminated viscoelastic and porous structures using this technique, the results almost agreed with the experimental results.
343
12061
Supplier Sift – A Strategic Need of Modern Entrepreneurship
Abstract:
Supplier appraisal fosters energy in Supply Chain Management and helps in best optimization of viable business partners for a company. Many Decision Making techniques have already been proposed by researchers for supplier-s appraisal. However, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is assumed to be the most structured technique to attain near-best solution of the problem. This paper focuses at implementation of AHP in the procurement processes. It also suggests that on what factors a Public Sector Enterprises must focus while dealing with their suppliers and what should the suppliers do to synchronize their activities with the strategic objectives of Organization. It also highlights the weak areas in supplier appraisal process with a view to suggest viable recommendations.
342
3995
Morphology and Magnetic Properties of Fe3O4 and [email protected] Nanoparticles Synthesized by Pulsed Plasma in Liquid
Abstract:
Spherical shaped magnetite (Fe3O4) and [email protected] nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from Fe electrodes immersed in water with CTAB surfactant and HAuCl4 solution using simple method-pulsed plasma in liquid, without the use of dopants or special conditions for stabilization. Vibrating sample magnetometer indicated ferromagnetic behavior of particles at room temperature with coercivity and saturation magnetization of (Hc=105 Oe, Ms=6.83 emu/g) for Fe3O4 and (Hc=175, Ms=3.56emu/g) for [email protected] nanoparticles. Structure and morphology of nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray Diffraction analysis and HR-TEM measurements. The cytotoxicity of nanoparticles was indicated using a XTT assay to be very low (cell viability: 98-89% with Fe3O4 and 99-91% for [email protected] NPs).
341
11258
Investigating the Effect of Using Capacitors in the Pumping Station on the Harmonic Contents (Case Study: Kafr El - Shikh Governorate, Egypt)
Abstract:

Power Factor (PF) is one of the most important parameters in the electrical systems, especially in the water pumping station. The low power factor value of the water pumping stations causes penalty for the electrical bill. There are many methods use for power factor improvement. Each one of them uses a capacitor on the electrical power network. The position of the capacitors is varied depends on many factors such as; voltage level and capacitors rating. Adding capacitors on the motor terminals increase the supply power factor from 0.8 to more than 0.9 but these capacitors cause some problems for the electrical grid network, such as increasing the harmonic contents of the grid line voltage. In this paper the effects of using capacitors in the water pumping stations to improve the power factor value on the harmonic contents of the electrical grid network are studied. One of large water pumping stations in Kafr El-Shikh Governorate in Egypt was used, as a case study. The effect of capacitors on the line voltage harmonic contents is measured. The station uses capacitors to improve the PF values at the 1 lkv grid network. The power supply harmonics values are measured by a power quality analyzer at different loading conditions. The results showed that; the capacitors improved the power factor value of the feeder and its value increased than 0.9. But the THD values are increased by adding these capacitors. The harmonic analysis showed that; the 13th, 17th, and 19th harmonics orders are increased also by adding the capacitors.

340
6679
Effects of Thread Dimensions of Functionally Graded Dental Implants on Stress Distribution
Abstract:
In this study, stress distributions on dental implants made of functionally graded biomaterials (FGBM) are investigated numerically. The implant body is considered to be subjected to axial compression loads. Numerical problem is assumed to be 2D, and ANSYS commercial software is used for the analysis. The cross section of the implant thread varies as varying the height (H) and the width (t) of the thread. According to thread dimensions of implant and material properties of FGBM, equivalent stress distribution on the implant is determined and presented with contour plots along with the maximum equivalent stress values. As a result, with increasing material gradient parameter (n), the equivalent stress decreases, but the minimum stress distribution increases. Maximum stress values decrease with decreasing implant radius (r). Maximum von Mises stresses increases with decreasing H when t is constant. On the other hand, the stress values are not affected by variation of t in the case of H = constant.
339
10888
Royal Mound “Baygetobe“ from the Burial Ground Shilikty
Abstract:
Mounds are one of the most valuable sources of information on various aspects of life, household skills, rituals and beliefs of the ancient peoples of Kazakhstan. Moreover, the objects associated with the cult of the burial of the dead are the most informative, and often the only source of knowledge about past eras. The present study is devoted to some results of the excavations carried out on the mound "Baygetobe" of Shilikti burial ground. The purpose of the work is associated with certain categories of grave goods and reading "Fine Text" of Shilikti graves, whose structure is the same for burials of nobles and ordinary graves. The safety of a royal burial mounds, the integrity and completeness of the source are of particular value for studying.
338
4663
Laminar Free Convection of Nanofluid Flow in Horizontal Porous Annulus
Abstract:
A numerical study has been carried out to investigate the heat transfer by natural convection of nanofluid taking Cu as nanoparticles and the water as based fluid in a three dimensional annulus enclosure filled with porous media (silica sand) between two horizontal concentric cylinders with 12 annular fins of 2.4mm thickness attached to the inner cylinder under steady state conditions. The governing equations which used are continuity, momentum and energy equations under an assumptions used Darcy law and Boussinesq-s approximation which are transformed to dimensionless equations. The finite difference approach is used to obtain all the computational results using the MATLAB-7. The parameters affected on the system are modified Rayleigh number (10 ≤Ra*≤ 1000), fin length Hf (3, 7 and 11mm), radius ratio Rr (0.293, 0.365 and 0.435) and the volume fraction(0 ≤ ¤ò ≤ 0 .35). It was found that the average Nusselt number depends on (Ra*, Hf, Rr and φ). The results show that, increasing of fin length decreases the heat transfer rate and for low values of Ra*, decreasing Rr cause to decrease Nu while for Ra* greater than 100, decreasing Rr cause to increase Nu and adding Cu nanoparticles with 0.35 volume fraction cause 27.9% enhancement in heat transfer. A correlation for Nu in terms of Ra*, Hf and φ, has been developed for inner hot cylinder.
337
1366
An Adaptive Dynamic Fracture for 3D Fatigue Crack Growth Using X-FEM
Abstract:
In recent years, a new numerical method has been developed, the extended finite element method (X-FEM). The objective of this work is to exploit the (X-FEM) for the treatment of the fracture mechanics problems on 3D geometries, where we showed the ability of this method to simulate the fatigue crack growth into two cases: edge and central crack. In the results we compared the six first natural frequencies of mode shapes uncracking with the cracking initiation in the structure, and showed the stress intensity factor (SIF) evolution function as crack size propagation into structure, the analytical validation of (SIF) is presented. For to evidence the aspects of this method, all result is compared between FEA and X-FEM.
336
12685
User Satisfaction and Acceptability of Dialogue Systems for Detecting Counterfeit Drugs
Abstract:

The menace of counterfeiting pharmaceuticals/drugs has become a major threat to consumers, healthcare providers, drug manufacturers and governments. It is a source of public health concern both in the developed and developing nations. Several solutions for detecting and authenticating counterfeit drugs have been adopted by different nations of the world. In this article, a dialogue system-based drug counterfeiting detection system was developed and the results of the user satisfaction and acceptability of the system are presented. The results show that the users were satisfied with the system and the system was widely accepted as a means of fighting counterfeited drugs.

335
13782
Extraction of Phenol, o-Cresol, and p-Cresol from Coal Tar: Effect of Temperature and Mixing
Abstract:
Coal tar is a liquid by-product of the process of coal gasification and carbonation. This liquid oil mixture contains various kinds of useful compounds such as phenol, o-cresol, and p-cresol. These compounds are widely used as raw material for insecticides, dyes, medicines, perfumes, coloring matters, and many others. This research needed to be done that given the optimum conditions for the separation of phenol, o-cresol, and p-cresol from the coal tar by solvent extraction process. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of two kinds of aqueous were used as solvents: methanol and acetone solutions, the effect of temperature (298, 306, and 313K) and mixing (30, 35, and 40rpm) for the separation of phenol, o-cresol, and p-cresol from coal tar by solvent extraction. Results indicated that phenol, o-cresol, and p-cresol in coal tar were selectivity extracted into the solvent phase and these components could be separated by solvent extraction. The aqueous solution of methanol, mass ratio of solvent to feed, Eo/Ro=1, extraction temperature 306K and mixing 35 rpm were the most efficient for extraction of phenol, o-cresol, and p-cresol from coal tar.
334
9409
The Impact of Post-Disaster Relocation on Community Solidarity: The Case of Post-Disaster Reconstruction after Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan
Abstract:
Typhoon Morakot hit Taiwan in 2009 and caused severe damages. The government employs a compulsory relocation strategy for post-disaster reconstruction. This study analyzes the impact of this strategy on community solidarity. It employs a multiple approach for data collection, including semi-structural interview, secondary data, and documentation. The results indicate that the government-s strategy for distributing housing has led to conflicts within the communities. In addition, the relocating process has stimulated tensions between victims of the disaster and those residents whose lands were chosen to be new sites for relocation. The government-s strategy of “collective relocation" also worsened community integration. In addition, the fact that a permanent housing community may accommodate people from different places also posts challenge for the development of new inter-personal relations in the communities. This study concludes by emphasizing the importance of bringing social, economic and cultural aspects into consideration for post-disaster relocation..
333
13643
Liveability of Kuala Lumpur City Centre: An Evaluation of the Happiness Level of the Streets- Activities
Abstract:
Liveable city is referred to as the quality of life in an area that contributes towards a safe, healthy and enjoyable place. This paper discusses the role of the streets- activities in making Kuala Lumpur a liveable city and the happiness level of the residents towards the city-s street activities. The study was conducted using the residents of Kuala Lumpur. A mixed method technique is used with the quantitative data as a main data and supported by the qualitative data. Data were collected using questionnaires, observation and also an interview session with a sample of residents of Kuala Lumpur. The sampling technique is based on multistage cluster data sampling. The findings revealed that, there is still no significant relationship between the length of stay of the resident in Kuala Lumpur with the happiness level towards the street activities that occurred in the city.
332
2304
Effects of Coupling Agent and Flame Retardant on the Performances of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Composites
Abstract:
Alkali treated oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibres (TEFBF) and untreated EFBF fibers (UEFBF) were incorporated in polypropylene (PP) with and without malic anhydride grafted PP (MAPP) and magnesium hydroxide as flame retardant (FR) to produce TEFBF-PP and UEFBF-PP composites by the melt casting method. The composites were characterized by mechanical and burning tests along with a scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The significant improvement in flexural modulus (133%) and flame retardant property (60%) of TEFBF-PP composite with MAPP and FR is observed. The improved mechanical property is discussed by the development of encapsulated textures.
331
5951
Emergency Health Management at a South African University
Abstract:

Response to the public health-related emergencies is analysed here for a rural university in South Africa. The structure of the designated emergency plan covers all the phases of the disaster management cycle. The plan contains elements of the vulnerability model and the technocratic model of emergency management. The response structures are vertically and horizontally integrated, while the planning contains elements of scenario-based and functional planning. The available number of medical professionals at the Rhodes University, along with the medical insurance rates, makes the staff and students potentially more medically vulnerable than the South African population. The main improvements of the emergency management are required in the tornado response and the information dissemination during health emergencies. The latter should involve the increased use of social media and e-mails, following the Taylor model of communication. Infrastructure must be improved in the telecommunication sector in the face of unpredictable electricity outages.

330
5500
Design of the Propelling Nozzles for the Launchers and Satellites
Authors:
Abstract:
The aim of this work is to determine the supersonic nozzle profiles used in propulsion, for the launchers or embarked with the satellites. This design has as a role firstly, to give a important propulsion, i.e. with uniform and parallel flow at exit, secondly to find a short length profiles without modification of the flow in the nozzle. The first elaborate program is used to determine the profile of divergent by using the characteristics method for an axisymmetric flow. The second program is conceived by using the finite volume method to determine and test the profile found connected to a convergent.
329
14779
Detection and Classification of Power Quality Disturbances Using S-Transform and Wavelet Algorithm
Abstract:
Detection and classification of power quality (PQ) disturbances is an important consideration to electrical utilities and many industrial customers so that diagnosis and mitigation of such disturbance can be implemented quickly. S-transform algorithm and continuous wavelet transforms (CWT) are time-frequency algorithms, and both of them are powerful in detection and classification of PQ disturbances. This paper presents detection and classification of PQ disturbances using S-transform and CWT algorithms. The results of detection and classification, provides that S-transform is more accurate in detection and classification for most PQ disturbance than CWT algorithm, where as CWT algorithm more powerful in detection in some disturbances like notching
328
2772
Women's Political Participation in Korea
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper deals with the development and obstacles of Korean women-s political participation in recent years. Since the year 1948 after the declaration of a modern state, Korea has tried to establish the democracy but still in the field of women-s political participation it meets a lot of problems such as women-s political consciousness, male dominated political culture and institutional constraints. After the introduction of quota system in the list of political party, women-s political participation began to change its configuration. More women candidates have willingly presented at elections.
327
2180
Rehabilitation of Reinforced Concrete Columns
Abstract:

In recent years, rehabilitation has been the subject of extensive research due to increased spending on building work and repair of built works. In all cases, it is absolutely essential to carry out methods of strengthening or repair of structural elements, and that following an inspection analysis and methodology of a correct diagnosis. The reinforced concrete columns are important elements in building structures. They support the vertical loads and provide bracing against the horizontal loads. This research about the behavior of reinforced concrete rectangular columns, rehabilitated by concrete liner, confinement FRP fabric, steel liner or cage formed by metal corners. It allows comparing the contributions of different processes used perspective section resistance elements rehabilitated compared to that is not reinforced or repaired. The different results obtained revealed a considerable gain in bearing capacity failure of reinforced sections cladding concrete, metal bracket, steel plates and a slight improvement to the section reinforced with fabric FRP. The use of FRP does not affect the weight of the structures, but the use of different techniques cladding increases the weight of elements rehabilitated and therefore the weight of the building which requires resizing foundations.

326
15098
Synthesis and Characterization of Chromium (III) Complexes with L-Glutamic Acid, Glycine and LCysteine
Abstract:
Some Chromium (III) complexes were synthesized with three amino acids: L Glutamic Acid, Glycine, and L-cysteine as the ligands, in order to provide a new supplement containing Cr(III) for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The complexes have been prepared by refluxing a mixture of Chromium(III) chloride in aqueous solution with L-glutamic acid, Glycine, and L-cysteine after pH adjustment by sodium hydroxide. These complexes were characterized by Infrared and Uv-Vis spectrophotometer and Elemental analyzer. The product yields of four products were 87.50 and 56.76% for Cr-Glu complexes, 46.70% for Cr-Gly complex and 40.08% for Cr-Cys complex respectively. The predicted structure of the complexes are [Cr(glu)2(H2O)2].xH2O, Cr(gly)3..xH2O and Cr(cys)3.xH2O., respectively.
325
12463
Optimization and Kinetic Study of Gaharu Oil Extraction
Abstract:
Gaharu that produced by Aquilaria spp. is classified as one of the most valuable forest products traded internationally as it is very resinous, fragrant and highly valuable heartwood. Gaharu has been widely used in aromatheraphy, medicine, perfume and religious practices. This work aimed to determine the factors affecting solid liquid extraction of gaharu oil using hexane as solvent under experimental condition. The kinetics of extraction was assumed and verified based on a second-order mechanism. The effect of three main factors, which were temperature, reaction time and solvent to solid ratio were investigated to achieve maximum oil yield. The optimum condition were found at temperature 65°C, 9 hours reaction time and solvent to solid ratio of 12:1 with 14.5% oil yield. The kinetics experimental data agrees and well fitted with the second order extraction model. The initial extraction rate (h) was 0.0115 gmL-1min-1; the extraction capacity (Cs) was 1.282gmL-1; the second order extraction constant (k) was 0.007 mLg-1min-1 and coefficient of determination, R2 was 0.945.
324
8230
Double Pass Solar Air Heater with Transvers Fins and without Absorber Plate
Abstract:
The counter flow solar air heaters, with four transverse fins and wire mesh layers are constructed and investigated experimentally for thermal efficiency at a geographic location of Cyprus in the city of Famagusta. The absorber plate is replaced by sixteen steel wire mesh layers, 0.18 x 0.18cm in cross section opening and a 0.02cm in diameter. The wire mesh layers arranged in three groups, first and second include 6 layers, while the third include 4 layers. All layers fixed in the duct parallel to the glazing and each group separated from the others by wood frame thickness of 0.5cm to reduce the pressure drop. The transverse fins arranged in a way to force the air to flow through the bed like eight letter path with flow depth 3cm. The proposed design has increased the heat transfer rate, but on other hand causes a high pressure drop. The obtained results show that, for air mass flow rate range between 0.011-0.036kg/s, the thermal efficiency increases with increasing the air mass flow. The maximum efficiency obtained is 65.6% for the mass flow rate of 0.036kg/s. Moreover, the temperature difference between the outlet flow and the ambient temperature, ΔT, reduces as the air mass flow rate increase. The maximum difference between the outlet and ambient temperature obtained was 43°C for double pass for minimum mass flow rate of 0.011kg/s. Comparison with a conventional solar air heater collector shows a significantly development in the thermal efficiency.
323
12726
Model of High-Speed Train Energy Consumption
Abstract:
In the hardening energy context, the transport sector which constitutes a large worldwide energy demand has to be improving for decrease energy demand and global warming impacts. In a controversial situation where subsists an increasing demand for long-distance and high-speed travels, high-speed trains offer many advantages, as consuming significantly less energy than road or air transports. At the project phase of new rail infrastructures, it is nowadays important to characterize accurately the energy that will be induced by its operation phase, in addition to other more classical criteria as construction costs and travel time. Current literature consumption models used to estimate railways operation phase are obsolete or not enough accurate for taking into account the newest train or railways technologies. In this paper, an updated model of consumption for high-speed is proposed, based on experimental data obtained from full-scale tests performed on a new high-speed line. The assessment of the model is achieved by identifying train parameters and measured power consumptions for more than one hundred train routes. Perspectives are then discussed to use this updated model for accurately assess the energy impact of future railway infrastructures.
322
12814
The Vertex and Edge Irregular Total Labeling of an Amalgamation of Two Isomorphic Cycles
Authors:
Abstract:

Suppose G(V,E) is a graph, a function f : V \cup E \to \{1, 2, 3, \cdots, k\} is called the total edge(vertex) irregular k-labelling for G such that for each two edges are different having distinct weights. The total edge(vertex) irregularity strength of G, denoted by tes(G)(tvs(G), is the smallest k positive integers such that G has a total edge(vertex) irregular k-labelling. In this paper, we determined the total edge(vertex) irregularity strength of an amalgamation of two isomorphic cycles. The total edge irregularity strength and the total vertex irregularity strength of two isomorphic cycles on n vertices are \lceil (2n+2)/3 \rceil and \lceil 2n/3 \rceil for n \geq 3, respectively.

321
12491
Hazard Rate Estimation of Temporal Point Process, Case Study: Earthquake Hazard Rate in Nusatenggara Region
Abstract:
Hazard rate estimation is one of the important topics in forecasting earthquake occurrence. Forecasting earthquake occurrence is a part of the statistical seismology where the main subject is the point process. Generally, earthquake hazard rate is estimated based on the point process likelihood equation called the Hazard Rate Likelihood of Point Process (HRLPP). In this research, we have developed estimation method, that is hazard rate single decrement HRSD. This method was adapted from estimation method in actuarial studies. Here, one individual associated with an earthquake with inter event time is exponentially distributed. The information of epicenter and time of earthquake occurrence are used to estimate hazard rate. At the end, a case study of earthquake hazard rate will be given. Furthermore, we compare the hazard rate between HRLPP and HRSD method.
320
14885
Specification of Irradiation Conditions in the DONA 5 Rotational Channel of the LVR-15 Reactor
Abstract:
This article summarizes ways to verify neutron fluence for neutron transmutation doping of silicon with phosphorus on the LVR-15 reactor. Neutron fluence is determined using activation detectors placed along the crystal in a strip or encapsulated in a rod holder. Holders are placed at the centre of a water-filled capsule or in an aluminum or silicon ingot that simulates a real single crystal. If the diameter of the crystal is significantly less than the capsule diameter and water from the primary circuit enters the free space in the capsule, neutron interaction in the water changes neutron fluence, affecting axial irradiation homogeneity. The effect of moving the capsule vertically in the channel relative to maximum neutron fluence in the reactor core was also measured. Even a small shift of the capsule-s centre causes great irradiation inhomogeneity. This effect was measured using activation detectors, and was also confirmed by MCNP calculation.
319
2247
Applicability of Diatom-Based Water Quality Assessment Indices in Dari Stream, Isparta- Turkey
Abstract:

Diatoms are an important group of aquatic ecosystems and diatom-based indices are increasingly becoming important tools for the assessment of ecological conditions in lotic systems. Although the studies are very limited about Turkish rivers, diatom indices were used for monitoring rivers in different basins. In the present study, we used OMNIDIA program for estimation of stream quality. Some indices have less sensitive (IDP, WAT, LOBO, GENRE, TID, CEE, PT), intermediate sensitivities (IDSE, DESCY, IPS, DI-CH, SLA, IDAP), the others higher sensitivities (SID, IBD, SHE, EPI-D). Among the investigated diatom communities, only a few taxa indicated alfa-mesosaprobity and polysaprobity. Most of the sites were characterized by a great relative contribution of eutraphent and tolerant ones as well as oligosaprobic and betamesosaprobic diatoms. In general, SID and IBD indices gave the best results. This study suggests that the structure of benthic diatom communities and diatom indices, especially SID, can be applied for monitoring rivers in Southern Turkey. 

318
1952
Plant Location Selection by Using a Three-Step Methodology: Delphi-AHP-VIKOR
Abstract:
Nowadays, the plant location selection has a critical impact on the performance of numerous companies. In this paper, a methodology is presented to solve this problem. The three decision making methods, namely Delphi, AHP and improved VIKOR, are hybridized in order to make the best use of information available based on the decision makers or experts. In this respect, the aim of using Delphi is to select the most influential criteria by a few decision makers. The AHP is utilized to give weights of the selected criteria. Finally, the improved VIKOR method is applied to rank alternatives. At the end of paper, an application example demonstrates the applicability of the proposed methodology.
317
7015
Environmental Analysis of the Zinc Oxide Nanophotocatalyst Synthesis
Abstract:

Nanophotocatalysts such as titanium (TiO2), zinc (ZnO), and iron (Fe2O3) oxides can be used in organic pollutants oxidation, and in many other applications. But among the challenges for technological application (scale-up) of the nanotechnology scientific developments two aspects are still little explored: research on environmental risk of the nanomaterials preparation methods, and the study of nanomaterials properties and/or performance variability. The environmental analysis was performed for six different methods of ZnO nanoparticles synthesis, and showed that it is possible to identify the more environmentally compatible process even at laboratory scale research. The obtained ZnO nanoparticles were tested as photocatalysts, and increased the degradation rate of the Rhodamine B dye up to 30 times.

316
13703
Estimating the Costs of Conservation in Multiple Output Agricultural Setting
Abstract:

Scarcity of resources for biodiversity conservation gives rise to the need of strategic investment with priorities given to the cost of conservation. While the literature provides abundant methodological options for biodiversity conservation; estimating true cost of conservation remains abstract and simplistic, without recognising dynamic nature of the cost. Some recent works demonstrate the prominence of economic theory to inform biodiversity decisions, particularly on the costs and benefits of biodiversity however, the integration of the concept of true cost into biodiversity actions and planning are very slow to come by, and specially on a farm level. Conservation planning studies often use area as a proxy for costs neglecting different land values as well as protected areas. These literature consider only heterogeneous benefits while land costs are considered homogenous. Analysis with the assumption of cost homogeneity results in biased estimation; since not only it doesn’t address the true total cost of biodiversity actions and plans, but also it fails to screen out lands that are more (or less) expensive and/or difficult (or more suitable) for biodiversity conservation purposes, hindering validity and comparability of the results. Economies of scope” is one of the other most neglected aspects in conservation literature. The concept of economies of scope introduces the existence of cost complementarities within a multiple output production system and it suggests a lower cost during the concurrent production of multiple outputs by a given farm. If there are, indeed, economies of scope then simplistic representation of costs will tend to overestimate the true cost of conservation leading to suboptimal outcomes. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to provide first road review of the various theoretical ways in which economies of scope are likely to occur of how they might occur in conservation. Consequently, the paper addresses gaps that have to be filled in future analysis.

315
5686
Optimal Planning of Waste-to-Energy through Mixed Integer Linear Programming
Abstract:
Rapid economic development and population growth in Malaysia had accelerated the generation of solid waste. This issue gives pressure for effective management of municipal solid waste (MSW) to take place in Malaysia due to the increased cost of landfill. This paper discusses optimal planning of waste-to-energy (WTE) using a combinatorial simulation and optimization model through mixed integer linear programming (MILP) approach. The proposed multi-period model is tested in Iskandar Malaysia (IM) as case study for a period of 12 years (2011 -2025) to illustrate the economic potential and tradeoffs involved in this study. In this paper, 3 scenarios have been used to demonstrate the applicability of the model: (1) Incineration scenario (2) Landfill scenario (3) Optimal scenario. The model revealed that the minimum cost of electricity generation from 9,995,855 tonnes of MSW is estimated as USD 387million with a total electricity generation of 50MW /yr in the optimal scenario.
314
5941
Could Thermal Oceanic Hotspot Increase Climate Changes Activities in North Tropical Atlantic: Example of the 2005 Caribbean Coral Bleaching Hotspot and Hurricane Katrina Interaction
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper reviews recent studies and particularly the effects of Climate Change in the North Tropical Atlantic by studying atmospheric conditions that prevailed in 2005 ; Coral Bleaching HotSpot and Hurricane Katrina. In the aim to better understand and estimate the impact of the physical phenomenon, i.e. Thermal Oceanic HotSpot (TOHS), isotopic studies of δ18O and δ13C on marine animals from Guadeloupe (French Caribbean Island) were carried out. Recorded measures show Sea Surface Temperature (SST) up to 35°C in August which is much higher than data recorded by NOAA satellites 32°C. After having reviewed the process that led to the creation of Hurricane Katrina which hit New Orleans in August 29, 2005, it will be shown that the climatic conditions in the Caribbean from August to October 2005 have influenced Katrina evolution. This TOHS is a combined effect of various phenomenon which represent an additional factor to estimate future climate changes.
313
3679
Study of Cross Flow Air-Cooling Process via Water-Cooled Wing-Shaped Tubes in Staggered Arrangement at Different Angles of Attack, Part 2: Heat Transfer Characteristics and Thermal Performance Criteria
Abstract:

An experimental and numerical study has been conducted to clarify heat transfer characteristics and effectiveness of a cross-flow heat exchanger employing staggered wing-shaped tubes at different angels of attack. The water-side Rew and the air-side Rea were at 5 x 102 and at from 1.8 x 103 to 9.7 x 103, respectively. The tubes arrangements were employed with various angles of attack θ1,2,3 from 0° to 330° at the considered Rea range. Correlation of Nu, St, as well as the heat transfer per unit pumping power (ε) in terms of Rea, design parameters for the studied bundle were presented. The temperature fields around the staggered wing-shaped tubes bundle were predicted by using commercial CFD FLUENT 6.3.26 software package. Results indicated that the heat transfer was increased by increasing the angle of attack from 0° to 45°, while the opposite was true for angles of attack from 135° to 180°. The best thermal performance and hence η of studied bundle was occurred at the lowest Rea and/or zero angle of attack. Comparisons between the experimental and numerical results of the present study and those, previously, obtained for similar available studies showed good agreements.

312
11262
An Analysis of Abortion Laws and Sex Selective Abortion in India: A Case Study of Rajasthan
Authors:
Abstract:

A son in every Hindu society pays his own father the debt and he owes him for his own life whereas a girl child is treated as a burden mainly in case of first child. Even today in India we have many societies which does not welcome girl child. Although there is an increase in overall sex ratio, there is a continuous decline in child sex ratio. This paper focuses on issues of sex selective abortion in Rajasthan based on secondary data. It is found that 90.0 percentages of women in Rajasthan wants at least one son. Around 34.3 percentages of women wants more sons than daughters and only 1.5 percentages of women wants more daughters than sons. It is very common among the rich and educated people.

311
6831
Mission of Russian Orthodox Church in Kazakhstan in the XIX Century: Activity, Expectations and Results
Abstract:

The focus of this research is in the area of the soviet period and the mission of the Russian Orthodox Church in Kazakhstan in the XIX century. There was close connection of national customs and traditions with religious practices, outlooks and attitudes. In particular, such an approach has alleged estimation by Kazakh historians of the process of Christianization of the local population. Some of them are inclined to consider the small number of Christening Kazakhs as evidence that the Russian Orthodox Church didn’t achieve its mission. The number of historians who think that the church didn’t achieve its mission has thousand over the last centuries, however our calculations of the number of Kazakhs who became Orthodox Christian is much more than other historians think. Such Christians can be divided into 3 groups: Some remained Christian until their deaths, others had two faiths and the third hid their true religions, having returned to their former belief. Therefore, to define the exact amount of Christening Kazakhs represented a challenge. Some data does not create a clear picture of the level of Christianization, constant and accurate was not collected. The data appearing in reports of spiritual attendants and civil authorities is not always authentic. Article purpose is illumination and the analysis missionary activity of Russian Orthodox Church in Kazakhstan. 

310
12920
A Search Algorithm for Solving the Economic Lot Scheduling Problem with Reworks under the Basic Period Approach
Abstract:
In this study, we are interested in the economic lot scheduling problem (ELSP) that considers manufacturing of the serviceable products and remanufacturing of the reworked products. In this paper, we formulate a mathematical model for the ELSP with reworks using the basic period approach. In order to solve this problem, we propose a search algorithm to find the cyclic multiplier ki of each product that can be cyclically produced for every ki basic periods. This research also uses two heuristics to search for the optimal production sequence of all lots and the optimal time length of the basic period so as to minimize the average total cost. This research uses a numerical example to show the effectiveness of our approach.
309
10229
Data Mining Applied to the Predictive Model of Triage System in Emergency Department
Abstract:
The Emergency Department of a medical center in Taiwan cooperated to conduct the research. A predictive model of triage system is contracted from the contract procedure, selection of parameters to sample screening. 2,000 pieces of data needed for the patients is chosen randomly by the computer. After three categorizations of data mining (Multi-group Discriminant Analysis, Multinomial Logistic Regression, Back-propagation Neural Networks), it is found that Back-propagation Neural Networks can best distinguish the patients- extent of emergency, and the accuracy rate can reach to as high as 95.1%. The Back-propagation Neural Networks that has the highest accuracy rate is simulated into the triage acuity expert system in this research. Data mining applied to the predictive model of the triage acuity expert system can be updated regularly for both the improvement of the system and for education training, and will not be affected by subjective factors.
308
13002
Could One-Hand Chest Compression for a Small Child Cause Intra-Abdominal Injuries?
Abstract:

We examined whether children ( < 18 years old) had risk of intra-thoracic trauma during 'one-handed' chest compressions through MDCT images. We measured the length of the lower half of the sternum (Stotal/2~X). We also measured the distance from the diaphragm to the midpoint of the sternum (Stotal/2~D) and half the width of an adult hand (Wtotal/2). All the 1 year-old children had Stotal/2~X and Stotal/2~D less than Wtotal/2. Among the children aged 2 years, 6 (60.0%) had Stotal/2~X and Stotal/2~D less than Wtotal/2. Among those aged 3 years, 4 (26.7%) had Stotal/2~X and Stotal/2~D less than Wtotal/2, and among those aged 4 years, 2 (13.3%) had Stotal/2~X and Stotal/2~D less than Wtotal/2. However, Stotal/2~X and Stotal/2~D were greater than Wtotal/2 in children aged 5 years or more. We knew that small children may be at an increased risk of intra-thoracic trauma during 'one-handed' chest compressions.

307
1137
Investigating the Relation between Student Engagement and Attainment in a Flexible Learning Environment
Abstract:
The use of technology is increasingly adopted to support flexible learning in Higher Education institutions. The adoption of more sophisticated technologies offers a broad range of facilities for communication and resource sharing, thereby creating a flexible learning environment that facilitates and even encourages students not to physically attend classes. However this emerging trend seems to contradict class attendance requirements within universities, inevitably leading to a dilemma between amending traditional regulations and creating new policies for the higher education institutions. This study presents an investigation into student engagement in a technology enhanced/driven flexible environment along with its relationship to attainment. We propose an approach to modelling engagement from different perspectives in terms of indicators and then consider what impact these indicators have on student academic performance. We have carried out a case study on the relation between attendance and attainment in a flexible environment. Although our preliminary results show attendance is quantitatively correlated with successful student development and learning outcomes, our results also indicate there is a cohort that did not follow such a pattern. Nevertheless the preliminary results could provide an insight into pilot studies in the wider deployment of new technology to support flexible learning.
306
8728
Detecting Older Drivers- Stress Level during Real-World Driving Tasks
Abstract:
This paper presents the effect of driving a motor vehicle on the stress levels of older drivers, indicated by monitoring their hear rate increase whilst completing various everyday driving tasks. Results suggest that whilst older female drivers heart rate varied more significantly than males, the actual age of a participant did not result in a significant change in heart rate due to stress, within the age group tested. The analysis of the results indicates the most stressful manoeuvres undertaken by the older drivers and highlights the tasks which were found difficult with a view to implementing technologies to aid the more senior driver in automotive travel.
305
10286
Whole Body CT for a Patient with Sepsis
Abstract:

This study retrospectively investigated the significance of whole body CT (WCT) for patients with sepsis. A medical chart review was retrospectively performed for all patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome that were treated initially between April 2011 and March 2012. The subjects were divided into a WCT group that underwent WCT on arrival and a control group. Results of this study suggested that WCT for sepsis was useful for elderly patients whose chief complaint or physiological findings could not suggest the anatomical site of infection, to determine the infectious focus and indications/method for surgery, to diagnose the basic diseases associated with opportunistic infections and to evaluate complicated diseases

Keywords:
304
8151
Development of Intelligent Time/Frequency Based Signal Detection Algorithm for Intrusion Detection System
Abstract:
For the past couple of decades Weak signal detection is of crucial importance in various engineering and scientific applications. It finds its application in areas like Wireless communication, Radars, Aerospace engineering, Control systems and many of those. Usually weak signal detection requires phase sensitive detector and demodulation module to detect and analyze the signal. This article gives you a preamble to intrusion detection system which can effectively detect a weak signal from a multiplexed signal. By carefully inspecting and analyzing the respective signal, this system can successfully indicate any peripheral intrusion. Intrusion detection system (IDS) is a comprehensive and easy approach towards detecting and analyzing any signal that is weakened and garbled due to low signal to noise ratio (SNR). This approach finds significant importance in applications like peripheral security systems.
303
11198
Single Image Defogging Method Using Variational Approach for Edge-Preserving Regularization
Abstract:

In this paper, we propose the variational approach to solve single image defogging problem. In the inference process of the atmospheric veil, we defined new functional for atmospheric veil that satisfy edge-preserving regularization property. By using the fundamental lemma of calculus of variations, we derive the Euler-Lagrange equation foratmospheric veil that can find the maxima of a given functional. This equation can be solved by using a gradient decent method and time parameter. Then, we can have obtained the estimated atmospheric veil, and then have conducted the image restoration by using inferred atmospheric veil. Finally we have improved the contrast of restoration image by various histogram equalization methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves rather good defogging results.

302
6331
Hybrid Energy Supply with Dominantly Renewable Option for Small Industrial Complex
Abstract:
The deficit of power for electricity demand reaches almost 30% for consumers in the last few years. This reflects with continually increasing the price of electricity, and today the price for small industry is almost 110Euro/MWh. The high price is additional problem for the owners in the economy crisis which is reflected with higher price of the goods. The paper gives analyses of the energy needs for real agro complex in Macedonia, private vinery with capacity of over 2 million liters in a year and with self grapes and fruits fields. The existing power supply is from grid with 10/04 kV transformer. The geographical and meteorological condition of the vinery location gives opportunity for including renewable as a power supply option for the vinery complex. After observation of the monthly energy needs for the vinery, the base scenario is the existing power supply from the distribution grid. The electricity bill in small industry has three factors: electricity in high and low tariffs in kWh and the power engaged for the technological process of production in kW. These three factors make the total electricity bill and it is over 110 Euro/MWh which is the price near competitive for renewable option. On the other side investments in renewable (especially photovoltaic (PV)) has tendency of decreasing with price of near 1,5 Euro/W. This means that renewable with PV can be real option for power supply for small industry capacities (under 500kW installed power). Therefore, the other scenarios give the option with PV and the last one includes wind option. The paper presents some scenarios for power supply of the vinery as the followings: • Base scenario of existing conventional power supply from the grid • Scenario with implementation of renewable of Photovoltaic • Scenario with implementation of renewable of Photovoltaic and Wind power The total power installed in a vinery is near 570 kW, but the maximum needs are around 250kW. At the end of the full paper some of the results from scenarios will be presented. The paper also includes the environmental impacts of the renewable scenarios, as well as financial needs for investments and revenues from renewable.
301
1591
Informal Inferential Reasoning Using a Modelling Approach within a Computer-Based Simulation
Abstract:

The article investigates how 14- to 15- year-olds build informal conceptions of inferential statistics as they engage in a modelling process and build their own computer simulations with dynamic statistical software. This study proposes four primary phases of informal inferential reasoning for the students in the statistical modeling and simulation process. Findings show shifts in the conceptual structures across the four phases and point to the potential of all of these phases for fostering the development of students- robust knowledge of the logic of inference when using computer based simulations to model and investigate statistical questions.

300
507
The Determination of Cellulose Spiral Angle by Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering from Structurally Characterized Acacia mangium Cell Wall
Abstract:
The spiral angle of the elementary cellulose fibril in the wood cell wall, often called microfibril angle, (MFA). Microfibril angle in hardwood is one of the key determinants of solid timber performance due to its strong influence on the stiffness, strength, shrinkage, swelling, thermal-dynamics mechanical properties and dimensional stability of wood. Variation of MFA (degree) in the S2 layer of the cell walls among Acacia mangium trees was determined using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The length and orientation of the microfibrils of the cell walls in the irradiated volume of the thin samples are measured using SAXS and optical microscope for 3D surface measurement. The undetermined parameters in the analysis are the MFA, (M) and the standard deviation (σФ) of the intensity distribution arising from the wandering of the fibril orientation about the mean value. Nine separate pairs of values are determined for nine different values of the angle of the incidence of the X-ray beam relative to the normal to the radial direction in the sample. The results show good agreement. The curve distribution of scattered intensity for the real cell wall structure is compared with that calculated with that assembly of rectangular cells with the same ratio of transverse to radial cell wall length. It is demonstrated that for β = 45°, the peaks in the curve intensity distribution for the real and the rectangular cells coincide. If this peak position is Ф45, then the MFA can be determined from the relation M = tan-1 (tan Ф45 / cos 45°), which is precise for rectangular cells. It was found that 92.93% of the variation of MFA can be attributed to the distance from pith to bark. Here we shall present our results of the MFA in the cell wall with respect to its shape, structure and the distance from pith to park as an important fast check and yet accurate towards the quality of wood, its uses and application.
299
5065
Support Vector Machines Approach for Detecting the Mean Shifts in Hotelling-s T2 Control Chart with Sensitizing Rules
Abstract:
In many industries, control charts is one of the most frequently used tools for quality management. Hotelling-s T2 is used widely in multivariate control chart. However, it has little defect when detecting small or medium process shifts. The use of supplementary sensitizing rules can improve the performance of detection. This study applied sensitizing rules for Hotelling-s T2 control chart to improve the performance of detection. Support vector machines (SVM) classifier to identify the characteristic or group of characteristics that are responsible for the signal and to classify the magnitude of the mean shifts. The experimental results demonstrate that the support vector machines (SVM) classifier can effectively identify the characteristic or group of characteristics that caused the process mean shifts and the magnitude of the shifts.
298
15199
Venice 17th Century: The Greek Ethnic Identity in Danger
Abstract:
At the end of the 17th Century the Greek orthodox Archbishop in Venice -Meletios Typaldos- decided to turn the doctrine of the orthodox Greeks into Catholicism. More than 5.000 Greeks were living in Venice then. Their leadership -the Greek confraternity- fought against Meletios. Participants in this conflict were the Pope, the ecumenical Patriarch in Constantinople and Peter the Great of Russia. All the play according to my opinion -which is followed by evidence and theoretical support is a strong conflict between the two actors -the Archbishop and the Confraternity- and the object of conflict is the change of the Greek orthodox beliefs to Catholicism. Ethnicity especially for Greeks of the era is identified with orthodoxy. So this was a conflict of identity. The results of that conflict were of tremendous importance to the Greeks in Venice and affected them for long.
297
5546
PRO-Teaching – Sharing Ideas to Develop Capabilities
Abstract:
In this paper, the action research driven design of a context relevant, developmental peer review of teaching model, its implementation strategy and its impact at an Australian university is presented. PRO-Teaching realizes an innovative process that triangulates contemporaneous teaching quality data from a range of stakeholders including students, discipline academics, learning and teaching expert academics, and teacher reflection to create reliable evidence of teaching quality. Data collected over multiple classroom observations allows objective reporting on development differentials in constructive alignment, peer, and student evaluations. Further innovation is realized in the application of this highly structured developmental process to provide summative evidence of sufficient validity to support claims for professional advancement and learning and teaching awards. Design decision points and contextual triggers are described within the operating domain. Academics and developers seeking to introduce structured peer review of teaching into their organization will find this paper a useful reference.
296
15211
Automatic Microaneurysm Quantification for Diabetic Retinopathy Screening
Abstract:

Microaneurysm is a key indicator of diabetic retinopathy that can potentially cause damage to retina. Early detection and automatic quantification are the keys to prevent further damage. In this paper, which focuses on automatic microaneurysm detection in images acquired through non-dilated pupils, we present a series of experiments on feature selection and automatic microaneurysm pixel classification. We found that the best feature set is a combination of 10 features: the pixel-s intensity of shade corrected image, the pixel hue, the standard deviation of shade corrected image, DoG4, the area of the candidate MA, the perimeter of the candidate MA, the eccentricity of the candidate MA, the circularity of the candidate MA, the mean intensity of the candidate MA on shade corrected image and the ratio of the major axis length and minor length of the candidate MA. The overall sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy are 84.82%, 99.99%, 89.01%, and 99.99%, respectively.

295
3255
Non Destructive Characterisation of Cement Mortar during Carbonation
Abstract:
The objective of this work was to examine the changes in non destructive properties caused by carbonation of CEM II mortar. Samples of CEM II mortar were prepared and subjected to accelerated carbonation at 20°C, 65% relative humidity and 20% CO2 concentration. We examined the evolutions of the gas permeability, the thermal conductivity, the thermal diffusivity, the volume of the solid phase by helium pycnometry, the longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic velocities. The principal contribution of this work is that, apart of the gas permeability, changes in other non destructive properties have never been studied during the carbonation of cement materials. These properties are important in predicting/measuring the durability of reinforced concrete in CO2 environment. The carbonation depth and the porosity accessible to water were also reported in order to explain comprehensively the changes in non destructive parameters.
294
8370
Biofungicide Trichodex WP
Abstract:
Grey mold on grape is caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea Pers. Trichodex WP, a new biofungicide, that contains fungal spores of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai, was used for biological control of Grey mold on grape. The efficacy of Trichodex WP has been reported from many experiments. Experiments were carried out in the locality – Banatski Karlovac, on grapevine species – talijanski rizling. The trials were set according to instructions of methods PP1/152(2) and PP1/17(3) , according to a fully randomized block design. Phytotoxicity was estimated by PP methods 1/135(2), the intensity of infection according to Towsend Heuberger , the efficiency by Abbott, the analysis of variance with Duncan test and PP/181(2). Application of Trichodex WP is limited to the first two treatments. Other treatments are performed with the fungicides based on a.i. procymidone, vinclozoline and iprodione.
293
5149
Tele-Diagnosis System for Rural Thailand
Abstract:
Thailand-s health system is challenged by the rising number of patients and decreasing ratio of medical practitioners/patients, especially in rural areas. This may tempt inexperienced GPs to rush through the process of anamnesis with the risk of incorrect diagnosis. Patients have to travel far to the hospital and wait for a long time presenting their case. Many patients try to cure themselves with traditional Thai medicine. Many countries are making use of the Internet for medical information gathering, distribution and storage. Telemedicine applications are a relatively new field of study in Thailand; the infrastructure of ICT had hampered widespread use of the Internet for using medical information. With recent improvements made health and technology professionals can work out novel applications and systems to help advance telemedicine for the benefit of the people. Here we explore the use of telemedicine for people with health problems in rural areas in Thailand and present a Telemedicine Diagnosis System for Rural Thailand (TEDIST) for diagnosing certain conditions that people with Internet access can use to establish contact with Community Health Centers, e.g. by mobile phone. The system uses a Web-based input method for individual patients- symptoms, which are taken by an expert system for the analysis of conditions and appropriate diseases. The analysis harnesses a knowledge base and a backward chaining component to find out, which health professionals should be presented with the case. Doctors have the opportunity to exchange emails or chat with the patients they are responsible for or other specialists. Patients- data are then stored in a Personal Health Record.
292
2199
An Energy Aware Dispatch Scheme WSNs
Abstract:

One of the key research issues in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is how to efficiently deploy sensors to cover an area. In this paper, we present a Fishnet Based Dispatch Scheme (FiBDS) with energy aware mobility and interest based sensing angle. We propose two algorithms, one is FiBDS centralized algorithm and another is FiBDS distributed algorithm. The centralized algorithm is designed specifically for the non-time critical applications, commonly known as non real-time applications while the distributed algorithm is designed specifically for the time critical applications, commonly known as real-time applications. The proposed dispatch scheme works in a phase-selection manner. In this in each phase a specific constraint is dealt with according to the specified priority and then moved onto the next phase and at the end of each only the best suited nodes for the phase are chosen. Simulation results are presented to verify their effectiveness. 

291
5530
Chinese Preferences of Hotel Websites: the Differences among Different Regions
Abstract:
The fast technology and economic growth in China has attracted global attention in its tourism development. This study makes an effort on investigating China-s online tourism market and the Chinese online travelers- perceptions of hotel websites. The findings are expected to better understand Chinese customers- online preference and identified the differences among online travelers from different regions in the country. Empirical findings showed online reservation information is the most important factor to Chinese customers, and tourists from different regions of China have perception difference on user-friendly factor. The findings benefit hoteliers from understanding their websites development and formulating more appropriate online strategies to meet the requirements of Chinese travelers.
290
3404
Policies that Enhance Learning and Teaching
Abstract:
Educational institutions often implement policies with the intention of influencing how learning and teaching occur. Generally, such policies are not as effective as their makers would like; changing the behavior of third-level teachers proves difficult. Nevertheless, a policy instituted in 2006 at the Dublin Institute of Technology has met with success: each newly hired faculty member must have a post-graduate qualification in “Learning and Teaching" or successfully complete one within the first two years of employment. The intention is to build teachers- knowledge about student-centered pedagogies and their capacity to implement them. As a result of this policy (and associated programs that support it), positive outcomes are readily apparent. Individual teachers who have completed the programs have implemented significant change at the course and program levels. This paper introduces the policy, identifies outcomes in relation to existing theory, describes research underway, and pinpoints areas where organizational learning has occurred.
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7277
An Efficient Mobile Payment System Based On NFC Technology
Abstract:
The work we have accomplished in implementing a Mobile Payment mechanism that enables customers to pay bills for groceries and other purchased items in a store through the means of a mobile phone, specifically a Smartphone. The mode of transaction, as far as communication between the customer-s handset and the merchant-s POS is concerned, we have decided upon NFC (Near Field Communication). This is due to the fact that for the most part, Pakistani Smartphone users have handsets that have Android mobile OS, which supports the aforementioned platform, IOS, on the other hand does not.
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2994
A New Fuzzy Mathematical Model in Recycling Collection Networks: A Possibilistic Approach
Abstract:

Focusing on the environmental issues, including the reduction of scrap and consumer residuals, along with the benefiting from the economic value during the life cycle of goods/products leads the companies to have an important competitive approach. The aim of this paper is to present a new mixed nonlinear facility locationallocation model in recycling collection networks by considering multi-echelon, multi-suppliers, multi-collection centers and multifacilities in the recycling network. To make an appropriate decision in reality, demands, returns, capacities, costs and distances, are regarded uncertain in our model. For this purpose, a fuzzy mathematical programming-based possibilistic approach is introduced as a solution methodology from the recent literature to solve the proposed mixed-nonlinear programming model (MNLP). The computational experiments are provided to illustrate the applicability of the designed model in a supply chain environment and to help the decision makers to facilitate their analysis.

287
1044
Processing the Medical Sensors Signals Using Fuzzy Inference System
Abstract:
Sensors possess several properties of physical measures. Whether devices that convert a sensed signal into an electrical signal, chemical sensors and biosensors, thus all these sensors can be considered as an interface between the physical and electrical equipment. The problem is the analysis of the multitudes of saved settings as input variables. However, they do not all have the same level of influence on the outputs. In order to identify the most sensitive parameters, those that can guide users in gathering information on the ground and in the process of model calibration and sensitivity analysis for the effect of each change made. Mathematical models used for processing become very complex. In this paper a fuzzy rule-based system is proposed as a solution for this problem. The system collects the available signals information from sensors. Moreover, the system allows the study of the influence of the various factors that take part in the decision system. Since its inception fuzzy set theory has been regarded as a formalism suitable to deal with the imprecision intrinsic to many problems. At the same time, fuzzy sets allow to use symbolic models. In this study an example was applied for resolving variety of physiological parameters that define human health state. The application system was done for medical diagnosis help. The inputs are the signals expressed the cardiovascular system parameters, blood pressure, Respiratory system paramsystem was done, it will be able to predict the state of patient according any input values.
286
10376
A Semantic Web Based Ontology in the Financial Domain
Authors:
Abstract:
The paper describes design of an ontology in the financial domain for mutual funds. The design of this ontology consists of four steps, namely, specification, knowledge acquisition, implementation and semantic query. Specification includes a description of the taxonomy and different types mutual funds and their scope. Knowledge acquisition involves the information extraction from heterogeneous resources. Implementation describes the conceptualization and encoding of this data. Finally, semantic query permits complex queries to integrated data, mapping of these database entities to ontological concepts.
285
11032
Student Satisfaction Data for Work Based Learners
Abstract:
This paper aims to describe how student satisfaction is measured for work-based learners as these are non-traditional learners, conducting academic learning in the workplace, typically their curricula have a high degree of negotiation, and whose motivations are directly related to their employers- needs, as well as their own career ambitions. We argue that while increasing WBL participation, and use of SSD are both accepted as being of strategic importance to the HE agenda, the use of WBL SSD is rarely examined, and lessons can be learned from the comparison of SSD from a range of WBL programmes, and increased visibility of this type of data will provide insight into ways to improve and develop this type of delivery. The key themes that emerged from the analysis of the interview data were: learners profiles and needs, employers drivers, academic staff drivers, organizational approach, tools for collecting data and visibility of findings. The paper concludes with observations on best practice in the collection, analysis and use of WBL SSD, thus offering recommendations for both academic managers and practitioners.
284
1042
On the Design of Shape Memory Alloy Locking Mechanism: A Novel Solution for Laparoscopic Ligation Process
Abstract:
The blood ducts must be occluded to avoid loss of blood from vessels in laparoscopic surgeries. This paper presents a locking mechanism to be used in a ligation laparoscopic procedure (LigLAP I), as an alternative solution for a stapling procedure. Currently, stapling devices are being used to occlude vessels. Using these devices may result in some problems, including injury of bile duct, taking up a great deal of space behind the vessel, and bile leak. In this new procedure, a two-layer suture occludes a vessel. A locking mechanism is also required to hold the suture. Since there is a limited space at the device tip, a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuator is used in this mechanism. Suitability for cleanroom applications, small size, and silent performance are among the advantages of SMA actuators in biomedical applications. An experimental study is conducted to examine the function of the locking mechanism. To set up the experiment, a prototype of a locking mechanism is built using nitinol, which is a nickel-titanium shape memory alloy. The locking mechanism successfully locks a polymer suture for all runs of the experiment. In addition, the effects of various surface materials on the applied pulling forces are studied. Various materials are mounted at the mechanism tip to compare the maximum pulling forces applied to the suture for each material. The results show that the various surface materials on the device tip provide large differences in the applied pulling forces.
283
10338
U.S. Supreme Court Decision Making in the Area of Religion, 1987-2011
Abstract:

There are many views on how human decision makers behave. In this work, the Justices of the United States Supreme Court will be viewed in terms of constrained maximization and cognitivecybernetic theory. This paper will integrate research in such fields as law, political science, psychology, economics and decision making theory. It will be argued that due to its heavy workload, the Supreme Court is forced to make decisions in a boundedly rational manner. The ideas and theory put forward here will be tested in the area of the Court’s decisions involving religion. Therefore, the cases involving the U.S. Constitution’s Free Exercise Clause and Establishment Clause will be analyzed. Also, variables such as the U.S. government’s involvement in these cases will be considered. The years to be studied will be 1987-2011.

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3011
A New Biometric Human Identification Based On Fusion Fingerprints and Finger Veins Using monoLBP Descriptor
Abstract:

Single biometric modality recognition is not able to meet the high performance supplies in most cases with its application become more and more broadly. Multimodal biometrics identification represents an emerging trend recently. This paper investigates a novel algorithm based on fusion of both fingerprint and fingervein biometrics. For both biometric recognition, we employ the Monogenic Local Binary Pattern (MonoLBP). This operator integrate the orginal LBP (Local Binary Pattern ) with both other rotation invariant measures: local phase and local surface type. Experimental results confirm that a weighted sum based proposed fusion achieves excellent identification performances opposite unimodal biometric systems. The AUC of proposed approach based on combining the two modalities has very close to unity (0.93).

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8409
Hand Vein Image Enhancement With Radon Like Features Descriptor
Abstract:

Nowadays, hand vein recognition has attracted more attentions in identification biometrics systems. Generally, hand vein image is acquired with low contrast and irregular illumination. Accordingly, if you have a good preprocessing of hand vein image, we can easy extracted the feature extraction even with simple binarization. In this paper, a proposed approach is processed to improve the quality of hand vein image. First, a brief survey on existing methods of enhancement is investigated. Then a Radon Like features method is applied to preprocessing hand vein image. Finally, experiments results show that the proposed method give the better effective and reliable in improving hand vein images.

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8395
Evaluation of the Zero Sequence Impedance of Overhead High Voltage Lines
Authors:
Abstract:
As known, the guard wires of overhead high voltage are usually grounded through the grounding systems of support and of the terminal stations. They do affect the zero sequence impedance value of the line, Z0, which is generally, calculated assuming that the wires guard are at ground potential. In this way it is not considered the effect of the resistances of earth of supports and stations. In this work is formed a formula for the calculation of Z0 which takes account of said resistances. Is also proposed a method of calculating the impedance zero sequence overhead lines in which, in various sections or spans, the guard wires are connected to the supports, or isolated from them, or are absent. Parametric analysis is given for lines 220 kV and 400 kV, which shows the extent of the errors made with traditional methods of calculation.
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12311
Large-Eddy Simulations of Subsonic Impinging Jets
Abstract:
We consider here the subsonic impinging jet representing the flow field of a vertical take-off aircraft or the initial stage of rocket launching. Implicit Large-Eddy Simulation (ILES) is used to calculate the time-dependent flow field and the radiate sound pressure associated with jet impinging. With proper boundary treatments and high-order numerical scheme, the near field sound pressure is successfully obtained. Results are presented for both a rectangular as well a circular jet.
278
3517
Medical Negligence Disputes in Malaysia: Resolving through Hazards of Litigation or through Community Responsibilities?
Abstract:

Medical negligence disputes in Malaysia are mainly resolved through litigation by using the tort system. The tort system, being adversarial in nature has subjected parties to litigation hazards such as delay, excessive costs and uncertainty of outcome. The dissatisfaction of the tort system in compensating medically injured victims has created various alternatives to litigation. Amongst them is the implementation of a no-fault compensation system which would allow compensation to be given without the need of proving fault on the medical personnel. Instead, the community now bears the burden of compensating and at the end, promotes collective responsibility. For Malaysia, introducing a no-fault system would provide a tempting solution and may ultimately, achieve justice for the medical injured victims. Nevertheless, such drastic change requires a great deal of consideration to determine the suitability of the system and whether or not it will eventually cater for the needs of the Malaysian population

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8648
Using Partnerships to Achieve National Goals
Abstract:
Ireland developed a National Strategy 2030 that argued for the creation of a new form of higher education institution, a Technological University. The research reported here reviews the first stage of this partnership development. The study found that national policy can create system capacity and change, but that individual partners may have more to gain or lose in collaborating. When presented as a zero-sum activity, fear among partners is high. The level of knowledge and networking within the higher education system possessed by each partner contributed to decisions to participate or not in a joint proposal for collaboration. Greater success resulted when there were gains for all partners. This research concludes that policy mandates can provide motivation to collaborate, but that the partnership needs to be built more on shared values versus coercion by mandates.
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10317
The Effects of Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy on Pain, Function, Range of Motion, and Strength in Patients with Insertional Achilles Tendinosis
Authors:
Abstract:
Increased physical fitness participation has been paralleled by increasedoveruse injuries such as insertional Achilles tendinosis (AT). Treatment has provided inconsistentresults. The use of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ECSWT) offers a new treatment consideration.The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of ECSWTon pain, function, range of motion (ROM), joint mobility and strength in patients with AT. Thirty subjects were treated with ECSWT and measures were takenbefore and three months after treatment. There was significant differences in visual analog scale (VAS) scores for pain at rest (p=0.002); after activity (p= 0.0001); overall improvement(p=0.0001); Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) scores (p=0.002); dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) (p=0.0001); plantarflexion strength (p=0.025); talocrural joint anterior glide (p=0.046); and subtalar joint medial and lateral glide (p=0.025).ECSWT offers a new intervention that may limit the progression of the disorder and the long term healthcare costs associated with AT.
275
12116
The Effects of Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy on Pain, Function, Range of Motion and Strength in Patients with Plantar Fasciitis
Authors:
Abstract:
Ten percent of the population will develop plantar fasciitis (PF) during their lifetime. Two million people are treated yearly accounting for 11-15% of visits to medical professionals. Treatment ranges from conservative to surgical intervention. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ECSWT) on heel pain, function, range of motion (ROM), and strength in patients with PF. One hundred subjects were treated with ECSWT and measures were taken before and three months after treatment. There was significant differences in visual analog scale scores for pain at rest (p=0.0001); after activity (p= 0.0001) and; overall improvement (p=0.0001). There was also significant improvement in Lower Extremity Functional Scale scores (p=0.0001); ankle plantarflexion (p=0.0001), dorsiflexion (p=0.001), and eversion (p=0.017),and first metatarsophalangeal joint flexion (p=0.002) and extension (p=0.003) ROM. ECSWT is an effective treatment improving heel pain, function and ROM in patients with PF.
274
2527
Phase Behavior and Structure Properties of Supported Lipid Monolayers and Bilayers in Interaction with Silica Nanoparticles
Abstract:

In this study we investigate silica nanoparticle (SiO2- NP) effects on the structure and phase properties of supported lipid monolayers and bilayers, coupling surface pressure measurements, fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy. SiO2-NPs typically in size range of 10nm to 100 nm in diameter are tested. Our results suggest first that lipid molecules organization depends to their nature. Secondly, lipid molecules in the vinicity of big aggregates nanoparticles organize in liquid condensed phase whereas small aggregates are localized in both fluid liquid-expanded (LE) and liquid-condenced (LC). We demonstrated also by atomic force microscopy that by measuring friction forces it is possible to get information as if nanoparticle aggregates are recovered or not by lipid monolayers and bilayers.

273
15351
Optimization Using Simulation of the Vehicle Routing Problem
Abstract:
A key element of many distribution systems is the routing and scheduling of vehicles servicing a set of customers. A wide variety of exact and approximate algorithms have been proposed for solving the vehicle routing problems (VRP). Exact algorithms can only solve relatively small problems of VRP, which is classified as NP-Hard. Several approximate algorithms have proven successful in finding a feasible solution not necessarily optimum. Although different parts of the problem are stochastic in nature; yet, limited work relevant to the application of discrete event system simulation has addressed the problem. Presented here is optimization using simulation of VRP; where, a simplified problem has been developed in the ExtendSimTM simulation environment; where, ExtendSimTM evolutionary optimizer is used to minimize the total transportation cost of the problem. Results obtained from the model are very satisfactory. Further complexities of the problem are proposed for consideration in the future.
272
13133
Design of a Hybrid Fuel Cell with Battery Energy Storage for Stand-Alone Distributed Generation Applications
Abstract:

This paper presents the modeling and simulation of a hybrid proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with an energy storage system for use in a stand-alone distributed generation (DG) system. The simulation model consists of fuel cell DG, lead-acid battery, maximum power point tracking and power conditioning unit which is modeled in the MATLAB/Simulink platform. Poor loadfollowing characteristics and slow response to rapid load changes are some of the weaknesses of PEMFC because of the gas processing reaction and the fuel cell dynamics. To address the load-tracking issues in PEMFC, a hybrid PEMFC and battery storage system is considered and modelled. The model utilizes PEMFC as the main energy source whereas the battery functions as energy storage to compensate for the limitations of PEMFC.Simulation results are given to show the overall system performance under light and heavyloading conditions.

271
3409
Subthreshold Circuit Performance Investigation under Temperature Variations
Abstract:
Ultra-low-power (ULP) circuits have received widespread attention due to the rapid growth of biomedical applications and Battery-less Electronics. Subthreshold region of transistor operation is used in ULP circuits. Major research challenge in the subthreshold operating region is to extract the ULP benefits with minimal degradation in speed and robustness. Process, Voltage and Temperature (PVT) variations significantly affect the performance of subthreshold circuits. Designed performance parameters of ULP circuits may vary largely due to temperature variations. Hence, this paper investigates the effect of temperature variation on device and circuit performance parameters at different biasing voltages in the subthreshold region. Simulation results clearly demonstrate that in deep subthreshold and near threshold voltage regions, performance parameters are significantly affected whereas in moderate subthreshold region, subthreshold circuits are more immune to temperature variations. This establishes that moderate subthreshold region is ideal for temperature immune circuits.
270
6587
The Perception of Omani E-consumers on the Importance and Performance of Dubai SMHs' Website Dimensions and Attributes
Abstract:

There is no doubt that Internet technology is widely used by hotels and its demand is constantly booming. Hotels have largely adopted website information services through using different interactive tools, dimensions and attributes to achieve excellence in functionality and usability but these do not necessary equate with website effectiveness. One way to investigate the effectiveness of hotel website is from the perspective ofe-consumers. This exploratory research is to investigate the perceived importance of websites effectiveness of some selected independent small and medium-sized hotels (SMHs) located in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, from the perspective of Omanie-consumers by using non-random sampling method. From 400 questionnaire addressed to respondents in 27 organizations in Muscat the capital city of Oman, 173 are valid. Findings of this study assist SMHs management in Dubai with the reallocation of their resources and efforts in order to supportebusiness development and to sustain a competitive advantage.

269
5
Creating a Space for Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Engineering Students through English Language Teaching
Abstract:
The complexity of teaching English in higher institutions by non-native speakers within a second/foreign language setting has created continuous discussions and research about teaching approaches and teaching practises, professional identities and challenges. In addition, there is a growing awareness that teaching English within discipline-specific contexts adds up to the existing complexity. This awareness leads to reassessments, discussions and suggestions on course design and content and teaching approaches and techniques. In meeting expectations teaching at a university specified in a particular discipline such as engineering, English language educators are not only required to teach students to be able to communicate in English effectively but also to teach soft skills such as problem solving skills. This paper is part of a research conducted to investigate how English language educators negotiate with the complexities of teaching problem solving skills through English language teaching at a technical university. This paper reports the way an English language educator identified himself and the way he approached his teaching in this institutional context.
268
6139
Modeling the Uncertainty of the Remanufacturing Process for Consideration of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR)
Abstract:
There is a growing body of evidence to support the proposition of product take back for remanufacturing particularly within the context of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). Remanufacturing however presents challenges unlike that of traditional manufacturing environments due to its high levels of uncertainty which may further distract organizations from considering its potential benefits. This paper presents a novel modeling approach for evaluating the uncertainty of part failures within the remanufacturing process and its impact on economic and environmental performance measures. This paper presents both the theoretical modeling approach and an example of its use in application.
267
9893
Fuzzy Sliding Mode Speed Controller for a Vector Controlled Induction Motor
Abstract:
This paper presents a speed fuzzy sliding mode controller for a vector controlled induction machine (IM) fed by a voltage source inverter (PWM). The sliding mode based fuzzy control method is developed to achieve fast response, a best disturbance rejection and to maintain a good decoupling. The problem with sliding mode control is that there is high frequency switching around the sliding mode surface. The FSMC is the combination of the robustness of Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and the smoothness of Fuzzy Logic (FL). To reduce the torque fluctuations (chattering), the sign function used in the conventional SMC is substituted with a fuzzy logic algorithm. The proposed algorithm was simulated by Matlab/Simulink software and simulation results show that the performance of the control scheme is robust and the chattering problem is solved.
Keywords:
266
10142
Concentrated Solar Power Utilization in Space Vehicles Propulsion and Power Generation
Abstract:
The objective from this paper is to design a solar thermal engine for space vehicles orbital control and electricity generation. A computational model is developed for the prediction of the solar thermal engine performance for different design parameters and conditions in order to enhance the engine efficiency. The engine is divided into two main subsystems. First, the concentrator dish which receives solar energy from the sun and reflects them to the cavity receiver. The second one is the cavity receiver which receives the heat flux reflected from the concentrator and transfers heat to the fluid passing over. Other subsystems depend on the application required from the engine. For thrust application, a nozzle is introduced to the system for the fluid to expand and produce thrust. Hydrogen is preferred as a working fluid in the thruster application. Results model developed is used to determine the thrust for a concentrator dish 4 meters in diameter (provides 10 kW of energy), focusing solar energy to a 10 cm aperture diameter cavity receiver. The cavity receiver outer length is 50 cm and the internal cavity is 47 cm in length. The suggested design material of the internal cavity is tungsten to withstand high temperature. The thermal model and analysis shows that the hydrogen temperature at the plenum reaches 2000oK after about 250 seconds for hot start operation for a flow rate of 0.1 g/sec.Using solar thermal engine as an electricity generation device on earth is also discussed. In this case a compressor and turbine are used to convert the heat gained by the working fluid (air) into mechanical power. This mechanical power can be converted into electrical power by using a generator.
265
2729
Electromyographic Activity of the Medial Gastrocnemius and Lateral Gastrocnemius Muscle during Salat-s and Specific Exercise
Abstract:
This paper investigates the activity of the gastrocnemius (Gas) muscle in healthy subjects during salat (ruku- position) and specific exercise [Unilateral Plantar Flexion Exercise (UPFE)] using electromyography (EMG). Both lateral and medial Gas muscles were assessed. A group of undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat and exercise with almost same EMG-s level. From the result, Wilcoxon-s Rank Sum test showed no significant difference between ruku- and UPFE for both medial (p=0.082) and lateral (p=0.226) of GAS muscles. Therefore, salat may be useful in strengthening exercise and also in rehabilitation programs for lower limb activities.
264
111
DEA Method for Evaluation of EU Performance
Abstract:

The paper deals with an application of quantitative analysis – the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method to performance evaluation of the European Union Member States, in the reference years 2000 and 2011. The main aim of the paper is to measure efficiency changes over the reference years and to analyze a level of productivity in individual countries based on DEA method and to classify the EU Member States to homogeneous units (clusters) according to efficiency results. The theoretical part is devoted to the fundamental basis of performance theory and the methodology of DEA. The empirical part is aimed at measuring degree of productivity and level of efficiency changes of evaluated countries by basic DEA model – CCR CRS model, and specialized DEA approach – the Malmquist Index measuring the change of technical efficiency and the movement of production possibility frontier. Here, DEA method becomes a suitable tool for setting a competitive/uncompetitive position of each country because there is not only one factor evaluated, but a set of different factors that determine the degree of economic development.

263
2738
The Role of the Shamanistic Music in the Kazakh Folk Culture
Abstract:

The relics of traditional folk culture in Kazakhstan are ceremonies or their fragments - such as weddings, funerals, shamanism. The world of spiritual creatures, spirits-protectors, spirits-helpers, injury spirits, spirits of illnesses, etc., is described in detail in shamanic rites (in Kazakh culture it is called bakslyk). The study of these displays of folk culture, which reflect the peoples` ethnic mentality or notions about the structure, values and hierarchies of the universe, includes collection and recording of the field materials and their interpretation, i.e. reconstruction of those meanings which were initially embodied or “coded" in folklore. A distinctive feature of Kazakh nomadic culture is its self-preservation and actualization, almost untouched the ancient mythologies of the world, in particular, the mythologies connected with music, musical instruments and the creator of music. Within the frameworks of the traditional culture the word and the music keep the sacral meaning. The ritual melodies and what they carry – the holly, and at the same time unexplored, powerful and threatening, uncontrolled by people world – keep on attributing the soul to all, connected with culture.

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5249
Increase Success by Decreasing Admission for Maths– Fairytale or Reality?
Abstract:
South Africa is facing a crisis with not being able to produce enough graduates in the scarce skills areas to sustain economic growth. The crisis is fuelled by a school system that does not produce enough potential students with Mathematics, Accounting and Science. Since the introduction of the new school curriculum in 2008, there is no longer an option to take pure maths on a standard grade level. Instead, only two mathematical subjects are offered: pure maths (which is on par with higher grade maths) and mathematical literacy. It is compulsory to take one or the other. As a result, lees student finishes Grade 12 with pure mathematics every year. This national problem needs urgent attention if South Africa is to make any headway in critical skills development as mathematics is a gateway to scarce skills professions. Higher education institutions initiated several initiatives in an attempt to address the above, including preparatory courses, bridging programmes and extended curricula with foundation provisions. In view of the above, and government policy directives to broaden access in the scarce skills areas to increase student throughput, foundation provision was introduced for Commerce and Information Technology programmes at the Vaal Triangle Campus (VTC) of North-West University (NWU) in 2010. Students enrolling for extended programmes do not comply with the minimum prerequisites for the normal programmes. The question then arises as to whether these programmes have the intended impact? This paper reports the results of a two year longitudinal study, tracking the first year academic achievement of the two cohorts of enrolments since 2010. The results provide valuable insight into the structuring of an extended programme and its potential impact.
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4846
Assessment of EU Competitiveness Factors by Multivariate Methods
Authors:
Abstract:

Measurement of competitiveness between countries or regions is an important topic of many economic analysis and scientific papers. In European Union (EU), there is no mainstream approach of competitiveness evaluation and measuring. There are many opinions and methods of measurement and evaluation of competitiveness between states or regions at national and European level. The methods differ in structure of using the indicators of competitiveness and ways of their processing. The aim of the paper is to analyze main sources of competitive potential of the EU Member States with the help of Factor analysis (FA) and to classify the EU Member States to homogeneous units (clusters) according to the similarity of selected indicators of competitiveness factors by Cluster analysis (CA) in reference years 2000 and 2011. The theoretical part of the paper is devoted to the fundamental bases of competitiveness and the methodology of FA and CA methods. The empirical part of the paper deals with the evaluation of competitiveness factors in the EU Member States and cluster comparison of evaluated countries by cluster analysis. 

260
8704
Influence of Combined Drill Coulters on Seedbed Compaction under Conservation Tillage Technologies
Abstract:
All over the world, including the Middle and East European countries, sustainable tillage and sowing technologies are applied increasingly broadly with a view to optimising soil resources, mitigating soil degradation processes, saving energy resources, preserving biological diversity, etc. As a result, altered conditions of tillage and sowing technological processes are faced inevitably. The purpose of this study is to determine the seedbed topsoil hardness when using a combined sowing coulter in different sustainable tillage technologies. The research involved a combined coulter consisting of two dissected blade discs and a shoe coulter. In order to determine soil hardness at the seedbed area, a multipenetrometer was used. It was found by experimental studies that in loosened soil, a combined sowing coulter equally suppresses the furrow bottom, walls and soil near the furrow; therefore, here, soil hardness was similar at all researched depths and no significant differences were established. In loosened and compacted (double-rolled) soil, the impact of a combined coulter on the hardness of seedbed soil surface was more considerable at a depth of 2 mm. Soil hardness at the furrow bottom and walls to a distance of up to 26 mm was 1.1 MPa. At a depth of 10 mm, the greatest hardness was established at the furrow bottom. In loosened and heavily compacted (rolled for 6 times) soil, at a depth of 2 and 10 mm a combined coulter most of all compacted the furrow bottom, which has a hardness of 1.8 MPa. At a depth of 20 mm, soil hardness within the whole investigated area varied insignificantly and fluctuated by around 2.0 MPa. The hardness of furrow walls and soil near the furrow was by approximately 1.0 MPa lower than that at the furrow bottom
259
10181
Principal Type of Water Responsible for Damage of Concrete Repeated Freeze-Thaw Cycles
Authors:
Abstract:

The first and basic cause of the failure of concrete is repeated freezing (thawing) of moisture contained in the pores, microcracks, and cavities of the concrete. On transition to ice, water existing in the free state in cracks increases in volume, expanding the recess in which freezing occurs. A reduction in strength below the initial value is to be expected and further cycle of freezing and thawing have a further marked effect. By using some experimental parameters like nuclear magnetic resonance variation (NMR), enthalpy-temperature (or heat capacity) variation, we can resolve between the various water states and their effect on concrete properties during cooling through the freezing transition temperature range. The main objective of this paper is to describe the principal type of water responsible for the reduction in strength and structural damage (frost damage) of concrete following repeated freeze –thaw cycles. Some experimental work was carried out at the institute of cryogenics to determine what happens to water in concrete during the freezing transition. 

258
8662
Reliable One-Dimensional Model of Two-Dimensional Insulated Oval Duct Considering Heat Radiation
Abstract:
The reliable results of an insulated oval duct considering heat radiation are obtained basing on accurate oval perimeter obtained by integral method as well as one-dimensional Plane Wedge Thermal Resistance (PWTR) model. This is an extension study of former paper of insulated oval duct neglecting heat radiation. It is found that in the practical situations with long-short-axes ratio a/b <= 5/1, heat transfer rate errors are within 1.2 % by comparing with accurate two-dimensional numerical solutions for most practical dimensionless insulated thickness (t/R2 <= 0.5). On the contrary, neglecting the heat radiation effect is likely to produce very big heat transfer rate errors of non-insulated (E>43% at t/R2=0) and thin-insulated (E>4.5% while t/R2<= 0.1) oval ducts in situations of ambient air with lower external convection heat coefficients and larger surface emissivity.
257
13313
Langmuir–Blodgett Films of Polyaniline for Efficient Detection of Uric Acid
Abstract:

Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films of polyaniline (PANI) grown onto ITO coated glass substrates were utilized for the fabrication of Uric acid biosensor for efficient detection of uric acid by immobilizing Uricase via EDC–NHS coupling. The modified electrodes were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The response characteristics after immobilization of uricase were studied using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The uricase/PANI/ITO/glass bioelectrode studied by CV and EIS techniques revealed detection of uric acid in a wide range of 0.05 mM to 1.0 mM, covering the physiological range in blood. A low Michaelis–Menten constant (Km) of 0.21 mM indicates the higher affinity of immobilized Uricase towards its analyte (uric acid). The fabricated uric acid biosensor based on PANI LB films exhibits excellent sensitivity of 0.21 mA/mM with a response time of 4 s, good reproducibility, long shelf life (8 weeks) and high selectivity.

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12307
Development of a Brain Glutamate Microbiosensor
Abstract:

This work attempts to improve the permselectivity of poly-ortho-phenylenediamine (PPD) coating for glutamate biosensor applications on Pt microelectrode, using constant potential amperometry and cyclic voltammetry. Percentage permeability of the modified PPD microelectrode was carried out towards hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ascorbic acid (AA) whereas permselectivity represents the percentage interference by AA in H2O2 detection. The 50-μm diameter Pt disk microelectrode showed a good permeability value toward H2O2 (95%) and selectivity against AA (0.01%) compared to other sizes of electrode studied here. The electrode was further modified with glutamate oxidase (GluOx) that was immobilized and cross linked with glutaraldehyde (GA, 0.125%), resulting in Pt/PPD/GluOx-GA electrode design. The maximum current density Jmax and apparent Michaelis constant, KM, obtained on Pt/PPD/GluOx-GA electrodes were 48 μA cm-2 and 50 μM, respectively. The linear region slope (LRS) was 0.96 μA cm-2 mM-1. The detection limit (LOD) for glutamate was 3.0 ± 0.6 μM. This study shows a promising glutamate microbiosensor for brain glutamate detection. 

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1826
On the Invariant Uniform Roe Algebra as Crossed Product
Abstract:

The uniform Roe C*-algebra (also called uniform translation)C^*- algebra provides a link between coarse geometry and C^*- algebra theory. The uniform Roe algebra has a great importance in geometry, topology and analysis. We consider some of the elementary concepts associated with coarse spaces. 

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10449
Understanding the Silence: When Courts Don-t Speak About Religion
Authors:
Abstract:
India recognizes the personal laws of the various religious communities that reside in the country. At the same time all the institutions of the state in India are committed to the value of secularism. This paper has been developed on the basis of a case study that indicates the dynamics of religion in the working of the lower judiciary in India. Majority of the commentary on religion and the judiciary has focused on debates surrounding the existence and application of personal laws. This paper, through a case study in the lower judiciary, makes an attempt to examine whether the interface between religion and the judiciary goes beyond personal laws. The first part of this paper explains the history and application of personal laws in social, political and legal contexts in India. The second part examines the case study located in two courts of first instance, following into the third part which provides an analysis of the empirical evidence. The fourth part focuses on preliminary observations about why there is a hesitancy to speak about religion in relation to the working of the judicial system.
253
4098
Islam and Values of Kazakh Culture
Abstract:
Unlike Christianity and Buddhism, Islam, being one of the three universal world religions, actively penetrates into people-s everyday life. The main reason for this is that in Islam the religion and ideology, philosophy, religious organizations and state bodies are closely interrelated. In order to analyze the state of being of interrelations of religion and civil society in Kazakhstan, it is necessary to study Islam and its relations with spiritual culture of the society. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan the religion is separated from the state, i.e. each performs its own function without interfering into each other-s affairs. The right of the citizens of our republic to freedom of thinking and faith is based on the Constitution of the RK, Civil Code, Law “On freedom of faith and religious unions in the Republic of Kazakhstan". Legislatively secured separation of the mosque and church from the state does not mean that religion has no influence on the latter. The state, consisting of citizens with their own beliefs, including religious ones, cannot be isolated from the influence of religion. Nowadays it is commonly accepted that it is not possible to understand and forecast key social processes without taking into account the religious factor.
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12115
Cultural Integration as a Factor of Genesis of the Kazakh Nation in the Conditions of Multicultural Society
Abstract:
The article analyses historical aspects of the formation of the Kazakh nation in the conditions of the multicultural society. The authors underline cultural integration as a significant stage of the cultural advancement of the Kazakh nation. The transition to the modern-style houses, the adoption and development of the secular education gave a rise to the development of the society and culture on the whole.
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8465
The Corporate Integration of Highly Skilled Professionals - A Social Capital Perspective
Authors:
Abstract:
Not with standing the importance of foreign highly skilled professionals for host economies, there is a paucity of research studies investigating the role of the corporate social context during the integration process. This research aims to address this paucity by exploring the role of social capital in the integration of foreign health professionals. It does so by using a qualitative research approach. In this pilot study the hospital sector forms this study-s sample and interviews were conducted with HR managers, foreign health professionals and external HR consultants. It was found that most of the participating hospitals had not established specific HR practices and had only partly linked the development of organisational social capital with a successful integration process. This research contributes, for example, to the HR literature on the integration of self-initiated expatriates by analysing the role of HRM in generating organisational social capital needed for a successful integration process.
250
6771
Vulnerability Assessment of Blida City
Abstract:
The seismic vulnerability of an urban area is of a great deal for local authorities especially those facing earthquakes. So, it is important to have an efficient tool to assess the vulnerability of existing buildings. The use of the VIP (Vulnerability Index Program) and the GIS (Geographic Information System) let us to identify the most vulnerable districts of an urban area. The use of the vulnerability index method lets us to assess the vulnerability of the center town of Blida (Algeria) which is a historical town and which has grown enormously during the last decades. In this method, three levels of vulnerability are defined. The GIS has been used to build a data base in order to perform different thematic analyses. These analyses show the seismic vulnerability of Blida.
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11812
Multi Task Scheme to Monitor Multivariate Environments Using Artificial Neural Network
Authors:
Abstract:

When an assignable cause(s) manifests itself to a multivariate process and the process shifts to an out-of-control condition, a root-cause analysis should be initiated by quality engineers to identify and eliminate the assignable cause(s) affected the process. A root-cause analysis in a multivariate process is more complex compared to a univariate process. In the case of a process involved several correlated variables an effective root-cause analysis can be only experienced when it is possible to identify the required knowledge including the out-of-control condition, the change point, and the variable(s) responsible to the out-of-control condition, all simultaneously. Although literature addresses different schemes to monitor multivariate processes, one can find few scientific reports focused on all the required knowledge. To the best of the author’s knowledge this is the first time that a multi task model based on artificial neural network (ANN) is reported to monitor all the required knowledge at the same time for a multivariate process with more than two correlated quality characteristics. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated numerically when different step shifts affect the mean vector. Average run length is used to investigate the performance of the proposed multi task model. The simulated results indicate the multi task scheme performs all the required knowledge effectively.

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6523
Examining Herzberg-s Two Factor Theory in a Large Chinese Chemical Fiber Company
Authors:
Abstract:
The validity of Herzberg-s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation was tested empirically by surveying 2372 chemical fiber employees in 2012. In the valid sample of 1875 respondents, the degree of overall job satisfaction was more than moderate. The most highly valued components of job satisfaction were: “corporate image," “collaborative working atmosphere," and “supervisor-s expertise"; whereas the lowest mean score was 34.65 for “job rotation and promotion." The top three job retention options rated by the participants were “good image of the enterprise," “good compensation," and “workplace is close to my residence." The overall evaluation of the level of thriving facilitation workplace reached almost to “mostly agree." For those participants who chose at least one motivator as their job retention options had significantly greater job satisfaction than those who chose only hygiene factors as their retention options. Therefore, Herzberg-s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation was proven valid in this study.
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3147
“The Social Destination“: How Social Media Influences the Organisational Structure and Leadership of DMOs
Abstract:

The paper deals with the most important changes that have occurred in business because of social media and its impact on organisations and leadership in recent years. It seeks to synthesize existing research, theories and concepts, in order to understand "social destinations", and to provide a bridge from past research to future success. Becoming a "social destination" is a strategic and tactical leadership and management issue and the paper will present the importance of destination leadership in choosing the way towards a social destination and some organisational models. It also presents some social media tools that can be used in transforming a destination into a social one. Adapting organisations to the twentyfirst century means adopting social media as a way of life and a way of business.

246
1604
The Tort Liability of the State in the Portuguese Administrative Courts
Abstract:
The Portuguese Constitution, in article 22, instituted the general principle of tort liability of the State and other public law entities. Consequently, ordinary legislation established the tort liability of the State into the Portuguese Legal Order, by means of Decree-Law 48051, of 1967. This decree, which was criticised extensively, was amended by virtue of Law 67/2007, of 31st December, establishing the regime for tort liability arising from losses caused by third parties, due to the acts of public management in relation to all the functions of the State, i.e. i) administrative, ii) legislative, and iii) jurisdictional.
245
371
Cultural Identity - A (Re)construction?
Authors:
Abstract:

The study explored the question of who am I? As a (re)construction of cultural identity by delving into globalization, communication, and social change in Malta during a historical moment when Malta became a European Union Member State. Three objectives guided this qualitative study. Firstly the study reviewed European Union (EU) policies that regulate broadcasting and their implementation in Member States, whilst meeting the challenges of globalization and new media technology. Secondly the research investigated the changes of the media landscape via organizational structures, programs and television (TV) content. Finally the study explored the impact of these transformations taking place in the way Maltese live as they (re)construct their cultural identity. Despite the choices available to the Maltese audience, old local traditions and new foreign customs coexist as informants continue to (re)construct their cultural identity and define who they are.

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10730
Effects of a Recreational Workout Program on Task-Analyzed Exercise Performance of Adults with Severe Cognitive Impairments
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a recreational workout program for adults with disabilities over two semesters. This investigation was an action study conducted in a naturalistic setting. Participants included equal numbers of adults with severe cognitive impairments (n = 35) and adults without disabilities (n = 35). Adults with disabilities severe cognitive impairments were trained 6 self-initiated workout activities over two semesters by adults without disabilities. The numbers of task-analyzed steps of each activity performed correctly by each participant at the first and last weeks of each semester were used for data analysis. Results of the paired t-tests indicate that across two semesters, significant differences between the first and last weeks were found on 4 out of the 6 task-analyzed workout activities at a statistical level of significance p < .05. The recreational workout program developed in this study was effective.

243
4793
Optimization of Multifunctional Battery Structures for Mars
Abstract:
Multifunctional structures are a potentially disruptive technology that allows for significant mass savings on spacecraft. The specific concept addressed herein is that of a multifunctional power structure. In this paper, a parametric optimisation of the design of such a structure that uses commercially available battery cells is presented. Using numerical modelling, it was found that there exists several trade-offs aboutthe conflict between the capacity of the panel and its mechanical properties. It was found that there is no universal optimal location for the cells. Placing them close to the mechanical interfaces increases loading in the mechanically weak cells whereas placing them at the centre of the panel increases the stress inthe panel and reduces the stiffness of the structure.
242
15188
Dual-Response Approach to Work Stress: An Investigation of Stressors and Wellbeing Outcomes
Abstract:
This study sought to uncover the complex role of stress in the workplace by investigating both positive (eustress) and negative (distress) stress responses. In particular, the study tested a mediation model in which organisational stressors (person-job fit and role overload) influence employee affective wellbeing, both directly and indirectly through stress responses. Participants were recruited from retail and finance organisations in Australia and New Zealand, and asked to complete an anonymous online questionnaire. A total of 140 individuals returned completed questionnaires. The results show that person-job fit influenced eustress, which in turn had a positive effect on employee affective wellbeing; and role overload impacted distress, which in turn held a negative influence on affective wellbeing. These findings indicate that different organisational stressors have unique relationships with eustress and distress responses. Limitations and implications of the study are discussed.
241
1006
Some Physico-Chemical and Nutritional Properties of `Musmula` Medlar (Mespilus germanica L.) Grown in Northeast Anatolia
Abstract:
In this study, The physico-chemical and nutritional properties of `Musmula` Medlar (Mespilus germanica L.) fruit and seed grown in Northeast Anatolia was investigated. In the fruit, length, width, thickness, weight, total soluble solids, colour (1), colour (2) [L, a, b values], protein, crude ash, crude fiber, crude oil, texture and pH were determinated as 4.34 cm, 4.22 cm, 3.67 cm, 38.36 g, 23.97 %, S60O60Y41,, [53.85, 17.15, 33.75], 1.06 %, 0.79 %, 4.24 %, 0.005 %, 1.21 kg/cm2 and 4.26 respectively. Also, pulp ratio, seed ratio and pulp/seed ratio were found to be 92.88 %, 7.11 % and 14.07 %, respectively. In addition, the mineral composition of medlar fruit in Northeast Anatolia was studied. In the fruit, 23 minerals were analyzed and 19 minerals were present at detectable levels. The medlar fruit was richest in potassium (6962 ppm), calcium (1186.378 ppm), magnesium (1070.08 ppm) and phosphor (763.425 ppm).
240
7542
Mineral and Some Physico-Chemical Composition of 'Karayemis' (Prunus laurocerasus L.) Fruits Grown in Northeast Turkey
Abstract:
Some physico-chemical characteristics and mineral composition of 'Karayemis' (Prunus laurocerasus L.) fruits which grown naturally in Norteast Turkey was studied. 28 minerals ( Al, Mg, B, Mn, Co, Na, Ca, Ni, Cd, P, Cr, Pb, Cu, S, Fe, Zn, K, Sr, Li, As, V, Ag, Ba, Br, Ga, In, Se, Ti) were analyzed and 19 minerals were present at ascertainable levels. Karayemis fruit was richest in potassium (7938.711 ppm), magnesium (1242.186 ppm) and calcium (1158.853 ppm). And some physico-chemical characteristics of Karayemis fruit was investigated. Fruit length, fruit width, fruit thickness, fruit weight, total soluble solids, colour, protein, crude ash, crude fiber, crude oil values were determined as 2.334 cm, 1.884 cm, 2.112 cm, 5.35 g, 20.1 %, S99M99Y99, 0.29 %, 0.22 %, 6.63 % and 0.001 %, respectively. The seed of fruit mean weight, length, width and thickness were found to be 0.41 g, 1.303 cm, 0.921 cm and 0.803, respectively.
239
8033
Some Physico-chemical and Nutritional Properties of Russion Olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.) Fruit Grown in Turkey
Abstract:

In this research, several physical and chemical properties and mineral contents of Russion olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.) fruit grown in Turkey were determined. In the fruit, length, width, thickness, weight were determined as 2.866cm, 1.880cm, 1.870cm, 2.90g; total soluble solids and colour were determined as 13.14% and S33O60Y99, respectively. In the seed, mean length, width, thickness, and weight were found to be 2.420cm, 0.508cm, 0.503cm, and 0.38g, respectively. In the fruit, 28 minerals (K, P, Ca, Na, Mg, S, Pb, Ba, Ga, As, In, Ti, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co, B, Cd, Se, Li, Sr, Al, Ni, Ag, V, Cr, Bi) were analyzed and 19 minerals were present at detectable levels. Russion olive fruit was richest in potassium (10296.906ppm), Mg (762.314ppm), P (609.694ppm), Ca (547.647ppm), and Na (222.749ppm).

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12591
Some Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Mineral Contents of Gilaburu (Viburnum opulus L.) Fruits in Turkey
Abstract:
Gilaburu (Viburnum opulus L.) grown naturally in Anatolia. In this study, some physico-chemical (sugar, acid, protein, crude fat, crude fiber, ash etc.) characteristics and mineral composition of Gilaburu fruit have been investigated. The length, width, thickness, weight, total soluble solid, protein, crude ash, crude fiber and crude oil of fruit were found to be 1.12 cm, 1.58 cm, 1.87 cm, 0.87 g, 14.73 %, 0.2 %, 0.11 %, 6.56 % and 0.4 %, respectively. The seed of fruit mean weight, length, width and thickness were determinated as 0.08 g, 7.76 cm, 7.67 cm and 1.66, respectively. In addition 27 mineral elements (Al, Mg, Na, Ba, Ca, Ni, Cd, P, Cr, Pb, S, Cu, Se, Fe, K, Sr, Li, Z, V, Ag, Bi, Co, Mn, B, Ga, In, Ti) were analyzed. Gilaburu (Viburnum opulus L.) fruit was richest in potassium (10764.764 ppm), Mg (1289.088 ppm) and P (1304.169 ppm).
237
12014
On Some Signs of a Recurrent Climate Scenario Advent
Abstract:
Since atmosphere pressure field is an actual envoy of climatic signal the atmospheric Highs and Lows should be attributed to the key active focal points within the ocean-atmosphere interplay system. Here we were set a task to determine how the dynamics of those centres of action relates to the climate change both on regional and global scales. For this target the near-surface temperature and atmospheric pressure differences between the Icelandic Low and the Azores High were considered. The secular term of phase states of the system under consideration was found divided into three nonintersecting subsets. Each of that was put in consequence with one of three climatic scenarios related to the periods of 1905-1935 (relatively warm phase), 1940-1970 (cold phase) and 1980-2000 (warm phase).
236
4707
Analysis of the Root Causes of Transformer Bushing Failures
Abstract:
This paper presents the results of a comprehensive investigation of five blackouts that occurred on 28 August to 8 September 2011 due to bushing failures of the 132/33 kV, 125 MVA transformers at JBB Ali Grid station. The investigation aims to explore the root causes of the bushing failures and come up with recommendations that help in rectifying the problem and avoiding the reoccurrence of similar type of incidents. The incident reports about the failed bushings and the SCADA reports at this grid station were examined and analyzed. Moreover, comprehensive power quality field measurements at ten 33/11 kV substations (S/Ss) in JBB Ali area were conducted, and frequency scans were performed to verify any harmonic resonance frequencies due to power factor correction capacitors. Furthermore, the daily operations of the on-load tap changers (OLTCs) of both the 125 MVA and 20 MVA transformers at JBB Ali Grid station have been analyzed. The investigation showed that the five bushing failures were due to a local problem, i.e. internal degradation of the bushing insulation. This has been confirmed by analyzing the time interval between successive OLTC operations of the faulty grid transformers. It was also found that monitoring the number of OLTC operations can help in predicting bushing failure.
235
7625
Assessing the Effect of Thermodynamic, Hydrodynamic and Geometric of an Air Cooled Condenser on COP of Vapor Compression Cycle
Abstract:
In this paper, the effects of thermodynamic, hydrodynamic and geometric of an air cooled condenser on COP of vapor compression cycle are investigated for a fixed condenser facing surface area. The system is utilized with a scroll compressor, modeled based on thermodynamic and heat transfer equations employing Matlab software. The working refrigerant is R134a whose thermodynamic properties are called from Engineering Equation Software. This simulation shows that vapor compression cycle can be designed by different configurations and COPs, economical and optimum working condition can be obtained via considering these parameters.
234
4357
Why We Are Taller in the Morning than Going to Bed at Night – An in vivo and in vitro Study
Abstract:
Intradiscal and intervertebral pressure transducers were developed. They were used to map the pressures in the nucleus and within the annulus of the human spinal segments. Their stressrelaxation were recorded over a period of time for nucleus pressure, applied load, and peripherial strain against time. The results show that for normal discs, pressures in the nucleus are viscoelastic in nature with the applied compressive load. Mechanical strains which develop around the periphery of the vertebral body are also viscoelastic with the applied compressive load. Applied compressive load against time also shows viscoelastic behavior. However, annulus does not respond viscoelastically with the applied load. It showed a linear response to compressive loading.
233
859
Effects of Opening Shape and Location on the Structural Strength of R.C. Deep Beams with Openings
Abstract:
This research investigates the effects of the opening shape and location on the structural behavior of reinforced concrete deep beam with openings, while keeping the opening size unchanged. The software ANSYS 12.1 is used to handle the nonlinear finite element analysis. The ultimate strength of reinforced concrete deep beam with opening obtained by ANSYS 12.1 shows fair agreement with the experimental results, with a difference of no more than 20%. The present work concludes that the opening location has much more effect on the structural strength than the opening shape. It was concluded that placing the openings near the upper corners of the deep beam may double the strength, and the use of a rectangular narrow opening, with the long sides in the horizontal direction, can save up to 40% of structural strength of the deep beam.
232
3784
Repairing and Strengthening Earthquake Damaged RC Beams with Composites
Abstract:

The dominant judgment for earthquake damaged reinforced concrete (RC) structures is to rebuild them with the new ones. Consequently, this paper estimates if there is chance to repair earthquake RC beams and obtain economical contribution to modern day society. Therefore, the totally damaged (damaged in shear under cyclic load) reinforced concrete (RC) beams repaired and strengthened by externally bonded carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) strips in this study. Four specimens, apart from the reference beam, were separated into two distinct groups. Two experimental beams in the first group primarily tested up to failure then appropriately repaired and strengthened with CFRP strips. Two undamaged specimens from the second group were not repaired but strengthened by the identical strengthening scheme as the first group for comparison. This study studies whether earthquake damaged RC beams that have been repaired and strengthened will validate similar strength and behavior to equally strengthened, undamaged RC beams. Accordingly, a strength correspondence according to strengthened specimens was acquired for the repaired and strengthened specimens. Test results confirmed that repair and strengthening, which were estimated in the experimental program, were effective for the specimens with the cracking patterns considered in the experimental program. 

231
4425
Mouse Pointer Tracking with Eyes
Abstract:
In this article, we expose our research work in Human-machine Interaction. The research consists in manipulating the workspace by eyes. We present some of our results, in particular the detection of eyes and the mouse actions recognition. Indeed, the handicaped user becomes able to interact with the machine in a more intuitive way in diverse applications and contexts. To test our application we have chooses to work in real time on videos captured by a camera placed in front of the user.
230
299
Biocompatibility of NiTi Alloy Implants in vivo
Abstract:
In this study, the powders of Ni and Ti with 50.5 at.% Ni for 12 h were blended and cold pressed at the different pressures (50, 75 and100 MPa).The porous product obtained after Ni-Ti compacts were synthesized by SHS (self-propagating hightemperature synthesis) in the different preheating temperatures (200, 250 and 300oC) and heating rates (30, 60 and 90oC/min). The effects of the pressure, preheating temperature and heating rate were investigated on biocompatibility in vivo. The porosity in the synthesized products was in the range of 50.7–59.7 vol. %. The pressure, preheating temperature and heating rate were found to have an important effect on the biocompatibility in-vivo of the synthesized products. Max. fibrotic tissue within the porous implant was found in vivo periods (6 months), in which compacting pressure 100MPa.
229
15832
Thermal and Morphological Evaluation of Chemically Pretreated Sugarcane Bagasse
Abstract:

Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the major steps involved in the conversion from sugarcane bagasse to yield ethanol. This process offers potential for yields and selectivity higher, lower energy costs and milder operating conditions than chemical processes. However, the presence of some factors such as lignin content, crystallinity degree of the cellulose, and particle sizes, limits the digestibility of the cellulose present in the lignocellulosic biomasses. Pretreatment aims to improve the access of the enzyme to the substrate. In this study sugarcane bagasse was submitted chemical pretreatment that consisted of two consecutive steps, the first with dilute sulfuric acid (1 % (v/v) H2SO4), and the second with alkaline solutions with different concentrations of NaOH (1, 2, 3 and 4 % (w/v)). Thermal Analysis (TG/ DTG and DTA) was used to evaluate hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin contents in the samples. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the morphological structures of the in natura and chemically treated samples. Results showed that pretreatments were effective in chemical degradation of lignocellulosic materials of the samples, and also was possible to observe the morphological changes occurring in the biomasses after pretreatments.

228
6932
Synergy in Vertical Transformations of Expert Designers
Authors:
Abstract:
Existing literature ondesign reasoning seems to give either one sided accounts on expert design behaviour based on internal processing. In the same way ecological theoriesseem to focus one sidedly on external elementsthat result in a lack of unifying design cognition theory. Although current extended design cognition studies acknowledge the intellectual interaction between internal and external resources, there still seems to be insufficient understanding of the complexities involved in such interactive processes. As such,this paper proposes a novelmulti-directional model for design researchers tomap the complex and dynamic conduct controlling behaviour in which both the computational and ecological perspectives are integrated in a vertical manner. A clear distinction between identified intentional and emerging physical drivers, and relationships between them during the early phases of experts- design process, is demonstrated by presenting a case study in which the model was employed.
227
1564
Effect of Ionic Strength on Mercury Adsorption on Contaminated Soil
Abstract:
Mercury adsorption on soil was investigated at different ionic strengths using Ca(NO3)2 as a background electrolyte. Results fitted the Langmuir equation and the adsorption isotherms reached a plateau at higher equilibrium concentrations. Increasing ionic strength decreased the sorption of mercury, due to the competition of Ca ions for the sorption sites in the soils. The influence of ionic strength was related to the mechanisms of heavy metal sorption by the soil. These results can be of practical importance both in the agriculture and contaminated soils since the solubility of mercury in soils are strictly dependent on the adsorption and release process.
226
3965
Partial Derivatives and Optimization Problem on Time Scales
Abstract:
The optimization problem using time scales is studied. Time scale is a model of time. The language of time scales seems to be an ideal tool to unify the continuous-time and the discrete-time theories. In this work we present necessary conditions for a solution of an optimization problem on time scales. To obtain that result we use properties and results of the partial diamond-alpha derivatives for continuous-multivariable functions. These results are also presented here.
225
418
A CUSUM Control Chart to Monitor Wafer Quality
Abstract:

C-control chart assumes that process nonconformities follow a Poisson distribution. In actuality, however, this Poisson distribution does not always occur. A process control for semiconductor based on a Poisson distribution always underestimates the true average amount of nonconformities and the process variance. Quality is described more accurately if a compound Poisson process is used for process control at this time. A cumulative sum (CUSUM) control chart is much better than a C control chart when a small shift will be detected. This study calculates one-sided CUSUM ARLs using a Markov chain approach to construct a CUSUM control chart with an underlying Poisson-Gamma compound distribution for the failure mechanism. Moreover, an actual data set from a wafer plant is used to demonstrate the operation of the proposed model. The results show that a CUSUM control chart realizes significantly better performance than EWMA.

224
5271
Experimental Investigation of Drying Behavior of Rosehip in a Cyclone-Type Dryer
Abstract:
This paper describes an experimental investigation of the drying behavior and conditions of rosehip in a convective cyclone-type dryer. Drying experiments were conducted at air inlet temperatures of 50, 60 and 70 o C and air velocities of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 ms–1. The parametric values obtained from the experiments were fitted to the Newton mathematical models. Consequently, the drying model developed by Newton model showed good agreement with the data obtained from the experiments. Concluding, it was obtained that; (i) the temperature is the major effect on the drying process, (ii) air velocity has low effect on the drying of rosehip, (iii) the C-vitamin is observed to change according to the temperature, moisture, drying time and flow types. The changing ratio is found to be in the range of 0.70-0.74.
223
14536
Efficient Hardware Architecture of the Direct 2- D Transform for the HEVC Standard
Abstract:
This paper presents the hardware design of a unified architecture to compute the 4x4, 8x8 and 16x16 efficient twodimensional (2-D) transform for the HEVC standard. This architecture is based on fast integer transform algorithms. It is designed only with adders and shifts in order to reduce the hardware cost significantly. The goal is to ensure the maximum circuit reuse during the computing while saving 40% for the number of operations. The architecture is developed using FIFOs to compute the second dimension. The proposed hardware was implemented in VHDL. The VHDL RTL code works at 240 MHZ in an Altera Stratix III FPGA. The number of cycles in this architecture varies from 33 in 4-point- 2D-DCT to 172 when the 16-point-2D-DCT is computed. Results show frequency improvements reaching 96% when compared to an architecture described as the direct transcription of the algorithm.
222
10506
Estimation of the Moisture Diffusivity and Activation Energy in Thin Layer Drying of Ginger Slices
Abstract:
In the present work, the effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy were calculated using an infinite series solution of Fick-s diffusion equation. The results showed that increasing drying temperature accelerated the drying process. All drying experiments had only falling rate period. The average effective moisture diffusivity values varied from 2.807x10-10 to 6.977x10-10m2 s_1 over the temperature and velocity range. The temperature dependence of the effective moisture diffusivity for the thin layer drying of the ginger slices was satisfactorily described by an Arrhenius-type relationship with activation energy values of 19.313- 22.722 kJ.mol-1 within 40–70 °C and 0.8-3 ms-1 temperature range.
221
11199
Antioxidant Biosensor Using Microbe
Abstract:

The antioxidant compounds are needed for the food, beverages, and pharmaceuticals industry. For this purpose, an appropriate method is required to measure the antioxidant properties in various types of samples. Spectrophotometric method usually used has some weaknesses, including the high price, long sample preparation time, and less sensitivity. Among the alternative methods developed to overcome these weaknesses is antioxidant biosensor based on superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme. Therefore, this study was carried out to measure the SOD activity originating from Deinococcus radiodurans and to determine its kinetics properties. Carbon paste electrode modified with ferrocene and immobilized SOD exhibited anode and cathode current peak at potential of +400 and +300mv respectively, in both pure SOD and SOD of D. radiodurans. This indicated that the current generated was from superoxide catalytic dismutation reaction by SOD. Optimum conditions for SOD activity was at pH 9 and temperature of 27.50C for D. radiodurans SOD, and pH 11 and temperature of 200C for pure SOD. Dismutation reaction kinetics of superoxide catalyzed by SOD followed the Lineweaver-Burk kinetics with D. radiodurans SOD KMapp value was smaller than pure SOD. The result showed that D. radiodurans SOD had higher enzyme-substrate affinity and specificity than pure SOD. It concluded that D. radiodurans SOD had a great potential as biological recognition component for antioxidant biosensor.

220
15406
Hospitals Disaster Preparedness during Arab Spring in Yemen
Abstract:
Objective: The objective of this paper is to assess the hospitals preparedness for emergency using WHO standards. Method: This is a cross-sectional study, consisted of site visit, questionnaire survey, 16 health facilities were included. The WHO standard for emergency preparedness of health facilities was used to evaluate and assess the hospitals preparedness of health facilities. Result: 13 hospitals were responded. They scored below average in all measure >75%), while above average score was in 7 out 9 nine measure with a range of 8%-25%. Un acceptable below average was noted in two measures only. Discussion: The biggest challenge facing the hospitals in their emergency intervention is the lack of pre-emergency and emergency preparedness plans as well as the coordination of the hospitals response mechanisms. Conclusion: The studied hospitals presently are far from international disasters preparedness protocols. That necessitates improvements in emergency preparedness, as well as in physician skills for injury management.
219
1143
Asbestos and Other Man-Made Disasters
Abstract:

Widespread use of asbestos over the last century has left a terrible legacy of lung disease. Doctors knew of the health risks long ago, but almost nothing was done to protect workers and the public. Some aspects of nanotechnology may have risks similar to asbestos.

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14164
The Analysis of the Software Industry in Thailand
Abstract:
The software industry has been considered a critical infrastructure for any nation. Several studies have indicated that national competitiveness increasingly depends upon Information and Communication Technology (ICT), and software is one of the major components of ICT, important for both large and small enterprises. Even though there has been strong growth in the software industry in Thailand, the industry has faced many challenges and problems that need to be resolved. For example, the amount of pirated software has been rising, and Thailand still has a large gap in the digital divide. Additionally, the adoption among SMEs has been slow. This paper investigates various issues in the software industry in Thailand, using information acquired through analysis of secondary sources, observation, and focus groups. The results of this study can be used as “lessons learned" for the development of the software industry in any developing country.
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8997
A Study on Creation of Human-Based Co-Design Service Platform
Abstract:
With the approaching of digital era, various interactive service platforms and systems support human beings- needs in lives by different contents and measures. Design strategies have gradually turned from function-based to user-oriented, and are often customized. In other words, how designers include users- value reaction in creation becomes the goal. Creative design service of interior design requires positive interaction and communication to allow users to obtain full design information, recognize the style and process of personal needs, develop creative service design, lower communication time and cost and satisfy users- sense of achievement. Thus, by constructing a co-design method, based on the communication between interior designers and users, this study recognizes users- real needs and provides the measure of co-design for designers and users.
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2912
Greedy Geographical Void Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:
With the advantage of wireless network technology, there are a variety of mobile applications which make the issue of wireless sensor networks as a popular research area in recent years. As the wireless sensor network nodes move arbitrarily with the topology fast change feature, mobile nodes are often confronted with the void issue which will initiate packet losing, retransmitting, rerouting, additional transmission cost and power consumption. When transmitting packets, we would not predict void problem occurring in advance. Thus, how to improve geographic routing with void avoidance in wireless networks becomes an important issue. In this paper, we proposed a greedy geographical void routing algorithm to solve the void problem for wireless sensor networks. We use the information of source node and void area to draw two tangents to form a fan range of the existence void which can announce voidavoiding message. Then we use source and destination nodes to draw a line with an angle of the fan range to select the next forwarding neighbor node for routing. In a dynamic wireless sensor network environment, the proposed greedy void avoiding algorithm can be more time-saving and more efficient to forward packets, and improve current geographical void problem of wireless sensor networks.
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3235
A Study of the Relationship of PSI and LMX to Service Providers' CS in Hospitality Industry
Abstract:

The purpose of the current study is to gain insight into the relative role of professional self-image (PSI) for service providers among leader-member exchange (LMX), career success. Lack of studies demonstrated that PSI of service providers affect on their CS. So, it is necessary to, according to service providers- perspective, explore the relationship among LMX and CS in hospitality industry. The result of the current study can suggest strategic directions for hospitality practitioners in terms of constructing LMX relationship, so as to make service providers realize and build their PSI, and to promote their CS. Implications of these findings for hospitality implementations as well as future research directions are subsequently discussed.

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10539
Assessment of Vulnerability Curves Using Vulnerability Index Method for Reinforced Concrete Structures
Abstract:
The seismic feedback experiences in Algeria have shown higher percentage of damages for non-code conforming reinforced concrete (RC) buildings. Furthermore, the vulnerability of these buildings was further aggravated due to presence of many factors (e.g. weak the seismic capacity of these buildings, shorts columns, Pounding effect, etc.). Consequently Seismic risk assessments were carried out on populations of buildings to identify the buildings most likely to undergo losses during an earthquake. The results of such studies are important in the mitigation of losses under future seismic events as they allow strengthening intervention and disaster management plans to be drawn up. Within this paper, the state of the existing structures is assessed using "the vulnerability index" method. This method allows the classification of RC constructions taking into account both, structural and non structural parameters, considered to be ones of the main parameters governing the vulnerability of the structure. Based on seismic feedback from past earthquakes DPM (damage probability matrices) were developed too.
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6472
Minaret of Medieval City Aktobe
Abstract:
In the article the remains of the base of the minaret, found in 2009 at the medieval fortress shakhristan Aktobe, which is located along the courses of the rivers Balta and Aksu. The minaret, which consists of two parts: the stylobate in the pit and base part refers to the XI-XII centuries. The preserved height of the building is 3.6 meters. Volume stylobat quadrangular minaret, the corners of which are aimed at the four corners of the world amounts to 8,65 x8, 5 m, height – 2.6 m. Diameter octagonal upper cap of 7.85 m and a height of preserved – 1 m. This minaret is of particular importance among the historical and architectural monuments of Kazakhstan, as it is so far the only minaret belonging to Karakhanid epoch in which Islam was the state religion.
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7545
Repatriates in the Kazakhstan: The Problems of Migration and Adaptation to the Historic Homeland
Abstract:
The article is devoted to Kazakh repatriates and their migration to Kazakhstan as historical homeland, and also addresses the problem of migrants- adaptation in the republic, particularly in Almaty oblast (region). The authors used up-to-date statictics and materials of the Department of Migration Committee to analyze the newcomers- number and features of the repatriate-s location in this oblast. Having studied this region they were able to identify the main reasons why Kazakh Diaspora in Central Asia, Iran, Avganistana and Turkey is eager to come back to their historic homeland along with repatriates adaptation to the republic.
211
45
Directed Approach and Resolution of Practical Cases as a Motivation Tool for Self-Learning and Cooperation
Abstract:
The development of competences and practical capacities of students is getting an important incidence into the guidelines of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). The methodology applied in this work is based on the education through directed resolution of practical cases. All cases are related to professional tasks that the students will have to develop in their future career. The method is intended to form the necessary competences of students of the Marine Engineering and Maritime Transport Degree in the matter of “Physics". The experience was applied in the course of 2011/2012. Students were grouped, and a practical task was assigned to them, that should be developed and solved within the team. The aim was to realize students learning by three ways: their own knowledge, the contribution of their teammates and the teacher's direction. The results of the evaluation were compared with those obtained previously by the traditional teaching method.
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1773
Mass Casualty Acute Pepper Spray Inhalation Respiratory Effect Severity
Abstract:
Pepper spray use has gained momentum since 1992 and although the active ingredient is readily available, it is considered a weapon with restricted use in many regions, including The Bahamas. In light of controversy in the literature regarding the severity of presenting respiration complaints among individuals postacute exposure of pepper spray inhalation, this descriptive case series study was conducted to assess the respiratory status of persons evaluated during a mass casualty in The Bahamas. Parameters noted were patients- demographics and respiration severity determined via clinical examination findings, disposition and follow-up review of the 20 persons. Their most common complaint was difficulty breathing post exposure. Two required admission and stayed for
209
571
Estimation of Real Power Transfer Allocation Using Intelligent Systems
Abstract:

This paper presents application artificial intelligent (AI) techniques, namely artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro fuzzy interface system (ANFIS), to estimate the real power transfer between generators and loads. Since these AI techniques adopt supervised learning, it first uses modified nodal equation method (MNE) to determine real power contribution from each generator to loads. Then the results of MNE method and load flow information are utilized to estimate the power transfer using AI techniques. The 25-bus equivalent system of south Malaysia is utilized as a test system to illustrate the effectiveness of both AI methods compared to that of the MNE method. The mean squared error of the estimate of ANN and ANFIS power transfer allocation methods are 1.19E-05 and 2.97E-05, respectively. Furthermore, when compared to MNE method, ANN and ANFIS methods computes generator contribution to loads within 20.99 and 39.37msec respectively whereas the MNE method took 360msec for the calculation of same real power transfer allocation. 

208
1959
An Effective Islanding Detection and Classification Method Using Neuro-Phase Space Technique
Abstract:
The purpose of planned islanding is to construct a power island during system disturbances which are commonly formed for maintenance purpose. However, in most of the cases island mode operation is not allowed. Therefore distributed generators (DGs) must sense the unplanned disconnection from the main grid. Passive technique is the most commonly used method for this purpose. However, it needs improvement in order to identify the islanding condition. In this paper an effective method for identification of islanding condition based on phase space and neural network techniques has been developed. The captured voltage waveforms at the coupling points of DGs are processed to extract the required features. For this purposed a method known as the phase space techniques is used. Based on extracted features, two neural network configuration namely radial basis function and probabilistic neural networks are trained to recognize the waveform class. According to the test result, the investigated technique can provide satisfactory identification of the islanding condition in the distribution system.
207
6792
Remote Employment: Advantages and Challenges for Egypt-s Labor Force (After the 25thJanuary Revolution)
Authors:
Abstract:
The growing problem of youth unemployment in Egypt after the 25th January Revolution has directed the attention of some human resource experts towards considering remote employment as a partial remedy for the unemployed youth instead of the unavailable traditional jobs, a trend which will also help with the congested offices and unsolved traffic problem in Cairo and spread a flexible work culture, but despite of that, the main issue remains unresolved for these organizations to deal with the system challenges. In the past few years, in developed countries, there has been a growing trend for many companies to shift to remote employment instead of the traditional office employment for many reasons: due to the growing technological advances that helped some employees do their work from home on a part time basis, the need for achieving an employee-s work balance in the middle of unbalanced complicated life, top management focus on employee-s productivity rather their time spent at work. The objective of this paper is to study and analyze the advantages and challenges that Egypt-s labor force will be facing in their implementation of remote or virtual employment in both government and private organizations after the 25th January revolution. Therefore, the research question will be: What are the advantages and different challenges that Egyptian organizations might face in their implementation for remote employment system and how can they manage these challenges for the system to work effectively? The study is divided into six main parts: the introduction, objective and importance of the study, research problem, methodology, experience of some countries that implemented remote employment, advantages and challenges of implementing remote employment in Egypt and then the conclusion which discuses the results and recommendations of the study.
206
5080
The Maximum Likelihood Method of Random Coefficient Dynamic Regression Model
Abstract:
The Random Coefficient Dynamic Regression (RCDR) model is to developed from Random Coefficient Autoregressive (RCA) model and Autoregressive (AR) model. The RCDR model is considered by adding exogenous variables to RCA model. In this paper, the concept of the Maximum Likelihood (ML) method is used to estimate the parameter of RCDR(1,1) model. Simulation results have shown the AIC and BIC criterion to compare the performance of the the RCDR(1,1) model. The variables as the stationary and weakly stationary data are good estimates where the exogenous variables are weakly stationary. However, the model selection indicated that variables are nonstationarity data based on the stationary data of the exogenous variables.
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5451
Parametric Analysis of Effective Factors on the Seismic Rehabilitation of the Foundations by Network Micropile
Abstract:
The main objective of seismic rehabilitation in the foundations is decreasing the range of horizontal and vertical vibrations and omitting high frequencies contents under the seismic loading. In this regard, the advantages of micropiles network is utilized. Reduction in vibration range of foundation can be achieved by using high dynamic rigidness module such as deep foundations. In addition, natural frequency of pile and soil system increases in regard to rising of system rigidness. Accordingly, the main strategy is decreasing of horizontal and vertical seismic vibrations of the structure. In this case, considering the impact of foundation, pile and improved soil foundation is a primary concern. Therefore, in this paper, effective factors are studied on the seismic rehabilitation of foundations applying network micropiles in sandy soils with nonlinear reaction.
204
7069
Development of a Real-Time Energy Models for Photovoltaic Water Pumping System
Abstract:
This purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a model to accurately predict the cell temperature of a PV module that adapts to various mounting configurations, mounting locations, and climates while only requiring readily available data from the module manufacturer. Results from this model are also compared to results from published cell temperature models. The models were used to predict real-time performance from a PV water pumping systems in the desert of Medenine, south of Tunisia using 60-min intervals of measured performance data during one complete year. Statistical analysis of the predicted results and measured data highlight possible sources of errors and the limitations and/or adequacy of existing models, to describe the temperature and efficiency of PV-cells and consequently, the accuracy of performance of PV water pumping systems prediction models.
203
9617
The Taste of Native Land in Everyday Practices of Repatriates – Variations by the Countries of Origin (by Field Materials)
Abstract:

Practices of food sharing as part of the brotherhood and hospitality interpretation have been essential part of the Kazakh ethnic culture since early times. Dialogue in time and space between Kazakhs through differences in food interpretation among the ethnic repatriates may become a link connecting them and platform for stable relations with the host society or serious barrier on the way of their integration in the Kazakhstani society. The article elucidates by the field materials how some aspects of food culture differences among ethnic Kazakhs living abroad (XUAR of China) and ethnic repatriates in Kazakhstan may influence their integration path.

202
4554
Utilizing Innovative Techniques to Improve Email Security
Abstract:
This paper proposes a technique to protect against email bombing. The technique employs a statistical approach, Naïve Bayes (NB), and Neural Networks to show that it is possible to differentiate between good and bad traffic to protect against email bombing attacks. Neural networks and Naïve Bayes can be trained by utilizing many email messages that include both input and output data for legitimate and non-legitimate emails. The input to the model includes the contents of the body of the messages, the subject, and the headers. This information will be used to determine if the email is normal or an attack email. Preliminary tests suggest that Naïve Bayes can be trained to produce an accurate response to confirm which email represents an attack.
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1261
Professional Identity Construction in Higher Education: A Conceptual Framework of the Influencing Factors and Research Agenda
Abstract:
We assert here that there might be some factors that influence professional identity construction at the university/higher education stage. In accord, we propose a conceptual framework of intervening factors in professional identity construction at university from a literature review and preliminary data from a qualitative pilot study using focus groups. This model identifies several factors that might influence university students- professional identity construction and group them into categories. In turn, we describe how these factors might contribute in strengthening or weakening their professional identity. Finally, we discuss the implications of strengthening students- PI for the university, individuals and organizations and we provide a roadmap for future empirical work in this area.
200
14956
Conceptual Frameworks of Carbon Credit Registry System for Thailand
Abstract:

This research explores on the development of the structure of Carbon Credit Registry System those accords to the need of future events in Thailand. This research also explores the big picture of every connected system by referring to the design of each system, the Data Flow Diagram, and the design in term of the system-s data using DES standard. The purpose of this paper is to show how to design the model of each system. Furthermore, this paper can serve as guideline for designing an appropriate Carbon Credit Registry System.

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13060
Fast Lines at Theme Parks
Abstract:

Waiting times and queues are a daily problem for theme parks. Fast lines or priority queues appear as a solution for a specific segment of customers, that is, tourists who are willing to pay to avoid waiting. This paper analyzes the fast line system and explores the factors that affect the decision to purchase a fast line pass. A greater understanding of these factors may help companies to design appropriate products and services. This conceptual paper was based on a literature review in marketing and consumer behavior. Additional research was identified in related disciplines such as leisure studies, psychology, and sociology. A conceptual framework of the factors influencing the decision to purchase a fast line pass is presented.

198
7598
Maximum Norm Analysis of a Nonmatching Grids Method for Nonlinear Elliptic Boundary Value Problem −Δu = f(u)
Authors:
Abstract:
We provide a maximum norm analysis of a finite element Schwarz alternating method for a nonlinear elliptic boundary value problem of the form -Δu = f(u), on two overlapping sub domains with non matching grids. We consider a domain which is the union of two overlapping sub domains where each sub domain has its own independently generated grid. The two meshes being mutually independent on the overlap region, a triangle belonging to one triangulation does not necessarily belong to the other one. Under a Lipschitz assumption on the nonlinearity, we establish, on each sub domain, an optimal L∞ error estimate between the discrete Schwarz sequence and the exact solution of the boundary value problem.
197
5046
Analysis of a TBM Tunneling Effect on Surface Subsidence: A Case Study from Tehran, Iran
Abstract:
The development and extension of large cities induced a need for shallow tunnel in soft ground of building areas. Estimation of ground settlement caused by the tunnel excavation is important engineering point. In this paper, prediction of surface subsidence caused by tunneling in one section of seventh line of Tehran subway is considered. On the basis of studied geotechnical conditions of the region, tunnel with the length of 26.9km has been excavated applying a mechanized method using an EPB-TBM with a diameter of 9.14m. In this regard, settlement is estimated utilizing both analytical and numerical finite element method. The numerical method shows that the value of settlement in this section is 5cm. Besides, the analytical consequences (Bobet and Loganathan-Polous) are 5.29 and 12.36cm, respectively. According to results of this study, due tosaturation of this section, there are good agreement between Bobet and numerical methods. Therefore, tunneling processes in this section needs a special consolidation measurement and support system before the passage of tunnel boring machine.
196
1254
Effect of TCSR on Measured Impedance by Distance Protection in Presence Single Phase to Earth Fault
Abstract:
This paper presents the impact study of apparent reactance injected by series Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) i.e. Thyristor Controlled Series Reactor (TCSR) on the measured impedance of a 400 kV single electrical transmission line in the presence of phase to earth fault with fault resistance. The study deals with an electrical transmission line of Eastern Algerian transmission networks at Group Sonelgaz (Algerian Company of Electrical and Gas) compensated by TCSR connected at midpoint of the line. This compensator used to inject active and reactive powers is controlled by three TCSR-s. The simulations results investigate the impacts of the TCSR on the parameters of short circuit calculation and parameters of measured impedance by distance relay in the presence of earth fault for three cases study.
195
2143
Research of Dynamics Picking Mechanism of Sulzer Projectile Loom
Abstract:
One of the main and responsible units of Sulzer projectile loom is picking mechanism. It is specifically designed to accelerate projectile to speed of 25 m / s. Initial speed projectile of Sulzer projectile loom is independent of speed loom and determined the potential energy torsion rod. This paper investigates the dynamics picking mechanism of Sulzer projectile loom during its discharge. A result of calculation model, we obtain the law of motion lever of picking mechanism during its discharge. Construction of dynamic model the picking mechanism of Sulzer projectile loom on software complex SimulationX can make calculations for different thickness of torsion rods taking into account the backlashes in the connections, the dissipative forces and resistance forces
194
1723
Human Action Recognition Based on Ridgelet Transform and SVM
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel algorithm based on Ridgelet Transform and support vector machine is proposed for human action recognition. The Ridgelet transform is a directional multi-resolution transform and it is more suitable for describing the human action by performing its directional information to form spatial features vectors. The dynamic transition between the spatial features is carried out using both the Principal Component Analysis and clustering algorithm K-means. First, the Principal Component Analysis is used to reduce the dimensionality of the obtained vectors. Then, the kmeans algorithm is then used to perform the obtained vectors to form the spatio-temporal pattern, called set-of-labels, according to given periodicity of human action. Finally, a Support Machine classifier is used to discriminate between the different human actions. Different tests are conducted on popular Datasets, such as Weizmann and KTH. The obtained results show that the proposed method provides more significant accuracy rate and it drives more robustness in very challenging situations such as lighting changes, scaling and dynamic environment
193
7243
Relationship between Criminal Behavior and Mental Illness in Teenagers
Abstract:
Minor law breaking seems more and more to be a part of adolescence behavior. An important risk factor which seems to influence delinquency appears to be the socio-economic one. According to Romanian statistics, during the first six months of 2012, 1,378 minors have committed various crimes, the most common being theft, sexual offenses and violent assaults. Drug-related offenses did not reach the gravity of those from high income countries of the European Union, but have a continuous upward during the last years. The aim of our research was to examine whether delinquency in adolescence is correlated to mental disorders or socio-economic and familial factors. Forensic psychiatric expertise was performed to 79 adolescents who committed offenses between 01 January 2012 and 31 December 2012. Teenagers, with ages between 12 and 17, were examined by day hospitalization in the University Clinic of Psychiatry Craiova.
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12246
Analysis of SEIG for a Wind Pumping Plant Using Induction Motor
Abstract:

In contrast to conventional generators, self-excited induction generators are found to be most suitable machines for wind energy conversion in remote and windy areas due to many advantages over grid connected machines. This papers presents a Self-Excited Induction Generator (SEIG) driven by wind turbine and supplying an induction motor which is coupled to a centrifugal pump. A method to describe the steady state performance based on nodal analysis is presented. Therefore the advanced knowledge of the minimum excitation capacitor value is required. The effects of variation of excitation capacitance on system and rotor speed under different loading conditions have been analyzed and considered to optimize induction motor pump performances.

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8135
A Survey on Usage and Diffusion of Project Risk Management Techniques and Software Tools in the Construction Industry
Abstract:
The area of Project Risk Management (PRM) has been extensively researched, and the utilization of various tools and techniques for managing risk in several industries has been sufficiently reported. Formal and systematic PRM practices have been made available for the construction industry. Based on such body of knowledge, this paper tries to find out the global picture of PRM practices and approaches with the help of a survey to look into the usage of PRM techniques and diffusion of software tools, their level of maturity, and their usefulness in the construction sector. Results show that, despite existing techniques and tools, their usage is limited: software tools are used only by a minority of respondents and their cost is one of the largest hurdles in adoption. Finally, the paper provides some important guidelines for future research regarding quantitative risk analysis techniques and suggestions for PRM software tools development and improvement.
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6388
A Comparative Study of Metal Extraction from Spent Catalyst Using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans
Abstract:
The recovery of metal values and safe disposal of spent catalyst is gaining interest due to both its hazardous nature and increased regulation associated with disposal methods. Prior to the recovery of the valuable metals, removal of entrained deposits limit the diffusion of lixiviate resulting in low recovery of metals must be taken into consideration. Therefore, petroleum refinery spent catalyst was subjected to acetone washing and roasting at 500oC. The treated samples were investigated for metals bioleaching using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in batch reactors and the leaching efficiencies were compared. It was found out that acetone washed spent catalysts results in better metal recovery compare to roasted spent. About 83% Ni, 20% Al, 50% Mo and 73% V were leached using the acetone washed spent catalyst. In both the cases, Ni, V and Mo was high compared to Al.
189
9776
Environmental Assessment Methods in Abu Dhabi
Abstract:

Abu Dhabi is one of the fastest developed cities in the region. On top of all the current and future environmental challenges, Abu Dhabi aims to be among the top governments in the world in sustainable development. Abu Dhabi plans to create an attractive, livable and sustainable managed urban environment in which all necessary services and infrastructure are provided in a sustainable and timely manner. Abu Dhabi is engaged in a difficult challenge to develop credible environmental indicators that would assess the ambitious environmental targets. The aim of those indicators is to provide reliable guidance to decision makers and the public concerning key factors that determine the state of urban environment and identify major areas for policy intervention. In order to ensure sustainable development in UAE in general, and of Abu Dhabi City in particular, relevant and contextual environmental indicators need to be carefully considered. These indicators provide a gauge at a national government scale of how close countries are to establish environmental policy goals. The environment indicators assist city decision-making in such areas as identification of significant environmental aspects and observation of environmental performance trends. Those can help to find ways of reducing environmental pollution and in improving eco-efficiency. This paper outlines recent strategies implemented in Abu Dhabi that aims to improve the sustainable performance of the city-s built environment. The paper explores the variety of current and possible indicators at different levels and their roles in the development of the city.

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16026
A Rigid Point Set Registration of Remote Sensing Images Based on Genetic Algorithms and Hausdorff Distance
Abstract:
Image registration is the process of establishing point by point correspondence between images obtained from a same scene. This process is very useful in remote sensing, medicine, cartography, computer vision, etc. Then, the task of registration is to place the data into a common reference frame by estimating the transformations between the data sets. In this work, we develop a rigid point registration method based on the application of genetic algorithms and Hausdorff distance. First, we extract the feature points from both images based on the algorithm of global and local curvature corner. After refining the feature points, we use Hausdorff distance as similarity measure between the two data sets and for optimizing the search space we use genetic algorithms to achieve high computation speed for its inertial parallel. The results show the efficiency of this method for registration of satellite images.
187
1189
The Use of Project to Enhance Writing Skill
Abstract:
This paper explores the use of project work in a content-based instruction in a Rajabhat University, a teacher college, where student teachers are instructed to perform teaching roles mainly in basic education level. Its aim is to link theory to practice, and to help language teachers maximize the full potential of project work for genuine communication and give real meaning to writing activity. Two research questions are formulated to guide this study: a) What is the academic achievement of the students- writing skill against the 70% attainment target after the use of project to enhance the skill? and b) To what degree is the development of the students- writing skills during the course of project to enhance the skill? The sample of the study comprised of 38 fourth-year English major students. The data was collected by means of achievement test, student writing works, and project diary. The scores in the summative achievement test were analyzed by mean score, standard deviation, and t-test. Project diary serves as students- record of the language acquired during the project. List of structures and vocabulary noted in the diary has shown students- ability to attend to, recognize, and focus on meaningful patterns of language forms.
186
9626
Image Processing Using Color and Object Information for Wireless Capsule Endoscopy
Abstract:

Wireless capsule endoscopy provides real-time images in the digestive tract. Capsule images are usually low resolution and are diverse images due to travel through various regions of human body. Color information has been a primary reference in predicting abnormalities such as bleeding. Often color is not sufficient for this purpose. In this study, we took morphological shapes into account as additional, but important criterion. First, we processed gastric images in order to indentify various objects in the image. Then, we analyzed color information in the object. In this way, we could remove unnecessary information and increase the accuracy. Compared to our previous investigations, we could handle images of various degrees of brightness and improve our diagnostic algorithm.

185
12160
Entrepreneurship, Innovation, Incubator and Economic Development: A Case Study
Abstract:
The objective of this paper is twofold: (1) discuss and analyze the successful case studies worldwide, and (2) identify the similarities and differences of case studies worldwide. Design methodology/approach: The nature of this research is mainly method qualitative (multi-case studies, literature review). This investigation uses ten case studies, and the data was mainly collected and organizational documents from the international countries. Finding: The finding of this research can help incubator manager, policy maker and government parties for successful implementation. Originality/value: This paper contributes to the current literate review on the best practices worldwide. Additionally, it presents future perspective for academicians and practitioners.
184
7450
Mechanical Characteristics of Spaghetti Enriched with Whole Soy Flour
Abstract:
The influence of full-fat soy flour (FFSF) and extrusion conditions on the mechanical characteristics of dry spaghetti were evaluated. Process was performed with screw speed of 10-40rpm and water circulating temperature of 35-70°C. Data analysis using mixture design showed that this enrichment resulted in significant differences in mechanical strength.
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12518
Conceptual Design and Characterization of Contractile Water Jet Thruster Using IPMC Actuator
Abstract:

This paper presents the design, development and characterization of contractile water jet thruster (CWJT) for mini underwater robot. Instead of electric motor, this CWJT utilizes the Ionic Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC) as the actuator to generate the water jet. The main focus of this paper is to analyze the conceptual design of the proposed CWJT which would determine the thrust force value, jet flow behavior and actuator’s stress. Those thrust force and jet flow studies were carried out using Matlab/Simscape simulation software. The actuator stress had been analyzed using COSMOS simulation software. The results showed that there was no significant change for jet velocity at variable cross sectional nozzle area. However, a significant change was detected for jet velocity at different nozzle cross sectional area ratio which was up to 37%. The generated thrust force has proportional relation to the nozzle cross sectional area.

182
13448
Experimental Study of Adsorption Properties of Acid and Thermal Treated Bentonite from Tehran (Iran)
Abstract:
The Iranian bentonite was first characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Inductively Coupled Plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and BET. The bentonite was then treated thermally between 150°C-250°C at 15min, 45min and 90min and also was activated chemically with different concentration of sulphuric acid (3N, 5N and 10N). Although the results of thermal activated-bentonite didn-t show any considerable changes in specific surface area and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), but the results of chemical treated bentonite demonstrated that such properties have been improved by acid activation process.
181
9560
Preparation and Bioevaluation of DOTA-Cyclic RGD Peptide Dimer Labeled with 68Ga
Abstract:

Radiolabeled cyclic RGD peptides targeting integrin αvβ3 are reported as promising agents for the early diagnosis of metastatic tumors. With an aim to improve tumor uptake and retention of the peptide, cyclic RGD peptide dimer E[c (RGDfK)] 2 (E = Glutamic acid, f = phenyl alanine, K = lysine) coupled to the bifunctional chelator DOTA was custom synthesized and radiolabelled with 68Ga. Radiolabelling of cyclic RGD peptide dimer with 68Ga was carried out using HEPES buffer and biological evaluation of the complex was done in nude mice bearing HT29 tumors.

180
3289
Effect of U-Turn in Reinforced Concrete Dog-Legged Stair Slabs
Abstract:
Reinforced concrete stair slabs with mid landings i.e. Dog-legged shaped are conventionally designed as per specifications of standard codes of practices which guide about the effective span according to the varying support conditions. Presently, the behavior of such slabs has been investigated using Finite Element method. A single flight stair slab with landings on both sides and supported at ends on wall, and a multi flight stair slab with landings and six different support arrangements have been analyzed. The results obtained for stresses, strains and deflections are used to describe the behavior of such stair slabs, including locations of critical moments and deflections. Values of critical moments obtained by F.E. analysis have also have been compared with that obtained from conventional analysis. Analytical results show that the moments are also critical near the kinks i.e. junction of mid-landing and inclined waist slab. This change in the behavior of dog-legged stair slab may be due to continuity of the material in transverse direction in two landings adjoining the waist slab, hence additional stiffness achieved. This change in the behavior is generally not taken care of in conventional method of design.
179
2323
Synthesis of Copper Sulfide Nanoparticles by Pulsed Plasma in Liquid Method
Abstract:

Copper sulfide nanoparticles (CuS) were successfully synthesized by the pulsed plasma in liquid method, using two copper rod electrodes submerged in molten sulfur. Low electrical energy and no high temperature were applied for synthesis. Obtained CuS nanoparticles were then analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction, Low and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Electron Diffraction, X-ray Photoelectron, Raman Spectroscopies and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. XRD analysis revealed peaks for CuS with hexagonal phase composition. TEM and HRTEM studies showed that sizes of CuS nanoparticles ranged between 10-60 nm, with the average size of about 20 nm. Copper sulfide nanoparticles have short nanorod-like structure. Raman spectroscopy found peak for CuS at 474.2cm-1of Raman region.

178
9072
Utilizing Analytic Hierarchy Process to Analyze Consumers- Purchase Evaluation Factors of Smartphones
Abstract:
Due to the fast development of technology, the competition of technological products is turbulent; therefore, it is important to understand the market trend, consumers- demand and preferences. As the smartphones are prevalent, the main purpose of this paper is to utilize Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to analyze consumer-s purchase evaluation factors of smartphones. Through the AHP expert questionnaire, the smartphones- main functions are classified as “user interface", “mobile commerce functions", “hardware and software specifications", “entertainment functions" and “appearance and design", five aspects to analyze the weights. Then four evaluation criteria are evaluated under each aspect to rank the weights. Based on an analysis of data shows that consumers consider when purchase factors are “hardware and software specifications", “user interface", “appearance and design", “mobile commerce functions" and “entertainment functions" in sequence. The “hardware and software specifications" aspect obtains the weight of 33.18%; it is the most important factor that consumers are taken into account. In addition, the most important evaluation criteria are central processing unit, operating system, touch screen, and battery function in sequence. The results of the study can be adopted as reference data for mobile phone manufacturers in the future on the design and marketing strategy to satisfy the voice of customer.
177
11384
The Impact of the Type of Diversification of Listed Construction Enterprises in China on Corporation Performance
Abstract:
The construction industry is the pillar industry in China, accounting for about 6% of the gross domestic product. Along with changes in the external environment of the construction industry in China, the construction firm faces fierce competition. The paper aims to investigate the relationship between diversified types of construction firm and its performance in China. Based on generalist and specialist strategy in organizational ecology, we think a generalist organization can be applied to an enterprise with diversified developments, while specialist groups are extended to professional enterprises .This study takes advantage of annual financial data of listed construction firm to empirically verify the relationship between diversification and corporation performance establishing a regression equation to econometric analysis. We find that: 1) Specialization can significantly improve the level of profitability of listed construction firms, and there is a significant positive relationship with corporate performance; 2) The level of operating performance of listed construction enterprises which engage in unrelated diversification is higher than those with related diversification; 3) The relationship between state-owned construction firms and corporate performance is negative. The more the year of foundation is, the higher performance will be; however, the more the year of being listed, the lower performance will be.
176
12343
In vitro Culture Medium Sterilization by Chemicals and Essential Oils without Autoclaving and Growth of Chrysanthemum Nodes
Abstract:

Plant tissue culture is an important in vitro technology applied for agricultural and industrial production. A sterile condition of culture medium is one of the main aspects. The alternative technique for medium sterilization to replace autoclaving was carried out. For sterilization of plant tissue culture medium without autoclaving, ten commercial pure essential oils and 5 disinfectants were tested. Each essential oil or disinfectant was added to a 20-mL Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium before medium was solidified in a 120-mL container, kept for 2 weeks before evaluating sterile conditions. Treated media, supplemented with essential oils or disinfectants, were compared to control medium, autoclaved at 121 degree Celsius for 15 min. Sterile conditions of MS medium were found 100% from betel oil or clove oil (18 mL/20 mL medium), cinnamon oil (36 mL/20 mL medium), lavender oil or holy basil oil (108 mL/20 mL medium), and lemon oil or tea tree oil or turmeric oil (252 mL/20 mL medium), compared to 100% sterile condition from autoclaved medium. For disinfectants, 2% iodine + 2.4% potassium iodide, 2% merbromine solution, 10% povidone-iodine, 6% sodium hypochlorite or 0.1% thimerosal at 36 mL/20 mL medium provided 100% sterile conditions. Furthermore, growth of new shoots from chrysanthemum node explants on treated media (fresh weight, shoot length, root length and number of node) were also reported and discussed in the comparison of those on autoclaved medium.

175
5066
The Effect of Unburned Carbon on Coal Fly Ash toward its Adsorption Capacity for Methyl Violet
Abstract:
Coal fly ash (CFA) generated by coal-based thermal power plants is mainly composed of quartz, mullite, and unburned carbon. In this study, the effect of unburned carbon on CFA toward its adsorption capacity was investigated. CFA with various carbon content was obtained by refluxing it with sulfuric acid having various concentration at various temperature and reflux time, by heating at 400-800°C, and by sieving into 100-mesh in particle size. To evaluate the effect of unburned carbon on CFA toward its adsorption capacity, adsorption of methyl violet solution with treated CFA was carried out. The research shows that unburned carbon leads to adsorption capacity decrease. The highest adsorption capacity of treated CFA was found 5.73 x 10-4mol.g-1.
174
15757
Optimizing the Project Delivery Time with Time Cost Trade-offs
Abstract:
While to minimize the overall project cost is always one of the objectives of construction managers, to obtain the maximum economic return is definitely one the ultimate goals of the project investors. As there is a trade-off relationship between the project time and cost, and the project delivery time directly affects the timing of economic recovery of an investment project, to provide a method that can quantify the relationship between the project delivery time and cost, and identify the optimal delivery time to maximize economic return has always been the focus of researchers and industrial practitioners. Using genetic algorithms, this study introduces an optimization model that can quantify the relationship between the project delivery time and cost and furthermore, determine the optimal delivery time to maximize the economic return of the project. The results provide objective quantification for accurately evaluating the project delivery time and cost, and facilitate the analysis of the economic return of a project.
173
15164
Operational Analysis of Urban Intelligent Transportation System and Strategies for Future Development - Taking Calling Service of Taxi in Wuhan as an Example
Abstract:

Intelligent Transportation System integrates various modern advanced technologies into the ground transportation system, and it will be the goal of urban transport system in the future because of its comprehensive effects. However, it also brings some problems, such as project performance assessment, fairness of benefiting groups, fund management, which are directly related to its operation and implementation. Wuhan has difficulties in organizing transportation because of its nature feature (river and lake), therefore, calling Service of Taxi plays an important role in transportation. This paper researches on calling Service of Taxi in Wuhan, based on quantitative and qualitative analysis. It analyzes its operations management systematically, including business model, finance, usage analysis and users evaluation. As for business model, it is that the government leads the operation at the initial stage, and the third part dominates the operation at the mature stage, which not only eases the pressure of the third part and benefits the spread of the calling service at the initial stage, but also alleviates financial pressure of government and improve the efficiency of the operation at the mature stage. As for finance, it draws that this service will bring heavy financial burden of equipments, but it will be alleviated in the future because of its spread. As for usage analysis, through data comparison, this service can bring some benefits for taxi drivers, and time and spatial distribution of usage have certain features. As for user evaluation, it analyzes using group and the reason why choosing it. At last, according to the analysis above, the paper puts forward the potentials, limitations, and future development strategies for it.

172
785
Cost Optimization of Concentric Braced Steel Building Structures
Abstract:
Seismic design may require non-conventional concept, due to the fact that the stiffness and layout of the structure have a great effect on the overall structural behaviour, on the seismic load intensity as well as on the internal force distribution. To find an economical and optimal structural configuration the key issue is the optimal design of the lateral load resisting system. This paper focuses on the optimal design of regular, concentric braced frame (CBF) multi-storey steel building structures. The optimal configurations are determined by a numerical method using genetic algorithm approach, developed by the authors. Aim is to find structural configurations with minimum structural cost. The design constraints of objective function are assigned in accordance with Eurocode 3 and Eurocode 8 guidelines. In this paper the results are presented for various building geometries, different seismic intensities, and levels of energy dissipation.
171
10844
High Temperature Hydrogen Sensors Based On Pd/Ta2O5/SiC MOS Capacitor
Abstract:
There are a many of needs for the development of SiC-based hydrogen sensor for harsh environment applications. We fabricated and investigated Pd/Ta2O5/SiC-based hydrogen sensors with MOS capacitor structure for high temperature process monitoring and leak detection applications in such automotive, chemical and petroleum industries as well as direct monitoring of combustion processes. In this work, we used silicon carbide (SiC) as a substrate to replace silicon which operating temperatures are limited to below 200°C. Tantalum oxide was investigated as dielectric layer which has high permeability for hydrogen gas and high dielectric permittivity, compared with silicon dioxide or silicon nitride. Then, electrical response properties, such as I-V curve and dependence of capacitance on hydrogen concentrations were analyzed in the temperature ranges of room temperature to 500°C for performance evaluation of the sensor.
170
15870
Hydrogels Based on Carrageenan Extracted from Kappaphycus alvarezii
Abstract:
Preparation of hydrogel based on carrageenan extracted from Kappaphycus alvarezii was conducted with film immersion in glutaraldehyde solution (GA 4%w/w) for 2min and then followed by thermal curing at 110°C for 25min. The method of carrageenan recovery strongly determines the properties of crosslinked carrageenan. Hydrogel obtained from alkali treated carrageenan showed higher swelling ability compared to hydrogel from nonalkali treated carrageenan. Hydrogel from alkali treated showed the ability of sensitive to pH media.
169
10878
Engineered Cement Composite Materials Characterization for Tunneling Applications
Abstract:
Cements, which are intrinsically brittle materials, can exhibit a degree of pseudo-ductility when reinforced with a sufficient volume fraction of a fibrous phase. This class of materials, called Engineered Cement Composites (ECC) has the potential to be used in future tunneling applications where a level of pseudo-ductility is required to avoid brittle failures. However uncertainties remain regarding mechanical performance. Previous work has focused on comparatively thin specimens; however for future civil engineering applications, it is imperative that the behavior in tension of thicker specimens is understood. In the present work, specimens containing cement powder and admixtures have been manufactured following two different processes and tested in tension. Multiple matrix cracking has been observed during tensile testing, leading to a “strain-hardening" behavior, confirming the possible suitability of ECC material when used as thick sections (greater than 50mm) in tunneling applications.
168
4598
Proposition for a New Approach of Version Control System Based On ECA Active Rules
Abstract:
We try to give a solution of version control for documents in web service, that-s why we propose a new approach used specially for the XML documents. The new approach is applied in a centralized repository, this repository coexist with other repositories in a decentralized system. To achieve the activities of this approach in a standard model we use the ECA active rules. We also show how the Event-Condition-Action rules (ECA rules) have been incorporated as a mechanism for the version control of documents. The need to integrate ECA rules is that it provides a clear declarative semantics and induces an immediate operational realization in the system without the need for human intervention.
167
14073
Preparation and Characterization of Nylon 6-Clay Hybrid/Neat Nylon 6 Bicomponent Nanocomposite Fibers
Abstract:
Nylon 6-clay hybrid/neat nylon 6, sheath/core bicomponent nanocomposite fibers containing 4 wt% of clay in sheath section were melt spun at different take-up speeds. Their orientation and crystalline structure were compared to those of neat nylon 6 fibers. Birefringence measurements showed that the orientation development in sheath and core parts of bicomponent fibers was different. Crystallinity results showed that clay did not act as a nucleating agent for bicomponent fibers. The neat nylon 6 fiber had a smooth surface while striped pattern was appeared on the surface of bicomponent fiber containing clay due to thermal shrinkage of the core part.
166
4934
Emergency Health Management and Student Hygiene at a South African University
Abstract:
Risk of infectious disease outbreaks is related to the hygiene among the population. To assess the actual risks and modify the relevant emergency procedures if necessary, a hygiene survey was conducted among undergraduate students on the Rhodes University campus. Soap was available to 10.5% and only 26.8% of the study participants followed proper hygiene in relation to food consumption. This combination increases the risk of infectious disease outbreaks at the campus. Around 83.6% were willing to wash their hands if soap was provided. Procurement and availability of soap in undergraduate residences on campus should be improved, as the total cost is estimated at only 2000 USD per annum. Awareness campaigns about food-related hygiene and the need for regular handwashing with soap should be run among Rhodes University students. If successful, rates of respiratory and hygiene-related diseases will be decreased and emergency health management simplified.
165
13470
Modeling and Investigation of Volume Strain at Large Deformation under Uniaxial Cyclic Loading in Semi Crystalline Polymer
Abstract:
This study deals with the experimental investigation and theoretical modeling of Semi crystalline polymeric materials with a rubbery amorphous phase (HDPE) subjected to a uniaxial cyclic tests with various maximum strain levels, even at large deformation. Each cycle is loaded in tension up to certain maximum strain and then unloaded down to zero stress with N number of cycles. This work is focuses on the measure of the volume strain due to the phenomena of damage during this kind of tests. On the basis of thermodynamics of relaxation processes, a constitutive model for large strain deformation has been developed, taking into account the damage effect, to predict the complex elasto-viscoelastic-viscoplastic behavior of material. A direct comparison between the model predictions and the experimental data show that the model accurately captures the material response. The model is also capable of predicting the influence damage causing volume variation.
164
3609
Influence of Heat Transfer on Stability of Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Extending Films
Abstract:

The stability of Newtonian and Non-Newtonian extending films under local or global heating or cooling conditions are considered. The thickness-averaged mass, momentum and energy equations with convective and radiative heat transfer are derived, both for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids (Maxwell, PTT and Giesekus models considered). The stability of the system is explored using either eigenvalue analysis or transient simulations. The results showed that the influence of heating and cooling on stability strongly depends on the magnitude of the Peclet number. Examples of stabilization or destabilization of heating or cooling are shown for Pe<< 1, and Pe = O(1) cases, for Newtonian and non-Newtonian flows.

163
5465
Double-Diffusive Natural Convection with Marangoni and Cooling Effects
Abstract:
Double-diffusive natural convection in an open top square cavity and heated from the side is studied numerically. Constant temperatures and concentration are imposed along the right and left walls while the heat balance at the surface is assumed to obey Newton-s law of cooling. The finite difference method is used to solve the dimensionless governing equations. The numerical results are reported for the effect of Marangoni number, Biot number and Prandtl number on the contours of streamlines, temperature and concentration. The predicted results for the average Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented for various parametric conditions. The parameters involved are as follows; the thermal Marangoni number, 0 ≤ MaT ≤1000 , the solutal Marangoni number, 0 1000 c ≤ Ma ≤ , the Biot number, 0 ≤ Bi ≤ 6 , Grashof number, 5 Gr = 10 and aspect ratio 1. The study focused on both flows; thermal dominated, N = 0.8 , and compositional dominated, N = 1.3 .
162
13618
Combined DWT-CT Blind Digital Image Watermarking Algorithm
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a new robust and secure system that is based on the combination between two different transforms Discrete wavelet Transform (DWT) and Contourlet Transform (CT). The combined transforms will compensate the drawback of using each transform separately. The proposed algorithm has been designed, implemented and tested successfully. The experimental results showed that selecting the best sub-band for embedding from both transforms will improve the imperceptibility and robustness of the new combined algorithm. The evaluated imperceptibility of the combined DWT-CT algorithm which gave a PSNR value 88.11 and the combination DWT-CT algorithm improves robustness since it produced better robust against Gaussian noise attack. In addition to that, the implemented system shored a successful extraction method to extract watermark efficiently.
161
9996
An Evaluation of the Usability of IT Faculty Educational Portal at University of Benghazi
Abstract:
Evaluation of educational portals is an important subject area that needs more attention from researchers. A university that has an educational portal which is difficult to use and interact by teachers or students or management staff can reduce the position and reputation of the university. Therefore, it is important to have the ability to make an evaluation of the quality of e-services the university provide to improve them over time. The present study evaluates the usability of the Information Technology Faculty portal at University of Benghazi. Two evaluation methods were used: a questionnaire-based method and an online automated tool-based method. The first method was used to measure the portal's external attributes of usability (Information, Content and Organization of the portal, Navigation, Links and Accessibility, Aesthetic and Visual Appeal, Performance and Effectiveness and educational purpose) from users' perspectives, while the second method was used to measure the portal's internal attributes of usability (number and size of HTML files, number and size of images, load time, HTML check errors, browsers compatibility problems, number of bad and broken links), which cannot be perceived by the users. The study showed that some of the usability aspects have been found at the acceptable level of performance and quality, and some others have been found otherwise. In general, it was concluded that the usability of IT faculty educational portal generally acceptable. Recommendations and suggestions to improve the weakness and quality of the portal usability are presented in this study.
160
4286
Gender Perspective Considerations in Disasters like Earthquakes and Floods of Pakistan
Abstract:
From past many decades human beings are suffering from plethora of natural disasters. Occurrence of disasters is a frequent process; it changes conceptual myths as more and more advancement are made. Although we are living in technological era but in developing countries like Pakistan disasters are shaped by socially constructed roles. The need is to understand the most vulnerable group of society i.e. females; their issues are complex in nature because of undermined gender status in the society. There is a need to identify maximum issues regarding females and to enhance the achievement of millennium development goals (MDGs). Gender issues are of great concern all around the globe including Pakistan. Here female visibility in society is low, and also during disasters, the failure to understand the reality that concentrates on double burden including productive and reproductive care. Women have to contribute a lot in society so we need to make them more disaster resilient. For this non-structural measures like awareness, trainings and education must be carried out. In rural and in urban settings in any disaster like earthquake or flood, elements like gender perspective, their age, physical health, demographic issues contribute towards vulnerability. In Pakistan the gender issues in disasters were of less concern before 2005 earthquake and 2010 floods. Significant achievements are made after 2010 floods when gender and child cell was created to provide all facilities to women and girls. The aim of the study is to highlight all necessary facilities in a disaster to build coping mechanism in females from basic rights till advance level including education.
159
10749
Experimental Study of Open Water Non-Series Marine Propeller Performance
Abstract:
Later marine propeller is the main component of ship propulsion system. For a non-series propeller, it is difficult to indicate the open water marine propeller performance without an experimental study to measure the marine propeller parameters. In the present study, the open water performance of a non-series marine propeller has been carried out experimentally. The geometrical aspects of a commercial non-series marine propeller have been measured for a propeller blade area ratio of 0.3985. The measured propeller performance parameters were the thrust and torque coefficients for different propeller rotational speed and different water channel flow velocity, then the open water performance for the propeller has been plotted. In addition, a direct comparison between the obtained experimental results and a theoretical study of a B-series marine propeller of the same blade area ratio has been carried out. A correction factor has been introduced to apply the operating conditions of the experimental results to that of the theoretical study for the studied marine propeller.
158
13104
Comparative Analysis of Vibration between Laminated Composite Plates with and without Holes under Compressive Loads
Abstract:
In this study, a vibration analysis was carried out of symmetric angle-ply laminated composite plates with and without square hole when subjected to compressive loads, numerically. A buckling analysis is also performed to determine the buckling load of laminated plates. For each fibre orientation, the compression load is taken equal to 50% of the corresponding buckling load. In the analysis, finite element method (FEM) was applied to perform parametric studies, the effects of degree of orthotropy and stacking sequence upon the fundamental frequencies and buckling loads are discussed. The results show that the presence of a constant compressive load tends to reduce uniformly the natural frequencies for materials which have a low degree of orthotropy. However, this reduction becomes non-uniform for materials with a higher degree of orthotropy.
157
2324
CFD Simulation of Solid-Liquid Stirred Tank with Rushton Turbine and Propeller Impeller
Abstract:
Stirred tanks have applications in many chemical processes where mixing is important for the overall performance of the system. In present work 5%v of the tank is filled by solid particles with diameter of 700 m that Rushton Turbine and Propeller impeller is used for stirring. An Eulerian-Eulerian Multi Fluid Model coupled and for modeling rotating of impeller, moving reference frame (MRF) technique was used and standard-k- model was selected for turbulency. Flow field, radial velocity and axial distribution of solid for both of impellers was investigation and comparison. Comparisons of simulation results between Rushton Turbine and propeller impeller shows that final quality of solid-liquid slurry in different rotating speed for propeller impeller is better than the Rushton Turbine.
156
8062
Determinants of Capital Structure in Malaysia Electrical and Electronic Sector
Abstract:
Capital structure is one of the most important financial decisions in corporate financing strategy. It involves the choice of debt and equity level in financing a company-s operations. This study aims to investigate whether the capital structure choice of Malaysian electrical and electronic manufacturing companies that are listed in the Bursa Malaysia can be explained by factors that have been found by most studies as dominant determinants of capital structure (company size, profitability, asset tangibility, liquidity and growth). Using debt ratio as the proxy for capital structure and applying pooled ordinary least square multiple regression estimation, the results showed that on average, Malaysian electrical and electronic manufacturing companies used less debt in funding their business operations. The findings also showed that size and asset tangibility has a significant positive relationship with debt level, while liquidity has a negative significant relationship with leverage.
155
5265
A Design of Fractional-Order PI Controller with Error Compensation
Abstract:

Fractional-order controller was proven to perform better than the integer-order controller. However, the absence of a pole at origin produced marginal error in fractional-order control system. This study demonstrated the enhancement of the fractionalorder PI over the integer-order PI in a steam temperature control. The fractional-order controller was cascaded with an error compensator comprised of a very small zero and a pole at origin to produce a zero steady-state error for the closed-loop system. Some modification on the error compensator was suggested for different order fractional integrator that can improve the overall phase margin.

154
13888
Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium for the Binary Mixtures of α-Pinene + Water and α-Terpineol + Water
Abstract:
α-Pinene is the main component of the most turpentine oils. The hydration of α-pinene with acid catalysts leads to a complex mixture of monoterpenes. In order to obtain more valuable products, the α-pinene in the turpentine can be hydrated in dilute mineral acid solutions to produce α-terpineol. The design of separation processes requires information on phase equilibrium and related thermodynamic properties. This paper reports the results of study on liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) of system containing α- pinene + water and α-terpineol + water. Binary LLE for α-pinene + water system, and α-terpineol + water systems were determined by experiment at 301K and atmospheric pressure. The two component mixture was stirred for about 30min, then the mixture was left for about 2h for complete phase separation. The composition of both phases was analyzed by using a Gas Chromatograph. The experimental data were correlated by considering both NRTL and UNIQUAC activity coefficient models. The LLE data for the system of α-pinene + water and α-terpineol + water were correlated successfully by the NRTL model. The experimental data were not satisfactorily fitted by the UNIQUAC model. The NRTL model (α =0.3) correlates the LLE data for the system of α-pinene + water at 301K with RMSD of 0.0404%. And the NRTL model (α =0.61) at 301K with RMSD of 0.0058 %. The NRTL model (α =0.3) correlates the LLE data for the system of α- terpineol + water at 301K with RMSD of 0.1487% and the NRTL model (α =0.6) at 301K with RMSD of 0.0032%, between the experimental and calculated mole fractions.
153
2884
The International Labor Standard on the Elimination of Discrimination in Employment: Response and Prospect of Malaysia
Abstract:
Discrimination in employment has its wider social and economic consequences other than mere violating a basic human right. Discrimination involves treating people differently because of certain grounds such as race, color, or sex, which results in the impairment of equality of opportunity and treatment. As an essential part of promoting decent work, combating discrimination through the principle of non-discrimination has been established by the International Labor Organization (ILO) through the Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work 1998. Considering elimination of discrimination in employment as a core labor standard, member states are expected to respect, promote and implement it to their national laws and policies. Being a member state, Malaysia has to position herself align with this international requirement. The author discusses the related convention together with Malaysia-s responses on the matter. At the closing stage, the prospect of Malaysia is presumed taking into account of the current positions and reports submitted to the ILO.
152
6356
Titania and Cu-Titania Composite Layer on Graphite Substrate as Negative Electrode for Li-Ion Battery
Abstract:
This research study the application of the immobilized TiO2 layer and Cu-TiO2 layer on graphite substrate as a negative electrode or anode for Li-ion battery. The titania layer was produced through chemical bath deposition method, meanwhile Cu particles were deposited electrochemically. A material can be used as an electrode as it has capability to intercalates Li ions into its crystal structure. The Li intercalation into TiO2/Graphite and Cu- TiO2/Graphite were analyzed from the changes of its XRD pattern after it was used as electrode during discharging process. The XRD patterns were refined by Le Bail method in order to determine the crystal structure of the prepared materials. A specific capacity and the cycle ability measurement were carried out to study the performance of the prepared materials as negative electrode of the Li-ion battery. The specific capacity was measured during discharging process from fully charged until the cut off voltage. A 300 was used as a load. The result shows that the specific capacity of Li-ion battery with TiO2/Graphite as negative electrode is 230.87 ± 1.70mAh.g-1 which is higher than the specific capacity of Li-ion battery with pure graphite as negative electrode, i.e 140.75 ±0.46mAh.g-1. Meanwhile deposition of Cu onto TiO2 layer does not increase the specific capacity, and the value even lower than the battery with TiO2/Graphite as electrode. The cycle ability of the prepared battery is only two cycles, due to the Li ribbon which was used as cathode became fragile and easily broken.
151
6560
Application of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in Desulfurization of US Coal: 10 L Batch Stirred Reactor Study
Abstract:

The desulfurization of coal using biological methods is an emerging technology. The biodesulfurization process uses the catalytic activity of chemolithotrophic acidpohiles in removing sulfur and pyrite from the coal. The present study was undertaken to examine the potential of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in removing the pyritic sulfur and iron from high iron and sulfur containing US coal. The experiment was undertaken in 10 L batch stirred tank reactor having 10% pulp density of coal. The reactor was operated under mesophilic conditions and aerobic conditions were maintained by sparging the air into the reactor. After 35 days of experiment, about 64% of pyrite and 21% of pyritic sulfur was removed from the coal. The findings of the present study indicate that the biodesulfurization process does have potential in treating the high pyrite and sulfur containing coal. A good mass balance was also obtained with net loss of about 5% showing its feasibility for large scale application.

150
14207
Pt(IV) Complexes with Polystrene-bound Schiff Bases as Antimicrobial Agent: Synthesis and Characterization
Abstract:
Novel polystrene-bound Schiff bases and their Pt(IV) complexes have been prepared from condensation reaction of polystyrene-A-NH2 with 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 5-fluoro-3- bromo-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde. The structures of Pt(IV) complexes with polystyrene including Schiff bases have been determined by elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility, IR, 1H-NMR, UV-vis, TG/DTA and AAS. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the synthesized compounds have been studied by the well-diffusion method against some selected microorganisms: (Bacillus cereus spp., Listeria monocytogenes 4b, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis, Brucella abortus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida spp., Shigella dysenteria type 10, Salmonella typhi H).
149
1437
Accountability Issues and Challenges: The Scenario for Malaysian Cooperative Movement
Abstract:
This paper discusses the issues and challenges concerning the issues of accountability and regulation systems of cooperative movement in Malaysia.
148
12333
Computer Graphics and Understanding Semiotics in Design
Abstract:
The objective of the paper was to understand the use of an important element of design, namely color in a Semiotic system. Semiotics is the study of signs and sign processes, it is often divided into three branches namely (i) Semantics that deals with the relation between signs and the things to which they refer to mean, (ii) Syntactics which addresses the relations among signs in formal structures and (iii) Pragmatics that relates between signs and its effects on they have on the people who use them to create a plan for an object or a system referred to as design. Cubism with its versatility was the key design tool prevalent across the 20th century. In order to analyze the user's understanding of interaction and appreciation of color through the movement of Cubism, an exercise was undertaken in Dept. of Design, IIT Guwahati. This included tasks to design a composition using color and sign process to the theme 'Between the Lines' on a given tessellation where the users relate their work to the world they live in, which in this case was the college campus of IIT Guwahati. The findings demonstrate impact of the key design element color on the principles of visual perception based on image analysis of specific compositions.
147
15236
Theoretical Analysis of Damping Due to Air Viscosity in Narrow Acoustic Tubes
Abstract:
Headphones and earphones have many extremely small holes or narrow slits; they use sound-absorbing or porous material (i.e., dampers) to suppress vibratory system resonance. The air viscosity in these acoustic paths greatly affects the acoustic properties. Simulation analyses such as the finite element method (FEM) therefore require knowledge of the material properties of sound-absorbing or porous materials, such as the characteristic impedance and propagation constant. The transfer function method using acoustic tubes is a widely known measuring method, but there is no literature on taking measurements up to the audible range. To measure the acoustic properties at high-range frequencies, the acoustic tubes that form the measuring device need to be narrowed, and the distance between the two microphones needs to be reduced. However, when the tubes are narrowed, the characteristic impedance drops below the air impedance. In this study, we considered the effect of air viscosity in an acoustical tube, introduced a theoretical formula for this effect in the form of complex density and complex sonic velocity, and verified the theoretical formula. We also conducted an experiment and observed the effect from air viscosity in the actual measurements.
146
14398
Wetting Front Propagation during Quenching of Aluminum Plate by Water Spray
Abstract:

This study presents a systematic analysis of wetted region due to cooling of aluminum plate by water spray impingement with respect to different water flow rates, spray nozzle heights, and subcooling. Unlike jet impingement, the wetting is not commenced upon spray impingement and there is a delay in wetness of hot test surface. After initiation, the wetting (black zone) progresses gradually to cover all test plate and provides efficient cooling in nucleate boiling regime. Generally, spray cooling is found function of spray flow rate, spray-to-surface distance and water subcooling. Wetting delay is decreasing by increasing of spray flow rate until spray impact area is not become bigger that test surface. Otherwise, higher spray flow rate is not practically accelerated start of wetting. Very fast wetting due to spray cooling can be obtained by dense spray (high floe rate) discharged from adjacent nozzle to the test surface. Highly subcooling water spray also triggers earlier wetting of hot aluminum plate.

145
11215
Monitoring Sand Transport Characteristics in Multiphase Flow in Horizontal Pipelines Using Acoustic Emission Technology
Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental investigation using Acoustic Emission (AE) technology to monitor sand transportation in multiphase flow. The investigations were undertaken on three-phase (air-water-sand) flow in a horizontal pipe where the superficial gas velocity (VSG) had a range of between 0.2msˉ¹ to 2.0msˉ¹ and superficial liquid velocity (VSL) had a range of between 0.2msˉ¹ to 1.0msˉ¹. The experimental findings clearly show a correlation exists between AE energy levels, sand concentration, superficial gas velocity (VSG), and superficial liquid velocity (VSL).

144
620
Managing, Sustaining, and Future Proofing the Business of Educational Provision Following Large-Scale Disaster and Disruption
Abstract:
A catastrophic earthquake measuring 6.3 on the Richter scale struck the Christchurch, New Zealand Central Business District on February 22, 2012, abruptly disrupting the business of teaching and learning at Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology. This paper presents the findings from a study undertaken about the complexity of delivering an educational programme in the face of this traumatic natural event. Nine interconnected themes emerged from this multiple method study: communication, decision making, leader- and follower-ship, balancing personal and professional responsibilities, taking action, preparedness and thinking ahead, all within a disruptive and uncertain context. Sustainable responses that maximise business continuity, and provide solutions to practical challenges, are among the study-s recommendations.
143
6344
Minimizing of Target Localization Error using Multi-robot System and Particle Filters
Authors:
Abstract:
In recent years a number of applications with multirobot systems (MRS) is growing in various areas. But their design is in practice often difficult and algorithms are proposed for the theoretical background and do not consider errors and noise in real conditions, so they are not usable in real environment. These errors are visible also in task of target localization enough, when robots try to find and estimate the position of the target by the sensors. Localization of target is possible also with one robot but as it was examined target finding and localization with group of mobile robots can estimate the target position more accurately and faster. The accuracy of target position estimation is made by cooperation of MRS and particle filtering. Advantage of usage the MRS with particle filtering was tested on task of fixed target localization by group of mobile robots.
142
804
Organoclay of Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium- Montmorillonite: Preparation and Study in Adsorption of Benzene-Toluene-2-Chlorophenol
Abstract:
Contamination of aromatic compounds in water can cause severe long-lasting effects not only for biotic organism but also on human health. Several alternative technologies for remediation of polluted water have been attempted. One of these is adsorption process of aromatic compounds by using organic modified clay mineral. Porous structure of clay is potential properties for molecular adsorptivity and it can be increased by immobilizing hydrophobic structure to attract organic compounds. In this work natural montmorillonite were modified with cetyltrimethylammonium (CTMA+) and was evaluated for use as adsorbents of aromatic compounds: benzene, toluene, and 2-chloro phenol in its single and multicomponent solution by ethanol:water solvent. Preparation of CTMA-montmorillonite was conducted by simple ion exchange procedure and characterization was conducted by using x-day diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infra red (FTIR) and gas sorption analysis. The influence of structural modification of montmorillonite on its adsorption capacity and adsorption affinity of organic compound were studied. It was shown that adsorptivity of montmorillonite was increased by modification associated with arrangements of CTMA+ in the structure even the specific surface area of modified montmorillonite was lower than raw montmorillonite. Adsorption rate indicated that material has affinity to adsorb compound by following order: benzene> toluene > 2-chloro phenol. The adsorption isotherms of benzene and toluene showed 1st order adsorption kinetic indicating a partition phenomenon of compounds between the aqueous and organophilic CTMAmontmorillonite.
141
8324
Cooperative Movements in Malaysia: The Issue of Governance
Abstract:
Cooperative organizations in Malaysia are going through a phase of rapid growth. They are seen by the government as another crucial vehicle to drive and boost up the country-s economical development and growth. Hence, the issue of cooperative governance is of great importance. Unlike literatures on corporate governance for public listed companies-, literatures on governance for social enterprises, in particular the cooperative organizations are still at the early stage in Malaysia and very scant in number. This paper will look into current practices as well as issues and challenges related to cooperative governance. The need for a better solution towards forming best practices of cooperative governance framework appears imperative in deterring cases of mismanagement and fraud.
140
13328
Integrate Communication Modeling into the Design Modeling at Early Stages of the Design Flow Case Study: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
Abstract:
This paper shows how we can integrate communication modeling into the design modeling at early stages of the design flow. We consider effect of incorporating noise such as impulsive noise on system stability. We show that with change of the system model and investigate the system performance under the different communication effects. We modeled a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) as a demonstration using SystemC methodology. Moreover the system is modeled by joining the capabilities of UML and SystemC to operate at system level.
139
11150
Classifier Combination Approach in Motion Imagery Signals Processing for Brain Computer Interface
Abstract:
In this study we focus on improvement performance of a cue based Motor Imagery Brain Computer Interface (BCI). For this purpose, data fusion approach is used on results of different classifiers to make the best decision. At first step Distinction Sensitive Learning Vector Quantization method is used as a feature selection method to determine most informative frequencies in recorded signals and its performance is evaluated by frequency search method. Then informative features are extracted by packet wavelet transform. In next step 5 different types of classification methods are applied. The methodologies are tested on BCI Competition II dataset III, the best obtained accuracy is 85% and the best kappa value is 0.8. At final step ordered weighted averaging (OWA) method is used to provide a proper aggregation classifiers outputs. Using OWA enhanced system accuracy to 95% and kappa value to 0.9. Applying OWA just uses 50 milliseconds for performing calculation.
138
12507
About Methods of Additional Mining Pressure Figuring while Reconstruction of Tunnels
Abstract:
At the end of the 20th century it was actual the development of transport corridors and the improvement of their technical parameters. With this purpose, many countries and Georgia among them manufacture to construct new highways, railways and also reconstruction-modernization of the existing transport infrastructure. It is necessary to explore the artificial structures (bridges and tunnels) on the existing tracks as they are very old. Conference report includes the peculiarities of reconstruction of tunnels, because we think that this theme is important for the modernization of the existing road infrastructure. We must remark that the methods of determining mining pressure of tunnel reconstructions are worked out according to the jobs of new tunnels but it is necessary to foresee additional mining pressure which will be formed during their reconstruction. In this report there are given the methods of figuring the additional mining pressure while reconstruction of tunnels, there was worked out the computer program, it is determined that during reconstruction of tunnels the additional mining pressure is 1/3rd of main mining pressure.
137
4431
Liquid-Liquid Equilibria for Ternary Mixtures of (Water + Carboxylic Acid+ MIBK), Experimental, Simulation, and Optimization
Abstract:
In this work, Experimental tie-line results and solubility (binodal) curves were obtained for the ternary systems (water + acetic acid + methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK)), (water + lactic acid+ methyl isobutyl ketone) at T = 294.15K and atmospheric pressure. The consistency of the values of the experimental tie-lines was determined through the Othmer-Tobias and Hands correlations. For the extraction effectiveness of solvents, the distribution and selectivity curves were plotted. In addition, these experimental tieline data were also correlated with NRTL model. The interaction parameters for the NRTL model were retrieved from the obtained experimental results by means of a combination of the homotopy method and the genetic algorithms.
136
8354
Exploring Inter-Relationships between Events to Identify Strategic Technological Competencies: A Combined Approach
Abstract:
The inherent complexity in nowadays- business environments is forcing organizations to be attentive to the dynamics in several fronts. Therefore, the management of technological innovation is continually faced with uncertainty about the future. These issues lead to a need for a systemic perspective, able to analyze the consequences of interactions between different factors. The field of technology foresight has proposed methods and tools to deal with this broader perspective. In an attempt to provide a method to analyze the complex interactions between events in several areas, departing from the identification of the most strategic competencies, this paper presents a methodology based on the Delphi method and Quality Function Deployment. This methodology is applied in a sheet metal processing equipment manufacturer, as a case study.
135
3174
Sterilisation of Hyponex Medium by Chemicals without Autoclaving and Growth of Phalaenopsis Protocorms
Abstract:

For sterilization of Phalaenopsis culture medium without autoclaving, selected single sterilizing agents and in combinations were added to a 25ml Hyponex medium in a 120ml glass container. Treated liquid and solid media, supplemented with sterilizing agents, were compared to a control medium, autoclaved at 121°C for 15min. It was found that 90(L of 10% povidone-iodine, 150(L of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 150(L of 2% mercurochrome, 90(L of 2.5% iodine + 2.5% potassium iodine in combination with 10% providone-iodine (1:3) and 30(L of 2.5% iodine + 2.5% potassium iodide in combination with 2% mercurochrome showed 100% sterile conditions in liquid medium but provided 75, 100, 50, 75 and 80% sterile conditions, respectively, in solid medium. For growth of Phalaenopsis protocorms, 90(L of 10% povidone-iodine in liquid Hyponex medium gave the comparable growth of protocorms to control medium while 150(L of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite in solid medium provided the promising growth of protocorms. Growth of protocorms, whole fresh weight, numbers of leaf and root, root length and number of protocorm-like bodies, was discussed.

134
9191
A Study of RSCMAC Enhanced GPS Dynamic Positioning
Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to develop and apply the RSCMAC to enhance the dynamic accuracy of Global Positioning System (GPS). GPS devices provide services of accurate positioning, speed detection and highly precise time standard for over 98% area on the earth. The overall operation of Global Positioning System includes 24 GPS satellites in space; signal transmission that includes 2 frequency carrier waves (Link 1 and Link 2) and 2 sets random telegraphic codes (C/A code and P code), on-earth monitoring stations or client GPS receivers. Only 4 satellites utilization, the client position and its elevation can be detected rapidly. The more receivable satellites, the more accurate position can be decoded. Currently, the standard positioning accuracy of the simplified GPS receiver is greatly increased, but due to affected by the error of satellite clock, the troposphere delay and the ionosphere delay, current measurement accuracy is in the level of 5~15m. In increasing the dynamic GPS positioning accuracy, most researchers mainly use inertial navigation system (INS) and installation of other sensors or maps for the assistance. This research utilizes the RSCMAC advantages of fast learning, learning convergence assurance, solving capability of time-related dynamic system problems with the static positioning calibration structure to improve and increase the GPS dynamic accuracy. The increasing of GPS dynamic positioning accuracy can be achieved by using RSCMAC system with GPS receivers collecting dynamic error data for the error prediction and follows by using the predicted error to correct the GPS dynamic positioning data. The ultimate purpose of this research is to improve the dynamic positioning error of cheap GPS receivers and the economic benefits will be enhanced while the accuracy is increased.
133
5948
Landslide and Debris Flow Characteristics during Extreme Rainfall in Taiwan
Authors:
Abstract:
As the global climate changes, the threat from landslides and debris flows increases. Learning how a watershed initiates landslides under abnormal rainfall conditions and predicting landslide magnitude and frequency distribution is thus important. Landslides show a power-law distribution in the frequency-area distribution. The distribution curve shows an exponent gradient 1.0 in the Sandpile model test. Will the landslide frequency-area statistics show a distribution similar to the Sandpile model under extreme rainfall conditions? The purpose of the study is to identify the extreme rainfall-induced landslide frequency-area distribution in the Laonong River Basin in southern Taiwan. Results of the analysis show that a lower gradient of landslide frequency-area distribution could be attributed to the transportation and deposition of debris flow areas that are included in the landslide area.
132
8282
Stagnation in Brownfield Redevelopment
Abstract:
Purpose of this paper is two-folded. At first it explains the major problems that are causing stagnation in brownfield redevelopment. In addition, these problems given the context of the present multi-actor built environment are becoming more complex to observe. Therefore, this paper suggests also a prospective decisionmaking approach that is the most appropriate to observe and react on the given stagnation problems. Such an approach should be regarded as prescriptive-interactive decision-making approach, a barely established branch. This approach should offer models that have prescriptive as well as an interactive component enabling them to successfully cope with the multi-actor environment. Overall, this paper provides up-to-date insight on the brownfield stagnation by gradually introducing the nowadays major problems and offers a prospective decision-making approach how these problems could be tackled.
131
484
TiO2-Zeolite Y Catalyst Prepared Using Impregnation and Ion-Exchange Method for Sonocatalytic Degradation of Amaranth Dye in Aqueous Solution
Abstract:
Characteristics and sonocatalytic activity of zeolite Y catalysts loaded with TiO2 using impregnation and ion exchange methods for the degradation of amaranth dye were investigated. The Ion-exchange method was used to encapsulate the TiO2 into the internal pores of the zeolite while the incorporation of TiO2 mostly on the external surface of zeolite was carried out using the impregnation method. Different characterization techniques were used to elucidate the physicochemical properties of the produced catalysts. The framework of zeolite Y remained virtually unchanged after the encapsulation of TiO2 while the crystallinity of zeolite decreased significantly after the incorporation of 15 wt% of TiO2. The sonocatalytic activity was enhanced by TiO2 incorporation with maximum degradation efficiencies of 50% and 68% for the encapsulated titanium and titanium loaded onto the zeolite, respectively after 120min of reaction. Catalysts characteristics and sonocatalytic behaviors were significantly affected by the preparation method and the location of TiO2 introduced with zeolite structure. Behaviors in the sonocatalytic process were successfully correlated with the characteristics of the catalysts used.
130
4054
Combating Money Laundering in the Banking Industry: Malaysian Experience
Abstract:

Money laundering has been described by many as the lifeblood of crime and is a major threat to the economic and social well-being of societies. It has been recognized that the banking system has long been the central element of money laundering. This is in part due to the complexity and confidentiality of the banking system itself. It is generally accepted that effective anti-money laundering (AML) measures adopted by banks will make it tougher for criminals to get their "dirty money" into the financial system. In fact, for law enforcement agencies, banks are considered to be an important source of valuable information for the detection of money laundering. However, from the banks- perspective, the main reason for their existence is to make as much profits as possible. Hence their cultural and commercial interests are totally distinct from that of the law enforcement authorities. Undoubtedly, AML laws create a major dilemma for banks as they produce a significant shift in the way banks interact with their customers. Furthermore, the implementation of the laws not only creates significant compliance problems for banks, but also has the potential to adversely affect the operations of banks. As such, it is legitimate to ask whether these laws are effective in preventing money launderers from using banks, or whether they simply put an unreasonable burden on banks and their customers. This paper attempts to address these issues and analyze them against the background of the Malaysian AML laws. It must be said that effective coordination between AML regulator and the banking industry is vital to minimize problems faced by the banks and thereby to ensure effective implementation of the laws in combating money laundering.

129
3966
Multiple Shoot Formation of Paphiopedilum 'Delrosi'
Abstract:
Shoots, with three leaves, of Paphiopedilum 'Delrosi' were used as explants for multiple shoot induction. Modified Hyponex medium was supplemented with thidiazuron (TDZ), N6- benzyladenine (BA) or kinetin (Kn) alone and in combinations with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). All explants were cultured for 15 weeks. It was found that TDZ alone at the concentration of 0.45μM or in combination with 4.52μM 2,4-D and 8.88μM BA in combination with 13.56μM 2,4-D promoted multiple shoots. The highest shoot sprouting efficiencies (80.0, 90.0 and 80.0%) and new shoot numbers (1.5, 1.3 and 1.1) were obtained, respectively. Fresh weight, height, numbers of leaf and root of new shoots and initial explants were discussed.
128
10858
Cannabidiol Treatment Ameliorates Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice
Abstract:

The possible therapeutic effect of cannabidiol, the major non-psychotropic Cannabis constituent, was investigated against acute hepatotoxicity induced by a single oral dose of acetaminophen (500mg/kg) in mice. Cannabidiol (two intraperitoneal injections, 5mg/kg, each) was given 1 hour and 12 hours following acetaminophen administration. Acetaminophen administration caused significant elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase, and hepatic malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide levels, and a significant decrease in hepatic reduced glutathione. Cannabidiol significantly attenuated the deterioration in the measured biochemical parameters resulted from acetaminophen administration. Also, histopathological examination showed that cannabidiol markedly attenuated ameliorated acetaminophen-induced liver tissue damage. These results emphasize that cannabidiol represents a potential therapeutic option to protect against acetaminophen hepartotoxicity which is a common clinical problem.

127
14312
Microorganisms Isolated from Surgical Wounds Infection and Treatment with Different Natural Products and Medications
Abstract:
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the most common nosocomial infection in surgical patients resulting in significant increases in postoperative morbidity and mortality. The commonly causative bacteria developed resistance to virtually all antibiotics available. The aim of this study was to isolation and identification the most common bacteria that cause SSIs in Medical Research Institute, and to compare their sensitivity to selected group of antibiotics and natural products (garlic, oregano, olive, and Nigella sativa oils). The isolated pathogens collected from infected surgical wounds were identified, and their sensitivities to the antibiotics commonly available for clinical use, and also to the different concentrations of the used natural products were investigated. The results indicate to the potential therapeutic effect of the tested natural products in treatment of surgical wound infections.
126
13338
Effective Self-Preservation of Methane Hydrate Particles in Crude Oils
Abstract:
In this work we investigated the behavior of methane hydrates dispersed in crude oils from different fields at temperatures below 0°C. In case of crude oil emulsion the size of water droplets is in the range of 50e100"m. The size of hydrate particles formed from droplets is the same. The self-preservation is not expected in this field. However, the self-preservation of hydrates with the size of particles 24±18"m (electron microscopy data) in suspensions is observed. Similar results were obtained for four different kinds of crude oil and model system such as asphaltenes, resins and wax in ndecane. This result can allow developing effective methods to prevent the formation and elimination of gas-hydrate plugs in pipelines under low temperature conditions (e. g. in Eastern Siberia). There is a prospective to use experiment results for working out the technology of associated petroleum gas recovery.
125
15386
Influence of Laminated Textile Structures on Mechanical Performance of NF-Epoxy Composites
Abstract:
Textile structures are engineered and fabricated to meet worldwide structural applications. Nevertheless, research varying textile structure on natural fibre as composite reinforcement was found to be very limited. Most of the research is focusing on short fibre and random discontinuous orientation of the reinforcement structure. Realizing that natural fibre (NF) composite had been widely developed to be used as synthetic fibre composite replacement, this research attempted to examine the influence of woven and cross-ply laminated structure towards its mechanical performances. Laminated natural fibre composites were developed using hand lay-up and vacuum bagging technique. Impact and flexural strength were investigated as a function of fibre type (coir and kenaf) and reinforcement structure (imbalanced plain woven, 0°/90° cross-ply and +45°/-45° cross-ply). Multi-level full factorial design of experiment (DOE) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to impart data as to how fibre type and reinforcement structure parameters affect the mechanical properties of the composites. This systematic experimentation has led to determination of significant factors that predominant influences the impact and flexural properties of the textile composites. It was proven that both fibre type and reinforcement structure demonstrated significant difference results. Overall results indicated that coir composite and woven structure exhibited better impact and flexural strength. Yet, cross-ply composite structure demonstrated better fracture resistance.
124
10892
A Family of Zero Stable Block Integrator for the Solutions of Ordinary Differential Equations
Authors:
Abstract:
In this paper, linear multistep technique using power series as the basis function is used to develop the block methods which are suitable for generating direct solution of the special second order ordinary differential equations with associated initial or boundary conditions. The continuous hybrid formulations enable us to differentiate and evaluate at some grids and off – grid points to obtain two different four discrete schemes, each of order (5,5,5,5)T, which were used in block form for parallel or sequential solutions of the problems. The computational burden and computer time wastage involved in the usual reduction of second order problem into system of first order equations are avoided by this approach. Furthermore, a stability analysis and efficiency of the block methods are tested on linear and non-linear ordinary differential equations and the results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution.
123
5499
3-D Reconstruction of Objects Using Digital Fringe Projection: Survey and Experimental Study
Abstract:
Three-dimensional reconstruction of small objects has been one of the most challenging problems over the last decade. Computer graphics researchers and photography professionals have been working on improving 3D reconstruction algorithms to fit the high demands of various real life applications. Medical sciences, animation industry, virtual reality, pattern recognition, tourism industry, and reverse engineering are common fields where 3D reconstruction of objects plays a vital role. Both lack of accuracy and high computational cost are the major challenges facing successful 3D reconstruction. Fringe projection has emerged as a promising 3D reconstruction direction that combines low computational cost to both high precision and high resolution. It employs digital projection, structured light systems and phase analysis on fringed pictures. Research studies have shown that the system has acceptable performance, and moreover it is insensitive to ambient light. This paper presents an overview of fringe projection approaches. It also presents an experimental study and implementation of a simple fringe projection system. We tested our system using two objects with different materials and levels of details. Experimental results have shown that, while our system is simple, it produces acceptable results.
122
4007
Why Are Entrepreneurs Resistant to E-tools?
Abstract:

Latvia is the fourth in the world by means of broadband internet speed. The total number of internet users in Latvia exceeds 70% of its population. The number of active mailboxes of the local internet e-mail service Inbox.lv accounts for 68% of the population and 97.6% of the total number of internet users. The Latvian portal Draugiem.lv is a phenomenon of social media, because 58.4 % of the population and 83.5% of internet users use it. A majority of Latvian company profiles are available on social networks, the most popular being Twitter.com. These and other parameters prove the fact consumers and companies are actively using the Internet. 

However, after the authors in a number of studies analyzed how enterprises are employing the e-environment, namely, e-environment tools, they arrived to the conclusions that are not as flattering as the aforementioned statistics. There is an obvious contradiction between the statistical data and the actual studies. As a result, the authors have posed a question: Why are entrepreneurs resistant to e-tools? In order to answer this question, the authors have addressed the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The authors analyzed each phase and determined several factors affecting the use of e-environment, reaching the main conclusion that entrepreneurs do not have a sufficient level of e-literacy (digital literacy). 

The authors employ well-established quantitative and qualitative methods of research: grouping, analysis, statistic method, factor analysis in SPSS 20  environment etc. 

The theoretical and methodological background of the research is formed by, scientific researches and publications, that from the mass media and professional literature, statistical information from legal institutions as well as information collected by the author during the survey.

121
10533
The Best Efficiency Point of the Performance of Solar Cell Panel System for Pumping Water at Various Lifting Heads Using 100 W Motor- Pump Unit
Abstract:

This study was carried out experimentally and analytically about the performance of solar cell panel system for operating the pump coupled by dc-motor. The solar cell panel with total area 1.9848 m2 consists of three modules of 80 Wp each. The small centrifugal pump powered by dc-motor is operated to lift water from 1m to 7m heads in sequence and gives the amount of water pumped over the whole day from 08.00 to 16.00 h are 11988, 10851, 8874, 7695, 5760, 3600, 2340 L/d respectively. The hourly global solar radiation during the day is an average of 506 W/m2. This study also presents the I-V characteristics of the panel at global radiations 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 W/m2 matched with the operation of the pump at the above lifting heads. It proves that the only solar radiations 800 and 1000 W/m2 could provide lifting head from 1m to 7m. The analysis shows the best efficiency point of the performance of solar cell panel system occurs at the pumping head 2.89 m.

120
6310
Fluid Differential Agitators
Authors:
Abstract:
This research is to design and implement a new kind of agitators called differential agitator. The Differential Agitator is an electro- mechanic set consists of two shafts. The first shaft is the bearing axis while the second shaft is the axis of the quartet upper bearing impellers group and the triple lower group which are called as agitating group. The agitating group is located inside a cylindrical container equipped especially to contain square directors for the liquid entrance and square directors called fixing group for the liquid exit. The fixing group is installed containing the agitating group inside any tank whether from upper or lower position. The agitating process occurs through the agitating group bearing causing a lower pressure over the upper group leading to withdrawing the liquid from the square directors of the liquid entering and consequently the liquid moves to the denser place under the quartet upper group. Then, the liquid moves to the so high pressure area under the agitating group causing the liquid to exit from the square directors in the bottom of the container. For improving efficiency, parametric study and shape optimization has been carried out. A numerical analysis, manufacturing and laboratory experiments were conducted to design and implement the differential agitator. Knowing the material prosperities and the loading conditions, the FEM using ANSYS11 was used to get the optimum design of the geometrical parameters of the differential agitator elements while the experimental test was performed to validate the advantages of the differential agitators to give a high agitation performance of lime in the water as an example. In addition, the experimental work has been done to express the internal container shape in the agitation efficiency. The study ended up with conclusions to maximize agitator performance and optimize the geometrical parameters to be used for manufacturing the differential agitator
119
12512
Spreading of Swirling Double–Concentric Jets at Low and High Pulsation Intensities
Abstract:
The spreading characteristics of acoustically excited swirling double-concentric jets were studied experimentally. The central jet was acoustically excited at low and high pulsation intensities. A smoke wire flow visualization and a hot-wire anemometer velocity measurement results show that excitation forces a vortex ring to roll-up from the edge of the central tube during each excitation period. At low pulsation intensities, the vortex ring evolves downstream, and eventually breaks up into turbulent eddies. At high pulsation intensities, the primary vortex ring evolves and a series of trailing vortex rings form during the same period of excitation. The trailing vortex rings accelerate while evolving downstream and overtake the primary vortex ring within the same cycle. In the process, the primary vortex ring becomes unstable and breaks up early. The effect of the fast traveling trailing vortex rings combined with the swirl motion of the annular flow improve jet spreading compared with the naturally evolving jets.
118
6370
Elastic Failure of Web-Cracked Plate Girder
Abstract:
The presence of a vertical fatigue crack in the web of a plate girder subjected to pure bending influences the bending moment capacity of the girder. The growth of the crack may lead to premature elastic failure due to flange local yielding, flange local buckling, or web local buckling. Approximate expressions for the bending moment capacities corresponding to these failure modes were formulated. Finite element analyses were then used to validate the expressions. The expressions were employed to assess the effects of crack length on the capacity. Neglecting brittle fracture, tension buckling, and ductile failure modes, it was found that typical girders are governed by the capacity associated with flange local yielding as influenced by the crack. Concluding, a possible use of the capacity expressions in girder design was demonstrated.
117
2441
Vibration Attenuation Using Functionally Graded Material
Abstract:

The aim of the work was to attenuate the vibration amplitude in CESNA 172 airplane wing by using Functionally Graded Material instead of uniform or composite material. Wing strength was achieved by means of stress analysis study, while wing vibration amplitudes and shapes were achieved by means of Modal and Harmonic analysis. Results were verified by applying the methodology in a simple cantilever plate to the simple model and the results were promising and the same methodology can be applied to the airplane wing model. Aluminum models, Titanium models, and functionally graded materials of Aluminum and titanium results were compared to show a great vibration attenuation after using the FGM. Optimization in FGM gradation satisfied our objective of reducing and attenuating the vibration amplitudes to show the effect of using FGM in vibration behavior. Testing the Aluminum rich models, and comparing it with the titanium rich model was an optimization in this paper. Results have shown a significant attenuation in vibration magnitudes when using FGM instead of Titanium Plate, and Aluminium wing with FGM Spurs instead of Aluminium wings. It was also recommended that in future, changing the graphical scale to 1:10 or even 1:1 when the computers- capabilities allow.

116
6922
An Exhaustive Review of Die Sinking Electrical Discharge Machining Process and Scope for Future Research
Abstract:
Electrical Discharge Machine (EDM) is especially used for the manufacturing of 3-D complex geometry and hard material parts that are extremely difficult-to-machine by conventional machining processes. In this paper authors review the research work carried out in the development of die-sinking EDM within the past decades for the improvement of machining characteristics such as Material Removal Rate, Surface Roughness and Tool Wear Ratio. In this review various techniques reported by EDM researchers for improving the machining characteristics have been categorized as process parameters optimization, multi spark technique, powder mixed EDM, servo control system and pulse discriminating. At the end, flexible machine controller is suggested for Die Sinking EDM to enhance the machining characteristics and to achieve high-level automation. Thus, die sinking EDM can be integrated with Computer Integrated Manufacturing environment as a need of agile manufacturing systems.
115
4735
Artificial Intelligent (AI) Based Cascade Multi-Level Inverter for Smart Nano Grid
Abstract:
As wind, solar and other clean and green energy sources gain popularity worldwide, engineers are seeking ways to make renewable energy systems more affordable and to integrate them with existing ac power grids. In the present paper an attempt has been made for integrating the PV arrays to the smart nano grid using an artificial intelligent (AI) based solar powered cascade multilevel inverter. The AI based controller switching scheme has been used for improving the power quality by reducing the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of the multi-level inverter output voltage.
114
15500
Land Reclamation Using Waste as Fill Material: A Case Study in Jakarta
Abstract:

To coop with urbanization issues and the economic need for expansion, the city of Jakarta is planning to reclaim more land in the Jakarta Bay. However, the reclamation activities of some islands have barely started and already the developers are facing difficulties in finding sufficient quantities of sand as fill material. When addressing the problem of sand scarcity in the case of Jakarta where, an excess of waste production, an inadequate solid waste management system and a lack of dumping ground pose a major problem, it is hard not to think of the use of waste as alternative fill material. This paper analyses the possibilities of using waste in the land reclamation projects, considering the governmental, social, environmental and economic context of the city. The results identify types of waste that could be used, ways of using those types of waste and implementation conditions for the city of Jakarta.

113
8532
Gaming for the Energy Neutral Development: A Case Study of Strijp-S
Abstract:

This paper deals with stakeholders’ decisions within energy neutral urban redevelopment processes. The decisions of these stakeholders during the process will make or break energy neutral ambitions. An extensive form of game theory model gave insight in the behavioral differences of stakeholders regarding energy neutral ambitions and the effects of the changing legislation. The results show that new legislation regarding spatial planning slightly influences the behavior of stakeholders. An active behavior of the municipality will still result in the best outcome. Nevertheless, the municipality becomes more powerful when acting passively and can make the use of planning tools to provide governance towards energy neutral urban redevelopment. Moreover, organizational support, recognizing the necessity for energy neutrality, keeping focused and collaboration among stakeholders are crucial elements to achieve the objective of an energy neutral urban (re)development.

112
14195
Self-Organization of Radiation Defects: Temporal Dissipative Structures
Abstract:
A theoretical approach to radiation damage evolution is developed. Stable temporal behavior taking place in solids under irradiation are examined as phenomena of self-organization in nonequilibrium systems. Experimental effects of temporal self-organization in solids under irradiation are reviewed. Their essential common properties and features are highlighted and analyzed. Dynamical model to describe development of self-oscillation of density of point defects under stationary irradiation is proposed. The emphasis is the nonlinear couplings between rate of annealing and density of defects that determine the kind and parameters of an arising self-oscillation. The field of parameters (defect generation rate and environment temperature) at which self-oscillations develop is found. Bifurcation curve and self-oscillation period near it is obtained.
111
3058
MC and IC – What Is the Relationship?
Abstract:

MC (Management Control)& IC (Internal Control) – what is the relationship? (an empirical study into the definitions between MC and IC) based on the wider considerations of Internal Control and Management Control terms, attention is focused not only on the financial aspects but also more on the soft aspects of the business, such as culture, behaviour, standards and values. The limited considerations of Management Control are focused mainly in the hard, financial aspects of business operation. The definitions of Management Control and Internal Control are often used interchangeably and the results of this empirical study reveal that Management Control is part of Internal Control, there is no causal link between the two concepts. Based on the interpretation of the respondents, the term Management Control has moved from a broad term to a more limited term with the soft aspects of the influencing of behaviour, performance measurements, incentives and culture. This paper is an exploratory study based on qualitative research and on a qualitative matrix method analysis of the thematic definition of the terms Management Control and Internal Control.

110
7402
CScheme in Traditional Concurrency Problems
Abstract:
CScheme, a concurrent programming paradigm based on scheme concept enables concurrency schemes to be constructed from smaller synchronization units through a GUI based composer and latter be reused on other concurrency problems of a similar nature. This paradigm is particularly important in the multi-core environment prevalent nowadays. In this paper, we demonstrate techniques to separate concurrency from functional code using the CScheme paradigm. Then we illustrate how the CScheme methodology can be used to solve some of the traditional concurrency problems – critical section problem, and readers-writers problem - using synchronization schemes such as Single Threaded Execution Scheme, and Readers Writers Scheme.
109
9899
Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flows Induced by a Permeable Continuous Surface Stretched with Prescribed Skin Friction
Authors:
Abstract:
The boundary layer flow and heat transfer on a stretched surface moving with prescribed skin friction is studied for permeable surface. The surface temperature is assumed to vary inversely with the vertical direction x for n = -1. The skin friction at the surface scales as (x-1/2) at m = 0. The constants m and n are the indices of the power law velocity and temperature exponent respectively. Similarity solutions are obtained for the boundary layer equations subject to power law temperature and velocity variation. The effect of various governing parameters, such as the buoyancy parameter λ and the suction/injection parameter fw for air (Pr = 0.72) are studied. The choice of n and m ensures that the used similarity solutions are x independent. The results show that, assisting flow (λ > 0) enhancing the heat transfer coefficient along the surface for any constant value of fw. Furthermore, injection increases the heat transfer coefficient but suction reduces it at constant λ.
108
29
Open Cloud Computing with Fault Tolerance
Abstract:
Cloud Computing (CC) has become one of the most talked about emerging technologies that provides powerful computing and large storage environments through the use of the Internet. Cloud computing provides different dynamically scalable computing resources as a service. It brings economic benefits to individuals and businesses that adopt the technology. In theory adoption of cloud computing reduces capital and operational expenditure on information technology. For this to be a reality there is need to solve some challenges and at the same time addressing concerns that consumers have about cloud computing. This paper looks at Cloud Computing in general then highlights the challenges of Cloud Computing and finally suggests solutions to some of the challenges.
107
5049
The Use of Real Measurements and GPS Data for Noise Mapping of Riyadh City
Abstract:
In this paper, the noise maps for the area encircled by the Second Ring Road in Riyadh city are developed based on real measured data. Sound level meters, GPS receivers to determine measurement position, a database program to manage the measured data, and a program to develop the maps are used. A baseline noise level has been established at each short-term site so subsequent monitoring may be conducted to describe changes in Riyadh-s noise environment. Short-term sites are used to show typical daytime and nighttime noise levels at specific locations by short duration grab sampling.
106
5931
On Quantum BCH Codes and Its Duals
Abstract:

Classical Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes C that contain their dual codes can be used to construct quantum stabilizer codes this chapter studies the properties of such codes. It had been shown that a BCH code of length n which contains its dual code satisfies the bound on weight of any non-zero codeword in C and converse is also true. One impressive difficulty in quantum communication and computation is to protect informationcarrying quantum states against undesired interactions with the environment. To address this difficulty, many good quantum errorcorrecting codes have been derived as binary stabilizer codes. We were able to shed more light on the structure of dual containing BCH codes. These results make it possible to determine the parameters of quantum BCH codes in terms of weight of non-zero dual codeword.

105
8550
Performance Enhancement of DWDM Systems Using HTE Configuration HTE Configuration for 1479-1555nm Wavelength Range
Abstract:

In this paper, the gain spectrum of EDFA has been broadened by implementing HTE configuration for S and C band. On using this configuration an amplification bandwidth of 76nm ranging from 1479nm to 1555nm with a peak gain of 26dB has been obtained.

104
11731
Harmful Effect of Ambient Ozone on Growth and Productivity of Two Legume Crops Visia Faba, and Pisum sativum in Riyadh City, K.S.A.
Abstract:
Ozone (O3) is considered as one of the most phytotoxic pollutants with deleterious effects on living and non living components of Ecosystems. It reduces growth and yield of many crops as well as alters the physiology and crop quality. The present study described series of experiments to investigate the effects of ambient O3 at different locations with different ambient levels of O3 depending on proximity to pollutant source and ranged between 17 ppb/h in control experiment to 112 ppb/h in industrial area respectively. The ambient levels in other three locations (King Saud University botanical garden, King Fahd Rd, and Almanakh Garden) were 61,61,77 ppb/h respectively. Tow legume crops species (vicia vaba L ; and Pisum sativum) differ in their phenology and sensitivity were used. The results showed a significant negative effect to ozone on morphology, number of injured leaves, growth and productivity with a difference in the degree of response depending on the plant type. Visia Faba showed sensitivity to ozone to number and leaf area and the degree of injury leaves 3, pisum sativum show higher sensitivity for the gas for degree of injury 1,The relative growth rate and seed weight, it turns out there is no significant difference between the two plants in plant height and number of seeds.
103
2065
Shock Induced Damage onto Free-Standing Objects in an Earthquake
Abstract:

In areas of low to moderate seismicity many building contents and equipment are not positively fixed to the floor or tied to adjacent walls. Under seismic induced horizontal vibration, such contents and equipment can suffer from damage by either overturning or impact associated with rocking. This paper focuses on the estimation of shock on typical contents and equipment due to rocking. A simplified analytical model is outlined that can be used to estimate the maximum acceleration on a rocking object given its basic geometric and mechanical properties. The developed model was validated against experimental results. The experimental results revealed that the maximum shock acceleration can be underestimated if the static stiffness of the materials at the interface between the rocking object and floor is used rather than the dynamic stiffness. Excellent agreement between the model and experimental results was found when the dynamic stiffness for the interface material was used, which was found to be generally much higher than corresponding static stiffness under different investigated boundary conditions of the cushion. The proposed model can be a beneficial tool in performing a rapid assessment of shock sensitive components considered for possible seismic rectification. 

102
3062
Drafting the Design and Development of Micro- Controller Based Portable Soil Moisture Sensor for Advancement in Agro Engineering
Abstract:
Moisture is an important consideration in many aspects ranging from irrigation, soil chemistry, golf course, corrosion and erosion, road conditions, weather predictions, livestock feed moisture levels, water seepage etc. Vegetation and crops always depend more on the moisture available at the root level than on precipitation occurrence. In this paper, design of an instrument is discussed which tells about the variation in the moisture contents of soil. This is done by measuring the amount of water content in soil by finding the variation in capacitance of soil with the help of a capacitive sensor. The greatest advantage of soil moisture sensor is reduced water consumption. The sensor is also be used to set lower and upper threshold to maintain optimum soil moisture saturation and minimize water wilting, contributes to deeper plant root growth ,reduced soil run off /leaching and less favorable condition for insects and fungal diseases. Capacitance method is preferred because, it provides absolute amount of water content and also measures water content at any depth.
101
4775
A “Greedy“ Czech Manufacturing Case
Abstract:
The article describes a case study on one of Czech Republic-s manufacturing middle size enterprises (ME), where due to the European financial crisis, production lines had to be redesigned and optimized in order to minimize the total costs of the production of goods. It is considered an optimization problem of minimizing the total cost of the work load, according to the costs of the possible locations of the workplaces, with an application of the Greedy algorithm and a partial analogy to a Set Packing Problem. The displacement of working tables in a company should be as a one-toone monotone increasing function in order for the total costs of production of the goods to be at minimum. We use a heuristic approach with greedy algorithm for solving this linear optimization problem, regardless the possible greediness which may appear and we apply it in a Czech ME.
100
3055
Shear-Layer Instabilities of a Pulsed Stack-Issued Transverse Jet
Abstract:
Shear-layer instabilities of a pulsed stack-issued transverse jet were studied experimentally in a wind tunnel. Jet pulsations were induced by means of acoustic excitation. Streak pictures of the smoke-flow patterns illuminated by the laser-light sheet in the median plane were recorded with a high-speed digital camera. Instantaneous velocities of the shear-layer instabilities in the flow were digitized by a hot-wire anemometer. By analyzing the streak pictures of the smoke-flow visualization, three characteristic flow modes, synchronized flapping jet, transition, and synchronized shear-layer vortices, are identified in the shear layer of the pulsed stack-issued transverse jet at various excitation Strouhal numbers. The shear-layer instabilities of the pulsed stack-issued transverse jet are synchronized by acoustic excitation except for transition mode. In transition flow mode, the shear-layer vortices would exhibit a frequency that would be twice as great as the acoustic excitation frequency.
99
11872
Scientific Workflow Interoperability Evaluation
Authors:
Abstract:
There is wide range of scientific workflow systems today, each one designed to resolve problems at a specific level. In large collaborative projects, it is often necessary to recognize the heterogeneous workflow systems already in use by various partners and any potential collaboration between these systems requires workflow interoperability. Publish/Subscribe Scientific Workflow Interoperability Framework (PS-SWIF) approach was proposed to achieve workflow interoperability among workflow systems. This paper evaluates the PS-SWIF approach and its system to achieve workflow interoperability using Web Services with asynchronous notification messages represented by WS-Eventing standard. This experiment covers different types of communication models provided by Workflow Management Coalition (WfMC). These models are: Chained processes, Nested synchronous sub-processes, Event synchronous sub-processes, and Nested sub-processes (Polling/Deferred Synchronous). Also, this experiment shows the flexibility and simplicity of the PS-SWIF approach when applied to a variety of workflow systems (Triana, Taverna, Kepler) in local and remote environments.
98
10948
Experimental Determination of Large Strain Localization in Cut Steel Chips
Authors:
Abstract:
Metal cutting is a severe plastic deformation process involving large strains, high strain rates, and high temperatures. Conventional analysis of the chip formation process is based on bulk material deformation disregarding the inhomogeneous nature of the material microstructure. A series of orthogonal cutting tests of AISI 1045 and 1144 steel were conducted which yielded similar process characteristics and chip formations. With similar shear angles and cut chip thicknesses, shear strains for both chips were found to range from 2.0 up to 2.8. The manganese-sulfide (MnS) precipitate in the 1144 steel has a very distinct and uniform shape which allows for comparison before and after chip formation. From close observations of MnS precipitates in the cut chips it is shown that the conventional approach underestimates plastic strains in metal cutting. Experimental findings revealed local shear strains around a value of 6. These findings and their implications are presented and discussed.
97
14778
Effect of Eccentricity on Conjugate Natural Convection in Vertical Eccentric Annuli
Abstract:
Combined conduction-free convection heat transfer in vertical eccentric annuli is numerically investigated using a finitedifference technique. Numerical results, representing the heat transfer parameters such as annulus walls temperature, heat flux, and heat absorbed in the developing region of the annulus, are presented for a Newtonian fluid of Prandtl number 0.7, fluid-annulus radius ratio 0.5, solid-fluid thermal conductivity ratio 10, inner and outer wall dimensionless thicknesses 0.1 and 0.2, respectively, and dimensionless eccentricities 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7. The annulus walls are subjected to thermal boundary conditions, which are obtained by heating one wall isothermally whereas keeping the other wall at inlet fluid temperature. In the present paper, the annulus heights required to achieve thermal full development for prescribed eccentricities are obtained. Furthermore, the variation in the height of thermal full development as function of the geometrical parameter, i.e., eccentricity is also investigated.
96
9068
Relationship between Transparency, Liquidity and Valuation
Abstract:

Recent evidences on liquidity and valuation of securities in the capital markets clearly show the importance of stock market liquidity and valuation of firms. In this paper, relationship between transparency, liquidity, and valuation is studied by using data obtained from 70 companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange during2003-2012. In this study, discriminatory earnings management, as a sign of lack of transparency and Tobin's Q, was used as the criteria of valuation. The results indicate that there is a significant and reversed relationship between earnings management and liquidity. On the other hand, there is a relationship between liquidity and transparency.The results also indicate a significant relationship between transparency and valuation. Transparency has an indirect effect on firm valuation alone or through the liquidity channel. Although the effect of transparency on the value of a firm was reduced by adding the variable of liquidity, the cumulative effect of transparency and liquidity increased.

95
15631
Asset Management for Educational Buildings in Egypt
Abstract:
In Egypt, the concept of Asset Management (AM) is new; however, the need for applying it has become crucial because deteriorating or losing an asset is unaffordable in a developing country like Egypt. Therefore the current study focuses on educational buildings as one of the most important assets regarding planning, building, operating and maintenance expenditures. The main objective of this study is to develop a SAMF for educational buildings in Egypt. The General Authority for Educational Buildings (GAEB) was chosen as a case study of the current research as it represents the biggest governmental organization responsible for planning, operating and maintaining schools in Egypt. To achieve the research objective, structured interviews were conducted with senior managers of GAEB using a pre designed questionnaire to explore the current practice of AM. Gab analysis technique was applied against best practices compounded from a vast literature review to identify gaps between current practices and the desired one. The previous steps mainly revealed; limited knowledge about strategic asset management, no clear goals, no training, no real risk plan and lack of data, technical and financial resources. Based on the findings, a SAMF for GAEB was introduced and Framework implementation steps and assessment techniques were explained in detail.
94
5882
Why do Clawback Provisions Affect Financial Reporting Quality? - An Analysis of Trigger Effects
Authors:
Abstract:
We identify clawback triggers from firms- proxy statements (Form DEF 14A) and use the likelihood of restatements to proxy for financial reporting quality. Based on a sample of 578 U.S. firms that voluntarily adopt clawback provisions during 2003-2009, when restatement-based triggers could be decomposed into two types: fraud and unintentional error, and we do observe the evidence that using fraud triggers is associated with high financial reporting quality. The findings support that fraud triggers can enhance deterrent effect of clawback provision by establishing a viable disincentive against fraud, misconduct, and otherwise harmful acts. These results are robust to controlling for the compensation components, to different sample specifications and to a number of sensitivity.
93
148
Intellectual Capital Report for Universities
Abstract:
Intellectual capital reporting becomes critical at universities, mainly due to the fact that knowledge is the main output as well as input in these institutions. In addition, universities have continuous external demands for greater information and transparency about the use of public funds, and are increasingly provided with greater autonomy regarding their organization, management, and budget allocation. This situation requires new management and reporting systems. The purpose of the present study is to provide a model for intellectual capital report in Spanish universities. To this end, a questionnaire was sent to every member of the Social Councils of Spanish public universities in order to identify which intangible elements university stakeholders demand most. Our proposal for an intellectual capital report aims to act as a guide to help the Spanish universities on the road to the presentation of information on intellectual capital which can assist stakeholders to make the right decisions.
92
5617
The Effect of Ownership Structure on Stock Prices after Crisis: A Study on Ise 100 Index
Abstract:

Using Turkish data, in this study it is investigated that whether a firm’s ownership structure has an impact on its stock prices after the crisis. A linear regression model is conducted on the data of non-financial firms that are trading in Istanbul Stock Exchange 100 Index (ISE 100) index. The findings show that, all explanatory variables such as inside ownership, largest ownership, concentrated ownership, foreign shareholders, family controlled and dispersed ownership are not very important to explain stock prices after the crisis. Family controlled firms and concentrated ownership is positively related to stock price, dispersed ownership, largest ownership, foreign shareholders, and inside ownership structures have negative interaction between stock prices, but because of the p value is not under the value of 0.05 this relation is not significant. In addition, the analysis shows that, the shares of firms that have inside, largest and dispersed ownership structure are outperform comparing with the other firms. Furthermore, ownership concentrated firms outperform to family controlled firms.

91
15767
Effects of Carbonation on the Microstructure and Macro Physical Properties of Cement Mortar
Abstract:
The objective of this work was to examine the changes in the microstructure and macro physical properties caused by the carbonation of normalised CEM II mortar. Samples were prepared and subjected to accelerated carbonation at 20°C, 65% relative humidity and 20% CO2 concentration. On the microstructure scale, the evolutions of the cumulative pore volume, pore size distribution, and specific surface area during carbonation were calculated from the adsorption desorption isotherms of nitrogen. We also examined the evolution of macro physical properties such as the porosity accessible to water, the gas permeability, and thermal conductivity. The conflict between the results of nitrogen porosity and water porosity indicated that the porous domains explored using these two techniques are different and help to complementarily evaluate the effects of carbonation. This is a multi-scale study where results on microstructural changes can help to explain the evolution of macro physical properties.
90
15244
Analysis of Key Factors for Formation of Strategic Alliances in Liner Shipping Company: Service Quality Perspective on Asia/Europe Route after Global Economic Crisis
Abstract:
Strategic alliances generally mean the cooperation or collaboration between firms which pursue for a synergy that each member hopes the benefits from the alliances would be much more than those from individual efforts. Past researches provide us sufficient theories and considerations for alliance forming in liner shipping market. This research reviews important academic journals for the past decade regarding to the most important reasons to form the alliances. We would explain the motive of alliances and details of shipping cooperation in literature review. The paper also empirically investigates the key service quality requirements improved through alliances by using quality function deployment (QFD). Moreover, the research investigates famous shipping reports, shipping consultant websites and most recent shipping publications to find out the executive-s viewpoint of several leading carriers among top 20 to assess current shipping strategic alliance on Asia/Europe route. These comments provide meaningful managerial reasons to consider alliance formations and search if there is any gap between the theories and industrial practice. Analysis of the empirical investigation and top management-s perspective on current market situation will contribute us some meaningful managerial suggestions to evaluate these theories applied to current strategic alliances.
89
10177
Swelling Behavior and Cytotoxicity of Maleic Acid Grafted Chitosan
Abstract:
Chitosan is an attractive polysaccharide obtained by deacetylation of an abundant natural biopolymer called chitin. Chitin and chitosan are excellent materials. To improve the potential of chitin and chitosan modification is needed. In the present study, grafting of maleic acid on to chitosan by cerium ammonium nitrate in acetic acid solution was investigated with use of a microwave and reflux system. The grafted chitosan was characterized by using a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry. The solubility and swelling behavior of grafted chitosans were determined in acetate buffer (pH 3.6), citrophosphate buffer (pH 5.6 and pH 7.0), and boric buffer (pH 9.2) solutions. The sample obtained by microwave system with use of a chitosan/maleic anhydride/ceric ammonium nitrate 0.2/3.922/0.99 gram of raw material within 30 minute showed the maximum swelling ratio (13.6) in boric buffer solution.
88
8676
Does the Adoption of IFRS Influence Earnings Management towards Small Positive Profits? Evidence from Emerging Markets
Abstract:
This paper investigates the effect of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) adoption on the frequency of earnings managements towards small positive profits. We focus on two emerging markets IFRS adopters: South Africa and Turkey. We tested our logistic regression using appropriate panelestimation techniques over a sample of 330 South African and 210 Turkish firm-year observations over the period 2002-2008. Our results document that mandatory adoption of IFRS is not associated with a reduction in earnings management towards small positive profits in emerging markets. These results contradict most of the previous findings of the studies conducted in developed countries. Based on the legal system factor, we compare the intensity of earnings management between a code law country (Turkey) and a common law country (South Africa) over the pre and post-adoption periods. Our findings show that the frequency of such earnings management practice increases significantly for the code law country.
87
1752
Development of Quasi-Two-Dimensional Nb2O5 for Functional Electrodes of Advanced Electrochemical Systems
Abstract:
In recent times there has been a growing interest in the development of quasi-two-dimensional niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5) as a semiconductor for the potential electronic applications such as capacitors, filtration, dye-sensitised solar cells and gas sensing platforms. Therefore once the purpose is established, Nb2O5 can be prepared in a number of nano- and sub-micron-structural morphologies that include rods, wires, belts and tubes. In this study films of Nb2O5 were prepared on gold plated silicon substrate using spin-coating technique and subsequently by mechanical exfoliation. The reason this method was employed was to achieve layers of less than 15nm in thickness. The sintering temperature of the specimen was 800oC. The morphology and structural characteristics of the films were analyzed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Raman Spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS).
86
7156
Power Forecasting of Photovoltaic Generation
Abstract:
Photovoltaic power generation forecasting is an important task in renewable energy power system planning and operating. This paper explores the application of neural networks (NN) to study the design of photovoltaic power generation forecasting systems for one week ahead using weather databases include the global irradiance, and temperature of Ghardaia city (south of Algeria) using a data acquisition system. Simulations were run and the results are discussed showing that neural networks Technique is capable to decrease the photovoltaic power generation forecasting error.
85
15121
Cut Flower Production: A Source of Incremental Income for the Marginal Farmers of the State of West Bengal in India
Abstract:
The basic objective of this paper is to measure and compare the profitability of investments made by the small and marginal farmers of the state of West Bengal in floriculture shifting from the traditional cultivation of paddy. A comparison of IRR is made to establish the fact that cultivation of flowers yield higher returns farmers whose land size is so small that viability of paddy cultivation is raising a question mark. A detailed study of the price behavior of the flower crop has been carried out in which the factors leading to the volatility of the price and the dispersion of the range have also been discussed. Finally the incremental incomes of the farmers have been calculated with the help of imputed income from paddy cultivation and the reported income from the selected flowers. The study shows that the farmers stand gainers if they opt for flower cultivation.
84
2561
Momentum Accounting in Public Management: A Case Study in a Brazilian Navy-s Services Provider Military Organization
Abstract:

This study examines the possibility to apply the theory of multidimensional accounting (momentum accounting) in a Brazilian Navy-s Services Provider Military Organization (Organização Militar Prestadora de Serviços - OMPS). In general, the core of the said theory is the fact that Accounting does not recognize the inertia of transactions occurring in an entity, and that occur repeatedly in some cases, regardless of the implementation of new actions by its managers. The study evaluates the possibility of greater use of information recorded in the financial statements of the unit of analysis, within the strategic decisions of the organization. As a research strategy, we adopted the case study. The results infer that it is possible to use the theory in the context of a multidimensional OMPS, promoting useful information for decision-making and thereby contributing to the strengthening of the necessary alignment of its administration with the current desires of the Brazilian society.

83
7209
The Significance of Embodied Energy in Certified Passive Houses
Abstract:

Certifications such as the Passive House Standard aim to reduce the final space heating energy demand of residential buildings. Space conditioning, notably heating, is responsible for nearly 70% of final residential energy consumption in Europe. There is therefore significant scope for the reduction of energy consumption through improvements to the energy efficiency of residential buildings. However, these certifications totally overlook the energy embodied in the building materials used to achieve this greater operational energy efficiency. The large amount of insulation and the triple-glazed high efficiency windows require a significant amount of energy to manufacture. While some previous studies have assessed the life cycle energy demand of passive houses, including their embodied energy, these rely on incomplete assessment techniques which greatly underestimate embodied energy and can lead to misleading conclusions. This paper analyses the embodied and operational energy demands of a case study passive house using a comprehensive hybrid analysis technique to quantify embodied energy. Results show that the embodied energy is much more significant than previously thought. Also, compared to a standard house with the same geometry, structure, finishes and number of people, a passive house can use more energy over 80 years, mainly due to the additional materials required. Current building energy efficiency certifications should widen their system boundaries to include embodied energy in order to reduce the life cycle energy demand of residential buildings.

82
1630
Natural Gas Dehydration Process Simulation and Optimization: A Case Study of Khurmala Field in Iraqi Kurdistan Region
Abstract:
Natural gas is the most popular fossil fuel in the current era and future as well. Natural gas is existed in underground reservoirs so it may contain many of non-hydrocarbon components for instance, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen and water vapor. These impurities are undesirable compounds and cause several technical problems for example, corrosion and environment pollution. Therefore, these impurities should be reduce or removed from natural gas stream. Khurmala dome is located in southwest Erbil-Kurdistan region. The Kurdistan region government has paid great attention for this dome to provide the fuel for Kurdistan region. However, the Khurmala associated natural gas is currently flaring at the field. Moreover, nowadays there is a plan to recover and trade this gas and to use it either as feedstock to power station or to sell it in global market. However, the laboratory analysis has showed that the Khurmala sour gas has huge quantities of H2S about (5.3%) and CO2 about (4.4%). Indeed, Khurmala gas sweetening process has been removed in previous study by using Aspen HYSYS. However, Khurmala sweet gas still contents some quintets of water about 23 ppm in sweet gas stream. This amount of water should be removed or reduced. Indeed, water content in natural gas cause several technical problems such as hydrates and corrosion. Therefore, this study aims to simulate the prospective Khurmala gas dehydration process by using Aspen HYSYS V. 7.3 program. Moreover, the simulation process succeeded in reducing the water content to less than 0.1ppm. In addition, the simulation work is also achieved process optimization by using several desiccant types for example, TEG and DEG and it also study the relationship between absorbents type and its circulation rate with HCs losses from glycol regenerator tower.
81
15792
Thermal Stability of a Vertical SOI-Based Capacitorless One-Transistor DRAM with Trench-Body Structure
Abstract:
A vertical SOI-based MOSFET with trench body structure operated as 1T DRAM cell at various temperatures has been studied and investigated. Different operation temperatures are assigned for the device for its performance comparison, thus the thermal stability is carefully evaluated for the future memory device applications. Based on the simulation, the vertical SOI-based MOSFET with trench body structure demonstrates the electrical characteristics properly and possess conspicuous kink effect at various operation temperatures. Transient characteristics were also performed to prove that its programming window values and retention time behaviors are acceptable when the new 1T DRAM cell is operated at high operation temperature.
80
13511
Effects of the Wavy Surface on Free Convection-Radiation along an Inclined Plate
Abstract:

A numerical analysis used to simulate the effects of wavy surfaces and thermal radiation on natural convection heat transfer boundary layer flow over an inclined wavy plate has been investigated. A simple coordinate transformation is employed to transform the complex wavy surface into a flat plate. The boundary layer equations and the boundary conditions are discretized by the finite difference scheme and solved numerically using the Gauss-Seidel algorithm with relaxation coefficient. Effects of the wavy geometry, the inclination angle of the wavy plate and the thermal radiation on the velocity profiles, temperature profiles and the local Nusselt number are presented and discussed in detail.

79
13720
Biomechanical Properties of Hen's Eggshell: Experimental Study and Numerical Modeling
Abstract:

In this article, biomechanical aspects of hen-s eggshell as a natural ceramic structure are studied. The images, taken by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), are used to investigate the microscopic aspects of the egg. It is observed that eggshell has a three-layered microstructure with different morphological and structural characteristics. Studies on the eggshell membrane (ESM) as a prosperous tissue suggest that it is placed to prevent the penetration of microorganisms into the egg. Finally, numerical models of the egg are presented to study the stress distribution and its deformation under different loading conditions. The effects of two different types of loading (hydrostatic and point loadings) on two different shell models (with constant and variable thicknesses) are investigated in detail.

78
3990
Unequal Error Protection of Facial Features for Personal ID Images Coding
Abstract:
This paper presents an approach for an unequal error protection of facial features of personal ID images coding. We consider unequal error protection (UEP) strategies for the efficient progressive transmission of embedded image codes over noisy channels. This new method is based on the progressive image compression embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) algorithm and UEP technique with defined region of interest (ROI). In this case is ROI equal facial features within personal ID image. ROI technique is important in applications with different parts of importance. In ROI coding, a chosen ROI is encoded with higher quality than the background (BG). Unequal error protection of image is provided by different coding techniques and encoding LL band separately. In our proposed method, image is divided into two parts (ROI, BG) that consist of more important bytes (MIB) and less important bytes (LIB). The proposed unequal error protection of image transmission has shown to be more appropriate to low bit rate applications, producing better quality output for ROI of the compresses image. The experimental results verify effectiveness of the design. The results of our method demonstrate the comparison of the UEP of image transmission with defined ROI with facial features and the equal error protection (EEP) over additive white gaussian noise (AWGN) channel.
77
2672
Key Frames Extraction for Sign Language Video Analysis and Recognition
Abstract:
In this paper we proposed a method for finding video frames representing one sign in the finger alphabet. The method is based on determining hands location, segmentation and the use of standard video quality evaluation metrics. Metric calculation is performed only in regions of interest. Sliding mechanism for finding local extrema and adaptive threshold based on local averaging is used for key frames selection. The success rate is evaluated by recall, precision and F1 measure. The method effectiveness is compared with metrics applied to all frames. Proposed method is fast, effective and relatively easy to realize by simple input video preprocessing and subsequent use of tools designed for video quality measuring.
76
12983
Modelling Extreme Temperature in Malaysia Using Generalized Extreme Value Distribution
Abstract:
Extreme temperature of several stations in Malaysia is modelled by fitting the monthly maximum to the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. The Mann-Kendall (MK) test suggests a non-stationary model. Two models are considered for stations with trend and the Likelihood Ratio test is used to determine the best-fitting model. Results show that half of the stations favour a model which is linear for the location parameters. The return level is the level of events (maximum temperature) which is expected to be exceeded once, on average, in a given number of years, is obtained.
75
13942
A Methodology for Definition of Road Networks in Rural Areas of Nepal
Abstract:
This work provides a practical method for the development of rural road networks in rural areas of developing countries. The proposed methodology enables to determine obligatory points in the rural road network maximizing the number of settlements that have access to basic services within a given maximum distance. The proposed methodology is simple and practical, hence, highly applicable to real-world scenarios, as demonstrated in the definition of the road network for the rural areas of Nepal.
74
12904
Embedded Systems Energy Consumption Analysis Through Co-modelling and Simulation
Abstract:

This paper presents a new methodology to study power and energy consumption in mechatronic systems early in the development process. This new approach makes use of two modeling languages to represent and simulate embedded control software and electromechanical subsystems in the discrete event and continuous time domain respectively within a single co-model. This co-model enables an accurate representation of power and energy consumption and facilitates the analysis and development of both software and electro-mechanical subsystems in parallel. This makes the engineers aware of energy-wise implications of different design alternatives and enables early trade-off analysis from the beginning of the analysis and design activities.

73
9431
A Forecast Model for Projecting the Amount of Hazardous Waste
Abstract:
The objective of the paper is to develop the forecast model for the HW flows. The methodology of the research included 6 modules: historical data, assumptions, choose of indicators, data processing, and data analysis with STATGRAPHICS, and forecast models. The proposed methodology was validated for the case study for Latvia. Hypothesis on the changes in HW for time period of 2010-2020 have been developed and mathematically described with confidence level of 95.0% and 50.0%. Sensitivity analysis for the analyzed scenarios was done. The results show that the growth of GDP affects the total amount of HW in the country. The total amount of the HW is projected to be within the corridor of – 27.7% in the optimistic scenario up to +87.8% in the pessimistic scenario with confidence level of 50.0% for period of 2010-2020. The optimistic scenario has shown to be the least flexible to the changes in the GDP growth.
72
1084
The Economic Cost of Health and Safety in Work Places: An Approach on the Costs Calculating Model
Abstract:

One of the important steps in a safety and risk management system is the economical evaluation of occupational accident and diseases costs in order to decrease accidents from reoccurring in the workplace. This study proposed a plausible method for calculating occupational accident costs and illnesses in work place. This method design for cost estimation takes into account both the personnel, organizational level as well as the community level especially intended for an Iranian work place. The research indicates that a using systematic method for calculating costs which also provides risk evaluation can help managers to plan correctly the investment in health and safety measures. Using this method is that not only is it comprehensive, easy and practical and could be applied in practice by a manager within a short period of time but it also shows the importance of accident costs as well as calculates the real cost of an accident and illnesses.

71
12825
Numerical Study of Liquefied Petroleum Gas Laminar Flow in Cylindrical Elliptic Pipes
Abstract:

Fluid flow in cylinders of elliptic cross-section was investigated. Fluid used is Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). LPG found in Nigeria contains majorly butane with percentages of propane. Commercial available code FLUENT which uses finite volume method was used to solve fluid flow governing equations. There has been little attention paid to fluid flow in cylindrical elliptic pipes. The present work aims to predict the LPG gas flow in cylindrical pipes of elliptic cross-section. Results of flow parameters of velocity and pressure distributions are presented. Results show that the pressure drop in elliptic pipes is higher than circular pipe of the same cross-sectional area. This is an important result as the pressure drop is related to the pump power needed to drive the flow. Results show that the velocity increases towards centre of the pipe as the flow moves downstream, and also increases towards the outlet of the pipe.

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2398
Groundwater Quality Improvement by Using Aeration and Filtration Methods
Abstract:
An experiment was conducted using two aeration methods (water-into-air and air-into-water) and followed by filtration processes using manganese greensand material. The properties of groundwater such as pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and heavy metal concentration (iron and manganese) will be assessed. The objectives of this study are i) to determine the effective aeration method and ii) to assess the effectiveness of manganese greensand as filter media in removing iron and manganese concentration in groundwater. Results showed that final pH for all samples after treatment are in range from 7.40 and 8.40. Both aeration methods increased the dissolved oxygen content. Final turbidity for groundwater samples are between 3 NTU to 29 NTU. Only three out of eight samples achieved iron concentration of 0.3mg/L and less and all samples reach manganese concentration of 0.1mg/L and less. Air-into-water aeration method gives higher percentage of iron and manganese removal compare to water-into-air method.