Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 50781

Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering

926
87582
Influence of Angular Position of Unbalanced Force on Crack Breathing Mechanism
Abstract:
A new mathematical model is developed to study crack breathing behavior considering effect of angular position of unbalanced force at different crack locations. Crack breathing behavior has been determined using effectual bending angle by studying the transient change of the crack area. Different crack breathing behavior of the unbalanced shaft has been observed for different combination of angular position of unbalanced force with crack location except crack locations 0.3L and 0.8335L, where L is the total length of the shaft, where unbalanced shaft behave completely like the balanced shaft. Based on different combination of angular position of unbalanced force with crack location, the stiffness of unbalanced shaft can be divided into three regions. An unbalanced shaft is overall stiffer than a balanced shaft when angular position of unbalance force is between 90° to 270° and crack located between 0.3L and 0.8335L, and it is overall flexible when the crack located in outside this crack region. On the other hand, it is overall flexible when angular position of unbalanced force is between 0° to 90° or 270° to 360° and crack located in middle region and it is overall stiffer for outside this crack region.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
925
86629
Risk and Uncertainty in Aviation: A Thorough Analysis of System Vulnerabilities
Abstract:
Hazard assessment and risks quantification are key components for estimating the impact of existing regulations. But since regulatory compliance cannot cover all risks in aviation, the authors point out that by studying causal factors and eliminating uncertainty, an accurate analysis can be outlined. The research debuts by making delimitations on notions, as confusion on the terms over time has reflected in less rigorous analysis. Throughout this paper, it will be emphasized the fact that the variation in human performance and organizational factors represent the biggest threat from an operational perspective. Therefore, advanced risk assessment methods analyzed by the authors aim to understand vulnerabilities of the system given by a nonlinear behavior. Ultimately, the mathematical modeling of existing hazards and risks by eliminating uncertainty implies establishing an optimal solution (i.e. risk minimization).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
924
86627
Development of a Multi-Factorial Instrument for Accident Analysis Based on Systemic Methods
Abstract:
The present research is built on three major pillars, commencing by making some considerations on accident investigation methods and pointing out both defining aspects and differences between linear and non-linear analysis. The traditional linear focus on accident analysis describes accidents as a sequence of events, while the latest systemic models outline interdependencies between different factors and define the processes evolution related to a specific (normal) situation. Linear and non-linear accident analysis methods have specific limitations, so the second point of interest is mirrored by the aim to discover the drawbacks of systemic models which becomes a starting point for developing new directions to identify risks or data closer to the cause of incidents/accidents. Since communication represents a critical issue in the interaction of human factor and has been proved to be the answer of the problems made by possible breakdowns in different communication procedures, from this focus point, on the third pylon a new error-modeling instrument suitable for risk assessment/accident analysis will be elaborated.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
923
86151
Flow Characteristics around Rectangular Obstacles with the Varying Direction of Obstacles
Authors:
Abstract:
The study aims to understand the surface pressure distribution around the bodies such as the suction pressure in the leading edge on the top and side-face when the aspect ratio of bodies and the wind direction are changed, respectively. We carried out the wind tunnel measurement and numerical simulation around a series of rectangular bodies (40d×80w×80h, 80d×80w×80h, 160d×80w×80h, 80d×40w×80h and 80d×160w×80h in mm3) placed in a deep turbulent boundary layer. Based on a modern numerical platform, the Navier-Stokes equation with the typical 2-equation (k-ε model) and the DES (Detached Eddy Simulation) turbulence model has been calculated, and they are both compared with the measurement data. Regarding the turbulence model, the DES model makes a better prediction comparing with the k-ε model, especially when calculating the separated turbulent flow around a bluff body with sharp edged corner. In order to observe the effect of wind direction on the pressure variation around the cube (e.g., 80d×80w×80h in mm), it rotates at 0º, 10º, 20º, 30º, and 45º, which stands for the salient wind directions in the tunnel. The result shows that the surface pressure variation is highly dependent upon the approaching wind direction, especially on the top and the side-face of the cube. In addition, the transverse width has a substantial effect on the variation of surface pressure around the bodies, while the longitudinal length has little or no influence.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
922
85489
Influence of Machining Process on Surface Integrity of Plasma Coating
Abstract:
For the required function of components with the thermal spray coating, it is necessary to perform additional machining of the coated surface. The paper deals with assessing the surface integrity of Metco 2042, a plasma sprayed coating, after its machining. The selected plasma sprayed coating serves as an abradable sealing coating in a jet engine. Therefore, the spray and its surface must meet high quality and functional requirements. Plasma sprayed coatings are characterized by lamellar structure, which requires a special approach to their machining. Therefore, the experimental part involves the set-up of special cutting tools and cutting parameters under which the applied coating was machined. For the assessment of suitably set machining parameters, selected parameters of surface integrity were measured and evaluated during the experiment. To determine the size of surface irregularities and the effect of the selected machining technology on the sprayed coating surface, the surface roughness parameters Ra and Rz were measured. Furthermore, the measurement of sprayed coating surface hardness by the HR 15 Y method before and after machining process was used to determine the surface strengthening. The changes of strengthening were detected after the machining. The impact of chosen cutting parameters on the surface roughness after the machining was not proven.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
921
85387
Hypersonic Flow of CO2-N2 Mixture around a Spacecraft during the Atmospheric Reentry
Abstract:
The aim of this work is to analyze a flow around the axisymmetric blunt body taken into account the chemical and vibrational nonequilibrium flow. This work concerns the entry of spacecraft in the atmosphere of the planet Mars. Since the equations involved are non-linear partial derivatives, the volume method is the only way to solve this problem. The choice of the mesh and the CFL is a condition for the convergence to have the stationary solution.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
920
85088
Imposing Speed Constraints on Arrival Flights: Case Study for Changi Airport
Abstract:
Arrival flights tend to spend long waiting times at holding stacks if the arrival airport is congested. However, the waiting time spent in the air in the vicinity of the arrival airport may be reduced if the delays are distributed to the cruising phase of the arrival flights by means of speed control. Here, a case study was conducted for the flights arriving at Changi Airport. The flights that were assigned holdings were simulated to fly at a reduced speed during the cruising phase. As the study involves a single airport and is limited to imposing speed constraints to arrivals within 200 NM from its location, the simulation setup in this study could be considered as an application of the Extended Arrival Management (E-AMAN) technique, which is proven to result in considerable fuel savings and more efficient management of delays. The objective of this experiment was to quantify the benefits of imposing cruise speed constraints to arrivals at Changi Airport and to assess the effects on controllers’ workload. The simulation results indicated considerable fuel savings, reduced aircraft emissions and reduced controller workload.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
919
84951
Experimental Investigation on Noise from Rod-Airfoil with Leading Edge Serrations
Abstract:
The present work is an experimental investigation of adapting a passive treatment leading edge serrations over a rod-airfoil flow-induced noise generation. The leading edge serrations are bio-inspired from a barn-owl silent flight. The rod-airfoil configuration is a benchmark configuration taken to investigate airfoil-turbulence interaction noise (ATIN). Location of serrations placed and the wideness of serrations are the two parameters taken in this study. The ATIN is reduced up to 3.5 dB for a wide leading serrations case. A correlation is found between the wideness of serrations and the noise reduction mechanism of the airfoil.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
918
84719
An Assessment of Airport Collaborative Decision-Making System Using Predictive Maintenance
Abstract:
The coordination of airport staff especially in the operations and maintenance departments is important for the airport operation. As a result, this coordination will increase the efficiency in all operation. Therefore, a Collaborative Decision-Making (CDM) system targets on improving the overall productivity of all operations by optimizing the use of resources and improving the predictability of actions. Enlarged productivity can be of major benefit for all airport operations. It also increases cost-efficiency. This study explains how predictive maintenance using IoT (Internet of Things), predictive operations and the statistical data such as Mean Time To Failure (MTTF) improves airport terminal operations and utilize airport terminal equipment in collaboration with collaborative decision making system/Airport Operation Control Center (AOCC). Data generated by the predictive maintenance methods is retrieved and analyzed by maintenance managers to predict when a problem is about to occur. With that information, maintenance can be scheduled when needed. As an example, AOCC operator would have chance to assign a new gate that towards to this gate all the equipment such as travellator, elevator, escalator etc. are operational if the maintenance team is in collaboration with AOCC since maintenance team is aware of the health of the equipment because of predictive maintenance methods. Applying predictive maintenance methods based on analyzing the health of airport terminal equipment dramatically reduces the risk of downtime by on time repairs. We can classify the categories as high priority calls for urgent repair action, as medium priority requires repair at the earliest opportunity, and low priority allows maintenance to be scheduled when convenient. In all cases, identifying potential problems early resulted in better allocation airport terminal resources by AOCC.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
917
84403
Voyage Analysis of a Marine Gas Turbine Engine Installed to Power and Propel an Ocean-Going Cruise Ship
Abstract:
A gas turbine-powered cruise Liner is scheduled to transport pilgrim passengers from Lagos-Nigeria to the Islamic port city of Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. Since the gas turbine is an air breathing machine, changes in the density and/or mass flow at the compressor inlet due to an encounter with variations in weather conditions induce negative effects on the performance of the power plant during the voyage. In practice, all deviations from the reference atmospheric conditions of 15 oC and 1.103 bar tend to affect the power output and other thermodynamic parameters of the gas turbine cycle. Therefore, this paper seeks to evaluate how a simple cycle marine gas turbine power plant would react under a variety of scenarios that may be encountered during a voyage as the ship sails across the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea before arriving at its designated port of discharge. It is also an assessment that focuses on the effect of varying aerodynamic and hydrodynamic conditions which deteriorate the efficient operation of the propulsion system due to an increase in resistance that results from some projected levels of the ship hull fouling. The investigated passenger ship is designed to run at a service speed of 22 knots and cover a distance of 5787 nautical miles. The performance evaluation consists of three separate voyages that cover a variety of weather conditions in winter, spring and summer seasons. Real-time daily temperatures and the sea states for the selected transit route were obtained and used to simulate the voyage under the aforementioned operating conditions. Changes in engine firing temperature, power output as well as the total fuel consumed per voyage including other performance variables were separately predicted under both calm and adverse weather conditions. The collated data were obtained online from the UK Meteorological Office as well as the UK Hydrographic Office websites, while adopting the Beaufort scale for determining the magnitude of sea waves resulting from rough weather situations. The simulation of the gas turbine performance and voyage analysis was effected through the use of an integrated Cranfield-University-developed computer code known as ‘Turbomatch’ and ‘Poseidon’. It is a project that is aimed at developing a method for predicting the off design behavior of the marine gas turbine when installed and operated as the main prime mover for both propulsion and powering of all other auxiliary services onboard a passenger cruise liner. Furthermore, it is a techno-economic and environmental assessment that seeks to enable the forecast of the marine gas turbine part and full load performance as it relates to the fuel requirement for a complete voyage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
916
83659
Numerical Analysis of Effect of Crack Location on the Crack Breathing Behavior
Abstract:
In this work, a three-dimensional finite element model was developed to investigate the crack breathing behavior at different crack locations considering the effect of unbalance force. A two-disk rotor with a crack is simulated using ABAQUS. The duration of each crack status (open, closed and partially open/closed) during a full shaft rotation was examined to analyse the crack breathing behavior. Unbalanced shaft crack breathing behavior was found to be different at different crack locations. The breathing behavior of crack along the shaft length is divided into different regions depending on the unbalance force and crack location. The simulated results in this work can be further utilised to obtain the time-varying stiffness matrix of the cracked shaft element under the influence of unbalance force.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
915
83532
Evaluation of the Elastic Mechanical Properties of a Hybrid Adhesive Material
Abstract:
Adhesive materials and adhesion have been the focal point of multiple research works related to numerous applications, particularly, aerospace, and aviation industries. To enhance the properties of conventional adhesive materials, additives have been introduced to the mix in order to enhance their mechanical and physical properties by creating a hybrid adhesive material. The evaluation of the mechanical properties of such hybrid adhesive materials is thus of an essential requirement for the purpose of properly modeling their behavior accurately. This paper presents an approach/tool to simulate the behavior such hybrid adhesives in a way that will allow researchers to better understand their behavior while in service.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
914
83430
Performance Analysis of the Precise Point Positioning Data Online Processing Service and Using for Monitoring Plate Tectonic of Thailand
Abstract:
Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique is use to improve accuracy by using precise satellite orbit and clock correction data, but this technique is complicated methods and high costs. Currently, there are several online processing service providers which offer simplified calculation. In the first part of this research, we compare the efficiency and precision of four software. There are three popular online processing service providers: Australian Online GPS Processing Service (AUSPOS), CSRS-Precise Point Positioning and CenterPoint RTX post processing by Trimble and 1 offline software, RTKLIB, which collected data from 10 the International GNSS Service (IGS) stations for 10 days. The results indicated that AUSPOS has the least distance root mean square (DRMS) value of 0.0029 which is good enough to be calculated for monitoring the movement of tectonic plates. The second, we use AUSPOS to process the data of geodetic network of Thailand. In December 26, 2004, the earthquake occurred a 9.3 MW at the north of Sumatra that highly affected all nearby countries, including Thailand. Earthquake effects have led to errors of the coordinate system of Thailand. The Royal Thai Survey Department (RTSD) is primarily responsible for monitoring of the crustal movement of the country. The difference of the geodetic network movement is not the same network and relatively large. This result is needed for survey to continue to improve GPS coordinates system in every year. Therefore, in this research we chose the AUSPOS to calculate the magnitude and direction of movement, to improve coordinates adjustment of the geodetic network consisting of 19 pins in Thailand during October 2013 to November 2017. Finally, results are displayed on the simulation map by using the ArcMap program with the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method. The pin with the maximum movement is pin no. 3239 (Tak) in the northern part of Thailand. This pin moved in the south-western direction to 11.04 cm. Meanwhile, the directional movement of the other pins in the south gradually changed from south-west to south-east, i.e., in the direction noticed before the earthquake. The magnitude of the movement is in the range of 4 - 7 cm, implying small impact of the earthquake. However, the GPS network should be continuously surveyed in order to secure accuracy of the geodetic network of Thailand.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
913
83110
Aerodynamic Study of an Open Window Moving Bus with Passengers
Abstract:
In many countries, buses are the principal means of transport, of which a majority are naturally ventilated with open windows. The design of this ventilation has little scientific basis and to address this problem a study has been undertaken involving both experiments and numerical simulations. The flow pattern inside and around of an open window bus with passengers has been investigated in detail. A full scale three-dimensional numerical simulation has been used for a) a bus with closed windows and b) with open windows. In either simulation, the bus had 58 seated passengers. The bus dimensions used were 2500 mm wide × 2500 mm high (exterior) × 10500 mm long and its speed was set at 40 km/h. In both cases, the flow separates at the top front edge forming a vortex and reattaches close to the mid-length. This attached flow separates once more as it leaves the bus. However, the strength and shape of the vortices at the top front and wake region is different for both cases. The streamline pattern around the bus is also different for the two cases. For the bus with open windows, the dominant airflow inside the bus is from the rear to the front of the bus and air velocity at the face level of the passengers was found to be 1/10th of the free stream velocity. These findings are in good agreement with flow visualization experiments performed in a water channel at 10 m/s, and with smoke/tuft visualizations in a wind tunnel with a free-stream velocity of approximately 40 km/h on a 1:25 scaled Perspex model.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
912
82871
The Design Optimization for Sound Absorption Material of Multi-Layer Structure
Abstract:
Sound absorbing material is used as automotive interior material. Sound absorption coefficient should be predicted to design it. But it is difficult to predict sound absorbing coefficient because it is comprised of several material layers. So, its targets are achieved through many experimental tunings. It causes a lot of cost and time. In this paper, we propose the process to estimate the sound absorption coefficient with multi-layer structure. In order to estimate the coefficient, physical properties of each material are used. These properties also use predicted values by Foam-X software using the sound absorption coefficient data measured by impedance tube. Since there are many physical properties and the measurement equipment is expensive, the values predicted by software are used. Through the measurement of the sound absorption coefficient of each material, its physical properties are calculated inversely. The properties of each material are used to calculate the sound absorption coefficient of the multi-layer material. Since the absorption coefficient of multi-layer can be calculated, optimization design is possible through simulation. Then, we will compare and analyze the calculated sound absorption coefficient with the data measured by scaled reverberation chamber and impedance tubes for a prototype. If this method is used when developing automotive interior materials with multi-layer structure, the development effort can be reduced because it can be optimized by simulation. So, cost and time can be saved.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
911
82474
Optimization of Process Parameters Affecting on Spring-Back in V-Bending Process for High Strength Low Alloy Steel HSLA 420 Using FEA (HyperForm) and Taguchi Technique
Abstract:
In this study, process parameters like punch angle, die opening, grain direction, and pre-bend condition of the strip for deep draw of high strength low alloy steel HSLA 420 are investigated. The finite element method (FEM) in association with the Taguchi and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques are carried out to investigate the degree of importance of process parameters in V-bending process for HSLA 420&ST12 grade material. From results, it is observed that punch angle had a major influence on the spring-back. Die opening also showed very significant role on spring back. On the other hand, it is revealed that grain direction had the least impact on spring back; however, if strip from flat sheet is taken, then it is less prone to spring back as compared to the strip from sheet metal coil. HyperForm software is used for FEM simulation and experiments are designed using Taguchi method. Percentage contribution of the parameters is obtained through the ANOVA techniques.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
910
82393
Structural Behavior of Non-Prismatic Mono-Symmetric Beam
Abstract:
This paper attempts to understand the structural behavior of non-prismatic channel beams subjected to bending through finite element (FE) analysis. The present study aims at shedding some light on how tapered channel beams behave by studying the effect of taper ratio on structural behavior. As a weight reduction is always desired in aerospace structures beams are tapered in order to obtain highest structural efficiency. FE analysis has been performed to study the effect of taper ratio on linear deflection, lateral torsional buckling, non-linear parameters, stresses and dynamic parameters. Taper ratio tends to affect the mechanics of tapered beams innocuously and adversely. Consequently, it becomes important to understand and document the mechanics of channel tapered beams. Channel beams generally have low torsional rigidity due to the off-shear loading. The effect of loading type and location of applied load have been studied for flange taper, web taper and symmetric taper for different conditions. Among these, as the taper ratio is increased, the torsional angular deflection increases but begins to decrease when the beam is web tapered and symmetrically tapered for a mid web loaded beam. But when loaded through the shear center, an increase in the torsional angular deflection can be observed with increase in taper ratio. It should be considered which parameter is tapered to obtain the highest efficiency.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
909
82178
Classification of Impact Damages with Respect of Damage Tolerance Design Approach and Airworthiness Requirements
Abstract:
This paper describes airworthiness requirements with respect damage tolerance. Damage tolerance determines the amount and magnitude of damage on parts of the airplane. Airworthiness requirements determine the amount of damage that can still be in flight capable of the condition. Component damage can be defined as barely visible impact damage, visible impact damage or clear visible impact damage. Damage is also distributed it according to the velocity. It is divided into low or high velocity impact damage. The severity of damage to the part of airplane divides the airworthiness requirements into several categories according to severity. Airworthiness requirements are determined by type airplane. All types of airplane do not have the same conditions for airworthiness requirements. This knowledge is important for designing and operating an airplane.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
908
82093
Studying the Dynamical Response of Nano-Microelectromechanical Devices for Nanomechanical Testing of Nanostructures
Abstract:
Characterizing the fatigue and fracture properties of nanostructures is one of the most challenging tasks in nanoscience and nanotechnology due to lack of a MEMS/NEMS device for generating uniform cyclic loadings at high frequencies. Here, the dynamic response of a recently proposed MEMS/NEMS device under different inputs signals is completely investigated. This MEMS/NEMS device is designed and modeled based on the electromagnetic force induced between paired parallel wires carrying electrical currents, known as Ampere’s Force Law (AFL). Since this MEMS/NEMS device only uses two paired wires for actuation part and sensing part, it represents highly sensitive and linear response for nanostructures with any stiffness and shapes (single or arrays of nanowires, nanotubes, nanosheets or nanowalls). In addition to studying the maximum gains at different resonance frequencies of the MEMS/NEMS device, its dynamical responses are investigated for different inputs and nanostructure properties to demonstrate the capability, usability, and reliability of the device for wide range of nanostructures. This MEMS/NEMS device can be readily integrated into SEM/TEM instruments to provide real time study of the fatigue and fracture properties of nanostructures as well as their softening or hardening behaviors, and initiation and/or propagation of nanocracks in them.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
907
82081
Design and Burnback Analysis of Three Dimensional Modified Star Grain
Abstract:
The determination of grain geometry is an important and critical step in the design of solid propellant rocket motor. In this study, the design process involved parametric geometry modeling in CAD, MATLAB coding of performance prediction and 2D star grain ignition experiment. The 2D star grain burnback achieved by creating new surface via each web increment and calculating geometrical properties at each step. The 2D star grain is further modified to burn as a tapered 3D star grain. Zero dimensional method used to calculate the internal ballistic performance. Experimental and theoretical results were compared in order to validate the performance prediction of the solid rocket motor. The results show that the usage of 3D grain geometry will decrease the pressure inside the combustion chamber and enhance the volumetric loading ratio.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
906
81819
Increase of Sensitivity in 3D Suspended Polymeric Microfluidic Platform through Lateral Misalignment
Abstract:
In the present study, a design of the suspended polymeric microfluidic platform is introduced that is fabricated with three polymeric layers. Changing the microchannel plane to be perpendicular to microcantilever plane, drastically decreases moment of inertia in that direction. In addition, the platform is made of polymer (around five orders of magnitude less compared to silicon). It causes significant increase in the sensitivity of the cantilever deflection. Next, although the dimensions of this platform are constant, by misaligning the embedded microchannels laterally in the suspended microfluidic platform, the sensitivity can be highly increased. The investigation is studied on four fluids including water, seawater, milk, and blood for flow ranges from low rate of 5 to 70 µl/min to obtain the best design with the highest sensitivity. The best design in this study shows the sensitivity increases around 50% for water, seawater, milk, and blood at the flow rate of 70 µl/min by just misaligning the embedded microchannels in the suspended polymeric microfluidic platform.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
905
81403
Electromagnetic Tuned Mass Damper Approach for Regenerative Suspension
Abstract:
This study is aimed at exploring the possibility of energy recovery through the suppression of vibrations. The article describes design of electromagnetic dynamic damper. The magnetic part of the device performs the function of a tuned mass damper, thereby providing both energy regeneration and damping properties to the protected mass. According to the theory of tuned mass damper, equations of mathematical models were obtained. Then, under given properties of current system, amplitude frequency response was investigated. Therefore, main ideas and methods for further research were defined.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
904
80712
Study of Efficiency of Flying Animal Using Computational Simulation
Abstract:
Innovation in aviation technology evolved rapidly by time to time for acquiring the most favorable value of utilization and is usually denoted by efficiency parameter. Nature always become part of inspiration, and for this sector, many researchers focused on studying the behavior of flying animal to comprehend the fundamental, one of them is birds. Experimental testing has already conducted by several researches to seek and calculate the efficiency by putting the object in wind tunnel. Hence, computational simulation is needed to conform the result and give more visualization which is based on Reynold Averaged Navier-Stokes equation solution for unsteady case in time-dependent viscous flow. By creating model from simplification of the real bird as a rigid body, those are Hawk which has low aspect ratio and Swift with high aspect ratio, subsequently generating the multi grid structured mesh to capture and calculate the aerodynamic behavior and characteristics. Mimicking the motion of downstroke and upstroke of bird flight which produced both lift and thrust, the sinusoidal function is used. Simulation is carried out for varied of flapping frequencies within upper and lower range of actual each bird’s frequency which are 1 Hz, 2.87 Hz, 5 Hz for Hawk and 5 Hz, 8.9 Hz, 13 Hz for Swift to investigate the dependency of frequency effecting the efficiency of aerodynamic characteristics production. Also, by comparing the result in different condition flights with the morphology of each bird. Simulation has shown that higher flapping frequency is used then greater aerodynamic coefficient is obtained, on other hand, efficiency on thrust production is not the same. The result is analyzed from velocity and pressure contours, mesh movement as to see the behavior.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
903
80631
Analytical and Numerical Investigation of Friction-Restricted Growth and Buckling of Elastic Fibers
Abstract:
The quasi-static growth of elastic fibers is studied in the presence of distributed contact with an immobile surface, subject to isotropic dry or viscous friction. Unlike classical problems of elastic stability modelled by autonomous dynamical systems with multiple time scales (slowly varying bifurcation parameter, and fast system dynamics), this problem can only be formulated as a non-autonomous system without time scale separation. It is found that the fibers initially converge to a trivial, straight configuration, which is later replaced by divergence reminiscent of buckling phenomena. In order to capture the loss of stability, a new definition of exponential stability against infinitesimal perturbations for systems defined over finite time intervals is developed. A semi-analytical method for the determination of the critical length based on eigenvalue analysis is proposed. The post-critical behavior of the fibers is studied numerically by using variational methods. The emerging post-critical shapes and the asymptotic behavior as length goes to infinity are identified for simple spatial distributions of growth. Comparison with physical experiments indicates reasonable accuracy of the theoretical model. Some applications from modeling plant root growth to the design of soft manipulators in robotics are briefly discussed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
902
80610
Analysis of Mechanical Properties for AP/HTPB Solid Propellant under Different Loading Conditions
Abstract:
To investigate the characterization of the mechanical properties of composite solid propellant (CSP) based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) at different temperatures and strain rates, uniaxial tensile tests were conducted over a range of temperatures -60 °C to +76 °C and strain rates 0.000164 to 0.328084 s-1 using a conventional universal testing machine. From the experimental data, it can be noted that the mechanical properties of AP/HTPB propellant are mainly dependent on the applied strain rate and the temperature condition. The stress-strain responses exhibited an initial yielding followed by the viscoelastic phase, which was strongly affected by the strain rate and temperature. It was found that the mechanical properties increased with both increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. Based on the experimental tests, the master curves of the tensile properties are drawn using predetermined shift factor and the results were discussed. This work is a first step in preliminary investigation the nonlinear viscoelasticity behavior of CSP.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
901
80552
Composite Laminate and Thin-Walled Beam Correlations for Aircraft Wing Box Design
Abstract:
Composite materials have become an important option for the primary structure of aircraft due to their design flexibility and ability to improve the overall performance. At present, the option for composite usage in aircraft component is largely based on experience, knowledge, benchmarking and partly market driven. An inevitable iterative design during the design stage and validation process will increase the development time and cost. This paper aims at presenting the correlation between laminate and composite thin-wall beam structure, which contains the theoretical and numerical investigations on stiffness estimation of composite aerostructures with applications to aircraft wings. Classical laminate theory and thin-walled beam theory were applied to define the correlation between 1-dimensional composite laminate and 2-dimensional composite beam structure, respectively. Then FE model was created to represent the 3-dimensional structure. A detailed study on stiffness matrix of composite laminates has been carried out to understand the effects of stacking sequence on the coupling between extension, shear, bending and torsional deformation of wing box structures for 1-dimensional, 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional structures. Relationships amongst composite laminates and composite wing box structures of the same material have been developed in this study. These correlations will be guidelines for the design engineers to predict the stiffness of the wing box structure during the material selection process and laminate design stage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
900
80400
Evaluating the Capability of the Flux-Limiter Schemes in Capturing the Turbulence Structures in a Fully Developed Channel Flow
Abstract:
No one can deny the real absence of an accepted universal theory of turbulence; many researchers are trying to improve and develop numerical methods to simulate the real turbulence structures by using the empirical information. Large eddy simulation nowadays is using two traditional approaches; the first is the classical simulation which depends on the use of sub-grid scale models (SGS) and includes many proposals ranging from inherently limited eddy-viscosity formulations to more sophisticated and accurate mixed models. While the second is the non-classical large eddy simulation which based on the use of unfiltered flow equations. The latter was the interest of many researchers during the last decades. The main feature of that approach is that there is no SGS model but their action is provided implicitly by intrinsic nonlinear high-frequency filters built into the convection discretization and it is coupled naturally to the resolvable scales of the flow. In this work, the monotonically integrated large eddy simulation (MILES) has been applied within the framework of flux-limiting finite volume discretization by using the open source CFD software OpenFOAM. The analysis of the flux limiters schemes (Gamma, superBee, van-Albada, van-Leer) has been studied by a comparison between the different turbulence statistics of a fully developed channel flow with a friction Reynolds number, 〖Re〗_τ=180 and those of a previous study with the same friction Reynolds number by using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) method. It has been inferred that the Gamma, van-Leer and van-Albada limiters produced more diffusion and poor velocity profiles, while superBee scheme reproduced velocity profiles and turbulence statistical quantities in good agreement with the reference DNS data. The turbulence structures and the predictions of the MILES accuracy differed with flux limiters depending on the level of accuracy required for the study. The performance of individual flux limiter has been studied quantitatively in terms of the predictions of the turbulence.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
899
80199
Investigation of Mode II Fracture Toughness in Orthotropic Materials
Abstract:
Evaluation of mode II fracture toughness (KIIC) in composite materials is very hard problem to be solved, since it can be affected by many mechanisms of dissipation. Furthermore, non-linearity in its behavior can offer an extra difficulty to obtain accuracy in the results. Different reported values for KIIC in various references can prove the mentioned assertion. In this research, some solutions proposed based on the form of necessary corrections that should be executed on the common test fixtures. Due to the fact that the common test fixtures are not able to active toughening mechanisms in pure Mode II correctly, we have employed some structural modifications on common fixtures. Particularly, the Iosipescu test is used as start point. The tests are applied on graphite/epoxy; PMMA and Western White Pine Wood. Also, mixed mode I/II fracture limit curves are used to indicate the scattering in test results are really relevant to the creation of Fracture Process Zone (FPZ). In the present paper, shear load consideration applied at the predicted shear zone by considering some significant structural amendments that can active mode II toughening mechanisms. Indeed, the employed empirical method causes significant developing in repeatability and reproducibility as well. Moreover, a 3D Finite Element (FE) is performed for verification of the obtained results. Eventually, it is figured out that, a remarkable precision can be obtained in common test fixture in comparison with the previous one.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
898
80186
Experimental Characterization of Anti-Icing System and Accretion of Re-Emitted Droplets on Turbojet Engine Blades
Abstract:
Atmospheric icing for turbojet is caused by ingestion of super-cooled water droplets. To prevent operability risks, manufacturer can implement ice protection systems. Thermal systems are commonly used for this purpose, but their activation can cause the formation of a water liquid film, that can freeze downstream the heated surface or even on other components. In the framework of STORM, a European project dedicated to icing physics in turbojet engines, a cascade rig representative of engine inlet blades was built and tested in an icing wind tunnel. This mock-up integrates two rows of blades, the upstream one being anti-iced using an electro-thermal device the downstream one being unheated. Under icing conditions, the anti-icing system is activated and set at power level to observe a liquid film on the surface and droplet re-emission at the trailing edge. These re-emitted droplets will impinge on the downstream row and contribute to ice accretion. A complete experimental database was generated, including the characterization of ice accretion shapes, and the characterization of electro-thermal anti-icing system (power limit for apparition of the runback water or ice accretion). These data will be used for validation of numerical tools for modeling thermal anti-icing systems in the scope of engine application, as well as validation of re-emission droplets model for stator parts.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
897
80146
Relative Navigation with Laser-Based Intermittent Measurement for Formation Flying Satellites
Abstract:
This study presents a precise relative navigational method for satellites flying in formation using laser-based intermittent measurement data. The measurement data for the relative navigation between two satellites consist of a relative distance measured by a laser instrument and relative attitude angles measured by attitude determination. The relative navigation solutions are estimated by both the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF). The solutions estimated by the EKF may become inaccurate or even diverge as measurement outage time gets longer because the EKF utilizes a linearization approach. However, this study shows that the UKF with the appropriate scaling parameters provides a stable and accurate relative navigation solutions despite the long measurement outage time and large initial error as compared to the relative navigation solutions of the EKF. Various navigation results have been analyzed by adjusting the scaling parameters of the UKF.
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