Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 50278

Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering

903
85489
Influence of Machining Process on Surface Integrity of Plasma Coating
Abstract:
For appropriate function of components coated by thermal spray coating, additional machining is necessary. The paper deals with assessing the surface integrity of Metco 2042, a plasma sprayed coating, after its machining. The selected plasma sprayed coating serves as an abradable sealing coating in a jet engine. Therefore, the spray and its surface must meet high quality and functional requirements. Plasma sprayed coatings are characterized by lamellar structure, which requires a special approach to their machining. Therefore, the experimental part involves the set-up of special cutting tools and cutting parameters under which the applied coating was machined. For the assessment of suitably set machining parameters, selected parameters of surface integrity were measured and evaluated during the experiment. To determine the size of surface irregularities and the effect of the selected machining technology on the sprayed coating surface, the surface roughness parameters Ra and Rz were measured. Furthermore, the measurement of sprayed coating surface hardness by the HR 15 Y method before and after machining process was used to determine the surface strengthening. The changes of strengthening were detected after the machining. The impact of chosen cutting parameters on the surface roughness after the machining was not proven.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
902
85387
Hypersonic Flow of CO2-N2 Mixture around a Spacecraft during the Atmospheric Reentry
Abstract:
The aim of this work is to analyze a flow around the axisymmetric blunt body taken into account the chemical and vibrational nonequilibrium flow. This work concerns the entry of spacecraft in the atmosphere of the planet Mars. Since the equations involved are non-linear partial derivatives, the volume method is the only way to solve this problem. The choice of the mesh and the CFL is a condition for the convergence to have the stationary solution.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
901
83659
Numerical Analysis of Effect of Crack Location on the Crack Breathing Behavior
Abstract:
In this work, a three-dimensional finite element model was developed to investigate the crack breathing behavior at different crack locations considering the effect of unbalance force. A two-disk rotor with a crack is simulated using ABAQUS. The duration of each crack status (open, closed and partially open/closed) during a full shaft rotation was examined to analyse the crack breathing behavior. Unbalanced shaft crack breathing behavior was found to be different at different crack locations. The breathing behavior of crack along the shaft length is divided into different regions depending on the unbalance force and crack location. The simulated results in this work can be further utilised to obtain the time-varying stiffness matrix of the cracked shaft element under the influence of unbalance force.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
900
83532
Evaluation of the Elastic Mechanical Properties of a Hybrid Adhesive Material
Abstract:
Adhesive materials and adhesion have been the focal point of multiple research works related to numerous applications, particularly, aerospace, and aviation industries. To enhance the properties of conventional adhesive materials, additives have been introduced to the mix in order to enhance their mechanical and physical properties by creating a hybrid adhesive material. The evaluation of the mechanical properties of such hybrid adhesive materials is thus of an essential requirement for the purpose of properly modeling their behavior accurately. This paper presents an approach/tool to simulate the behavior such hybrid adhesives in a way that will allow researchers to better understand their behavior while in service.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
899
83430
Performance Analysis of the Precise Point Positioning Data Online Processing Service and Using for Monitoring Plate Tectonic of Thailand
Abstract:
Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique is use to improve accuracy by using precise satellite orbit and clock correction data, but this technique is complicated methods and high costs. Currently, there are several online processing service providers which offer simplified calculation. In the first part of this research, we compare the efficiency and precision of four software. There are three popular online processing service providers: Australian Online GPS Processing Service (AUSPOS), CSRS-Precise Point Positioning and CenterPoint RTX post processing by Trimble and 1 offline software, RTKLIB, which collected data from 10 the International GNSS Service (IGS) stations for 10 days. The results indicated that AUSPOS has the least distance root mean square (DRMS) value of 0.0029 which is good enough to be calculated for monitoring the movement of tectonic plates. The second, we use AUSPOS to process the data of geodetic network of Thailand. In December 26, 2004, the earthquake occurred a 9.3 MW at the north of Sumatra that highly affected all nearby countries, including Thailand. Earthquake effects have led to errors of the coordinate system of Thailand. The Royal Thai Survey Department (RTSD) is primarily responsible for monitoring of the crustal movement of the country. The difference of the geodetic network movement is not the same network and relatively large. This result is needed for survey to continue to improve GPS coordinates system in every year. Therefore, in this research we chose the AUSPOS to calculate the magnitude and direction of movement, to improve coordinates adjustment of the geodetic network consisting of 19 pins in Thailand during October 2013 to November 2017. Finally, results are displayed on the simulation map by using the ArcMap program with the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method. The pin with the maximum movement is pin no. 3239 (Tak) in the northern part of Thailand. This pin moved in the south-western direction to 11.04 cm. Meanwhile, the directional movement of the other pins in the south gradually changed from south-west to south-east, i.e., in the direction noticed before the earthquake. The magnitude of the movement is in the range of 4 - 7 cm, implying small impact of the earthquake. However, the GPS network should be continuously surveyed in order to secure accuracy of the geodetic network of Thailand.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
898
83110
Aerodynamic Study of an Open Window Moving Bus with Passengers
Abstract:
In many countries, buses are the principal means of transport, of which a majority are naturally ventilated with open windows. The design of this ventilation has little scientific basis and to address this problem a study has been undertaken involving both experiments and numerical simulations. The flow pattern inside and around of an open window bus with passengers has been investigated in detail. A full scale three-dimensional numerical simulation has been used for a) a bus with closed windows and b) with open windows. In either simulation, the bus had 58 seated passengers. The bus dimensions used were 2500 mm wide × 2500 mm high (exterior) × 10500 mm long and its speed was set at 40 km/h. In both cases, the flow separates at the top front edge forming a vortex and reattaches close to the mid-length. This attached flow separates once more as it leaves the bus. However, the strength and shape of the vortices at the top front and wake region is different for both cases. The streamline pattern around the bus is also different for the two cases. For the bus with open windows, the dominant airflow inside the bus is from the rear to the front of the bus and air velocity at the face level of the passengers was found to be 1/10th of the free stream velocity. These findings are in good agreement with flow visualization experiments performed in a water channel at 10 m/s, and with smoke/tuft visualizations in a wind tunnel with a free-stream velocity of approximately 40 km/h on a 1:25 scaled Perspex model.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
897
82871
Design Optimization for Sound Absorption Material of Multi-Layer Structure
Abstract:
Sound absorbing material is used as automotive interior material. Sound absorption coefficient should be predicted to design it. However, it is difficult to predict sound absorbing coefficient because it is comprised of several material layers. So, its targets are achieved through many experimental tunings. It causes a lot of cost and time. In this paper, we propose the process to estimate the sound absorption coefficient with multi-layer structure. In order to estimate the coefficient, physical properties of each material are used. These properties also use predicted values by Foam-X software using the sound absorption coefficient data measured by impedance tube. Since there are many physical properties and the measurement equipment is expensive, the values predicted by software are used. Through the measurement of the sound absorption coefficient of each material, its physical properties are calculated inversely. The properties of each material are used to calculate the sound absorption coefficient of the multi-layer material. Since the absorption coefficient of multi-layer can be calculated, optimization design is possible through simulation. Then, we will compare and analyze the calculated sound absorption coefficient with the data measured by scaled reverberation chamber and impedance tubes for a prototype. If this method is used when developing automotive interior materials with multi-layer structure, the development effort can be reduced because it can be optimized by simulation. Therefore, cost and time can be saved.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
896
82178
Classification of Impact Damages with Respect of Damage Tolerance Design Approach and Airworthiness Requirements
Abstract:
This paper describes airworthiness requirements with respect damage tolerance. Damage tolerance determines the amount and magnitude of damage on parts of the airplane. Airworthiness requirements determine the amount of damage that can still be in flight capable of the condition. Component damage can be defined as barely visible impact damage, visible impact damage or clear visible impact damage. Damage is also distributed it according to the velocity. It is divided into low or high velocity impact damage. The severity of damage to the part of airplane divides the airworthiness requirements into several categories according to severity. Airworthiness requirements are determined by type airplane. All types of airplane do not have the same conditions for airworthiness requirements. This knowledge is important for designing and operating an airplane.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
895
82093
Studying the Dynamical Response of Nano-Microelectromechanical Devices for Nanomechanical Testing of Nanostructures
Abstract:
Characterizing the fatigue and fracture properties of nanostructures is one of the most challenging tasks in nanoscience and nanotechnology due to lack of a MEMS/NEMS device for generating uniform cyclic loadings at high frequencies. Here, the dynamic response of a recently proposed MEMS/NEMS device under different inputs signals is completely investigated. This MEMS/NEMS device is designed and modeled based on the electromagnetic force induced between paired parallel wires carrying electrical currents, known as Ampere’s Force Law (AFL). Since this MEMS/NEMS device only uses two paired wires for actuation part and sensing part, it represents highly sensitive and linear response for nanostructures with any stiffness and shapes (single or arrays of nanowires, nanotubes, nanosheets or nanowalls). In addition to studying the maximum gains at different resonance frequencies of the MEMS/NEMS device, its dynamical responses are investigated for different inputs and nanostructure properties to demonstrate the capability, usability, and reliability of the device for wide range of nanostructures. This MEMS/NEMS device can be readily integrated into SEM/TEM instruments to provide real time study of the fatigue and fracture properties of nanostructures as well as their softening or hardening behaviors, and initiation and/or propagation of nanocracks in them.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
894
82081
Design and Burnback Analysis of Three Dimensional Modified Star Grain
Abstract:
The determination of grain geometry is an important and critical step in the design of solid propellant rocket motor. In this study, the design process involved parametric geometry modeling in CAD, MATLAB coding of performance prediction and 2D star grain ignition experiment. The 2D star grain burnback achieved by creating new surface via each web increment and calculating geometrical properties at each step. The 2D star grain is further modified to burn as a tapered 3D star grain. Zero dimensional method used to calculate the internal ballistic performance. Experimental and theoretical results were compared in order to validate the performance prediction of the solid rocket motor. The results show that the usage of 3D grain geometry will decrease the pressure inside the combustion chamber and enhance the volumetric loading ratio.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
893
81819
Increase of Sensitivity in 3D Suspended Polymeric Microfluidic Platform through Lateral Misalignment
Abstract:
In the present study, a design of the suspended polymeric microfluidic platform is introduced that is fabricated with three polymeric layers. Changing the microchannel plane to be perpendicular to microcantilever plane, drastically decreases moment of inertia in that direction. In addition, the platform is made of polymer (around five orders of magnitude less compared to silicon). It causes significant increase in the sensitivity of the cantilever deflection. Next, although the dimensions of this platform are constant, by misaligning the embedded microchannels laterally in the suspended microfluidic platform, the sensitivity can be highly increased. The investigation is studied on four fluids including water, seawater, milk, and blood for flow ranges from low rate of 5 to 70 µl/min to obtain the best design with the highest sensitivity. The best design in this study shows the sensitivity increases around 50% for water, seawater, milk, and blood at the flow rate of 70 µl/min by just misaligning the embedded microchannels in the suspended polymeric microfluidic platform.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
892
80712
Study of Efficiency of Flying Animal Using Computational Simulation
Abstract:
Innovation in aviation technology evolved rapidly by time to time for acquiring the most favorable value of utilization and is usually denoted by efficiency parameter. Nature always become part of inspiration, and for this sector, many researchers focused on studying the behavior of flying animal to comprehend the fundamental, one of them is birds. Experimental testing has already conducted by several researches to seek and calculate the efficiency by putting the object in wind tunnel. Hence, computational simulation is needed to conform the result and give more visualization which is based on Reynold Averaged Navier-Stokes equation solution for unsteady case in time-dependent viscous flow. By creating model from simplification of the real bird as a rigid body, those are Hawk which has low aspect ratio and Swift with high aspect ratio, subsequently generating the multi grid structured mesh to capture and calculate the aerodynamic behavior and characteristics. Mimicking the motion of downstroke and upstroke of bird flight which produced both lift and thrust, the sinusoidal function is used. Simulation is carried out for varied of flapping frequencies within upper and lower range of actual each bird’s frequency which are 1 Hz, 2.87 Hz, 5 Hz for Hawk and 5 Hz, 8.9 Hz, 13 Hz for Swift to investigate the dependency of frequency effecting the efficiency of aerodynamic characteristics production. Also, by comparing the result in different condition flights with the morphology of each bird. Simulation has shown that higher flapping frequency is used then greater aerodynamic coefficient is obtained, on other hand, efficiency on thrust production is not the same. The result is analyzed from velocity and pressure contours, mesh movement as to see the behavior.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
891
80610
Analysis of Mechanical Properties for AP/HTPB Solid Propellant under Different Loading Conditions
Abstract:
To investigate the characterization of the mechanical properties of composite solid propellant (CSP) based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) at different temperatures and strain rates, uniaxial tensile tests were conducted over a range of temperatures -60 °C to +76 °C and strain rates 0.000164 to 0.328084 s-1 using a conventional universal testing machine. From the experimental data, it can be noted that the mechanical properties of AP/HTPB propellant are mainly dependent on the applied strain rate and the temperature condition. The stress-strain responses exhibited an initial yielding followed by the viscoelastic phase, which was strongly affected by the strain rate and temperature. It was found that the mechanical properties increased with both increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. Based on the experimental tests, the master curves of the tensile properties are drawn using predetermined shift factor and the results were discussed. This work is a first step in preliminary investigation the nonlinear viscoelasticity behavior of CSP.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
890
80552
Composite Laminate and Thin-Walled Beam Correlations for Aircraft Wing Box Design
Abstract:
Composite materials have become an important option for the primary structure of aircraft due to their design flexibility and ability to improve the overall performance. At present, the option for composite usage in aircraft component is largely based on experience, knowledge, benchmarking and partly market driven. An inevitable iterative design during the design stage and validation process will increase the development time and cost. This paper aims at presenting the correlation between laminate and composite thin-wall beam structure, which contains the theoretical and numerical investigations on stiffness estimation of composite aerostructures with applications to aircraft wings. Classical laminate theory and thin-walled beam theory were applied to define the correlation between 1-dimensional composite laminate and 2-dimensional composite beam structure, respectively. Then FE model was created to represent the 3-dimensional structure. A detailed study on stiffness matrix of composite laminates has been carried out to understand the effects of stacking sequence on the coupling between extension, shear, bending and torsional deformation of wing box structures for 1-dimensional, 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional structures. Relationships amongst composite laminates and composite wing box structures of the same material have been developed in this study. These correlations will be guidelines for the design engineers to predict the stiffness of the wing box structure during the material selection process and laminate design stage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
889
80186
Experimental Characterization of Anti-Icing System and Accretion of Re-Emitted Droplets on Turbojet Engine Blades
Abstract:
Atmospheric icing for turbojet is caused by ingestion of super-cooled water droplets. To prevent operability risks, manufacturer can implement ice protection systems. Thermal systems are commonly used for this purpose, but their activation can cause the formation of a water liquid film, that can freeze downstream the heated surface or even on other components. In the framework of STORM, a European project dedicated to icing physics in turbojet engines, a cascade rig representative of engine inlet blades was built and tested in an icing wind tunnel. This mock-up integrates two rows of blades, the upstream one being anti-iced using an electro-thermal device the downstream one being unheated. Under icing conditions, the anti-icing system is activated and set at power level to observe a liquid film on the surface and droplet re-emission at the trailing edge. These re-emitted droplets will impinge on the downstream row and contribute to ice accretion. A complete experimental database was generated, including the characterization of ice accretion shapes, and the characterization of electro-thermal anti-icing system (power limit for apparition of the runback water or ice accretion). These data will be used for validation of numerical tools for modeling thermal anti-icing systems in the scope of engine application, as well as validation of re-emission droplets model for stator parts.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
888
79319
Forming for Confirmation of Predicted Epoxy Forming Composition Range in Cr-Zn System
Authors:
Abstract:
Aim of this work was to determine the approximate Epoxy forming composition range of Cr-Zn system for the composites produced by forming compositing. It was predicted by MI edema semi-empirical model that the composition had to be in the range of 30-60 wt. % tin, while Cr-32Zn had the most susceptibility to produce amorphous composite. In the next stage, some different compositions of Cr-Zn were foamingly composited, where one of them had the proper predicted composition. Products were characterized by SDM analysis. There was a good agreement between calculation and experiments, in which Cr-32Zn composite had the most amorphization degree.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
887
79205
Boundary Layer Control Using a Magnetic Field: A Case Study in the Framework of Ferrohydrodynamics
Abstract:
This work investigates the effects of an applied magnetic field on the geometry-driven boundary layer detachment flow of a ferrofluid over a sudden expansion. Both constitutive equation and global magnetization equation for a ferrofluid are considered. Therefore, the proposed formulation consists in a coupled magnetic-hydrodynamic problem. Computational simulations are carried out in order to explore, not only the viability to control flow instabilities, but also to evaluate the consistency of theoretical aspects. The unidirectional sudden expansion in a ferrofluid flow is investigated numerically under the perspective of Ferrohydrodynamics in a two-dimensional domain using a Finite Differences Method. The boundary layer detachment induced by the sudden expansion results in a recirculating zone, which has been extensively studied in non-magnetic hydrodynamic problems for a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Similar investigations can be found in literature regarding the sudden expansion under the magnetohydrodynamics framework, but none considering a colloidal suspension of magnetic particles out of the superparamagnetic regime. The vorticity-stream function formulation is implemented and results in a clear coupling between the flow vorticity and its magnetization field. Our simulations indicate a systematic decay on the length of the recirculation zone as increasing physical parameters of the flow, such as the intensity of the applied field and the volume fraction of particles. The results all are discussed from a physical point of view in terms of the dynamical non-dimensional parameters. We argue that the decrease/reduction in the recirculation region of the flow is a direct consequence of the magnetic torque balancing the action of the torque produced by viscous and inertial forces of the flow. For the limit of small Reynolds and magnetic Reynolds parameters, the diffusion of vorticity balances the diffusion of the magnetic torque on the flow. These mechanics control the growth of the recirculation region.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
886
78928
Towards the Modeling of Lost Core Viability in High-Pressure Die Casting: A Fluid-Structure Interaction Model with 2-Phase Flow Fluid Model
Abstract:
This paper summarizes the progress in the latest computational fluid dynamics research towards the modeling in of lost core viability in high-pressure die casting. High-pressure die casting is a process that is widely employed in the automotive and neighboring industries due to its advantages in casting quality and cost efficiency. The degrees of freedom are however somewhat limited as it has been so far difficult to use lost cores in the process. This is right now changing and the deployment of lost cores is considered a future growth potential for high-pressure die casting companies. The use of this technology itself is difficult though. The strength of the core material, as chiefly salt is used, is limited and experiments have shown that the cores will not hold under all circumstances and process designs. For this purpose, the publicly available CFD library foam-extend (OpenFOAM) is used, and two additional fluid models for incompressible and compressible two-phase flow are implemented as fluid solver models into the FSI library. For this purpose, the volume-of-fluid (VOF) methodology is used. The necessity for the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) approach is shown by a simple CFD model geometry. The model is benchmarked against analytical models and experimental data. Sufficient agreement is found with the analytical models and good agreement with the experimental data. An outlook on future developments concludes the paper.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
885
78890
Implementation of the Interlock Protocol to Enhance Security in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Abstract:
This paper depicts the implementation of a new infallible technique to protect an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle from cyber-attacks. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) could be vulnerable to cyber-attacks because of jammers or eavesdroppers over the network which pose as a threat to the security of the UAV. In the field of network security, there are quite a few protocols which can be used to establish a secure connection between UAVs and their Operators. In this paper, we discuss how the Interlock Protocol could be implemented to foil the Man-in-the-Middle Attack. In this case, Wireshark has been used as the sniffer (man-in-the-middle). This paper also shows a comparison between the Interlock Protocol and the TCP Protocols using cryptcat and netcat and at the same time highlights why the Interlock Protocol is the most efficient security protocol to prevent eavesdropping over the communication channel.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
884
78711
Designing and Analyzing Sensor and Actuator of a Nano/Micro-System for Fatigue and Fracture Characterization of Nanomaterials
Abstract:
This paper presents a MEMS/NEMS device for fatigue and fracture characterization of nanomaterials. This device can apply static loads, cyclic loads, and their combinations in nanomechanical experiments. It is based on the electromagnetic force induced between paired parallel wires carrying electrical currents. Using this concept, the actuator and sensor parts of the device were designed and analyzed while considering the practical limitations. Since the PWCC device only uses two wires for actuation part and sensing part, its fabrication process is extremely easier than the available MEMS/NEMS devices. The total gain and phase shift of the MEMS/NEMS device were calculated and investigated. Furthermore, the maximum gain and sensitivity of the MEMS/NEMS device were studied to demonstrate the capability and usability of the device for wide range of nanomaterials samples. This device can be readily integrated into SEM/TEM instruments to provide real time study of the mechanical behaviors of nanomaterials as well as their fatigue and fracture properties, softening or hardening behaviors, and initiation and propagation of nanocracks.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
883
78632
Effect of Primer on Bonding between Resin Cement and Zirconia Ceramic
Abstract:
Objectives: Recently, the development of adhesive primers on stable bonding between zirconia and resin cement has been on the increase. The bond strength of zirconia-resin cement can be effectively increased with the treatment of primer composed of the adhesive monomer that can chemically bond with the oxide layer, which forms on the surface of zirconia. 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) that contains phosphate ester and acidic monomer 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic anhydride(4-META) have been suggested as monomers that can form chemical bond with the surface oxide layer of zirconia. Also, these suggested monomers have proved to be effective zirconia surface treatment for bonding to resin cement. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of primer treatment on the bond strength of Zirconia-resin cement by using three different kinds of primers on the market. Methods: Zirconia blocks were prepared into 60 disk-shaped specimens by using a diamond saw. Specimens were divided into four different groups: first three groups were treated with zirconiaLiner(Sun Medical Co., Ltd., Furutaka-cho, Moriyama, Shiga, Japan), Alloy primer (Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc., Sakaju, Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan), and Universal primer (Tokuyama dental Corp., Taitou, Taitou-ku, Tokyo, Japan) respectively. The last group was the control with no surface treatment. Dual cured resin cement (Biscem, Bisco Inc., Schaumburg, IL, USA) was luted to each group of specimens. And then, shear bond strengths were measured by universal tesing machine. The significance of the result was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey test. The failure sites in each group were inspected under a magnifier. Results: Mean shear bond strength were 0.60, 1.39, 1.03, 1.38 MPa for control, Zirconia Liner (ZL), Alloy primer (AP), Universal primer (UP), respectively. Groups with application of each of the three primers showed significantly higher shear bond strength compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Among the three groups with the treatment, ZL and UP showed significantly higher shear bond strength than AP (p < 0.05), and there were no significant differences in mean shear bond strength between ZL and UP (p < 0.05). While the most specimens of control groups showed adhesive failure (80%), the most specimens of three primer-treated groups showed cohesive or mixed failure (80%).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
882
78472
Clarifications on the Damping Mechanism Related to the Hunting Motion of the Wheel Axle of a High-Speed Railway Vehicle
Abstract:
In order to explain the damping mechanism, related to the hunting motion of the wheel axle of a high-speed railway vehicle, a generalized dynamic model is proposed. Based on such model, analytic expressions for the damping coefficient and damped natural frequency are derived, without imposing restrictions on the ratio between the lateral and vertical creep coefficients. Influence of the travelling speed, wheel conicity, dimensionless mass of the wheel axle, ratio of the creep coefficients, ratio of the track span to the yawing diameter, etc. on the damping coefficient and damped natural frequency, is clarified.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
881
78337
Evaluation of Redundancy Architectures Based on System on Chip Internal Interfaces for Future Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Flight Control Computer
Abstract:
It is a common view that Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) tend to migrate into the civil airspace. This trend is challenging UAV manufacturer in plenty ways, as there come up a lot of new requirements and functional aspects. On the higher application levels, this might be collision detection and avoidance and similar features, whereas all these functions only act as input for the flight control components of the aircraft. The flight control computer (FCC) is the central component when it comes up to ensure a continuous safe flight and landing. As these systems are flight critical, they have to be built up redundantly to be able to provide a Fail-Operational behavior. Recent architectural approaches of FCCs used in UAV systems are often based on very simple microprocessors in combination with proprietary Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) or Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) extensions implementing the whole redundancy functionality. In the future, such simple microprocessors may not be available anymore as they are more and more replaced by higher sophisticated System on Chip (SoC). As the avionic industry cannot provide enough market power to significantly influence the development of new semiconductor products, the use of solutions from foreign markets is almost inevitable. Products stemming from the industrial market developed according to IEC 61508, or automotive SoCs, according to ISO 26262, can be seen as candidates as they have been developed for similar environments. Current available SoC from the industrial or automotive sector provides quite a broad selection of interfaces like, i.e., Ethernet, SPI or FlexRay, that might come into account for the implementation of a redundancy network. In this context, possible network architectures shall be investigated which could be established by using the interfaces stated above. Of importance here is the avoidance of any single point of failures, as well as a proper segregation in distinct fault containment regions. The performed analysis is supported by the use of guidelines, published by the aviation authorities (FAA and EASA), on the reliability of data networks. The main focus clearly lies on the reachable level of safety, but also other aspects like performance and determinism play an important role and are considered in the research. Due to the further increase in design complexity of recent and future SoCs, also the risk of design errors, which might lead to common mode faults, increases. Thus in the context of this work also the aspect of dissimilarity will be considered to limit the effect of design errors. To achieve this, the work is limited to broadly available interfaces available in products from the most common silicon manufacturer. The resulting work shall support the design of future UAV FCCs by giving a guideline on building up a redundancy network between SoCs, solely using on board interfaces. Therefore the author will provide a detailed usability analysis on available interfaces provided by recent SoC solutions, suggestions on possible redundancy architectures based on these interfaces and an assessment of the most relevant characteristics of the suggested network architectures, like e.g. safety or performance.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
880
78015
Some Aspects on Formation Initialization and Its Maintenance of Leo Satellites
Authors:
Abstract:
Study of multi-satellite formation flight systems has drawn wide attention recently due to so many potential advantages. The present work aims to model the relative motion dynamics in terms of change in classical orbital parameters between the two satellites-chief and deputy- under Earth’s oblateness effect. The required impulsive thrust control is calculated to minimize these orbital parameter changes. The formation configuration is initialized by selecting a set of orbital parameters for the chief and deputy satellites such that bounded motion is maintained for a long time in a J_2-invariant relative non-circular orbit between the satellites. The solution of J_2-modified Hill’s equations is also derived in this paper.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
879
77913
Comprehensive Studies on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Subsonic Scarf Inlets
Abstract:
Although many studies have been reported on the aerodynamic characteristics of subsonic scarf inlets, the geometry design optimization of such inlets is a meaningful lucrative design objective for modern aircraft engines. Notably for scarf inlet designs wherein the primary variable of interests the circumferential extent over which the extended lower lip is formed. In this paper, an attempt has been made to optimize the aerodynamic shape of a subsonic scarf inlet with aerodynamically shaped center-body with a particular value of the circumferential extent. The parametric analytical studies have been carried out using a Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. From our preliminary studies, we concluded that for a particular value of circumferential extent, there will be an exact shape of the center-body with certain geometric orientation for the existence of an aerodynamically efficient scarf inlet for modern aircraft engines. This numerical study is a pointer towards for the design optimization of scarf inlets for modern aircraft engines.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
878
77724
Numerical Study on the Urea Melting and Induced Natural Convection in a Urea Sender Module
Abstract:
The Urea-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system is considered to be the most promising technology to fulfill the stringent emission regulation. In the Urea-SCR system, the urea solutions are used as the reducing agent, which is a eutectic composition (32.5wt% of urea). The advantage of this eutectic compositions is that it has a low freezing point approximately at -11 ℃, however, the problem of freezing occurs at low-temperature levels below that freezing point. To prevent freezing of urea solutions, we need heating systems that can melt by heating the frozen urea solutions in urea storage tank at low-temperature environment. In this study, therefore, a numerical investigation of three-dimensional unsteady heating problems analyzed to find the melting characteristics of the urea solutions on melting process. In this work, it can be found that the urea melting initiated by heat conduction from the heater is enhanced by the natural convection inside the melted liquid urea solutions due to the temperature difference. Also, liquid urea solutions are initially concentrated on the upper parts of the urea sender module.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
877
77722
Reaction Rate Behavior of a Methane-Air Mixture over a Platinum Catalyst in a Single Channel Catalytic Reactor
Abstract:
Catalytic combustion is an environmentally friendly technique to combust fuels in gas turbines. In this paper, the behavior of surface reaction rate on catalytic combustion is studied with respect to the heterogeneous oxidation of methane-air mixture in a catalytic reactor. Plug flow reactor (PFR), the simplified single catalytic channel assists in investigating the catalytic combustion phenomenon over the Pt catalyst by promoting the desired chemical reactions. The numerical simulation with multi-step elementary surface reactions is governed by the availability of free surface sites onto the catalytic surface and thereby, the catalytic combustion characteristics are demonstrated by examining the rate of the reaction for lean fuel mixture. Further, two different surface reaction mechanisms are adopted and compared for surface reaction rates to indicate the controlling heterogeneous reaction for better fuel conversion. The performance of platinum catalyst under heterogeneous reaction is analyzed under the same temperature condition, where the catalyst with the higher kinetic rate of reaction would have a maximum catalytic activity for enhanced methane catalytic combustion.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
876
77162
Optimal Design of Shape for Increasing the Bonding Pressure Drawing of Hot Clad Pipes by Finite Element Method Analysis
Abstract:
Clad Pipe is made of a different kind of material, which is different from the internal and external materials, for the corrosive crude oil transportation tube. Most of the clad pipes are produced by hot rolling. However, problems arise due to high product prices and excessive process numbers. Therefore, in this study, the hot drawing process with excellent product cost, process number and productivity is applied. Due to the nature of the drawing process, the shape of the mold greatly influences the formability of the material and the bonding pressure of the two materials because it is a process of drawing the material to the die and reducing the cross-sectional area. Also, in case of hot drawing, if the mold shape is not suitable due to the increased fluidity of the material, it may cause problems such as tearing and stretching. Therefore, in this study, we try to find the shape of the mold which suppresses the occurrence of defects in the hot drawing process and maximizes the bonding pressure between the two materials through the mold shape optimization design by FEM analysis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
875
77049
A Research on the Benefits of Drone Usage in Industry by Determining Companies Using Drone in the World
Abstract:
Aviation that has been arisen in accordance with flying request that is existing inside of people, has not only made life easier by making a great contribution to humanity; it has also accelerated globalization by reducing distances between countries. It is seen that the growth rate of aviation industry has reached the undreamed level when it is looked back on. Today, the last point in aviation is unmanned aerial vehicles that are self-ventilating and move in desired coordinates without any onboard pilot. For those vehicles, there are two different control systems are developed. In the first type of control, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) moves according to instructions of a remote control. UAV that moves with a remote control is named as drone; it can be used personally. In the second one, there is a flight plan that is programmed and placed inside of UAV before flight. Recently, drones have started to be used in unimagined areas and utilize specific, important benefits for any industry. Within this framework, this study answers the question that is drone usage would be beneficial for businesses or not. To answer this question, applied basic methodologies are determining businesses using drone in the world, their purposes to use drone, and then, comparing their economy as before drone and after drone. In the end of this study, it is seen that many companies in different business areas use drone in logistics support, and it makes their work easier than before. This paper has contributed to academic literature about this subject, and it has introduced the benefits of drone usage for businesses. In addition, it has encouraged businesses that they keep pace with this technological age by following the developments about drones.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
874
77008
A Study on Improvement of Straightness of Preform Pulling Process of Hollow Pipe by Finete Element Analysis Method
Abstract:
In this study, we have studied the design of intermediate die in multipass drawing. Research has been continuously studied because of the advantage of better dimensional accuracy, smooth surface and improved mechanical properties in the case of drawing. Among them, multipass drawing, which is a method to realize complicated shape by drawing, was discussed in this study. The most important factor in the multipass drawing is the dimensional accuracy and simplify the process. To accomplish this, a multistage shape drawing was performed using various intermediate die shape designs, and finite element analysis was performed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):