Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 51986

Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering

925
91794
Experimental Study of Vibration Isolators Made of Expanded Cork Agglomerate
Abstract:
The goal of the present work is to experimentally evaluate the feasibility of using vibration isolators made of expanded cork agglomerate. Even though this material, also known as insulation cork board (ICB), has mainly been studied for thermal and acoustic insulation purposes, it has strong potential for use in vibration isolation. However, the adequate design of expanded cork blocks vibration isolators will depend on several factors, such as excitation frequency, static load conditions and intrinsic dynamic behavior of the material. In this study, transmissibility tests for different static and dynamic loading conditions were performed in order to characterize the material. Since the material’s physical properties can influence the vibro-isolation performance of the blocks (in terms of density and thickness), this study covered four mass density ranges and four block thicknesses. A total of 72 expanded cork agglomerate specimens were tested. The test apparatus comprises a vibration exciter connected to an excitation mass that holds the test specimen. The test specimens under characterization were loaded successively with steel plates in order to obtain results for different masses. An accelerometer was placed at the top of these masses and at the base of the excitation mass. The test was performed for a defined frequency range, and the amplitude registered by the accelerometers was recorded in time domain. For each of the signals (signal 1- vibration of the excitation mass, signal 2- vibration of the loading mass) a fast Fourier transform (FFT) was applied in order to obtain the frequency domain response. For each of the frequency domain signals, the maximum amplitude reached was registered. The ratio between the amplitude (acceleration) of signal 2 and the amplitude of signal 1, allows the calculation of the transmissibility for each frequency. Repeating this procedure allowed us to plot a transmissibility curve for a certain frequency range. A number of transmissibility experiments were performed to assess the influence of changing the mass density and thickness of the expanded cork blocks and the experimental conditions (static load and frequency of excitation). The experimental transmissibility tests performed in this study showed that expanded cork agglomerate blocks are a good option for mitigating vibrations. It was concluded that specimens with lower mass density and larger thickness lead to better performance, with higher vibration isolation and a larger range of isolated frequencies. In conclusion, the study of the performance of expanded cork agglomerate blocks presented herein will allow for a more efficient application of expanded cork vibration isolators. This is particularly relevant since this material is a more sustainable alternative to other commonly used non-environmentally friendly products, such as rubber.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
924
91489
Characterisation of Wind-Driven Ventilation in Complex Terrain Conditions
Abstract:
The physical effects of upstream flow obstructions such as vegetation on cross-ventilation phenomena of a building are important for issues such as indoor thermal comfort. Modelling such effects in Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations may also be challenging. The aim of this work is to establish the cross-ventilation jet behaviour in such complex terrain conditions as well as to provide guidelines on the implementation of CFD numerical simulations in order to model complex terrain features such as vegetation in an efficient manner. The methodology consists of onsite measurements on a test cell coupled with numerical simulations. It was found that the cross-ventilation flow is highly turbulent despite the very low velocities encountered internally within the test cells. While no direct measurement of the jet direction was made, the measurements indicate that flow tends to be reversed from the leeward to the windward side. Modelling such a phenomenon proves challenging and is strongly influenced by how vegetation is modelled. A solid vegetation tends to predict better the direction and magnitude of the flow than a porous vegetation approach. A simplified terrain model was also shown to provide good comparisons with observation. The findings have important implications on the study of cross-ventilation in complex terrain conditions since the flow direction does not remain trivial, as with the traditional isolated building case.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
923
91261
The Effect of Mean Pressure on the Performance of a Low-Grade Heat-Driven Thermoacoustic Cooler
Authors:
Abstract:
Converting low-grade waste heat into useful energy such as sound energy which can then be used to generate acoustic power in a thermoacoustic engine has become an attracting issue for researchers. The generated power in thermoacoustic engine can be used for driving a thermoacoustic cooler when they are installed in a tube. This cooler system can be called as a heat-driven thermoacoustic cooler. In this study, low heating temperature of the engine is discussed. In addition, having high efficiency of the whole cooler is also essential. To design a thermoacoustic cooler having high efficiency with using low-grade waste heat for the engine, the effect of mean pressure is investigated. By increasing the mean pressure, the heating temperature to generate acoustic power can be decreased from 557 °C to 300 °C. Moreover, the efficiency of the engine and cooler regenerators attain 67% and 47% of the upper limit values, respectively and 49% of the acoustical work generated by the engine regenerator is utilized in the cooler regenerator. As a result, the efficiency of the whole cooler becomes 15% of the upper limit value.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
922
89981
Structural Analysis of Multi-Pressure Integrated Vessel for Sport-Multi-Artificial Environment System
Abstract:
There are several dedicated individual chambers for sports that are supplied and used, but none of them are multi-pressured all-in-one chambers that can provide a sports multi-environment simultaneously. In this study, we design a multi-pressure (positive/atmospheric/negative pressure) integrated vessel that can be used for the sport-multi-artificial environment system. We presented additional vessel designs with enlarged space for the tall users; with reinforcement pads added to reduce the maximum stress in the joints of its shells, and then carried out numerical analysis for the structural analysis with maximum stress and structural safety. Under the targeted allowable pressure conditions, maximum stresses occurred at the joint of the shell, and the entrance, the safety of the structure was checked with the allowable stress of its material.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
921
89969
Nonlinear Analysis with Failure Using the Boundary Element Method
Abstract:
The current paper shows the application of the boundary element method for the analysis of plates under shear stress causing plasticity. In this case, the shear deformation of a plate is considered by means of the Reissner’s theory. The probability of failure of a Reissner’s plate due to a proposed index plastic behavior is calculated taken into account the uncertainty in mechanical and geometrical properties. The problem is developed in two dimensions. The classic plasticity’s theory is applied and a formulation for initial stresses that lead to the boundary integral equations due to plasticity is also used. For the plasticity calculation, the Von Misses criteria is used. To solve the non-linear equations an incremental method is employed. The results show a relatively small failure probability for the ranges of loads between 0.6 and 1.0. However, for values between 1.0 and 2.5, the probability of failure increases significantly. Consequently, for load bigger than 2.5 the plate failure is a safe event. The results are compared to those that were found in the literature and the agreement is good.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
920
89416
Enhanced Boiling Heat Transfer Using Wettability Patterned Surfaces
Abstract:
Effective cooling technology is required to secure thermal stability in extreme heat generated systems such as integrated electronic devices and power generated systems. Pool boiling heat transfer is one of the powerful cooling mechanisms using phase change phenomena. Critical heat flux (CHF) and heat transfer coefficient (HTC) are main factors to evaluate the performance of boiling heat transfer. CHF is the limitation of boiling heat transfer before film boiling which occurs thermal failure. Surface wettability is an important surface characteristic of boiling heat transfer. A hydrophilic surface has higher CHF through effective working fluid supply to local hot spots. A hydrophobic surface promotes the onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) to enhance HTC. In this study, superbiphilic surfaces, which is combined with superhydrophillic and superhydrophobic, are applied on boiling experiments to maximize boiling performance. We conducted pool boiling heat transfer using DI water at a saturated temperature and recorded bubble dynamics using a high-speed camera with 2000 fps. As a result, superbiphilic patterned surfaces promote ONB and enhance both CHF and HTC. This study demonstrates the enhanced boiling performance using superbiphilic surfaces by effective nucleation and separation of liquid/vapor pathway. We expect that further enhancement of heat transfer could be achieved in future work using optimized patterned surfaces.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
919
89381
Survivability of Maneuvering Aircraft against Air to Air Infrared Missile
Abstract:
An air to air infrared missile poses a significant threat to the survivability of an aircraft due to an advanced sensitivity of sensor and maneuverability of the missile. Therefore, recent military aircraft is equipped with MAW (Missile Approach Warning) to take an evasive maneuver and to deploy countermeasures like chaff and flare. In this research, an effect of MAW sensitivity and resulting evasive maneuver on the survivability of the fighter aircraft is studied. A single engine fighter jet with Mach 0.9 flying at an altitude of 5 km is modeled in the research and infrared signature of the aircraft is calculated by numerical simulation. The survivability is assessed in terms of lethal range. The MAW sensitivity and maneuverability of an aircraft is used as variables. The result showed that improvement in survivability mainly achieved when the missile approach from the side of the aircraft. And maximum 30% increase in survivability of the aircraft is achieved when existence of the missile is noticed at 7 km distance. As a conclusion, sensitivity of the MAW seems to be more important factor than the maneuverability of the aircraft in terms of the survivability.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
918
88781
Wrinkling Prediction of Membrane Composite of Varying Orientation under In-Plane Shear
Abstract:
In this article, the wrinkling failure of orthotropic composite membranes due to in-plane shear deformation is investigated using nonlinear finite element analyses. A nonlinear post-buckling analysis is performed to show the evolution of shear-induced wrinkles. The method of investigation is based on the post-buckling finite element analysis adopted from commercial FEM code; ANSYS. The resulting wrinkling patterns, their amplitude and their wavelengths under the prescribed loads and boundary conditions were confirmed by experimental results. Our study reveals that wrinkles develop when both the magnitudes and coverage of the minimum principal stresses in the laminated composite laminates are sufficiently large to trigger wrinkling.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
917
88235
Mathematical Modelling and Parametric Study of Water Based Loop Heat Pipe for Ground Application
Abstract:
Loop Heat Pipe is a passive two-phase heat transfer device which can be used without any external power source to transfer heat from source to sink. The main aim of this paper is to have modelling of water-based LHP at varying heat loads. Through figures, how the fluid flow occurs within the loop has been explained. Energy Balance has been done in each section. IC (Iterative Convergence) scheme to find out the SSOT (Steady State Operating Temperature) has been developed. It is developed using Dev C++. To best of the author’s knowledge, hardly any detail is available in the open literature about how temperature distribution along the loop is to be evaluated. Results for water-based loop heat pipe is obtained and compared with open literature and error is found within 4%. Parametric study has been done to see the effect of different parameters on pressure drop and SSOT at varying heat loads.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
916
88126
Effect of Corner Modification on the Design Pressure of a Typical Cyclone Shelter
Abstract:
The aerodynamic properties of a bluff body mainly depend upon the nature of the separation of the shear layer from the leading edge. Use of computational wind engineering as a development of computational fluid dynamics has been successfully implemented in the assessment of design pressure on buildings treated as a bluff body. Several cyclone resistant shelters are constructed in the Indian subcontinent along the coastal region. There is a separation of boundary layer in the sharp-cornered buildings while the buildings with modified corners are much more streamlined and have less wake width leading to the reduction in drag force along the windward direction. The building with round corners will experience lower design pressure. Using CFD (computational fluid dynamics), several studies have been conducted to quantify the reduction in design wind pressure for some of the cyclone shelters. However, only two cases have been considered, namely with and without every corner modified. The current work explores the influence of rounding of corners on the reduction of design pressure of a typical cyclone shelter. Numerical simulation was carried out for the terrain category 4 conditions using three different turbulence models, i.e., standard k-epsilon, k-omega and Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model for the cyclone shelter of G+1height provided with a single pitched roof with a slope of 15 degrees built on a raised platform of height 2m. In summer this building will act as a Natural Draft Cooling Tower (NDCT). Information in the pressure contours have been deciphered carefully but statistically due to inherent random turbulence of the flow field, and the results showed the reduction in the design pressure of around 12%, 12.6%, and 10% respectively. The influence of wind directionality is also discussed in the paper.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
915
88047
Effects of Diluent Gas Velocity on Formation of Moderate or Intense Low-Oxygen Dilution Combustion with Fuel Spray for Gas Turbine
Abstract:
Mild combustion is characterized with its distinguished features, such as suppressed pollutant emission, homogeneous temperature distribution, reduced noise and thermal stress. However, most studies for MILD combustion have been focused on gas phase fuel. Therefore further study on MILD combustion using liquid fuel is needed for the application to liquid fueled gas turbine especially. In this work, we will focus on numerical simulation of the effects of diluent gas velocity on the formation of liquid fuel MILD combustion used in gas turbine area. A series of numerical simulations using Ansys fluent 18.2 have been carried out in order to investigate the detail effect of the flow field in the furnace on the formation of MILD combustion. The operating conditions were fixed at relatively lower heat intensity of 1.28 MW/m³ atm and various global equivalence ratios were changed. The results show that the local high temperature region was decreased and the flame temperature was uniformly distributed due to high velocity of diluted burnt gas. The increasing of diluted burnt gas velocity can be controlled by open ratio of adapter size. It was found that the maximum temperature became lower than 1800K and the average temperature was lower than 1500K that thermal NO formation was suppressed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
914
87582
Influence of Angular Position of Unbalanced Force on Crack Breathing Mechanism
Abstract:
A new mathematical model is developed to study crack breathing behavior considering effect of angular position of unbalanced force at different crack locations. Crack breathing behavior has been determined using effectual bending angle by studying the transient change of the crack area. Different crack breathing behavior of the unbalanced shaft has been observed for different combination of angular position of unbalanced force with crack location except crack locations 0.3L and 0.8335L, where L is the total length of the shaft, where unbalanced shaft behave completely like the balanced shaft. Based on different combination of angular position of unbalanced force with crack location, the stiffness of unbalanced shaft can be divided into three regions. An unbalanced shaft is overall stiffer than a balanced shaft when angular position of unbalance force is between 90° to 270° and crack located between 0.3L and 0.8335L, and it is overall flexible when the crack located in outside this crack region. On the other hand, it is overall flexible when angular position of unbalanced force is between 0° to 90° or 270° to 360° and crack located in middle region and it is overall stiffer for outside this crack region.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
913
87348
Propeller Performance Modeling through a Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis Method
Abstract:
The evolution of aircraft is closely linked to the study and improvement of propulsion systems. Determining the propulsion performance is a real challenge in aircraft modeling and design. In addition to theoretical methodologies, experimental procedures are used to obtain a good estimation of the propulsion performances. For piston-propeller propulsion, the propeller needs several experimental tests which could be extremely demanding in terms of time and money. This paper presents a new procedure to estimate the performance of a propeller from a numerical approach using computational fluid dynamic analysis. The propeller was initially scanned, and then, its 3D model was represented using CATIA. A structured meshing and Shear Stress Transition k-ω turbulence model were applied to describe accurately the flow pattern around the propeller. Thus, the Partial Differential Equations were solved using ANSYS FLUENT software. The method was applied on the UAS-S45’s propeller designed and manufactured by Hydra Technologies in Mexico. An extensive investigation was performed for several flight conditions in terms of altitudes and airspeeds with the aim to determine thrust coefficients, power coefficients and efficiency of the propeller. The Computational Fluid Dynamics results were compared with experimental data acquired from wind tunnel tests performed at the LARCASE Price-Paidoussis wind tunnel. The results of this comparison have demonstrated that our approach was highly accurate.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
912
87020
Cessna Citation X Performances Improvement by an Adaptive Winglet during the Cruise Flight
Abstract:
As part of a ‘Morphing-Wing’ idea, this study consists of measuring how a winglet, which is able to change its shape during the flight, is efficient. Conventionally, winglets are fixed-vertical platforms at the wingtips, optimized for a cruise condition that the airplane should use most of the time. However, during a cruise, an airplane flies through a lot of cruise conditions corresponding to altitudes variations from 30,000 to 45,000 ft. The fixed winglets are not optimized for these variations, and consequently, they are supposed to generate some drag, and thus to deteriorate aircraft fuel consumption. This research assumes that it exists a winglet position that reduces the fuel consumption for each cruise condition. In this way, the methodology aims to find these optimal winglet positions, and to further simulate, and thus estimate the fuel consumption of an aircraft wearing this type of adaptive winglet during several cruise conditions. The adaptive winglet is assumed to have degrees of freedom given by the various changes of following surfaces: the tip chord, the sweep and the dihedral angles. Finally, results obtained during cruise simulations are presented in this paper. These results show that an adaptive winglet can reduce, thus improve up to 2.12% the fuel consumption of an aircraft during a cruise.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
911
86635
Modeling of the Attitude Control Reaction Wheels of a Spacecraft in Software in the Loop Test Bed
Abstract:
Reaction wheels (RWs) are generally used as main actuator in the attitude control system (ACS) of spacecraft (SC) for fast orientation and high pointing accuracy. In order to achieve the required accuracy for the RWs model, the main characteristics of the RWs that necessitate analysis during the ACS design phase include: technical features, sequence of operating and RW control logic are included in function (behavior) model. A mathematical model is developed including the various errors source. The errors in control torque including relative, absolute, and error due to time delay. While the errors in angular velocity due to differences between average and real speed, resolution error, loose in installation of angular sensor, and synchronization errors. The friction torque is presented in the model include the different feature of friction phenomena: steady velocity friction, static friction and break-away torque, and frictional lag. The model response is compared with the experimental torque and frequency-response characteristics of tested RWs. Based on the created RW model, some criteria of optimization based control torque allocation problem can be recommended like: avoiding the zero speed crossing, bias angular velocity, or preventing wheel from running on the same angular velocity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
910
86629
Risk and Uncertainty in Aviation: A Thorough Analysis of System Vulnerabilities
Abstract:
Hazard assessment and risks quantification are key components for estimating the impact of existing regulations. But since regulatory compliance cannot cover all risks in aviation, the authors point out that by studying causal factors and eliminating uncertainty, an accurate analysis can be outlined. The research debuts by making delimitations on notions, as confusion on the terms over time has reflected in less rigorous analysis. Throughout this paper, it will be emphasized the fact that the variation in human performance and organizational factors represent the biggest threat from an operational perspective. Therefore, advanced risk assessment methods analyzed by the authors aim to understand vulnerabilities of the system given by a nonlinear behavior. Ultimately, the mathematical modeling of existing hazards and risks by eliminating uncertainty implies establishing an optimal solution (i.e. risk minimization).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
909
86627
Development of a Multi-Factorial Instrument for Accident Analysis Based on Systemic Methods
Abstract:
The present research is built on three major pillars, commencing by making some considerations on accident investigation methods and pointing out both defining aspects and differences between linear and non-linear analysis. The traditional linear focus on accident analysis describes accidents as a sequence of events, while the latest systemic models outline interdependencies between different factors and define the processes evolution related to a specific (normal) situation. Linear and non-linear accident analysis methods have specific limitations, so the second point of interest is mirrored by the aim to discover the drawbacks of systemic models which becomes a starting point for developing new directions to identify risks or data closer to the cause of incidents/accidents. Since communication represents a critical issue in the interaction of human factor and has been proved to be the answer of the problems made by possible breakdowns in different communication procedures, from this focus point, on the third pylon a new error-modeling instrument suitable for risk assessment/accident analysis will be elaborated.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
908
86191
Steady and Unsteady Thermal Dispersion Effects on Natural, Mixed and Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Porous Media
Abstract:
The transient thermal dispersion effects on the Darcy–Forchheimer natural, mixed and forced convection heat transfer with viscous dissipation effects over an isothermal vertical flat plate in a fluid saturated in porous media are examined numerically. The coefficient of thermal diffusivity has been assumed to be the sum of molecular diffusivity and the dispersion thermal diffusivity due to mechanical dispersion. The non-dimensional governing equations are solved by using finite difference method with a Crank Nicolson explicit numerical technique and also the simultaneous development of the momentum and thermal boundary layers are obtained. The results show that in natural and mixed convection heat transfer, the velocity and temperature of saturated fluid through momentum and thermal boundary layer grows gradually during transient time until reaching steady state. The dispersion parameter () which increases thermal dispersion increases momentum and thermal boundary layer thickness through transient and steady time. In forced convection heat transfer the velocity of saturated fluid equals the velocity of saturated fluid outside the momentum boundary layer in all cases transient and steady or with and without thermal dispersion. And the dispersion parameter () which increases thermal dispersion increases thermal boundary layer thickness through transient and steady time.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
907
86159
Experimental Approach for Determining Hemi-Anechoic Characteristics of Engineering Acoustical Test Chambers
Abstract:
An experimental methodology is proposed for determining hemi-anechoic characteristics of an engineering acoustic room built at the facilities of Universidad Nacional de Colombia to evaluate the free-field conditions inside the chamber. Experimental results were compared with theoretical ones in both, the source and the sound propagation inside the chamber. Acoustic source was modeled by using monopole radiation pattern from punctual sources and the image method was considered for dealing with the reflective plane of the room, that means, the floor without insulation. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was implemented to calculate the sound pressure value at every spatial point of the chamber. Comparison between theoretical and experimental data yields to minimum error, giving satisfactory results for the hemi-anechoic characterization of the chamber.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
906
86151
Flow Characteristics around Rectangular Obstacles with the Varying Direction of Obstacles
Authors:
Abstract:
The study aims to understand the surface pressure distribution around the bodies such as the suction pressure in the leading edge on the top and side-face when the aspect ratio of bodies and the wind direction are changed, respectively. We carried out the wind tunnel measurement and numerical simulation around a series of rectangular bodies (40d×80w×80h, 80d×80w×80h, 160d×80w×80h, 80d×40w×80h and 80d×160w×80h in mm3) placed in a deep turbulent boundary layer. Based on a modern numerical platform, the Navier-Stokes equation with the typical 2-equation (k-ε model) and the DES (Detached Eddy Simulation) turbulence model has been calculated, and they are both compared with the measurement data. Regarding the turbulence model, the DES model makes a better prediction comparing with the k-ε model, especially when calculating the separated turbulent flow around a bluff body with sharp edged corner. In order to observe the effect of wind direction on the pressure variation around the cube (e.g., 80d×80w×80h in mm), it rotates at 0º, 10º, 20º, 30º, and 45º, which stands for the salient wind directions in the tunnel. The result shows that the surface pressure variation is highly dependent upon the approaching wind direction, especially on the top and the side-face of the cube. In addition, the transverse width has a substantial effect on the variation of surface pressure around the bodies, while the longitudinal length has little or no influence.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
905
85387
Hypersonic Flow of CO2-N2 Mixture around a Spacecraft during the Atmospheric Reentry
Abstract:
The aim of this work is to analyze a flow around the axisymmetric blunt body taken into account the chemical and vibrational nonequilibrium flow. This work concerns the entry of spacecraft in the atmosphere of the planet Mars. Since the equations involved are non-linear partial derivatives, the volume method is the only way to solve this problem. The choice of the mesh and the CFL is a condition for the convergence to have the stationary solution.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
904
85238
Steady State Rolling and Dynamic Response of a Tire at Low Frequency
Abstract:
Tire noise has a significant impact on ride quality and vehicle interior comfort, even at low frequency. Reduction of tire noise is especially important due to strict state and federal environmental regulations. The primary sources of tire noise are the low frequency structure-borne noise and the noise that originates from the release of trapped air between the tire tread and road surface during each revolution of the tire. The frequency response of the tire changes at low and high frequency. At low frequency, the tension and bending moment become dominant, while the internal structure and local deformation become dominant at higher frequencies. Here, we analyze tire response in terms of deformation and rolling velocity at low revolution frequency. An Abaqus FEA finite element model is used to calculate the static and dynamic response of a rolling tire under different rolling conditions. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of a deformed tire are calculated with the FEA package where the subspace-based steady state dynamic analysis calculates dynamic response of tire subjected to harmonic excitation. The analysis was conducted on the dynamic response at the road (contact point of tire and road surface) and side nodes of a static and rolling tire when the tire was excited with 200 N vertical load for a frequency ranging from 20 to 200 Hz. The results show that frequency has little effect on tire deformation up to 80 Hz. But between 80 and 200 Hz, the radial and lateral components of displacement of the road and side nodes exhibited significant oscillation. For the static analysis, the fluctuation was sharp and frequent and decreased with frequency. In contrast, the fluctuation was periodic in nature for the dynamic response of the rolling tire. In addition to the dynamic analysis, a steady state rolling analysis was also performed on the tire traveling at ground velocity with a constant angular motion. The purpose of the computation was to demonstrate the effect of rotating motion on deformation and rolling velocity with respect to a fixed Newtonian reference point. The analysis showed a significant variation in deformation and rolling velocity due to centrifugal and Coriolis acceleration with respect to a fixed Newtonian point on ground.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
903
85202
The Influence of Variable Geometrical Modifications of the Trailing Edge of Supercritical Airfoil on the Characteristics of Aerodynamics
Abstract:
The fuel consumption of modern, high wing loading, commercial aircraft in the first stage of flight is high because the usable flight level is lower and the weather conditions (jet stream) have great impact on aircraft performance. To reduce the fuel consumption, it is necessary to raise during first stage of flight the L/D ratio value within Cl 0.55-0.65. Different variable geometrical wing trailing edge modifications of SC(2)-410 airfoil were compared at M 0.78 using the CFD software STAR-CCM+ simulation based Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The numerical results obtained show that by increasing the width of the airfoil by 4% and by modifying the trailing edge airfoil, it is possible to decrease airfoil drag at Cl 0.70 for up to 26.6% and at the same time to increase commercial aircraft L/D ratio for up to 5.0%. Fuel consumption can be reduced in proportion to the increase in L/D ratio.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
902
84951
Experimental Investigation on Noise from Rod-Airfoil with Leading Edge Serrations
Abstract:
The present work is an experimental investigation of adapting a passive treatment leading edge serrations over a rod-airfoil flow-induced noise generation. The leading edge serrations are bio-inspired from a barn-owl silent flight. The rod-airfoil configuration is a benchmark configuration taken to investigate airfoil-turbulence interaction noise (ATIN). Location of serrations placed and the wideness of serrations are the two parameters taken in this study. The ATIN is reduced up to 3.5 dB for a wide leading serrations case. A correlation is found between the wideness of serrations and the noise reduction mechanism of the airfoil.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
901
84719
An Assessment of Airport Collaborative Decision-Making System Using Predictive Maintenance
Abstract:
The coordination of airport staff especially in the operations and maintenance departments is important for the airport operation. As a result, this coordination will increase the efficiency in all operation. Therefore, a Collaborative Decision-Making (CDM) system targets on improving the overall productivity of all operations by optimizing the use of resources and improving the predictability of actions. Enlarged productivity can be of major benefit for all airport operations. It also increases cost-efficiency. This study explains how predictive maintenance using IoT (Internet of Things), predictive operations and the statistical data such as Mean Time To Failure (MTTF) improves airport terminal operations and utilize airport terminal equipment in collaboration with collaborative decision making system/Airport Operation Control Center (AOCC). Data generated by the predictive maintenance methods is retrieved and analyzed by maintenance managers to predict when a problem is about to occur. With that information, maintenance can be scheduled when needed. As an example, AOCC operator would have chance to assign a new gate that towards to this gate all the equipment such as travellator, elevator, escalator etc. are operational if the maintenance team is in collaboration with AOCC since maintenance team is aware of the health of the equipment because of predictive maintenance methods. Applying predictive maintenance methods based on analyzing the health of airport terminal equipment dramatically reduces the risk of downtime by on time repairs. We can classify the categories as high priority calls for urgent repair action, as medium priority requires repair at the earliest opportunity, and low priority allows maintenance to be scheduled when convenient. In all cases, identifying potential problems early resulted in better allocation airport terminal resources by AOCC.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
900
84403
Voyage Analysis of a Marine Gas Turbine Engine Installed to Power and Propel an Ocean-Going Cruise Ship
Abstract:
A gas turbine-powered cruise Liner is scheduled to transport pilgrim passengers from Lagos-Nigeria to the Islamic port city of Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. Since the gas turbine is an air breathing machine, changes in the density and/or mass flow at the compressor inlet due to an encounter with variations in weather conditions induce negative effects on the performance of the power plant during the voyage. In practice, all deviations from the reference atmospheric conditions of 15 oC and 1.103 bar tend to affect the power output and other thermodynamic parameters of the gas turbine cycle. Therefore, this paper seeks to evaluate how a simple cycle marine gas turbine power plant would react under a variety of scenarios that may be encountered during a voyage as the ship sails across the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea before arriving at its designated port of discharge. It is also an assessment that focuses on the effect of varying aerodynamic and hydrodynamic conditions which deteriorate the efficient operation of the propulsion system due to an increase in resistance that results from some projected levels of the ship hull fouling. The investigated passenger ship is designed to run at a service speed of 22 knots and cover a distance of 5787 nautical miles. The performance evaluation consists of three separate voyages that cover a variety of weather conditions in winter, spring and summer seasons. Real-time daily temperatures and the sea states for the selected transit route were obtained and used to simulate the voyage under the aforementioned operating conditions. Changes in engine firing temperature, power output as well as the total fuel consumed per voyage including other performance variables were separately predicted under both calm and adverse weather conditions. The collated data were obtained online from the UK Meteorological Office as well as the UK Hydrographic Office websites, while adopting the Beaufort scale for determining the magnitude of sea waves resulting from rough weather situations. The simulation of the gas turbine performance and voyage analysis was effected through the use of an integrated Cranfield-University-developed computer code known as ‘Turbomatch’ and ‘Poseidon’. It is a project that is aimed at developing a method for predicting the off design behavior of the marine gas turbine when installed and operated as the main prime mover for both propulsion and powering of all other auxiliary services onboard a passenger cruise liner. Furthermore, it is a techno-economic and environmental assessment that seeks to enable the forecast of the marine gas turbine part and full load performance as it relates to the fuel requirement for a complete voyage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
899
84377
Design of a Satellite Solar Panel Deployment Mechanism Using the Brushed DC Motor as Rotational Speed Damper
Abstract:
This paper presents an innovative method to control the rotational speed of a satellite solar panel during its deployment phase. A brushed DC motor has been utilized in the passive spring driven deployment mechanism to reduce the deployment speed. In order to use the DC motor as a damper, its connector terminals have been connected with an external resistance in a closed circuit. It means that, in this approach, there is no external power supply in the circuit. The working principle of this method is based on the back electromotive force (or back EMF) of the DC motor when an external torque (here the torque produced by the torsional springs) is coupled to the DC motor’s shaft. In fact, the DC motor converts to an electric generator and the current flows into the circuit and then produces the back EMF. Based on Lenz’s law, the generated current produced a torque which acts opposite to the applied external torque, and as a result, the deployment speed of the solar panel decreases. The main advantage of this method is to set an intended damping coefficient to the system via changing the external resistance. To produce the sufficient current, a gearbox has been assembled to the DC motor which magnifies the number of turns experienced by the DC motor. The coupled electro-mechanical equations of the system have been derived and solved, then, the obtained results have been presented. A full-scale prototype of the deployment mechanism has been built and tested. The potential application of brushed DC motors as a rotational speed damper has been successfully demonstrated.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
898
84277
Aerodynamic Bicycle Torque Augmentation with a Wells Turbine in Wheels
Abstract:
Cyclists often run through a crosswind and sometimes we experience the adverse pressure. The present authors came to an idea that Wells turbine can be used as power augmentation device in the crosswind something like sails of a yacht. Wells turbine always rotates in the same direction irrespective of the incoming flow direction, and we use it in the small-scale power generation in the ocean where waves create an oscillating flow. We incorporate the turbine to the wheel of a bike. A commercial device integrates strain gauges in the crank of a bike and transmitted force and torque applied to the pedal of the bike as an e-mail to the driver’s mobile phone. We can analyze the unsteady data in a spreadsheet sent from the crank sensor. We run the bike with the crank sensor on the rollers at the exit of a low-speed wind tunnel and analyze the effect of the crosswind to the wheel with a Wells turbine. We also test the aerodynamic characteristics of the turbine separately. Although power gain depend on the flow direction, several Watts increase might be possible by the Wells turbine incorporated to a bike wheel.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
897
84276
Plasma Actuator Application to Control Surfaces of a Model Aircraft
Abstract:
Plasma actuator is very effective to recover stall flows over an upper airfoil surface. We first manufacture the actuator, test the stability of the device by trial and error basis and find the conditions for steady operations. We visualize the flow around an airfoil in the smoke tunnel and observe the stall recovery. The plasma actuator is stationary device and has no moving parts, and it might be an ideal device to control a model aircraft. We can use the actuator not only as a stall recovery device but also as a spoiler. We put the actuator near the leading edge of an elevator of a model aircraft as a spoiler, and measure the aerodynamic forces by a three-component balance. We observe the effect of the plasma actuator on the aerodynamic forces and the device effectiveness changes depending on the angle of attack whether it is positive or negative. We also visualize the flow caused by the plasma actuator by a desk-top Schlieren photography which is otherwise very difficult in a low-speed wind tunnel experiment.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
896
84169
Experimental Simulation Set-Up for Validating Out-Of-The-Loop Mitigation when Monitoring High Levels of Automation in Air Traffic Control
Abstract:
An increasing degree of automation in air traffic will also change the role of the air traffic controller (ATCO). ATCOs will fulfill significantly more monitoring tasks compared to today. However, this rather passive role may lead to Out-Of-The-Loop (OOTL) effects comprising vigilance decrement and less situation awareness. The project MINIMA (Mitigating Negative Impacts of Monitoring high levels of Automation) has conceived a system to control and mitigate such OOTL phenomena. In order to demonstrate the MINIMA concept, an experimental simulation set-up has been designed. This set-up consists of two parts: 1) a Task Environment (TE) comprising a Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) simulator as well as 2) a Vigilance and Attention Controller (VAC) based on neurophysiological data recording such as electroencephalography (EEG) and eye-tracking devices. The current vigilance level and the attention focus of the controller are measured during the ATCO’s active work in front of the human machine interface (HMI). The derived vigilance level and attention trigger adaptive automation functionalities in the TE to avoid OOTL effects. This paper describes the full-scale experimental set-up and the component development work towards it. Hence, it encompasses a pre-test whose results influenced the development of the VAC as well as the functionalities of the final TE and the two VAC’s sub-components.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):