Investigating the Energy Harvesting Potential of a Pitch-Plunge Airfoil Subjected to Fluctuating Wind
Recent studies in the literature have shown that randomly fluctuating wind flows can give rise to a distinct regime of pre-flutter oscillations called intermittency. Intermittency is characterized by the presence of sporadic bursts of high amplitude oscillations interspersed amidst low-amplitude aperiodic fluctuations. The focus of this study is on investigating the energy harvesting potential of these intermittent oscillations. Available literature has by and large devoted its attention on extracting energy from flutter oscillations. The possibility of harvesting energy from pre-flutter regimes have remained largely unexplored. However, extracting energy from violent flutter oscillations can be severely detrimental to the structural integrity of airfoil structures. Consequently, investigating the relatively stable pre-flutter responses for energy extraction applications is of practical importance. The present study is devoted towards addressing these concerns. A pitch-plunge airfoil with cubic hardening nonlinearity in the plunge and pitch degree of freedom is considered. The input flow fluctuations are modelled using a sinusoidal term with randomly perturbed frequencies. An electromagnetic coupling is provided to the pitch-plunge equations, such that, energy from the wind induced vibrations of the structural response are extracted. With the mean flow speed as the bifurcation parameter, a fourth order Runge-Kutta based time marching algorithm is used to solve the governing aeroelastic equations with electro-magnetic coupling. The harnessed energy from the intermittency regime is presented and the results are discussed in comparison to that obtained from the flutter regime. The insights from this study could be useful in health monitoring of aeroelastic structures.
Systematic Analysis of Flux Limiter Schemes in Monotonically Integrated Large Eddy Simulation
In the absence of an accepted universal theory of turbulence, the improvement and development of the numerical ways to simulate the real turbulence structures are very important and depend on the rational use of empirical information. Two different approaches in the large eddy simulations, the first is the classical simulation which depends on the use of sub-grade scale models (SGS) and includes many proposals ranging from inherently limited eddy-viscosity formulations to more sophisticated and accurate mixed models. The second is the non-classical large eddy simulation which bases on the using of unfiltered flow equations. This one was the interest of many researchers during the last period. The implicit SGS models, provided by intrinsic nonlinear high-frequency filters built into the convection discretization, have been coupled naturally to the resolvable scales of the flow. In this work, the most famous method of the implicit modeling; the monotonically integrated large eddy simulation (MILES) has been applied within the framework of flux-limiting finite volume discretization by using the open source CFD software OpenFOAM. The analysis of the flux limiters schemes has been studied by a comparison between the different turbulence statistics in a fully developed channel flow. The numerical prediction of MILES using different flux limiters (Gamma, minmod, superBee, van-Albada, van-Leer) has been compared with a well-known incompressible channel flow results implemented by using direct numerical simulation (DNS). It has been inferred that the Van-Leer and Van-Albada limiters were the most diffusive limiters, producing poor velocity profiles, while GAMMA scheme reproduced velocity profiles and turbulence statistical quantities in good agreement with the reference DNS data. The turbulence structures and the predictions of the MILES accuracy differed with flux limiters depending on the level of accuracy required for the turbulence structures. The performance of individual flux limiter has been studied quantitatively in terms of the predictions of the turbulence.
Experimental Characterization of Anti-Icing System and Accretion of Re-Emitted Droplets on Turbojet Engine Blades
Atmospheric icing for turbojet is caused by ingestion of super-cooled water droplets. To prevent operability risks, manufacturer can implement ice protection systems. Thermal systems are commonly used for this purpose, but their activation can cause the formation of a water liquid film, that can freeze downstream the heated surface or even on other components. In the framework of STORM, a European project dedicated to icing physics in turbojet engines, a cascade rig representative of engine inlet blades was built and tested in an icing wind tunnel. This mock-up integrates two rows of blades, the upstream one being anti-iced using an electro-thermal device the downstream one being unheated. Under icing conditions, the anti-icing system is activated and set at power level to observe a liquid film on the surface and droplet re-emission at the trailing edge. These re-emitted droplets will impinge on the downstream row and contribute to ice accretion. A complete experimental database was generated, including the characterization of ice accretion shapes, and the characterization of electro-thermal anti-icing system (power limit for apparition of the runback water or ice accretion). These data will be used for validation of numerical tools for modeling thermal anti-icing systems in the scope of engine application, as well as validation of re-emission droplets model for stator parts.
Performance Evaluation of a Very High-Resolution Satellite Telescope
System performance evaluation is an essential stage in the design of high-resolution satellite telescopes prior to the development process. In this paper, a system performance evaluation of a very high-resolution satellite telescope is investigated. The evaluated system has a Korsch optical scheme design. This design has been discussed in another paper with respect to three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) scheme design and the former configuration showed better results. The investigated system is based on the Korsch optical design integrated with a time-delay and integration charge coupled device (TDI-CCD) sensor to achieve a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 25 cm. The key performance metrics considered are the spatial resolution, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the total modulation transfer function (MTF) of the system. In addition, the national image interpretability rating scale (NIIRS) metric is assessed to predict the image quality according to the modified general image quality equation (GIQE). Based on the orbital, optical and detector parameters, the estimated GSD is found to be 25 cm. The SNR has been analyzed at different illumination conditions of target albedos, sun and sensor angles. The system MTF has been computed including diffraction, aberration, optical manufacturing, smear and detector sampling as the main contributors for evaluation the MTF. Finally, the system performance evaluation results show that the computed MTF value is found to be around 0.08 at the Nyquist frequency, the SNR value was found to be 130 at albedo 0.2 with a nadir viewing angles and the predicted NIIRS is in the order of 6.5 which implies a very good system image quality.
Relative Navigation with Laser-Based Intermittent Measurement for Formation Flying Satellites
This study presents a precise relative navigational method for satellites flying in formation usinglaser-based intermittent measurement data. The measurement data for the relative navigation between two satellites consists of a relative distance measured by a laser instrument and relative attitude angles measured by attitude determination. The relative navigation solutions are estimated by both the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF). The solutions estimated by the EKF may become inaccurate or even diverge as measurement outage time gets longer because the EKF utilizes a linearization approach. However, this study shows that the UKF with the appropriate scaling parameters provides a stable and accurate relative navigation solutions despite the long measurement outage time and large initial error as compared to the relative navigation solutions of the EKF. Various navigation results have been analyzed by adjusting the scaling parameters of the UKF.
Compression-Tension and Tension-Compression Curves of AZ31b Rolled Sheet at Large Strains
Being the lightest commercially available industrial metal, Magnesium alloys are of interest for light-weighting. Expanding their application to different material processing methods require Mg properties at large strains. There are several room-temperature processes such as shot and laser peening and hole cold expansion that need tensile and compressive large strain data. Two methods have been proposed in the literature to obtain the stress-strain curve at high strains: 1) anti-buckling guides and 2) small cubic samples. In this paper, an anti-buckling fixture was used with the help of digital image correlation (DIC) to obtain the compression-tension (C-T) and tension-compression (T-C) curves of AZ31B-H24 rolled sheet at large strain values up to 10.5%. The effect of the anti-bucking fixture on stress-strain curves was evaluated experimentally by comparing the results with the compression tests of cubic samples. For testing cubic samples, a new fixture has been designed to increase the accuracy of testing cubic samples with the DIC strain measurements. Results show a negligible effect of anti-buckling on stress-strain curve specifically at high strain values. Results show a strong asymmetry in compressive and tensile loading behaviours of the material and a negligible anisotropy in the rolling and transverse directions.
Simulation and Testing of a State Machine Automatic Takeoff System for Commercial Transport Aircraft
The operation and flight of commercial transport aircraft is increasingly automated which provides both benefits and problems for human pilots in managing the complex operations on-board. Unlike other flight phases, takeoff has so far seen comparably less automaton and is still very much reliant on effective management on a number of manned operational settings to correctly configure the aircraft for takeoff. In increasingly busy and stressful pre-flight environments this presents an increasing risk of accidents. One way to address this is, and a natural progression of the flight systems on an aircraft, is to consider further/complete automation of this part of the aircraft. This paper presents an approach to automate the takeoff procedure towards single pilot operations or unmanned operation. The system is presented in terms of a finite state machine formulation of the takeoff procedural logic. This is coupled with the flight-simulator X-Plane to simulate the operation of the system. Design of the auto- takeoff system, in terms of existing takeoff procedures and required control of the aircraft whilst on the runway, and an overview of the simulation environment is discussed in this paper. Results for a number of test cases are also presented. These results verify the output of the automated takeoff system and simulation allowing for future development of increasingly sophisticated simulations to support autonomy and flight control development.
Introducing Nanotechnology through Undergraduate Thermal-Fluid Science Projects
Students in the mechanical engineering program at West Texas A&M University are being exposed to nanotechnology through the introduction of thermal-fluid science projects in thermal-fluid design course. This is a core course offered at the senior level in the mechanical engineering program. The projects started two years ago and have been selected to provide the students with an exposure to nanotechnology concepts through experimental studies. During the last two years, students in thermal-fluid design were asked to work on a variety of projects to analyze and design thermal-fluid systems. This paper focuses on three of those projects having nanotechnology exposure: 1) design of a closed-loop system for cooling electronic devices using a nanofluid as a heat transfer fluid, 2) design of an experimental system and procedure for testing a radiator-type automobile heat exchanger using a circulating nanofluid, and 3) design of a cost effective filter for water purification in developing countries using clay impregnated with silver nanoparticles for anti-microbial protection. In the first two projects, students were asked to investigate the effect of using a nanofluid of their choice and compare that to using distilled water in enhancing the heat transfer performance of the heat exchanger system. They were asked to conduct parametric studies to investigate the effect of the flow operating conditions, nanoparticle size and concentration in the base fluid on the heat exchanger optimal effectiveness and pressure drop in the system. In the third project, students were asked to design the clay filter for optimal permeability, porosity, filter thickness, daily flow rate, and concentration of silver nanoparticles in the clay. They were also asked to conduct an analysis on the effectiveness of the filter by analyzing certain parameters such as the water turbidity level, presence of bacteria and silver nanoparticles concentration in the filtered water. Students learning outcome was evaluated through surveys administered upon the completion of the projects. The results showed an overwhelming majority of students enjoyed being introduced to nanotechnology concepts through undergraduate projects, and expressed the desire in having similar opportunities provided to them in other engineering courses.
The Effect of Nylon and Kevlar Stitching on the Mode I Fracture of Carbon/Epoxy Composites
Composite materials are widely used in aviation industry due to their superior properties; however, they are susceptible to delamination. Through-thickness stitching is one of the techniques to alleviate delamination. Kevlar is one of the most common stitching materials; however, it is expensive and presents stitching fabrication challenges. Therefore, this study compares the performance of Kevlar with an inexpensive and easy to use nylon fiber in stitching to alleviate delamination. Three laminates of unidirectional carbon fiber-epoxy composites were manufactured using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding process. One panel was stitched with Kevlar, one with nylon, and one unstitched. Mode I interlaminar fracture tests were carried out on specimens from the three composite laminates and the results were compared. Fractographic analysis using optical and scanning electron microscope were conducted to reveal the differences between stitching with Kevlar and nylon on the internal microstructure of the composite with respect to the interlaminar fracture toughness values.
Reduction of Dynamic Stall Loads on a Finite Span S817 Airfoil Using Synthetic Jet Actuators
Wind tunnel experiments were performed to quantify the aerodynamic performance of the S817 airfoil in dynamic stall conditions and subsequently apply active flow control to modify the manner in which dynamic stall incepts. The S817 airfoil is used on the NREL CART3 airfoil tips, which are able to be removed and retrofitted with flow control actuators. Surface pressure, 6-component force-torque sensor, and SPIV were used to quantify the benefit of actuating synthetic jets installed at x/c=0.35, angled 45° into the flow (with respect to the airfoil surface), actuated at a momentum coefficient Cµ = 0.012. The airfoil was pitched at a reduced frequency kf = 0.025, and at various levels of stall (shallow and deep). Vortex lift due to dynamic stall was observed for all dynamic pitch conditions, and was also eliminated by the use of synthetic jets for all conditions; pitching moment deviation was also observed to be significant, and was eliminated at shallow stall, and significantly reduced during deep stall conditions. Moreover, the synthetic jets showed significant reduction in the hysteresis of the lift and pitching moment through all experimental conditions, as much as 45% and 85%, respectively. SPIV flow fields and surface pressure distributions demonstrate that the actuation of synthetic jets confines the separated region to the portion of the model near the trailing edge when pitched into shallow stall. To further reduce the lift and pitching moment hysteresis at very high angles of attack, a pulse modulation technique was used and showed a marked increase in performance compared to the continuously actuated case, and achieved this result with approximately 65% less power consumption.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Use for Emergency Purpose
It is imperative in today’s world to get a real time information about different emergency situation occurred in the environment. Helicopters are mostly used to access places which are hard to access in emergencies like earthquake, floods, bridge failure or in any other disasters conditions. Use of helicopters are considered more costly to properly collect the data. Therefore a new technique has been introduced in this research to promptly collect data using drones. The drone designed in this research is based on trial and error experimental work with objective to construct an economical drone. Locally available material have been used for this purpose. And a mobile camera were also attached to prepare video during the flight. It was found that within very limited resources the result were quite successful.
Improvement of Tier-IV Engine Belt System Because of High Flapping and Breakage Issue
The engine belt is the critical part of the engine which transfers crankshaft rotational movement to the pulleys. There are several types of belt failures depending on the root causes. One of the root causes of the failure is the excessive belt flapping. In this study, excessive belt flapping of a recently developed Tier-IV engine, which is significantly higher than a Tier-III engine, has been investigated for preventing the belt breakage problem. Belt breakage during field testing at low operational hours occurred depending on implementation conditions on a Tier IV engine. Firstly, belt flapping has been quantified with the help of displacement measurements on the belt in lateral direction. During this measurements, Tier-III and Tier-IV engine pulleys torsional vibrations, which were on the belt path, were also measured. At the end of the tests, Tier-III and Tier-IV engine belt system torsional vibrations and phase differences were compared. Furthermore, system finite element model has been created to do modal and random frequency response analysis by using FEA (Finite Element Analysis) methods. Crank-pulley angular speed power spectral density (PSD) test values were used as an input at the finite element model and lateral displacement was calculated on the belt with PSD analysis. Then, FEM model was correlated with test data by tuning belt elasticity module so that a good starting point has been achieved to make further iterations on the model. This study comprises both test and analysis methods including verified results. With the help of these methods, design solutions has been proposed to improve belt flapping and results for improved design has been presented in this paper.
Influence of High-Resolution Satellites Attitude Parameters on Image Quality
One of the important functions of the satellite attitude control system is to provide the required pointing accuracy and attitude stability for optical remote sensing satellites to achieve good image quality. Although offering noise reduction and increased sensitivity, time delay and integration (TDI) charge coupled devices (CCDs) utilized in high-resolution satellites (HRS) are prone to introduce large amounts of pixel smear due to the instability of the line of sight. During on-orbit imaging, as a result of the Earth’s rotation and the satellite platform instability, the moving direction of the TDI-CCD linear array and the imaging direction of the camera become different. The speed of the image moving on the image plane (focal plane) represents the image motion velocity whereas the angle between the two directions is known as the drift angle (β). The drift angle occurs due to the rotation of the earth around its axis during satellite imaging; affecting the geometric accuracy and, consequently, causing image quality degradation. Therefore, the image motion velocity vector and the drift angle are two important factors used in the assessment of the image quality of TDI-CCD based optical remote sensing satellites. A model for estimating the image motion velocity and the drift angle in HRS is derived. The six satellite attitude control parameters represented in the derived model are the (roll angle φ, pitch angle θ, yaw angle ψ, roll angular velocity φ֗, pitch angular velocity θ֗ and yaw angular velocity ψ֗ ). The influence of these attitude parameters on the image quality is analyzed by establishing a relationship between the image motion velocity vector, drift angle and the six satellite attitude parameters. The influence of the satellite attitude parameters on the image quality is assessed by the presented model in terms of modulation transfer function (MTF) in both cross- and along-track directions. Three different cases representing the effect of pointing accuracy (φ, θ, ψ) bias are considered using four different sets of pointing accuracy typical values, while the satellite attitude stability parameters are ideal. In the same manner, the influence of satellite attitude stability (φ֗, θ֗, ψ֗) on image quality is also analysed for ideal pointing accuracy parameters. The results reveal that cross-track image quality is influenced seriously by the yaw angle bias and the roll angular velocity bias, while along-track image quality is influenced only by the pitch angular velocity bias.
Implementation of a Lattice Boltzmann Method for Multiphase Flows with High Density Ratios
We present a Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) for multiphase flows with high viscosity and density ratios. The motion of the interface between fluids is modelled by solving the Cahn-Hilliard (CH) equation with LBM. Incompressibility of the velocity fields in each phase is imposed by using a pressure correction scheme. We use a unified LBM approach with separate formulations for the phase field, the pressure less Naiver-Stokes (NS) equations and the pressure Poisson equation required for correction of the velocity field. The implementation has been verified for various test case. Here, we present results for some complex flow problems including two dimensional single and multiple mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability and we obtain good results when comparing with those in the literature. The main focus of our work is related to interactions between aerated or non-aerated waves and structures so we also present results for both high viscosity and low viscosity waves.
Hyperelastic Formulation for Orthotropic Materials
In this paper, we propose a hyperelastic strain energy function that maps isotopic hyperelastic constitutive laws for the use of orthotropic materials without the use of structural tensors or any kind of fiber vector, or the use of standard invariants. In particular, we focus on neo-Hookean class of models and represent them using an invariant-free formulation. To achieve this, we revise the invariant-free formulation of isotropic hyperelasticity. The formulation uses quadruple contractions between fourth-order tensors, rather than scalar products of scalar invariants. We also propose a new decomposition of the orthotropic Hookean stiffness tensor into two fourth-order Lamé tensors that collapse down to the classic Lamé parameters for isotropic continua. The resulting orthotropic hyperelastic model naturally maintains all of the advanced properties of the isotropic counterparts, and similarly collapse back down to their isotropic form by nothing more than equality of parameters in all directions (isotropy). Comparisons are made with large strain experimental results for transversely isotropic rubber type materials under tension.
Forming for Confirmation of Predicted Epoxy Forming Composition Range in Cr-Zn System
Aim of this work was to determine the approximate Epoxy forming composition range of Cr-Zn system for the composites produced by forming compositing. It was predicted by MI edema semi-empirical model that the composition had to be in the range of 30-60 wt. % tin, while Cr-32Zn had the most susceptibility to produce amorphous composite. In the next stage, some different compositions of Cr-Zn were foamingly composited, where one of them had the proper predicted composition. Products were characterized by SDM analysis. There was a good agreement between calculation and experiments, in which Cr-32Zn composite had the most amorphization degree.
Boundary Layer Control Using a Magnetic Field: A Case Study in the Framework of Ferrohydrodynamics
This work investigates the effects of an applied magnetic field on the geometry-driven boundary layer detachment flow of a ferrofluid over a sudden expansion. Both constitutive equation and global magnetization equation for a ferrofluid are considered. Therefore, the proposed formulation consists in a coupled magnetic-hydrodynamic problem. Computational simulations are carried out in order to explore, not only the viability to control flow instabilities, but also to evaluate the consistency of theoretical aspects. The unidirectional sudden expansion in a ferrofluid flow is investigated numerically under the perspective of Ferrohydrodynamics in a two-dimensional domain using a Finite Differences Method. The boundary layer detachment induced by the sudden expansion results in a recirculating zone, which has been extensively studied in non-magnetic hydrodynamic problems for a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Similar investigations can be found in literature regarding the sudden expansion under the magnetohydrodynamics framework, but none considering a colloidal suspension of magnetic particles out of the superparamagnetic regime. The vorticity-stream function formulation is implemented and results in a clear coupling between the flow vorticity and its magnetization field. Our simulations indicate a systematic decay on the length of the recirculation zone as increasing physical parameters of the flow, such as the intensity of the applied field and the volume fraction of particles. The results all are discussed from a physical point of view in terms of the dynamical non-dimensional parameters. We argue that the decrease/reduction in the recirculation region of the flow is a direct consequence of the magnetic torque balancing the action of the torque produced by viscous and inertial forces of the flow. For the limit of small Reynolds and magnetic Reynolds parameters, the diffusion of vorticity balances the diffusion of the magnetic torque on the flow. These mechanics control the growth of the recirculation region.
Towards the Modeling of Lost Core Viability in High-Pressure Die Casting: A Fluid-Structure Interaction Model with 2-Phase Flow Fluid Model
This paper summarizes the progress in the latest computational fluid dynamics research towards the modeling in of lost core viability in high-pressure die casting. High-pressure die casting is a process that is widely employed in the automotive and neighboring industries due to its advantages in casting quality and cost efficiency. The degrees of freedom are however somewhat limited as it has been so far difficult to use lost cores in the process. This is right now changing and the deployment of lost cores is considered a future growth potential for high-pressure die casting companies. The use of this technology itself is difficult though. The strength of the core material, as chiefly salt is used, is limited and experiments have shown that the cores will not hold under all circumstances and process designs. For this purpose, the publicly available CFD library foam-extend (OpenFOAM) is used, and two additional fluid models for incompressible and compressible two-phase flow are implemented as fluid solver models into the FSI library. For this purpose, the volume-of-fluid (VOF) methodology is used. The necessity for the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) approach is shown by a simple CFD model geometry. The model is benchmarked against analytical models and experimental data. Sufficient agreement is found with the analytical models and good agreement with the experimental data. An outlook on future developments concludes the paper.
Implementation of the Interlock Protocol to Enhance Security in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
This paper depicts the implementation of a new infallible technique to protect an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle from cyber-attacks. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) could be vulnerable to cyber-attacks because of jammers or eavesdroppers over the network which pose as a threat to the security of the UAV. In the field of network security, there are quite a few protocols which can be used to establish a secure connection between UAVs and their Operators. In this paper, we discuss how the Interlock Protocol could be implemented to foil the Man-in-the-Middle Attack. In this case, Wireshark has been used as the sniffer (man-in-the-middle). This paper also shows a comparison between the Interlock Protocol and the TCP Protocols using cryptcat and netcat and at the same time highlights why the Interlock Protocol is the most efficient security protocol to prevent eavesdropping over the communication channel.
Numerical Analysis of the Response of Thin Flexible Membranes to Free Surface Water Flow
This work is part of a major research project concerning the design of a light temporary installable textile flood control structure. The motivation for this work is the great need of applying light structures for the protection of coastal areas from detrimental effects of rapid water runoff. The prime objective of the study is the numerical analysis of the interaction among free surface water flow and slender shaped pliable structures, playing a key role in safety performance of the intended system. First, the behavior of down scale membrane is examined under hydrostatic pressure by the Abaqus explicit solver, which is part of the finite element based commercially available SIMULIA software. Then the procedure to achieve a stable and convergent solution for strongly coupled media including fluids and structures is explained. A partitioned strategy is imposed to make both structures and fluids be discretized and solved with appropriate formulations and solvers. In this regard, finite element method is again selected to analyze the structural domain. Moreover, computational fluid dynamics algorithms are introduced for solutions in flow domains by means of a commercial package of Star CCM+. Likewise, SIMULIA co-simulation engine and an implicit coupling algorithm, which are available communication tools in commercial package of the Star CCM+, enable powerful transmission of data between two applied codes. This approach is discussed for two different cases and compared with available experimental records. In one case, the down scale membrane interacts with open channel flow, where the flow velocity increases with time. The second case illustrates, how the full scale flexible flood barrier behaves when a massive flotsam is accelerated towards it.
Development of an Implicit Coupled Partitioned Model for the Prediction of the Behavior of a Flexible Slender Shaped Membrane in Interaction with Free Surface Flow under the Influence of a Moving Flotsam
This research is part of an interdisciplinary project, promoting the design of a light temporary installable textile defence system against flood. In case river water levels increase abruptly especially in winter time, one can expect massive extra load on a textile protective structure in term of impact as a result of floating debris and even tree trunks. Estimation of this impulsive force on such structures is of a great importance, as it can ensure the reliability of the design in critical cases. This fact provides the motivation for the numerical analysis of a fluid structure interaction application, comprising flexible slender shaped and free-surface water flow, where an accelerated heavy flotsam tends to approach the membrane. In this context, the analysis on both the behavior of the flexible membrane and its interaction with moving flotsam is conducted by finite elements based solvers of the explicit solver and implicit Abacus solver available as products of SIMULIA software. On the other hand, a study on how free surface water flow behaves in response to moving structures, has been investigated using the finite volume solver of Star CCM+ from Siemens PLM Software. An automatic communication tool (CSE, SIMULIA Co-Simulation Engine) and the implementation of an effective partitioned strategy in form of an implicit coupling algorithm makes it possible for partitioned domains to be interconnected powerfully. The applied procedure ensures stability and convergence in the solution of these complicated issues, albeit with high computational cost; however, the other complexity of this study stems from mesh criterion in the fluid domain, where the two structures approach each other. This contribution presents the approaches for the establishment of a convergent numerical solution and compares the results with experimental findings.
Designing and Analyzing Sensor and Actuator of a Nano/Micro-System for Fatigue and Fracture Characterization of Nanomaterials
This paper proposes a new MEMS/NEMS device for fatigue and fracture characterization of nanomaterials. This MEMS/NEMS device can apply static loads, cyclic loads, and their combinations in nanomechanical experiments. This MEMS/NEMS device is based on the electromagnetic force induced between paired parallel wires carrying electrical currents. Using this concept, the actuator and sensor parts of the MEMS/NEMS device were designed and analyzed while considering the practical limitations. Since the PWCC device only uses two wires for actuation part and sensing part, its fabrication process is extremely easier than the available MEMS/NEMS devices. The total gain and phase shift of the MEMS/NEMS device were calculated and investigated. Furthermore, the maximum gain and sensitivity of the MEMS/NEMS device were studied to demonstrate the capability and usability of the device for wide range of nanomaterials samples. This MEMS/NEMS device can be readily integrated into SEM/TEM instruments to provide real time study of the mechanical behaviors of nanomaterials as well as their fatigue and fracture properties, softening or hardening behaviors, and initiation and propagation of nano cracks.
Formula Student Car: Design, Analysis and Lap Time Simulation
Aerodynamic forces and moments, as well as tire-road forces largely affects the maneuverability of the vehicle. Car manufacturers are largely fascinated and influenced by various aerodynamic improvements made in formula cars. There is constant effort of applying these aerodynamic improvements in road vehicles. In motor racing, the key differentiating factor in a high performance car is its ability to maintain highest possible acceleration in appropriate direction. One of the main areas of concern in motor racing is balance of aerodynamic forces and stream line the flow of air across the body of the vehicle. At present, formula racing cars are regulated by stringent FIA norms, there are constrains for dimensions of the vehicle, engine capacity etc. So one of the fields in which there is a large scope of improvement is aerodynamics of the vehicle. In this project work, an attempt has been made to design a formula- student (FS) car, improve its aerodynamic characteristics through steady state CFD simulations and simultaneously calculate its lap time. Initially, a CAD model of a formula student car is made using SOLIDWORKS as per the given dimensions and a steady-state external air-flow simulation is performed on the baseline model of the formula student car without any add on device to evaluate and analyze the air-flow pattern around the car and aerodynamic forces using FLUENT Solver. A detailed survey on different add-on devices used in racing application like: - front wing, diffuser, shark pin, T- wing etc. is made and geometric model of these add-on devices are created. These add-on devices are assembled with the baseline model. Steady state CFD simulations are done on the modified car to evaluate the aerodynamic effects of these add-on devices on the car. Later comparison of lap time simulation of the formula student car with and without the add-on devices is done with the help of MATLAB. Aerodynamic performances like: - lift, drag and their coefficients are evaluated for different configuration and design of the add-on devices at different speed of the vehicle. From parametric CFD simulations on formula student car attached with add-on devices, there is a considerable amount of drag and lift force reduction besides streamlining the airflow across the car. The best possible configuration of these add-on devices is obtained from these CFD simulations and also use of these add-on devices have shown an improvement in performance of the car which can be compared by various lap time simulations of the car.
Effect of Primer on Bonding between Resin Cement and Zirconia Ceramic
Objectives: Recently, the development of adhesive primers on stable bonding between zirconia and resin cement has been on the increase. The bond strength of zirconia-resin cement can be effectively increased with the treatment of primer composed of the adhesive monomer that can chemically bond with the oxide layer, which forms on the surface of zirconia. 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) that contains phosphate ester and acidic monomer 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic anhydride(4-META) have been suggested as monomers that can form chemical bond with the surface oxide layer of zirconia. Also, these suggested monomers have proved to be effective zirconia surface treatment for bonding to resin cement. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of primer treatment on the bond strength of Zirconia-resin cement by using three different kinds of primers on the market. Methods: Zirconia blocks were prepared into 60 disk-shaped specimens by using a diamond saw. Specimens were divided into four different groups: first three groups were treated with zirconiaLiner(Sun Medical Co., Ltd., Furutaka-cho, Moriyama, Shiga, Japan), Alloy primer (Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc., Sakaju, Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan), and Universal primer (Tokuyama dental Corp., Taitou, Taitou-ku, Tokyo, Japan) respectively. The last group was the control with no surface treatment. Dual cured resin cement (Biscem, Bisco Inc., Schaumburg, IL, USA) was luted to each group of specimens. And then, shear bond strengths were measured by universal tesing machine. The significance of the result was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey test. The failure sites in each group were inspected under a magnifier. Results: Mean shear bond strength were 0.60, 1.39, 1.03, 1.38 MPa for control, Zirconia Liner (ZL), Alloy primer (AP), Universal primer (UP), respectively. Groups with application of each of the three primers showed significantly higher shear bond strength compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Among the three groups with the treatment, ZL and UP showed significantly higher shear bond strength than AP (p < 0.05), and there were no significant differences in mean shear bond strength between ZL and UP (p < 0.05). While the most specimens of control groups showed adhesive failure (80%), the most specimens of three primer-treated groups showed cohesive or mixed failure (80%).
Numerical Analyses of Dynamics of Deployment of PW-Sat2 Deorbit Sail Compared with Results of Experiment under Micro-Gravity and Low Pressure Conditions
, K. Ciechowska
, K. Gajc
, K. Gawin
, M. Gawin
, M. Kania
, J. Kindracki
, Z. Kusznierewicz
, D. Pączkowska
, F. Perczyński
, K. Pilarski
, D. Rafało
, E. Ryszawa
, M. Sobiecki
, I. Uwarowa
Big amount of space debris constitutes nowadays a real thread for operating space crafts; therefore the main purpose of PW-Sat2’ team was to create a system that could help cleanse the Earth’s orbit after each small satellites’ mission. After 4 years of development, the motorless, low energy consumption and low weight system has been created. During series of tests, the system has shown high reliable efficiency. The PW-Sat2’s deorbit system is a square-shaped sail which covers an area of 4m². The sail surface is made of 6 μm aluminized Mylar film which is stretched across 4 diagonally placed arms, each consisting of two C-shaped flat springs and enveloped in Mylar sleeves. The sail is coiled using a special, custom designed folding stand that provides automation and repeatability of the sail unwinding tests and placed in a container with inner diameter of 85 mm. In the final configuration the deorbit system weights ca. 600 g and occupies 0.6U (in accordance with CubeSat standard). The sail’s releasing system requires minimal amount of power based on thermal knife that burns out the Dyneema wire, which holds the system before deployment. The Sail is being pushed out of the container within a safe distance (20 cm away) from the satellite. The energy for the deployment is completely assured by coiled C-shaped flat springs, which during the release, unfold the sail surface. To avoid dynamic effects on the satellite’s structure, there is the rotational link between the sail and satellite’s main body. To obtain complete knowledge about complex dynamics of the deployment, a number of experiments have been performed in varied environments. The numerical model of the dynamics of the Sail’s deployment has been built and is still under continuous development. Currently, the integration of the flight model and Deorbit Sail is performed. The launch is scheduled for February 2018. At the same time, in cooperation with United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, sail models and requested facilities are being prepared for the sail deployment experiment under micro-gravity and low pressure conditions at Bremen Drop Tower, Germany. Results of those tests will provide an ultimate and wide knowledge about deployment in space environment to which system will be exposed during its mission. Outcomes of the numerical model and tests will be compared afterwards and will help the team in building a reliable and correct model of a very complex phenomenon of deployment of 4 c-shaped flat springs with surface attached. The verified model could be used inter alia to investigate if the PW-Sat2’s sail is scalable and how far is it possible to go with enlarging when creating systems for bigger satellites.
Thermal-Mechanical Analysis of a Bridge Deck to Determine Residual Weld Stresses
The knowledge of residual stresses for welded bridge components is essential to determine the effect of the residual stresses on the fatigue life behavior. The residual stresses of an orthotropic bridge deck are determined by simulating the welding process with finite element modelling. The stiffener is placed on top of the deck plate before welding. A chained thermal-mechanical analysis is set up to determine the distribution of residual stresses for the bridge deck. First, a thermal analysis is used to determine the temperatures of the orthotropic deck for different time steps during the welding process. Twin wire submerged arc welding is used to construct the orthotropic plate. A double ellipsoidal volume heat source model is used to describe the heat flow through a material for a moving heat source. The heat input is used to determine the heat flux which is applied as a thermal load during the thermal analysis. The heat flux for each element is calculated for different time steps to simulate the passage of the welding torch with the considered welding speed. This results in a time dependent heat flux that is applied as a thermal loading. Thermal material behavior is specified by assigning the properties of the material in function of the high temperatures during welding. Isotropic hardening behavior is included in the model. The thermal analysis simulates the heat introduced in the two plates of the orthotropic deck and calculates the temperatures during the welding process. After the calculation of the temperatures introduced during the welding process in the thermal analysis, a subsequent mechanical analysis is performed. For the boundary conditions of the mechanical analysis, the actual welding conditions are considered. Before welding, the stiffener is connected to the deck plate by using tack welds. These tack welds are implemented in the model. The deck plate is allowed to expand freely in an upwards direction while it rests on a firm and flat surface. This behavior is modelled by using grounded springs. Furthermore, symmetry points and lines are used to prevent the model to move freely in other directions. In the thermal analysis, a mechanical material model is used. The calculated temperatures during the thermal analysis are introduced during the mechanical analysis as a time dependent load. The connection of the elements of the two plates in the fusion zone is realized with a glued connection which is activated when the welding temperature is reached. The mechanical analysis results in a distribution of the residual stresses. The distribution of the residual stresses of the orthotropic bridge deck is compared with results from literature. Literature proposes uniform tensile yield stresses in the weld while the finite element modelling showed tensile yield stresses at a short distance from the weld root or the weld toe. The chained thermal-mechanical analysis results in a distribution of residual weld stresses for an orthotropic bridge deck. In future research, the effect of these residual stresses on the fatigue life behavior of welded bridge components can be studied.
Clarifications on the Damping Mechanism Related to the Hunting Motion of the Wheel Axle of a High-Speed Railway Vehicle
In order to explain the damping mechanism, related to the hunting motion of the wheel axle of a high-speed railway vehicle, a generalized dynamic model is proposed. Based on such model, analytic expressions for the damping coefficient and damped natural frequency are derived, without imposing restrictions on the ratio between the lateral and vertical creep coefficients. Influence of the travelling speed, wheel conicity, dimensionless mass of the wheel axle, ratio of the creep coefficients, ratio of the track span to the yawing diameter, etc., on the damping coefficient and damped natural frequency, is clarified.
Design and Analysis of Active Rocket Control Systems
The presented work regards a single-stage aerodynamically controlled solid propulsion rocket. Steering a rocket to fly along a predetermined trajectory can be beneficial for minimizing aerodynamic losses and achieved by implementing an active control system on board. In this particular case, a canard configuration has been chosen, although other methods of control have been considered and preemptively analyzed, including non-aerodynamic ones. The objective of this work is to create a system capable of guiding the rocket, focusing on roll stabilization. The paper describes initial analysis of the problem, covers the main challenges of missile guidance and presents data acquired during the experimental study.
Evaluation of Redundancy Architectures Based on System on Chip Internal Interfaces for Future Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Flight Control Computer
It is a common view that Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) tend to migrate into the civil airspace. This trend is challenging UAV manufacturer in plenty ways, as there come up a lot of new requirements and functional aspects. On the higher application levels, this might be collision detection and avoidance and similar features, whereas all these functions only act as input for the flight control components of the aircraft. The flight control computer (FCC) is the central component when it comes up to ensure a continuous safe flight and landing. As these systems are flight critical, they have to be built up redundantly to be able to provide a Fail-Operational behavior. Recent architectural approaches of FCCs used in UAV systems are often based on very simple microprocessors in combination with proprietary Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) or Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) extensions implementing the whole redundancy functionality. In the future, such simple microprocessors may not be available anymore as they are more and more replaced by higher sophisticated System on Chip (SoC). As the avionic industry cannot provide enough market power to significantly influence the development of new semiconductor products, the use of solutions from foreign markets is almost inevitable. Products stemming from the industrial market developed according to IEC 61508, or automotive SoCs, according to ISO 26262, can be seen as candidates as they have been developed for similar environments. Current available SoC from the industrial or automotive sector provides quite a broad selection of interfaces like, i.e., Ethernet, SPI or FlexRay, that might come into account for the implementation of a redundancy network. In this context, possible network architectures shall be investigated which could be established by using the interfaces stated above. Of importance here is the avoidance of any single point of failures, as well as a proper segregation in distinct fault containment regions. The performed analysis is supported by the use of guidelines, published by the aviation authorities (FAA and EASA), on the reliability of data networks. The main focus clearly lies on the reachable level of safety, but also other aspects like performance and determinism play an important role and are considered in the research. Due to the further increase in design complexity of recent and future SoCs, also the risk of design errors, which might lead to common mode faults, increases. Thus in the context of this work also the aspect of dissimilarity will be considered to limit the effect of design errors. To achieve this, the work is limited to broadly available interfaces available in products from the most common silicon manufacturer. The resulting work shall support the design of future UAV FCCs by giving a guideline on building up a redundancy network between SoCs, solely using on board interfaces. Therefore the author will provide a detailed usability analysis on available interfaces provided by recent SoC solutions, suggestions on possible redundancy architectures based on these interfaces and an assessment of the most relevant characteristics of the suggested network architectures, like e.g. safety or performance.
Analysis and Experimental Validation of Morphing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Wings
The development of new technologies such as rapid prototyping and the use of materials with improved properties such as highly resistant extruded polystyrene foam which can be easily and precisely shaped, while conserving its mechanical properties allow researchers to improve design concepts. This paper details the development of a new set of morphing wings for a 15kg maximum take-off weight Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) from concept design, to flight tests, including modelling, design optimisation, construction and wind tunnel tests. A set of comparator equivalent conventional wings have been used throughout in order to be able to judge any benefits stemming from the adoption of morphing technology. The paper shows that the morphing wings provide a controllable aircraft while reducing drag by a factor of 40% compared to the comparator wings with conventional ailerons in a deflected position.