Numerical Investigation of Divergence and Rib Orientation Effects on Thermal Performance in a Divergent Duct, as an Application of Inner Cooling of Turbine Blades
Heat transfer and turbulent flow structure have been studied in a divergent ribbed duct with a varying duct geometry with Reynolds numbers of 7000 to 90000 using numerical methods. In this study, we confirmed our numerical results of a ribbed duct with an Initial slope of zero to 3 degree by comparing them to experimental data we had and investigated the impact of the ducts divergence on heat transfer and flow pattern in the 2-dimensional flow. Then we investigated the effect of tilting the ribs, on heat transfer and flow behavior. We achieved this by changing the ribs angles from a range of 40 to 75 degrees in a divergent duct and simulated the flow in 3-dimensions. Our results show that with an increase in duct divergence, heat transfer increases linearly and the coefficient of friction increases exponentially. As the results show, a duct with a divergence angle of 1.5 degree presents better thermal performance in comparison with all the angle range’s we studied. Besides, a ribbed duct with 40 degree rib orientation had the best thermal performance considering the simultaneous effects of pressure drop and heat transfer which were imposed on it.
An Experimental Investigation into Fluid Forces on Road Vehicles in Unsteady Flows
In this research, the effect of unsteady flows acting on road vehicles was experimentally investigated, using an advanced and recently introduced wind tunnel. The aims of this study were to extract the characteristics of fluid forces acting on road vehicles under unsteady wind conditions and obtain new information on drag forces in a practical on-road test. We applied pulsating wind as a representative example of the atmospheric fluctuations that vehicles encounter on the road. That is, we considered the case where the vehicles are moving at constant speed in the air, with large wind oscillations. The experimental tests were performed on the Ahmed-type test model, which is a simplified vehicle model. This model was chosen because of its simplicity and the data accumulated under steady wind conditions. The experiments were carried out with a time-averaged Reynolds number of Re = 4.16x10⁵ and a pulsation period of T = 1.5 s, with amplitude of η = 0.235. Unsteady fluid forces of drag and lift were obtained utilizing a multi-component load cell. It was observed that the unsteady aerodynamic forces differ significantly from those under steady wind conditions. They exhibit a phase shift and an enhanced response to the wind oscillations. Furthermore, their behavior depends on the slant angle of the rear shape of the model.
A Numerical Model of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Actuator for Boundary Layer Control
Non-thermal plasma generated by electrical discharges is considered as an effective technique to control the flow boundary layer. The first attempts with using this technique were based on corona discharge. Later, attention was focused on dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). Experimental investigations have confirmed the feasibility of the idea and there is an urgent need for an accurate numerical model, which can lead to a better understanding of all processes. DBD is a relatively complex phenomenon which involves electric field, numerous ionic reactions, charge transport and deposition. The existing algorithms have not been able to simulate the process for a few cycles of the supplied ac voltage, what is needed to predict the flow parameters. The presented paper investigates a model of the problem for the system consisting of a flat dielectric wall and two electrodes: one sharp and another one with a much larger radius of curvature, buried in the dielectric wall. An idealized model of DBD discharge is investigated: the ionization layer is neglected and only two basic ionic species are considered. The ion motion is traced by simultaneous solving of the electric field and charge transport equation in the time domain. The results of simulation for the total discharge current closely agree with the experimental data published in literature. The numerical results also provide interesting information about the space charge density distribution and the surface charge accumulation. Interaction between electric field and space charge produces a body force, which causes, or affects, air motion. In order to predict this, the Navier-Stokes is solved, assuming a laminar flow model. Without an external flow, the EHD flow forms a single vortex from the sharp electrode towards the buried one with the maximum velocity close to 10 m/s. When the external flow, parallel to the dielectric wall, is introduced, a boundary layer is formed: the velocity value monotonically changes from zero on the wall (non-slip boundary conditions) to a constant value far from the wall. The presence of the EHD flow significantly reduces the boundary layer thickness. For low external velocities, the velocity distribution sharply increases from zero value on the wall, reaching a maximum at some distance, then it decreases. These results also agree with the experimental data. Calculated air velocity pattern is used for predicting a drag force acting on the wall. While the EHD flow increases the viscous force, there is also the electrical force acting on the wall. It is opposite to the flow direction and for low external velocities it can lead to an apparently negative drag force. The paper will present all essential results of simulation: the electric field and space charge distribution, flow patterns and drag force for different voltage levels, voltage frequency and the external flow velocity. These results will be used as a basis for discussing the details of the process. According to the best authors’ knowledge this kind of simulation was never performed before and the proposed numerical model can be used for optimization of the actuator parameters.
Layout Design Optimization of Spars under Multiple Load Cases of the High-Aspect-Ratio Wing
The spar layout will affect the wing’s stiffness characteristics, and irrational spars arrangement will reduce the overall bending and twisting resistance capacity of the wing. In this paper, the active structural stiffness design theory is used to match the stiffness-center axis position and load-cases under the corresponding multiple flight conditions, in order to achieve better stiffness properties of the wing. The combination of active stiffness method and principle of stiffness distribution is proved to be reasonable supplying an initial reference for wing designing. The optimized layout of spars is eventually obtained, and the high-aspect-ratio wing will have better stiffness characteristics.
CDIO-Based Teaching Reform for Software Project Management Course
With the rapid development of information technology, project management has gained more and more attention recently. Software project management is one of the core courses in software engineering and related majors. Based on CDIO, this paper proposes some teaching reform ideas. We first change from Teacher-centered classroom to Student-centered and adopt project-driven, scenario animation show, teaching rhythms, cases study and teamwork practice to improve students' learning enthusiasm. Results showed these attempts had received very good effect; students like to learn this curriculum more than before reform.
A Review on the Future Canadian RADARSAT Constellation Mission and Its Capabilities
Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems are active remote sensing systems independent of weather and sun illumination, two factors which usually inhibit the use of optical satellite imagery. A SAR system could acquire single, dual, compact or fully polarized SAR imagery. Each SAR imagery type has its advantages and disadvantages. The sensitivity of SAR images is a function of the: 1) band, polarization, and incidence angle of the transmitted electromagnetic signal, and 2) geometric and dielectric properties of the radar target. The RADARSAT-1 (launched on November 4, 1995), RADARSAT-2 ((launched on December 14, 2007) and RADARSAT Constellation Mission (to be launched in July 2018) are three past, current, and future Canadian SAR space missions. Canada is developing the RADARSAT Constellation Mission (RCM) using small satellites to further maximize the capability to carry out round-the-clock surveillance from space. The Canadian Space Agency, in collaboration with other government-of-Canada departments, is leading the design, development and operation of the RADARSAT Constellation Mission to help addressing key priorities. The purpose of our presentation is to give an overview of the future Canadian RCM SAR mission with its satellites. Also, the RCM SAR imaging modes along with the expected SAR products will be described. An emphasis will be given to the mission unique capabilities and characteristics, such as the new compact polarimetry SAR configuration. In this presentation, we will summarize the RCM advancement from previous RADARSAT satellite missions. Furthermore, the potential of the RCM mission for different Earth observation applications will be outlined.
Large-Eddy Simulations for Flow Control
There are several technologically-important flow situations in which there is a need to control the outcome of the fluid flow. This could include flow separation, drag, noise, as well as particulate separations, to list only a few. One possible approach is the passive control, in which the design geometry is changed. An alternative approach is the Active Flow Control (AFC) technology in which an actuator is imbedded in the flow field to change the outcome. Examples of AFC are pulsed jets, synthetic jets, plasma actuators, heating and cooling, Etc. In this work will present an overview of the development of this field. Some examples will include: Airfoil Noise Suppression: LES is used to simulate the effect of the synthetic jet actuator on controlling the far field sound of a transitional airfoil. The results show considerable suppression of the noise if the synthetic jet is operated at frequencies. Mixing Enhancement and suppression: Results will be presented to show that imposing acoustic excitations at the nozzle exit can lead to enhancement or reduction of the jet plume mixing. In a vertical takeoff of Aircraft or in Space Launch, we will present results on the effects of water injection on reducing noise, and on protect the structure and pay load from fatigue damage. Other applications will include airfoil-gust interaction and propulsion systems optimizations.
Heat Conduction in Multicore Chips
A method of temperature calculations is developed to study the conditions leading to hot spot occurrence on multicore chips. A physical model which has salient features of multicore chips is incorporated for the analysis. The model consists of active and background cell laid out in a checkered pattern, and this pattern repeats itself in each fine grain active cells. The die has three layers i) body ii) buried oxide layer iii) wiring layer, stacked one above the other with heat source placed at the interface between wiring and buried oxide layer. With this model we propose analytical method to calculate the target hotspot temperature, heat flow to top and bottom layers of the die and thermal resistance components at each granularity level, assuming appropriate values of die dimensions and parameters. Finally we attempt to find an easier method for the calculation of the target hotspot temperature using graph.
Chemical Kinetics and Computational Fluid-Dynamics Analysis of H2/CO/CO2/CH4 Syngas Combustion and NOx Formation in a Micro-Pilot-Ignited Supercharged Dual Fuel Engine
A chemical kinetics and computational fluid-dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed to evaluate the combustion of syngas derived from biomass and coke-oven solid feedstock in a micro-pilot ignited supercharged dual-fuel engine under lean conditions. For this analysis, a new reduced syngas chemical kinetics mechanism was constructed and validated by comparing the ignition delay and laminar flame speed data with those obtained from experiments and other detail chemical kinetics mechanisms available in the literature. The reaction sensitivity analysis was conducted for ignition delay at elevated pressures in order to identify important chemical reactions that govern the combustion process. The chemical kinetics of NOx formation was analyzed for H2/CO/CO2/CH4 syngas mixtures by using counter flow burner and premixed laminar flame speed reactor models. The new mechanism showed a very good agreement with experimental measurements and accurately reproduced the effect of pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio on NOx formation. In order to identify the species important for NOx formation, a sensitivity analysis was conducted for pressures 4 bar, 10 bar and 16 bar and preheat temperature 300 K. The results show that the NOx formation is driven mostly by hydrogen based species while other species, such as N2, CO2 and CH4, have also important effects on combustion. Finally, the new mechanism was used in a multidimensional CFD simulation to predict the combustion of syngas in a micro-pilot-ignited supercharged dual-fuel engine and results were compared with experiments. The mechanism showed the closest prediction of the in-cylinder pressure and the rate of heat release (ROHR).
Design and Analysis of Universal Multifunctional Leaf Spring Main Landing Gear for Light Aircraft
A universal multi-function leaf spring main landing gear was designed for light aircraft. The main landing gear combined with the leaf spring, skiddings and wheels enables it to have a good takeoff and landing performance on various grounds such as the hard, snow, grass and sand grounds. Firstly, the characteristics of different landing sites were studied in this paper in order to analyze the load of the main landing gear on different types of grounds. Based on this analysis, the structural design optimization along with the strength and stiffness characteristics of the main landing gear has been done which enables it to have a good take off and landing performance on different types of grounds given the relevant regulations and standards. Additionally, the impact of the skiddings on the aircraft during the flight was also taken into consideration. Finally, a universal multi-function leaf spring type of the main landing gear suitable for light aircraft has been developed.
Preliminary Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel Design for Hydrogen Storage Using Netting Analysis and American Society of Mechanical Engineers Section X
With the move to cleaner energy applications the transport industry is working towards on-board hydrogen, or compressed natural gas-fuelled vehicles. A popular method for storage is to use composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPV) because of their high strength to weight ratios. The proper design of these COPVs are according to international standards; this study aims to provide a preliminary design for a 350 Bar Type IV COPV (i.e. a polymer liner with a composite overwrap). Netting analysis, a popular analytical approach, is used as a first step to generate an initial design concept for the composite winding. This design is further improved upon by following the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel standards, Section X: Fibre-reinforced composite pressure vessels. A design program based on these two approaches is developed using Python. A numerical model of a burst test simulation is developed based on the two approaches and compared. The results indicate that the netting analysis provides a good preliminary design, while the ASME-based design is more robust and accurate as it includes a better approximation of the material behaviour. Netting analysis is an easy method to follow when considering an initial concept design for the composite winding when not all the material characteristics are known. Once these characteristics have been fully defined with experimental testing, an ASME-based design should always be followed to ensure that all designs conform to international standards and practices. Future work entails more detailed numerical testing of the design for improvement, this will include the boss design. Once finalised prototype manufacturing and experimental testing will be conducted, and the results used to improve on the COPV design.
Evaluation of Structural Integrity for Composite Lattice Structure
In this paper, evaluation of structural integrity for composite lattice structure was conducted by compressive test. Composite lattice structure was manufactured by carbon fiber using filament winding method. In order to evaluate the structural integrity of composite lattice structure, compressive test was done using anti-buckling fixture. The delamination occurred 84 Tons of compressive load. It was found that composite lattice structure satisfied the design requirements.
Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Air Stream Pressure Drop inside Combustion Air Duct of Coal-Fired Power Plant with and without Airfoil
The flow pattern inside rectangular intake air duct of 300 MW lignite coal-fired power plant is investigated, in order to analyze and reduce overall inlet system pressure drop. The system consists of the 45 degree inlet elbow, the flow instrument, the 90 degree mitered elbow and fans respectively. The energy loss in each section can be determined by Bernoulli’s equation and ASHRAE’s standard table, except the flow instrument. Hence computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used in this study based on Navier-Stroke equation and the standard k-epsilon turbulence modeling. Input boundary condition is 175 kg/s mass flow rate inside the 11 m² cross sectional duct. According to the inlet air flow rate, the Reynold number of airstream is 2.7x10⁶ (based on the hydraulic duct diameter). Thus the flow behavior is turbulence. The numerical results are validated with the real operation data. It is found that the numerical result is agreed well with the operating data and dominant loss occurs at the flow rate measurement device. Normally, the air flow rate is measured by the Airfoil and it brings to get high-pressure drop inside the duct. To overcome this problem, the Airfoil is planned to be replaced with the other type measuring instrument, such as the average pitot tube which, generates low-pressure drop of airstream. The numerical result in case of average pitot tube shows that the pressure drop inside the inlet airstream duct is decreased significantly. It should be noted that the energy consumption of inlet air system is reduced too.
Effect of Scarp Topography on Seismic Ground Motion
Local irregular topography has a great impact on earthquake ground motion. For scarp topography, using numerical simulation method, the influence extent and scope of the scarp terrain on scarp's upside and downside ground motion are discussed in the case of different vertical incident SV waves. The results show that: (1) The amplification factor of scarp's upside region is greater than that of the free surface, while the amplification factor of scarp's downside part is less than that of the free surface; (2) When the slope angle increases, for x component, amplification factors of the scarp upside also increase, while the downside part decrease with it. For z component, both of the upside and downside amplification factors will increase; (3) When the slope angle changes, the influence scope of scarp's downside part is almost unchanged, but for the upside part, it slightly becomes greater with the increase of slope angle; (4) Due to the existence of the scarp, the z component ground motion appears at the surface. Its amplification factor increases for larger slope angle, and the peaks of the surface responses are related with incident waves. However, the input wave has little effects on the x component amplification factors.
Effect of Fault Depth on Near-Fault Peak Ground Velocity
Fault depth is an important parameter to be determined in ground motion simulation, and peak ground velocity (PGV) demonstrates good application prospect. Using numerical simulation method, the variations of distribution and peak value of near-fault PGV with different fault depth were studied in detail, and the reason of some phenomena were discussed. The simulation results show that the distribution character- istics of PGV of fault-parallel (FP) component and fault-normal (FN) component are distinctly different, the value of PGV FN component is much larger than that of FP component. With the increase of fault depth, the distribution region of FN component strong PGV moves forward along the rupture direction, while the strong PGV zone of FP component becomes gradually far away from the fault trace along the direction perpendicular to the strike. However, no matter FN component or FP component, the strong PGV distribution area and its value are both quickly reduced with increased fault depth. The results above suggest that the fault depth have significant effect on both FN component and FP component of near-fault peak ground velocity.
Design and Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Aerodynamic Package of a Formula Student Car
In the past few decades there has been great advancement in use of aerodynamics in cars. Now its use has been evident from commercial cars to race cars for achieving higher speeds, stability and efficiency. This paper focusses on studying the effects of aerodynamics in Formula Student car. These cars weigh around 200kgs with an average speed of 60kmph. With increasing competition every year, developing a competitive car is a herculean task. The race track comprises mostly of tight corners and little or no straights thus testing the car’s cornering capabilities. Higher cornering speeds can be achieved by increasing traction at the tires. Studying the aerodynamics helps in achieving higher traction without much addition in overall weight of car. The main focus is to develop an aerodynamic package involving front wing, under tray and body to obtain an optimum value of down force. The initial process involves the detail study of geometrical constraints mentioned in the rule book and calculating the limiting value of drag as per the engine specifications. The successive steps involve conduction of various iterations in ANSYS for selection of airfoils, deciding the number of elements, designing the nose for low drag, channelizing the flow under the body and obtain an optimum value of down force within the limits defined in the initial process. The final step involves design of model using these results in Virtual environment called OptimumLap® for detailed study of performance with and without the presence of aerodynamics. The CFD analysis results showed an overall down force of 377.44N with a drag of 164.08N. The corresponding parameters of the last model were applied in OptimumLap® and an improvement of 3.5 seconds in lap times was observed.
, formula student
, front wing
, rule book
, down force
, virtual environment
, computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
Failure Criterion for Mixed Mode Fracture of Cracked Wood Specimens
Investigation of fracture of wood components can provide from catastrophic failures. Created Fracture Process Zone (FPZ) in crack tip vicinity has important effect on failure of cracked composite materials. In this paper, a failure criterion for fracture investigation of cracked wood specimens under mixed mode I/II loading is presented. This criterion is based on maximum strain energy release rate and material nonlinearity in the vicinity of crack tip due to the presence of micro cracks. Verification of results with available experimental data proves the coincidence of the proposed criterion with the nature of fracture of wood. To simplify the estimation of nonlinear properties of fracture process zone, a damage factor is also introduced for engineering and applied purposes.
Active Flutter Suppression of Sports Aircraft Tailplane by Supplementary Control Surface
The paper presents an aircraft flutter suppression by active damping of supplementary control surface at trailing edge. The mathematical model of thin oscillation airfoil with control surface driven by pilot is developed. The supplementary control surface driven by control law is added. Active damping of flutter by several control law is present. The structural model of tailplane with an aerodynamic strip theory based on the airfoil model is developed by a finite element method. The optimization process of stiffens parameters is carried out to match the structural model with results from a ground vibration test of a small sport airplane. The implementation of supplementary control surface driven by control law is present. The active damping of tailplane model is shown.
Experimental Investigation of Hybrid Rocket Motor: Ignitionthrottling and Re-Ignition Phenomena
Ignition phenomena are of great interest area over the past many years, and it has a direct impact on many propulsion and combustion applications. The direct goal of the paper is to realize and evaluate a functioning ignition method, shut-off, throttling and re-start operations for the hybrid rocket motor. A small-scale hybrid rocket motor (SSHRM) is designed, manufactured, demonstrated at various operating conditions and finally equipped for laboratory firing tests with high level of safety. Various solid fuel grains as Polymethyle-methacrylate (PMMA) and Polyethylene (PE) are selected, and it is decided to use the commercial gaseous oxygen (GO2) for its availability and low cost. Examine different types of ignition methods, pyrotechnic charge, fuse wire, heat wire and finally hot oxidizer method by using the heat exchanger, which are proposed as very safe ignition methods. Finally; recognize phenomena of throttling and re-start operations. Ignition by hot GO2 impingement is proved to be a very attractive ignition method for laboratory SSHRM, for its high safety, reliability and acceptable delay time. Finally; the throttling and re-start operations are demonstrated several times and can be carried out more easily with hot air ignition method.
Dynamic Mode Decomposition and Wake Flow Modelling of a Wind Turbine
The power production in wind farms and the mechanical loads on the turbines are strongly impacted by the wake of the wind turbine. Thus, there is a need for understanding and modelling the turbine wake dynamic in the wind farm and the layout optimization. Having a good wake model is important in predicting plant performance and understanding fatigue loads. In this paper, the Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) was applied to the simulation data generated by a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of flow around a turbine, perturbed by upstream inflow noise. This technique is useful in analyzing the wake flow, to predict its future states and to reflect flow dynamics associated with the coherent structures behind wind turbine wake flow.
DMD was employed to describe the dynamic of the flow around turbine from the DNS data. Since the DNS data comes with the unstructured meshes and non-uniform grid, the interpolation of each occurring within each element in the data to obtain an evenly spaced mesh was performed before the DMD was applied. DMD analyses were able to tell us characteristics of the travelling waves behind the turbine, e.g. the dominant helical flow structures and the corresponding frequencies.
As the result, the dominant frequency will be detected, and the associated spatial structure will be identified. The dynamic mode which represented the coherent structure will be presented.
Wind Turbine Scaling for the Investigation of Vortex Shedding and Wake Interactions
Traditionally, the focus of horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) blade aerodynamic optimisation studies has been the outer working region of the blade. However, recent works seek to better understand, and thus improve upon, the performance of the inboard blade region to enhance power production, maximise load reduction and better control the wake behaviour. This paper presents the design considerations and characterisation of a wind turbine wind tunnel model devised to further the understanding and fundamental definition of horizontal axis wind turbine root vortex shedding and interactions. Additionally, the application of passive and active flow control mechanisms – vortex generators and plasma actuators – to allow for the manipulation and mitigation of unsteady aerodynamic behaviour at the blade inboard section is investigated. A static, modular blade wind turbine model has been developed for use in the University of Glasgow’s de Havilland closed return, low-speed wind tunnel. The model components - which comprise of a half span blade, hub, nacelle and tower - are scaled using the equivalent full span radius, R, for appropriate Mach and Strouhal numbers, and to achieve a Reynolds number in the range of 1.7x105 to 5.1x105 for operational speeds up to 55m/s. The half blade is constructed to be modular and fully dielectric, allowing for the integration of flow control mechanisms with a focus on plasma actuators. Investigations of root vortex shedding and the subsequent wake characteristics using qualitative – smoke visualisation, tufts and china clay flow – and quantitative methods – including particle image velocimetry (PIV), hot wire anemometry (HWA), and laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) – were conducted over a range of blade pitch angles 0 to 15 degrees, and Reynolds numbers. This allowed for the identification of shed vortical structures from the maximum chord position, the transitional region where the blade aerofoil blends into a cylindrical joint, and the blade nacelle connection. Analysis of the trailing vorticity interactions between the wake core and freestream shows the vortex meander and diffusion is notably affected by the Reynold’s number. It is hypothesized that the shed vorticity from the blade root region directly influences and exacerbates the nacelle wake expansion in the downstream direction. As the design of inboard blade region form is, by necessity, driven by function rather than aerodynamic optimisation, a study is undertaken for the application of flow control mechanisms to manipulate the observed vortex phenomenon. The designed model allows for the effective investigation of shed vorticity and wake interactions with a focus on the accurate geometry of a root region which is representative of small to medium power commercial HAWTs. The studies undertaken allow for an enhanced understanding of the interplay of shed vortices and their subsequent effect in the near and far wake. This highlights areas of interest within the inboard blade area for the potential use of passive and active flow control devices which contrive to produce a more desirable wake quality in this region.
Aerodynamic Optimization of Oblique Biplane by Using Supercritical Airfoil
Introduction: This study verified the potential applications of two Oblique Wing configurations that were initiated by the Germans Aerodynamicists during the WWII. Due to the end of the war, this project was not completed and in this research is targeting the revival of German Oblique biplane configuration. The research draws upon the use of two Oblique wings mounted on the top and bottom of the fuselage through a single pivot. The wings are capable of sweeping at different angles ranging from 0° at takeoff to 60° at cruising Altitude. The top wing, right half, behaves like a forward swept wing and the left half, behaves like a backward swept wing. Vice Versa applies to the lower wing. This opposite deflection of the top and lower wing cancel out the rotary moment created by each wing and the aircraft remains stable. Problem to better understand or solve: The purpose of this research is to investigate the potential of achieving improved aerodynamic performance and efficiency of flight at a wide range of sweep angles. This will help examine the most accurate value for the sweep angle at which the aircraft will possess both stability and better aerodynamics. Explaining the methods used: The Aircraft configuration is designed using Solidworks after which a series of Aerodynamic prediction are conducted, both in the subsonic and the supersonic flow regime. Computations are carried on Ansys Fluent. The results are then compared to theoretical and flight data of different Supersonic fighter aircraft of the same category (AD-1) and with the Wind tunnel testing model at subsonic speed. Results: At zero sweep angle, the aircraft has an excellent lift coefficient value with almost double that found for fighter jets. In acquiring of supersonic speed the sweep angle is increased to maximum 60 degrees depending on the mission profile. General findings: Oblique biplane can be the future fighter jet aircraft because of its high value performance in terms of aerodynamics, cost, structural design and weight.
Realization of Acoustic Luneberg Lens Using Nearly Non-dispersive Acoustic Metamaterial
Recently, needs for development of acoustic wave focusing technology without reflection and wave distortion are increased because the new devices, such as Alexa of Amazon and Siri of Apple which adopts speech recognition technology, are developed and commercially released. Meanwhile, it is known that the Luneberg lens, a sort of spherical GRIN (gradient index) lens, can focus incident electromagnetic wave on the focal point without reflection and aberration. In this presentation, we report the realization of acoustic Luneberg lens using novel acoustic metamaterial. The refractive index in Luneberg lens must be varied according to [2(r/a)2]1/2, where a is the radius of Luneberg lens and r is the distance from the center of sphere. We developed novel acoustic metamaterial with FCOC(face-centered orifice cubic) structure. This metamaterial has some advantages for the realization of acoustic Luneberg lens; It has refractive index larger than 1, nearly non-dispersive and easily adjustable by changing the ratio of orifice size to wave guide. Also, structurally, 3-dimensional Luneberg lens can be constructed comparably easily using FCOC unit cells. We fabricated acoustic Luneberg lens with a diameter of 1.1m using FCOC acoustic metamaterial and observed sound focusing phenomena. We compared experimental results with simulation based on FEM. Since fabricated acoustic Luneberg lens can be miniaturized without changing refractive index distribution characteristics, it can be applied to various fields such as military and industry, which includes speech recognition devices.
Modelling of Rate-Dependent Hysteresis of Polypyrrole Dual Sensing-Actuators for Precise Position Control
Bending dual sensing-actuators based on electroactive polymers are faradaic motors meaning the consumed charge determines the actuator’s tip position. During actuation, consumed charges during oxidation and reduction result in different tip positions showing dynamic hysteresis effects with errors up to 25%. For a precise position control of these actuators, the characterization of the hysteresis effect due to irreversible reactions is crucial. Here, the investigation and modelling of dynamic hysteresis effects of polypyrrole-dodezylbenzenesulfonate (PPyDBS) actuators under ambient working conditions are presented. The hysteresis effect is studied for charge consumption at different frequencies and a rate-dependent hysteresis model is derived. The hysteresis model is implemented as closed loop system and is verified experimentally.
The Qualification and Quality of Space Sciences and Space Engineering Education in Turkey
The fields of engineering and technological sciences are increasing in quality and quantity day by day all over the world. Countries have to follow, implement and adapt these developments in order to economical empowerments. In our era, it's possible to follow the rapidly developing technology and to produce new technologies by inquisitive, curious, numerical thinking individuals who can show several approaches to problem solving. In this case, countries should develop te result oriented and need-focused curriculums in university education.
As in the whole world, there are more space studies in our country as well. Universities should undertake the task of supply the need for staff of this technological race. In this context, questions about the purpose, content and learning outcomes of the space sciences and space engineering departments in our country will be researched answers to reveal the characteristic of this section.
In this study, it was determined in which universities the space engineering and the departments of basic sciences educate with formal education and the contents of this education, and the universities were compared with each other as of 2017.
In our country three universities provide Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering, two universities provide Space Sciences and Technologies, two universities provide Aerospace Engineering, two universities provide Aeronautics and Astronautics Engineering education. In all universities, specialized courses are taught after basic engineering education. But the question that needs to be answered is, do the lessons benefit in practice? The answer of this question will reveal the quality of the education. This paper suggests that surveys be conducted to search for the answer to this question. It's thought to be the base for the next works.
A Study on Optimum Temperature and Drawing Speed for Diffusion Bonding Enhancement in Drawing of Hot Lined Pipes by FEM Analysis
Diffusion bonding has been continuously studied. Temperature and pressure are the most important factors to increase the strength between diffusion bonded interfaces. Diffusion bonding is an important factor affecting the bonding strength of the lined pipe. The increase of the diffusion bonding force results in a high formability clad pipe. However, in the case of drawing, it is difficult to obtain a high pressure between materials due to a relatively small reduction in cross-section, and it is difficult to prevent elongation or to tear of material in hot drawing even if the reduction in the section is increased. In this paper, to increase the diffusion bonding force, we derive optimal temperature and pressure to suppress material stretching and realize precise thickness precision.
Improving the Technology of Assembly by Use of Computer Calculations
Assembling accuracy is the degree of accordance between the actual values of the parameters obtained during assembly, and the values specified in the assembly drawings and technical specifications. However, the assembling accuracy depends not only on the quality of the production process but also on the correctness of the assembly process. Therefore, preliminary calculations of assembly stages are carried out to verify the correspondence of real geometric parameters to their acceptable values. In the aviation industry, most calculations involve interacting dimensional chains. This greatly complicates the task. Solving such problems requires a special approach.
The purpose of this article is to carry out the problem of improving the technology of assembly of aviation units by use of computer calculations. One of the actual examples of the assembly unit, in which there is an interacting dimensional chain, is the turbine wheel of gas turbine engine. Dimensional chain of turbine wheel is formed by geometric parameters of disk and set of blades. The interaction of the dimensional chain consists in the formation of two chains. The first chain is formed by the dimensions that determine the location of the grooves for the installation of the blades, and the dimensions of the blade roots. The second dimensional chain is formed by the dimensions of the airfoil shroud platform. The interaction of the dimensional chain of the turbine wheel is the interdependence of the first and second chains by means of power circuits formed by a plurality of middle parts of the turbine blades. The timeliness of the calculation of the dimensional chain of the turbine wheel is the need to improve the technology of assembly of this unit. The task at hand contains geometric and mathematical components; therefore, its solution can be implemented following the algorithm: 1) research and analysis of production errors by geometric parameters; 2) development of a parametric model in the CAD system; 3) creation of set of CAD-models of details taking into account actual or generalized distributions of errors of geometrical parameters; 4) calculation model in the CAE-system, loading of various combinations of models of parts; 5) the accumulation of statistics and analysis. The main task is to pre-simulate the assembly process by calculating the interacting dimensional chains. The article describes the approach to the solution from the point of view of mathematical statistics, implemented in the software package Matlab. Within the framework of the study, there are data on the measurement of the components of the turbine wheel-blades and disks, as a result of which it is expected that the assembly process of the unit will be optimized by solving dimensional chains.
Numerical Simulation of Natural Convection in a 3-D Cavity Using Double Multiple Relaxation Time-Lattice Boltzmann Method
In this study three-dimensional natural convection in a cavity filled with air (Pr=0.71) for Rayleigh numbers = 103 and 104 has been investigated using lattice Boltzmann method with double Multi Relaxation Time. The MRT D3Q19 model and the MRT D3Q7 model have been used to solve the flow and the temperature fields, respectively. Two opposite vertical walls on the left and right have been kept at different temperatures, and the remained four walls are adiabatic. The present results showed good agreement with the benchmark solutions and experimental results.
Study on Constitutive Model of Particle Filling Material Considering Volume Expansion
The NEPE (nitrate ester plasticized polyether) propellant is a kind of particle filling material with relatively high filling fraction. The experimental results show that the microcracks, microvoids and dewetting can cause the stress softening of the material. In this paper, a series of mechanical testing in inclusion with CCD technique were conducted to analyze the evolution of internal defects of propellant. The volume expansion function of the particle filling material was established by measuring of longitudinal and transverse strain with optical deformation measurement system. By analyzing the defects and internal damages of the material, a visco-hyperelastic constitutive model based on free energy theory was proposed incorporating damage function. The proposed constitutive model could accurately predict the mechanical properties of uniaxial tensile tests and tensile-relaxation tests.
Study Case of Spacecraft Instruments in Structural Modelling with Nastran-Patran
The intense structural loads during the launch of a spacecraft represent a challenge for the space structure designers because enough resistance has to be achieved while maintaining at the same time the mass and volume within the allowable margins of the mission requirements and inside the limits of the budget project. In this conference, we present the structural analysis of the Lunar Lander Neutron Dosimetry (LND) experiment on the Chang'E4 mission, the first probe to land on the moon’s far side included in the Chinese’ Moon Exploration Program by the Chinese National Space Administration. To this target, the software Nastran/Patran has been used: a structural model in Patran and a structural analysis through Nastran have been realized. Next, the results obtained are used both for the optimization process of the spacecraft structure, and as input parameters for the model structural test campaign. In this way, the feasibility of the lunar instrument structure is demonstrated in terms of the modal modes, stresses, and random vibration and a better understanding of the structural tests design is provided by our results.