Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 53453

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering

1313
94717
Extraction of Saponins and Cyclopeptides from Cow Cockle (Vaccaria hispanica (Mill.) Rauschert) Seeds Grown in Turkey
Abstract:
The seeds of Vaccaria hispanica have been used in food and pharmaceutical industry. It is an important product due to its superior starch granules, triterpenic saponins, and cyclopeptides suitable for drug delivery. V. hispanica naturally grows in different climatic regions and has genotypes that differ in terms of seed content and composition. Sixty-six V. hispanica seed specimens were collected based on the representation of the distribution in all regions of Turkey and the determination of possible genotypic differences between regions. The seeds, collected from each of the 66 locations, were grown in greenhouse conditions in Akdeniz University, Antalya. Saponin and cyclopeptide contents of the V. hispanica seeds were determined after harvest. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was applied for the extraction of saponins and cyclopeptides. Cyclopeptide (segetalin A) and saponin content of V. hispanica seeds were found in the range of 0.165-0.654 g/100 g and 0.15-1.14 g/100 g, respectively. The results were found to be promising for the seeds from Turkey in terms of saponin content and quality. Acknowledgment: This study was supported by the Scientific and Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) (project no 112 O 136).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1312
94639
Risk Assessment of Lead Element in Red Peppers Collected from Marketplaces in Antalya, Southern Turkey
Abstract:
Interest in the lead (Pb) has considerably increased due to knowledge about the potential toxic effects of this element, recently. Exposure to heavy metals above the acceptable limit affects human health. Indeed, Pb is accumulated through food chains up to toxic concentrations; therefore, it can pose an adverse potential threat to human health. A sensitive and reliable method for determination of Pb element in red pepper were improved in the present study. Samples (33 red pepper products having different brands) were purchased from different markets in Turkey. The selected method validation criteria (linearity, Limit of Detection, Limit of Quantification, recovery, and trueness) demonstrated. Recovery values close to 100% showed adequate precision and accuracy for analysis. According to the results of red pepper analysis, all of the tested lead element in the samples was determined at various concentrations. A Perkin- Elmer ELAN DRC-e model ICP-MS system was used for detection of Pb. Organic red pepper was used to obtain a matrix for all method validation studies. The certified reference material, Fapas chili powder, was digested and analyzed, together with the different sample batches. Three replicates from each sample were digested and analyzed. The results of the exposure levels of the elements were discussed considering the scientific opinions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is the European Union’s (EU) risk assessment source associated with food safety. The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) was described by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for the calculation of potential health risks associated with long-term exposure to chemical pollutants. THQ value contains intake of elements, exposure frequency and duration, body weight and the oral reference dose (RfD). If the THQ value is lower than one, it means that the exposed population is assumed to be safe and 1 < THQ < 5 means that the exposed population is in a level of concern interval. In this study, the THQ of Pb was obtained as < 1. The results of THQ calculations showed that the values were below one for all the tested, meaning the samples did not pose a health risk to the local population. This work was supported by The Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit of Akdeniz University. Project Number: FBA-2017-2494.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1311
93488
Agroecology: Rethink the Local in the Global to Promote the Creation of Novelties
Abstract:
Based on their localities and following their ecological rationality, family-based farmers have experimented, adapted and innovated to improve their production systems continuously for millennia. With the technological package transfer processes of the so-called Green Revolution for agricultural holdings, farmers have become increasingly dependent on ready-made "recipes" built from so-called "universal" and global knowledge to face the problems that emerge in the management of local agroecosystems, thus reducing their creative and experiential capacities. However, the production of novelties within farms is fundamental to the transition to more sustainable agro food systems. In fact, as the fruits of local knowledge and / or the contextualization of exogenous knowledge, novelties are seen as seeds of transition. By presenting new techniques, new organizational forms and epistemological approaches, agroecology was pointed out as a way to encourage and promote the creative capacity of farmers. From this perspective, this theoretical work aims to analyze how agroecology encourages the innovative capacity of farmers, and in general, the production of novelties. For this, an analysis was made of the theoretical and methodological bases of agroecology through a literature review, specifically looking for the way in which it articulates the local with the global, complemented by an analysis of agro ecological Brazilian experiences. It was emphasized that, based on the peasant way of doing agriculture, that is, on ecological / social co-evolution or still called co-production (interaction between human beings and living nature), agroecology recognizes and revalues peasant involves the deep interactions of the farmer with his site (bio-physical and social). As a "place science," practice and movement, it specifically takes into consideration the local and empirical knowledge of farmers, which allows questioning and modifying the paradigms that underpin the current agriculture that have disintegrated farmers' creative processes. In addition to upgrade the local, agroecology allows the dialogue of local knowledge with global knowledge, essential in the process of changes to get out of the dominant logic of thought and give shape to new experiences. In order to reach this articulation, agroecology involves new methodological focuses seeking participatory methods of study and intervention that express themselves in the form of horizontal spaces of socialization and collective learning that involve several actors with different knowledge. These processes promoted by agroecology favor the production of novelties at local levels for expansion at other levels, such as the global, through trans local agro ecological networks.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1310
93267
Weak Electric Fields Enhance Growth and Nutritional Quality of Kale
Abstract:
Generally, plants growing on the earth are under the influence of natural electric fields and may even require exposure of the electric field to survive. Electric signals have been observed within plants and seem to play an important role on various metabolic processes, but their role is not fully understood. In this study, we attempted to explore the response of plants under external electric fields in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). The plants were hydroponically grown for 28 days in a plant factory. Electric currents at 10, 50 and 100 mA were supplied to nutrient solution for 3 weeks. Additionally, some of the plants were cultivated in a Faraday cage to remove the natural electric field. Kale plants exposed to electric fields had higher fresh weight than the control and plants in Faraday cage. Absence of electric field caused a significant decrease in shoot dry weight and root growth. Leaf area also showed a similar response with shoot fresh weight. Supplying weak electric stimulation enhanced nutritional quality including total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. This work provides basic information on the effects of electric fields on plants and is a meaningful attempt for developing a new economical technology to increase crop productivity and quality by applying an electric field. This work was supported by Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (IPET) through Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs Research Center Support Program, funded by Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) (717001-07-02-HD240).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1309
93230
Genomics Approach for Excavation of NAS Genes from Nutri Rich Minor Millet Crops: Transforming Perspective from Orphan Plants to Future Food Crops
Abstract:
Minor millets are highly nutritious and climate resilient cereal crops. These features make them ideal candidates to excavate the physiology of the underlying mechanism. In an attempt to understand the basis of mineral nutrition in minor millets, a set of five Barnyard millet genotypes were analyzed for grain Fe and Zn content under contrasting Fe-Zn supply to identify genotypes proficient in tolerating mineral deficiency. This resulted in the identification of Melghat-1 genotype to be nutritionally superior with better ability to withstand deficiency. Expression analysis of several Nicotianamine synthase (NAS) genes showed that HvNAS1 and OsNAS2 genes were prominent in positively mediating mineral deficiency response in Barnyard millet. Further, strategic efforts were employed for fast-track identification of more effective orthologous NAS genes from Barnyard millet. This resulted in the identification of two genes namely EfNAS1 (orthologous to HvNAS1 of barley) and EfNAS2 (orthologous to OsNAS2 gene of rice). Sequencing and thorough characterization of these sequences revealed the presence of intact NAS domain and signature tyrosine and di-leucine motifs in their predicted proteins and thus established their candidature as functional NAS genes in Barnyard millet. Moreover, EfNAS1 showed structural superiority over previously known NAS genes and is anticipated to have role in more efficient metal transport. Findings of the study provide insight into Fe-Zn deficiency response and mineral nutrition in millets. This provides millets with a physiological edge over micronutrient deficient staple cereals such as rice in withstanding Fe-Zn deficiency and subsequently accumulating higher levels of Fe and Zn in millet grains.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1308
93229
Dissection of Genomic Loci for Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus Resistance in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentas)
Abstract:
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentas L. Moench) or lady’s finger is an important vegetable crop belonging to the Malvaceae family. Unfortunately, production and productivity of Okra are majorly affected by Yellow Vein mosaic virus (YVMV). The AO: 189 (resistant parent) X AO: 191(susceptible parent) used for the development of mapping population. The mapping population has 143 individuals (F₂:F₃). Population was characterized by physiological and pathological observations. Screening of 360 DNA markers was performed to survey for parental polymorphism between the contrasting parents’, i.e., AO: 189 and AO: 191. Out of 360; 84 polymorphic markers were used for genotyping of the mapping population. Total markers were distributed into four linkage groups (LG1, LG2, LG3, and LG4). LG3 covered the longest span (106.8cM) with maximum number of markers (27) while LG1 represented the smallest linkage group in terms of length (71.2cM). QTL identification using the composite interval mapping approach detected two prominent QTLs, QTL1 and QTL2 for resistance against YVMV disease. These QTLs were placed between the marker intervals of NBS-LRR72-Path02 and NBS-LRR06- NBS-LRR65 on linkage group 02 and linkage group 04 respectively. The LOD values of QTL1 and QTL2 were 5.7 and 6.8 which accounted for 19% and 27% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. The findings of this study provide two linked markers which can be used as efficient diagnostic tools to distinguish between YVMV resistant and susceptible Okra cultivars/genotypes. Lines identified as highly resistant against YVMV infection can be used as donor lines for this trait. This will be instrumental in accelerating the trait improvement program in Okra and will substantially reduce the yield losses due to this viral disease.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1307
93190
Enhancement of Biomass and Bioactive Compounds in Kale Subjected to UV-A LED Lights
Abstract:
The application of temporary abiotic stresses before crop harvest is a potential strategy to enhance phytochemical content. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of various UV-A LED lights on the growth and content of bioactive compounds in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). Fourteen-day-old kale seedlings were cultivated in a plant factory with artificial lighting (air temperature of 20℃, relative humidity of 60%, photosynthesis photon flux density (PPFD) of 125 µmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹) for 3 weeks. Kale plants were irradiated by four types of UV-A LEDs (peak wavelength; 365, 375, 385, and 395 nm) with 30 W/m² for 7 days. As a result, image chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) value of kale leaves was lower as the UV-A LEDs peak wavelength was shorter. Fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots of kale plants were significantly higher in the plants under UV-A than the control at 7 days of treatment. In particular, the growth was significantly increased with a longer peak wavelength of the UV-A LEDs. The results of leaf area and specific leaf weight showed a similar pattern with those of growth characteristics. Chlorophyll content was highest in kale leaves subjected to UV-A LEDs with the peak wavelength of 395 nm at 3 days of treatment compared with the control. Total phenolic contents of UV-A LEDs with the peak wavelength of 395 nm at 5 and 6 days of treatment were 44% and 47% higher than those of the control, respectively. Antioxidant capacity showed almost the same pattern as the results of total phenol content. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was approximately 11% and 8% higher in the UV-A LEDs with the peak wavelength of 395 nm compared to the control at 5 and 6 days of treatment, respectively. Our results imply that the UV-A LEDs with relative longer peak wavelength were effective to improve growth as well as the content of bioactive compounds of kale plants.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1306
93189
Acclimation of in vitro-Propagated Apple Plantlets as Affected by Light Intensity
Abstract:
Environmental control of in vitro-propagated apple plantlets is required for successful acclimation to ex vitro due to its low survival rate. This study aimed to determine the proper lighting condition for ex vitro acclimation of the apple plantlets in plant factories. In vitro-propagated M9 apple plantlets treated with pre-acclimatization for 1 week were exposed to following light treatments for additional 6 weeks; 60 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ (A), 100 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ (B), 140 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ (C), 180 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ (D), 60 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ → 100 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ at 2 weeks (E) or 4 weeks (F), 60 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ → 100 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ at 2 weeks → 140 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ at 4 weeks (G) and 60 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ → 140 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ at 4 weeks (H). Shoot height, total leaf area, soil-plant analysis development (SPAD) value, root length, fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots were measured every 2 weeks after transplanting. In addition, the photosynthetic rate was measured at 5 weeks after transplanting. At 6 weeks after transplanting, shoot height of B was significantly higher than the other treatments. SPAD value, total leaf area and root length of B and F were relatively higher than the other treatments. Root fresh weights of B, D, F, and G were relatively higher than those in the other treatments. D induced the highest value in shoot fresh weight probably due to stem hardening, but it also resulted in shoot damage in the early stage of acclimation. Photosynthetic rate at 5 weeks after the transplanting was significantly increased as the light intensity increased. These results suggest that 100 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ for 6 weeks (B) or gradually increased treatment from 60 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ to 140 μmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹ at 2 weeks interval (F) were the proper lighting conditions for successful acclimation of in vitro-propagated apple plantlets. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (IPET) through Agri-Bio industry Technology Development Program, funded by Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) (315003051SB020).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1305
92614
Dilution of Saline Irrigation Based on Plant's Physiological Responses to Salt Stress Following by Re-Watering
Abstract:
Salinity and water scarcity are major environmental problems which are limiting the agricultural production. This research was conducted to construct a model to find out appropriate regime to dilute saline water based on physiological and electrophysiological properties of Brassica napus L., and Orychophragmus violaceus (L.). Plants were treated under salt-stressed concentrations of NaCl (NL₁: 2.5, NL₂: 5, NL₃: 10; gL⁻¹), Na₂SO₄ (NO₁: 2.5, NO₂: 5, NO₃: 10; gL⁻¹), and mixed salt concentration (MX₁: NL₁+ NO₃; MX₂: NL₃+ NO₁; MX₃: NL₂+ NO₂; gL⁻¹) and 0 as control, followed by re-watering. Growth, physiological and electrophysiology traits were highly restricted under high salt concentration levels at NL₃, NO₃, MX₁, and MX₂, respectively. However, during the rewatering phase, growth, electrophysiological, and physiological parameters were recovered well. Consequently, the increase in net photosynthetic rate was noted under moderate stress condition which was 44.13, 37.07, and 43.01%, respectively in Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) and 44.94%, 53.45%, and 63.04%, respectively were found in Brassica napus L. According to the results, the best dilution point was 5–2.5% for NaCl and Na₂SO₄ alternatively, whereas it was 10–0.0% for the mixture of salts. Therefore, the effect of salinity in O. violaceus and B. napus may also be reduced effectively by dilution of saline irrigation. It would be a better approach to utilize dilute saline water for irrigation instead of applies direct saline water to plant. This study provides new insight in the field of agricultural engineering to plan irrigation scheduling considering the crop ability to salt tolerance and irrigation water use efficiency by apply specific quantity of irrigation calculated based on the salt dilution point. It would be helpful to balance between irrigation amount and optimum crop water consumption in salt-affected regions and to utilize saline water in order to safe freshwater resources.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1304
92180
Potential Impacts of Maternal Nutrition and Selection for Residual Feed Intake on Metabolism and Fertility Parameters in Angus Bulls
Abstract:
Maximizing efficiency and growth potential of beef cattle requires not only genetic selection (i.e. residual feed intake (RFI)) but also adequate nutrition throughout all stages of growth and development. Nutrient restriction during gestation has been shown to negatively affect post-natal growth and development as well as fertility of the offspring. This, when combined with RFI may affect progeny traits. This study aims to investigate the impact of selection for divergent genetic potential for RFI and maternal nutrition during early- to mid-gestation, on bull calf traits such as fertility and muscle development using multiple ‘omics’ approaches. Comparisons were made between High-diet vs. Low-diet and between High-RFI vs. Low-RFI animals. An epigenetics experiment on semen samples identified 891 biomarkers associated with growth and development. A gene expression study on Longissimus thoracis muscle, semimembranosus muscle, liver, and testis identified 4 genes associated with muscle development and immunity of which Myocyte enhancer factor 2A [MEF2A; induces myogenesis and control muscle differentiation] was the only differentially expressed gene identified in all four tissues. An initial metabolomics experiment on serum samples using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) identified 4 metabolite biomarkers related to energy and protein metabolism. Once all the biomarkers are identified, bioinformatics approaches will be used to create a database covering all the ‘omics’ data collected from this project. This database will be broadened by adding other information obtained from relevant literature reviews. Association analyses with these data sets will be performed to reveal key biological pathways affected by RFI and maternal nutrition. Through these association studies between the genome and metabolome, it is expected that candidate biomarker genes and metabolites for feed efficiency, fertility, and/or muscle development are identified. If these gene/metabolite biomarkers are validated in a larger animal population, they could potentially be used in breeding programs to select superior animals. It is also expected that this work will lead to the development of an online tool that could be used to predict future traits of interest in an animal given its measurable ‘omics’ traits.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1303
92179
Investigating the Potential Use of Unsaturated Fatty Acids as Antifungal Crop Protective Agents
Abstract:
Pathogenic fungi cause significant yield losses and quality reductions to major crops including wheat, canola, and barley. Toxic metabolites produced by phytopathogenic fungi also pose significant risks to animal and human health. Extensive application of synthetic fungicides is not a sustainable solution since it poses risks to human, animal and environmental health. Unsaturated fatty acids may provide an environmentally friendly alternative because of their direct antifungal activity against phytopathogens as well as through the stimulation of plant defense pathways. The present study assessed the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of two hydroxy fatty acids, coriolic acid and ricinoleic acid, against the phytopathogens Fusarium graminearum, Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, Pyrenophora teres f. teres, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Leptosphaeria maculans. Antifungal activity of coriolic acid and ricinoleic acid was evaluated using broth micro-dilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Results indicated that both ricinoleic acid and coriolic acid showed antifungal activity against phytopathogens, with the strongest inhibitory activity against L. maculans, but the MIC varied greatly between species. An antifungal effect was observed for coriolic acid in vivo against pathogenic fungi of wheat and barley. This effect was not correlated to the in vitro activity because ricinoleic acid with equivalent in vitro antifungal activity showed no protective effect in vivo. Moreover, neither coriolic acid nor ricinoleic acid controlled fungal pathogens of canola. In conclusion, coriolic acid inhibits some phytopathogens in vivo and may have the potential to be an effective crop protection agent.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1302
92052
Postharvest Losses and Handling Improvement of Organic Pak-Choi and Choy Sum
Abstract:
Current consumers’ behavior trends have changed towards more health awareness, the well-being of society and interest of nature and environment. The Royal Project Foundation is, therefore, well aware of organic agriculture. The project only focused on using natural products and utilizing its highland biological merits to increase resistance to diseases and insects for the produce grown. The project also brought in basic knowledge from a variety of available research information, including, but not limited to, improvement of soil fertility and a control of plant insects with biological methods in order to lay a foundation in developing and promoting farmers to grow quality produce with a high health safety. This will finally lead to sustainability for future highland agriculture and a decrease of chemical use on the highland area which is a source of natural watershed. However, there are still shortcomings of the postharvest management in term of quality and losses, such as bruising, rottenness, wilting and yellowish leaves. These losses negatively affect the maintenance and a shelf life of organic vegetables. Therefore, it is important that a research study of the appropriate and effective postharvest management is conducted for an individual organic vegetable to minimize product loss and find root causes of postharvest losses which would contribute to future postharvest management best practices. This can be achieved through surveys and data collection from postharvest processes in order to conduct analysis for causes of postharvest losses of organic pak-choi, baby pak-choi, and choy sum. Consequently, postharvest losses reduction strategies of organic vegetables can be achieved. In this study, postharvest losses of organic pak choi, baby pak-choi, and choy sum were determined at each stage of the supply chain starting from the field after harvesting, at the Development Center packinghouse, at Chiang Mai packinghouse, at Bangkok packing house and at the Royal Project retail shop in Chiang Mai. The results showed that postharvest losses of organic pak-choi, baby pak-choi, and choy sum were 86.05, 89.05 and 59.03 percent, respectively. The main factors contributing to losses of organic vegetables were due to mechanical damage and underutilized parts and/or short of minimum quality standard. Good practices had been developed after causes of losses were identified. Appropriate postharvest handling and management, for example, temperature control, hygienic cleaning, and reducing the duration of the supply chain, postharvest losses of all organic vegetables should be able to remarkably reduced postharvest losses in the supply chain.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1301
92022
Extraction, Recovery and Bioactivities of Chlorogenic Acid from Unripe Green Coffee Cherry Waste of Coffee Processing Industry
Abstract:
Unripe green coffee cherry (UGCC) accounting about 5 % of total raw material weight receiving to the coffee bean production process and is, in general, sorting out and dump as waste. The UGCC is known to rich in phenolic compounds such as caffeoylquinic acids, feruloylquinic acids, chlorogenic acid (CGA), etc. CGA is one of the potent bioactive compounds using in the nutraceutical and functional food industry. Therefore, this study aimed at optimization the extraction condition of CGA from UGCC using Accelerated Solvent Extractor (ASE). The ethanol/water mixture at various ethanol concentrations (50, 60 and 70 % (v/v)) was used as an extraction solvent at elevated pressure (10.34 MPa) and temperatures (90, 120 and 150 °C). The recovery yield of UGCC crude extract, total phenolic content, CGA content and some bioactivities of UGCC extract were investigated. Using of ASE at lower temperature with higher ethanol concentration provided higher CGA content in the UGCC crude extract. The maximum CGA content was observed at the ethanol concentration of 70% ethanol and 90 °C. The further purification of UGCC crude extract gave a higher purity of CGA with a purified CGA yield of 4.28 % (w/w, of dried UGCC sample) containing 72.52 % CGA equivalent. The antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity of purified CGA extract were determined. The purified CGA exhibited the 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity at 0.88 mg Trolox equivalent/mg purified CGA sample. The antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli was observed with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 3.12 mg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) at 12.5 mg/ml. These results suggested that using of high concentration of ethanol and low temperature under elevated pressure of ASE condition could accelerate the extraction of CGA from UGCC. The purified CGA extract could be a promising alternative source of bioactive compound using for nutraceutical and functional food industry.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1300
91996
Sound Analysis of Young Broilers Reared under Different Stocking Densities in Intensive Poultry Farming
Abstract:
The choice of stocking density in poultry farming is a potential way for determining welfare level of poultry. However, it is difficult to measure stocking densities in poultry farming because of a lot of variables such as species, age and weight, feeding way, house structure and geographical location in different broiler houses. A method was proposed in this paper to measure the differences of young broilers reared under different stocking densities by sound analysis. Vocalisations of broilers were recorded and analysed under different stocking densities to identify the relationship between sounds and stocking densities. Recordings were made continuously for three-week-old chickens in order to evaluate the variation of sounds emitted by the animals at the beginning. The experimental trial was carried out in an indoor reared broiler farm; the audio recording procedures lasted for 5 days. Broilers were divided into 5 groups, stocking density treatments were 8/m², 10/m², 12/m² (96birds/pen), 14/m² and 16/m², all conditions including ventilation and feed conditions were kept same except from stocking densities in every group. The recordings and analysis of sounds of chickens were made noninvasively. Sound recordings were manually analysed and labelled using sound analysis software: GoldWave Digital Audio Editor. After sound acquisition process, the Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (MFCC) was extracted from sound data, and the Support Vector Machine (SVM) was used as an early detector and classifier. This preliminary study, conducted in an indoor reared broiler farm shows that this method can be used to classify sounds of chickens under different densities economically (only a cheap microphone and recorder can be used), the classification accuracy is 85.7%. This method can predict the optimum stocking density of broilers with the complement of animal welfare indicators, animal productive indicators and so on.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1299
91768
Interaction of Elevated Carbon Dioxide and Temperature on Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) Growth and Fruit Yield
Abstract:
Increase in atmospheric CO₂ concentration ([CO₂]), and ambient temperature associated with changing climatic conditions will have significant impacts on agriculture crop productivity and quality. Higher temperatures over the optimum range (20-25ºC) lead to crop failures, while elevated [CO₂] stimulated plant growth and yield but compromised the fruits' physical quality. However, there is very limited understanding on the interaction of these variables on the plant growth, yield, and quality. This study was designed to investigate the interactive effect of temperature and elevated [CO₂] on growth, yield, and quality of strawberries. Strawberry cultivars ‘Albion’ and ‘San Andreas' were grown under six different combinations of two temperatures (25 and 30ºC) and three [CO₂] (400, 650 and 950 µmol mol⁻¹) in controlled-environmental growth chambers. Plant growth measurements such as plant height, canopy area, number of flowers, and fruit yield were measured during phenological development. Photosynthesis and transpiration, the ratio of intercellular to atmospheric [CO₂] (Ci/Ca) were measured to estimate the physiological adjustment to climate stress. The temperature and [CO₂] interaction on growth and yield of strawberry was significant (p < 0.05). Across both cultivars, highest fruit yields were observed at 650 µmol mol⁻¹ [CO₂], this was particularly obvious at 25°C. The fruit yield gradually decreased at 30°C under all the treatment combinations. However, photosynthesis rates were highest at 650 µmol mol⁻¹ [CO₂], but no increment was found at 900 µmol mol⁻¹ [CO₂]. Interestingly, Ci/Ca ratio increased with increasing atmospheric [CO₂] which was predominant at high temperature. Similarly, fruit quality and yield were substantially reduced at high [CO₂] under high temperature. Our findings suggest that increased Ci/Ca ratio at high temperature is likely reduces the photosynthesis and thus yield response to elevated [CO₂].
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1298
91670
Effect of Roasting Treatment on Milling Quality, Physicochemical, and Bioactive Compounds of Dough Stage Rice Grains
Abstract:
Rice during grain development stage is a rich source of many bioactive compounds. Dough stage rice contains high amounts of photochemical and can be used for rice milling industries. However, rice grain at dough stage had low milling quality due to high moisture content. Thermal processing can be applied to rice grain for improving milled rice yield. This experiment was conducted to study the chemical and physic properties of dough stage rice grain after roasting treatment. Rice were roasted with two different methods including traditional pan roasting at 140 °C for 60 minutes and using the electrical roasting machine at 140 °C for 30, 40, and 50 minutes. The chemical, physical properties, and bioactive compounds of brown rice and milled rice were evaluated. The result of this experiment showed that moisture content of brown and milled rice was less than 10 % and amylose contents were in the range of 26-28 %. Rice grains roasting for 30 min using electrical roasting machine had high head rice yield and length and breadth of grain after milling were close to traditional pan roasting (p > 0.05). The lightness (L*) of rice did not affect by roasting treatment (p > 0.05) and the a* indicated the yellowness of milled rice was lower than brown rice. The bioactive compounds of brown and milled rice significantly decreased with increasing of drying time. Brown rice roasted for 30 minutes had the highest of total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, α-tocopherol, and ɤ-oryzanol content. Volume expansion and elongation of cooked rice decreased as roasting time increased and quality of cooked rice roasted for 30 min was comparable to traditional pan roasting. Hardness of cooked rice as measured by texture analyzer increased with increasing roasting time. The results indicated that rice grains at dough stage, containing a high amount of bioactive compounds, have a great potential for rice milling industries and the electrical roasting machine can be used as an alternative to pan roasting which decreases processing time and labor costs.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1297
91637
A Constrained Model Predictive Control Scheme for Simultaneous Control of Temperature and Hygrometry in Greenhouses
Abstract:
The objective of greenhouse climate control is to improve the culture development and to minimize the production costs. A greenhouse is an open system to external environment and the challenge is to regulate the internal climate despite the strong meteorological disturbances. The internal state of greenhouse considered in this work is defined by too relevant and coupled variables, namely inside temperature and hygrometry. These two variables are chosen to describe the internal state of greenhouses due to their importance in the development of plants and their sensitivity to external climatic conditions, sources of weather disturbances. A multivariable model is proposed and validated by considering a greenhouse as black-box system and the least square method is applied to parameters identification basing on collected experimental measures. To regulate the internal climate, we propose a Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme. This one considers the measured meteorological disturbances and the physical and operational constraints on the control and state variables. A successful feasibility study of the proposed controller is presented, and simulation results show good performances despite the high interaction between internal and external variables and the strong external meteorological disturbances. The inside temperature and hygrometry are tracking nearly the desired trajectories. A comparison study with an On/Off control applied to the same greenhouse confirms the efficiency of the MPC approach to inside climate control.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1296
91512
Beyond Adoption: Econometric Analysis of Impacts of Farmer Innovation Systems and Improved Agricultural Technologies on Rice Yield in Ghana
Abstract:
In order to increase and bridge the differences in rice yield, many farmers have resorted to adopting Farmer Innovation Systems (FISs) and Improved Agricultural Technologies (IATs). This study econometrically analysed the impacts of adoption of FISs and IATs on rice yield using multinomial endogenous switching regression (MESR). Nine-hundred and seven (907) rice farmers from Guinea Savannah Zone (GSZ), Forest Savannah Transition Zone (FSTZ) and Coastal Savannah Zone (CSZ) were used for the study. The study used both primary and secondary data. FBO advice, rice farming experience and distance from farming communities to input markets increase farmers’ adoption of only FISs. Factors that increase farmers’ probability of adopting only IATs are access to extension advice, credit, improved seeds and contract farming. Farmers located in CSZ have higher probability of adopting only IATs than their counterparts living in other agro-ecological zones. Age and access to input subsidy increase the probability of jointly adopting FISs and IATs. FISs and IATs have heterogeneous impact on rice yield with adoption of only IATs having the highest impact followed by joint adoption of FISs and IATs. It is important for stakeholders in rice subsector to champion the provision of improved rice seeds, the intensification of agricultural extension services and contract farming concept. Researchers should endeavour to researched into FISs.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1295
91199
Life Cycle-Based Analysis of Meat Production: Ecosystem Impacts
Abstract:
Recently, meat production ecosystem impacts initiated many hot discussions and researchers, and it is a difficult implementation to reduce such impacts due to the demand of meat products. It calls for better management and control of ecosystem impacts from every aspects of meat production. This article analyzes the ecosystem impacts of meat production based on meat products life cycle. The analysis shows that considerable ecosystem impacts are caused by different meat production steps: initial establishment phase, animal raising, slaughterhouse processing, meat consumption, and wastes management. Based on this analysis, the impacts are summarized as: leading factor for biodiversity loss; water waste, land use waste and land degradation; greenhouse gases emissions; pollution to air, water, and soil; related major diseases. The article also provides a discussion on a solution-sustainable food system, which could help in reducing ecosystem impacts. The analysis method is based on the life cycle level, it provides a concept of the whole meat industry ecosystem impacts, and the analysis result could be useful to manage or control meat production ecosystem impacts from investor, producer and consumer sides.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1294
91041
Home Garden: A Food-Based Strategy to Achieve Sustainable Impact on Household Nutrition of Resource-Poor Families in Nepal
Abstract:
Nepal has been putting its efforts into securing food and nutrition security for its citizens adopting different models and approaches. Home Garden approach, that integrates vegetables, fruits, small livestock, poultry along with other components like fish, honeybee, mushroom, spices for the promotion of nutritional security of resource-poor and disadvantaged groups was implemented during March 2009 to July 2013 spreading over 16 districts of Nepal covering 115 farmers groups, directly working with 3500 households. Sustained long-term impact of development interventions targeted to the resource-poor and disadvantaged groups has been a recurrent issue for donors, policymakers and practitioners alike. Considering the issue, a post-project evaluation was carried out in a selected project group (Dangibari of Jhapa) after four years of project completion in 2017 in order to evaluate the impact and understand the factors associated with its success. Qualitative information was collected through focus group discussion with group members and associated local institutions. For quantitative information, a quick survey was carried out to the same group members only selecting few indicators. The results are compared with the data obtained from the baseline study conducted by the project in March 2009. The impact of project intervention was evident as compared to the benchmarks established during the baseline, even after four years of project completion. The area under home garden is increased to 729 m² from 386 m² and average food self-sufficiency months increased to 10.22 from 8.11. Seven to eleven fruit species are maintained in the home gardens. An average number of vegetable species grown increased to 15.85 from 9.86. It has resulted in an increase in vegetables self-sufficient month to 8.74 from 4.74 and a huge increase in cash income NPR 6142.8 (USD 59.6) from NPR 385.7 (USD 3.9) from the sale of surplus vegetables. Coaching and mentoring including nutrition sensitization by the project staff at the beginning, inputs and technical support during the project implementation phase and projects effort on the institutional building of disadvantaged farmers were the key drivers of home garden sustainability and expansion. Specifically, package of home garden management trainings provided by the project staff, availability of group funds for buying inputs even after the project, uniting home garden group members in a cooperative, resource leveraging by local institutions through group lobbying, farmers innovations for maintaining home garden diversity and continuous backstopping support by few active members as local resource persons to other members are some additional factors contributing to sustain and/or improve the home garden status by the resource-poor and disadvantaged group.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1293
90906
Chelating Effect of Black Tea Extract Compared to Citric Acid in the Process of the Oxidation of Sunflower, Canola, Olive, and Tallow Oils
Abstract:
Oxidation resistance is one of the important parameters in maintaining the quality of olive oil during its storage. Ensuring the stability of the quality of olive oil is one of the important concerns of the producers and consumers. Prooxidants such as iron and copper accelerate the oxidation reaction, and also anti-oxidants and chelating compounds delay it. In this study, chelating effect of tea extract which contains significant amounts of tannic acid is investigated in comparison with citric acid. To do it, 0.1 ppm copper was added to these four kinds of oil, sunflower, olive, canola, and tallow, and then chelating effect of citric acid (0.01%), tannic acid (0.01%) and tea extract (0.1%) were measured by adding to this composition. To this end, the resistance time of the oils against oxidation was measured at 120 °C and an air flow of 20 liters per hour. And the value of peroxide was measured by oven test in six periods of 24 hours at 105 °C. The results showed that citric acid, tannic acid and tea extract had chelating property and increased the resistance time of the studied oils. As a result, considering chelating property and increasing resistance of oil, tannic acid showed better effect than tea extract and tea extract had better effect than citric acid.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1292
90734
Effect of Different Levels of Distillery Yeast Sludge on Immune Level, Egg Quality and Performance of Layers as a Substitute for Soybean Meal
Abstract:
There is a dire need to replace high-cost protein with more economical protein to overcome animal protein shortage in developing nations especially countries like Pakistan. In conjunction with these efforts, the current study was planned to evaluate the effects of various dried distillery yeast sludge (DYS) levels on the immune level, egg quality, and performance of layers by replacing soybean meal. The study was designed with two hundred layers of Hy-Line variety. Distillery yeast sludge was dried and ground for 2 mm mesh size and after this proximate and mineral analysis was determined. Five isocaloric and isonitrogeneous feeds were given containing C (control), 5, 10, 15, 20% distillery yeast sludge by replacing soybean meal. The trial was performed in the completely randomized design with five treatments, 4 replicates and 10 hen per replicate. Results demonstrated that feed intake, egg production, feed conversion ratio decreased (P < 0.05) with the increased dietary DYS. However, statistically significant decrease (P < 0.05) was found in hens having DYS20 diet than control. Layers on Diets C, DYS5 and DYS10 exerted a higher immune level than DYS15 and DYS20 diets. Egg weight, eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, egg albumen height as well as haugh unit score were affected significantly by the increased level of DYS. In general, results of this study demonstrated that inclusion of DYS up to 10% showed no adverse effects on health and performance of layers.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1291
90591
Intercropping Sugarcane and Soybean in Lowland and Upland to Support Self Sufficiency of Soybean in Indonesia
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to obtain information on technical and social-economic feasibility of sugarcane-soybean. To achieve these objectives, soybeans intercropping study was conducted in sugar cane crops. This assessment was conducted in two locations with different agroecosystem,ie lowland of low plain in Mojokerto, East Java, with altitude of 50m above sea level and upland of medium plain in Malang, East Javawithaltitude of 500 m above the sea level. The design used was Split plot, with the main plots, is the soybean varieties, consisting of: (a) Anjasmoro, (b) Argomulyo, and (c) Dena-1, while the subplot is bio-fertilizer, consisting of : (1) Agrimeth, (2) Agrisoy, and (3) Biovarm. The variables observed were growth, yield and yield components and economic analysis. The yield of soybean in lowland reached 0.74 t/ha of seeds with farm profit of Indonesian Rupiah 359.200. This result is relatively low due to the delay of soybean cultivation from sugar cane soup time so that sugar cane cover soybean cultivation, while in upland obtained 0.92t/ha seeds with farm profit of Indonesian Rupiah 2,015,000. Therefore, it is suggested that soybeans are planted immediately after ratoon cane so that soybean growth can be optimal before the growth of sugarcane cover the soil surface. The yield of sugar cane in the lowland reached 124.5 tons with a profit of Indonesian Rupiah. 21,200,000,- while in upland obtained by sugarcane yield equal to 78,5 ton with profit equal to Indonesian Rupiah 8,900,000,-.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1290
90590
The Role of Climate-Smart Agriculture in the Contribution of Small-Scale Farming towards Ensuring Food Security in South Africa
Abstract:
There is need for a great deal of attention on small-scale agriculture for livelihood and food security because of the expanding global population. Small-scale agriculture has been identified as a major driving force of agricultural and rural development. However, the high dependence of the sector on natural and climatic resources has made small-scale farmers highly vulnerable to the adverse impact of climatic change thereby necessitating the need for embracing practices or concepts that will help absorb shocks from changes in climatic condition. This study examines the strategic position of small-scale farming in South African agriculture and in ensuring food security in the country, the vulnerability of small-scale agriculture to climate change and the potential of the concept of climate-smart agriculture to tackle the challenge of climate change. The study carried out a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature touching small-scale agriculture, climate change, food security and climate-smart agriculture, employing the realist review method. Findings revealed that increased productivity in the small-scale agricultural sector has a great potential of improving the food security of households in South Africa and reducing dependence on food purchase in a context of high food price inflation. Findings, however, also revealed that climate change affects small-scale subsistence farmers in terms of productivity, food security and family income, categorizing the impact on smallholder livelihoods into three major groups; biological processes, environmental and physical processes and impact on health. Analysis of the literature consistently showed that climate-smart agriculture integrates the benefits of adaptation and resilience to climate change, mitigation, and food security. As a result, farming households adopting climate-smart agriculture will be better off than their counterparts who do not. This study concludes that climate-smart agriculture could be a very good bridge linking small-scale agricultural sector and agricultural productivity and development which could bring about the much needed food security.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1289
90549
Endophytic Fungi Recovered from Lycium arabicum as an Eco-Friendly Alternative for Fusarium Crown and Root Rot Disease Control and Tomato Growth Enhancement
Abstract:
Seven endophytic fungi were isolated from the wild Solanaceous species Lycium arabicum growing in the Tunisian Centre-East and were assessed for their ability to suppress Fusarium Crown and Root Rot disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici (FORL) and to enhance plant growth. Fungal isolates were shown able to colonize tomato cv. Rio Grande roots, crowns, and stems. A significant promotion in all studied growth parameters (root length, shoot height, and roots and shoots fresh weight) was recorded in tomato plants treated with fungal conidial suspensions or their cell-free culture filtrates compared to FORL-inoculated or pathogen-free controls. I15 and I18 isolates were shown to be the most effective leading to 85.7-87.5 and 93.6-98.4% decrease in leaf and root damage index and the vascular discoloration extent, respectively, over FORL-inoculated and untreated control. These two bioactive and growth-promoting isolates (I15 and I18) were morphologically characterized and identified using rDNA sequencing gene as being Alternaria alternata (MF693801) and Fusarium fujikuroi (MF693802). These fungi significantly suppressed FORL mycelial growth and showed chitinolytic, proteolytic and amylase activities whereas only F. fujikuroi displayed a lipolytic activity. This study clearly demonstrated the potential use of fungi naturally associated with L. arabicum as biocontrol and bio-fertilizing agents.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1288
90546
Biocontrol of Fusarium Crown and Root Rot and Enhancement of Tomato Solanum lycopersicum L. Growth Using Solanum linnaeanum L. Extracts
Abstract:
In the present study, leaf, stem, and fruit aqueous extracts of native wild Solanum linnaeanum L. were screened for their ability to suppress Fusarium Crown and Root Rot disease and to enhance tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) growth under greenhouse conditions. Leaf extract used at 30% w/v was the most effective in reducing leaf and root damage index by 92.3% and the extent of vascular discoloration by 97.56% compared to Fusarium oxyxporum f. sp radicis lycopersici -inoculated and untreated control. A significant promotion of growth parameters (root length, shoot height, root and shoot biomass and stem diameter) was recorded on tomato cv. Rio Grande seedlings by 40.3-94.1% as compared to FORL inoculated control and by 9.6-88.8% over pathogen-free control. All S. linnaeanum aqueous extracts tested significantly stimulated the germination by 10.2 to 80.1% relative to the untreated control. FORL mycelial growth, assessed using the poisoned food technique, varied depending on plant organs, extracts, and concentrations used. Butanolic extracts were the most active, leading to 60.81% decrease in FORL mycelial growth. HPLC analysis of butanolic extract revealed the presence of thirteen phenolic compounds. Thus, S. linnaeanum can be explored as a potential natural source of antifungal and biofertilizing compounds.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1287
90382
Unveiling the Potential of Hydroponics as a Climate-Smart Technology for Small-Scale Farming and Food Security in Africa
Abstract:
The purpose of the paper was to assess existing literature regarding hydroponics in both the developing and developed countries. Furthermore, relate it to the context of African countries, how they can implement it and benefit from it in the face of climate change, high population growth rates, and reduced food production. Agriculture remains the major economic activity for a number of African countries. It is the source of income for most peasants, and still contributes to the Gross Domestic Product in most of these African countries. Unfortunately, climate change coupled with the increasing rates of population growth; rural-urban migration; and urbanization have led to food insecurity due to a reduction of available land for agriculture. This has further intensified the food security dilemma in Africa, especially in urban areas, where land is already limited. Considering the aforementioned state of affairs, there is an increasing demand for interventions that can help farmers in Africa to cope with climate change and increase food production. This review explores hydroponic farming and how it can be used as a climate-smart farming system in Africa’s rural and urban areas. Specifically, the review focuses on hydroponics, requirements for hydroponic farming and the state of hydroponic farming in LDCs and Developed countries (DCs). From the review, it was observed that African countries especially those that receive a lot of sunlight would highly benefit from the solar-powered hydroponic farming systems. Further, still, this farming system will help African countries cope with the challenges of high population pressure in urban areas and climate change as it qualifies to be an urban farming system.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1286
90333
Water Management in Rice Plants of Dry Season in the Rainfed Lowland
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of irrigation use on the growth and yield of two varieties of rice. Water management research on rainfed lowland rice was carried out in dry season (DS I) 2016 in an area of 10,000 m2 in Bunbarat Village, Rubaru Subdistrict, Sumenep Regency. The research was randomized block design factorial with 8 treatments and repeated 3 times, ie Factor I (varieties): (a) Inpago 9, and (b) Sidenuk; factor II (irrigation): (a) Alternate Wetting and Drying, (b) intermittent, (c) submerged, and (d) inundated. The results showed that dominant weed species such as purslane (Portulaca oleraceae L.) and barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli) were mostly found in rice cultivation with Alternate Wetting and Drying, intermittent and submerged irrigation treatment, while the lowest was inundated irrigation. The use of Sidenuk variety with Alternate Wetting and Drying irrigation yielded 5.7 t/ha dry grain harvest (dgh) and was not significantly different from the inundated watering using the Sidenuk variety (6.2 t/ha dgh). With Alternate Wetting and Drying irrigation technique, water use is more efficient as much as 1,503 m3/ha so as to produce 1 kg of grain, it needs 459 liters of water compared to inundated irrigation (665 liters/kg of grain). Results of analysis of rice farming Sidenuk variety with Alternate Wetting and Drying irrigation has the highest B/C ratio (2.56) so that economically feasible.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1285
89898
Analysis of Fertilizer Effect in the Tilapia Growth of Mozambique (Oreochromis mossambicus)
Abstract:
This paper analyses the effect of fertilizer (organic and inorganic) in the growth of tilapia. An experiment was implemented in the Aquapesca Company of Mozambique; there were considered four different treatments. Each type of fertilizer was applied in two of these treatments; a feed was supplied to the third treatment, and the fourth was taken as control. The weight and length of the tilapia were used as the growth parameters, and to measure the water quality, the physical-chemical parameters were registered. The results show that the weight and length were different for tilapias cultivated in different treatments. These differences were evidenced mainly by organic and feed treatments, where there was the largest and smallest value of these parameters, respectively. In order to prove that these differences were caused only by applied treatment without interference for the aquatic environment, a Fisher discriminant analysis was applied, which confirmed that the treatments were exposed to the same environment condition.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1284
89796
Determinant Factor of Farm Household Fruit Tree Planting: The Case of Habru Woreda, North Wollo
Abstract:
The cultivation of fruit tree in degraded areas has two-fold importance. Firstly, it improves food availability and income, and secondly, it promotes the conservation of soil and water improving, in turn, the productivity of the land. The main objectives of this study are to identify the determinant of farmer's fruit trees plantation decision and to major fruit production challenges and opportunities of the study area. The analysis was made using primary data collected from 60 sample household selected randomly from the study area in 2016. The primary data was supplemented by data collected from a key informant. In addition to the descriptive statistics and statistical tests (Chi-square test and t-test), a logit model was employed to identify the determinant of fruit tree plantation decision. Drought, pest incidence, land degradation, lack of input, lack of capital and irrigation schemes maintenance, lack of misuse of irrigation water and limited agricultural personnel are the major production constraints identified. The opportunities that need to further exploited are better access to irrigation, main road access, endowment of preferred guava variety, experience of farmers, and proximity of the study area to research center. The result of logit model shows that from different factors hypothesized to determine fruit tree plantation decision, age of the household head accesses to market and perception of farmers about fruits' disease and pest resistance are found to be significant. The result has revealed important implications for the promotion of fruit production for both land degradation control and rehabilitation and increasing the livelihood of farming households.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):