Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 46707

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering

Prevelance of Green Peach Aphid (Myzus persicae) in District Jacobabad, Sindh, Pakistran
Jacobabad district has a hot desert climate with very hot summers and insignificant winters. The highest recorded temperature is 53.8 °C (127.0 °F), and the lowest recorded temperature is −4.9 °C (25.0 °F). Rainfall is short and mostly occurs in the monsoon season (July–September). Agriculture point of view Jacobabad district is very important district of Sindh Pakistan in which many types of crop and vegetables are cultivated annually such as Wheat, Rice, and Brassica, Cabbage, Spinach, Chili etc. which are badly attacked by many crops pest. Insects are very tiny, sensitive and most attractive mortal and most important collection of animal wildlife they play important role in biological control agent, biodiversity & agroecosystem. The brassica crop extremely infested by many different types of pest such as Aphids, Whitefly, Jassids, Thrips, Mealybug, scale insect pink worm, bollworm and borers Mealy bug, scale insect etc. These pests destroy many crops. The present study was carried out from Jacobabad district from January 2017 to April 2017.
Antibacterial Effects of Some Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Extracts on Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Pear Orchards
Bacterial diseases are very destructive and cause economic losses on pears. Promising plant extracts for the management of plant diseases are environmentally safe, long-lasting and extracts of certain plants contain alkaloids, tannins, quinones, coumarins, phenolic compounds, and phytoalexins. In this study, bacteria were isolated from different parts of pear exhibiting characteristic symptoms of bacterial diseases from the Central Anatolia, Turkey. Pathogenic bacteria were identified by morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular methods as fire blight (Erwinia amylovora (39%)), bacterial blossom blast and blister bark (Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (22%)), crown gall (Rhizobium radiobacter (1%)) from different pear cultivars, and determined virulence levels of the pathogens with pathogenicity tests. The air-dried 25 plant material was ground into fine powder and extraction was performed at room temperature by maceration with 80% (v/v) methanol/distilled water. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by using modified disc diffusion method at five different concentrations and streptomycin sulphate was used as control chemical. Bacterial suspensions were prepared as 108 CFU ml⁻¹ densities and 100 µl bacterial suspensions were spread to TSA medium. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by measuring the inhibition zones in reference to the test organisms. Among the tested plants, Origanum vulgare, Hedera helix, Satureja hortensis, Rhus coriaria, Eucalyptus globulus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Salvia officinalis, Cuminum cyminum and Thymus vulgaris showed a good antibacterial activity and they inhibited the growth of the pathogens with inhibition zone diameter ranging from 7 to 27 mm at 20% (w/v) in absolute methanol in vitro conditions. In vivo, the highest efficacy was determined as 27% on reducing tumor formation of R. radiobacter, and 48% and 41% on reducing shoot blight of E. amylovora and P. s. pv. syringae on pear seedlings, respectively. Obtaining data indicated that some plant extracts may be used against the bacterial diseases on pome fruits within sustainable and organic management programs.
Conjunctive Use of Shallow Groundwater for Irrigation Purpose: The Case of Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia
Irrigation suitability of shallow groundwater (SGW) was investigated by taking thirty groundwater samples from piezometers and hand-dug wells in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate (WSSE) (Ethiopia). Many physicochemical parameters (Mg²⁺, Na⁺, Ca²⁺, K⁺, CO₃-, SO4²⁻, HCO₃⁻, Cl⁻, TH, EC, TDS and pH) were analyzed following standard procedures. Different irrigation indices (MAR, SSP, SAR, RSC, KR, and PI) were also used for SGW suitability assessment. If all SGW are blended and used for irrigation, the salinity problem would be slight to moderate, and 100% of potential sugarcane yield could be obtained. The infiltration and sodium ion toxicity problems of the blended water would be none to moderate, and slight to moderate, respectively. As sugarcane is semi-tolerant to sodium toxicity, no significant sodium toxicity problem would be expected from the use of blended water. Blending SGW would also reduce each chloride and boron ion toxicity to none. In general, the rating of SGW was good to excellent for irrigation in terms of average EC (salinity), and excellent in terms of average SAR (infiltration). The SGW of the WSSE was categorized under C3S1 (high salinity and low sodium hazard). In conclusion, the conjunctive use of groundwater for irrigation would help to reduce the potential effect of waterlogging and salinization and their associated problems on soil and sugarcane production and productivity. However, a high value of SSP and RSC indicate a high possibility of infiltration problem. Hence, it is advisable to use the SGW for irrigation after blending with surface water. In this case, the optimum blending ratio of the surface to SGW sources has to be determined for sustainable sugarcane productivity.
Identification and Classification of Fiber-Fortified Semolina by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR)
Food fortification is the intentional addition of a nutrient in a food matrix and has been widely used to overcome the lack of nutrients in the diet or increasing the nutritional value of food. Fortified food must meet the demand of the population, taking into account their habits and risks that these foods may cause. Wheat and its by-products, such as semolina, has been strongly indicated to be used as a food vehicle since it is widely consumed and used in the production of other foods. These products have been strategically used to add some nutrients, such as fibers. Methods of analysis and quantification of these kinds of components are destructive and require lengthy sample preparation and analysis. Therefore, the industry has searched for faster and less invasive methods, such as Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR). NIR is a rapid and cost-effective method, however, it is based on indirect measurements, yielding high amount of data. Therefore, NIR spectroscopy requires calibration with mathematical and statistical tools (Chemometrics) to extract analytical information from the corresponding spectra, as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). PCA is well suited for NIR, once it can handle many spectra at a time and be used for non-supervised classification. Advantages of the PCA, which is also a data reduction technique, is that it reduces the data spectra to a smaller number of latent variables for further interpretation. On the other hand, LDA is a supervised method that searches the Canonical Variables (CV) with the maximum separation among different categories. In LDA, the first CV is the direction of maximum ratio between inter and intra-class variances. The present work used a portable infrared spectrometer (NIR) for identification and classification of pure and fiber-fortified semolina samples. The fiber was added to semolina in two different concentrations, and after the spectra acquisition, the data was used for PCA and LDA to identify and discriminate the samples. The results showed that NIR spectroscopy associate to PCA was very effective in identifying pure and fiber-fortified semolina. Additionally, the classification range of the samples using LDA was between 78.3% and 95% for calibration and 75% and 95% for cross-validation. Thus, after the multivariate analysis such as PCA and LDA, it was possible to verify that NIR associated to chemometric methods is able to identify and classify the different samples in a fast and non-destructive way.
Genetic Variability in Advanced Derivatives of Interspecific Hybrids in Brassica
The present study was conducted to estimate the genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in six parental lines and their 56 genotypes derived from five introgressed brassica populations on the basis of morphological and biochemical traits. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with two replications at The University of Agriculture Peshawar-Pakistan during growing season of 2015-2016. The ANOVA of all traits of F5:6 populations showed highly significant differences (P ≤ 0.01) for all morphological and biochemical traits. Among F5:6 populations, the genotype 2(526) was earlier in flowering (108.65 days), and genotype 14(485) was earlier in maturity (170 days). Tallest plants (182.5 cm), largest main raceme (91.5 cm) and maximum number of pods (80.5) on main raceme were recorded for genotype 17(34). Maximum primary branches plant-1(6.2) and longest pods (10.26 cm) were recorded for genotype 15, while genotype 16(171) had more seeds pod⁻¹ (22) and gave maximum yield plant-1 (30.22 g). The maximum 100-seed weight (0.60 g) was observed for genotype 10(506) while high protein content (22.61%) was recorded for genotype 4(99). Maximum oil content (54.08 %) and low linoleic acid (7.07 %) were produced by genotype (12(138) and low glucosinolate (59.01 µMg⁻¹) was recorded for genotype 21(113). The genotype 27(303) having high oleic acid content (51.73 %) and genotype 1(209) gave low erucic acid (35.97 %). Among the F5:6 populations moderate to high heritability observed for all morphological and biochemical traits coupled with high genetic advance. Cluster analysis grouped the 56 F5:6 populations along their parental lines into seven different groups. Each group was different from the other group on the basis of morphological and biochemical traits. Moreover all the F5:6 populations showed sufficient variability. Genotypes 10(506) and 16(171) were superior for high seed yield⁻¹, 100-seeds weight, and seed pod⁻¹ and are recommended for future breeding program.
Studies on Optimizing the Level of Liquid Biofertilizers in Peanut and Maize and Their Economic Analysis
Biofertilizers containing live microbial cells can mobilize one or more nutrients to plants when applied to either seed or rhizosphere. They form an integral part of nutrient management strategies for sustainable production of agricultural crops. Annually, about 22 tons of lignite-based biofertilizers are being produced and supplied to farmers at the Institute of Organic Farming, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka state India. Although carrier based biofertilizers are common, they have shorter shelf life, poor quality, high contamination, unpredictable field performance and high cost of solid carriers. Hence, liquid formulations are being developed to increase their efficacy and broaden field applicability. An attempt was made to develop liquid formulation of strains of Rhizobium NC-92 (Groundnut), Azospirillum ACD15 both nitrogen-fixing biofertilizers and Pseudomonas striata an efficient P-solubilizing bacteria (PSB). Different concentration of amendments such as additives (glycerol and polyethylene glycol), adjuvants (carboxyl methyl cellulose), gum arabica (GA), surfactant (polysorbate) and trehalose specifically for Azospirillum were found essential. Combinations of formulations of Rhizobium and PSB for groundnut and Azospirillum and PSB for maize were evaluated under field conditions to determine the optimum level of inoculum required. Each biofertilizer strain was inoculated at the rate of 2, 4, 8 ml per kg of seeds and the efficacy of each formulation both individually and in combinations was evaluated against the lignite-based formulation at the rate of 20 g each per kg seeds and a un-inoculated set was included to compare the inoculation effect. The field experiment had 17 treatments in three replicates and the best level of inoculum was decided based on net returns and cost: benefit ratio. In peanut, the combination of 4 ml of Rhizobium and 2 ml of PSB resulted in the highest net returns and higher cost to benefit ratio of 1:2.98 followed by treatment with a combination of 2 ml per kg each of Rhizobium and PSB with a B;C ratio of 1:2.84. The benefits in terms of net returns were to the extent of 16 percent due to inoculation with lignite based formulations while it was up to 48 percent due to the best combination of liquid biofertilizers. In maize combination of liquid formulations consisting of 4 ml of Azospirillum and 2 ml of PSB resulted in the highest net returns; about 53 percent higher than the un-inoculated control and 20 percent higher than the treatment with lignite based formulation. In both the crops inoculation with lignite based formulations significantly increased the net returns over un-inoculated control while levels higher or lesser than 4 ml of Rhizobium and Azospirillum and higher or lesser than 2 ml of PSB were not economical and hence not optimal for these two crops.
Contributions of Microbial Activities to Tomato Growth and Yield under an Organic Production System
Optimizing microbiological activities in an organic crop production system is crucial to the realization of optimum growth and development of the crops. Field and pot experiments were conducted to assess soil microbial activities, growth and yield of tomato varieties in response to 4 rates of composted plant and animal residues. The compost rates were 0, 5, 10 and 20 t ha-1, and improved Ibadan and Ibadan local constituted the varieties. Fungi population, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellulase and proteinase activities were significantly higher (P≤ 0.05) at the rhizosphere of the local variety than that of improved variety. This led to a significantly higher number of branches, plant height, leaf area, number of fruits and less days to maturity in the local variety. Furthermore, compost-amended soil had significantly higher microbial populations, microbial biomass N, P and C, enzyme activities, soil N, P and organic carbon than control, but amendment of 20 t ha-1 gave significantly higher values than other compost rates. Consequently, growth parameters and tissue N significantly increased in all compost treatments while dry matter yield and weight of fruits were significantly higher in soil amended with 20 t ha-1. Correlation analysis showed that microbial activities at 6 weeks after transplanting (6 WAT) were more consistently and highly correlated with growth and yield parameters. It was concluded that microbial activities could be optimized to improve the yield of the two tomato varieties in an organic production system, through the application of compost, particularly at 20 t ha-1.
Evaluation of Different Cropping Systems under Organic, Inorganic and Integrated Production Systems
Any kind of research on production technology of individual crop / commodity /breed has not brought sustainability or stability in crop production. The sustainability of the system over years depends on the maintenance of the soil health. Organic production system includes use of organic manures, biofertilizers, green manuring for nutrient supply and biopesticides for plant protection helps to sustain the productivity even under adverse climatic condition. The study was initiated to evaluate the performance of different cropping systems under organic, inorganic and integrated production systems at The Institute of Organic Farming, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad (Karnataka-India) under ICAR Network Project on Organic Farming. The trial was conducted for four years (2013-14 to 2016-17) on fixed site. Five cropping systems viz., sequence cropping of cowpea – safflower, greengram– rabi sorghum, maize-bengalgram, sole cropping of pigeonpea and intercropping of groundnut + cotton were evaluated under six nutrient management practices. The nutrient management practices are NM1 (100% Organic farming (Organic manures equivalent to 100% N (Cereals/cotton) or 100% P2O5 (Legumes), NM2 (75% Organic farming (Organic manures equivalent to 75% N (Cereals/cotton) or 100% P2O5 (Legumes) + Cow urine and Vermi-wash application), NM3 (Integrated farming (50% Organic + 50% Inorganic nutrients, NM4 (Integrated farming (75% Organic + 25% Inorganic nutrients, NM5 (100% Inorganic farming (Recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers)) and NM6 (Recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers + Recommended rate of farm yard manure (FYM). Among the cropping systems evaluated for different production systems indicated that the Groundnut + Hybrid cotton (2:1) intercropping system found more remunerative as compared to Sole pigeonpea cropping system, Greengram-Sorghum sequence cropping system, Maize-Chickpea sequence cropping system and Cowpea-Safflower sequence cropping system irrespective of the production systems. Production practices involving application of recommended rates of fertilizers + recommended rates of organic manures (Farmyard manure) produced higher net monetary returns and higher B:C ratio as compared to integrated production system involving application of 50 % organics + 50 % inorganic and application of 75 % organics + 25 % inorganic and organic production system only Both the two organic production systems viz., 100 % Organic production system (Organic manures equivalent to 100 % N (Cereals/cotton) or 100 % P2O5 (Legumes) and 75 % Organic production system (Organic manures equivalent to 75 % N (Cereals) or 100 % P2O5 (Legumes) + Cow urine and Vermi-wash application) are found to be on par. Further, integrated production system involving application of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers found more beneficial over organic production systems.
Impact of Bio Preparations on Agro-Chemical Indexes and Fruit Mineral Composition of Mandarin (Citrus Reticulata) Orchard
Citrus culture used to be one of the leading fields of sub-tropical agriculture in Georgia and especially in Adjara region, but the citrus production has been significantly decreased in recent years due to deterioration of quality index of fruit and reduction of sale markets. The fact severely affected both the economy of Republic and population. Intensive technologies of citrus fruit production are widely implemented in the world practices, which include the following: variety of species, consumption of fertilizers and chemicals, proper use of fruit production and etc. However working on technologies which ensure getting of high quality and plentiful product is very much important if taking into consideration modern, global ecological problems. Using of bio-preparations for plant nourishment is considered as one of the activities. The present work discusses liquid organic fertilizer 'Biorag' produced in Georgia and influence of its growth stimulation (Gakhokidze N1, N2, N3) on agrochemical index of soils and mineral composition of fruit of Citrus Unshiu orchards cultivated in the sub-tropical zone of Black Sea in Adjara region. It was ascertained that liquid organic fertilizers used in the orchard of citrus 'Unshiu' and influence of growth stimulators on the quality index of fruit are not clearly shown in comparison with control one. A small priority is noticed in case of growth stimulators. In conditions of red soils, liquid organic fertilizers and growth stimulators added in the nutrition of the citrus more or less influence the dry material of fruit and the composition of ash and nutrition elements. Agro-chemical index of the soil, except exchange acidity, is somehow enlarged which is one of the positive results in this case.
Cost Benefit Analysis of Adoption of Climate Change Adaptation Options among Rural Rice Farmers in Nepal
This paper estimates cost and benefit of adoption of climate change adaptation options available to the rural rice farmers of Nepal. Adoption of adaptation strategies, intensity of use of adaptation options, identification of labor and non-labor cost and finally per unit cost and benefit analysis of climate change adaptation were made. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to source respondents for the study and used structured questionnaire techniques to collect data from 773 households from seven districts; 3 from Terai and 4 from Hilly region of Nepal. The result revealed that there are 13 major adaptation options rice farmers practice in order to protect themselves from climatic risk. Among the given adaptation options, the first three popular adaptation options practiced by rice farmers are (i) increasing use of chemical fertilizer (60.93%) (ii) use of climate smart verities (49.29%) and (iii) change in nursery date (32.08%). Adaptation cost is obvious, based on that, the first three costly adaptation options are the alternative irrigation practice which incurred average cost of US $69.95 (US$ 1 = 102.84 Nepalese Rupees) followed by a denser plantation of local seeds ($ 20.69) and using climate smart varieties ($ 18.06). 88% farmers practiced more than one adaptation strategies on the same farm with the aim of reducing the effect of extreme climatic conditions. Total cost and revenue revealed that per unit total cost ranges from $28.34 to $32.79 whereas per unit total revenue ranges $33.4 to $49.02. Surprisingly, it is observed that farmers who do not adopt any adaptation options are able to receive highest income from per unit production. As Net Present Value (NPV) is positive and Benefit Cost Ration (BCR) is greater than one for every adaptation options that indicates the available adaptation options are profitable to the rice farmers.
Finite Element Analysis of Thermal Problems in Gas Insulated Transmission Lines Using cf3i
Abstract In this paper, Gas Insulated transmission lines (GILs) has been investigated using 2D coupled Multiphysics finite element analysis, which involved the multiple species transport technique to deal with heat transfer problems in high voltage power apparatus .The FEM is employed to investigate the coupled eddy current and steady state thermal field using the commercial software Ansys FLUENT. Unlike the traditional models the surrounding air is also included in the solution region to avoid the need of constant convective heat transfer coefficients. A mixture cf3I /co2 is used as a potential alternative to SF6 . The power losses solved by electromagnetic field analysis used as heat input to the thermal analysis. Consequently, the simulation results by coupled field analysis have a good agreement with analytical method reported in the literature
Use of Fruit and Vegetable Waste Based Biochar for Removal of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solution
Current study explored the heavy metals (Cu, Cd and Pb) adsorption by biochar derived from banana peels (BB) and cauliflower leaves (CB) in aqueous solution. Both biochars were pyrolyzed at 600ᵒC for 2 hrs. Results of the study showed that both BB and CB have very high heavy metal adsorption capacity. As compared to CB, BB has more intrinsic ability to adsorption more heavy metals on its surface. BB and CB adsorbed 77.1 mg g⁻¹ and 59.6 mg g⁻¹ of Cu, respectively. Similarly, BB adsorbed 128.0 mg g⁻¹ Cd(II), and 262.1 mg g⁻¹ Pb(II) while, CB adsorbed 74.1 mg g⁻¹ and 186.0 mg g⁻¹ of Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively. It was observed that both biochars followed the similar pattern of heavy metals adsorption, i.e., Pb > Cd > Cu. Adsorption capacities of both biochars were compared with the similar feedstock in literature and it was noted that adsorption capacity of BB and CB are equal or higher than the reported feedstocks, especially BB adsorption capacity was the highest. It was observed that adsorption of a particular heavy metal was significantly affected by the presence of other heavy metal in same solution matrix. pH was also found as one of the important factor influencing the adsorption of particular heavy metal on any given biochar type. XRD analysis of treated biochars showed that surface precipitation was the one of major mechanism of heavy metal removal from the aqueous solution.
Emergence of Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Pigs, Nigeria
A comparism of resistance to quinolones was carried out on isolates of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 from cattle and mec A and nuc genes harbouring Staphylococcus aureus from pigs. The isolates were separately tested in the first and current decades of the 21st century. The objectives was to demonstrate the dissemination of resistance to this frontline class of antibiotic by bacteria from food animals and bring to limelight the spread of antibiotic resistance in Nigeria. A total of 10 isolates of the E. coli O157:H7 and 9 of mecA and nuc genes harbouring S. aureus were obtained following isolation, biochemical testing, serological identification using the Remel Wellcolex E. coli O157:H7 test. Shiga toxin-production screening in the E. coli O157:H7 using the verotoxin E. coli reverse passive latex agglutination (VTEC-RPLA) test; and molecular identification of the mecA and nuc genes in S. aureus. Detection of the mecA and nuc genes were carried out using the protocol by the Danish Technical University (DTU) using the following primers mecA-1:5'-GGGATCATAGCGTCATTATTC-3', mecA-2: 5'-AACGATTGTGACACGATAGCC-3', nuc-1: 5'-TCAGCAAATGCATCACAAACAG-3', nuc-2: 5'-CGTAAATGCACTTGCTTCAGG-3' for the mecA and nuc genes respectively. The nuc genes confirm the S. aureus isolates and the mecA genes as being methicillin-resistant and so pathogenic to man. The Fluoroquinolones used in the antibiotic resistance testing were norfloxacin (10µg) and ciprofloxacin (5µg) in the E. coli O157:H7 isolates and ciprofloxacin (5µg) in the S. aureus isolates. Susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Muller-Hinton agar. Fluoroquinolone resistance was not detected from isolates of E. coli O157:H7 from cattle. However, 44% (4/9) of the S. aureus were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Resistance of up to 44% in isolates of mecA and nuc genes harbouring S. aureus is a compelling evidence for the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance from bacteria in food animals from Nigeria. Ciprofloxacin is the drug of choice for the treatment of Typhoid fever, therefore widespread resistance to it in pathogenic bacteria is of great public health significance. The study concludes that antibiotic resistance in bacteria from food animals is on the increase in Nigeria. The national food and drug administration and control (NAFDAC) agency in Nigeria should implement the world health organization (WHO) global action plan on antimicrobial resistance. A good starting point can be coordinating the WHO, office of international epizootics (OIE), food and agricultural organization (FAO) tripartite draft antimicrobial resistance monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework in Nigeria.
Evaluation of Water Efficiency in Farming: Empirical Evidence from a Semi-Arid Region
Spain is very sensitive to water management issues due to its climatic characteristics and the deficit of this resource in many areas of its territory. This study examines the characteristics of the family farms that are more efficient in the use of water, focusing on a semi-arid area located in Almeria, southeast of Spain. In the case of irrigated agriculture, water usage efficiency usually indicates water productivity in terms of yield (kg/m³), or in economic terms (euros/m³). These two water usage indicators were considered to analyse water usage efficiency according to other studies on water efficiency in the horticultural area under analysis. This work also takes into account other water usage characteristics such as water supplied, innovative irrigation practices, water-efficient technology, and water-saving practices. The results show that the most water efficient farms have technical advisors and use irrigation on demand, that measures the water needs of the crops and are considered the most technological irrigation system. These farms are more technological and less labor intensive. They are also aware of water scarcity and the need to conserve the environment. This approach allow managers to identify the principal factors and best practices related to water efficiency in order to promote and implement them in inefficient farms and promote sustainability.
Wheat Seed Germination in Relation to Nanoparticles Treated Seed
Wheat is an important cereal crop for food security. Boosting the wheat production and productivity is the major challenge across the nation. The higher quantity of seed requires maintaining optimum plant stand which ultimately convert into grain yield. Ensuring a good germination is one of the key steps to ensure proper plant stand and moisture assurance during seed germination may help to speed up the germination. By essence of tiny size of nanoparticles, it may facilitate the proper entry of water into the seed by piercing the seed without hammering their internal structure. Considering above a laboratory experiment was conducted during 2012-13 at G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, India. The completely randomized design was used for statistical analysis. The experiment was conducted in two phases. In first phase the appropriate concentration of nano particles for seed treatment was screened. In second phase seed soaking hours of nanoparticles for better seed germination were standardized. Wheat variety UP2526 was taken as test crop. Four nanoparticles (TiO₂, ZnO, nickel, and chitosan) were taken for study. The crop germination studies were done in petridish and standard package and practices were used to raise the seedlings. The germination studies were done by following standard procedure. In the first phase, seeds were treated with 50 and 300 ppm of nanoparticles and control was also maintained for comparison. Second phase experiment seeds were soaked for 4, 6 and 8 hours with 50 ppm nanoparticles of TiO₂, ZnO, nickel, and chitosan along with control treatment. Experiment revealed that the application of nanoparticles helps to enhance seed germination. The study revealed that 50 ppm concentration of nanoparticles had higher root length, shoot length, seedling length, shoot dry weight, seedling dry weight, seedling vigour index I and seedling vigour index II which than to 300 ppm concentration. This experiment showed that seed soaking up to 4 hr was better as compared to 6 and 8 hrs. Seed soaking with nanoparticles specially TiO₂, ZnO, and chitosan proved to enhance germination and seedling growth indices of wheat crop.
Evaluation of Environmental Impact of Production of Thermal Insulator Produced from Natural Rubber
The natural rubber was used to produce thermal insulator for a refrigeration and air conditioning system because natural rubber has good mechanical properties. These properties affected to the filler that was added in rubber compound. Therefore, the filler was cut off, brings about reduced cost of production. The production of insulator from natural rubber uses large volume of energy and chemical in order to change cell structure of natural rubber and leads to environmental problems. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate carbon dioxide emission of thermal insulator produced from natural rubber. The objectives are to conduct life cycle inventory for thermal insulator from natural rubber and the environment impact from the processing activities. This study was a business to business (B2B) where data inventory starts from natural rubber air dried sheets (ADS) from plantation, additives for natural rubber, and energy. The results showed that additives for natural rubber contributed higher environmental impact than ADS and energy.
Heavy Metal Mobility and Speciation in Coal Ash Reclaimed Hydrophobic Mine Soils
Soil hydrophobicity (soil water repellency) is an important mechanism for sequestration of organic carbon, however it can induce preferential flow and affect contaminant mobilization and transport. Heavy metal mobility and speciation in solutions from acidic (pH 3-4) coal ash reclaimed hydrophobic technogenic soils from a major coal mine region in Eastern Europe were studied with the aim to reveal relationships with soil hydrophobicity and other soil characteristics. The technogenic soils (> 30 years from ash reclamation) from the mine area are heterogeneous materials containing clays and irregularly distributed lignitic particles and exhibit small-scale spatial variability of water repellency. Non-vegetated and pine-afforested spoils-turned soils were studied. The ‘water drop penetration time’ (WDPT) varied from 14-14440 s. Mobility and solubility of metals (1M NH4NO3, 0.01 MCaCI2) were closely related with the cation exchange capacity (CEC) and WDPT. Lead solubility and mobility was less satisfactorily predicted from measured soil characteristics than solubility and mobility of the other heavy metals. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis involving exchangeable and soluble forms of Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and Pb and other soil properties and characteristics (CEC, organic carbon (OC) content, % clay, % sand and WDPT) revealed that soil hydrophobicity and soluble and exchangeable forms of most heavy metals had a similar source. Especially strong was the link between WDPT, OC and soluble and exchangeable Fe. Water extracts of Fe were also significantly correlated with WDPT. All heavy metals (1M NH4NO3, 0.01 MCaCI2), except Pb were positively related with % sand content due to accumulation of coal and ash particulate organic matter in the sand fraction. Ion activity and species distribution based on water solution chemistry data were calculated using Visual Minteq. The majority of heavy metal species in the extremely acidic (pH~3) technogenic soils were represented by free ions (M2+) and sulfate complexes (MSO40). Results obtained in this study suggest that lignitic coal and ash particles are the main source for soluble and mobile fractions of heavy metals. The high share of free and neutral dissolved species has further implications on heavy metal mobility and transport in the reclaimed hydrophobic technogenic soils.
Modelling Agricultural Commodity Price Volatility with Markov-Switching Regression, Single Regime GARCH and Markov-Switching GARCH Models: Empirical Evidence from South Africa
Background: commodity price volatility originating from excessive commodity price fluctuation has been a global problem especially after the recent financial crises. Volatility is a measure of risk or uncertainty in financial analysis. It plays a vital role in risk management, portfolio management, and pricing equity. Objectives: the core objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between the prices of agricultural commodities with oil price, gas price, coal price and exchange rate (USD/Rand). In addition, the paper tries to fit an appropriate model that best describes the log return price volatility and estimate Value-at-Risk and expected shortfall. Data and methods: the data used in this study are the daily returns of agricultural commodity prices from 02 January 2007 to 31st October 2016. The data sets consists of the daily returns of agricultural commodity prices namely: white maize, yellow maize, wheat, sunflower, soya, corn, and sorghum. The paper applies the three-state Markov-switching (MS) regression, the standard single-regime GARCH and the two regime Markov-switching GARCH (MS-GARCH) models. Results: to choose the best fit model, the log-likelihood function, Akaike information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and deviance information criterion (DIC) are employed under three distributions for innovations. The results indicate that: (i) the price of agricultural commodities was found to be significantly associated with the price of coal, price of natural gas, price of oil and exchange rate, (ii) for all agricultural commodities except sunflower, k=3 had higher log-likelihood values and lower AIC and BIC values. Thus, the three-state MS regression model outperformed the two-state MS regression model (iii) MS-GARCH(1,1) with generalized error distribution (ged) innovation performs best for white maize and yellow maize; MS-GARCH(1,1) with student-t distribution (std) innovation performs better for sorghum; MS-gjrGARCH(1,1) with ged innovation performs better for wheat, sunflower and soya and MS-GARCH(1,1) with std innovation performs better for corn. In conclusion, this paper provided a practical guide for modelling agricultural commodity prices by MS regression and MS-GARCH processes. This paper can be good as a reference when facing modelling agricultural commodity price problems.
Seedling Emergence and Initial Growth of Different Plants after Trichoderma sp. Inoculation
The use of plant growth promoting fungi (PGPF) has significantly increased in the last decade mostly due to their multi-level properties, and their expected success as biofertilizers in agriculture. Beneficial fungi with broad-host range undergo long-term interactions with a large variety of plants thereby playing a significant role in managed ecosystems and in the adaptation of crops to global climate changes. Trichoderma spp. are promising fungi toward the development of sustainable agriculture. The aim of our experiment was to investigate the effect of seed inoculation of sunflower, maize, soybean, paprika, melon, and watermelon seeds with Trichoderma sp. on early seed germination energy and initial growth of the plant. The seed inoculation with Trichoderma sp. increased the seedling emergence from 7, 85% in melon to 156,70% in watermelon. The inoculation had the best effect on initial growth of maize shoot (+23,80%) and soybean root (+106,30%). The different response of seed and young plants on Trichoderma sp. inoculation implicate the need for future investigations of successful inoculation systems and modes of their integration in sustainable agriculture production systems.
Rhizobium Leguminosarum: Selecting Strain and Exploring Delivery Systems for White Clover
Leguminous crops can be self-sufficient for their nitrogen requirements when their roots are nodulated with an effective Rhizobium strain and for this reason seed or soil inoculation is practiced worldwide to ensure nodulation and nitrogen fixation in grain and forage legumes. The most widely used method of applying commercially available inoculants is using peat cultures which are coated onto seeds prior to sowing. In general, rhizobia survive well in peat, but some species die rapidly after inoculation onto seeds. The development of improved formulation methodology is essential to achieve extended persistence of rhizobia on seeds, and improved efficacy. Formulations could be solid or liquid. Most popular solid formulations or delivery systems are: wettable powders (WP), water dispersible granules (WG), and granules (DG). Liquid formulation generally are: suspension concentrates (SC) or emulsifiable concentrates (EC). In New Zealand, R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain TA1 has been used as a commercial inoculant for white clover over wide areas for many years. Seeds inoculation is carried out by mixing the seeds with inoculated peat, some adherents and lime, but rhizobial populations on stored seeds decline over several weeks due to a number of factors including desiccation and antibacterial compounds produced by the seeds. In order to develop a more stable and suitable delivery system to incorporate rhizobia in pastures, two strains of R. leguminosarum (TA1 and CC275e) and several formulations and processes were explored (peat granules, self-sticky peat for seed coating, emulsions and a powder containing spray dried microcapsules). Emulsions prepared with fresh broth of strain TA1 were very unstable under storage and after seed inoculation. Formulations where inoculated peat was used as the active ingredient were significantly more stable than those prepared with fresh broth. The strain CC275e was more tolerant to stress conditions generated during formulation and seed storage. Peat granules and peat inoculated seeds using strain CC275e maintained an acceptable loading of 108 CFU/g of granules or 105 CFU/g of seeds respectively, during six months of storage at room temperature. Strain CC275e inoculated on peat was also microencapsulated with a natural biopolymer by spray drying and after optimizing operational conditions, microparticles containing 107 CFU/g and a mean particle size between 10 and 30 micrometers were obtained. Survival of rhizobia during storage of the microcapsules is being assessed. The development of a stable product depends on selecting an active ingredient (microorganism), robust enough to tolerate some adverse conditions generated during formulation, storage, and commercialization and after its use in the field. However, the design and development of an adequate formulation, using compatible ingredients, optimization of the formulation process and selecting the appropriate delivery system, is possibly the best tool to overcome the poor survival of rhizobia and provide farmers with better quality inoculants to use.
Design and Developing Infrared Sensor for Detection and Measuring Mass Flow Rate in Seed Drills
Multiple or miss sowing by seed drills is a common problem on the farm. This problem causes overuse of seeds, wasting energy, rising crop treatment cost and reducing crop yield in harvesting. To be informed of mentioned faults and monitoring the performance of seed drills during sowing, developing a seed sensor for detecting seed mass flow rate and monitoring in a delivery tube is essential. In this research, an infrared seed sensor was developed to estimate seed mass flow rate in seed drills. The developed sensor comprised of a pair of spaced apart circuits one acting as an IR transmitter and the other acting as an IR receiver. Optical coverage in the sensing section was obtained by setting IR LEDs and photo-diodes directly on opposite sides. Passing seeds made interruption in radiation beams to the photo-diode which caused output voltages to change. The voltage difference of sensing units summed by a microcontroller and were converted to an analog value by DAC chip. The sensor was tested by using a roller seed metering device with three types of seeds consist of chickpea, wheat, and alfalfa (representing large, medium and fine seed, respectively). The results revealed a good fitting between voltage received from seed sensor and mass flow of seeds in the delivery tube. A linear trend line was set for three seeds collected data as a model of the mass flow of seeds. A final mass flow model was developed for various size seeds based on receiving voltages from the seed sensor, thousand seed weight and equivalent diameter of seeds. The developed infrared seed sensor, besides monitoring mass flow of seeds in field operations, can be used for the assessment of mechanical planter seed metering unit performance in the laboratory and provide an easy calibrating method for seed drills before planting in the field.
The Study of Genetic Diversity in Canola Cultivars of Kashmar-Iran Region
To study the genetic diversity in rapeseeds and agronomic traits, an experiment was conducted using multivariate statistical methods at Agricultural Research Station of Kashmar in 2012-2013.In this experiment, ten genotypes of rapeseed in a Randomized Complete Block designs with three replications were evaluated. The following traits were studied: seed yield, number of days to the fifty percent of flowering, plant height, number of pods on main stem, length of the pod, seed yield per plant, number of seed in pod, harvest index, weight of 100 seeds, number of pods on lateral branch, number of lateral branches. In analyzing the variance, differences between cultivars were significant. The average comparative revealed that the most valuable variety was Licord regarding to the traits while the least valuable variety was Opera. In stepwise regression, harvest index, grain yield per plant and number of pods per lateral branches were entering to model. Correlation analysis showed that the grain yield with the number of pods per lateral branches and seed yield per plant have positive and significant correlation. In the factor analysis, the first five components explained more than 83% of the variance in the data. In the first factor, seed yield and the number of pods per lateral branches were of the highest importance. The traits, seed yield per plant, and pod per main stem were of a great significance in the second factor. Moreover, in the third factor, plant height and the number of lateral branches were more important. In the fourth factor, plant height and one hundred seeds weight were of the highest variance. Finally, days to fifty percent of flowering and one hundred seeds weight were more important in fifth factor.
Biostimulant Activity of Chitooligomers: Effect of Different Degrees of Acetylation and Polymerization on Wheat Seedlings under Salt Stress
Salt stress is one of the most serious abiotic stresses, and it can lead to the reduction of agricultural productivity. High salt concentration makes it more difficult for roots to absorb water and disturbs the homeostasis of cellular ions resulting in osmotic stress, ion toxicity and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Compared with the normal physiological conditions, salt stress could inhibit the photosynthesis, break metabolic balance and damage cellular structures, and ultimately results in the reduction of crop yield. Therefore it is vital to develop practical methods for improving the salt tolerance of plants. Chitooligomers (COS) is partially depolymerized products of chitosan, which is consisted of D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. In agriculture, COS has the ability to promote plant growth and induce plant innate immunity. The bioactivity of COS closely related to its degree of polymerization (DP) and acetylation (DA). However, most of the previous reports fail to mention the function of COS with different DP and DAs in improving the capacity of plants against salt stress. Accordingly, in this study, chitooligomers (COS) with different degrees of DAs were used to test wheat seedlings response to salt stress. In addition, the determined degrees of polymerization (DPs) COS(DP 4-12) and a heterogeneous COS mixture were applied to explore the relationship between the DP of COSs and its effect on the growth of wheat seedlings in response to salt stress. It showed that COSs, the exogenous elicitor, could promote the growth of wheat seedling, reduce the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and increase the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The results of mRNA expression level test for salt stress-responsive genes indicated that COS keep plants away from being hurt by the salt stress via the regulation of the concentration and the increased antioxidant enzymes activities. Moreover, it was found that the activities of COS was closely related to its Das and COS (DA: 50%) displayed the best salt resistance activity to wheat seedlings. The results also showed that COS with different DP could promote the growth of wheat seedlings under salt stress. COS with a DP (6-8) showed better activities than the other tested samples, implied its activity had a close relationship with its DP. After treatment with chitohexaose, chitoheptaose, and chitooctaose, the photosynthetic parameters were improved obviously. The soluble sugar and proline contents were improved by 26.7%-53.3% and 43.6.0%-70.2%, respectively, while the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was reduced by 36.8% - 49.6%. In addition, the antioxidant enzymes activities were clearly activated. At the molecular level, the results revealed that they could obviously induce the expression of Na+/H+ antiporter genes. In general, these results were fundamental to the study of action mechanism of COS on promoting plant growth under salt stress and the preparation of plant growth regulator.
Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on the Germination and Early Growth of Onion (Allium Cepa)
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a heterogeneous group of bacteria that can be found in the rhizosphere, at root surfaces and in association with roots, enhancing the growth of the plant either directly and/or indirectly. Increased crop productivity associated with the presence of PGPR has been observed in a broad range of plant species, such as raspberry, chickpeas, legumes, cucumber, eggplant, pea, pepper, radish, tobacco, tomato, lettuce, carrot, corn, cotton, millet, bean, cocoa, etc. However, until now there has not been much research about influences of the PGPR on the growth and yield of onion. Onion (Allium cepa L.), of the Liliaceae family, is a species of great economic importance, widely cultivated all over the world. The aim of this research was to examine the influence of plant growth promoting bacteria Pseudomonas sp. Dragana, Pseudomonas sp. Kiš, Bacillus subtillis and Azotobacter sp. on the seed germination and early growth of onion (Allium cepa). PGPR Azotobacter sp., Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas sp. Dragana, Pseudomonas sp. Kiš, from the collection of the Faculty of Agriculture, Novi Sad, Serbia, were used as inoculants. The number of cells in 1 ml of the inoculum was 10⁸ CFU/ml. The control variant was not inoculated. The effect of PGPR on seed germination and hypocotyls length of Allium cepa was evaluated in controlled conditions, on filter paper in the dark at 22°C, while effect on the plant length and mass in semicontrol conditions, in 10 l volume vegetative pots. Seed treated with fungicide and untreated seed were used. After seven days the percentage of germination was determined. After seven and fourteen days hypocotil length was measured. Fourteen days after germination, length and mass of plants were measured. Application of Pseudomonas sp. Dragana and Kiš and Bacillus subtillis had a negative effect on onion seed germination, while the use of Azotobacter sp. gave positive results. On average, application of all investigated inoculants had a positive effect on the measured parameters of plant growth. Azotobacter sp. had the greatest effect on the hypocotyls length, length and mass of the plant. In average, better results were achieved with untreated seeds in compare with treated. Results of this study have shown that PGPR can be used in the production of onion.
Plant Growth and Yield Enhancement of Soybean by Inoculation with Symbiotic and Nonsymbiotic Bacteria
Microbial inoculants from the group of symbiotic-nitrogen-fixing rhizobia are well known and widely used in production of legumes. On the other hand, nonsymbiotic plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are not commonly used in practice. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of soybean inoculation with symbiotic and nonsymbiotic bacteria on plant growth and seed yield of soybean. Microbiological activity in rhizospheric soil was also determined. The experiment was set up using a randomized block system in filed conditions with the following treatments: control-no inoculation; treatment 1-Bradyrhizobium japonicum; treatment 2-Azotobacter sp.; treatment 3-Bacillus sp..In the flowering stage of growth (FS) the number of nodules per plant (NPP), root length (RL), plant height (PH) and weight (PW) were measured. The number of pod per plant (PPP), number of seeds per pod (SPP) and seed weight per plant (SWP) were recorded at the end of vegetation period (EV). Microbiological analyses of soil included the determination of total number of bacteria (TNB), number of fungi (FNG), actinomycetes (ACT) and azotobacters (AZB) as well as the activity of the dehydrogenase enzyme (DHA). The results showed that bacterial inoculation led to the formation of root nodules regardless of the treatments with statistically no significant difference. Strong nodulation was also present in control treatment. RL and PH were positively influenced by inoculation with Azotobacter sp. and Bacillus sp., respectively. Statistical analyses of the number of PPP, SPP, and SWP showed no significant differences among investigated treatments. High average number of microorganisms were determined in all treatments. Most abundant were TNB (log No 8,010) and ACT (log No 6,055) than FNG and AZB with log No 4,867 and log No 4,025, respectively. The highest DHA activity was measured in the FS of soybean in treatment 3. The application of nonsymbiotic bacteria in soybean production can alleviate initial plant growth and help the plant to better overcome different stress conditions caused by abiotic and biotic factors.
C-Coordinated Chitosan Metal Complexes: Design, Synthesis and Antifungal Properties
Plant diseases can cause the death of crops with great economic losses. Particularly, those diseases are usually caused by pathogenic fungi. Metal fungicides are a type of pesticide that has advantages of a low-cost, broad antimicrobial spectrum and strong sterilization effect. However, the frequent and wide application of traditional metal fungicides has caused serious problems such as environmental pollution, the outbreak of mites and phytotoxicity. Therefore, it is critically necessary to discover new organic metal fungicides alternatives that have a low metal content, low toxicity, and little influence on mites. Chitosan, the second most abundant natural polysaccharide next to cellulose, was proved to have broad-spectrum antifungal activity against a variety of fungi. However, the use of chitosan was limited due to its poor solubility and weaker antifungal activity compared with commercial fungicide. Therefore, in order to improve the water solubility and antifungal activity, many researchers grafted the active groups onto chitosan. The present work was to combine free metal ions with chitosan, to prepare more potent antifungal chitosan derivatives, thus, based on condensation reaction, chitosan derivative bearing amino pyridine group was prepared and subsequently followed by coordination with cupric ions, zinc ions and nickel ions to synthesize chitosan metal complexes. The calculations by density functional theory (DFT) show that the copper ions and nickel ions underwent dsp2 hybridization, the zinc ions underwent sp3 hybridization, and all of them are coordinated by the carbon atom in the p-π conjugate group and the oxygen atoms in the acetate ion. The antifungal properties of chitosan metal complexes against Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici), Gibberella zeae (G. zeae), Fusarium oxysporum (F. oxysporum) and Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) were also assayed. In addition, a plant toxicity experiment was carried out. The experiments indicated that the derivatives have significantly enhanced antifungal activity after metal ions complexation compared with the original chitosan. It was shown that 0.20 mg/mL of O-CSPX-Cu can 100% inhibit the growth of P. capsici and 0.20 mg/mL of O-CSPX-Ni can 87.5% inhibit the growth of B. cinerea. In general, their activities are better than the positive control oligosaccharides. The combination of the pyridine formyl groups seems to favor biological activity. Additionally, the ligand fashion was precisely analyzed, and the results revealed that the copper ions and nickel ions underwent dsp2 hybridization, the zinc ions underwent sp3 hybridization, and the carbon atoms of the p-π conjugate group and the oxygen atoms of acetate ion are involved in the coordination of metal ions. The phytotoxicity assay of O-CSPX-M was also conducted, unlike the traditional metal fungicides, the metal complexes were not significantly toxic to the leaves of wheat. O-CSPX-Zn can even increase chlorophyll content in wheat leaves at 0.40 mg/mL. This is mainly because chitosan itself promotes plant growth and counteracts the phytotoxicity of metal ions. The chitosan derivative described here may lend themselves to future applicative studies in crop protection.
The Influence of Lactic Acid Bacteria Combinations on Wheat Bread Quality
Different combinations of appropriate technological properties showing lactic acid bacteria (Pediococcus pentosaceus VLGL183 and Enterococcus pseudoavium VLGL 234, Lactobacillus plantarum VLGL135 and Pediococcus pentosaceus VLGL183, Pediococcus pentosaceus VLGL183 and Lactobacillus brevis VLGL173, Pediococcus pentosaceus VLGL183 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides VLGL242, Pediococcus pentosaceus VLGL183 and Lactobacillus curvatus VLGL51, Lactobacillus plantarum VLGL135 and Lactobacillus curvatus VLGL51) for wheat sourdough production were used, and the influence of different sourdoughs on wheat bread quality parameters was evaluated. The highest overall acceptability (135.8 mm in 140 mm hedonic scale) of the bread produced with L. plantarum VLGL135 and P. pentosaceus VLGL183 sourdough was established. Also, bread produced with above mention sourdough, has the highest specific volume, shape coefficient, moisture content, and porosity, 3.40 ml /g; 2.59, 33.7 %, and 76.6 %, respectively. It was found, that the used sourdoughs reduce acrylamide content in bread (from 29.5 to 67.2%), just, the isolated lactic acid bacteria strains could be recommended for higher quality and safer bread production.
Development of Antimicrobial Properties Nutraceuticals: Gummy Candies with Addition of Bovine Colostrum, Essential Oils and Probiotics
In this study, antimicrobial nutraceuticals; gummy candies (GC) from bovine colostrum (BC), essential oils (EOs), probiotic lactic acid bacteria (PLAB), and their combinations, were developed. For antimicrobial GC preparation, heteropolysaccharide (agar) was used. The antimicrobial properties of EOs (Eugenia caryophyllata, Thymus vulgaris, Citrus reticulata L., Citrus paradisi L.), BC, L. paracasei LUHS244, L. plantarum LUHS135, and their combinations against pathogenic bacteria strains (Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were evaluated. The highest antimicrobial properties by EO’s (Eugenia caryophyllata and Thymus vulgaris) were established. The optimal ingredients composition for antimicrobial GC preparation was established, which incorporate the BC fermented with L. paracasei LUHS244 in combination with Thymus vulgaris or Eugenia caryophyllata. These ingredients showed high inhibition properties of all tested pathogenic strains (except Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Antimicrobial GC formula consisting of thyme EO (up to 0.2%) and fermented BC (up to 3%), and for taste masking, mandarin or grapefruit EOs (up to 0.2%) was used. Developed GC high overall acceptability and antimicrobial properties, thus, antimicrobial GC could be a preferred form of nutraceuticals. This study was fulfilled with the support of the LSMU-KTU joint project.
Required Knowledge to Promote Glutinous Rice Production Sustainability for Food Sufficiency in Thailand
In Thailand, glutinous rice is a considerable staple food crop, is deeply related to Thai culture and tradition, and also important for the food security of small farm holders. Recent agriculture and economic-region development trend leads to increasing competition between food (rice) and fuel (cassava) crops, posing direct threat to rice production. In total, these problems affected glutinous rice production for sufficiency consumption. Although Thai farmers have been growing glutinous rice for a long time, there are still various problems, involving seed quality, limited area, high cost, and pests’ issues. Therefore one goal was to obtain useful information about glutinous rice production from Thai farmers, which could be used to manage and develop the glutinous rice knowledge of farmers towards glutinous rice production development for future food security. Thus, the purposes of the study were to collect and analyze glutinous rice production of Thai farmers, required knowledge, glutinous rice sufficiency, and attempts to determine how the important glutinous rice production influence the glutinous rice sufficiency. The data were collected from 400 farmers using an interviewing schedule and were statistically analyzed using, percentage, arithmetic mean, multiple- regression, and a Likert scaling. The survey profile of the respondents indicated that most farmers were elderly (50-60 years) and had obtained a basic education that limited their glutinous rice knowledge and their ability to improve their traditional farming procedures. Although the respondents had a lot of experience over a long period in growing glutinous rice (nearly 30 years) and had received knowledge from their ancestors, friends, or extension workers, they still needed to develop their glutinous rice production. The farmers grew glutinous rice on a small scale (1.27 ha), with an average annual yield of 2,367 kg.ha⁻¹. The average annual production per household was 2,805 kg, with the average annual income from glutinous rice being USD 328. The study indicated that the glutinous rice consumption sufficiency of the farmers was more than 86% and a significant relationship between glutinous rice production and glutinous rice sufficiency. For improving glutinous rice production, the farmers required knowledge on pest protection was at the high level, while knowledge on reducing the cost of production and knowledge on seed production were at the moderate level. Although, the study found that most of respondents had glutinous rice sufficiency, approximately 14% of farmers had glutinous rice consumption insufficiency caused by natural disaster, pests, and limited irrigation. Thus, both the policy makers and farmers should strive to solve these issues to improve the quality of farmer life by; 1) increasing the awareness of the importance of glutinous rice for food and job security, 2) support appropriate technology and knowledge focusing on the required knowledge for glutinous rice farming and good standards of glutinous rice production.
Spinetoram10% WG+Sulfoxaflor 30% WG: A Promising Green Chemistry to Manage Pest Complex in Bt Cotton
Cotton is a premier commercial fibre crop of India subjected to ravages of insect pests. Sucking pests viz thrips, Thrips tabaci,(lind) leaf hopper Amrsca devastance,(dist) miridbug, Poppiocapsidea beseratense (Dist) and bollworms continue to inflict damage Bt Cotton right from seeding stage. Their infestation impact cotton yield to an extent of 30-40 percent. Chemical control is still adoptable as one of the techniques for combating these pests. Presently, growers have many challenges in selecting effective chemicals which fit in with an integrated pest management. Spinetoram has broad spectrum with excellent insecticidal activity against both sucking pests and bollworms. Hence, it is expected to make a great contribution to stable production and quality improvement of agricultural products. Spinetoram is a derivative of biologically active substances (Spinosyns) produced by soil actinomycetes, Saccharopolypara spinosa which is semi synthetic active ingredient representing Spinosyn chemical class of insecticide and has demonstrated higher level of efficacy with reduced risk on beneficial arthropods. The efforts were made in the present study to test the efficacy of Spinetoram against sucking pests and bollworms in comparison with other insecticides in Bt Cotton under field condition. Field experiment was laid out during 2013-14 and 2014-15 at Agricultural Research station Dharwad (Karnataka-India) in a randomized block design comprising eight treatments and three replications. Bt cotton genotype, Bunny BG-II was sown in a plot size of 5.4 m x5.4 m. Recommend agronomical practices were followed. The Spinetoram 12% SC alone and incombination with sulfaxaflore with varied dosages against pest complex was tested. Performance was compared with Spinosad 45% SC and thiamethoxam 25% WG. The results of consecutive seasons revealed that nonsignificant difference in thrips and leafhopper population and varied significantly after 3 days of imposition. Among the treatments, combiproduct, Spinetoram 10%WG + Sulfoxaflor 30% [email protected] 140 gai/ha registered lowest population of thrips (3.91/3 leaves) and leaf hoppers (1.08/3 leaves) followed by its lower dosages viz 120 gai/ha (4.86/3 leaves and 1.14/3 leaves of thrips and leaf hoppers, respectively) and 100 gai/ha (6.02 and 1.23./3 leaves of thrips and leaf hoppers respectively) being at par, significantly superior to rest of the treatments. On the contrary, the population of thrips, leaf hopper and miridbugs in untreated control was on higher side. Similarly the higher dosage of Spinetoram 10% WG+ Sulfoxaflor 30% WG (140 gai/ha) proved its bioefficacy by registering lowest miridbug incidence of 1.70/25 squares, followed by its lower dosage (1.78 and 1.83/25 squares respectively) Further observation made on bollworms incidence revealed that the higher dosage of Spinetoram 10% WG+Sulfoxaflor 30% WG (140 gai/ha) registered lowest percentage of boll damage (7.22%), more number of good opened bolls (36.89/plant) and higher seed cotton yield (19.45q/ha) followed by rest of its lower dosages, Spinetoram 12% SC alone and Spinosad 45% SC being at par significantly superior to rest of the treatments. However, significantly higher boll damage (15.13%) and lower seed cotton yield (14.45 q/ha) was registered in untreated control. Thus Spinetoram10% WG+Sulfoxaflor 30% WG can be a promising option for pest management in Bt Cotton.