Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 50781

Animal and Veterinary Sciences

656
88809
Comparative Evaluation of Pentazocine and Tramadol as Pre-Emptive Analgesics for Ovariohysterectomy in Female Dogs
Abstract:
A comparative evaluation of Tramadol and Pentazocine as a pre-emptive analgesic in clinical cases of female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy was undertaken during this study. During the study, the following parameters were assessed viz., Rectal temperature (ᵒF), Respiratory rate (breaths/min) and Heart rate (beats/min). Hematological and biochemical parameters viz., total erythrocyte count (TEC) (millions/cmm), hemoglobin (g %), otal leucocytes count (TLC) (thousands/cmm), differential leucocytes count (DLC) (%), serum creatinine (mg/dl), plasma protein (mg/dl), blood glucose (mg/dl) was estimated before the surgery and after administration of general anaesthesia and immediate postoperative periods of 0, 12 and 24 hr respectively. Mean Total Pain Score (MTPS) includes measurement of parameters like posture, vocalization, activity level, response to palpation and agitation at different intervals was calculated before surgery and after administration of general anesthesia and post-operative periods of 1, 2, 4, 6, 12hrs and 24 hrs respectively. Mean Total Pain Score (MTPS) was given for each parameter (Posture, Vocalization, Activity Level, Response to Palpation and Agitation) like 0,1,2,3. (maximum score will be given was 4.). Results were revealed in all three groups including control group. There were significant minor alterations in physiological, hematological and biochemical parameters. MTPS (mean total pain score) were revealed and found a significant alteration when compared with control group. In conclusion, Tramadol found to be a better analgesic and had up to 8hrs of analgesic effect and Pentazocine is superior in post-operative pain management when compared to Tramadol because this group of dogs experienced less surgical stress, consumed less anesthetic dose, they recovered early, and they had less MTPS score.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
655
88785
Some Studies on Endometritis in Pure Arabian Mares
Abstract:
The present investigation has been done on pure Egyptian Arabian mares that reared in private horse studs. Fifty non-pregnant mares were selected and examined to classify them as either being reproductively healthy or subfertile mares including clinical endometritis, early embryonic death, granulosa cell tumor, repeat breeder (post-breeding endometritis), and anoestrus mares. The purpose of the study was to assess oxidative/antioxidant biochemical metabolites, lipogram, trace elements and reproductive hormones throughout reproductive conditions in mares during regular estrous, anestrum, early pregnancy, granulose cell tumor, ovulation failure, and endometritis. Results showed intensification of the free radical-dependent process in the blood of infertile mare, especially mares with endometritis. Ultrasonography as a diagnostic tool diagnosis of endometritis in mares was an important step as it revealed much information concerning infertility problem.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
654
87928
Effect of Gender on Carcass Parameters in Japanese Quail
Authors:
Abstract:
This study was conducted to determine the effects of and sex on the carcass characteristics in Japanese quails. A total of 320 (160 for each sex groups) one-day-old quail chicks were randomly allocated to the sex groups, each containing 160 chicks according to a completely randomized design. Each gender was then divided into five replicate groups of 32 chicks. According to sex groups, the chicks of all replicate groups were housed in cages. The normality of distribution for all data was tested with the Shapiro-Wilk test at 95% confidence interval. A P value of ≤ 0.05 was interpreted as different. The statistical analysis for normal distribution data of the dietary groups was carried out with the general linear model procedure of SPSS software. The results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation of five replications. Duncan’s multiple range test was used for multiple comparisons in important groups. Data points bearing different letters are significantly different P ≤ 0.05. For the distribution of data that was different from normal, Kruskal Wallis H-Test was applied as a nonparametric test, and the results were expressed as median, minimum and maximum values. Pairwise comparisons of groups were made when Kruskal Wallis H-Test was significant. The study period lasted 42 days. Hot carcass, cold carcass, heart, and leg percentages in male quails was higher than female quails (P < 0.05), but liver, and breast percentages in female quails was higher than male quails (P > 0.05). The highest slaughter and carcass weight values were determined in the female quails in the cage. As a conclusion, it may be recommended to quail meat producers, who would like to obtain higher carcass weight to make more economic profit, to raise female quails in cage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
653
87917
Effect of Immunocastration Vaccine Administration at Different Doses on Performance of Feedlot Holstein Bulls
Authors:
Abstract:
The aim of the study is to determine the effect of immunocastration vaccine administration at different doses on fattening performance of feedlot Holstein bulls. Bopriva® is a vaccine that stimulates the animals' own immune system to produce specific antibodies against gonadotropin releasing factor (GnRF). Ninety four Holstein male calves (309.5 ± 2.58 kg body live weight and 267 d-old) assigned to the 4 treatments. Control group; 1 mL of 0.9% saline solution was subcutaneously injected to intact bulls on 1st and 60th days of the feedlot as placebo. On the same days of the feedlot, Bopriva® at two doses of 1 mL and 1 mL for Trial-1 group, 1.5 mL, and 1.5 mL for Trial-2 group, 1.5 mL, and 1 mL for Trial-3 group were subcutaneously injected to bulls. The study was conducted in a private establishment in the Sirvan district of Siirt province and lasted 180 days. The animals were weighed at the beginning of fattening and at 30-day intervals to determine their live weights at various periods. The statistical analysis for normal distribution data of the treatment groups was carried out with the general linear model procedure of SPSS software. The fattening initial live weight in Control, Trial-1, Trial-2 and Trial-3 groups was respectively 309.21, 306.62, 312.11, and 315.39 kg. The fattening final live weight was respectively 560.88, 536.67, 548.56, and 548.25 kg. The daily live weight gain during the trial was respectively 1.40, 1.28, 1.31, and 1.29 kg/day. The cold carcass yield was respectively 51.59%, 50.32%, 50.85%, and 50.77%. Immunocastration vaccine administration at different doses did not affect the live weights and cold carcass yields of Holstein male calves reared under intensive conditions (P > 0.05). However, it was determined to reduce fattening performance between 61-120 days (P < 0.05) and 1-180 days (P < 0.01). In addition, it was determined that the best performance among the vaccine-treated groups occurred in the group administered a 1.5 mL of vaccine on the 1st and 60th study days. In animals, castration is used to control fertility, aggressive and sexual behaviors. As a result, the fact that stress is induced by physical castration in animals and active immunization against GnRF maintains performance by maximizing welfare in bulls improves carcass and meat quality and controls unwanted sexual and aggressive behavior. Considering such features, it may be suggested that immunocastration vaccine with Bopriva® can be administered as a 1.5 mL dose on the 1st and 60th days of the fattening period in Holstein bulls.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
652
87274
Evaluation of the Antibacterial Effects of Turmeric Oleoresin, Capsicum Oleoresin and Garlic Essential Oil against Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli
Abstract:
Colibacillosis is one of the major health problems in young piglets ultimately resulting in their death, and it is common especially in young piglets. For the swine industry, colibacillosis is one of the important economic burdens. Therefore, it is necessary for the swine industries to prevent Colibacillosis in piglets in order to reduce economic losses. Thus, we tested three types of natural plant extracts (PEs) to evaluate antibacterial effects against Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolated from the piglet. Three PEs including turmeric oleoresin (containing curcumin 79 to 85%), capsicum oleoresin (containing capsaicin 40%-40.1%), and garlic essential oil (100% natural garlic) were tested using the direct contact agar diffusion test, minimum inhibitory concentration test, growth curve assay, and heat stability test. The tests were conducted with PEs at each concentration of 2.5%, 5%, and 10%. For the heat stability test, PEs with 10% concentration were incubated at each 4, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 °C for 1 hour, then the direct contact agar diffusion test was used. For the positive and negative controls, 0.5N HCl and 1XPBS were used. All the experiments were duplicated. In the direct contact agar diffusion test, garlic essential oil with 2.5%, 5%, and 10% concentration showed inhibit zones of 1.1cm, 3.0cm, and 3.6 cm in diameters compared to that of 3.5cm diameter for 0.5N HCl. The minimum inhibited concentration of garlic essential oil was 2.5%. Growth curve assay showed that the garlic essential oil was able to inhibit STEC growth significantly after 4 hours. The garlic essential oil retained the ability to inhibit STEC growth after heat treatment at each temperature. However, turmeric and capsicum oleoresins were not able to significantly inhibit STEC growth by all the tests. Even though further tests using the piglets will be required to evaluate effects of garlic essential oil for the Colibacillosis prevention for piglets, our results showed that the garlic essential oil could be used as a potential natural agent to prevent Colibacillosis in swine.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
651
86270
Effect of Dietary Graded Levels of L-Theanine on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Meat Quality, and Immune Response of Broilers
Abstract:
L-theanine is water soluble non-proteinous amino acid found in green tea leaves. Despite the availability of abundant literature on green tea, studies on the use of L-theanine as an additive in animals especially broilers are scanty. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different dietary levels of L-theanine on growth performance, meat quality, growth, immune response and blood chemistry in broilers. A total of 400 day-old chicks were randomly divided into four treatment groups (A, B, C, and D) using a complete randomized design. Treatments were as follows: A; control (basal diet), B; basal diet+100 mg L-theanine / kg diet, C; basal diet+ 200 mg L-theanine / kg diet, and D; basal diet+ 300 mg L-theanine / kg diet. Results revealed that intermediate level of L-theanine (200 mg/ kg diet, group C) showed better results in terms of BWG, FC, and FCR compared with control and other L-theanine levels. The live weight eviscerated weight and gizzard weight was higher in all L-theanine levels as compared to that of the control group. The heaviest (P > 0.05) spleen and bursa were found in group C (200 mg L-theanine / kg diet). Analysis of meat colors according to yellowness (b*), redness (a*), and lightness (L*) showed significantly higher values of a* and b* in L-theanine groups. Supplementing broiler diet with L-theanine minimized (P=0.02) total cholesterol contents in serum. Further analysis revealed , lower mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in thymus and IFN- γ and IL-2 in spleen was observed in L-theanine group It is concluded that supplementation of L-theanine at 200mg/kg diet showed better results in terms of performance and it could be utilized as a natural feed additive alternative to antibiotics to improve overall performance of broilers. Increasing the levels up to 300 mg L-theanine /kg diet may has deleterious effects on performance and other health aspects.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
650
86037
The Characteristcs and Amino Acid Profile of Edible Coating Extracted from Pigskin Gelatin
Abstract:
Edible coating is thin layers that act as a barrier to the external factors and protect the food products. The addition of the plasticizer to the edible coating is required to overcome film caused by extensive intermolecular forces. The potential development of pigskin with different ages as a raw material for the manufacture of edible films had not been widely publicized. This research was aimed to determine the influence of gelatin concentration and different type of plasticizer on the edible coating characteristics extracted from pigskin gelatin. This study used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with two factors and three replicates of treatments. The first factor was consisted of pigskin gelatin concentration ( 10, 20, and 30 %) and the second factor was different type of plasticizer (glycerol, sorbitol and PEG). The results show that the interaction between the use of gelatin concentrations and type of plasticizer had significant effect (P< 0.05) on the thickness, tensile strength, elongation, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), water content and amino acid profile of edible coating. It was concluded that the edible coating from pigskin gelatin with plasticizer gliserol had the best film characteristics, and it can be applied as an edible coating.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
649
85959
The Combination of Curcuma Extract and IgG Colostrum on Strongyloides Infection in CD1 Mice
Abstract:
The threat of pathogen infection agents to the neonates is a major health problem to the new born life livestock. Neonate losses became an important case in the world as well as in Indonesia. This condition can be triggered by an infection with nematode in conjunction with a failure of immunoglobulin passive transfer. The study was conducted to evaluate the role of the curcuma combined with IgG colostrum on the development of parasites in the gut of CD1 mice. Animal experiments were divided in four groups (G) based on the treatment: G1 (infection only); G2 (curcuma+infection), G3 (IgG + infection) and G4 (curcuma+IgG+infection). The parameters measured were EPG (eggs per gram) and female in the intestine. The results obtained showed that the treatment has no a significant influence on the number of eggs per gram of feces in the group infected compared to the control group without receiving IgG nor curcuma. However, the EGP response tended to decrease at day 6 in G3 and G4 with a minimum number at zero eggs. This performant showed that the immunoglobulin-G and curcuma substances could slightly decreased the number of eggs in animal infected with Strongyloides. The results obtained showed also that the treatment has no significant difference (P > 0.05) on female larva in the gut of MCD1 experimental. In other side, we found that the best performance to inhibit the female quantity in the gut was the treatment with IgG and infection of parasite in G3. In this treatment, the minimum number was five female only in the gut. The results described IgG response was better than the curcuma single use in reducing the female parasite in the gut. This positive response of IgG compared to other controls group was associated with the function of colostrum antibodies.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
648
85943
The Effect of the Earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) as the Source of Protein Feed and Pathogen Antibacterial for Broiler
Abstract:
Broilers are chickens which are kept with the most efficient time and hoped get a good body weight. All things are done, for example with the improvement of feed and use antibiotics. Feed cost is the most cost to be spent. Nearly 80% of the cost is spent just for buy feed. Earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) is a good choice to reduce the cost of feed protein source. The Earthworm has a high crude protein content of about 48.5%-61.9%, rich with proline amino acid about 15% of the 62 amino acids. Not only about protein, this earthworm also has a role in disease prevention. Prevention of disease in livestock usual with use feed supplement. Earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) is one of the natural materials used as feed. In addition, several types of earthworms that have been known to contain active substances about antibacterial pathogens namely Lumbricus rubellus. The earthworm could be used as an antibiotic because it contain the antibody of Lumbricine active substance. So that, this animal feed from Lumbricus rubellus could improve the performance of broilers. Bioactive of anti-bacterial is called Lumbricine able to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria in the intestinal wall so that the population of pathogenic bacteria is reduced. The method of write in this scientific writing is divided into 3 techniques, namely data completion, data analysis, and thinking pan from various literature about earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) as broiler feed. It is expected that innovation of feed material of earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) could reduce the cost of protein feed and the use of chemical antibiotics.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
647
85686
Phenotypic Characterization of Desi Naked Neck Chicken and Its Association with Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) Gene Polymorphism in Pakistan
Abstract:
The study was conducted to investigate the phenotypic features, morphometry and production potentialities of indigenous naked neck chicken (NN) of Pakistan under intensive management condition. A total of 35 NN chicks were randomly selected, and the experiment was performed at Poultry and wildlife research section NARC Islamabad for a period of 22 weeks. The predominant plumage color was black and golden while skin color was observed white. The average shank length, leg length, thigh length, keel length, chest breadth, head width, wing space, wing length, body length, body girth, body height and pubic bone width in adult males and females were 69.19 ± 3.34mm, 117.93 ± 4.42mm, 117.93 ± 4.42mm, 90.87 ± 6.53mm, 95.03 ± 4.56mm, 49.77 ± 2.53mm, 30.63 ± 1.50cm, 27.24 ± 2.71cm, 18.88 ± 0.65cm, 17.77 ± 1.01cm, 25.96 ± 0.56cm, 47.81 ± 1.41cm and 35.69 ± 4.09mm respectively. The average age and live body weight of NN chicken at sexual maturity were recorded as 165.85 days and 1269.38 g. While hen-day egg production of NN was recorded as 45%. The present study was aimed to investigate the existence of polymorphism at IGF-I gene in indigenous naked neck chicken through PCR based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Based on restriction analysis using Hinf I restriction enzyme, three genotypes were detected designated as AA, AC, and CC. Restriction analysis of PCR amplified product showed the presence of DNA fragments of 622, 378, 244 and 191, (genotypes). The PCR-RFLP analysis is easy, cost effective method which permits the easy characterization of IGF-I gene. This showed the investigated IGF-I genes can serve as good molecular markers for marker assisted selection (MAS) concerning growth related traits in chicken.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
646
85513
The Influence of Addition of Asparagus Bean Powder (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) on Gonad Maturity of Nilem Carp (Osteochilus hasselti) at the Floating Net Cage of Cirata Reservoir
Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to determine the influence of asparagus bean powder and its most effective administration dose to improve the gonad maturity of nilem carp (Osteochilus hasselti). The research is conducted in October-July 2017 located at Cirata Reservoir and Aquaculture Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Padjadjaran University, Jatinangor. The research employs an experimental method using a Complete Random Design (RAL) with six treatments and three repetitions. The treatments include the addition of asparagus bean powder by 0% (Control), 4% per kg of feed, 5% per kg of feed, 6% per kg of feed, 7% per kg of feed, as well as the addition of vitamin E essential as the control. The results show that the addition of asparagus bean powder to the feed may influence the gonad maturity of nilem carp shown by its Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) parameter, fecundity, egg diameter and egg reaching its maturity phase or GVBD (Germinal Vesicle Breakdown). The best administration dose influencing nilem carp is the addition of asparagus bean powder by 7% per kg of feed with the average GSI of 15.02%, relative fecundity of 137 eggs/g of fish parent weight, egg diameter of 1,263 mm, and egg reaching its maturity phase (GVBD) of 78.15%.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
645
85394
Prevalence and Pathomorphological Study of Natural Coccidiosis in Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in Iran
Abstract:
Coccidiosis is recognized as a serious parasitic disease problem limiting quail industry recently. But the data on incidence, clinical signs, species of coccidia and pathological changes in Japanese quail are rare, especially in Iran in spite of the significant improvement of commercial quail breeding in this country in recent decades. Therefore, in the present paper was studied natural infection of quail coccidiosis in three commercial rearing farms with 80% morbidity and 3% mortality rate. For this purpose, fecal sample, oocyst examination, and morphological study were performed beside necropsy, histopathology, and PCR to confirm the diagnosis. In the affected birds, clinical signs included brown diarrhea, weakness, and pale face. In the fecal examination, three species of the genus Eimeria were identified including E. uzura, E. bateri, and E. tsunodai. At necropsy, the main gross lesions were edema, congestion and small blood spots in the small intestine. In histopathologic examination, endogenous stages of the parasites associated with hyperplasia of the intestinal glands, mild congestion, infiltration of mononuclear cells, and edema were observed in the intestine. The molecular study using BSEF and BSER specific primers confirmed the presence of the genus Eimeria in the affected birds. Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis showed relatively high bootstrap values in Japanese quail Eimeria with E. acervuline and E. maxima strains in the chicken. The present study is the first phylogenetic findings on Eimeria of quail which could be valuable for further research on Japanese quail coccidiosis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
644
85271
Evaluation of Progesterone and Estradiol17-ß Levels in Ewes Induced with Different Methods
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to show the effects of progesterone and estrogen concentrations in ewes induced with different induction of parturition methods. Twenty-four healthy ewes (n=24) on 138th gestation day were randomly separated according to induction methods (group I (n=6), (0.09% NaCl), group II (n=6) (dexamethasone, 16 mg im.), group III (n=6) (aglepristone 5mg/kg sc.) and group IV (n=6) (aglepristone, 2,5 mg/kg sc.+dexamethasone 8 mg im.). The blood samples of the ewes were collected at 12 hours intervals from induction time to the postpartum 2nd day in order to determine progesterone and estradiol 17-ß levels. These hormone concentrations were determined by ELISA, and obtained results were statistically analyzed with Kruskal Wallis and Dunn tests between the groups, and Friedman and Wilcoxon test within the groups. The results pointed out that there was no significant difference within the groups in terms of estradiol 17-ß (group 1, p=0.508; group 2, p=0.054; group 3, p=0.672; group 4, p=0,170). And there was only a significant difference at 138th day (p=0,019) between groups II and IV (p=0,010). There was a significant difference in terms of progesterone concentration within group 1, 2 and 4 (p=0.000). And there was a significant difference at all times except 138th day between the groups (p< 0.05). As a conclusion, the induction of parturition methods could be performed successfully. These methods have no effect on estradiol 17-ß concentration but also make changings on progesterone concentrations as in groups 3 and 4.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
643
85175
The Economic Value of Mastitis Resistance in Dairy Cattle in Kenya
Abstract:
Dairy cattle production plays an important role in the Kenyan economy. However, high incidences of mastitis is a major setback to the productivity in this industry. The current dairy cattle breeding objective in Kenya does not include mastitis resistance, mainly because the economic value of mastitis resistance has not been determined. Therefore this study aimed at estimating the economic value of mastitis resistance in dairy cattle in Kenya. Initial input parameters were obtained from literature on dairy cattle production systems in the tropics. Selection index methodology was used to derive the economic value of mastitis resistance. Somatic cell count (SCC) was used an indicator trait for mastitis resistance. The economic value was estimated relative to milk yield (MY). Economic values were assigned to SCC in a selection index such that the overall gain in the breeding goal trait was maximized. The option of estimating the economic value for SCC by equating the response in the trait of interest to its index response was considered. The economic value of mastitis resistance was US $23.64 while maximum response to selection for MY was US $66.01. The findings of this study provide vital information that is a pre-requisite for the inclusion of mastitis resistance in the current dairy cattle breeding goal in Kenya.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
642
84954
High Throughput LC-MS/MS Studies on Sperm Proteome of Malnad Gidda (Bos Indicus) Cattle
Abstract:
Spermatozoa are the highly specialized transcriptionally and translationally inactive haploid male gamete. The understanding of proteome of sperm is indispensable to explore the mechanism of sperm motility and fertility. Though there is a large number of human sperm proteomic studies, in-depth proteomic information on Bos indicus spermatozoa is not well established yet. Therefore, we illustrated the profile of sperm proteome in indigenous cattle, Malnad gidda (Bos Indicus), using high-resolution mass spectrometry. In the current study, two semen ejaculates from 3 breeding bulls were collected employing the artificial vaginal method. Using 45% percoll purification, spermatozoa cells were isolated. Protein was extracted using lysis buffer containing 2% Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) and protein concentration was estimated. Fifty micrograms of protein from each individual were pooled for further downstream processing. Pooled sample was fractionated using SDS-Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, which is followed by in-gel digestion. The peptides were subjected to C18 Stage Tip clean-up and analyzed in Orbitrap Fusion Tribrid mass spectrometer interfaced with Proxeon Easy-nano LC II system (Thermo Scientific, Bremen, Germany). We identified a total of 6773 peptides with 28426 peptide spectral matches, which belonged to 1081 proteins. Gene ontology analysis has been carried out to determine the biological processes, molecular functions and cellular components associated with sperm protein. The biological process chiefly represented our data is an oxidation-reduction process (5%), spermatogenesis (2.5%) and spermatid development (1.4%). The highlighted molecular functions are ATP, and GTP binding (14%) and the prominent cellular components most observed in our data were nuclear membrane (1.5%), acrosomal vesicle (1.4%), and motile cilium (1.3%). Seventeen percent of sperm proteins identified in this study were involved in metabolic pathways. To the best of our knowledge, this data represents the first total sperm proteome from indigenous cattle, Malnad Gidda. We believe that our preliminary findings could provide a strong base for the future understanding of bovine sperm proteomics.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
641
84694
Molecular Characterisation and Expression of Glutathione S-Transferase of Fasciola Gigantica
Abstract:
Fasciolosis is a widespread economically important parasitic infection throughout the world caused by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. In order to identify novel immunogen conferring significant protection against fasciolosis, currently, research has been focused on the defined antigens viz. glutathione S-transferase, fatty acid binding protein, cathepsin-L, fluke hemoglobin, paramyosin, myosin and F. hepatica- Kunitz Type Molecule. Among various antigens, GST which plays a crucial role in detoxification processes, i.e. phase II defense mechanism of this parasite, has a unique position as a novel vaccine candidate and a drug target in the control of this disease. For producing the antigens in large quantities and their purification to complete homogeneity, the recombinant DNA technology has become an important tool to achieve this milestone. RT- PCR was carried out using F. gigantica total RNA as template, and an amplicon of 657 bp GST gene was obtained. TA cloning vector was used for cloning of this gene, and the presence of insert was confirmed by blue-white selection for recombinant colonies. Sequence analysis of the present isolate showed 99.1% sequence homology with the published sequence of the F. gigantica GST gene of cattle origin (accession no. AF112657), with six nucleotide changes at 72, 74, 423, 513, 549 and 627th bp found in the present isolate, causing an overall change of 4 amino acids. The 657 bp GST gene was cloned at BamH1 and HindIII restriction sites of the prokaryotic expression vector pPROEXHTb in frame with six histidine residues and expressed in E. coli DH5α. Recombinant protein was purified from the bacterial lysate under non-denaturing conditions by the process of sonication after lysozyme treatment and subjecting the soluble fraction of the bacterial lysate to Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Western blotting with rabbit hyper-immune serum showed immuno-reactivity with 25 kDa recombinant GST. Recombinant protein detected F. gigantica experimental as well as field infection in buffaloes by dot-ELISA. However, cross-reactivity studies on Fasciola gigantica GST antigen are needed to evaluate the utility of this protein in the serodiagnosis of fasciolosis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
640
84259
Co-Culture of Neonate Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cells with Sertoli Cells: Inductive Role of Melatonin following Transplantation: Adult Azoospermia Mouse Model
Abstract:
We have recently reported that melatonin as antioxidant enhances the efficacy of colonization of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Melatonin as an antioxidant plays a vital role in the development of SSCs in vitro. This study aimed to investigate evaluation of sertoli cells and melatonin simultaneously on SSC proliferation following transplantation to testis of adult mouse busulfan-treated azoospermia model. SSCs and sertoli cells were isolated from the testes of three to six-day old male mice.To determine the purity, Flow cytometry technique using PLZF antibody were evaluated. Isolated testicular cells were cultured in αMEM medium in the absence (control group) or presence (experimental group) of sertoli cells and melatonin extract for 2 weeks. We then transplanted SSCs by injection into the azoospermia mice model. Higher viability, proliferation, and Id4, Plzf, expression were observed in the presence of simultaneous sertoli cells and melatonin in vitro. Moreover, immunocytochemistry results showed higher Oct4 expression in this group. Eight weeks after transplantation, injected cells were localized at the base of seminiferous tubules in the recipient testes. The number of spermatogonia and the weight of testis were higher in the experimental group relative to control group. The results of our study suggest that this new protocol can increase the transplantation of these cells can be useful in the treatment of male infertility.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
639
83772
Activity of Resveratrol on the Influence of Aflatoxin B1 on the Testes of Sprague Dawley Rats
Abstract:
Twenty-eight male Sprague Dawley rats (aged 3 months) were used in the study. The animals were given feed and water as ad libitum. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups as 7 rats in each group. Aflatoxin B1 (7.5 μg/200 g), resveratrol (60 mg/kg) was administered to rats in groups other than the control group. At the end of the 16th day, blood, semen and tissue specimens were taken by decapitation under ether anesthesia. The effects of aflatoxin B1 and resveratrol on spermatological, pathological and biochemical parameters were determined in rats. When we evaluate the spermatological parameters, it is understood that resveratrol has a statistically significant difference in terms of sperm motility and viability (membrane integrity) compared to the control group and aflatoxin B1 administration groups, indicating a protective effect on spermatological parameters (groups: control, resveratrol, aflatoxin B1 and Afb1 + res; respectively, values of motility: 71,42 ± 0,52b, 72,85 ± 1, 48c , 60,71 ± 1,30a, 57,14 ± 2, 40a; values of viability: 63,85 ± 1,33b, 70,42 ± 2,61c, 55,00 ± 1,54a, 56,57 ± 0,89a. In terms of pathological parameters -histopathological examination- in the control and resveratrol groups, seminiferous tubules were observed to be in normal structure. In the group treated with aflatoxin, the regular structure of the spermatogenic cells deteriorated, and the seminiferous tubules became necrotic and degenerative. In the group treated with Afb1 + res, the decreasing of necrotic and degenerative changes were determined compared with in the group treated with aflatoxin. As immunohistochemical examination, cleaved caspase 3 expression was found to be very low in the control and resveratrol groups. Cleaved caspase 3 expression was severely exacerbated in seminiferous tubules in aflatoxin group but cleaved caspase 3 expression level decreased in Afb1 + res. In the biochemical direction, resveratrol has been shown to inhibit the adverse effects of aflatoxin on antioxidant levels (GSH-mmol/L, CAT-kU/L, GPx-U/mL, SOD-EU/mL) and to show a protective effect. For this purpose, the use of resveratrol with antioxidant activity was investigated in preventing or ameliorating damage to aflatoxin B1. It has been concluded that resveratrol effectively prevents the aflatoxin-induced testicular damage and lipid peroxidation. It has also been shown that resveratrol has protective effects on sperm motility and viability.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
638
83703
Prevalence, Isolation and Identification of Feline Panleukopaenia Virus from Wild Felids in Nandankanan Zoo, Odisha
Abstract:
In the present study, an attempt has been made for isolation and identification of feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV) from wild felids of Nandankanan zoo, Odisha, India, along with prevalence study of FPLV. Fecal samples collected from wild felids (26 tigers, 22 lions, 5 leopards, 3 hyenas, 1 jaguar, 2 foxes and 1 wild cat) were subjected to hemagglutinnation test and fluorescent antibody test. In hemagglutinnation test 13 (50%) samples from tiger, 14 (63.63%) samples from lions, 1 (20%) sample from leopards, 1 (50%) from fox, 3 (100%) samples from hyenas and 1 (100%) sample from wild cat were positive. On fluorescent antibody test (FAT), 15 (57.69%) samples from tiger, 18 (81.81%) from lions, 2 (40%) from leopards, 1 (50%) from fox, 3 (100%) from hyenas and 1 (100%) from wild cat were positive. FPLV was isolated using MDBK cell line and preliminary characterization was done on the basis of characteristic cytopathic effect. The virus samples were quantified through titration in MDBK cells. Serological confirmation of FPLV isolates was carried out by HI test, micro-SNT and indirect-ELISA. Physico-chemical characters like pH and temperature resistance along molecular identification using specific FPLV primers was carried out. Seroprevalence study of 36 serum samples employing HI test, micro SNT and indirect-ELISA revealed prevalence of 38.8, 44.4 and 72.2% respectively. During study period an adult tigress and a tiger cub died suspected of feline panleukopenia. The necropsy findings in both animals showed hemorrhagic gastroenteritis. The cytological examination revealed presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies in the intestinal epithelial cells. Spleen, mesenteric lymph node and intestine were positive for feline panleukopenia by FAT. The investigation revealed that feline panleukopenia was prevalent in wild felines of Nandankanan zoo.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
637
83674
Monitoring of Humoral Immune Response of Monovalent and Combined PPR and FMD Serotype 'O' Virus Vaccines in Goats
Abstract:
Comparative efficacy of three formulations (non-adjuvant, gel, and oil adjuvant) of monovalent and combined PPR and FMD virus vaccines was evaluated in goats. All kinds of monovalent PPRV vaccines elicited protective antibody titers at one-month post vaccination (PV) that remained so till six months PV. Monovalent non-adjuvant (NA) FMDV vaccine provoked non-protective antibody titers that declined to undetectable levels after three months. In case of combined vaccines, all of the formulations elicited protective antibody titers against PPRV in vaccinated animals which remained above that limit for six months. However, an exceptional immune response against FMDV was observed in combined NA vaccine group where antibody titers were extremely high and remained above protective level till 4 months PV in animals who received a single vaccine shot and till six months PV in booster group. Although, adjuvant or NA combined vaccines can induce protective antibody titers against both of the viruses within one month PV, but a booster vaccine shot is needed to retain protective antibody level for 6 months duration. Immune response elicited by combined vaccines is comparable or superior to the monovalent vaccines. Hence combined vaccine can be effectively used for the control and prevention of both of the diseases.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
636
83607
The Impact on Habitat of Reef Traps Used in the Freshwater Shrimp (Palaemonetes antennarius, H. Milne Erwards, 1837) Catch
Abstract:
In Antalya region, freshwater shrimps are usually collected with scoops and tin traps. However, it can be catched by reef traps in some water sources. Freshwater shrimps are constantly catching for commercial reasons because of a favorite bait for angling. There are more or less damage catching fishing vehicles to the habitat. This study was carried out in the Kırkgöz spring, Antalya and examined the effect of reef traps on the Kırkgöz spring habitat. Reef traps used 18.5x23.5x25 cm perforated bricks are arranged next to each other, blocks of random dimensions are prepared in 5x10, 18x24, 7x8 meter dimensions. These blocks are constructed with two layers of bricks that are covered with various materials such as carpets and blankets. Then, freshwater shrimps enter the holes of bricks. The bricks are closed off from both sides and discharged into a container when it is desired to be caught. The reef traps built on the plants which staying on the plant for a long time have been damaging the vegetation under the reef traps. Fishermen are setting new traps on the plants to increase the fishing efficiency since the freshwater shrimps are among the water plants. As a result, this application disrupts the aquatic organisms in their habitats. It is important to use fishing gears which will cause less damage and conserve stocks for sustainable fishing.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
635
83606
Antimicrobial Activity of the Cyanobacteria spp. against Fish Pathogens in Aquaculture
Abstract:
Blue-green microalgae cyanobacteria, which are important photosynthetic organisms of aquatic ecosystems, are the primary sources of many bioactive compounds such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and enzymes that can be used as antimicrobial and antiviral agents. Some of these organisms are nowadays used directly in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry, or in aquaculture and biotechnological approaches like biofuel or drug therapy. Finding the effective, environmental friendly chemotropic and antimicrobial agents to control fish pathogens are crucial in a country like Turkey which has a production capacity of about 240 thousand tons of cultured fish and has 2377 production farms and which is the second biggest producer in Europe. In our study, we tested the antimicrobial activity of cyanobacterium spp. against some fish pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila and Yersinia ruckeri that are important pathogens for rainbow trout farms. Agar disk diffusion test method was used for studying antimicrobial activity on pathogens. Both tested microorganisms have shown antimicrobial activity positively as the inhibition zones were 0.45 mm and 0.40 mm respectively.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
634
83605
Replacement of Dietary Soybean Meal by Dried Grains with Solubles on Liver Histology of Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss
Abstract:
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of replacing dietary soybean meal by dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on liver histology of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Five isoproteic (∼45% crude protein) and isocaloric (∼3570 kcal/kg digestible energy) diets were formulated: Conrol-1 (Fish meal control), Control-2, DDGS33, DDGS66 and DDGS100 which included 0%, 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% DDGS, respectively. Triplicate groups of fish with an average weight of 20.46 g were fed three times a day until apparent satiation during 84 days. The obtained results showed that diameters of hepatocyte nuclei were not statistically different among the groups. The histological examination of liver sections from the fish fed the Control-1 diet showed normal histology, mild cytoplasm vacuoles and appears to be central to hepatocyte nuclei. Fish fed diets containing soybean meal and DDGS presented variable levels of cytoplasmic vacuolization and some with eccentric hepatocyte nuclei. But, fish fed diet soybean meal based control (Control-2) showed the highest hepatocyte nuclei displacement, and cytoplasm vacuoles compared the DDGS30 diet. DDGS20 and DDGS30 fish also showed more regular hepatocytes than in Control-2 fish. The results of this study demonstrated that fish fed diets containing increasing DDGS levels exhibited less histomorphological changes compared the Control-2 diet.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
633
82768
Different Response of Pure Arctic Char Salvelinus alpinus and Hybrid (Salvelinus alpinus vs. Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill) to Various Hyperoxic Regimes
Abstract:
Pure strain of Arctic char (AC) Salvelinus alpinus and hybrid (HB) Salvelinus alpinus vs. Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill belong to fish, which with great potential for culture in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Aquaculture of these fish currently use flow-through systems (FTS), especially in Nordic countries such as Iceland (biggest producer), Norway, Sweden, and Canada. Four different water saturation regimes included normoxia (NOR), permanent hyperoxia (HYP), intermittent hyperoxia (HYP ± ) and regimes where one day of normoxia was followed by one day of hyperoxia (HYP1/1) were tested during 63 days of experiment in both species in two parallel experiments. Fish were reared in two identical RAS system consisted of 24 plastic round tanks (300 L each), drum filter, biological filter with moving beads and submerged biofilter. The temperature was maintained using flow-through cooler during at level of 13.6 ± 0.8 °C. Different water saturation regimes were achieved by mixing of pure oxygen (O₂) with water in three (one for each hyperoxic regime) mixing tower equipped with flowmeter for regulation of gas inflow. The water in groups HYP, HYP1/1 and HYP± was enriched with oxygen up to saturation of 120-130%. In HYP group was this level kept during whole day. In HYP ± group was hyperoxia kept for daylight phase (08:00-20:00) only and during night time was applied normoxia in this group. The oxygen saturation of 80-90% in NOR group was created using intensive aeration in header tank. The fish were fed with commercial feed to slight excess at 2 h intervals within the light phase of the day. Water quality parameters like pH, temperature and level of oxygen was monitoring three times (7 am, 10 am and 6 pm) per day using handy multimeter. Ammonium, nitrite and nitrate were measured in two day interval using spectrophotometry. Initial body weight (BW) was 40.9 ± 8.7 g and 70.6 ± 14.8 in AC and HB group, respectively. Final survival of AC ranged from 96.3 ± 4.6 (HYP) to 100 ± 0.0% in all other groups without significant differences among these groups. Similarly very high survival was reached in trial with HB with levels from 99.2 ± 1.3 (HYP, HYP1/1 and NOR) to 100 ± 0.0% (HYP ± ). HB fish showed best growth performance in NOR group reached final body weight (BW) 180.4 ± 2.3 g. Fish growth under different hyperoxic regimes was significantly reduced and final BW was 164.4 ± 7.6, 162.1 ± 12.2 and 151.7 ± 6.8 g in groups HY1/1, HYP ± and HYP, respectively. AC showed different preference for hyperoxic regimes as there were no significant difference in BW among NOR, HY1/1 and HYP± group with final values of 72.3 ± 11.3, 68.3 ± 8.4 and 77.1 ± 6.1g. Significantly reduced growth (BW 61.8 ± 6.8 g) was observed in HYP group. It is evident from present study that there are differences between pure bred Arctic char and hybrid in relation to hyperoxic regimes. The study was supported by projects 'CENAKVA' (No. CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0024), 'CENAKVA II' (No. LO1205 under the NPU I program), NAZV (QJ1510077) and GAJU (No. 060/2016/Z).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
632
82733
Gene Expression Profiling of Iron-Related Genes of Pasteurella multocida Serotype A Strain PMTB2.1
Abstract:
Pasteurella multocida is associated with acute, as well as, chronic infections in avian and bovine such as pasteurellosis and hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) in cattle and buffaloes. Iron is one of the most important nutrients for pathogenic bacteria including Pasteurella and acts as a cofactor or prosthetic group in several essential enzymes and is needed for amino acid, pyrimidine, and DNA biosynthesis. In our recent study, we showed that 2% of Pasteurella multocida serotype A strain PMTB2.1 encode for iron regulating genes (Accession number CP007205.1). Genome sequencing of other Pasteurella multocida serotypes namely PM70 and HB01 also indicated up to 2.5% of the respective genome encode for iron regulating genes, suggesting that Pasteurella multocida genome comprises of multiple systems for iron uptake. Since P. multocida PMTB2.1 has more than 40 CDs out of 2097 CDs (approximately 2%), encode for iron-regulated. The gene expression profiling of four iron-regulating genes namely fbpb, yfea, fece and fur were characterized under iron-restricted environment. The P. multocida strain PMTB2.1 was grown in broth with and without iron chelating agent and samples were collected at different time points. Relative mRNA expression profile of these genes was determined using Taqman probe based real-time PCR assay. The data analysis, normalization with two house-keeping genes and the quantification of fold changes were carried out using Bio-Rad CFX manager software version 3.1. Results of this study reflect that iron reduced environment has significant effect on expression profile of iron regulating genes (p < 0.05) when compared to control (normal broth) and all evaluated genes act differently with response to iron reduction in media. The highest relative fold change of fece gene was observed at early stage of treatment indicating that PMTB2.1 may utilize its periplasmic protein at early stage to acquire iron. Furthermore, down-regulation expression of fece with the elevated expression of other genes at later time points suggests that PMTB2.1 control their iron requirements in response to iron availability by down-regulating the expression of iron proteins. Moreover, significantly high relative fold change (p ≤ 0.05) of fbpb gene is probably associated with the ability of P. multocida to directly use host iron complex such as hem, hemoglobin. In addition, the significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in fbpb and yfea expressions also reflects the utilization of multiple iron systems in P. multocida strain PMTB2.1. The findings of this study are very much important as relative scarcity of free iron within hosts creates a major barrier to microbial growth inside host and utilization of outer-membrane proteins system in iron acquisition probably occurred at early stage of infection with P. multocida. In conclusion, the presence and utilization of multiple iron system in P. multocida strain PMTB2.1 revealed the importance of iron in the survival of P. multocida.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
631
82694
Elements of Socio-Ecological Knowledge for Sustainable Fisheries Management: An Analysis of Chakara Fishery Management in South West India
Abstract:
Common property resource like fisheries is conserved and managed by fishermen with the help of Local Ecological Knowledge system. Various forms of Social and Ecological elements adapted to formularize management of Chakara fishery. This study tries for a better understanding of elements involved in fishery management in India, such traditional knowledge system practicing within the fishing communities for management and conservation of the marine resources. Participatory Rural Appraisal technique is applied to seize the traditional knowledge system in central Kerala coastal region, India. Socio-Ecological Analysis framework is used for the study. This paper discusses that traditional knowledge systems of chakara fishery and discloses need for inclusive governance system. The paper also discusses adaptation of different elements of the ecological, biological and institutional knowledge system in local ecological knowledge for sustain the fishery. A framework is formulized based on elements operating in chakara fishery management.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
630
82457
Optimization the Multiplicity of Infection for Large Produce of Lytic Bacteriophage pAh6-C
Abstract:
Emerging of the super bacteria, bacteriophages are considered to be as an alternative to antibiotics. As the demand of phage increased, economical and large production of phage is becoming one of the critical points. For the therapeutic use, what is important is to eradicate the pathogenic bacteria as fast as possible, so higher concentration of phages is generally needed for effective therapeutic function. On the contrary, for the maximum production, bacteria work as a phage producing factory. As a microbial cell factory, bacteria is needed to last longer producing the phages without eradication. Consequently, killing the bacteria fast has a negative effect on large production. In this study, Multiplicity of Infection (MOI) was manipulated based on initial bacterial inoculation and used phage pAh-6C which has therapeutic effect against Aeromonas hydrophila. 1, 5 and 10 percent of overnight bacterial culture was inoculated and each bacterial culture was co-cultured with the phage of which MOI of 0.01, 0.0001, and 0.000001 respectively. Simply changing the initial MOI as well as bacterial inoculation concentration has regulated the production quantity of the phage without any other changes to culture conditions. It is anticipated that this result can be used as a foundational data for mass production of lytic bacteriophages which can be used as the therapeutic bio-control agent.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
629
81560
Improving the Growth Performance of Beetal Goat Kids Weaned at Various Stages with Various Levels of Dietary Protein in Starter Ration under High Input Feeding System
Abstract:
Poor feeding management during pre-weaning period is one of the factors resulting in compromised growth of Beetal kids fattened for meat purpose. The main reason for this anomaly may be less milk offered to kids and non-serious efforts for its management. This study was planned to find the most appropriate protein level suiting the age of the weaning while shifting animals to high input feeding system. Total of 42 Beetal male kids having 30 (±10), 60 (±10) and 90 (±10) days of age were selected with 16 in each age group. They were designated as G30, G60 and G90, respectively. The weights of animals were; 8±2 kg (G30), 12±2 kg (G60) and 16±2 kg (G90), respectively. All animals were weaned by introducing the total mix feed gradually and withdrawing the milk during the adjustment period of two weeks. The pelleted starter ration (total mix feed) with three various dietary protein levels designated as R1 (16% CP), R2 (20% CP) and R3 (26% CP) were introduced. The control group was reared on the fodder (Maize). The starter rations were iso-caloric and were offered for six-week duration. All animals were exposed to treatment using two-factor factorial (3×3) plus control treatment arrangement under completely randomized design. The data were collected on average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), gain to intake ratio, Klieber ratio (KR), body measurements and blood metabolites of kids. The data was analyzed using aov function of R-software. The statistical analysis showed that starter feed protein levels and age of weaning had significant interaction for ADG (P < 0.001), KR (P < 0.001), ADFI (P < 0.05) and blood urea nitrogen (P < 0.05) while serum creatinine and feed conversion had non-significant interaction. The trend analysis revealed that ADG had significant quadratic interaction (P < 0.05) within protein levels and age of weaning. It was found that animals weaned at 30 or 60 days, on R2 diet had better ADG (46.8 gm/day and 87.06 gm/day, respectively) weaned at 60 days of age. The animals weaned at 90 days had best ADG (127 gm/day) with R1. It is concluded that animal weaned at 30 or 40 days required 20% CP for better growth performance while animal at 90 days showed better performance with 16% CP.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
628
81553
Bactericidal Efficacy of Quaternary Ammonium Compound on Carriers with Food Additive Grade Calcium Hydroxide against Salmonella Infantis and Escherichia coli
Abstract:
Cleaning and disinfection are key components of routine biosecurity in livestock farming and food processing industry. The usage of suitable disinfectants and their proper concentration are important factors for a successful biosecurity program. Disinfectants have optimum bactericidal and virucidal efficacies at temperatures above 20°C, but very few studies on application and effectiveness of disinfectants at low temperatures have been done. In the present study, the bactericidal efficacies of food additive grade calcium hydroxide (FdCa(OH)), quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) and their mixture, were investigated under different conditions, including time, organic materials (fetal bovine serum: FBS) and temperature, either in suspension or in carrier test. Salmonella Infantis and Escherichia coli, which are the most prevalent gram negative bacteria in commercial poultry housing and food processing industry, were used in this study. Initially, we evaluated these disinfectants at two different temperatures (4°C and room temperature (RT) (25°C ± 2°C)) and 7 contact times (0, 5 and 30 sec, 1, 3, 20 and 30 min), with suspension tests either in the presence or absence of 5% FBS. Secondly, we investigated the bactericidal efficacies of these disinfectants by carrier tests (rubber, stainless steel and plastic) at same temperatures and 4 contact times (30 sec, 1, 3, and 5 min). Then, we compared the bactericidal efficacies of each disinfectant within their mixtures, as follows. When QAC was diluted with redistilled water (dW2) at 1: 500 (QACx500) to obtain the final concentration of didecyl-dimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) of 200 ppm, it could inactivate Salmonella Infantis within 5 sec at RT either with or without 5% FBS in suspension test; however, at 4°C it required 30 min in presence of 5% FBS. FdCa(OH)2 solution alone could inactivate bacteria within 1 min both at RT and 4°C even with 5% FBS. While FdCa(OH)2 powder was added at final concentration 0.2% to QACx500 (Mix500), the mixture could inactivate bacteria within 30 sec and 5 sec, respectively, with or without 5% FBS at 4°C. The findings from the suspension test indicated that low temperature inhibited the bactericidal efficacy of QAC, whereas Mix500 was effective, regardless of short contact time and low temperature, even with 5% FBS. In the carrier test, single disinfectant required bit more time to inactivate bacteria on rubber and plastic surfaces than on stainless steel. However, Mix500 could inactivate S. Infantis on rubber, stainless steel and plastic surfaces within 30 sec and 1 min, respectively, at RT and 4°C; but, for E. coli, it required only 30 sec at both temperatures. So, synergistic effects were observed on different carriers at both temperatures. For a successful enhancement of biosecurity during winter, the disinfectants should be selected that could have short contact times with optimum efficacy against the target pathogen. The present study findings help farmers to make proper strategies for application of disinfectants in their livestock farming and food processing industry.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
627
81296
Amphibians and Water Quality: An Assessment of Diversity and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Habitats for Amphibians in Sindh, Pakistan
Abstract:
Water pollution affects amphibians because they are intimately water dependent. The permeable skin makes amphibians very sensitive to the physico-chemical parameters of their aquatic environment. They spawn in water bodies where quality of water can affect the growth, development, and survival of their eggs which may die even before hatching into larvae or developing into adults due to water contamination. Considering the importance of amphibians in agriculture, food web, ecosystem and pharmaceutics as well as adverse impact of environmental degradation on them, present study was proposed to comprehensively determine the status of their diversity and habitats in Sindh province of Pakistan so as to execute monitoring for their conservation in future. Physico-chemical parameters including pH, EC (electric conductivity), TDS (total dissolved solids), T-Hard (total hardness), T-Alk (total alkalinity), Cl (chloride), CO₂ (carbon dioxide), SO₄ (sulphate), PO₄ (phosphate), NO₂ (nitrite) and NO₃ (nitrate) were analyzed from amphibian habitats using instruments and methodology of analytical grade. The results of present study after being compared with scientific data provided by different researchers and EPA (environmental protection agency), it was concluded that amphibian habitats consisted of high values of analyzed parameters except pH and CO₂. Entire study area required an urgent implementation of conservation actions for saving amphibians.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):