Scholarly Research Excellence

Digital Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 55746

Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Methods and Techniques for Lower Danube Sturgeon Monitoring Used for the Assessment of Anthropic Activities Pressures and the Quantification of Risks on These Species
At present, on the Lower Danube, different types of pressures have been identified that affect the anadromous sturgeons stocks with an impact that leads to their decline. This paper presents techniques and procedures used by Romanian experts in the tagging and monitoring of anadromous sturgeons, as well as unique results at international level obtained on the basis of an informational volume collected in over 7 years of monitoring on these species behavior (both for adults as well as for ultrasonically tagged juveniles) on the Lower Danube. The local impact of hydrotechnical constructions (bottom sill, maritime navigation channel), the global impact of the poaching phenomenon and the impact of the restocking programs with sturgeon juveniles were assessed. Thus, the bottom sill impact on the Bala branch, the Bastroe Channel (cross-border impact) and the poaching phenomenon at the level of the Lower Danube was analyzed on the basis of a unique informational volume obtained through the use of patented monitoring systems by the Romanian experts (DKTB respectively, DKMR-01T). At the same time, the results from the monitoring of ultrasonically tagged sturgeon juveniles from the 2015 repopulation program are presented. Conclusions resulting from research can ensure favorable premises for finding some conservation solutions for CITES-protected sturgeon species that have survived for millions of years, currently being 1 species on the brink of extinction - Russian sturgeon, 2 species in danger of extinction - Beluga sturgeon and Stellate sturgeon and 2 species already extinct from the Lower Danube, namely common sturgeon and ship sturgeon.
Serological Evidence of Brucella spp, Coxiella burnetti, Chlamydophila abortus, and Toxoplasma gondii Infections in Sheep and Goat Herds in the United Arab Emirates
A serological survey was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp, Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila abortus, and Toxoplasma gondii in sheep and goat herds in the UAE. A total of 915 blood samples [n= 222, [sheep]; n= 215, [goats]) were collected from livestock farms in the Emirates of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah and Ras Al-Khaimah (RAK). An additional 478 samples (n= 244, [sheep]; n= 234, (goats]) were collected from the Al Ain livestock central market and tested by indirect ELISA for pathogen-specific antibodies with the Brucella antibodies being further corroborated by the Rose-Bengal agglutination test. Seropositivity for the four pathogens is variably documented in sheep and goats from the study area. Respectively, the overall livestock farm prevalence rates for Brucella spp, C. burnetii, C. abortus, and T. gondii were 2.7%, 27.9%, 8.1%, and 16.7% for sheep, and 0.0%, 31.6%, 9.3%, and 5.1% for goats. Additionally, the seroprevalence rates Brucella spp, C. burnetii, C. abortus, and T. gondii in samples from the livestock market were 7.4%, 21.7%, 16.4%, and 7.0% for sheep, and 0.9%, 32.5%, 19.2%, and 11.1% for goats respectively. Overall, sheep had 12.59 more chances than goats of testing seropositive for Brucella spp (OR, 12.59 [95% CI 2.96-53.6]) but less likely to be positive for C. burnetii-antibodies (OR, 0.73 [95% CI 0.54-0.97]). Notably, the differences in the seroprevalence rates of C. abortus and T. gondii in sheep and goats were not statistically significant (p > 0.0500). The present data indicate that all the four study pathogens are present in sheep and goat populations in the UAE where coxiellosis is apparently the most seroprevalent followed by chlamydophilosis, toxoplasmosis, and brucellosis. While sheep from the livestock market were more likely than those from farms to be Brucella-seropositive than those, the overall exposure risk of C. burnetii appears to be greater for goats than sheep. As more animals from the livestock market were more likely to be seropositive to Chlamydophila spp, it is possible that under the UAE animal production conditions, at least, coxiellosis and chlamydophilosis are more likely to increase the culling rate of domesticated small ruminants than toxoplasmosis and brucellosis. While anecdotal reports have previously insinuated that brucellosis may be a significant animal health risk in the UAE, the present data suggest C. burnetii, C. abortus and T. gondii to be more significant pathogens of sheep and goats in the country. Despite this possibility, the extent to which these pathogens may nationally be contributing to reproductive failure in sheep and goat herds is not known and needs to be investigated. Potentially, these agents may also carry a potentially zoonotic risk that needs to be investigated in risk groups like farm workers, and slaughter house personnel. An ongoing study is evaluating the seroprevalence of bovine coxiellosis in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and the data thereof will further elucidate on the broader epidemiological dynamics of the disease in the national herd.
Serological Evidence of Enzootic Bovine Leukosis in Dairy Cattle Herds in the United Arab Emirates
The present study was done to elucidate the prevalence of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) in the UAE, the seroprevalence rates of EBL in dairy herds from the Al Ain area, Abu Dhabi (AD) and indigenous cattle at the Al Ain livestock market (AALM) were assessed. Of the 949 sera tested by ELISA, 657 were from adult Holstein-Friesians from three farms and 292 from indigenous cattle at the AALM. The level of significance between the proportions of seropositive cattle were analyzed by the Marascuilo procedure and questionnaire data on husbandry and biosecurity practices evaluated. Overall, the aggregated farm and AALM data demonstrated a seroprevalence of 25.9%, compared to 37.0% for the study farms, and 1.0% for the indigenous cattle. Additionally, the seroprevalence rates at farms #1, #2 and #3 were 54.7%, 0.0%, and 26.3% respectively. Except for farm #2 and the AALM, statistically significant differences were noted between the proportions of seropositive cattle for farms #1 and #2 (Critical Range or CR=0.0803), farms #1 and #3 (p=0.1069), and farms #2 and #3 (CR=0.0707), farm #1 and the AALM (CR=0.0819), and farm #3 and the AALM (CR=0.0726). Also, the proportions of seropositive animals on farm #1 were 9.8%, 59.8%, 29.3%, and 1.2% in the 12-36, 37-72, 73-108, and 109-144-mo-old age groups respectively compared to 21.5%, 60.8%, 15.2%, and 2.5% in the respective age groups for farm #2. On both farms and the AALM, the 37-72-mo-old age group showed the highest EBL seroprevalence rate while all the 57 cattle on farm #2 were seronegative. Additionally, farms #1 and #3 had 3,130 and 2,828 intensively managed Holstein-Friesian cattle respectively, and all animals were routinely immunized against several diseases except EBL. On both farms #1 and #3, artificial breeding was practiced using semen sourced from the USA, and USA and Canada respectively, all farms routinely quarantined new stock, and farm #1 previously imported dairy cattle from an unspecified country, and farm #3 from the Netherlands, Australia and South Africa. While farm #1 provided no information on animal nutrition, farm #3 cited using hay, concentrates, and ad lib water. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first serological evidence of EBL in the UAE and as previously reported, the seroprevalence rates are comparatively higher in the intensively managed dairy herds than in indigenous cattle. As two of the study farms previously sourced cattle and semen from overseas, biosecurity protocols need to be revisited to avoid inadvertent EBL incursion and the possibility of regional transboundary disease spread also needs to be assessed. After the proposed molecular studies have adduced additional data, the relevant UAE animal health authorities may need to develop evidence-based EBL control policies and programs.
Pond Site Diagnosis: Monoclonal Antibody-Based Farmer Level Tests to Detect the Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease in Shrimp
Early mortality syndrome (EMS)/Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) has emerged as a major obstacle for the shrimp farming around the world. It is caused by a strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The possible preventive and control measure is, early and rapid detection of the pathogen in the broodstock, post-larvae and monitoring the shrimp during the culture period. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based early detection methods are good, but they are costly, time taking and requires a sophisticated laboratory. The present study was conducted to develop a simple, sensitive and rapid diagnostic farmer level kit for the reliable detection of AHPND in shrimp. A panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were raised against the recombinant Pir B protein (rPirB). First, an immunodot was developed by using MAbs G3B8 and Mab G3H2 which showed specific reactivity to purified r-PirB protein with no cross-reactivity to other shrimp bacterial pathogens (AHPND free Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Indian strains), V. anguillarum, WSSV, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Aphanomyces invadans). Immunodot developed using Mab G3B8 is more sensitive than that with the Mab G3H2. However, immunodot takes almost 2.5 hours to complete with several hands-on steps. Therefore, the flow-through assay (FTA) was developed by using a plastic cassette containing the nitrocellulose membrane with absorbing pads below. The sample was dotted in the test zone on the nitrocellulose membrane followed by continuos addition of five solutions in the order of i) blocking buffer (BSA) ii) primary antibody (MAb) iii) washing Solution iv) secondary antibody and v) chromogen substrate (TMB) clear purple dots against a white background were considered as positive reactions. The FTA developed using MAbG3B8 is more sensitive than that with MAb G3H2. In FTA the two MAbs showed specific reactivity to purified r-PirB protein and not to other shrimp bacterial pathogens. The FTA is simple to farmer/field level, sensitive and rapid requiring only 8-10 min for completion. Tests can be developed to kits, which will be ideal for use in biosecurity, for the first line of screening (at the port or pond site) and during monitoring and surveillance programmes overall for the good management practices to reduce the risk of the disease.
Development of Monoclonal Antibodies against the Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease Toxins
Since 2009, Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) outbreaks have increased rapidly, and these have led to the major economic losses to the global shrimp industry. In comparison to other treatments, passive immunity and monoclonal antibody (MAb) based farmer level kit have proved their importance in controlling and treating the diseases in the shrimp industry. In the present study, MAbs were produced against the recombinant PirB protein Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain causing AHPND. Briefly, Balb/C mice were immunized with rPirB at 15 days interval, and antibody titer was determined by ELISA. Spleen cells from mice showing high antibody titer were fused with SP2O myeloma cells for hybridoma production. Among 130 hybridomas, four showed high antibody titer and positive reactivity in an immunoblot assay. In Western blot assay, three out of four MAbs (4C4, 2C2 and 4G3) showed reactivity to rPirB protein. However, in the natural host, only Mab clone 4G3 show strong reactivity (with a strain of V. parahemolyticus causing EMS/AHPND). These clones also showed reactivity with less than 20 kDa proteins in AHPND free V. parahaemolyticus (Thailand stain). Further, on from MAb 4G3 clone, four panels of single cell MAbs clones (G3F5, G3B8, G3H2, and G3D6) were produced of which three showed strong positive reactivity to rPirB protein in the Western blot. These MAbs have potential for controlling and prevention of the AHPND through passive immunity and development of filed level rapid diagnostic kits.
Development of Extruded Prawn Snack Using Prawn Flavor Powder from Prawn Head Waste
Consumption of SNACK is growing its popularity every day in India and a broad range of these items are available in the market. The end user interest in ready-to-eat snack foods is constantly growing mainly due to their ease, ample accessibility, appearance, taste and texture. Food extrusion has been practiced for over fifty years. Its role was initially limited to mixing and forming cereal products. Although thermoplastic extrusion has been successful for starch products, extrusion of proteins has achieved only limited success. In this study, value-added extruded prawn product was prepared with prawn flavor powder and corn flour using a twin-screw extruder. Prawn flavor concentrates prepared from fresh prawn head (Solenocera indica). To prepare flavor concentrate prawn head washed with potable water and blended with 200ml 3% salt solution per 250gm head weight to make the slurry, which was further put in muslin cloth and boiled with salt and starch solution for 10 minutes, cooled to room temperature and filtered, starch added to the filtrate and made into powder in an electrically drier at 43-450c. The mixture was passed through the twin-screw extruder (co-rotating twin screw extruder - basic technology Pvt. Ltd., Kolkata) which was operated at a particular speed of rotation, die diameter, temperature, moisture, and fish powder concentration. Many trial runs were conducted to set up the process variables. The different extrudes produced after each trail were examined for the quality and characteristics. The effect of temperature, moisture, screw speed, protein, fat, ash and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) number and expansion ratio were studied. In all the four trials, moisture, temperature, speed and die diameter used was 20%, 100°C, 350 rpm and 4 mm, respectively. The ratio of prawn powder and cornstarch used in different trials ranged between 2:98 and 10:90. The storage characteristics of the final product were studied using three different types of packaging under nitrogen flushing, i.e. a- 12-pm polyester, 12-pm metalized polyester, 60-11m polyethylene (metalized polyester a), b- 12-11m metalized polyester, 37.5-11m polyethylene (metalized polyester b), c- 12-11m polyethylene, 9-11m aluminium foil, 37.5-11m polyethylene (aluminium foil). The organoleptic analysis was carried out on a 9-point hedonic scale. The study revealed that the fried product packed in aluminum foil under nitrogen flushing would remain acceptable for more than three months.
Prevalence of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei in Shrimp Cultured in Inland Saline Water
Inland saline water resources are gaining the importance in expanding the aquaculture activities to mitigate the nutritional and food security issues of the world. For profitable and sustainable aquaculture practices, scientific farming, biosecurity measure, and best fish health management should be the integral part of developmental activities. Keeping in line with global awareness and trends, the Indian government has taken an innovative step to conduct disease surveillance and awareness programme for aquatic disease through network project. This ‘National Surveillance Programme for Aquatic Animal Diseases (NSPAAD)’ is being implemented in collaboration of national institutes and state agriculture universities with funding support from National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB), Govt. of India. Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (GADVASU), Ludhiana, an NSPAAD collaborator, has been actively engaged in disease surveillance in the Indian state of Punjab. Shrimp farming in inland saline areas of Punjab is expanding at a tremendous pace under the guidance of GADVASU along with the support of State Fisheries Department. Under this national disease surveillance programme, we reported Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) infection in the Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in the inland saline waters. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnosis was carried out using the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) protocol. It was observed that out of 20 shrimp farms, two farms were 1st step PCR positive and two more farms were nested PCR positive. All the EHP positive ponds had shown the white faeces along with mortalities at very low rate. Therefore, implementation of biosecurity and continuous surveillance and monitoring program for finfish and shellfish aquaculture are in need of the hour to prevent and control the large-scale disease outbreaks and subsequent economic losses.
Isolation and Characterization of a Narrow-Host Range Aeromonas hydrophila Lytic Bacteriophage
Since their discovery, indiscriminate use of antibiotics in human, veterinary and aquaculture systems has resulted in global emergence/spread of multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens. Thus, the need for alternative approaches to control bacterial infections has become utmost important. High selectivity/specificity of bacteriophages (phages) permits the targeting of specific bacteria without affecting the desirable flora. In this study, a lytic phage (Ahp1) specific to Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. hydrophila was isolated from finfish aquaculture pond. The host range of Ahp1 range was tested against 10 isolates of A. hydrophila, 7 isolates of A. veronii, 25 Vibrio cholerae isolates, 4 V. parahaemolyticus isolates and one isolate each of V. harveyi and Salmonella enterica collected previously. Except the host A. hydrophila subsp. hydrophila strain, no lytic activity against any other bacterial was detected. During the adsorption rate and one-step growth curve analysis, 69.7% of phage particles were able to get adsorbed on host cell followed by the release of 93 ± 6 phage progenies per host cell after a latent period of ~30 min. Phage nucleic acid was extracted by column purification methods. After determining the nature of phage nucleic acid as dsDNA, phage genome was subjected to next-generation sequencing by generating paired-end (PE, 2 x 300bp) reads on Illumina MiSeq system. De novo assembly of sequencing reads generated circular phage genome of 42,439 bp with G+C content of 58.95%. During open read frame (ORF) prediction and annotation, 22 ORFs (out of 49 total predicted ORFs) were functionally annotated and rest encoded for hypothetical proteins. Proteins involved in major functions such as phage structure formation and packaging, DNA replication and repair, DNA transcription and host cell lysis were encoded by the phage genome. The complete genome sequence of Ahp1 along with gene annotation was submitted to NCBI GenBank (accession number MF683623). Stability of Ahp1 preparations at storage temperatures of 4 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C was studied over a period of 9 months. At 40 °C storage, phage counts declined by 4 log units within one month; with a total loss of viability after 2 months. At 30 °C temperature, phage preparation was stable for < 5 months. On the other hand, phage counts decreased by only 2 log units over a period of 9 during storage at 4 °C. As some of the phages have also been reported as glycerol sensitive, the stability of Ahp1 preparations in (0%, 15%, 30% and 45%) glycerol stocks were also studied during storage at -80 °C over a period of 9 months. The phage counts decreased only by 2 log units during storage, and no significant difference in phage counts was observed at different concentrations of glycerol. The Ahp1 phage discovered in our study had a very narrow host range and it may be useful for phage typing applications. Moreover, the endolysin and holin genes in Ahp1 genome could be ideal candidates for recombinant cloning and expression of antimicrobial proteins.
Analysis of Taxonomic Compositions, Metabolic Pathways and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Fish Gut Microbiome by Shotgun Metagenomics
Characterization of diverse microbial communities in specific environment plays a crucial role in the better understanding of their functional relationship with the ecosystem. It is now well established that gut microbiome of fish is not the simple replication of microbiota of surrounding local habitat, and extensive species, dietary, physiological and metabolic variations in fishes may have a significant impact on its composition. Moreover, overuse of antibiotics in human, veterinary and aquaculture medicine has led to rapid emergence and propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the aquatic environment. Microbial communities harboring specific ARGs not only get a preferential edge during selective antibiotic exposure but also possess the significant risk of ARGs transfer to other non-resistance bacteria within the confined environments. This phenomenon may lead to the emergence of habitat-specific microbial resistomes and subsequent emergence of virulent antibiotic-resistant pathogens with severe fish and consumer health consequences. In this study, gut microbiota of freshwater carp (Labeo rohita) was investigated by shotgun metagenomics to understand its taxonomic composition and functional capabilities. Metagenomic DNA, extracted from the fish gut, was subjected to sequencing on Illumina NextSeq to generate paired-end (PE) 2 x 150 bp sequencing reads. After the QC of raw sequencing data by Trimmomatic, taxonomic analysis by Kraken2 taxonomic sequence classification system revealed the presence of 36 phyla, 326 families and 985 genera in the fish gut microbiome. At phylum level, Proteobacteria accounted for more than three-fourths of total bacterial populations followed by Actinobacteria (14%) and Cyanobacteria (3%). Commonly used probiotic bacteria (Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Lactococcus) were found to be very less prevalent in fish gut. After sequencing data assembly by MEGAHIT v1.1.2 assembler and PROKKA automated analysis pipeline, pathway analysis revealed the presence of 1,608 Metacyc pathways in the fish gut microbiome. Biosynthesis pathways were found to be the most dominant (51%) followed by degradation (39%), energy-metabolism (4%) and fermentation (2%). Almost one-third (33%) of biosynthesis pathways were involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites. Metabolic pathways for the biosynthesis of 35 antibiotic types were also present, and these accounted for 5% of overall metabolic pathways in the fish gut microbiome. Fifty-one different types of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) belonging to 15 antimicrobial resistance (AMR) gene families and conferring resistance against 24 antibiotic types were detected in fish gut. More than 90% ARGs in fish gut microbiome were against beta-lactams (penicillins, cephalosporins, penems, and monobactams). Resistance against tetracycline, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and phenicols ranged from 0.7% to 1.3%. Some of the ARGs for multi-drug resistance were also found to be located on sequences of plasmid origin. The presence of pathogenic bacteria and ARGs on plasmid sequences suggested the potential risk due to horizontal gene transfer in the confined gut environment.
Isolation and Probiotic Characterization of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis from Gut Microbiome of Rohu (Labeo rohita)
Though aquaculture started as an occupation for poor and weak farmers for livelihood, it has now acquired the shape of one of the biggest industry to grow live protein in the form of aquatic organisms. Industrialization of the aquaculture sector has led to intensification resulting in stress on aquatic organisms and frequent disease outbreaks leading to huge economic impacts. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics as growth promoter and prophylactic agent in aquaculture has resulted in rapid emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens. Over the past few years, use of probiotics (as an alternative of antibiotics) in aquaculture has gained attention due to their immunostimulant and growth promoting properties. It has now well known that after administration, a probiotic bacterium has to compete and establish itself against native microbiota to show its eventual beneficial properties. Due to their non-fish origin, commercial probiotics sometimes may display poor probiotic functionalities and antagonistic effects. Thus, isolation and characterization of probiotic bacteria from same fish host is very much necessary. In this study, attempts were made to isolate potent probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from intestinal microflora of rohu fish. Twenty-five experimental rohu fishes (mean weight 400 ± 20gm, mean standard length 20 ± 3cm) were used in the study to collect fish gut after dissection in a sterile condition. A total of 150 tentative LAB isolates from selective agar media (de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS)) were screened for their antimicrobial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila and Microccocus leuteus. A total of 17 isolates, identified as Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis, identified by biochemical tests and PCR amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragment, displayed promising antimicrobial activity against both the pathogens. Two isolates from each species (FLB1, FLB2 from L. plantarum; and FLC1, FLC2 from L. lactis) were subjected to downstream probiotic potential characterization. These isolates were compared in vitro for their hemolytic activity, acid and bile tolerance for growth kinetics, auto-aggregation, cell-surface hydrophobicity against xylene, and chloroform, tolerance to phenol, cell adhesion, and safety parameters (by intraperitoneal and intramuscular injections). None of the tested isolates showed any hemolytic activity indicating their potential safety. Moreover, these isolates were tolerant to 0.3% bile (75-82% survival), phenol stress (96-99% survival) with 100% viability at pH 3 over a period of 3 h. Antibiotic sensitivity test revealed that all the tested LAB isolates were resistant to vancomycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, and erythromycin and sensitive to Erythromycin, Chloramphenicol, Ampicillin, Trimethoprim, and Nitrofurantoin. Tetracycline resistance was found in L. plantarum (FLB1 and FLB2 isolates), whereas L. lactis were susceptible to it. Intramuscular and intraperitoneal challenges to fingerlings of rohu fish (5 ± 1gm weight) with FLB1 showed no pathogenicity and occurrence of disease symptoms in fishes over an observation period of 7 days. The results revealed FLB1 as a potential probiotic candidate for aquaculture application among other isolates.
Habitat Model Review and a Proposed Methodology to Value Economic Trade-Off between Cage Culture and Habitat of an Endemic Species in Lake Maninjau, Indonesia
This paper delivers a review of various methodologies for habitat assessment and a proposed methodology to assess an endemic fish species habitat in Lake Maninjau, Indonesia as a part of a Ph.D. project. This application is mainly aimed to assess the trade-off between the economic value of aquaculture and the fisheries. The proposed methodology is a generalized linear model (GLM) combined with GIS to assess presence-absence data or habitat suitability index (HSI) combined with the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Further, a cost of habitat replacement approach is planned to be used to calculate the habitat value as well as its trade-off with the economic value of aquaculture. The result of the study is expected to be a scientific consideration in local decision making and to provide a reference for other areas in the country.
Antiprotozoal Activity of Peganum harmala against Babesiosis in Cattle
The Babesia gradually attained resistance against the synthetic medicines. To overcome the drug resistance, herbal therapy has gained more attention as compared to allopathic therapy. Peganumharmala (harmal) is a plant which has shown effective results against various protozoal diseases. Therefore, the present study was planned to monitor the efficacy of Peganumharmala (aqueous extract) against Babesiosis in cattle. For this purpose, a total of forty (n=40) infected animals were randomly divided into four equal groups (A, B, C, and D). Group A was treated with aqueous extract of Peganum harmala at 7.5 mg/kg, group B at 10 mg/kg and group C at 12.5 mg/kg of body weight. Group D served as a control group (normal). It was observed that there was a stabilization in hematological parameters (white and red blood cells, hemoglobin and Packed cell volume) in infected animals treated with Peganum harmala at different doses. Results of this study hence indicated that Peganum harmala extract at 12.5mg/kg BW is more effective against Babesiosis than lower doses.
Prevalence of Haemo and Gastrointestinal Parasites of Small Ruminants in Akwanga Local Government Area of Nasarawa State
The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of ruminant has been on the increase leading to great economic and production losses with more fatal cases occurring in developing countries. This study was conducted to investigate and provide data on the prevalence and impact of haemo and gastro intestinal parasites of small ruminants in Akwanga LGA of Nasarawa State. One hundred fecal and blood samples were collected from goats and sheep. The fecal and blood samples were examined using floatation method and thin blood smear method respectively. Four gastro intestinal parasites were identified in the study, these are; Strongyloides spp, Paramphistome spp, Coccidia spp and Moniezia spp. while 2 heamo parasites were identified; Babesia spp. and Anaplasma spp. The most prevalent gastro intestinal parasite encountered was Strongyloide pp with 48(64.86%) and 48(77.42%) in sheep and goat respectively. This is followed by Paramphistome spp with 18(24.32%) in sheep only. The least prevalent was Coccidia spp with 8(10.8%) in sheep and Moniezia spp with 2 (3.23%) in goats. The most prevalent heamo parasites was Babesia spp with 10(71.43%) and 10(100.00%) in sheep and goat respectively while the least prevalent was Anaplasma spp with 4(28.57%) in sheep only. Statistically, there is no significant difference between haemo and gastrointestinal parasites of sheep and goats in the study area. (P > 0.05). The prevalence of gastrointestinal and haemo parasites in relation to sex showed that female had the highest prevalence of 50% than in the male 2.00% while In relation to age the prevalence was higher in adult 58% than in the Young 2.00%. Statistically, there is a significant difference (P < 0.05) between adult and young. The study indicates that parasitic infections are prevalent in ruminants in the study area.
Effects of IMUNO-2865® as Immune Supplement for the Aquaculture Industry
IMUNO-2865® is a commercially available, β–glucan based, natural hemicellulose compound with proven immunostimulative properties in people, domestic and some aquatic animals. During the experimental feeding trial with IMUNO-2865® in juvenile wild-caught chub under laboratory conditions, supplementation resulted in overall higher growth performance for all experimental groups regardless of the concentration of the added compound. The maximum, 5% concentration of the supplement, resulted in highest weight gain and calculated specific growth rate. In sea bream, as economically most important species in the Mediterranean aquaculture, significant increases in numbers of monocytes and heterophils were observed in the group supplemented with 2.5 % of IMUNO-2865® in the feed. An overall increase of erythrocytes was noted by the end of the experiment, although with variable distribution among groups. Blood Ca++ levels, total proteins, and total NH₃ were significantly higher after 60 days of feeding in all treatment groups compared to the control and remained elevated in the treated group following the secession of supplementation. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and serum paraoxonase PON1 (U/L) showed similar trends. All these parameters are playing a significant role in either oxygen supplementation of tissues, or anabolic and catabolic processes that on molecular levels contribute to the overall health and immune-building capacity of cells and tissues. The complete lack of mortality in sea bream and presented increases in cellular, biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in the blood suggest that the IMUNO-2865® represents a safe dietary supplement for in aquaculture, with an overall positive and potentially immunostimulative effect on farmed fish.
Evaluation of Computed Tomographic Anatomy of Respiratory System in Caspian Pond Turtle (Mauremys caspica)
In recent decades, keeping exotic species as pet animals has become widespread. Turtles are exotic species from chelonians, which are interested by many people. Caspian pond and European pond turtles from Emydidea family are commonly kept as pets in Iran. Presence of the shell in turtles makes achievement to a comprehensive clinical examination impossible. Respiratory system is one of the most important structures to be examined completely. Presence of the air in the respiratory system makes radiography the first modality to think of; however, image quality would be affected by the shell. Computed tomography (CT) as a radiography-based and non-invasive technique provides cross-sectional scans with little superimposition. The aim of this study was to depict normal computed tomographic anatomy of the respiratory system in Caspian Pond Turtle. Five adult Caspian pond turtle were scanned using a 16-detector CT machine. Our results showed that computed tomography is able to well illustrated different parts of respiratory system in turtle and can be used for detecting abnormalities and disorders.
Association of Major Histocompatibility Complex with Cell Mediated Immunity
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the best characterized genetic regions associated with immune responses and controlling disease resistance in chicken. Association of the MHC with a wide range of immune responses makes it a valuable predictive factor for the disease pathogenesis and outcome. In this study, the association of MHC with cell-mediated immune responses was analyzed in commercial broiler chicken. The tandem repeat LEI0258 was applied to investigate the MHC polymorphism. Cell-mediated immune response was evaluated by peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation assay using MTT method. Association study revealed a significant influence of MHC alleles on cellular immune responses in this population. Alleles 385 and 448 bp were associated with elevated cell-mediated immunity. Haplotypes associated with improved immune responses could be considered as candidate markers for disease resistance and applied to breeding strategies.
History and Epidemiology of Foot and Mouth Disease in Afghanistan: A Retrospective Study
Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is endemic in Afghanistan. A retrospective study of data collected through passive surveillance of outbreaks of FMD from 1995 to 2016 was undertaken. A total of 1471 outbreaks were reported between 1995 and 2008. Of 7776 samples originating from 34 provinces tested between 2009 and 2016 4845 (62.3%) tested positive. The prevalence varied significantly between years (2009 and 2016) (P < 0.001); however, the number of outbreaks did not differ significantly (P = 0.24) between 1995 and 2008. During this period, there was a strong correlation between the number of outbreaks reported and the number of districts with infected animals (r = 0.74, P = 0.002). Serotype O was the predominant serotype detected, although serotypes A and Asia1 were also detected. Cattle were involved in all outbreaks reported. Herat province in the north-west (bordering Iran), Nangarhar province in the east (bordering Pakistan) and Kabul province in the centre of the country had infections detected in all years of the study. The findings from this study provide valuable direction for further research to understand the epidemiology of FMD in Afghanistan.
Effects of Body Positioning on Videofluoroscopic Barium Esophagram in Healthy Cats
Contrast videofluoroscopy is the diagnostic imaging technique for evaluating cat with dysphagia. Generally, videofluoroscopic studies have been done with the cat restrained in lateral recumbency. It is different from the neutral position such as standing or sternal recumbency which is actual swallowing posture. We hypothesized that measurement of esophageal transit and peristalsis would be affected by body position. This experimental study analyzed the imaging findings of barium esophagram in 5 cats. Each cat underwent videofluoroscopy during swallowing of liquid barium and barium-soaked kibble in standing position and lateral recumbency. Esophageal transit time and the number of esophageal peristaltic waves were compared among body positions. Transit time in the cervical esophagus (0.57s), cranial thoracic esophagus (2.5s), and caudal thoracic esophagus(1.10s) was delayed when cats were in lateral recumbency for liquid barium. For kibble, transit time was more delayed than that of liquid through the entire esophagus in lateral recumbency. Liquid and kibble frequently started to delay at thoracic inlet region, transit time in the thoracic esophagus was significantly delayed than the cervical esophagus. In standing position, 60.2% of liquid swallows stimulated primary esophageal peristalsis. In lateral recumbency, 50.5% of liquid swallows stimulated primary esophageal peristalsis. Other variables were not significantly different. Lateral body positioning increases entire esophageal transit time and thoracic esophageal transit time is most significantly delayed. Thus, lateral recumbency decreases the number of primary esophageal peristalsis.
The Expression of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene with Fat Accumulations and Serum Biochemical Levels in Betong (KU Line) and Broiler Chickens
Betong chicken is a slow growing and a lean strain of chicken, while the rapid growth of broiler is accompanied by increased fat. We investigated the growth performance, fat accumulations, lipid serum biochemical levels and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene expression of female Betong (KU line) at the age of 4 and 6 weeks. A total of 80 female Betong chickens (KU line) and 80 female broiler chickens were reared under open system (each group had 4 replicates of 20 chicks per pen). The results showed that feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) of broiler chicken were significantly higher than Betong (KU line) (P < 0.01), while feed conversion ratio (FCR) of Betong (KU line) at week 6 were significantly lower than broiler chicken (P < 0.01) at 6 weeks. At 4 and 6 weeks, two birds per replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered. Carcass weight did not significantly differ between treatments; the percentage of abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat yield was higher in the broiler (P < 0.01) at 4 and 6 week. Total cholesterol and LDL (low density lipoprotein) level of broiler were higher than Betong (KU line) at 4 and 6 weeks (P < 0.05). Abdominal fat samples were collected for total RNA extraction. The cDNA was amplified using primers specific for LPL gene expression and analysed using real-time PCR. The results showed that the expression of LPL gene was not different when compared between Betong (KU line) and broiler chickens at the age of 4 and 6 weeks (P > 0.05). Our results indicated that broiler chickens increased in growth rate and fat accumulation when compared with Betong (KU line) chickens, but did not regulate by the expression of LPL gene.
A Study of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristic, Meat Quality and Association of Polymorphism in the ApoVLDL-II Gene with Fat Accumulation in the Female Broiler, Thai Native and Betong Chickens
The objective of this study was to determine the growth performance, carcass characteristic, meat quality and association of polymorphism in the ApoVLDL-II gene with fat accumulation in the female broiler, Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens at 4-14 weeks. The chickens were used and reared under the same environment and management (100 chicks per breed). The results showed that BW of broiler chickens was significantly higher than Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens (P < 0.01) through all the experiment. At 4-8 weeks of age, FCR of broiler chickens was significantly better than Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens (P < 0.01), then was increased at week 8-14. The percentage of breast, abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat of broiler chickens was significantly greater than Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens (P < 0.01). However, Thai Native chickens showed the highest percentage of liver (P < 0.01) when compared to other breeds. In addition, the percentage of wing of Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than broiler chickens. Meat quality was also determined and found that, pH45 and pH24 of broiler was significantly higher than Thai Native and Betong (KU line) (P < 0.01) whereas the percentage of drip loss, thawing loss, cooking loss and shear force was not significantly different between breeds. The PCR-RFLP technique was used to genotype the polymorphism in the ApoVLDL-II gene in the broiler, Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens. The results found that, the polymorphism in the ApoVLDL-II gene at VLDL6 loci was not associated with fat accumulation in those studied population.
The Evaluation of Substitution of Acacia villosa in Ruminants Ration
Acacia villosa is thornless shrub legume which contents high crude protein. However, the utilization of A. villosa as ruminant feed is limited by its secondary compounds. The aim of this article is to find out the maximum of substitution A. villosa in sheep ration. The nutritional evaluation consisted of in vitro two stages, in vivo, and in vitro gas production trials. The secondary compounds of A. villosa also were analyzed. Evaluating digestibility of increasing level of substitution A. villosa replacing Pennisetum purpureum was using in vitro two stages. The substitution of 30% A. villosa was compared to 100% P. purpureum by in vitro gas production technique and in vivo digestibility. The results of two stages in vitro showed that total phenol, condensed tannin, and non-protein amino acid (NPAA) were high. Substitution 15% A. villosa reached the highest digestibility for both dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) which were 67% and 86% respectively, but it was shown that DM and CP digestibility of substitution 30% of A. villosa was still high which were 61.82% and 75-67% respectively. The pattern of gas production showed that first 8 hours total gas production substitution of 30% A. villosa was higher than 100% P. purpureum and declined after 10 hours incubation. In vivo trials showed that substitution of 30% A. villosa significantly increased CP intake, CP digestibility, and nitrogen retention. It can be concluded that substitution A. villosa until 30% still gave the good impact even though it has high secondary compounds.
Effect of Scrotal Circumference on Freezability of Bangladeshi Crossbred Bulls
The study was conducted to evaluate the freezability of crossbred bulls’ semen at early age. Semen of three consecutive collections at 7 days interval from 12 crossbred bulls 17 was evaluated. The age at first collection was 15 to 20 months. Evaluation of semen was done soon after collection. Triladyl, Minitub, Germany was used as extender and was frozen using standard semen freezing protocol. Post-thaw sperm motility was evaluated. Morphology of paraformaldehyde fixed spermatozoa was evaluated under differential interference phase contrast microscopy and the viability of spermatozoa was evaluated by using stain SYBR-14 (1 mM/ml) and propidium iodide (2.41 mM/ml) under an epifluorescent microscopy. Scrotal circumference was correlated with all possible measures in all groups of crossbred bulls. Volume of semen, sperm concentration, total number of spermatozoa, initial sperm motility, post-thaw sperm motility, proportion of normal spermatozoa and proportion of live spermatozoa were compared among individual bull within and between two groups of crossbred bulls. A significant positive correlation was observed between scrotal circumference and volume of semen and between scrotal circumference and the total number of sperm production per ejaculate (r = 0.72, p < 0.04). Significant variation was observed in different semen parameters among individual bulls within the same group (p < 0.05) but no significant variation was found between two groups of crossbred bulls. Out of 12 bulls, semen freezability of 10 bulls was found satisfactory while semen of 2 bulls (Local × Friesian) was unsatisfactory. In conclusion, crossbred bulls aged 18 months having scrotal circumference > 30 cm produce freezable quality semen.
A Review on the Challenge and Need of Goat Semen Production and Artificial Insemination in Nepal
Goat raising is a popular livestock sub-commodity of mixed farming system in Nepal. Besides food and nutritional security, it has an important role in the economy of many peoples. Goat breeding through AI is commonly practiced worldwide. It is a very basic tool to speed up genetic improvement and increase productivity. For the goat genetic improvement program, the government of Nepal has imported some specialized exotic goat breeds and semen. Some progress has been made in the initiation of selective breeding within the local breeds and practice of AI with imported semen. Importance of AI in goats has drawn more attention among goat farmers. However, importing semen is not a permanent solution at national level; rather, it is more important to develop and establish its own frozen semen production technique. Semen quality and its relationship with fertility are said to be a major concern in animal production, hence accurate measurement of semen fertilizing potential is of great importance. The survivability of sperm cells depends on semen quality. Survivability of sperm cells is assessed through visual and microscopic evaluation of spermatozoal progressive motility and morphology. In Nepal, there is lack of scientific information on seminal attributes of buck semen, its dilution, cooling and freezing technique under management conditions of Nepal. Therefore, the objective of this review was to provide brief information about breeding system, semen production and artificial insemination in Nepalese goat.
Oestrous Synchronization: A Technical Note for Nepalese Goat Farmers
This technical note is aimed at providing a brief information on goat breeds, its breeding seasonality and different methods of oestrous synchronization for Nepalese goat farmers. It was observed that, these goats are seasonal breeder and showed oestrous during mainly two season; December- February and March-May. This leads to an irregular supply of goat to market and a wide variations in market price. Oestrus synchronization is only an alternative reproductive tool to overcome this scarcity by enhancing production and productivity. This technique enables goat producers breed their animals within a short pre-determined period and permits breeding round the year. The principle of oestrus synchronisation is based on controlling of the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle. There are two basic mechanisms; one by shortening the luteal life (premature luteolysis) using prostaglandins or its analogues and the other by prolonging the luteal life (simulating the activity of natural progesterone produced by the corpus luteum) using exogenous progesterone source. The former is easy to apply and only effective during breeding season, whereas the latter is advantageous when the reproductive status of the goat flock is unknown. The common hormonal products easily available in Nepal includes; prostaglandins or its analogues (Oviprost® Dinoprost® Lutalyse® and Estrumate®), exogenous progesterone (Fluorogestone acetate® and Controlled Internal Drug Release®, CIDR) devices). However, before practicing the oestrous synchronization protocol, it needs to be validated for oestrous response rate, time to onset of oestrous, duration of oestrous and pregnancy rates at farmer’s field. In conclusion, application of oestrus synchronisation practice enhanced goat production and surplus the goat meat demand in Nepal.
Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal on Blood Biochemical Changes and Lipid Profile of Vanaraja Chicken in Tropics
Present study investigated the dietary inclusion of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on production efficiency, hemato-biochemical profile and economy of Vanaraja birds under tropical condition. Experiment was conducted for a period of 56 days on 300 Vanaraja birds randomly divided in to five different experimental groups including control of 60 birds each group replicated with 20 chicks in each replicate. T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 were offered with 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% Moringa oleifera leaf meal along with basal ration. All the standard managemental practices were followed during experimental period including vaccination schedule. Locally available Moringa oleifera leaves were harvested at mature stage and allowed to dry under shady and aerated conditions. Thereafter, dried leaves were milled to make a leaf meal and stored in the airtight nylon bags to avoid any possible contamination from foreign material and use for experiment. Production parameters were calculated based on the amount of feed consumed and weight gain every weeks. The body weight gain of T2 group was significantly (P < 0.05) higher side whereas T3 group was comparable with control. The feed conversion ratio for T2 group was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) lower than all other treatment groups, while none of the group was comparable with each other. At the end of the experiment blood samples were collected from birds for haematology study while serum biochemistry performed using spectrophotometer following statndard protocols. The haematological attributes were significantly (P > 0.05) not differed among the groups. However, serum biochemistry showed significant reduction (P < 0.05) of blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and creatinine level with higher level of MOLM diet, indicates better utilization of protein supplemented through MOLM. The total cholesterol and triglyceride level was declined significantly (P < 0.05) as compare to control group with increased level of MOLM in basal diet, decreasing trend of serum cholesterol noted. However, value of HDL for T3 group was highest and for T1 group was lowest but no significant difference (P < 0.05) found among the groups. It might be due to presence of β-sitosterol a bioactive compound present in MOLM which causes lowering of plasma concentration of LDL. During experiment total, LDL and VLDL level was found to be decreased significantly (P < 0.05) as compare to control group. It was observed that the production efficiency of birds significantly improved with 5% followed by 10% Moringa oleifera leaf meal among the treatment groups. However, the maximum profit per kg live weight was noted in 10 % level and least profit observed in 20% MOLM fed group. It was concluded that the dietary inclusion of MOLM improved overall performances without affecting metabolic status and effective in reducing cholesterol level reflects healthy chicken production for human consumption.
Effect of Rapeseed Press Cake on Extrusion System Parameters and Physical Pellet Quality of Fish Feed
The demand for fish from aquaculture is constantly growing. Concurrently, due to a shortage of fishmeal caused by extensive overfishing, fishmeal substitution by plant proteins is getting increasingly important for the production of sustainable aquafeed. Several research studies evaluated the impact of plant protein meals, concentrates or isolates on fish health and fish feed quality. However, these protein raw materials often require elaborate and expensive manufacturing and their availability is limited. Rapeseed press cake (RPC) – a side product of de-oiling processes – exhibits a high potential as a plant-based fishmeal alternative in fish feed for carnivorous species due to its availability, low costs and protein content. In order to produce aquafeed with RPC, it is important to systematically assess i) inclusion levels of RPC with similar pellet qualities compared to fishmeal containing formulations and ii) how extrusion parameters can be adjusted to achieve targeted pellet qualities. However, the effect of RPC on extrusion system parameters and pellet quality has only scarcely been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of feed formulation, extruder barrel temperature (90, 100, 110 °C) and screw speed (200, 300, 400 rpm) on extrusion system parameters and the physical properties of fish feed pellets. A co-rotating pilot-scale twin screw extruder was used to produce five iso-nitrogenous feed formulations: a fish meal based reference formulation including 16 g/100g fishmeal and four formulations in which fishmeal was substituted by RPC to 25, 50, 75 or 100 %. Extrusion system parameters, being product temperature, pressure at the die, specific mechanical energy (SME) and torque, were monitored while samples were taken. After drying, pellets were analyzed regarding to optical appearance, sectional and longitudinal expansion, sinking velocity, bulk density, water stability, durability and specific hardness. In our study, the addition of minor amounts of RPC already had high impact on pellet quality parameters, especially on expansion but only marginally affected extrusion system parameters. Increasing amounts of RPC reduced sectional expansion, sinking velocity, bulk density and specific hardness and increased longitudinal expansion compared to a reference formulation without RPC. Water stability and durability were almost not affected by RPC addition. Moreover, pellets with rapeseed components showed a more coarse structure than pellets containing only fishmeal. When the adjustment of barrel temperature and screw speed was investigated, it could be seen that the increase of extruder barrel temperature led to a slight decrease of SME and die pressure and an increased sectional expansion of the reference pellets but did almost not affect rapeseed containing fish feed pellets. Also changes in screw speed had little effects on the physical properties of pellets however with raised screw speed the SME and the product temperature increased. In summary, a one-to-one substitution of fishmeal with RPC without the adjustment of extrusion process parameters does not result in fish feed of a designated quality. Therefore, a deeper knowledge of raw materials and their behavior under thermal and mechanical stresses as applied during extrusion is required.
Molecular Characterization of White Spot Syndrome Virus in Some Cultured Penaeid Shrimps of Coastal Regions in Bangladesh
Bangladesh is earning a lot of foreign currency by exporting shrimp, but this industry is facing a tremendous problem due to the infection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). This study was undermined to develop rapid detection method of WSSV. A total of shrimp samples 240 collected from the 12 shrimp farms of different coastal regions (Satkhira, Khulna, and Bagerhat) were analyzed by conventional PCR using VP28 and VP664 gene-specific primers. In satkhira, Bagerhat and Khulna 39, 41 and 29 samples were found WSSV positive respectively. Real-time PCR using 71-bp amplicon for VP664 gene correlated well with conventional PCR data. The prevalence rates of WSSV among the collected 240 samples were Satkhira 38%, Khulna 47% and Bagerhat 50%. Molecular analysis of the VP28 gene sequences of WSSV revealed that Bangladeshi strains phylogenetically affiliated to the strains belong to India. This work concluded that WSSV infections are widely distributed in the coastal regions cultured shrimp in Bangladesh. Physico-chemical parameters were within the range of fish culture.
Genetic Variation of Lactoferrin Gene and Its Association with Productive Traits in Egyptian Goats
Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein involved in economically production traits like milk protein composition and skeletal structure in small ruminants including sheep and goat. So, LF gene - with its genetic polymorphisms associated with production traits - is considered a candidate genetic marker used in marker-assisted selection in goats. This study aimed to identify the different alleles and genotypes of this gene in three Egyptian goat breeds using PCR-SSCP (polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism) and DNA sequencing. Genomic DNA was extracted from 120 animals belonging to Barki, Zaraibi, and Damascus goat breeds. Using specific primers, PCR amplified 247-bp fragments from exon 2 of LF goat gene. The PCR products were subjected to Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) technique. The results showed the presence of two genotypes GG and AG in the tested animals. The frequencies of both genotypes varied among the three tested breeds with the highest frequencies of GG genotype in all tested goat breeds. The sequence analysis of PCR products representing these two detected genotypes declared the presence of an SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms) substitution (G/A) among G and A alleles of this gene. The association between different LF genotypes and milk composition as well as body measurement was estimated. The comparison showed that the animals possess AG genotypes are superior over those with GG genotypes for different parameters of milk protein compositions and skeletal structures. This finding declared that allele A of LF gene is considered the promising marker for the productive traits in goat. In conclusion, the Egyptian goat breeds will be needed to enhance their milk protein composition and growth trait parameters through the increasing of allele A frequency in their herds depending on the superior production traits of this allele in goats.
Occurrence of Antibiotics of Veterinary Use in Water of the Lake Titicaca: Its Environmental Implication and Human Health
The production of rainbow trout in the Lake Titicaca represents an important economic activity for Peru. The city of Puno is responsible for 83% of this production, so the use of antibiotics within the aquaculture system is not alien to this reality. Meanwhile, the waters of Lake Titicaca represent an important source for the supply of drinking water for 80% of the population of the Puno city. In this paper, twelve antibiotics for veterinary use were monitored in water samples during two seasons: dry (July 2015) and rainy (February 2016), water samples from trout production systems, near the water catching point in the lake and drinking water in the city house of Puno were considered. The samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and solid online phase extraction (On-line SPE-LC-MS/MS), all samples analyzed showed concentrations of Ciprofloxacin up to 65.2 ng L⁻¹ at the rainy season. On the other hand, 63% of water samples from the dry season and 36 % from the rainy season showed Chlortetracycline up to 8.7 and 6.1 ng L⁻¹, respectively. The presence of residues of veterinary antibiotics in drinking water means a serious health risk for 80% of the population of Puno since all these people are supplied from this source.
Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for Assessing Endurance Related Traits in a Native Pony Breed of Zanskar at High Altitude
High performance of endurance in equid requires adaptive changes involving physio-biochemical, and molecular responses in an attempt to regain homeostasis. We hypothesized that the identification of the suitable reference genes might be considered for assessing of endurance related traits in pony at high altitude and may ensure for individuals struggling to potent endurance trait in ponies at high altitude. A total of 12 mares of ponies, Zanskar breed, were divided into three groups, group-A (without load), group-B, (60 Kg) and group-C (80 Kg) on backpack loads were subjected to a load carry protocol, on a steep climb of 4 km uphill, and of gravel, uneven rocky surface track at an altitude of 3292 m to 3500 m (endpoint). Blood was collected before and immediately after the load carry on sodium heparin anticoagulant, and the peripheral blood mononuclear cell was separated for total RNA isolation and thereafter cDNA synthesis. Real time-PCR reactions were carried out to evaluate the mRNAs expression profile of a panel of putative internal control genes (ICGs), related to different functional classes, namely glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), β₂ microglobulin (β₂M), β-actin (ACTB), ribosomal protein 18 (RS18), hypoxanthine-guanine phosophoribosyltransferase (HPRT), ubiquitin B (UBB), ribosomal protein L32 (RPL32), transferrin receptor protein (TFRC), succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA) for normalizing the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) data of native pony’s. Three different algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper software, were used to evaluate the stability of reference genes. The result showed that GAPDH was best stable gene and stability value for the best combination of two genes was observed TFRC and β₂M. In conclusion, the geometric mean of GAPDH, TFRC and β₂M might be used for accurate normalization of transcriptional data for assessing endurance related traits in Zanskar ponies during load carrying.