Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 44166

Architectural and Environmental Engineering

In-Situ Redevelopment in Urban India: Two Case Studies from Delhi and Mumbai
As cities grow and expand spatially, redevelopment in urban India is beginning to emerge as a new mode of urban expansion sweeping low-income informal settlements. This paper examines the extent and nature of expanding urban frontier before examining implications for the families living in these settlements. Displacement of these families may appear to be an obvious consequence. However, we have conducted ethnographic studies over the past several months in a Delhi slum named Kathputli Colony, Delhi. In depth analysis of the study for this slum appears to present a variegated set of consequences for the residents of informal settlements including loss of livelihoods, dismantling of family ties, and general anxiety arising out of uncertainty about resettlement. Apart from Delhi case study, we also compare and contrast another redevelopment case from Mumbai located at Bhendi Bazar. These examples from the two mega cities of Mumbai and Delhi are analysed to understand and explore expanding urban frontiers and their consequences for informing future public policy.
Adaptable Buildings for More Sustainable Housing: Energy Life Cycle Analysis
The life cycle analysis and the energy life cycle analysis are useful design support tools when sustainability becomes imperative. The final phase of buildings life cycle is probably the least known, on which less knowledge is available. In the Brazilian building industry, the lifespan of a building design rarely is treated as a definite design parameter. There is rather a common sense attitude to take any building demands as permanent, and to take for granted that buildings solutions are durable and solid. Housing, being a permanent issue in any society, presents a real challenge to the choice of a design lifespan. In Brazilian history, there was a contrast of the native solutions of collective, non-durable houses built by several nomadic tribes, and the stone and masonry buildings introduced by the sedentary Portuguese conquerors. Durable buildings are commonly associated with welfare. However, social dynamics makes traditional families of both parents and children be just one of several possible arrangements. In addition, a more liberal attitude towards family leads to an increase in the number of people living in alternative arrangements. Japan is an example of country where houses have been made intentionally ephemeral since the half of 20th century. The present article presents the development of a flexible housing design solution on the basis of the Design Science Research approach. A comparison in terms of energy life cycle shows how flexibility and dematerialization may point at a feasible future for housing policies in Brazil.
The Use of CAD in Small Contractors in a Local Area of Korea
A survey of small-size contractors in Jeju was conducted to investigate college graduate's CAD (computer aided design) competence. Most of the small-size contractors use CAD softwares to review and update drawings submitted from an architect. This research analyzed the curriculum of the architectural engineering in several national universities. The CAD classes have 4 or 6 hours per week and use AutoCAD primarily. This paper proposes that a CAD class needs 6 hours per week, 2D drawing is the main theme in the curriculum, and exercises to make 3D models are also included in the CAD class. An improved method, for example, Internet cafe and real time feedbacks using smartphones, to evaluate the reports and exercise results is necessary.
The Metabolism of Built Environment: Energy Flow and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Nigeria
It is becoming increasingly clear that the consumption of resources now enjoyed in the developed nations will be impossible to be sustained worldwide. While developing countries still have the advantage of low consumption and a smaller ecological footprint per person, they cannot simply develop in the same way as other western cities have developed in the past. The severe reality of population and consumption inequalities makes it contentious whether studies done in developed countries can be translated and applied to developing countries. Additional to this disparities, there are few or no metabolism of energy studies in Nigeria. Rather more contentious majority of energy metabolism studies have been done only in developed countries. While researches in Nigeria concentrate on other aspects/principles of sustainability such as water supply, sewage disposal, energy supply, energy efficiency, waste disposal, etc., which will not accurately capture the environmental impact of energy flow in Nigeria, this research will set itself apart by examining the flow of energy in Nigeria and the impact that the flow will have on the environment. The aim of the study is to examine and quantify the metabolic flows of energy in Nigeria and its corresponding environmental impact. The study will quantify the level and pattern of energy inflow and the outflow of greenhouse emissions in Nigeria. This study will describe measures to address the impact of existing energy sources and suggest alternative renewable energy sources in Nigeria that will lower the emission of greenhouse gas emissions. This study will investigate the metabolism of energy in Nigeria through a three-part methodology. The first step involved selecting and defining the study area and some variables that would affect the output of the energy (time of the year, stability of the country, income level, literacy rate and population). The second step involves analyzing, categorizing and quantifying the amount of energy generated by the various energy sources in the country. The third step involves analyzing what effect the variables would have on the environment. To ensure a representative sample of the study area, Africa’s most populous country, with economy that is the second biggest and that is among the top largest oil producing countries in the world is selected. This is due to the understanding that countries with large economy and dense populations are ideal places to examine sustainability strategies; hence, the choice of Nigeria for the study. National data will be utilized unless where such data cannot be found, then local data will be employed which will be aggregated to reflect the national situation. The outcome of the study will help policy-makers better target energy conservation and efficiency programs and enables early identification and mitigation of any negative effects in the environment.
An Overview of Bioclimatic Design Strategies for Energy Efficient Buildings: A Case Study of Semi-Arid Climate, Lahore
Bioclimatic design Strategies plays a dynamic role in construction of Sustainable Buildings. This approach leads to reduction in the mechanical cooling of building which provides comfort to the occupants in sustainable manner. Such bioclimatic measures provide a complete framework of building design through responding to climatic features of particular site. The featured Passive cooling techniques for hot climatic region provides comfortable indoor temperature with ecological and financial benefits. The study is based on highlighting this approach to produce energy efficient buildings for Semi-Arid climate like Lahore, Pakistan. Being part of developing country, energy savings in Lahore city would help the Power Sector and resolves the World Issues of Global Warming and Ozone Layer Depletion. This article reviews the bioclimatic design strategies and their critical analysis to drive guidelines for Sustainable buildings in Lahore. The study shows that the demand for mechanical cooling systems including air conditioning, fans, and air coolers can be reduced through regional climatic design.
Reinvigorating Cities: Life Cycle Extension and Adaptive Re-Use of Existing Municipal Infrastructure
The ongoing demographic shift from rural areas and into cities across the world has stressed the ability of municipalities to keep pace with needed improvements to aging infrastructure and public amenities. The competitive edge cities seek in attracting large events (conventions, sporting events, new startup businesses, etc.) represents more than mere civic pride. As municipalities face the prospect of default at historically high rates (Detroit; Stockton; Hartford), their financial stability, and thus the quality of life of residents is at stake. This study examines the state of infrastructure and municipal amenities in key sub-mega cities (defined here as those between 1,000,000 and 5 million in metropolitan population) and recommends various methods of achieving cost-effective retrofitting of critical municipal components in lieu of the costly and total demolition of otherwise re-usable parts of the city. Specifically, the cities of Buenos Aires, Havana, Athens, and Kiev are explored, given that their host countries are among those currently at risk of debt default. Chicago is additionally examined, given the financial issues faced by its host State of Illinois (resulting in the outmigration of more than 100,000 people in 2016, and with its major city leading the U.S. in population loss in both 2015 and 2016). The economics of the old models of urban renewal are no longer a viable option for many cities as municipal budgets are stressed to their breaking points. Instead, a consideration of ways to extend the life of existing infrastructure and the adaptation of other amenities to new uses conforming to 21st century lifestyles will become the viable option in coming years. Whether the success of Paris’ Promenade Plantée or New York City’s High Line adaptations of former elevated rail corridors to linear parkways can be duplicated in sub-mega cities will depend on ratios of available land-to-value and other market considerations. The comparative populations of mega cities (those exceeding 10,000,000) vs. sub-mega cities become less relevant when revenue-generating components are part of the equation, as with the retail spaces created between the historic arches at the underside of the promenade in Paris. Future scenarios mirroring those of Detroit and Stockton are inevitable, given new world order circumstances immune to traditional cyclical economic fluctuations. A finding of this study reveals the need for a new framework for cost-efficient redevelopment. Thus, and notwithstanding factors such as crime levels and income disparity, a logical, albeit partial solution to the vexing issue of municipal budgetary shortfalls lies in the adaptation of in-place but obsolete amenities to newly-imagined uses conforming to modern needs.
Analysis of Thermal Comfort in Educational Buildings Using Computer Simulation: A Case Study in Federal University of Parana, Brazil
A prerequisite of any building design is to provide security to the users, taking the climate and its physical and physical-geometrical variables into account. It is also important to highlight the relevance of the right material elements, which arise between the person and the agent, and must provide improved thermal comfort conditions and low environmental impact. Furthermore, technology is constantly advancing, as well as computational simulations for projects, and they should be used to develop sustainable building and to provide higher quality of life for its users. In relation to comfort, the more satisfied the building users are, the better their intellectual performance will be. Based on that, the study of thermal comfort in educational buildings is of relative relevance, since the thermal characteristics in these environments are of vital importance to all users. Moreover, educational buildings are large constructions and when they are poorly planned and executed they have negative impacts to the surrounding environment, as well as to the user satisfaction, throughout its whole life cycle. In this line of thought, to evaluate university classroom conditions, it was accomplished a detailed case study on the thermal comfort situation at Federal University of Parana (UFPR). The main goal of the study is to perform a thermal analysis in three classrooms at UFPR, in order to address the subjective and physical variables that influence thermal comfort inside the classroom. For the assessment of the subjective components, a questionnaire was applied in order to evaluate the reference for the local thermal conditions. Regarding the physical variables, it was carried out on-site measurements, which consist of performing measurements of air temperature and air humidity, both inside and outside the building, as well as meteorological variables, such as wind speed and direction, solar radiation and rainfall, collected from a weather station. Then, a computer simulation based on results from the EnergyPlus software to reproduce air temperature and air humidity values of the three classrooms studied was conducted. The EnergyPlus outputs were analyzed and compared with the on-site measurement results to be possible to come out with a conclusion related to the local thermal conditions. The methodological approach included in the study allowed a distinct perspective in an educational building to better understand the classroom thermal performance, as well as the reason of such behavior. Finally, the study induces a reflection about the importance of thermal comfort for educational buildings and propose thermal alternatives for future projects, as well as a discussion about the significant impact of using computer simulation on engineering solutions, in order to improve the thermal performance of UFPR’s buildings.
Implementation of Ecological and Energy-Efficient Building Concepts
A relatively large percentage of energy and resource consumption occurs in the building sector. This concerns the production of building materials, the construction of buildings and also the energy consumption during the use phase. Therefore, the overall objective of this EU LIFE project “LIFE Cycle Habitation” (LIFE13 ENV/AT/000741) is to demonstrate innovative building concepts that significantly reduce CO₂emissions, mitigate climate change and contain a minimum of grey energy over their entire life cycle. The project is being realised with the contribution of the LIFE financial instrument of the European Union. The ultimate goal is to design and build prototypes for carbon-neutral and “LIFE cycle”-oriented residential buildings and make energy-efficient settlements the standard of tomorrow in line with the EU 2020 objectives. To this end, a resource and energy-efficient building compound is being built in Böheimkirchen, Lower Austria, which includes 6 living units and a community area as well as 2 single family houses with a total usable floor surface of approximately 740 m². Different innovative straw bale construction types (load bearing and pre-fabricated non loadbearing modules) together with a highly innovative energy-supply system, which is based on the maximum use of thermal energy for thermal energy services, are going to be implemented. Therefore only renewable resources and alternative energies are used to generate thermal as well as electrical energy. This includes the use of solar energy for space heating, hot water and household appliances like dishwasher or washing machine, but also a cooking place for the community area operated with thermal oil as heat transfer medium on a higher temperature level. Solar collectors in combination with a biomass cogeneration unit and photovoltaic panels are used to provide thermal and electric energy for the living units according to the seasonal demand. The building concepts are optimised by support of dynamic simulations. A particular focus is on the production and use of modular prefabricated components and building parts made of regionally available, highly energy-efficient, CO₂-storing renewable materials like straw bales. The building components will be produced in collaboration by local SMEs that are organised in an efficient way. The whole building process and results are monitored and prepared for knowledge transfer and dissemination including a trial living in the residential units to test and monitor the energy supply system and to involve stakeholders into evaluation and dissemination of the applied technologies and building concepts. The realised building concepts should then be used as templates for a further modular extension of the settlement in a second phase.
Sustainable and Aesthetic Features of Traditional Architectures in Central Part of Iran
Iran is one of the oldest countries with traditional culture in the world. All over the history Iranians had traditional architectural designs, which were at the same time sustainable, ecological, functional and environmental consistent. These human scale architectures were built for maximum use, comfort, climate adaptation with available resources and techniques. Climate variability of the country caused developing of variety design methods. More of these methods such as windcatchers in Yazd City or Panam (Insulation) were scientific solutions at the same time. Renewable energy resources were used in these methods that featured in them. While climate and ecological issues were dominant parts of these traditional designs, aesthetic and beauty issues were not ignored. Conformity with the community’s culture caused more compact designs that the visual aesthetics of them can be seen inside of them. Different organizations of space were used for these visual aesthetic issues inside the houses as well as historical urban designs. For example dry and hot climates in central parts of the country designed with centralized organization. Most central parts of these designs functioned as a courtyard for temperate the air in the summer. This paper will give summary descriptive information about traditional Iranian architectural style by figures all around the country with different climate conditions, while focus of the paper is traditional architectural design of the central part of the country, with dry and hot climate condition. This information may be useful for contemporary architectural designs, which are designed without noticing to the vernacular condition and caused cities look like each other.
Geodesign Application for Bio-Swale Design: A Data-Driven Design Approach for a Case Site in Ottawa Street North in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Changing climate patterns are resulting in increased in storm severity, challenging traditional methods of managing stormwater runoff. This research compares a system of bioswales to existing curb and gutter infrastructure in a post-industrial streetscape of Hamilton, Ontario. Using the geodesign process, including rule-based set parameters and an integrated approach combining geospatial information with stakeholder input, a section of Ottawa St. North was modelled to show how green infrastructure can ease the burden on aging, combined sewer systems. Qualitative data was gathered from residents of the neighbourhood through field notes, and quantitative geospatial data through GIS and site analysis. Parametric modelling was used to generate multiple design scenarios, each visualizing resulting impacts on stormwater runoff along with their calculations. The selected design scenarios offered both an aesthetically pleasing urban bioswale street-scape system while minimizing and controlling stormwater runoff. Interactive maps, videos and the 3D model were presented for stakeholder comment via ESRI’s (Environmental System Research Institute) web-scene. The results of the study demonstrate powerful tools that can assist landscape architects in designing, collaborating and communicating stormwater strategies.
A Case for Integration in the Design of Prefabricated Homes
This paper examines a methodology for the early stages of setting-up integrated design using an advanced computer-aided design (CAD) system. Advanced CAD, as commonly used in the manufacturing sector, is holistically integrated and mainly used from design development stage onwards. The main objective of this paper is to explore synergies between computational design methods and prefabricated building strategies. The focus is set-up of hybrid prefabricated components using parametric modeling and scripting. Research is based on a case study of a three-storey residential building in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The hybrid prefabrication strategy involved panellisation of cross laminated timber (CLT) walls, floors and roofs, the volumetric design of bathroom and storage pods using light gauge steel members, and CLT clip-on balcony assemblies. Researchers worked with the project manager from October 2016 to February 2017 to examine the prefabrication strategy using an advanced CAD system set up in the cloud. This integrated and collaborative approach envisions improvement of design workflows. Pre-assembly strategies considered early examples of modular coordination, and the importance of hierarchical relationships between the whole and its parts. The user interface of advanced CAD systems differs from architecture, engineering and construction sector (AEC) CAD. Generally, all files and documents relating to the project were contained in a database stored in the cloud, and all data and applications were contained within one shared model. Careful set-up of the parametric model’s framework required foresight to benefit from later automation and placement of components. For example, early and precise location of directional axes allowed for later placement of panels, volumetric pods and clip-on balconies. Foresight was a feature of the methodology requiring careful understanding of modular coordination requirements throughout the process. With the flexible frame outlined, associations were refined. A well-defined frame reduced drafting needs to a small number of sketches for setting up parts and components, which were parametrically controlled from a hierarchical tree. For example, a single template was enough to describe all variations of CLT wall panels required by the project. A spreadsheet format leveraged re-use of components and assemblies to make variations that were parametrically linked. Scripting embedded in the hierarchical tree used logical names associated with the model’s parameters and geometry, enabling looping of lists and instantiation of components at precise locations in the reference frame. Rules (e.g. conditional statements) and checks (e.g. dimensional limits) assisted with control of component design. Set-up of the project took place in a holistically integrated environment with the design team connected to a shared model. Establishment of the associational framework was an essential task which subsequently provided flexibility and adaptability to change as the framework allowed intentional placing of components and parts. Although advanced CAD system’s conceptual design tools are generally limited in scope, this paper makes the case for a fully integrated design development strategy which combines computational design tools with prefabricated assembly methods, and it demonstrates the symbiotic nature of this combination.
Risk Management Strategy for Protecting Cultural Heritage: Case Study of Institute of Egypt
Egypt has a countless heritage of mansions, castles, cities, towns, villages, industrial and manufacturing sites. This richness of heritage provides endless and matchless prospects for culture. Despite being famous worldwide, our heritage still is in constant need of protection. Political conflicts and religious revolutions form a direct threat to buildings in various eras, historic, archaeological sites, and religious monuments. Egypt has witnessed two revolutions in less than 60 years; both had an impact on its architectural heritage. In this paper, the authors aim to review legal and policy framework to protect the cultural heritage and present the risk management strategy for cultural heritage in conflict. Through a review of selected international models of devastated architectural heritage in conflict and highlight some of their changes; we can learn from the experiences of other countries to assist towards the development of a methodology to halt the plundering of architectural heritage. Finally, the paper makes an effort to enhance the formulation of a risk management strategy for protection and conservation of cultural heritage through which to end the plundering of Egypt’s architectural legacy in the Egyptian community (revolutions, 1952 and 2011); and by presenting to its surrounding community the benefits derived from maintaining it.
Effect of Residential Block Scale Envelope in Buildings Energy Consumption: A Vernacular Case Study in an Iranian Urban Context
A global challenge which is of paramount significance today is the issue of devising innovative solutions to tackle the environmental issues, as well as more intelligent and foresightful consumption of and management of natural resources. Changes in global climate resulting from the burning of fossil fuel and the rise in the level of energy consumption are a few examples of environmental issues detrimental to any form of life on earth, which are aggravated year by year. Overall, energy-efficient designs and construction strategies can be studied at three scales: building, block, and city. Nevertheless, as the available literature suggests, the greatest emphasis has been on building and city scales, and little has been done as to the energy-efficient designs at block scale. Therefore, the aim of the current research is to investigate the influences of residential block scale envelope on the energy consumption in buildings. To this end, a case study of residential block scale has been selected in the city of Isfahan, in Iran, situated in a hot and dry climate with cold winters. Eventually, the most effective variables in energy consumption, concerning the block scale envelope, will be concluded.
Revisiting Hospital Ward Design Basics for Sustainable Family Integration
The concept of space and function forms the bedrock for spatial configuration in architectural design. Thus, the effectiveness and functionality of an architectural product depend on their cordial relationship. This applies to all buildings especially to a hospital ward setting designed to accommodate various complex and diverse functions. Health care facilities design especially, an inpatient setting is governed by many regulations and technical requirements. It is also affected by many less defined needs, particularly, response to culture and the need to provide for patient families’ presence and participation. The spatial configuration of hospital ward setting in developing countries has no consideration for the patient’s families despite the significant role they play in promoting restoration. Attempts to integrate facilities for the patient’s families have always been challenging especially in developing countries like Nigeria where accommodation for inpatients is predominantly in an open ward system. In addition, the situation is compounded by culture which significant aspect dictating the healthcare practices in Africa. Therefore, achieving such a hospital ward setting that is patient and family centered requires careful assessment of family care actions and transaction spaces so as to arrive at an evidence based solution. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify how the hospital ward spaces can be reconfigured to provide for sustainable family Integration. In achieving this aim, a qualitative approach using principles of behavioral mapping was employed in male and female medical wards of Federal Teaching Hospital (FTH) Gombe, Nigeria. The data obtained was analysed using classical and comparative content analysis. Patient families have been found to be a critical component of hospital ward design that cannot be undermined. Accordingly, besides, open yards, corridors, and foyers have been identified as patient families’ transaction spaces that require design attention. Arriving at sustainable family integration can be achieved by revisiting the design requirements of the family transaction spaces based on the findings in order to avoid the rowdiness of the wards and uncoordinated sprawl.
An Innovative Approach to Solve Thermal Comfort Problem Related to the 100m2 Houses in Erbil
Due to the rapid growth of Erbil population and the resulting shortage of residential buildings, individuals actively utilized 5x20 m plots for two bedroom residential houses. Consequently, poor and unhealthy ventilation comes about. In this paper, the authors developed an old Barajeel (Wind Catchers) approach for natural ventilation. Two Barajeels (Wind Catchers) are designed and located at both extreme ends of the built unit. The two wind catchers are made as inlet and outlet for the air movement where the rate of air changes at its best. To validate the usage of the wind catchers a CFD Software was used to simulate the operation of the wind catchers for natural ventilations for average wind speed of 2 m/s. The results show a positive solution to solve the problem of the cramped such built units. It can be concluded that such solutions can be deployed by the local Kurdistan authorities.
Influence of Procurement Methods on Cost Performance of Building Projects in Gombe State, Nigeria
Procurement methods is described as systems of contractual arrangements used by the contractor in order to secure the design and construction services based on the stipulated cost and within the required time and quality. Despite that, major projects in the Nigerian construction industry failed because of wrong procurement methods with major consequences leads to cost overrun which needs to find lasting solution. The aim of the study is to evaluate the influence of procurement methods on cost performance of building projects in Gombe State, Nigeria. Study adopts descriptive and explorative design approach. Data were collected through administering of one hundred questionnaire using convenient sampling techniques. Data analyses using percentages, mean value and Anova analysis. Major finding show that more than fifty percent (50%) of procurement methods available are mainly utilized in the study area and the top procurement methods that have high impacts on cost performance as compare with the other methods is project management and direct labour procurement methods. The results of hypothesis’ tests with pvalue 0.12 and 0.07 validated that there was no significant variation in the perception of stakeholders’ on the impacts of procurements methods on cost performance. Therefore, the study concluded that projects management and direct labour are the most appropriate procurement methods that will ensure successful completion of project at stipulated cost in building projects.
A Contemplation of Iranian Islamic Architecture in the Age of Globalization
Despite the great development of Islamic Architecture in its conquered lands, its active performance in a vast geographical area, faded by the advent of industrial age. Now in the Information Age with great advances in technologies and increased interconnection among many societies, every aspect of life is affected by rapid spreading phenomenon called globalization which resulted in the world with less regional and cultural boundaries. So being proudly globalized in the past and becoming inactive in today's globalized world puts Islamic Architecture in a great challenge. Indeed, its important role has changed from transmitting cultural values to the world to importing dominated values even defectively. This study aimed to determine the factors influenced this controversial situation of Islamic Architecture, especially in current age. The paper focuses on performance of Islamic architecture in relation with Globalization as an ancient process. So qualitative method in terms of logic analysis was chosen to evaluate how Islamic architecture of Iran has contributed in Globalization subject in different time periods. Several works were analyzed as case studies in three categories: religious, monumental, commercial utilities and climate element. Theoretical and practical findings indicate that there is a mutual relationship between Islamic Architecture and Globalization which is transformed from the active mode to passive mode gradually in three periods of Globalization: proto, modern and communication Globalization. The proposed solution in the response to this challenge is finding a solution that makes an equilibrium between science, art, and technology, as well as taking the global performance of architecture.
Towards to Productive Urban Spaces: Creating a Toolbox for Todays’ Cities
Public spaces play a central role in creation, evolution and representation of the city culture. They have been the interaction centers, used and accessed collectively during the history. It hasn’t been done a lot for the public spaces between the 1930’s to 1970’s. After the 70’s, public spaces started to become a current issue in the architectural arguments due to reconfiguration of the cities which are changing, especially in terms of production and consumption. Meaning, acting, methods and also the location of these activities are being reconstructed, thus new types of public spaces are being formed. In this manner, emerging public interspaces are taking on a mediating role among the physical environment and the people. They are the important nodal points of future sustainable, eco-efficient cities. We need to avoid Cartesian dualistic approaches and handle this issue by multi-layered modalities. These places can stand against the privatized public areas which we consume and passively become involved. While the dynamics of today’s cities are changing, it will be asked if the tie that binds the public spaces can change from consuming to producing? Is it possible; the public interspaces where we gather passively and ‘consume’ -consumption of products and also resources, energy- give their place to sustainable, productive ones, where we can interact and interchange informal data, where we can produce cultural, physical and intellectually? Tschumi’s concept of happenings are important to set up a basis about the welding events of public areas. In Modernist era flaneur was the one who was sensing the public spaces, listening the heartbeats of the public areas. After the capitalism, people stared to watch and be watched in the shopping malls like Debord explains. As Zukin emphasizes; in USA, the model of re-aestheticizing public space has gone to an extreme by considering retail spaces as if they were spaces of consumption ―shops, restaurants, ‘disneyfied’ streets. But always third sides can be clarified where diversity and prosperity exist and singularities, differences, exceptions, minorities can take place all together. Also rhizomatic spaces that states complexity and abundance. This concept can be interrelated with the messy vitality and it can be useful, to get close to the public interspaces that stand between the people, between the ‘individual’ and ‘the other’ and also between the buildings. Thus many crucial examples are planning to be examined and these questions be asked: In/with what kind of conditions (theoric and physical) these public interspaces occur? Clarifying the location, meaning, usage of these areas and also the relationship with environment and with the conditions of the city that they exist. What are the main dynamics of these spaces? What kind of activities/events do they have besides consuming? What are the main binding elements in these spaces? How do people interact, share, produce? How do this binding components - like media, events, productivity- change/ effect the meaning of these spaces? Eventually these researches will be a base for creating a toolbox, a new understanding for emerging sustainable public interspaces and this toolbox will be including recipes that many city can create their own remedy.
Interpreting the Usage of Architectural Diagrams and Their Effects during the Design Process
Diagrams are the essential representations for thinking, problem defining, problem solving and for expression and communication in the design disciplines. Data visualization studies use diagrams to abstract the information into some schematic and relational forms. They are two-dimensional, symbolic representations of information according to some visualization technique and one of the expressionist way of the data representation. We can call the diagrams as the modern architectures on their own. They have their own voice; they store a compressed data inside their graphical expressions. When they have more data, they become more informative and display them better. Considering diagrams as the placeholders and the 'engines' that organize the design period, communicate and represent the data which they store inside by compressing, abstracting, metaphoring and emphasizing. Also, a diagram can be the product by itself. In the article, the usage of architectural diagrams throughout analysis and design periods will be discussed. Several categories of architectural diagrams will be examined -with the purpose of finding these answers: How designers and architects think and approach in the design process? How they abstract the data and make interrelations? How do conceptual thinking ways relate to conceptual diagrams? Personal design diagrams will be shown as an individual experience, and they will be correlated to the design steps and abstract thinking methods. Sometimes, diagrams can take us to the finalized objects, and they put great influence on to the design process. Because they are the compressed information nodes, so they can serve as a concrete design key for the last object. But sometimes the process doesn’t finish with a concrete object. It just stays as a starting informational point, or it can take you to the different perspectives, much farther away from your first point of view. Although it does not end with an object, it explores different perspectives, brings new openings, layers about the space, time, conditions to the project or subject. Therefore. They can either take you to a final destination, or they can end up with new beginnings – new point of views and starting points.
Co-Participation: Towards the Sustainable Micro-Rural Complex in China
A new business mode called rural complex is proposed by the China’s government to promote the development the economy in the rural area. However, for the sake of current national conditions including the great number of labor farmers owning the small scale farmlands and the uncertain enthusiasm from the enterprises, it is challenging to develop the big scale rural complex. To react to the dilemmas, this paper puts forward the micro-rural complex to boost the small scale farms by co-participation from a bottom-up mode. By analyzing the potential opportunities to find the suitable mode, exploring the interdisciplinary and interdepartmental co-participation way beyond architecture design and spatial planning between different actors, the paper tries to find a complete process towards the sustainable micro-rural complex and conducts an ongoing practice to optimize it, to bring new insights and reference to the rural development. According to the transformation of the economy, the micro-rural complex will develop into two phases, both of which can be discussed in three parts, the economic mode, the spatial support, and the Cooperating mechanism. The first stage is the agriculture co-participation based on the rise of Community supported agriculture (CSA) in which the consumers buy the products planted in an organic way from the farmers directly with a higher price to support the small-scale agriculture and overcome the food safety issues. The following stage sets up the agritourism catering the citizens with the restaurants, inns and other tourist service facilities to be planned and designed. In the whole process, the interdisciplinary co-participation will play an important role to provide the guidelines and consultation from the agronomists, architects and rural planners to the farmers. This mode has been applied to an on-going farm project, from which to explore the mode in a more practical way. In conclusion, the micro-rural complex aims at creating a balanced urban-rural relationship by co-participation taking advantage of the different actors. The spatial development is considered from the economic mode and social organization. The integration of the mode based on the small-scale agriculture will contribute to a sustainable growth and realize the long run development in the rural area.
Research on the Updating Strategy of Public Space in Small Towns in Zhejiang Province under the Background of New-Style Urbanization
Small towns are the most basic administrative institutions in our country, which are connected with cities and rural areas. Small towns play an important role in promoting local urban and rural economic development, providing the main public services and maintaining social stability in social governance. With the vigorous development of small towns and the transformation of industrial structure, the changes of social structure, spatial structure, and lifestyle are lagging behind, causing that the spatial form and landscape style do not belong to both cities and rural areas, and seriously affecting the quality of people’s life space and environment. The rural economy in Zhejiang Province has started, the society and the population are also developing in relative stability. In September 2016, Zhejiang Province set out the 'Technical Guidelines for Comprehensive Environmental Remediation of Small Towns in Zhejiang Province,' so as to comprehensively implement the small town comprehensive environmental remediation with the main content of strengthening the plan and design leading, regulating environmental sanitation, urban order and town appearance. In November 2016, Huzhou City started the comprehensive environmental improvement of small towns, strived to use three years to significantly improve the 115 small towns, as well as to create a number of high quality, distinctive and beautiful towns with features of 'clean and livable, rational layout, industrial development, poetry and painting style'. This paper takes Meixi Town, Zhangwu Town and Sanchuan Village in Huzhou City as the empirical cases, analyzes the small town public space by applying the relative theory of actor-network and space syntax. This paper also analyzes the spatial composition in actor and social structure elements, as well as explores the relationship of actor’s spatial practice and public open space by combining with actor-network theory. This paper introduces the relevant theories and methods of spatial syntax, carries out research analysis and design planning analysis of small town spaces from the perspective of quantitative analysis. And then, this paper proposes the effective updating strategy for the existing problems in public space. Through the planning and design in the building level, the dissonant factors produced by various spatial combination of factors and between landscape design and urban texture during small town development will be solved, inhabitant quality of life will be promoted, and town development vitality will be increased.
Rethinking Urban Voids: An Investigation beneath the Kathipara Flyover, Chennai into a Transit Hub by Adaptive Utilization of Space
Urbanization and pace of urbanization have increased tremendously in last few decades. More towns are now getting converted into cities. Urbanization trend is seen all over the world but is becoming most dominant in Asia. Today, the scale of urbanization in India is so huge that Indian cities are among the fastest-growing in the world, including Bangalore, Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai, Delhi, and Mumbai. Urbanization remains a single predominant factor that is continuously linked to the destruction of urban green spaces. With reference to Chennai as a case study, which is suffering from rapid deterioration of its green spaces, this paper sought to fill this gap by exploring key factors aside urbanization that is responsible for the destruction of green spaces. The paper relied on a research approach and triangulated data collection techniques such as interviews, focus group discussion, personal observation and retrieval of archival data. It was observed that apart from urbanization, problem of ownership of green space lands, low priority to green spaces, poor maintenance, enforcement of development controls, wastage of underpass spaces, and uncooperative attitudes of the general public, play a critical role in the destruction of urban green spaces. Therefore the paper narrows down to a point, that for a city to have a proper sustainable urban green space, broader city development plans are essential. Though rapid urbanization is an indicator of positive development, it is also accompanied by a host of challenges. Chennai lost a lot of greenery, as the city urbanized rapidly that led to a steep fall in vegetation cover. Environmental deterioration will be the big price we pay if Chennai continues to grow at the expense of greenery. Soaring skyscrapers, multistoried complexes, gated communities, and villas, frame the iconic skyline of today’s Chennai city which reveals that we overlook the importance of our green cover, which is important to balance our urban and lung spaces. Chennai, with a clumped landscape at the center of the city, is predicted to convert 36% of its total area into urban areas by 2026. One major issue is that a city designed and planned in isolation creates underused spaces all around the cities which are of negligence. These urban voids are dead, underused, unused spaces in the cities that are formed due to inefficient decision making, poor land management, and poor coordination. Urban voids have huge potential of creating a stronger urban fabric, exploited as public gathering spaces, pocket parks or plazas or just enhance public realm, rather than dumping of debris and encroachments. Flyovers need to justify their existence themselves by being more than just traffic and transport solutions. The vast, unused space below the Kathipara flyover is a case in point. This flyover connects three major routes: Tambaram, Koyambedu, and Adyar. This research will focus on the concept of urban voids, how these voids under the flyovers, can be used for place making process, how this space beneath flyovers which are neglected, can be a part of the urban realm through urban design and landscaping.
Identification of Location Parameters for Different User Types of the Inner City Building Stock: An Austrian Example
The inner city building stock is characterized by different types of buildings of different decades and centuries and different types of historical constructions. Depending on the natural growth of a city, those types are often located in downtown areas and the surrounding suburbs. Since the population is becoming older and the variation of the different social requirements spread with the so-called 'Silver Society', city quarters have to be seen alternatively. If an area is very attractive for young students to live there because of the busy nightlife, it might not be suitable for the older society. To identify 'Location Types A, B, C' for different user groups, qualitative interviews with 24 citizens of the city of Graz (Austria) have been carried out, in order to identify the most important values for making a location or city quarter 'A', 'B', or 'C'. Furthermore these acknowledgements have been put into a softwaretool for predicting locations that are the most suitable for certain user groups. On the other hands side, investors or owners of buildings can use the tool for determining the most suitable user group for the location of their building or construction project in order to adapt the project or building stock to the requirements of the users.
Creating Sustainable Human Settlements: An Analysis of Planning Intervention in Addressing Informal Settlements in South Africa
The proliferation of informal settlements remains one of the major planning challenges in democratic South Africa. In spite of the various local, national and international initiatives to promote the creation of sustainable human settlements, informal settlements continue to exist as spatially marginalised societies characterised by poverty, unemployment, squalor conditions and disaster risks. It is argued that, in practice, intervention is mainly directed at achieving set quantitative targets and goals rather than improving the lives of the inhabitants. The relevant planning instruments do not adequately address the integration of informal settlements into the broader planning framework. This paper is based on the analysis of the informal settlement intervention within the North West Province. Financial constraints, bureaucracy in housing delivery and lack of horizontal and vertical integration in spatial planning and programme implementation are amongst the major factors that caused stagnation in some of the upgrading programmes which in turn hindered the attainment of the target set as part of the Outcome 8 Delivery Agreement. Moreover, the absence of distinct indicators for the assessment of the qualitative progress of upgrading programmes indicates shortcomings in the intervention policies and programmes to promote the creation of sustainable human settlements. Thus, this paper seeks to proffer an assessment toolkit as well as a framework for the implementation of a Sustainable Informal Settlement Programme.
The Integration of Information for Smart Cities: Prototyping Transportation Network Environment
Research Goal: This research examines various concepts of authentic smart cities and proposes a methodology to realize it. Especially, this research represents how the inevitable introduction of technology in the future such as big data and artificial intelligence acts to implement authentic smart cities and discusses effects and development possibilities by prototyping. Research problem: Smart cities are considered an important strategy to solve several urban problems and make better cities. Many types of research of smart city propose different frameworks and applications to realize smart city. However, most of the implementation cases focus on fragmentary technological applications or call smart city impatiently by constructing a few smart buildings rather than drawing overall images. The truly smart city does not provide merely technical services but should redesign from the ground up. Citizens utilize technologies to better lives and can be provided environments to improve life’s quality in general aspects of living such as public services, energy, and transportation. The latest technological trends such as big data, artificial intelligence should be applied to realize this effectively. Research methods: The early stage visions and various definitions of smart cities are examined. Also, this research defines smart city to pursue ultimately by reflecting modern technical possibilities. A scenario is proposed to delineate available services specifically in accordance with the vision of defined smart city. Among these transportation network environment of the smart city is presented as a pilot study. This research specifically targeted the bus system among public transportations; the transportation network environment of the smart city is an integrated transport system such as a living organism. The public transportation of the system is optimized for demands, events, and weather, operated in real time and controlled by artificial intelligence. The proposed scenario is prototyped using machine learning tool (Rapid Miner). The prototype is to implement conducts from data collection to analysis, learning, and automation of operation. The prototype of transportation network system in the urban level represents specific operations to support personal activities by connecting citizen’s daily lives. Also, the system feeds back through participations of users and is upgraded by learning based on collected requests. The prototype is tested by applying cases with particular constraint conditions. As a result, this research estimates multilateral elements of social costs which are wasted on the existing bus system such as time, human resources, and energy and then presents decrease effectiveness of each element by calculating. Moreover, relief of air pollution problem and various cultural effects (ex. telecommuting, car sharing, parking lot) by changing transport system also about the authentic smart city are discussed based on this result. Result: This research presents the direction of the smart city from now on and analyzes possibilities about how the proposed smart city can affect to citizens. The result of this research is expected to be a practical case for smart city design and application development providing better experiences.
Reduce the Environmental Impacts of the Intensive Use of Glass in New Buildings in Khartoum, Sudan
Khartoum is considering as one of the hottest cities all over the world, the mean monthly outdoor temperature remains above 30 ºC. Solar Radiation on Building Surfaces considered within the world highest values. Buildings in Khartoum is receiving huge amounts of watts/m2. Northern, eastern and western facades always receive a greater amount than the south ones. Therefore, these facades of the building must be better protected than the others. One of the most important design limits affecting indoor thermal comfort and energy conservation are building envelope design, self-efficiency in building materials and optical and thermo-physical properties of the building envelope. A small sun-facing glazing area is very important to provide thermal comfort in hot dry climates because of the intensive sunshine. This study aims to propose a work plan to help minimize the negative environmental effect of the climate on buildings taking the intensive use of glazing. In the last 15 years, there was a rapid growth in building sector in Khartoum followed by many of wrong strategies getting away of being environmental friendly. The intensive use of glazing on facades increased to commercial, industrial and design aspects, while the glass envelope led to quick increase in temperature by the reflection affects the sun on faces, cars and bodies. Logically, being transparent by using glass give a sense of open spaces, allowing natural lighting and sometimes natural ventilation keeping dust and insects away. In the other hand, it costs more and give more overheated. And this is unsuitable for a hot dry climate city like Khartoum. Many huge projects permitted every year from the Ministry of Planning in Khartoum state, with a design based on the intensive use of glazing on facades. There are no Laws or Regulations to control using materials in construction, the last building code -building code 2008- Khartoum state- only focused in using sustainable materials with no consider to any environmental aspects. Results of the study will help increase the awareness for architects, engineers and public about this environmentally problem. Objectives vary between Improve energy performance in buildings and Provide high levels of thermal comfort in the inner environment. As a future project, what are the changes that can happen in building permits codes and regulations. There could be recommendations for the governmental sector such as Obliging the responsible authorities to version environmental friendly laws in building construction fields and Support Renewable energy sector in buildings.
Architectural Design Strategies: Enhancing Train Station Performance as the Catalyst of Transit Oriented Development in Jakarta
A high number of urban population in Jakarta has been a substantial issue for mobility strategy. Transit Oriented Development (TOD) becomes one of the strategies to improve community livability based on the design of transit place and the system of its context. TOD principle is trying to win over pedestrian motorization habit, makes people would rather transit and travel more than using private vehicle. Train station takes the main role as the catalyst to emerge TOD, in Jakarta this role will be taken by Commuter line and the future MRT. For advancing its development, architectural design perspective is needed to perform evaluation while seeking for the strategies between accessibility transportation modes with convenience and safety for increasing human behavioral intention. This paper discovers design strategy for transit place that appropriates with Jakarta condition use the basic theories of liminal space and transit-oriented development goal. This paper use evidence-based approach with typology method to analyze the present condition of Commuter Line station in Jakarta and precedent of Asian Cities, Tokyo and Seoul, as the secondary sources, and also with numbers of valid questionnaires. Furthermore, the result of this paper aims to the emerging of a transit-oriented community by give design requirements and suggestion transportation policies preparing for the operational of MRT in the future Jakarta and other similar cities.
Shear Strength Evaluation of Ultra-High-Performance Concrete Flexural Members Using ANFIS
For safe design of the UHPC flexural members, accurate estimations of their shear strengths are very important. However, since the shear strengths are significantly affected by various factors such as tensile strength of concrete, shear span to depth ratio, volume ratio of steel fiber, and steel fiber factor, the accurate estimations of their shear strengths are very challenging. In this study, therefore, the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy System (ANFIS), which has been widely used to solve many complex problems in engineering fields, was introduced to estimate the shear strengths of UHPC flexural members. A total of 32 experimental results has been collected from previous studies for training of the ANFIS algorithm, and the well-trained ANFIS algorithm provided good estimations on the shear strengths of the UHPC test specimens.
Code Evaluation on Web-Shear Capacity of Presstressed Hollow-Core Slabs
Prestressed hollow-core slabs (HCS) are structurally optimized precast units with light-weight hollowed-sections and very economical due to the mass production by a unique production method. They have been thus widely used in the precast concrete constructions in many countries all around the world. It is, however, difficult to provide shear reinforcement in HCS units produced by the extrusion method, and thus all the shear forces should be resisted solely by concrete webs in the HCS units. This means that, for the HCS units, it is very important to estimate the contribution of web concrete to the shear resistance accurately. In design codes, however, the shear strengths for HCS units are estimated by the same equations that are used for typical prestressed concrete members, which were determined from the calibrations to experimental results of conventional prestressed concrete members other than HCS units. In this study, therefore, shear test results of HCS members with a wide range of influential variables were collected, and the shear strength equations in design codes were thoroughly examined by comparing to the experimental results in the shear database of HCS members.
Cyclic Loading Tests of Reinforced Concrete Frame Structures Strengthened by Externally-Anchored Precast Wall-Panel
In recent years, various strengthening methods for buildings have been developed, but most of them require quite a long construction period during which the building users need to be patient on uncomfortable working environments including various lousy noises or even evacuation of the buildings. In this study, externally anchored precast wall-panel method (EPCW) for strengthening non-seismic reinforced concrete (RC) structures has been proposed, which is occupant-friendly technique because the strengthening walls are manufactured at factory and can be tightened to the members very quickly at the site. In order to investigate the structural performance of the specimens strengthened by the EPCW method, a total of four specimens were fabricated, and tested under axial and reversed cyclic lateral loads. The test results showed that the lateral resistances of the specimens strengthened by the EPCW method were greatly enhanced in both positive and negative directions, compared to the RC specimen having non-seismic details.