Investigating the Role of Community in Heritage Conservation through Ladder of Citizen Participation Approach: Case Study, Port Said, Egypt
Egypt has countless prestigious buildings and diversity of cultural heritage which are located in many cities. Most of the researchers, archaeologists, stakeholders and governmental bodies are paying more attention to the big cities such as Cairo and Alexandria; due to the country’s centralization nature. However, there are other historic cities that are grossly neglected and in need of emergency conservation. For instance, Port Said is a former colonial city that established in 1861 at the edge between the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal at the northeast Egyptian coast. This city is chosen because it presents one of the important Egyptian archaeological sites that archive Egyptian architecture of the 19th and 20th centuries. The historic urban fabric is divided into three main districts; the Arab, the European (Al-Afrang), and Port Fouad. The European district is selected to be the research case study as it has culture diversity, significant buildings, and includes the largest number of the listed heritage buildings in Port Said. Since 2003, several initiative trials have been taken by the Alliance Francaise, the National Organization for Urban Harmony (NOUH), some Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), and few number of community residents to highlight the important city legacy and protect it from being demolished. Unfortunately, the limitation of their participation in decision making policies is considered a crucial threat facing the sustainable heritage conservation. Therefore, encouraging the local community to participate in their architecture heritage conservation would create a self-confident one; capable of making decisions for the city future development. This paper aims are: to investigate the role of the local inhabitants in protecting their buildings heritage, to list the community level of participations twice in preserving their heritage based on the ladder citizen participation approach. Also, is to encourage community participation in order to promote city architecture conservation, heritage management, and sustainable development. The methodology followed in this empirical research involves using several data assembly methods such as structural observations, questionnaires, interviews, and mental mapping. The questionnaire is distributed among 92 from the local inhabitants aged between 18 and 60. However, the outset of this research at the beginning demonstrated the majority negative attitude, motivation, and confidence of the local inhabitants’ role to safeguard their architectural heritage. It had been changed at the end. Therefore, raising the public awareness, and encouraging the community participation by providing them with real opportunity to take a place in decision making. This may lead to a positive relationship between the community residents and the built heritage which is essential for promoting its preservation and sustainable development.
Modernism’s Influence on Architect-Client Relationship: Comparative Case Studies of Schroder and Farnsworth Houses
The Modernist Movement initially flourished in France, Holland, Germany and the Soviet Union. Many architects and designers were inspired and followed its principles. Two of its most important architects (Gerrit Rietveld and Ludwig Mies van de Rohe) were introduced in this paper. Each did not follow the other’s principles and had their own particular rules; however, they shared the same features of the Modernist International Style, such as Anti-historicism, Abstraction, Technology, Function and Internationalism/ Universality. Key Modernist principles translated into high expectations, which sometimes did not meet the inhabitants’ aspirations of living comfortably; consequently, leading to a conflict and misunderstanding between the designer and their clients’ needs. Therefore, historical case studies (the Schroder and the Farnsworth houses) involving two Modernist pioneer architects have been chosen. This paper is an attempt to explore some of the influential factors affecting buildings design such as: needs, gender, and question concerning commonalities between both designers and their clients. The three aspects and two designers explored here have been chosen because they have been influenced the researchers to understand the impact of those factors on the design process, building’s performance, and the dweller’s satisfaction. This is a descriptive/ analytical research based on two historical comparative case studies that involve several steps such as: key evaluation questions (KEQs), observations, document analysis, etc. The methodology is based on data collation and finding validations. The research aims to state a manifest to regulate the relation between architects and their clients to reach the optimum building performance and functional interior design that suits their clients’ needs, reflects the architects’ character, and the school they belong to. At the end, through the investigation in this paper, the different needs between both the designers and the clients have been seen not only in the building itself but also it could convert the inhabitant’s life in various ways. Moreover, a successful relationship between the architect and their clients could play a significant role in the success of projects. In contrast, not every good design or celebrated building could end up with a successful relationship between the designer and their client or full-fill the inhabitant’s aspirations.
Guadua Bamboo as Eco-Friendly Element in Interior Design and Architecture
Utilizing renewable resources has become extensive solution for most problems in Egypt nowadays. It plays role in environmental issues such as energy crisis, lake of natural resources and climate change. This paper focuses on the importance of working with the key concepts of creating eco-friendly spaces in Egypt by using traditional perennial plants, such as Guadua bamboo as renewable resources in structures manufacture. Egypt is in critical need to search for alternative raw materials. Thus, this paper focuses on studying the usage of neglected yet affordable materials, such as Guadua bamboo in light weight structures and digital fabrication. Guadua bamboo has been cultivated throughout in tropical and subtropical areas. In Egypt, they exist in many rural areas where people try to control their growth by using pesticides as it serves no economic purpose. This paper aims to discuss the usage of Guadua bamboo either in its original state or after fabrication in the context of interior design and architecture. The results will show the applicability of using perennial plants as complementary materials in the manufacturing processes; also the conclusion will focus the lights on the importance of re-forming shallow water plants in interior design and architecture.
The Dead Alexandrian Historic Vein: The Revitalization of Mahmoudiyah Canal 'The Forgotten Environmental Asset'
In 1818, a seventy-five kilometer long canal was dug (called the Mahmoudiyah canal) connecting between Alexandria city in Egypt and the western branch of the Nile. It was a productive resource and vital to its environment, context, transportation, and recreation. It played a significant role in people’s lives and Alexandria city’s shape. The canal, which was the main vein of goods’ transporting from Alexandria’s seaport to the different parts of Egypt, was still in use today as a major source of clear water in the city. But nowadays, Mahmoudiyah canal is converting into ‘dead waterway’. The canal became sources of pollution as a result of solid and industrial waste thus causing many diseases, destroying communities and biodiversity, with urban invasion, the loss of community aesthetic value and healthy environment. Therefore, this paper aims to propose an urban strategy, as a solution to revive the forgotten canal, through recreating a cultural promenade on its shore. The main aim of this research is to formulate decent quality of life, unpolluted space, an area gathering the city space for nature, tourism and investments. As a case study, this paper investigates Mahmoudiyah canal through urban and ecological analyses, aiming to design an urban strategy for reviving it by creating a cultural promenade enriched with public spaces and green areas, which can most probably enhance the quality of life, city re-living and development. Community participation is also considered as vital and intrinsic implementation stage. The empirical research involved using several data assembly methods such as interviews, mental mapping, structural observations and questionnaires. The paper ends with a set of conclusions leading to proposals for the Mahmoudiyah canal revitalization considering the complex challenges and processes of sustainable regeneration focusing on city’s rehabilitation and lost identity.
Examination of Recreation Possibilities and Determination of Efficiency Zone in Bursa, Province Nilufer Creek
Water and water resources are characteristic areas with their special ecosystems Their natural, cultural and economic value and recreation opportunities are high. Recreational activities differ according to the natural, cultural, socio-economic resource values of the areas. In this sense, water and water edge areas, which are important for their resource values, are also important landscape values for recreational activities. From these landscapes values, creeks and the surrounding areas have become a major source of daily life in the past, as well as a major attraction for people's leisure time. However, their qualities and quantities must be sufficient to enable these areas to be used effectively in a recreational sense and to be able to fulfill their recreational functions. The purpose of the study is to identify the recreational use of the water-based activities and identify effective service areas in dense urbanization zones along the creek and green spaces around them. For this purpose, the study was carried out in the vicinity of Nilufer Creek in Bursa. The study area and its immediate surroundings are in the boundaries of Osmangazi and Nilufer districts. The study was carried out in the green spaces along the creek with an individual interaction of 17.930m. These areas are Hudavendigar Urban Park, Atatürk Urban Forest, Bursa Zoo, Soganlı Botanical Park, Mihrapli Park, Nilufer Valley Park. In the first phase of the study, the efficiency zones of these locations were calculated according to international standards. 3200m of this locations are serving the city population and 800m are serving the district and neighborhood population. These calculations are processed on the digitized map by the AUTOCAD program using the satellite image. The efficiency zone of these green spaces in the city were calculated as 71.04 km². In the second phase of the study, water-based current activities were determined by evaluating the recreational potential of these green spaces, which are located along the Nilufer Creek, where efficiency zones have been identified. It has been determined that water-based activities are used intensively in Hudavendigar Urban Park and interacted with Nilufer Creek. Within the scope of effective zones for the study area, appropriate recreational planning proposals have been developed and water-based activities have been suggested.
Evaluation of the Spatial Performance of Ancient Cities in the Context of Landscape Architecture
Ancient cities are, according to United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), landscape areas designed and created by people, at the same time naturally developing and constantly changing sustainable cultural landscapes. Ancient cities are the urban settlements where we can see the reflection of public lifestyle existed thousands of years ago. The conceptual and spatial traces in ancient cities, are crucial for examining the city history and its preservation. This study is intended to demonstrate the impacts of human life and physical environment on the cultural landscape. This research aims to protect and maintain cultural continuity of the ancient cities in Bursa which contain archeological and historical elements and could not majorly reach to the day because of not being protected and to show importance of landscape architecture to ensure this protection. In this context, ancient cities in Bursa were researched and a total of 7 ancient cities were identified. These ancient cities are; Apollonia, Lopadion, Nicaea, Myrleia, Cius, Daskyleion and Basilinopolis. In the next stage, the spatial performances of ancient cities were assessed by weighted criteria method. The highest score is the Nicaea Ancient City. Considering current situation of the ancient cities in Bursa, it is seen that most of them could not survive until our day due to lack of interest in these areas. As a result, according to the findings, it is a priority to create a protective band with green areas around the archaeological sites, thus adapting to nearby areas and emphasizing culture. In addition, proposals have been made to provide a transportation network that does not harm the ancient cities and the cultural landscape.
Evaluation of Monumental Trees in Bursa City in Terms of Cultural Landscape
Monumental trees make an important contribution to the cultural interaction between societies. At the same time, monument trees, which are considered as symbols of some beliefs, are living beings that are transmitted from generation to generation. Mystical, folkloric and dimensional aspects of our cultural heritage and the link between the past and present, the memorial trees of the generations of the stories conveyed the story of the legends at the same time with the aesthetic features of the objects attract attention. There are many monumental trees that witness historical processes in Bursa, which is a land of very different cultures from the Prusias (BC 232-192). Within this scope, monumental trees located within the boundaries of Bursa province and their contribution to urban culture were evaluated. Monument plane trees recorded in Bursa and its districts were determined by the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization, the Governorship of Bursa, the Provincial Directorate of Environment and Urbanism, the Directorate of Protection of Natural Assets, and these trees were examined in situ. As a result of the inspections made, the monument trees living today are classified according to their species. Within the scope of the study, it was determined that there were 1001 monumental tree species in different species within the boundaries of Bursa province. 71.83% of the recorded species were Platanus species and 11.79% were Pinus species. On the other hand, the stories about the contribution of cultural landscapes to the examples of living or now-disappearing examples of Bursa history from these monumental trees have been compiled and presented in the study.
An Approach to Spatial Planning for Water Conservation: The Case of Kovada Sub-Watershed (Turkey)
Today, the amount of water available is decreasing day by day due to global warming, environmental problems and population increase. To protect water resources, it is necessary to take a lot of measures from the global scale to the local scale. Some of these measures are related to spatial planning studies. In this study, the impact of water process analysis was assessed in the development of spatial planning for water conservation. The study was conducted in the Kovada sub-watershed (Isparta, Turkey). By means of water process analysis, the way to reach underground water of surface water in the study area is mapped. In this context, plant cover, soil and rock permeability were evaluated holistically with geographic information systems technologies. Then, on the map, water permeability is classified and this is spatially expressed. The findings show that the permeability of the water is different in the study case. As a result, the water permeability map needs to be included in the planning for water conservation planning.
The Transformation of Architecture through the Technological Developments in History: Future Architecture Scenario
Nowadays, design and architecture are being affected and underwent change with the rapid advancements in technology, economics, politics, society and culture. Architecture has been transforming with the latest developments after the inclusion of computers into design. Integration of design into the computational environment has revolutionized the architecture and new perspectives in architecture have been gained. The history of architecture shows the various technological developments and changes in which the architecture has transformed with time. Therefore, the analysis of integration between technology and the history of the architectural process makes it possible to build a consensus on the idea of how architecture is to proceed. In this study, each period that occurs with the integration of technology into architecture is addressed within historical process. At the same time, changes in architecture via technology are identified as important milestones and predictions with regards to the future of architecture have been determined. Developments and changes in technology and the use of technology in architecture within years are analyzed in charts and graphs comparatively. The historical process of architecture and its transformation via technology are supported with detailed literature review and they are consolidated with the examination of focal points of 20th-century architecture under the titles; parametric design, genetic architecture, simulation, and biomimicry. It is concluded that with the historical research between past and present; the developments in architecture cannot keep up with the advancements in technology and recent developments in technology overshadow the architecture, even the technology decides the direction of architecture. As a result, a scenario is presented with regards to the reach of technology in the future of architecture and the role of the architect.
Case Study Approach Using Scenario Analysis to Analyze Unabsorbed Head Office Overheads
Head office overhead (HOOH) is an indirect cost and is recovered through individual project billings by the contractor. Delay in a project impacts the absorption of HOOH cost allocated to that particular project and thus diminishes the expected profit of the contractor. This unabsorbed HOOH cost is later claimed by contractors as damages. The subjective nature of the available formulae to compute unabsorbed HOOH is the difficulty that contractors and owners face and thus dispute it. The paper attempts to bring together the rationale of various HOOH formulae by gathering contractor’s HOOH cost data on all of its project, using case study approach and comparing variations in values of HOOH using scenario analysis. The case study approach uses project data collected from four construction projects of a contractor in India to calculate unabsorbed HOOH costs from various available formulae. Scenario analysis provides further variations in HOOH values after considering two independent situations mainly scope changes and new projects during the delay period. Interestingly, one of the findings in this study reveals that, in spite of HOOH getting absorbed by additional works available during the period of delay, a few formulae depict an increase in the value of unabsorbed HOOH, neglecting any absorption by the increase in scope. This indicates that these formulae are inappropriate for use in case of a change to the scope of work. Results of this study can help both parties in deciding on an appropriate formula more objectively, considering the events on a project causing the delay and contractor's position in respect of obtaining new projects.
Integrated Genetic-A* Graph Search Algorithm Decision Model for Evaluating Cost and Quality of School Renovation Strategies
Energy consumption of buildings has been an increasing concern for researchers and practitioners in the last decade. Sustainable building renovation can reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions; meanwhile, it also can extend existing buildings useful life and facilitate environmental sustainability while providing social and economic benefits to the society. School buildings are different from other designed spaces as they are more crowded and host the largest portion of daily activities and occupants. Strategies that focus on reducing energy use but also improve the students’ learning environment becomes a significant subject in sustainable school buildings development. A decision model is developed in this study to solve complicated and large-scale combinational, discrete and determinate problems such as school renovation projects. The task of this model is to automatically search for the most cost-effective (lower cost and higher quality) renovation strategies. In this study, the search process of optimal school building renovation solutions is by nature a large-scale zero-one programming determinate problem. A* is suitable for solving deterministic problems due to its stable and effective search process, and genetic algorithms (GA) provides opportunities to acquire global optimal solutions in a short time via its indeterminate search process based on probability. These two algorithms are combined in this study to consider trade-offs between renovation cost and improved quality, this decision model is able to evaluate current school environmental conditions and suggest an optimal scheme of sustainable school buildings renovation strategies. Through adoption of this decision model, school managers can overcome existing limitations and transform school buildings into spaces more beneficial to students and friendly to the environment.
Sustainability of Performing Venues Considering Urban Connectivity and Facility Utilization
A sustainable built environment aims for minimizing both regional and global environmental impact while maintaining a healthy living for individuals. Sustainability of performing venues has rarely been discussed when compared with residential, office, and other popular building types. Life-cycle carbon emission due to the high standard requirements in acoustics, stage engineering, HVAC, and building structure need to be carefully examined. This can be complicated by social-economic and cultural concerns in addition to technical excellence. This paper reported case-based study and statistics of performing venues regarding urban connectivity and spatial layouts in enhancing facility usage and promoting cultural vitality. Interviews conducted for a major venue at Taipei indicated high linkage with surrounding leisure activity and the need for quality pedestrian and additional spaces open to the general public. Statistics of venues with various size and function suggested the possibility and strategies limit the size and height of reception and foyer spaces, and to maximize their use when there are no performances. Design strategies are identified to increase visual contact or facility sharing between the artists and the audience or the general public in reducing facility size and promoting potential involvement in cultural activities.
Smart Sustainable University Campus: Aspects on Efficient Space Utilization at National Taiwan University of Science and Technology
A smart sustainable university campus is multi-dimensional. The success requires intensive inter-disciplinary coordination among all users and the expert group and long-term optimization. This paper reported the design and realization process of the dense and campus NTUST campus where space sharing is essential. Two-phase web-based interviews with students were conducted regarding where they study between classes as well as how they move within the campus. Efficient and active utilization of public and semi-public spaces, in particular, the ones near the ground, were progressively designed and realized where lobbies, corridors, reading rooms, and classrooms not in use were considered. Most of the spaces were equipped with smart monitoring and controls in terms of access, lighting, ceiling fans, air condition, and energy use. Mobile device apps were developed regarding the management of the spaces while information about energy use, environmental quality, and the smart sustainable campus project itself were provided to stimulate the awareness of sustainability and active participation in optimizing the campus.
Slum Dwellers Residential Location Choices Decision: A Determinant of Slum Growth in Lagos Mega City
Slums are important components of city development planning, especially in Africa where slum growth is on par with urban growth. Purposefully, our knowledge on the residential choice of slum dwellers, which contributes to population growth in slums, is limited. This is the case in Lagos, a megacity reportedly dominated by slum dwellers. Thus, this study aims to disclose the factors influencing the residential choices and causes of people to remain in Lagos slums. Data was collected through questionnaire administration and focus group discussions. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze and describe the factors influencing residential location choice; logistic regression was utilized to determine the extent to which the neighborhood and household attributes, influence slum dwellers decisions to remain in the slums. Results showed that movement to Lagos was the main cause of population growth in slums; most of the migrants were from closer geopolitical zones (in Nigeria). Further, the movement patterns observed support two theories of human mobility in slums: slum as a sink, and as a final destination. Also, the factors that brought most of the slum dwellers to the slums (cheap housing, proximity to work etc.) differs from the ones that made them stay (Gender, employment status, housing status etc.). This study concludes that residential choice and intention to stay are the major contributors to population growth in a slum. It is therefore important for Lagos state Government to incorporate these elements of residential choices of slum dwellers in their slum management policies if the city aims to be free of slums by 2030
Investigating Elements of Identity of Traditional Neighborhoods in Isfahan and Using These Elements in the Design of Modern Neighborhoods
The process of planning, designing and building neighborhoods is a complex and multidimensional part of urban planning. Understanding the elements that give a neighborhood a sense of identity can lead to successful city planning and result in a cohesive and functional community where people feel a sense of belonging. These factors are important in ensuring that the needs of the urban population are met to live in a safe, pleasant and healthy society. This research paper aims to identify the elements of the identity of traditional neighborhoods in Isfahan and analyzes ways of using these elements in the design of modern neighborhoods to increase social interaction between communities and cultural reunification of people. The neighborhood of Jolfa in Isfahan has a unique socio-cultural identity as it dates back to the Safavid Dynasty of the 16th century, and most of its inhabitants are Christian Armenians of a religious minority. The elements of the identity of Jolfa were analyzed through the following research methods: field observations, distribution of questionnaires and qualitative analysis. The basic methodology that was used to further understand the Jolfa neighborhood and deconstruct the identity image that residents associate with their respective neighborhoods was a qualitative research method. This was done through utilizing questionnaires that respondents had to fill out in response to a series of research questions. From collecting these qualitative data, the major finding was that traditional neighborhoods that have elements of identity embedded in them are seen to have closer-knit communities whose residents have strong societal ties. This area of study in urban planning is vital to ensuring that new neighborhoods are built with concepts of social cohesion, community and inclusion in mind as they are what lead to strong, connected, and prosperous societies.
Measurement and Research of Green Office Building Operational Performance in China: A Case Study of a Green Office Building in Zhejiang Province
In recent years, green buildings in China have been developing rapidly and have developed into a wide variety of types, of which office building is a very important part. In many green office buildings, the energy consumption of building operation is high; the indoor environment quality needs to be improved, and the level of occupants’ satisfaction is low. This paper conducted a one-year measurement of operational performance of a green office building in Zhejiang Province. The measurement includes energy consumption of the building's one-year operation, the quality of the indoor environment and occupants’ satisfaction in different seasons. The energy consumption is collected from the power bureau. The quality of the indoor environment have been measured at different measuring points including offices, meeting rooms and reception for the whole year. The satisfaction of occupants are obtained from questionnaires. The results are compared with given standards and goals and the reasons why occupants are dissatisfied with the indoor environment are analyzed. Regarding energy consumption, the energy consumption of the building operational performance is much higher than the standard. Regarding the indoor environment, the temperature and humidity meet the standard for most of the time, but fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration is pretty high. Regarding occupants satisfaction, occupants have a higher expectation for indoor air quality even when the indoor air quality is well and occupants prefer a relatively humid environment. However the overall satisfaction is more than 80%, which indicates that occupants have a higher tolerability.
Correlation Analysis of Energy Use, Architectural Design and Residential Lifestyle in Japan Smart Community
This paper introduces the characteristics of Japanese residential lifestyle and Japanese Architectural housing design, meanwhile, summarizes the results from an analysis of energy use of 12 households in electric-only multi dwellings in Higashida Smart Community, Kitakyushu, Japan. Using hourly load and daily load data collected from smart meter, we explore correlations of energy use in households according to the incentive of different levels of architectural characteristics and lifestyle, following three factors: Space (Living room, Kitchen, Bedroom, Bathroom), Time (daytime and night time, weekdays and weekend) and User (Elderly, Parents, Kids). The energy consumption reports demonstrated that the essential demand of household’s response to variable factors. From that exploratory analysis, we can define the role of housing equipment layout and spatial layout in residential housing design. Likewise, determining preferred spaces and time use can help to optimize energy consumption in households. This paper contributes to the application of Smart Home Energy Management System in Smart Community in Japan and provides a good experience to other countries.
A Framework for Assessing and Implementing Ecological-Based Adaptation Solutions in Urban Areas of Shanghai
The uncertainty and the complexity of the urban environment combining with the threat of climate change are contributing factors to the vulnerability in multiple-dimensions in Chinese megacities, especially in Shanghai. The urban area occupied high valuable technological infrastructure and density buildings is under the threats of climate change and can provide insufficient ecological service to remain the trade-off on urban sustainable development. Urban ecological-based adaptation (UEbA) combines practices and theoretical work and integrates ecological services into multiple-layers of urban environment planning in order to reduce the impact of the complexity and uncertainty. To understand and to respond to the challenges in the urban level, this paper considers Shanghai as the research objective. It is necessary that its urban adaptation strategies should be reflected and contain the concept and knowledge of EbA. In this paper, we firstly use software to illustrates the visualizing patterns and trends of UEBA research in the current 10 years. Specifically, Citespace software was used for interpreting the significant hubs, landmarks points of peer-reviewed literature on the context of ecological service research in recent 10 years. Secondly, 135 evidence-based EbA literature were reviewed for categorizing the methodologies and framework of evidence-based EbA by the systematic map protocol. Finally, a conceptual framework combined with culture, economic and social components was developed in order to assess the current adaptation strategies in Shanghai. This research founds that the key to reducing urban vulnerability does not only focus on co-benefit arguments but also should pay more attention to the concept of trade-off. This research concludes that the designed framework can provide key knowledge and indicates the essential gap as a valuable tool against climate variability in the process of urban adaptation in Shanghai.
Analysis of Human Toxicity Potential of Major Building Material Production Stage Using Life Cycle Assessment
Global environmental issues such as abnormal weathers due to global warming, resource depletion, and ecosystem distortions have been escalating due to rapid increase of population growth, and expansion of industrial and economic development. Accordingly, initiatives have been implemented by many countries to protect the environment through indirect regulation methods such as Environmental Product Declaration (EPD), in addition to direct regulations such as various emission standards. Following this trend, life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques that provide quantitative environmental information, such as Human Toxicity Potential (HTP), for buildings are being developed in the construction industry. However, at present, the studies on the environmental database of building materials are not sufficient to provide this support adequately. The purpose of this study is to analysis human toxicity potential of major building material production stage using life cycle assessment. For this purpose, the theoretical consideration of the life cycle assessment and environmental impact category was performed and the direction of the study was set up. That is, the major material in the global warming potential view was drawn against the building and life cycle inventory database was selected. The classification was performed about 17 kinds of substance and impact index, such as human toxicity potential, that it specifies in CML2001. The environmental impact of analysis human toxicity potential for the building material production stage was calculated through the characterization. Meanwhile, the environmental impact of building material in the same category was analyze based on the characterization impact which was calculated in this study. In this study, establishment of environmental impact coefficients of major building material by complying with ISO 14040. Through this, it is believed to effectively support the decisions of stakeholders to improve the environmental performance of buildings and provide a basis for voluntary participation of architects in environment consideration activities.
Assessing the Resilience to Economic Shocks of the Households in Bistekville 2, Quezon City, Philippines
The Philippine housing sector is bracing challenges with the massive housing backlog and the adamant cycle of relocation, resettlement and returns to the cities of informal settler families due to the vast inaccessibility of necessities and opportunities in the past off-city housing projects. Bistekville 2 has been established as a model socialized housing project by utilizing government partnerships with private developers and individuals in the first in-city and onsite resettlement effort in the country. The study looked into the resilience of the residents to idiosyncratic economic shocks by analyzing their vulnerabilities, assets and coping strategies. The study formulated an economic resilience framework to identify how these factors that interact to build the household’s capacity to positively adapt to sudden expenses in their households. The framework is supplemented with a scale that presents the proximity of the household to resilience by identifying through its indicators whether the households are in the level of subsistence, coping, adaptive or transformative. Survey interviews were conducted with 91 households from Bistekville 2 on the components that have been identified by the framework that was processed with qualitative and quantitative processes. The study has found that the households are highly vulnerable due to their family composition and other conditions such as unhealthy loans, inconsistent amortization payment. Along with their high vulnerability, the households have inadequate strategies to anticipate shocks and primarily react to the shock. This has led to the conclusion that the households do not reflect resilience to idiosyncratic economic shocks and are still at the level of coping.
Compromising Quality of Life in Low-Income Settlements: The Case of Ashrayan Prakalpa, Khulna
Quality of life is a vast and comprehensive concept refers overall well-being of society. Current research and efforts of policymakers and planners are concerned to increase the urban quality of life through the sustainable development of city and country. While such efforts effectively improve the quality of life of urban dwellers through improved social, economic and housing infrastructures, very little has been paid to improve low-income settlement users more specifically government provided shelter projects. The top-down shelter policies and its objective indicators (physical design elements and physical environmental elements) indicators on low-income groups merely can ensure grassroots needs, aspiration and well-being refer as subjective qualities obliged to compromise with the quality of life. This research, therefore, aims to measure the quality of life of such government-provided low-income settlements. To do so, a conceptual framework has been developed to measure quality of life with arguing that quality of life depends on both objective and subjective indicators and needs to measure across three scales of living environment refers to macro (community), meso (neighborhood or shelter/built environment), and micro (family). The top-down shelter project, Dakshin Chandani Mahal Ashrayan Prakalpa is a resettlement/housing project of Government of Bangladesh for providing shelters and human resources development activities like education, microcredit, and training programme to landless, homeless and rootless people has been taken as case study. The study area is located at Dighalia Upazila, Khulna Bangladesh. In terms of methodology, this research is primarily exploratory and adopts a case study method and deductive approach for evaluating the quality of life. Data have been obtained from relevant literature review, key informant interview, focus group discussion, necessary drawings, photographs and participant observation across dwelling, neighborhood, and community level. Findings have revealed that Shelter users mostly compromise the quality of life at community level due to insufficient physical design elements and facilities while neighborhood and dwelling level have been manifested similar result like former ones. Thus, the outcome of this study can be beneficial for a global-level understating of the compromising the ‘quality of life’ under top-down shelter policy. Locally, for instance, in the context of Bangladesh, it can help policymakers and concerned authorities to formulate the shelter policies and take initiatives to improve the well-being of marginalized.
Applying the Integrative Design Process in Architectural Firms: An Analytical Study on Egyptian Firms
An architect carrying the design process alone is the main reason for the deterioration of the quality of the architectural product as the complexity of the projects makes it a multi-disciplinary work; then, the Integrative Design Process (IDP) must be applied in the architectural firm especially from the early design phases to improve the product’s quality and to eliminate the ignorance of the principles of design causing the occurrence of low-grade buildings. The research explores the Integrative Design (ID) principles that fit in the architectural practice. Constraints facing this application are presented with strategies and solutions to overcome them. A survey questionnaire was conducted to collect data from a number of recognized Egyptian Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) firms that explores their opinions on using the IDP. This survey emphasizes the importance of the IDP in firms and presents the reasons preventing the firms from applying the IDP. The aim here is to investigate the potentials of integrating this approach into architectural firms emphasizing the importance of this application which ensures the realization of the project’s goal and eliminates the reduction in the project’s quality.
Analysis of Risks of Adopting Integrated Project Delivery: Application of Bayesian Theory
Integrated project delivery (IPD) is a project delivery method distinguished by a shared risk/rewards mechanism and multiparty agreement. IPD has drawn increasing attention from construction industry due to its reliability to deliver high-performing buildings. However, unavailable IPD specific insurance concerns the industry participants who are interested in IPD implementation. Even though the risk management capability can be enhanced using shared risk mechanism, some risks may occur when the partners do not commit themselves into the integrated practices in a desired manner. This is because the intense collaboration and close integration can not only create added value but bring new opportunistic behaviors and disputes. The study is aimed to investigate the risks of implementing IPD using Bayesian theory. IPD risk taxonomy is presented to identify all potential risks of implementing IPD and a risk network map is developed to capture the interdependencies between IPD risks. The conditional relations between risk occurrences and the impacts of IPD risks on project performances are evaluated and simulated based on Bayesian theory. The probability of project outcomes is predicted by simulation. In addition, it is found that some risks caused by integration are most possible occurred risks. This study can help the IPD project participants identify critical risks of adopting IPD to improve project performances. In addition, it is helpful to develop IPD specific insurance when the pertinent risks can be identified.
Urban Intensification and the Character of Urban Landscape: A Morphological Perspective
Urban intensification is regarded as the prevalent strategy in many cities of the world to ease the pressures of urban sprawl and deliver sustainable development through increasing the density of built form and activities. However, within the context of intensive development, planning and design control measures that help to maintain and promote the character of existing residential environments have been slow to develop. This causes the possible loss of the character of an area that makes a place unique and distinctive. The purpose of this paper is to explore the way of identifying the character of an urban area for the planning of urban landscape in the implementation of intensification. By employing the theory of urban morphology, the concept of morphological region is used for the analysis and characterisation of the spatial structure of the urban landscape in terms of ground plans, building types, and building and land utilisation. The morphological mapping of the character of urban landscape is suggested, which lays a foundation for more sensitive planning of urban landscape changes.
A Future Urban Street Design in Baltimore, Maryland Based on a Hierarchy of Functional Needs and the Context of Autonomous Vehicles, Green Infrastructure, and Evolving Street Typologies
The purpose of this paper is to examine future urban street design in the context of developing technologies, evolving street typologies, and projected transportation trends. The goal was to envision a future urban street in the year 2060 that addresses the advent and implementation of autonomous vehicles, the promotion of new street typologies, and the projection of current transportation trends. Using a hierarchy of functional needs for urban streets, the future street was designed and evaluated based on the functions the street provides to the surrounding community. The site chosen for the future street design is an eight-block section of West North Avenue in the city of Baltimore, Maryland. Three different conceptual designs were initially completed and evaluated leading to a master plan for West North Avenue as well as street designs for connecting streets that represent different existing street types. Final designs were compared with the existing street design and evaluated with the adapted ‘Hierarchy of Needs’ theory. The review of the literature and the results from this paper indicate that urban streets will have to become increasingly multi-functional to meet the competing needs of the environment and community. Future streets will have to accommodate multimodal transit which will include mass transit, walking, and biking. Furthermore, a comprehensive implementation of green infrastructure within the urban street will provide access to nature for urban communities and essential stormwater management. With these developments, the future of an urban street will move closer to a greenway typology. Findings from this study indicate that urban street design will have to be policy-driven to promote and implement autonomous bus-rapid-transit in order to conserve street space for other functions. With this conservation of space, urban streets can then provide more functions to the surrounding community, taking a holistic approach to urban street design.
Evaluation of the Fire Propagation Characteristics of Thermoplastics
Consisting of organic compounds, plastic ignites easily and burns fast. In addition, a large amount of toxic gas is produced while it is burning. When plastic is heated, its volume decreases because its surface is melted. The decomposition of its molecular bond generates combustible liquid of low viscosity, which accelerates plastic combustion and spreads the flames. Radiant heat produced in the process propagates the fire to increase the risk of human and property damages. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to identify chemical, thermal and combustion characteristics of thermoplastic plastics using the fire propagation apparatus based on experimental criteria of ISO 12136 and ASTM E 2058. By the experiment result, as the ignition time increased, the thermal response parameter (TRP) decreased and as the TRP increased, the slope decreased. In other words, the large the TRP was, the longer the time taken for heating and ignition of the material was. It was identified that the fire propagation speed dropped accordingly.
A Study on an Evacuation Test to Measure Delay Time in Using an Evacuation Elevator
Elevators are examined as one of evacuation methods in super-tall buildings. However, data on the use of elevators for evacuation at a fire are extremely scarce. Therefore, a test to measure delay time in using an evacuation elevator was conducted. In the test, time taken to get on and get off an elevator was measured and the case in which people gave up boarding when the capacity of the elevator was exceeded was also taken into consideration. 170 men and women participated in the test, 130 of whom were young people (20 ~ 50 years old) and 40 were senior citizens (over 60 years old). The capacity of the elevator was 25 people and it travelled between the 2nd and 4th floors. A video recording device was used to analyze the test. An elevator at an ordinary building, not a super-tall building, was used in the test to measure delay time in getting on and getting off an elevator. In order to minimize interference from other elements, elevator platforms on the 2nd and 4th floors were partitioned off. The elevator travelled between the 2nd and 4th floors where people got on and off. If less than 20 people got on the elevator which was empty, the data were excluded. If the elevator carrying 10 passengers stopped and less than 10 new passengers got on the elevator, the data were excluded. Getting-on an empty elevator was observed 49 times. The average number of passengers was 23.7, it took 14.98 seconds for the passengers to get on the empty elevator and the load factor was 1.67 N/s. It took the passengers, whose average number was 23.7, 10.84 seconds to get off the elevator and the unload factor was 2.33 N/s. When an elevator’s capacity is exceeded, the excessive number of people should get off. Time taken for it and the probability of the case were measure in the test. 37% of the times of boarding experienced excessive number of people. As the number of people who gave up boarding increased, the load factor of the ride decreased. When 1 person gave up boarding, the load factor was 1.55 N/s. The case was observed 10 times, which was 12.7% of the total. When 2 people gave up boarding, the load factor was 1.15 N/s. The case was observed 7 times, which was 8.9% of the total. When 3 people gave up boarding, the load factor was 1.26 N/s. The case was observed 4 times, which was 5.1% of the total. When 4 people gave up boarding, the load factor was 1.03 N/s. The case was observed 5 times, which was 6.3% of the total. Getting-on and getting-off time data for people who can walk freely were obtained from the test. In addition, quantitative results were obtained from the relation between the number of people giving up boarding and time taken for getting on. This work was supported by the National Research Council of Science & Technology (NST) grant by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. CRC-16-02-KICT).
Experiment and Analytical Study on Fire Resistance Performance of Slot Type Concrete-Filled Tube
In this study, a full-scale test and analysis (numerical analysis) of fire resistance performance of bare CFT column on which slot was used instead of existing welding method to connect the steel pipe on the concrete-filled tube were conducted. Welded CFT column is known to be vulnerable to high or low temperature because of low brittleness of welding part. As a result of a fire resistance performance test of slot CFT column after removing the welding part and fixing it by a slot which was folded into the tube, slot type CFT column indicated the improved fire resistance performance than welded CFT column by 28% or more. And as a result of conducting finite element analysis of slot type column using ABAQUS, analysis result proved the reliability of the test result in predicting the fire behavior and fire resistance hour.
Guidelines for Sustainable Urban Mobility in Historic Districts from International Experiences
In recent approaches to heritage conservation, the whole context of historic areas becomes as important as the single historic building. This makes the provision of infrastructure and network of mobility an effective element in the urban conservation. Sustainable urban conservation projects consider the high density of activities, the need for a good quality access system to the transit system, and the importance of the configuration of the mobility network by identifying the best way to connect the different districts of the urban area through a complex unique system that helps the synergic development to achieve a sustainable mobility system. A sustainable urban mobility is a key factor in maintaining the integrity between socio-cultural aspects and functional aspects. This paper illustrates the mobility aspects, mobility problems in historic districts, and the needs of the mobility systems in the first part. The second part is a practical analysis for different mobility plans. It is challenging to find innovative and creative conservation solutions fitting modern uses and needs without risking the loss of inherited built resources. Urban mobility management is becoming an essential and challenging issue in the urban conservation projects. Depending on literature review and practical analysis, this paper tries to define and clarify the guidelines for mobility management in historic districts as a key element in sustainability of urban conservation and development projects. Such rules and principles could control the conflict between the socio–cultural and economic activities, and the different needs for mobility in these districts in a sustainable way. The practical analysis includes a comparison between mobility plans which have been implemented in four different cities; Freiburg in Germany, Zurich in Switzerland and Bray Town in Ireland. This paper concludes with a matrix of guidelines that considers both principles of sustainability and livability factors in urban historic districts.
Theoretical, Numerical and Experimental Assessment of Elastomeric Bearing Stability
Elastomeric bearings (EB) are used in many applications, such as base isolation of bridges, seismic protection and vibration control of other structures and machinery. Their versatility is due to their particular behavior since they have different stiffness in the vertical and horizontal directions, allowing to sustain vertical loads and at the same time horizontal displacements. Therefore, vertical, horizontal and bending stiffnesses are important parameters to take into account in the design of EB. In order to acquire a proper design methodology of EB all three, theoretical, finite element analysis and experimental, approaches should be taken into account to assess stability due to different loading states, predict their behavior and consequently their effects on the dynamic response of structures, and understand complex behavior and properties of rubber-like materials respectively. In particular, the recent large-displacement theory on the stability of EB formulated by Forcellini and Kelly is validated with both numerical simulations using the finite element method, and experimental results set at the University of Antioquia in Medellin, Colombia. In this regard, this study reproduces the behavior of EB under compression loads and investigates the stability behavior with the three mentioned points of view.