Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 46013

Architectural and Environmental Engineering

Furnishing The Envelope; 3D Printed Construction Unit as Furniture
The paper presents the construction unit that was proposed as a result of researching and finding solutions for challenges of the traditional masonry unit. The concept of ‘unit as arrangements of cells’ was investigated in four categories of structure, handling and assembly, thermal characteristics and weather ability which resulted in construction unit as an independent system which shapes a part of the envelope. Comparing to the traditional wall systems in which the system is in layers, the part system is a monolithic piece by itself. Even though the overall wythe-10 inches- is less than the combined layers-14 inches- in a traditional wall system, it is still seen as a spatial component. The component as a furnishing of envelope is discussed from material application point of view. The algorithm definition of the arrangement cells crafts the relationship between cells and functionality with material. This craft is realized as the envelope furnishing. Three alternative materials in relation to furnishing the envelope are discussed for printing the construction unit; transparent plastic, opaque plastic and glass. The qualities vary in the four categories, however this paper focuses on the visual qualities of materials applied. In a diagram the qualities of the materials are compared in relation to each other.
A Study of Possible Approach to Facilitate Social Sustainability of Industrial Land Redevelopment-Led Urban Regeneration
Kaohsiung has been an industrial city of Taiwan for over a hundred year. Consequently, there are several abandoned industrial lands left when the process of deindustrialization has started, resulting in the decay of the adjacent urban communities. These industrial lands, which are brownfields that are potentially or already contaminated by hazardous substances, have created social injustice to the surrounding communities. The redevelopments of industrial lands bring a sustainable development to the communities, while the redevelopments can be in different forms, depending on the natural conditions. This research studies the possible approaches to facilitate social sustainability of urban regeneration resulted from the industrial land redevelopment projects, which has always been ignored. The aim of the research is to find out the best western practices of brownfield redevelopment to facilitate social aspect of sustainable urban regeneration and make a contribution to the industrial land redevelopment of Taiwan. The research is conducted via literature review and case study. Industrial land redevelopment has been a social focus in the blighted communities to promote urban regeneration after the post-industrial age. The tendency of this kind of redevelopment is towards constructing the built environment, as a result the environmental and economic aspect of sustainability of the redeveloped industrial land will be boosted, while the social aspect will not be necessarily better since the local communities affected are rarely engaged in the decision-making process and inadequate resource allocation to the projects is not guaranteed. To ensure the improvement of social sustainability is reached, the recommendations of this research, such as civic engagement, a formation of dedicated brownfield regeneration agency and resource allocation to employ brownfield process manager and to strategic communication, should be incorporated into the real practices of industrial land-led urban regeneration. Besides, the case study also shows that the social sustainability of industrial land-led urban regeneration can be promoted by (1) upholding the local feature and public participation in the regeneration process, (2) allocating resources and enforcing responsibility system, and (3) assuring financial resource for the urban regeneration projects and residents. Subsequent research will involve in-depth interviews with the chiefs of the village of related communities in Kaohsiung and questionnaire with the community members to comprehend their opinions regarding social sustainability, aiming at evaluating the social sustainability and finding out which kind of redevelopment project tends to support the social dimension of sustainable development more.
The Evolution of Architecture through Digital: A Survey on Fashion Catwalk Becoming Digital
While mathematical tools that make digital architecture possible are very sophisticated and advanced, theoretical development of digital architecture (intended as a discipline that integrates or replaces the real architecture) is not. The fashion show, that involves interiors architecture, exhibit design and scenography, has been exploiting for ten years the opportunities offered by digital technologies. To gain greater visibility and to reach a wider audience, high-level experimentations have been performed. The aim of this paper is in investigating, through the analysis of some cases of virtual fashion shows, the 'architectural' impact of the virtual conception of interior space.
Evaluation of Deteriorated Fired Clay Bricks Based on Schmidt Hammer Tests
Although past research has focused on parameters influencing the vulnerability of brick and its decay, in practice ancient fired clay bricks are usually replaced without any particular assessment of their characteristics. This paper presents results of non-destructive Schmidt hammer tests performed on ancient fired clay bricks sampled from historic masonry. Samples under study were manufactured between the 18th and 20th century and came from facades and interior walls. Tests were performed on three distinct brick surfaces, depending on their position within the masonry unit. Schmidt hammer tests were carried out in order to measure the mean rebound value (Rn), which refers to the resistance of the surface to successive impacts of the hammer plunger tip. Results indicate that rebound values increased with successive impacts at the same point. Therefore, mean Schmidt hammer rebound values (Rn), limited to the first impact on a surface minimises the estimation of compressive strength. In addition, the results illustrate that this technique is sensitive enough to measure weathering differences, even for different surfaces of a particular sample. Finally, the paper also highlights the relevance of considering the position of the brick within the masonry when conducting particular assessments of the material’s strength.
A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment: The Design of a High Performance Building Envelope and the Impact on Operational and Embodied Energy
The construction and operation of buildings greatly contribute to environmental degradation through resource and energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The design of the envelope system affects the environmental impact of a building in two major ways; 1) high thermal performance and air tightness can significantly reduce the operational energy of the building and 2) the material selection for the envelope largely impacts the embodied energy of the building. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a scientific methodology that is used to systematically analyze the environmental load of processes or products, such as buildings, over their life. The paper will discuss the results of a comparative LCA of different envelope designs and the long-term monitoring of the Wood Innovation Research Lab (WIRL); a Passive House (PH), industrial building under construction in Prince George, Canada. The WIRL has a footprint of 30m x 30m on a concrete raft slab foundation and consists of shop space as well as a portion of the building that includes a two-story office/classroom space. The lab building goes beyond what was previously thought possible in regards to energy efficiency of industrial buildings in cold climates due to their large volume to surface ratio, small floor area, and high air change rate, and will be the first PH certified industrial building in Canada. These challenges were mitigated through the envelope design which utilizes solar gains while minimizing overheating, reduces thermal bridges with thick (570mm) prefabricated truss walls filled with blown in mineral wool insulation and a concrete slab and roof insulated with EPS rigid insulation. The envelope design results in lower operational and embodied energy when compared to buildings built to local codes or with steel. The LCA conducted using Athena Impact Estimator for Buildings identifies project specific hot spots as well illustrates that for high-efficiency buildings where the operational energy is relatively low; the embodied energy of the material selection becomes a significant design decision as it greatly impacts the overall environmental footprint of the building. The results of the LCA will be reinforced by long-term monitoring of the buildings envelope performance through the installation of temperature and humidity sensors throughout the floor slab, wall and roof panels and through detailed metering of the energy consumption. The data collected from the sensors will also be used to reinforce the results of hygrothermal analysis using WUFI®, a program used to verify the durability of the wall and roof panels. The WIRL provides an opportunity to showcase the use of wood in a high performance envelope of an industrial building and to emphasize the importance of considering the embodied energy of a material in the early stages of design. The results of the LCA will be of interest to leading researchers and scientists committed to finding sustainable solutions for new construction and high-performance buildings.
Co-Designing Health as a Social Community Centre: The Case of a 'Doctors of the World Project' in Brussels
The co-design process recently run by the trans-disciplinary urban laboratory Metrolab Brussels for outlining the architecture of a future integrated health centre in Brussels (Belgium) has highlighted that a buffer place open to the local community is the appropriate cornerstone around which organizing a space where diverse professionals and patients are together. In the context of the migrants 'crisis' in Europe, the growing number of vulnerable people in Brussels and the increasing complexity of the health and welfare systems, the NGO Doctors of the World (DoW) has launched a project funded by The European Regional Development Fund, and aiming to create a new community centre combining social and health services in a poor but changing neighborhood of Brussels. Willing not to make a 'ghetto' of this new integrated service, the NGO looks at hosting different publics in order to make the poorest, marginal and most vulnerable people access to a regular kind of service. As a trans-disciplinary urban research group, Metrolab has been involved in the process of co-designing the architecture of the future centre with a set of various health professionals, social workers, and patients’ representatives. Metrolab drawn on the participants’ practice experiences and knowledge of hosting different kinds of publics and professions in a same structure in order to imagine what rooms should fit into the centre, what atmosphere they should convey, how should they be interrelated and organized, and, concurrently, how the building should fit into the urban frame of its neighborhood. The result is that, in order for an integrated health centre framed in the landscape of a disadvantaged neighborhood to function, it has to work as social community centre offering accessibility and conviviality to diverse social groups. This paper outlines the methodology that Metrolab used to design and conduct, in close collaboration with DoW, a series of 3 workshops. Through sketching and paper modeling, the methodology made participants talk about their experience by projecting them into a situation. It included a combination of individual and collective work in order to sharp participants’ eyes on architectural forms, explicit their thoughts and experience through inter-subjectivity and imagine solutions to the challenges they raised. Such a collaborative method encompasses several challenges about patients’ participation and representation, replicability of the conditions of success and the plurality of the research findings communication formats. This paper underlines how this participatory process has contributed to build knowledge on the few-documented topic of the architecture of community health centres. More importantly, the contribution builds on this participatory process to discuss the importance of adapting the architecture of the new integrated health centre to the changing population of Brussels and to the issues of its specific neighborhood.
Vermicomposting of Textile Industries Dyeing Sludge by Using Eisenia foetida
Surat City in India is famous for textile and dyeing industries which generate textile sludge in huge quantity. Textile sludge contains harmful chemicals which are poisonous and carcinogenic. The safe disposal and reuse of textile dyeing sludge are challenging for owner of textile industries and government of the state. The aim of present study was the vermicomposting of textile industries dyeing sludge with cow dung and Eisenia foetida as earthworm spices. The vermicompost reactor of 0.3 m³ capacity was used for vermicomposting. Textile dyeing sludge was mixed with cow dung in different proportion, i.e., 0:100 (C1), 10:90 (C2), 20:80 (C3), 30:70 (C4). Vermicomposting duration was 120 days. All the combinations of the feed mixture, the pH was increased to a range 7.45-7.78, percentage of total organic carbon was decreased to a range of 31-33.3%, total nitrogen was decreased to a range of 1.15-1.32%, total phosphorus was increased in the range of 6.2-7.9 (g/kg).
Procedure for Impact Testing of Fused Recycled Glass
Recycled glass material is made from hundred percent recycled bottle glass and consume less energy than re-melt technology. It also uses no additives in the manufacturing process allowing the recycled glass material, in principle, to go back to the recycling stream after end-of-use, contributing to the circular economy with a low ecological impact. Previous research with low temperature fused recycled bottle glass was developed for the manufacturing of interior tiles and commissioned by an architectural practice for a new build which was based on sustainable principles. The research considered objective mechanical criteria such as flexural bending strength, stability and stain and scratch resistance. It also emphasized on aesthetic development such as colouring, translucency, texture and reproducibility. Continuing from previous research results the material is believed to behold properties in which it can be used for other architectural applications such as pavements, wall cladding, or even non-structural furniture. This is a relatively new architectural material of which there has been little publications in material specifications or processes for mechanical testing. The aim of this paper is to investigate the procedure for testing the recycled glass material for impact resistance, so it can be applied to pavements and other surfaces which are at risk of impact during service. A review of different impact test procedures for construction materials was undertaken, comparing methodologies and international standards applied to natural stone, ceramics and glass. A new drop weight impact testing machine was designed and manufactured in-house to perform these tests. As a case study, samples of the recycled glass material were manufactured and tested. The impact energy was calculated theoretically and analysed using high speed video technology. Accurate time for impact was measured, and the energy absorbed by the material calculated from different heights as well. The results on the material were subsequently analysed and discussed. The initial results obtained in this procedure were positive although repeatability needs to be developed to obtain a correlation of results and finally be able to validate the procedure. The experiment with samples showed the practicality of this procedure and application to the recycled glass material impact testing although further research needs to be developed.
Environmental Sustainability: Clay as Environmental Protection Building Materials in the Built Environment
Building materials is an important aspect of the design and building construction process, having a great influence on the cost and quality of the built environment. The objective of this paper is to identify the social, economic, environmental and protection potentials of clay in environmental protection in the built environment. High cost of projects in developing countries leads to incorporating clay building products in most present projects in the built environments. This research was carried out in suitable civil and building construction companies in Katsina, Kano and Kaduna states in northern Nigeria. The research findings identified that economic factors have the highest potentials as sustainable building materials in the built environment.
Isogeometric Topology Optimization in Cracked Structures Design
In the present study, the isogeometric topology optimization is proposed for cracked structures through using Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP) as a design model. Design density variables defined in the variable space are used to approximate the element analysis density by the bivariate B-spline basis functions. The mathematical formulation of topology optimization problem solving minimum structural compliance is an alternating active-phase algorithm with the Gauss-Seidel version as an optimization model of optimality criteria. Stiffness and adjoint sensitivity formulations linked to strain energy of cracked structure are proposed in terms of design density variables. Numerical examples demonstrate interactions of topology optimization to structures design with cracks.
Recycled Aggregates from Construction and Demolition Waste in the Production of Concrete Blocks
The construction industry generates large amounts of waste, usually mixed, which can be composed of different origin materials, most of them catalogued as non-hazardous. The Waste Framework Directive establishes that a minimum of 70% of non-hazardous waste must be recovered by 2020. In the UK, this target is already achieved, but mainly developed in downcycling processes (backfilling) whereas upcycling (such as recycle in new concrete batches) still keeps at a low percentage. The aim of this paper is to explore further in the use of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW) in concrete mixes so as to improve upcycling. A review of most recent research and legislation applied in the UK is developed regarding the production of concrete blocks. As a case study, initial tests were developed with a CDW recycled aggregate sample from a CDW plant in Swansea. Composition by visual inspection and sieving tests of two samples were developed and compared to original aggregates. More than 70% was formed by soil waste from excavation, and the rest was a mix of waste from mortar, concrete, and ceramics with small traces of plaster, glass and organic matter. Two concrete mixes were made with 80% replacement of recycled aggregates and different water/cement ratio. Tests were carried out for slump, absorption, density and compression strength. The results were compared to a reference sample and showed a substantial reduction of quality in both mixes. Despite that, the discussion brings to identify different aspects to solve, such as heterogeneity or composition, and analyze them for the successful use of these recycled aggregates in the production of concrete blocks. The conclusions obtained can help increase upcycling processes ratio with mixed CDW as recycled aggregates in concrete mixes.
Simultaneous Removal of Phosphate and Ammonium from Eutrophic Water Using Dolochar Based Media Filter
With the aim of enhancing the nutrient (ammonium and phosphate) removal from eutrophic wastewater with reduced cost, a novel media based multistage bio filter with drop aeration facility was developed in this work. The bio filter was packed with a discarded sponge iron industry by product, ‘dolochar’ primarily to remove phosphate via physicochemical approach. In the multi stage bio-filter drop, aeration was achieved by the process of percolation of the gravity-fed wastewater through the filter media and dropping down of wastewater from stage to stage. Ammonium present in wastewater got adsorbed by the filter media and biomass grown on the filter media and subsequently, got converted to nitrate through biological nitrification in the aerobic condition, as realized by drop aeration. The performance of the bio-filter in treating real eutrophic wastewater was monitored for a period of about 2 months. The influent phosphate concentration was in the range of 16-19 mg/L, and ammonium concentration was in the range of 65-78 mg/L. The average nutrient removal efficiency observed during the study period were 95.2% for phosphate and 88.7% for ammonium, with mean final effluent concentration of 0.91, and 8.74 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, the subsequent release of nutrient from the saturated filter media, after completion of treatment process has been undertaken in this study and thin layer funnel analytical test results reveal the slow nutrient release nature of spent dolochar, thereby, recommending its potential agricultural application. Thus, the bio-filter displays immense prospective for treating real eutrophic wastewater, significantly decreasing the level of nutrients and keeping the effluent nutrient concentrations at par with the permissible limit and more importantly, facilitating the conversion of the waste materials into usable ones.
An Assessment of Redevelopment of Cessed Properties in the Island City of Mumbai, India
Mumbai is one of the largest cities of the country with a population of 12.44 million over 437 Sq.km, and it is known as financial hub of India. In early 20th century, with the expansion of industrialization and growth of port, a huge demand for housing was created. In response to this, government enacted rent controls. Over a period of time, due to rent controls, the existing rental housing stock has deteriorated. Therefore, in last 25 years, government has been focusing on redevelopment of these rental buildings, also called ‘Cessed buildings’, in order to provide better standard of living to the tenants and also, to supply new housing units in the market. In India, developers are the main players in the housing market as they are the supplier of maximum dwelling units in the market. Hence, government attempts are inclined toward facilitating developers for the cessed building redevelopment projects by incentivizing them through making special provisions in the development control regulations. This research focuses on the entire process of redevelopment by the developers and issues faced by the related stakeholders in the same to reduce the stress on housing. It also highlights the loopholes in the current system and inefficient functioning of the process. The research was carried out by interviewing various developers, tenants and landlords in the island city who have already gone through redevelopment. From the case studies, it is very evident that redevelopment is undoubtedly a huge profit making business. In some cases, developers make profit of almost double the amount of the investment. But yet, satisfactory results are not seen on ground. It clearly indicates that there are some issues faced by developers which have not been addressed. Some of these issues include cumbersome legal procedures, negotiations with landlords and tenants, congestion and narrow roads, small size of the plots, informal practicing of ‘Pagdi system’ and financial viability of the project. This research recommends the up gradation of the existing cessed buildings by sharing the repairing and maintenance cost between landlords and tenants and also, income levels of tenants can be traced and housing vouchers or incentives can be provided to those who actual need it so that landlord does not have to subsidize the tenants. For redevelopment, the current interventions are generalized in nature as it does not take on ground issues into the consideration. There is need to identify local issues and give area specific solutions. And also, government should play a role of mediator to ensure all the stakeholders are satisfied and project gets completed on time.
Improvement of Fire Resistance Capacity of Fiber Reinforced Polymer for Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Structures
Currently, FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) materials have been widely used for reinforcement of building structural members. However, since the FRP and the epoxy material for attaching it have very low resistance to heat, there is a problem in application where high temperature is an issue. In this paper, the resistance performance of FRP member made of carbon fiber at high temperature was investigated through experiment under temperature change. As a result, epoxy encapsulating FRP is damaged at not high temperatures, and the fibers are degraded. Therefore, when reinforcing a structure using FRP, a separate refractory heat treatment is necessary. The use of a 40 mm thick calcium silicate board as a fireproofing method can protect FRP up to 700°C outside temperature.
The Use of Indicators to Evaluate Minor Heritage Areas in a City
This paper aims to demonstrate how a system of indicators can be used in order to evaluate some heritage areas which can be understood as minor ones. We mean by that those urban areas with high heritage interest from an academical point of view, but never properly valued. The reasons for this situation may be diverse, either they are not old enough, or they may show the modest architecture, the fact is these areas have not been considered deserving of protection, as the historical ones. As a result of this reality, they usually show now a very degraded urban space, which in addition contribute to accelerate a process of deterioration. Using a technic well known in urban design, we propose here a system of indicators for patrimonial purposes, as a tool to identify and quantify the heritage value of these kinds of areas. As a case study, we apply this system in some part of the City of Quito (El Ecuador).
Comprehensive Studio Tables: Improving Performance and Quality of Student's Work in Architecture Studio
Architecture students spent most of their qualitative time in studios during their years of study. The studio table’s importance as furniture in the studio is that it elevates the quality of the projects and positively influences the student’s productivity. This paper first describes the aspects considered in designing comprehensive studio table and later details on each aspect. Comprehensive studio tables are meant to transform the studio space to an efficient yet immense place of learning, collaboration, and participation. One aspect of these tables is that the surface transforms to a place of accommodation for design conversations, the other aspect of these tables is the efficient interactive platform of the tools. The discussion factors of the comprehensive studio include; the comprehensive studio setting of workspaces, the arrangement of the comprehensive studio tables, the collaboration aspects in the studio, the studio display and lightings shaped by the tables and lighting of the studio.
Biomimetic Paradigms in Architectural Conceptualization: Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics in Higher Education
The application of algorithms in architecture has been realized as geometric forms which are increasingly being used by architecture firms. The abstraction of ideas in a formulated algorithm is not possible. There is still a gap between design innovation and final built in prescribed formulas, even the most aesthetical realizations. This paper presents the application of erudite design process to conceptualize biomimetic paradigms in architecture. The process is customized to material and tectonics. The first part of the paper outlines the design process elements within four biomimetic pre-concepts. The pre-concepts are chosen from plants family. These include the pine leaf, the dandelion flower; the cactus flower and the sun flower. The choice of these are related to material qualities and natural pattern of the tectonics of these plants. It then focuses on four versions of tectonic comprehension of one of the biomimetic pre-concepts. The next part of the paper discusses the implementation of STEAM in higher education in architecture. This is shown by the relations within the design process and the manifestation of the thinking processes. The A in the SETAM, in this case, is only achieved by the design process, an engaging event as a performing arts, in which the conceptualization and development is realized in final built.
Urban Water Logging Adversity: A Case Study on Disruption of Urban Landscape Due to Water Logging Problems and Probable Analytical Solutions for Urban Region on Port City Chittagong, Bangladesh
Port city Chittagong, the commercial capital of Bangladesh, is flourished with fascinating topography and climatic context along with basic resources for livelihood; both shape this city and become living archives of its ecologies. Chittagong has been witnessing numerous urban development measures being taken by city development authority, though some of those seem incomplete because of lack of proper planning. Due to this unplanned trail, the blessings of nature have become the reason of sufferings for city dwellers. One of which is the water clogging due to heavy rainfall, seepage, high tide, absence of well-knit underground drainage system, and so on. The problem has reached such an extent that the first monsoon rain is enough to shut down the entire city and causing immense sufferings to livestock, specially most vulnerable groups such as children and office going people. Study shows that total discharge is higher than present drainage capacity of the canals, thus, resulting in overflow, as major channels are clogged up by dumping waste or illegal encroachment, which are supposed to flush out rain water. This paper aims to address natural and manmade causes behind urban water clogging, adverse socio-environmental hazardous effects, possibilities for probable solutions on basis of local people’s experience and rational urban planning and landscape architectural proposals such as facilitating well planned drainage system, along with waste management policies etc. which can be able to intervene in these movements to activate the mighty port city’s unfulfilled potentials.
Estimation of Train Operation Using an Exponential Smoothing Method
The purpose of this research is to improve the convenience of waiting for trains at level crossings and stations and to prevent accidents resulting from forcible entry into level crossings, by providing level crossing users and passengers with information that tells them when the next train will pass through or arrive. For this paper, we proposed methods for estimating operation by means of an average value method, variable response smoothing method, and exponential smoothing method, on the basis of open data, which has low accuracy, but for which performance schedules are distributed in real time. We then examined the accuracy of the estimations. The results showed that the application of an exponential smoothing method is valid.
Lean: A Sustainable Approach to Design and Construction for Environmental Sustainability
This study aims to contribute to the pursuit of environmental sustainability through the built environment practices of design and construction. Activities within the built environment and particularly within the construction industry have a significant role in ensuring environmental sustainability. The adoption of Lean principles and approaches would ensure that project deliverables are sustainable. This is because the processes that integrate lean principles reduce waste, add value to productivity, ensures customer satisfaction and are mindful of future productivity. Additionally, the lean principles for development are sustainable in themselves and thus promotes environmental sustainability. The study encourages further research with other methodologies and recommends the development of monitoring and evaluation mechanisms in order to promote the global concern for environmental sustainability.
Geometrical Analysis of Tiling Patterns in Azari Style: The Case of Tabriz Kaboud Mosque
Tiling patterns are magnificent display of decoration in Islamic period. They transform the dusty and dreary facades to splendid and ornate ones. Due to ideological factors and elements of Azari style decorations, geometrical patterns and vegetative designs became prevalent and pervasive in religious sites like mosques. Objectives: The objective of this research is a study of tiling patterns in Tabriz Kaboud mosque, as a splendid work of architecture in Azari style. In this study, the geometrical designs and tiling patterns employed in the mosque decorations are examined and analyzed. Method: The research is based on a descriptive analysis method. Data and information are collected based on documents library and field study. Then, polished and brushed, the study resulted in an illustrative conclusion. Findings: In religious sites such as mosques, geometry represents ‘divination’ in Christian theology and ‘Unity with God’ or ‘Tawhid’ in Islamic terminology. In other words, science, literature, architecture, and all forms of human expression and representation are pointed towards one cause, unity or divination. Tiling patterns of Kaboud Mosque, mostly hexagonal, circular, square and triangle, form outstanding architectonic features which recount a story, a narration of divination or unification with the One.
Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Slabs with Externally Bonded Reinforcement under Two Independent Explosions
This paper aims to investigate the blast response of RC slabs retrofitted with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) as externally bonded reinforcement (EBR) under multiple explosions. In order to achieve this objective, four simply supported slabs were tested using an explosive driven shock tube (EDST). The results show that EBR increases the flexural capacity of the slabs under blast loading. A reduction of 26% and 40% are observed for the slabs retrofitted with 2 CFRP strips and 4 CFRP strips respectively. Moreover, the propagation of the blast wave through the concrete can cause the debonding of the CFRP strips when the normal stresses of the blast wave are higher than the bond strength between the concrete and the CFRP strips.
Consumer Behavior and the Demand for Sustainable Buildings in an Emerging Market, The Example of Brazil
This work aimed to identify the relationships between the level of consumer environmental awareness and their search for sustainable properties, as well as to understand the main sustainability structures considered by these consumers during the decision process. Additionally, the paper looked up to the influence environmental awareness and financial status have over the disposition of buyers to pay more for sustainable properties. To achieve these objectives, 318 questionnaires were answered electronically, after being sent to the Green Building Brazil email basis, as to other Real Estate developers client basis. From all the questionnaires answered, 71 were discarded, leaving a total amount of 247 admitted questionnaires to be analyzed. The responses were evaluated based on the theory of consumer decision making, especially on the influence factors of this process. The data were processed using a PLS model, using the R software. The results have shown that the level of consumer environmental awareness effectively affects the consumer’s will of acquiring a sustainable property or, at least, a property with some environmental friendly structures. The consumer’s environmental awareness also positively impacts the importance consumers give to individual environmental friendly structures. Also, as a consumer value to those individual structures raises, it is also observed a raise in his will to buy a sustainable property. Additionally, the impact of consumer’s environmental awareness and financial status over the willingness to pay more for a property with those attributes. The results indicate that there was no relationship between consumers' environmental awareness and their willingness to pay more for a sustainable property. On the other hand, the financial status and the family income of the consumers showed a positive relation with the willingness to pay more for a sustainable property. This indicates that consumers with better financial conditions, which according to the analysis do not necessarily have a greater environmental awareness, are those who are willing to pay more for a sustainable property. Thus, this study indicates that, even if the environmental awareness impact positively the demand for sustainable structures and properties, this impact is not price reflected, due to the price elasticity of the consumption, especially for a category of lower income consumers. This paper adds to the literature in the way it projects some guidelines to the consumer’s decision process in the Real Estate market in emerging economies, as well as it presents some drivers to pricing decisions.
Reading the Interior Furnishings of the Houses through Turkish Films in the 1980's
Housing offers a confirmed space for individuals. In the sense of interior decoration design, housing is a kind of typology in which user’s profile and individual preferences are considered as primary determinants. In Turkish society, the transition from traditional residences to apartment buildings brings the change in interior fittings depending upon the location of houses in its wake. The social status of the users in the residence and the differences of their everyday life can be represented more evident in these interior fittings. Hence, space becomes a tool to carry the information of users and the act. From this aspect, space as a concrete tool also enables a multidirectional communication with the cinema which reflects the social, cultural and economic changes of the society. While space takes a virtual or real part of the cinema, architecture discipline has also been influenced by cinematic phenomenas in its own practice. The subject of the movie and its content commune with the space, therefore, the design of the space is formed to support the subject. The purpose of this study is to analyze the space through motion pictures that convey the information of social life with an objective perspective. In addition, this study aims to determine the space, fittings and the use of fittings with respect to the social status of users. Morever, three films in 1980s in which Kemal Sunal, protagonist of the scripts that reflect society in many ways, performed are examined in this study. Movie sets are considered in many ways. For instance, in one of these movies, different houses from an apartment are analyzed vis a vis the perspective of the study.
Analysis of KiListra (Gokyurt) Settlement within the Context of Traditional Residential Architecture
Humans meet their need for shelter via housing which they structure in line with habits and necessities. In housing culture, traditional dwelling has an important role as a social and cultural transmitter. It provides concrete data by being planned in parallel with users’ life style and habits, having their own dynamics and components as well as their designs in harmony with nature, environment and the context they exist. Textures of traditional dwelling create a healthy and cozy living environment by means of adaptation to natural conditions, topography, climate, and context; utilization of construction materials found nearby and usage of traditional techniques and forms; and natural isolation of construction materials used. One of the examples of traditional settlements in Anatolia is Kilistra (Gökyurt) settlement of Konya province. Being among the important centers of Christianity in the past, besides having distinctive architecture, culture, natural features, and geographical differences (climate, geological structure, material), Kilistra can also be identified as a traditional settlement consisting of family, religious and economic structures as well as cultural interaction. The foundation of this study is the traditional residential texture of Kilistra with its unique features. The objective of this study is to assess the conformity of traditional residential texture of Kilistra with present topography, climatic data, and geographical values within the context of human scale construction, usage of green space, indigenous construction materials, construction form, building envelope, and space organization in housing.
Baseline Study for Performance Evaluation of New Generation Solar Insulation Films for Windows: A Test Bed in Singapore
Due to the solar geometry of Singapore, which lay within the geographical classification of equatorial tropics, there is a great deal of thermal energy transfer to the inside of the buildings. With changing face of economic development of cities like Singapore, more and more buildings are designed to be lightweight using transparent construction materials such as glass. Increased demand for energy efficiency and reduced cooling load demands make it important for building designer and operators to adopt new and non-invasive technologies to achieve building energy efficiency targets. A real time performance evaluation study was undertaken at School of Art Design and Media (SADM), Singapore, to determine the efficiency potential of a new generation solar insulation film. The building has a window to wall ratio (WWR) of 100% and is fitted with high performance (low emissivity) double glazed units. The empirical data collected was then used to calibrate a computerized simulation model to understand the annual energy consumption based on existing conditions (baseline performance). It was found that the correlations of various parameters such as solar irradiance, solar heat flux, and outdoor air-temperatures quantification are significantly important to determine the cooling load during a particular period of testing.
Daylightophil Approach towards High-Performance Architecture for Hybrid-Optimization of Visual Comfort and Daylight Factor in BSk
The greatest influence we have from the world is shaped by the visual form, thus demanding light is an inseparable element in human life. The use of daylight in visual perception and environment readability is an important issue for users. On the other hand, by increasing the greenhouse gas emissions of fossil fuels, and through the issue of reductionism of energy consumption, it could be said that the correct use of daylight makes the possibility of reduction in the amount of energy consumption in artificial lighting, as well as heating and cooling. Windows are usually the starting points for analysis and simulations to achieve visual comfort and energy optimization; so in studies, the attentions should be paid to the orientation of building to minimize electrical energy and maximize the use of daylight. In this paper, by using the Design Builder software, the effect of the orientation of a 18m²(3m*6m) room with 3m height in city of Tehran has been investigated considering the design constraint limitations. In these simulations, the dimensions of the building have changed with one degree and the window is located on the smaller face (3m*3m) of the building with 80% ratio. The results indicate that the orientation of building has a lot to do with energy efficiency to meet high-performance architecture and planning goals and objectives.
Identifying the Level of Awareness on Value Management Practice amongst Construction Practitioners in Nigeria
Value management is widely accepted technique of eliminating unnecessary cost at different stages of project development that maximizes the functional value of a project by managing its evolution and development from concept to completion. Many construction industry practitioners are not aware of Value Management practice, and its use is less widespread in Nigeria. The aim of this research is to identify the level of awareness on value management practice amongst construction practitioners with a view to contribute to the improvement of the implementation of value management practice in the Nigerian construction industry. In this study, construction practitioners have been chosen as respondents from the 6 geopolitical zones of the federation including FCT Abuja. Through the survey, a total number of 360 semi-structured questionnaires were administered and 284 were returned and remained good for the analysis. The results indicate that most of the respondents were aware of the value management concept and issues surrounding construction industry in Nigeria, while about 32% of the respondents were not aware of its potential benefits. Therefore, organisations should review their techniques and processes from time to time for improvement on effective service delivery. Additionally, a change management strategy should also be part of every organization to ease the introduction of new techniques such as value management. There is also the need for more value management training workshops and seminars in order to enlighten the participants of the construction industry on the principles, concept, and techniques involved in the value management process.
Energy Efficiency of Existing Buildings in Hot and Dry Climate with Reference to the City of Riyadh
The issue of energy conservation is becoming more critical and alarming people globally. Buildings are responsible for considerable amount of heat consumption for much daily use such as heating and cooling. One of the most important aspects to achieve the vision of Saudi Arabia 2030 is to provide more energy efficient buildings which consume less energy. Most of research carried out aiming to improve building which is designed from the first stage. However, the dominant amount of energy is consumed by the exciting buildings which are built without guide for energy efficiency. The aim of this research is to provide solutions for building which have been built, and try to minimise the amount of energy consumed. The research will use one of the most powerful energy simulations (TAS EDSL) which is used globally to predict energy efficiency in buildings. In addition to that, the research will focus on the buildings which are located in the microclimate of Riyadh. It is expected that the size of glazing system is the leading variable which can be modified in the exciting buildings.
Universal Design Building Standard for India: A Critical Inquiry
Universal Design is a concept of built environment creation, where all people are facilitated to the maximum extent possible without using any type of specialized design. However, accessible design is a design process in which the needs of people with disabilities are specifically considered. Building standards on accessibility contains scoping and technical requirements for accessibility to sites, facilities, building and elements by individual with disability. India is also following its prescriptive types of various building standards for the creation of physical environment for people with disabilities. These building standards are based on western models instead of research based standards to serve Indian needs. These standards lack contextual connect when reflects in its application in the urban and rural environment. This study focuses on critical and comparative study of various international building standards and codes, with existing Indian accessibility standards to understand problems and prospects of concept of Universal Design building standards for India. The result of this study is an analysis of existing state of Indian building standard pertaining to accessibility and future need of performance based Universal Design concept.