Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 39602

Architectural and Environmental Engineering

An Implementation of Incentive Systems within Property Life Cycles Will Reward Investors, Planner and Users
The whole life thinking of buildings (independent if these are commercial properties or residential properties) will raise if incentive systems are provided to investors, planners and users. The Use of Building Information Modelling (BIM)-Systems offers planners the possibility to plan and re-plan buildings for decades after a period of utilization without spending many capacities. The strategy-incentive should be to plan the building in a way that makes rescheduling possible by changing just parameters in the system and not re-planning the whole building. If users receive the chance to patient incentive systems, the building stock will have a long life period. Business models of tenant electricity or self-controlled operating costs are incentive systems for building –users to let fixed running costs decline without producing damages due to wrong purposes. BIM is the controlling body to ensure that users do not abuse the incentive solution and take negative influence on the building stock. The investor benefits from the planner’s and user’s incentives: the fact that the building becomes useful for the whole life without making unnecessary investments provides possibilities to make investments in different assets. Moreover, the investor gains the facility to achieve higher rents by merchandise the property with low operating costs. To execute BIM offers whole property life cycles.
Properties of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Based Geopolymer Concrete
Concrete is one of the most widely used materials across the globe mostly second to water and generating high carbon dioxide emission during its whole manufacturing due to the presence of cement as an ingredient. Therefore it is necessary to find an alternative material to the Portland cement. This study focused on the use of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag as geopolymer binder. Geopolymer concrete can be an alternative material which is produced by the chemical reaction of inorganic molecules. On the other hand, waste generating from power plants and other industries like iron and steel industries can be effectively used which has disposal problems. Therefore in this study geopolymer concrete is manufactured by 100% replacement of cement content by ground granulated blast furnace slag and a combination of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide is used as an alkaline solution. The results have shown that the compressive strengths increased with increasing curing time and type of alkali activators. Naphthalene sulfonate-based superplasticizer performed better than other superplasticizers. All the specimens have been cast at ambient temperature.
Re-Envisioning Modernity: Transformations of Postwar Suburban Landscapes
In an effort to explore the potential transformation of North American postwar suburbs, this M.Arch thesis actively engages in the ongoing critique of modernism from the mid 20th century to the present. Contemporary urban design practice has emerged out of the reaction to orthodox modernism. Typically, new suburban development falls into one of two strategies; an attempt to replicate pre-war fabric that never existed, or a reliance on high-density to create instant urbanism. In both cases, the critical role of architecture has been grossly undervalued. Ironically, it is the denial of suburbia’s inherent modernity that has served to prevent genuine place-making. As history demonstrates, modernism is not antithetical to architecture and place. In the postwar years, a critical discussion emerged amongst architects, which sought to evolve modernism beyond functionalism. This was demonstrated through critical discussions on image, experience, and monumentality. As well as increased interest in civic space, and investigations into mat urbanism and the megastructure. The undercurrent within these explorations was a belief that the scale and complexity of modern development could become an opportunity to create urbanism, rather than squander it. This critical discourse has continued through architectural work in the Netherlands and Denmark since the early 1990s, where an emphasis on visual variety, human scale, and public interaction has been given high priority. This thesis applies principles from this ongoing dialogue, and identifies hidden potential within existing North American suburban networks. As a result, the project re-evaluates the legacy of the master plan from a contemporary perspective.
Effect of Double-Skin Facade Configuration on the Energy Performance of Office Building in Maritime Desert Climate
One of the most important factors affecting the energy performance within a building is a carefully and efficiently designed facade. The primary aim of this research was to identify and present the potentiality of utilising Double-Skin Facade (DSF) construction and critically examine its effect on the energy consumption of an office building located within a maritime desert climate as to the conventional single-skin curtain wall system. A comparative analysis of the effect on the overall energy consumption within an office building was investigated in which a combination of various Double-Skin Facade configurations, systems, and cavity depths, glazing types and orientations were utilised. A computer dynamic modelling was utilised in order to ensure accurate calculations and efficient simulations of the various DSF systems due to the complex nature of the various functions within the Facade cavity. Through the use of the dynamic thermal modelling simulations, the best cavity size glazed type and orientation were determined to lead to a detailed analysis of the efficiency of each respective combination of Double-Skin Facade construction. As such the optimal facade combination for use within an office building located in a maritime desert climate was identified. Results demonstrated that a multi-story Facade, depending on its configuration, save up to 5% on annual cooling loads respect to a Corridor Facade and while vented can save unto 12% when compared to the single skin façade, on annual cooling load in the maritime desert climate. The selected configuration of the DSF from SSF saves an overall annual cooling load of 32%.A comparative analysis of the effect on the overall energy consumption within an office building was investigated in which a combination of various Double-Skin Facade configurations, systems, and cavity depths, glazing types and orientations were utilized. A computer dynamic modelling was utilized in order to ensure accurate calculations and efficient simulations of the various DSF systems due to the complex nature of the various functions within the Facade cavity. Through the use of the dynamic thermal modelling simulations, the best cavity size glazed type and orientation were determined to lead to a detailed analysis of the efficiency of each respective combination of Double-Skin Facade construction. As such the optimal facade combination for use within an office building located in a maritime desert climate was identified. Results demonstrated that a multi-story Facade, depending on its configuration, save up to 5% on annual cooling loads respect to a Corridor Facade and while vented can save unto 12% when compared to the single skin facade, on annual cooling load in the maritime desert climate. The selected configuration of the DSF from SSF saves an overall annual cooling load of 32%.
Determining the Thermal Performance and Comfort Indices of a Naturally Ventilated Room with Reduced Density Reinforced Concrete Wall Construction over Conventional M-25 Grade Concrete
Purpose: Occupied built-up space can be broadly classified as air-conditioned and naturally ventilated. Regardless of the building type, the objective of all occupied built-up space is to provide a thermally acceptable environment for human occupancy. Considering this aspect, air-conditioned spaces allow a greater degree of flexibility to control and modulate the comfort parameters during the operation phase. However, in the case of naturally ventilated space, a number of design features favoring indoor thermal comfort should be mandatorily conceptualized starting from the design phase. One such primary design feature that requires to be prioritized is, selection of building envelope material, as it decides the flow of energy from outside environment to occupied spaces. Research Methodology: In India and many countries across globe, the standardized material used for building envelope is re-enforced concrete (i.e. M-25 grade concrete). The comfort inside the RC built environment for warm & humid climate (i.e. mid-day temp of 30-35˚C, diurnal variation of 5-8˚C & RH of 70-90%) is unsatisfying to say the least. This study is mainly focused on reviewing the impact of mix design of conventional M25 grade concrete on inside thermal comfort. In this mix design, air entrainment in the range of 2000 to 2100 kg/m3 is introduced to reduce the density of M-25 grade concrete. Thermal performance parameters & indoor comfort indices are analyzed for the proposed mix and compared in relation to the conventional M-25 grade. There are diverse methodologies which govern indoor comfort calculation. In this study, three varied approaches specifically a) Indian Adaptive Thermal comfort model, b) Tropical Summer Index (TSI) c) Air temperature less than 33˚C & RH less than 70% to calculate comfort is adopted. The data required for the thermal comfort study is acquired by field measurement approach (i.e. for the new mix design) and simulation approach by using design builder (i.e. for the conventional concrete grade). Findings: The analysis points that the Tropical Summer Index has a higher degree of stringency in determining the occupant comfort band whereas also providing a leverage in thermally tolerable band over & above other methodologies in the context of the study. Another important finding is the new mix design ensures a 10% reduction in indoor air temperature (IAT) over the outdoor dry bulb temperature (ODBT) during the day. This translates to a significant temperature difference of 6 ˚C IAT and ODBT.
Impact of the Simplification of Licensing Procedures for Industrial Complexes on Supply of Industrial Complexes and Regional Policies
An enough amount supply of industrial complexes is an important national policy in South Korea, which is highly dependent on foreign trade. A development process of the industrial complex can distinguish between the planning stage and the construction stage. The planning stage consists of the process of consulting with many stakeholders on the contents of the development of industrial complex, feasibility study, compliance with the Regional policies, and so on. The industrial complex planning stage, including licensing procedure, usually takes about three years in South Korea. The government determined that the appropriate supply of industrial complexes have been delayed, due to the long licensing period and drafted a law to shorten the license period in 2008. The law was expected to shorten the period of licensing, which was about three years, to six months. This paper attempts to show that the shortening of the licensing period does not positively affect the appropriate supply of industrial complexes. To do this, we used Interrupted Time Series Designs. As a result, it was found that the supply of industrial complexes was influenced more by other factors such as actual industrial complex demand of private sector and macro-level economic variables. In addition, the specific provisions of the law conflict with local policy and cause some problems such as damage to nature and agricultural land, traffic congestion.
Scaling-down an Agricultural Waste Biogas Plant Fermenter
Scale-Down rules in process engineering help us to improve and develop Industrial scale parameters into lab scale. Several scale-down rules available in the literature like Impeller Power Number, Agitation device Power Input, Substrate Tip Speed, Reynolds Number and Cavern Development were investigated in order to stipulate the rotational speed to operate an 11 L working volume lab-scale bioreactor within industrial process parameters. Herein, xanthan gum was used as a fluid with a representative viscosity of a hypothetical biogas plant, with H/D = 1 and central agitation, fermentation broth using sewage sludge and sugar beet pulp as substrate. The results showed that the cavern development strategy was the best method for establishing a rotational speed for the bioreactor operation, while the other rules presented values out of reality for this article proposes.
Open Space Use in University Campuses with User Requirements Analysis: The Case of Eskişehir Osmangazi University Meşelik Campus
University may be defined as a teaching institution consisting of faculties, institutes, colleges, and units that have undergraduate and graduate education, scientific research and publications. It has scientific autonomy and public legal personality. Today, universities are not only the institutions in which students and lecturers experience education, training and scientific work. They also offer social, cultural and artistic activities that strengthen the link with the city. This also incorporates all city users into the campus borders. Thus, universities contribute to social and individual development of the country by providing science, art, socio-cultural development, communication and socialization with people of different cultural and social backgrounds. Moreover, universities provide an active social life, where the young population is the majority. This enables the sense of belonging to the users to develop, to increase the interaction between academicians and students, and to increase the learning / producing community by continuing academic sharing environments outside the classrooms. For this reason, besides academic spaces in university campuses, the users also need closed and open spaces where they can socialize, spend time together and relax. Public open spaces are the most important social spaces that individuals meet, express themselves and share. Individuals belonging to different socio-cultural structures and ethnic groups maintain their social experiences with the physical environment they are in, the outdoors, and their actions and sharing in these spaces. While university campuses are being designed for their individual and social development roles, user needs must be determined correctly and design should be realized in this direction. While considering that requirements may change over time, user satisfaction should be questioned at certain periods and new arrangements should be made in existing applications in the direction of current demands. This study aims to determine the user requirements through the case of Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Meşelik Campus / Turkey. Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) questionnaire, cognitive mapping and deep interview methods are used in the research process. All these methods show that the students, academicians and other officials in the Meşelik Campus of Eskişehir Osmangazi University find way finding elements insufficient and are in need of efficient landscape design and social spaces. This study is important in terms of determining the needs of the users as a design input. This will help improving the quality of common space in Eskişehir Osmangazi University and in other similar universities.
Design of Yunus Emre Thought House through Sufism Philosophy: an Experimental Design Methodology
Sufism, the mystical interpretation of Islam, appraises every piece of information that range from spiritual matters to everyday life through own point of view. Sufi thought aims to attain the absolute existence through taming the desires and purifying the soul. Use of Sufi language in poetry started after 11th century in Arabic lands and Iran. The dervishes, who were among the Turks who migrated from Central Asia to Anatolia, laid the foundation of Sufism in these lands. A prominent name in sufism, Yunus Emre, the minstrel, who lived in 13 and 14th centuries is one of the most significant assets in Anatolia. The aspirations of the Sufis to express their experiences gained in their spiritual journeys revealed the language of Sufi poetry, which is based on metaphors. During this period, philosophy and wisdom were being narrated through poetry in Anatolia, and furthermore, Sufi scholars were accepted as the men of wisdom. The most significant characteristic of Yunus Emre is that he wrote his poems in colloquial language. Therefore, Yunus Emre’s poetry is understood both in his time and today by all age groups. Due to his residence at Taptuk Emre’s dervish lodge for a long period of his life and the influence of his efforts to become a dervish, the subject of a great part of his poetry is Sufism. The main elements that empower Yunus’s perpetuity are his philosophy and his view on existence. During 2016-2017 fall semester, the design problem, Experimental Space Design via Yunus Emre's Philosophy of Life, was submitted to students in Habitat project studio in Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Department of Architecture. For the Sufi House project for Yunus Emre, two alternative sites were identified in the center of Eskişehir, which is the city that houses Sarıköy district, the birthplace of Yunus Emre. Initially, the students scrutinized Yunus Emre's philosophy of life for the period he lived, subsequently the analyses of the sites determined for the project were completed. The students were asked to write a scenario that explained their spatial constructs through a relationship between perception and body, together with their conceptual studies. Scenarios written were listened with blindfolds, with the accompaniment of a chosen Sufi music, in order to exclude visual images. The spatial experience was conveyed to the listeners through this experimental approach. In the following processes, the designs were developed with two- and three-dimensional architectural representation, and the project scenarios were updated in the latter process.
Identification and Assessment Bartın University Kutlubeyyazıcılar Campus Mosaics in Terms of Landscape Ecology
This proposal involves the identification and evaluation of natural and cultural ecosystems located on the main campus of Bartın University in Turkey in terms of landscape ecology. According to the ecological classification technique, the main campus ecosystem mosaic is divided into zones. As a result of the research, it was determined that Kutlubeyyazıcılar campus should be based on six different ecosystem mosaics for present and future landscape planning and design. The first landscape consists of 'social spaces'. This space includes courtyards, eating and drinking areas, seating areas and grass areas. The second landscape area is the 'main vehicle and pedestrian movement areas'. This space also includes vehicle access to the campus landscape, roaming and parking lots, and pedestrian walkways. The third is 'high landscaping places with visual landscaping quality'. These areas will be used for interesting structural and herbal landscaping elements. The fourth is 'Building boundaries and close circles'. The fifth is the 'current natural forest and bushy remains' that are important in the campus and should be maintained in the future. The last part is the 'water landscape' which adds ecological value to the landscape. When determining the most suitable areas for campus planning and design, it is necessary to take into account the landscape mosaics mentioned above. This zoning will allow preservation of the campus landscape and accurate assessment of the remaining habitats of human activities.
Semi-Natural Vertical Gardens and Urban Ecology, the Sample of Bartın City
Vertical natural gardens encountered in urban ecosystems are important elements contributing to urban ecology by raising the quality of urban life. This research covers the investigation of the semi-natural plant walls of Bartın city which is located on the western Black Sea coast of Turkey. Landscape analysis and evaluation as a result of land and office work have resulted in vertical garden ecosystems that have been processed in the urban habitat map, mostly in natural stone walls, wooden garden fences, garden entrance doors, historical buildings and building walls. Structural surfaces on old building facades, especially with abandoned or still in use with natural stone walls, have been found to have many natural vertical gardens over time. Parietaria judaica, Cymbalaria longipes and Hedera helix species were dominant, and other types of content were recorded, providing information on the current biotope potential, human activities and effects on them. It has been emphasized that the described vertical gardens together with the species they contain should be protected in terms of Bartin urban ecology and biodiversity. It has been stated that sustainable urban planning, design and management should be considered as a compensation for open and green area losses.
A Comparative Study on the Visibility Relation of Vietnam Traditional and Contemporary Tube House concerning to Green Architecture. The Case Study of Hanoi City, Vietnam.
In Southeast Asia developing countries, as the result of the speedy growth of urbanization, people tend to move from rural areas to large urban areas. Vietnam is not an exception. Vietnam is a low-income country in the world (125/185), from 1986 the pace of urbanization in Vietnam rose sharply, which caused many urban problems. Up to now, there is about 700 urban area in Vietnam. Due to limited land in urban areas, mostly in Vietnam’s current urban, the main architectural forms is tube house. Tube house has become the most popular house' typology in urban areas in Vietnam (According to Hanoi Planning and Architecture Department, in 2013 the average ratio of tube house in inner wards of Hanoi is 73.4%). Depending on area of land, there is a variety of tube house typology with different plan use. However, until now there is no official research on the tube house in Vietnam. This study will analyze the plan of the tube houses in Vietnam from 1986 to 2015. The aim of this research is to analyze whether there are some differences of tube house typology between1986-2005 and 2006-2015 periods and understand better the advantages and disadvantages of the tube house. Besides, calculating the percentage of green space in the tube house plan. At the same time, it would show which tube house typology is better for users in the limited living space. This research includes three phrases. The first phrase’s main task is collecting different contemporary tube house plans in Hanoi in both periods. In the second phrase, comparing all the cases about functions, structure, plan and green space inside the Tube houses. After that, find out the basic types of tube house and make the conclusion about the green space ratio in total for all the cases. In the final phrase, using Depthmap software to analyze the visibility relations by Isovist map in the tube house plan of each house and make the conclusion of which type has the better visual field and better use of natural light.
A Postcolonial View Analysis on the Structural Rationalism Influence in Indonesian Modern Architecture
The study is an analysis by using the postcolonial theoretical lens on the search for a distinctive architectural identity by architect Maclaine Pont in Indonesia in the early twentieth century. Influenced by progressive architectural thinking and enlightened humanism at the time, Pont applied the fundamental principles of Structural Rationalism by using a creative combination of traditional Indonesian architectural typology and innovative structural application. The interpretive design strategy also celebrated creative use of local building materials with sensible tropical climate design response. Moreover, his holistic architectural scheme, including inclusion of local custom of building construction, represents the notion of Gesamkunstwerk. By using such hybrid strategy, Maclaine Pont intended to preserve the essential cultural identity and vernacular architecture of the indigenous. The study will chronologically investigate the evolution of Structural Rationalism architecture philosophy of Viollet-le-Duc to Hendrik Berlage’s influential design thinking in the Dutch modern architecture, and subsequently to the Maclaine Pont’s innovative design in Indonesia. Consequently, the morphology analysis on his exemplary design works of ITB campus (1923) and Pohsarang Church (1936) is to understand the evolutionary influence of Structural Rationalism theory. The postmodern analysis method is to highlight the validity of Pont’s idea in the contemporary Indonesian architecture within the culture of globalism era.
Investigation of the Historical Background of Monumental Mosques in Kocaeli-Turkey by IRT Techniques
Historical buildings may face various impacts throughout their life cycle. There have been environmental, structural, public works actions on old monuments influencing sustainability and maintenance issues. As a result, ancient monuments can have been undergone various changes in the context of restoration and repair. Currently, these buildings face integrated conditions including city planning macro solutions, old intervention methods, modifications in building envelope and artefacts in terms of conservation. Moreover, documentation of phases is an essential for assessing the historical building, yet it can result in highly complicated and interwoven issues. Herein, two monuments constructed in the 16th century are selected as case studies in Kocaeli, Turkey which are located in different micro climatic conditions and/or exposed to different interventions and which are important for the city as cultural property. Pertev Paşa Mosque (also known as Yenicuma Mosque) -constructed by Architect Sinan-; Gebze Çoban Mustafa Paşa Mosque -constructed in 1523 and known as the work of Architect Sinan but various names asserted as the architect of building according to resources. Active water infiltration and damages, recent material interventions, hidden niches, and foundation techniques of the mosque are investigated via Infrared Thermography under the project of 114K284, “Non-Destructive Test Applications, in the Context of Planned Conservation, through Historical Mosques of Kocaeli: Coban Mustafa Pasa Mosque, Fevziye Mosque and Pertev Pasa Mosque” funded by TUBITAK. It is aimed to reveal active deteriorations on building elements generated by unwanted effects of structural and climatic conditions, historical interventions, and modifications by monitoring the variation of surface temperature and humidity by IRT visualization method which is an important non- destructive process for investigation of monuments in the conservation field in the context of planned conservation. It is also concluded that in-situ monitoring process via IRT through different climatic conditions give substantial information on the behaviour of the envelope to the physical environmental conditions by observation of thermal performance, degradations. However, it is obvious that monitoring of historical buildings cannot be pursued by implementing a single non-destructive technique to have complete data of the structure.
An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Health and Safety Induction Practices in the Zambian Construction Industry
Background and significance of study: The study discusses the effectiveness of health and safety induction practices on construction sites against the background of the Zambian construction industry experience. Design Methodology: The research design included literature review of relevant literature. Questionnaires and interviewed were administered to regulatory bodies, health and safety personnel. Observation was also employed on construction sites to assess health and safety practices being used. Findings: Health and safety in the construction industry are not something to be ignored or overlooked. The construction industry needs to take heed of the serious consequences of inadequate health and safety induction practices. The implications of inadequate health and safety induction procedures included among others threats to profitability, corporate social responsibility and increased turnover of the workforce leading to poor productivity. Adequate health and safety practices can improve the health and wellbeing of employees, reduce financial implications on firms and encourage productivity on construction sites. Despite this, accidents are still prevalent on construction sites in Zambia. Conclusion: The overall result of this research denotes that implementation of Health and Safety induction practices is inadequate as indicated by the negligent and non-adherent attitude to health and safety induction aspects on the sites by most stakeholders on construction sites. Therefore, Health and Safety induction practices are ineffective as preventive measures for reduction of accidents on construction sites in Zambia.
A Methodology to Define the Minimum Space of a Health Facility in Developing Countries
A health facility located in developing countries should be a multi-functional space, able to respond to different requirements: flexibility, modularity, aggregability and reversibility. But these features are not enough to define the guidelines of a health facility. Starting from these basic features, we must focus on the definition of the spaces and the activities to be placed inside it, to achieve a functional dimensioning of the building. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to define the dimension of a primary health unit to place in developing countries, or rather the minimum size of a module of which it is composed. The research focuses on three clear different steps applied in Lauro de Freitas municipality, a Brazilian context in the State of Bahia: 1. The first step defines a settlement strategy for health facilities in the marginalized areas. The network of health units will be located according to the amount of population in a specific area, the distance and the time to reach them in a specific place. 2. The objective of the second step is to identify a functional program of the health facility. The activities performed inside the building should be chosen according to population indexes and the prevalence of diseases in the area. 3. Finally, the last step defines the dimension of the health prototype according to the functional program. The minimum area of the building will consist of a series of basic module aggregation. In conclusion, the paper explains how a modular structure facilitates and improves the design of a primary health care facility. Space can be a multiple of a module or a set of basic modules. The composition of different modules allows obtaining a balanced project of good architectural quality.
Livable Public Urban Spaces: Criteria for Assessment and Design
Human needs range from subsistence and protection to affection, understanding and participation and finally to leisure, creation, identity and freedom. An essential part of these needs is satisfied in public urban spaces where we watch, communicate, play or just enjoy life. As part of a university course, master students of architecture and urban planning evaluated public urban spaces, which they perceived as positive as well as negative. The goal of this investigation was to identify the specific qualities which create a successful urban space where people love to stay. What qualities do the positive spaces have and what is missing in the negative ones? The students became also aware of the importance of urban spaces and their impact on communities. The results of the analysis of some hundred (mainly European) places are summed up and generalized in a list of criteria for successful urban spaces. This list can be used for assessment and improvement of existing spaces as well as for the design of new ones. It is presented in this paper and explained with the help of some examples and pictures. The list differentiates between primary criteria, the ones that have to be fulfilled as a precondition, and supplementary criteria, the ones that increase the attractivity of the space. Such a list should be much more focused on social criteria and human needs – what do we want to do and to experience in open spaces? The necessary design to satisfy these wishes will then come as a natural consequence. Furthermore, the list is completed with contemporary criteria like enactment of illumination, events, social media etc.
Understanding the Cultural Landscape of Kuttanad: Life within the Constraints of Nature
Landscape is a setting that informs the way of life of a set of people, and the repository of intangible values and human meanings that nurture our very existence. Along with the linkage that it forms with our lives, it can be argued that landscape and memory cannot be separated, as landscape is the nucleus of our memories. In this context, this paper studies landscape evolution of a region with unique geographic setting, where the dependency of the inhabitants on its resources, led to the formation of certain peculiar beliefs and taboos that formed the basis of a set of unwritten rules and guidelines which they still follow as a part of their lifestyle. One such example is Kuttanad, a low lying region in Kerala which is a complex mosaic of fragmented agricultural landscape incorporating coastal backwaters, rivers, marshes, paddy fields and water channels. The more the physical involvement with the resources, the more was the inhabitants attachment towards it. This attachment of the inhabitants to the place is very strong because the creation of this land was the result of the toil of the low caste labourers who strived day and night to create Kuttanad, which was reclaimed from water with the help of the finance supplied by their landlords. However, the greatest challenge faced by them is posed by the forces of water in the form of floods. As this land is fed by five rivers, even the slight variation in rainfall in its watershed area can cause a large imbalance in the water level causing the reclaimed land to be inundated. The effects of climate change including increase in rainfall, rise in sea level and change of seasons can act as a catalyst to this damage. Hasty urbanization has led to the conversion of paddy fields to housing plots and coconut/plantain fields giving no regard to the traditional systems which had once respected nature and combated floods and draughts through the various cultural practices and taboos practiced by the people. Thus it is essential to look back at the landscape evolution of Kuttanad and to recognise methods used traditionally in the region to establish a cultural landscape, and to understand how climate change and urbanisation shall pose a challenge to the existing landscape and lifestyle. This research also explores the possibilities of alternative and sustainable approaches for resilient urban development learned from Kuttanad as a case study.
The Effects of Qigong Exercise Intervention on the Cognitive Function in Aging Adults
Qigong is an ancient Chinese practice in pursuit of a healthier body and a more peaceful mindset. It emphasizes on the restoration of vital energy (Qi) in body, mind, and spirit. The practice is the combination of gentle movements and mild breathing which help the doers reach the condition of tranquility. On account of the features of Qigong, first, we use the cross-sectional methodology to compare the differences among the varied levels of Qigong practitioners on cognitive function with event-related potential (ERP) and electroencephalography (EEG). Second, we use the longitudinal methodology to explore the effects on the Qigong trainees for pre and post test on ERP and EEG. Twenty young adults (as a baseline), twenty Qigong experts (practice over 7 years), and twenty older adults (as the experimental group, EG), ranging from 50 to 75 years old, were recruited in the study. The EG participants took Qigong classes 2 times a week and 2 hours per time for 24 weeks for the purpose of examining the effect of Qigong intervention on cognitive function. The results indicate that there is no difference between Qigong experts and EG on the components of ERP and EEG, in addition, the component of ERP in EG shows faster reaction time and higher value of orient network at post-test than in pre-test on Attentional Network Test (ANT) task. Future research should select the participants carefully and extend the training time up to at least 1 year in order to assure the effects of Qigong practice. Our ERP findings support the model of the scaffolding theory of aging and cognition. Simultaneously, it suggests that regular participation in Qigong exercise can have equivalent beneficial effects on the cognitive function.
Disidentification of Historical City Centers: A Comparative Study of Old and New Settlements of Mardin, Turkey
Mardin is one of the unique cities in Turkey with its rich cultural and historical heritage. Mardin’s traditional houses have been affected both natural data as climate and topography and cultural data such as lifestyle and belief. But in the new settlements, housing is formed with the modern approach and unsuitable forms that clash with the Mardin culture and environment. The city is ignoring traditional texture while expanding. So, its traditional settlements are losing their identity and getting vanished undergone a rapid change and transformation. The main aim of this paper is to determine the physical and social data needed to define the characteristics of Mardin’s old and new settlements. In this context, the old and new settlements of Mardin have been researched for various aspects in basement of social and cultural data affected the formation of the houses. During this research, all information about the subject was tried to get by observations, interviews, public survey, literature scanning and site is examined by the help of maps, photographs and by using survey methodology. Therefore, this paper focuses on how the changes physical form of the cities affect the city typology and city identity, in the case of Mardin.
Intelligent Rescheduling Trains for Air Pollution Management
Optimization of timetable is the need of the day for rescheduling and routing of trains in real time. Trains are scheduled in parallel with the road transport vehicles to the same destination. As the number of trains is restricted due to single track, customers usually opt for Road transport for frequent use. The air pollution increases as the density of vehicles on road transport is increased. Rescheduling of trains bidirectionally on a single track with dynamic dwell time and varying stops to station introduces more trains to run frequently attracts customers to use train transport, hence reduction in pollution.
Ancient Cities of Deltaic Bengal: Origin and Nature on the Riverine Bed of Ganges Valley
A town or a city contributes a lot to human mankind. City evolves memory, ambition, frustration and achievement. The city is something that offers life, as the character of the city is. A city is having confined image to the human being. Time place and matter generate this vive, city celebrates with its inhabitant, belongs and to care for each other. Apart from all these; although city and settlements are the contentious and changing phenomenon; the origin of the city in the very delta land started with unique and strategic sequences. Religious belief, topography, availability of resource and connection with commercial hub make the potential of the settlement. Ancient cities of Bengal are not the exception from these phenomenologies. From time immemorial; Bengal is enriched with numerous cities and notorious settlements. These cities and settlements were connected with other inland ports and Bengal became an important trade route, trailed by the Riverine connections. The delta land formation is valued for its geographic situation, consequences of this position; a new story or a new conception could be found in origin of an ancient city. However, the objective of this research is to understand the origin and spirit of the ancient city of Bengal, the research would also try to unfold the authentic and rational meaning of soul of the city, this research addresses the interest to elaborate the soul of the ancient sites of Riverine Delta. As rivers used to have the common character in this very landform; river supported community generated as well. River gives people wealth, sometimes fall us in sorrow. The river provides us commerce and trading. River gives us faith and religion. All these potentials have evolved from the Riverine excel. So the research would approach thoroughly to justify the riverine value as the soul for the ancient cities of Bengal. Cartographic information and illustration would be the preferred language for this research. Preferably, the historic mapping would be the unique folio of this study.
Re-Inhabiting the Roof: Han Slawick Covered Roof Terrace, Amsterdam
If we observe many modern cities from above, we are typically confronted with a sea of asphalt-clad flat rooftops. In contrast to the modernist expectation of a populated flat roof, flat rooftops in modern multi-story buildings are rarely used. On the contrary, they typify a desolate and abandoned landscape encouraging mechanical system allocation. Flat roof technology continues to be seen as a state-of-fact in most multi-storey building designs and its greening its prevalent environmental justification. This paper aims to seek a change in the approach to flat roofing. It makes a case for the opportunity at hand for architectonically resolute, sheltered, livable spaces that make a better use of the environment at rooftop level. The researcher is looking for the triggers that allow for that change to happen in the design process of case study buildings. The paper begins by exploring Han Slawick covered roof terrace in Amsterdam as a simple and essential example of transforming the flat roof in a usable, inhabitable space. It investigates the design challenges and the logistic, financial and legislative hurdles faced by the architect, and the outcomes in terms of building performance and occupant use and satisfaction. The researcher uses a grounded research methodology with direct interview process to the architect in charge of the building and the building user. Energy simulation tools and calculation of running costs are also used as further means of validating change.
A Biomimetic Structural Form: A Theme of Sustainable Tall Architecture
The structural form of tall architecture has witnessed during the last decades a remarkable development and growth in its theme and conformation. It has had a large influence on the design of high-rise buildings and has changed their conventional context. However, this transformation does not give serious consideration to the role of the structural form in the equation of sustainability as one of the major prerequisites in the design of tall architecture. This perception raises a significant question about the efficacy of sustainability practices in tall architecture. In this light, this paper argues for the influence of the structural form in the equation of sustainability in high-rise buildings and offers an innovative method to fulfill sustainability. The paper builds on two postulates: The first is based on embracing manifestations of the structural forms in organisms, which play a substantial role in their sustainability within their environments, for inspiring paradigms in the design of sustainable tall architecture; and the second considers tall architecture as exceptional artefacts whose structural form is the catalyst for their evolution. From this perspective, the research involves the premise that a biomimetic structural form is an 'efficient paradigm' for tall buildings’ sustainability. It endeavors to answer the essential question: How can a biomimetic structural form be revealed as an efficient paradigm in developing sustainability in tall buildings, and what is the procedure to create it? These questions are preceded by asking what a biomimetic structural form is, and why biomimetic structural forms have become latterly a potential source to model sustainable tall buildings. The research considers the evolution of tall architecture as a condition for its sustainability and links this insight with the way of interpreting a structure itself. Thus, it embraces the concept of the structural form as an alternative to a conventional structural system that has become within current developments of technology a tangible obstacle against evolving tall architecture. On the contrary, a biomimetic structural form, which is derived from the combination of biomimetics and structural form, emerges as an alternative paradigm. It is a thematic reconfiguration of the unique natural structural models through abstracting and re-interpreting the geometry of forms and behaviors of organisms as paradigms that lead to accomplishing sustainable performance at the level of individual tall buildings. Methodologically, the following steps were conducted: Establishing the theoretical framework of the biomimetic structural form as a sustainable paradigm, finding the mechanism to transfer knowledge from nature to architecture, and designing a biomimetic structural from. As an integral part of this paper, the sustainable super tall building 3Ts is discussed as a case study of applying biomimetic structural form. This project was submitted to the Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Calgary, as a proposal for the development of Square One as a hyperdensity area in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada.
Impact of Flexibility on Residential Buildings in Egypt
There is a critical thin line between freedom of choice and randomness. The distance between imagination and perception and between perception and execution varies depending on numerous factors. While in developed areas residents have the opportunity and abilities to build flexible homes, residents in developing areas create their own dwellings in informal settlements, even though none of them is comfortable at home in the long run. This paper explores three factors: what residents really need, what they do with limited flexibility, and what they do when there are no limits, as in the case of informal settlements. This paper studies alterations to residential buildings and how they connect to the changes in people’s lifecycle in all past cases. This study also examines all approaches to flexibility, focusing on a social approach. The results of this study are based on three practical studies: an interview with residents in an informal settlement (Eshash Mahfouz in Minya in Egypt), a civil study of buildings in a middle-class district, and a survey of residents from many countries, including Egypt, and interviews with a number of them to determine residents’ needs and the extent of renovations they made or would like to make to their homes.
A Sustainable Sand-Lime Brick Made of Glass Powder
Far-reaching technological progress, manufacturing, and rapidly advancing globalization dictate new conditions for the development and changes in the construction industry. Those changes and new conditions also apply to the production of building materials. A very important aspect of building materials is the valorization of by-products and use of secondary materials in their production. In fact, the construction sector uses billion tones of materials each year. Therefore, the use of by-products can be an interesting alternative to prevent excessive environmental destruction (eg. aggregates from demolition or reconstruction of buildings or plastic components such as polystyrene HIPS, polymers, etc.). Sustainability became a driving force behind the development of new building materials and products, including silicate bricks. The bulk density of the brick is 1,73kg/dm3, the presence of xonotlite in the microstructure and significant weight loss during DTA and TG tests (around 0,6% after 70 minutes) have been noticed. Silicate elements were assessed on the basis of their compressive property. Orthogonal compositional plan type 3k (with k=2), i.e.full two-factor experiment was applied in order to carry out the experiments both, in the compression strength test and bulk density test. Some modifications (e.g.products with barite and basalt aggregate) have improved the compr.strength around 41.3 MPa and water absorption due to capillary raising has been limited to 12%. The next modification was adding glass fiber to sand-lime mass, then glass sand. The results show that the compressive strength was higher than in the case of traditional bricks, while modified bricks were lighter. Autoclaved sand-lime products are a special material, because they are completely natural, neutral and safe for the environment. Such bricks are environmentally friendly and offer many advantages with respect to the traditional ‘red’ ceramic bricks. The main point of the paper is to present the properties of new types of sand-lime bricks made of glass components. These bricks will be compared to the traditional sand-lime bricks. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the two types of bricks are presented. The microstructure was studied by SEM, EDS and XRD. Compressive strength, bulk density, water absorption and impregnability were also tested. Laboratory tests were performed on samples with dimensions of 50x50x50 mm. The results show a significant increase in the compressive strength of the new brick. Water absorption was reduced to 14,5% (from the standard 16%) relatively to the weight of the product and increased the bulk density to the value 1.75 kg/dm3 to the better acoustic performance of the new products of similar weight while compared with traditional bricks. The results of the modifications also indicate to changes in the microstructure of the new bricks. Traditional sand-lime products consist of hydrated calcium silicates such as phase C-S-H and tobermorite, while the new product also includes gyrolite (due to the sodium modification - Na).
A Settlement Strategy for Health Facilities in Emerging Countries: A Case Study in Brazil
A settlement strategy is to anticipate and respond the needs of existing and future communities through the provision of primary health care facilities in marginalized areas. Access to a network of health services is crucial for the improvement of many health outcomes in developing countries, where health coverage is a severe lack. The study explores that an orderly health system strategy of rural contexts brings advantages to existing settlement: improving transport, communication, water and social facilities. The objective of this paper is to define a possible methodology to implement primary health care facilities in disadvantaged areas of emerging countries. The case study analysed by this research is a municipality in Brazilian state of Bahia, part of the Metropolitan Region of Salvador: Lauro de Freitas, with an area of 57,662 km² and 194.641 inhabitants. The health localization system in Lauro de Freitas is an integrated process that involves not only geographical aspects, but a set of factors: population density, epidemiological data, allocation of services, road networks, etc. Data was collected also using semi-structured interviews and questionnaires to local population. Synthesized data suggest that, moving away from the coast where there is the greatest concentration of population and services, a network of primary health care facilities is able to improve the living conditions of small dispersed communities. Based on the health service needs of populations, we have developed a strategic framework that is particularly useful in rural and remote contexts in emerging countries.
Strategic Thinking to Change Behavior and Improve Sanitation in Jodipan and Kesatrian, Malang, East Java, Indonesia
Greater access to sanitation in developing countries is urgent. However even though sanitation is crucial, overall budget for sanitation is limited. With this budget limitation, it is important to (1) allocate resources strategically to maximize impact and (2) take into account communal agency to potentially be a source for sanitation improvements. The Jodipan and Kesatrian Project in Malang, Indonesia is an interesting alternative for solving the sanitation problem in which resources were allocated strategically and communal agency was also observed. Although the project's initial goal was to create a new tourist destination by painting parts of the slum area with bright colors, it quickly had an effect also on the change of behavior of the residents and the government towards sanitation. It also quickly grew from only including one the Kesatrian Village to expanding organically to the Jodipan Village in the course of less than a year. To investigate the success of this project, in this paper a descriptive model will be used and data will be drawn from (1) intensive interviews with the initiators of the project, residents affected by the project and government officials and (2) available news to show the extent of public interest in the project. In this research it is argued that three points mark the success of the project: (1) the strategic initial impact due to choice of location, (2) the influx of tourists that triggered behavioral change among residents and, (3) the direct economic impact which ensured its sustainability and growth by gaining government officials support and attention for more public spending in the area for sanitation purposes.
A Techno-Economic Simulation Model to Reveal the Relevance of Construction Process Impact Factors for External Thermal Insulation Composite System (ETICS)
The reduction of energy consumption of the built environment has been one of the topics tackled by European Commission during the last decade. Increased energy efficiency requirements have increased the renovation rate of apartment buildings covered with External Thermal Insulation Composite System (ETICS). Due to fast and optimized application process, a large extent of quality assurance is depending on the specific activities of artisans and are often not controlled. The on-site degradation factors (DF) have the technical influence to the façade and cause future costs to the owner. Besides the thermal conductivity, the building envelope needs to ensure the mechanical resistance and stability, fire-, noise-, corrosion and weather protection, and long-term durability. As the shortcomings of the construction phase become problematic after some years, the common value of the renovation is reduced. Previous work on the subject has identified and rated the relevance of DF to the technical requirements and developed a method to reveal the economic value of repair works. The future costs can be traded off to increased the quality assurance during the construction process. The proposed framework is describing the joint simulation of the technical importance and economic value of the on-site DFs of ETICS. The model is providing new knowledge to improve the resource allocation during the construction process by enabling to identify and diminish the most relevant degradation factors and increase economic value to the owner.
Environmental Liability of Architects: Architects Destroying the City in Designed and Creative Way, Dhaka City
This paper aims to show how Dhaka city is getting destroyed and the creator and guide of the city – the architects destroying the city in more designed and creative way. The liability of architects should be first and foremost to make the would, country, city a better living environment. As without it where the architects will do their design? To make a better living environment architects should conserve the tress, river and other related ingredient related to the environment. This paper attempts to show how cutting down trees and filling rivers causing more problem than having a great architecture in those places. For increasing people in a city like Dhaka, we need more shelter. But for providing those architects building more living spaces. But as a liability of an architect, one should give something back to the environment too. With time the city’s greenery and water body are getting vanished like magic. And for this, the architects should be blamed for giving us a disastrous future. The analysis is based on literature survey and survey by questionnaire, interviews of users.