Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 50781

Architectural and Environmental Engineering

901
88256
A Comparative Analysis of the Indoor Thermal Environment of a Room with and without Transitional Space or Threshold in Traditional Row Houses Adjacent to a Narrow Alley 'Rupchan Lane' in Old Dhaka, Bangladesh
Abstract:
Attaining appropriate thermal comfort conditions in a place where the climate is hot and humid can be perplexing. Especially, when it resides at a congested place like old Dhaka Bangladesh, the provision of giving cross ventilation and building with proper orientation is quite difficult. This paper aims to investigate the indoor thermal environment of a room with and without transitional space or threshold in traditional row houses adjacent to a narrow alley of old Dhaka through field measurements. Transitional spaces are the part of buildings which are used for semi-outdoor household activities, social gathering and it is also proved to provide an indoor thermal effect. The field study was conducted by collecting thermal data (temperature, humidity and airflow) respectively, among the outdoor narrow alley, transitional space and adjacent indoor. This east-west elongated alley has an average width of 2.13 meter (varies from 1.5 to 2.6 meter) holding row houses on both sides. Among different aspects of thermal environment, the study of this paper is based on the analysis of temperature of corresponding cases. Other aspects and their variables were considered as constant (especially material) for accuracy and avoidance of confusion. This study focuses on the outcome that can ultimately contribute to the configuration of row houses with transitional spaces and in its relation to the adjacent outdoor space while achieving thermal comfort.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
900
87687
Level of Sustainability, Environmental Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment of Industrial Technology Research Projects in Carlos Hilado Memorial State College, Alijis Campus, Bacolod City, Negros Occidental, Philippines
Abstract:
In pursuing higher educational institution’s transition to sustainable future, this research initiative was conducted. The study aimed to determine the level of sustainability, environmental impact and life cycle phase assessment of the industrial technology research projects at the Institute of Information Technology, Carlos Hilado Memorial State College (CHMSC), Alijis Campus, Bacolod City, Negros Occidental, Philippines. The research method was descriptive utilizing a researcher made questionnaire to assess the ten (10) industrial technology completed research projects. Mean was used to treat the data and instrument for Good and Scates’ validity through revisions and consultations from the environmental experts, technology specialists; and Cronbach Alpha was used to measure reliability. Results indicated that the level of sustainability and life cycle phase assessment was very high while the environmental impact of the industrial research projects was rated low. Moreover, the current research projects and environmental education courses in the college were relevant to support sustainable industrial technology research projects in the future. Hence, this research initiative will contribute to the transformation of CHMSC as a greening higher educational institution and as a center for sustainable development in the region.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
899
87111
A Comparative Analysis about the Effects of a Courtyard in Indoor Thermal Environment of a Room with and without Transitional Space Adjacent to Courtyard of a House in Old Dhaka, Bangladesh
Abstract:
Attaining appropriate comfort conditions in a place where the climate is hot and humid can be perplexing. Especially, when it is resided at a congested place like old Dhaka Bangladesh, the provision of giving cross ventilation and building with proper orientation is quite difficult. Courtyards are the part of buildings which are used as space for outdoor household activities, social gathering and it is also proved to have indoor thermal comfort as an effect of courtyard. This paper aims to investigate the effect of courtyard in indoor thermal environment of a room adjacent to the courtyard and a room next to transitional space after a courtyard through field measurements of a case study house. The field measurement was conducted in a two-storey house. Among different aspects of thermal environment, the study of this paper is based on the analysis of temperature in both situations. Ventilation or air movement was considered to have no impact because of the rooms’ layout and location. Other aspects and their variables were considered as constant (especially material) for accuracy and avoidance of confusion. This study focuses on the outcome that can ultimately contribute to the configuration of courtyards and in its relation to indoor space while achieving thermal comfort.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
898
85807
Survey of Related Field for Artificial Intelligence Window Development
Abstract:
To develop an artificial intelligence based automatic ventilation system, recent research trends were analyzed and analyzed. This research method is as follows. In the field of architecture and window technology, the use of artificial intelligence, the existing study of machine learning model and the theoretical review of the literature were carried out. This paper collected journals such as Journal of Energy and Buildings, Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, and articles published on Web-sites. The following keywords were searched for articles from 2000 to 2016. We searched for the above keywords mainly in the title, keyword, and abstract. As a result, the global artificial intelligence market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 14.0% from USD127bn in 2015 to USD165bn in 2017. Start-up investments in artificial intelligence increased from the US $ 45 million in 2010 to the US $ 310 million in 2015, and the number of investments increased from 6 to 54. Although AI is making efforts to advance to advanced countries, the level of technology is still in its infant stage. Especially in the field of architecture, artificial intelligence (AI) is very rare. Based on the data of this study, it is expected that the application of artificial intelligence and the application of architectural field will be revitalized through the activation of artificial intelligence in the field of architecture and window.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
897
85139
The Willingness to Pay of People in Taiwan for Flood Protection Standard of Regions
Abstract:
Due to the global climate change, it has increased the extreme rainfall that led to serious floods around the world. In recent years, urbanization and population growth also tend to increase the number of impervious surfaces, resulting in significant loss of life and property during floods especially for the urban areas of Taiwan. In the past, the primary governmental response to floods was structural flood control and the only flood protection standards in use were the design standards. However, these design standards of flood control facilities are generally calculated based on current hydrological conditions. In the face of future extreme events, there is a high possibility to surpass existing design standards and cause damages directly and indirectly to the public. To cope with the frequent occurrence of floods in recent years, it has been pointed out that there is a need for a different standard called FPSR (Flood Protection Standard of Regions) in Taiwan. FPSR is mainly used for disaster reduction and used to ensure that hydraulic facilities draining regional flood immediately under specific return period. FPSR could convey a level of flood risk which is useful for land use planning and reflect the disaster situations that a region can bear. However, little has been reported on FPSR and its impacts to the public in Taiwan. Hence, this study proposes a quantity procedure to evaluate the FPSR. This study aimed to examine FPSR of the region and public perceptions of and knowledge about FPSR, as well as the public’s WTP (willingness to pay) for FPSR. The research is conducted via literature review and questionnaire method. Firstly, this study will review the domestic and international research on the FPSR, and provide the theoretical framework of FPSR. Secondly, CVM (Contingent Value Method) has been employed to conduct this survey and using double-bounded dichotomous choice, close-ended format elicits households WTP for raising the protection level to understand the social costs. The samplings of this study are citizens living in Taichung city, Taiwan and 700 samplings were chosen in this study. In the end, this research will continue working on surveys, finding out which factors determining WTP, and provide some recommendations for adaption policies for floods in the future.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
896
85015
An Investigation of the History, Identity, and Memory of ‘Kharadar'
Abstract:
The city of Karachi is an amalgamation of various cultures and thus, has a very rich heritage. This heritage, if not secured, would lead to timely decay and will eventually result in its demise. The role of people in the recognition and protection is a vital one. The sense of topophilia is related to human beings as they are the ones appreciating or attaching themselves to the places, cultures, and civilizations. The instances from the history are evidence of the fact that people preserve, restore and conserve just for the sake of strong attachment to something. To carry on the practice, this documentation is aimed to provide some authentic data on the history of one of the old parts of Karachi i.e. Kharadar area that lies in close proximity to Mithadar. Kharadar and Mithadar are known as history as the doors that led to the settlement of Karachi. ‘Khara’ means brackish and ‘dar’ means door, referring to the gateway that stood on the salty waters whereas, ‘Mitha’ means sweet and ‘dar’ means door, referring to the door standing on the sweet river water that once existed in Karachi. The area reflects the true identity and cultural characteristics of the people residing in Karachi before and after separation. The method used in documentation of this area of Karachi was through extensive trips in the area, selecting some routes that start from ‘bakara’ hotel which is a famous hotel in Kharadar leading to ‘lalan’ building which is a 1920s structure and is a typical pole house typology that is now rarely found in Karachi. Interviews, observation-based data collection, and books available on the topic were used as a method o research. The area came under a study in which the evolution through time and the history was taken into account and the present condition of the area as studied. Demography of the area, architecture, and the cultural dynamics were studied extensively, community involvement, means of transport, neighborhoods and their dynamics were studied, landmarks and monuments were identified and a land use map of the area was developed to understand the situation of the area. The aim of this study was to document the area in its present state, have a database for the area, identifying the problems faces by the people of the area and to try to direct to some solutions to the problems identified.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
895
84844
Ensuring Safety in Fire Evacuation by Facilitating Way-Finding in Complex Buildings
Abstract:
The issue of way-finding earmarks a wide range of literature in architecture and despite the 50 year background of way-finding studies, it still lacks a comprehensive theory for indoor settings. Way-finding has a notable role in emergency evacuation as well. People in the panic situation of a fire emergency need to find the safe egress route correctly and in as minimum time as possible. In this regard the parameters of an appropriate way-finding are mentioned in the evacuation related researches albeit scattered. This study reviews the fire safety related literature to extract a way-finding related framework for architectural purposes of the design of a safe evacuation route. In this regard a research trend review in addition with applied methodological approaches review is conducted. Then by analyzing eight original researches related to way-finding parameters in fire evacuation, main parameters that affect way-finding in emergency situation of a fire incident are extracted and a framework was developed based on them. Results show that the issues related to exit route and emergency evacuation can be chased in task oriented studies of way-finding. This research trend aims to access a high-level framework and in the best condition a theory that has an explanatory capability to define differences in way-finding in indoor/outdoor settings, complex/simple buildings and different building types or transitional spaces. The methodological advances demonstrate the evacuation way-finding researches in line with three approaches that the latter one is the most up-to-date and precise method to research this subject: real actors and hypothetical stimuli as in evacuation experiments, hypothetical actors and stimuli as in agent-based simulations and real actors and semi-real stimuli as in virtual reality environment by adding multi-sensory simulation. Findings on data-mining of 8 sample of original researches in way-finding in evacuation indicate that emergency way-finding design of a building should consider two level of space cognition problems in the time of emergency and performance consequences of them in the built environment. So four major classes of problems in way-finding which are visual information deficiency, confusing layout configuration, improper navigating signage and demographic issues had been defined and discussed as the main parameters that should be provided with solutions in design and interior of a building. In the design phase of complex buildings, which face more reported problem in way-finding, it is important to consider the interior components regarding to the building type of occupancy and behavior of its occupants and determine components that tend to become landmarks and set the architectural features of egress route in line with the directions that they navigate people. Research on topological cognition of environmental and its effect on way-finding task in emergency evacuation is proposed for future.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
894
84485
Case of an Engineering Design Class in Architectural Engineering
Abstract:
Most engineering colleges in South Korea have engineering design classes in order to develop and enhance a student's creativity and problem-solving ability. Many cases about engineering design class are shown in journals and magazines, but a case lasting many years is few. The engineering design class in the Department of Architectural Engineering, Jeju National University was open in 2009 and continues to this year. 3-5 teams in every year set up their problems found their solutions and produced good results. Three of the results obtained patents. The class also provides students with opportunities to improve communication skill because they have many discussions in solving their problems.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
893
83965
Strategies for Patient Families Integration in Caregiving: A Consensus Opinion
Abstract:
There is no reservation on the outstanding contribution of patient families to restoration of hospitalised patients, hence their consideration as an essential component of hospital ward regimen. The psychological and emotional support a patient requires has been found to be solely provided by the patients. However, consideration of their presence as one of the major functional requirements of an inpatient setting design have always been a source of disquiet, especially in developing countries where policies, norms and protocols of healthcare administration have no consideration for the patients’ family. This have been a major challenge to the hospital ward facilities, a concern for the hospital administration and patient management. The study therefore is aimed at obtaining a consensus opinion on the best approach for family integration in the design of an inpatient setting. A one day visioning charrette involving Architects, Nurses, Medical Doctors, Healthcare assistants and representatives from the Patient families was conducted with the aim of arriving at a consensus opinion on practical design approach for sustainable family integration. Patient’s family are found to be decisive character of hospital ward regimen that cannot be undermined. However, several challenges that impede family integration were identified and subsequently a recommendation for an ideal approach. This will serve as a guide to both architects and hospital management in implementing much desired Patient and Family Centred Care
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
892
83960
Installing Photovoltaic Panels to Generate Optimal Energy in SPAV Hostel, Vijayawada
Authors:
Abstract:
In this research paper, a procedure for installing and assessment of a solar PV plant to generate optimal solar energy SPAV hostel at Vijayawada city was analyzed. The hostel was experiencing power disruption and had a need for an unceasing energy source. The solar panel is one of the best solutions to obtain uninterrupted clean renewable energy for an institutional building as it neither makes din nor pollutes the atmosphere. The electricity usage per month was initially measured to discriminate the energy change. The solar array was installed with its financial and environmental assessment considering recent market prices. All the aspects related to a solar PV plant were considered for the feasibility and efficiency of PV plant near this site i.e., the orientation of the site, the size and shape of the terrace, the sun path were considered while installing panels. Various precautions were taken to intercept the factors which cause interference in energy generation, with respect to temperature, overshadowing, the wiring of panels, pollution etc. The solar panels were frequently installed, monitored and maintained properly to procure optimal energy output. Result obtained with the assessment of the proposed plant and deflation in the electric bill will show the maximal energy that can be generated in a month on that particular site.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
891
83721
Assessment of Cafe Design Criteria in a Consumerist Society: An Approach on Place Attachment
Abstract:
There is little doubt that concepts such as space and place have become more common considering that human beings have grown more apart and more than having contact with each other, they are in contact with objects, spaces, and places. Cafés, as a third place which is neither home nor workplace, have attracted these authors’ interests, who are industrial and interior designers. There has been much research on providing suitable cafés, customer behavior, and criteria for spatial sense. However, little research has been carried out on consumerism, desire for variety, and their relationship with changing places, and specifically cafes in term of interior design. In fact, customer’s sense of place has mostly been overlooked. In this case study, authors conducted to challenge the desire for variety and consumerism as well as investigating the addictive factors in cafés. From the designers’ point of view and by collecting data through observing and interviewing café managers, this study investigates and analyzes the customers in two cafes located in a commercial building in northern Tehran (a part of city with above average economic conditions). Since these two cafés are at the same level in terms of interior and spatial design, the question is raised as to why customers patronize the newly built café despite their loyalty to the older café. This study aims to investigate and find the criteria based on the sense of space (café) in a consumerist society, a world where consumption is a myth. Going to cafés in a larger scale than a product can show a selection and finally who you are, where you go, which brand of coffee you prefer, and what time of the day you would like to have your coffee. The results show that since people spend time in cafés more than any other third place, the interaction they have with their environment is more than anything else, and they are consumers of time and place more than coffee or any other product. Also, if there is a sense of consumerism and variety, it is mostly for the place rather than coffee and other products. To satisfy this sense, individuals go to a new place (the new café). It can be easily observed that this sense overshadows the sense of efficiency, design, facilities and all important factor for a café.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
890
83642
Compromising Quality of Life in Low Income Settlement's: The Case of Ashrayan Prakalpa, Khulna
Abstract:
This study aims to demonstrate how top-down shelter policy and its resultant dwelling environment leads to ‘everyday compromise’ by the grassroots according to subjective (satisfaction) and objective (physical design elements and physical environmental elements) indicators, which are measured across three levels of the settlement; macro (Community), meso (Neighborhood or shelter/built environment) and micro (family). Ashrayan Prakalpa is a resettlement /housing project of Government of Bangladesh for providing shelters and human resources development activities like education, microcredit, and training programme to landless, homeless and rootless people. Despite the integrated nature of the shelter policies (comprises poverty alleviation, employment opportunity, secured tenure, and livelihood training), the ‘quality of life’ issue at the different levels of settlements becomes questionable. As dwellers of shelter units (although formally termed as ‘barracks’ rather shelter or housing) remain on the receiving end of government’s resettlement policies, they often involve with spatial-physical and socio-economic negotiation and assume curious forms of spatial practice, which often upholds contradiction with policy planning. Thus, policy based shelter force dwellers to persistently compromise with their provided built environments both in overtly and covertly. Compromising with prescribed designed space and facilities across living places articulated their negotiation with the quality of allocated space, built form and infrastructures, which in turn exert as less quality of life. The top-down shelter project, Dakshin Chandani Mahal Ashrayan Prakalpa at Dighalia Upazila, the study area located at the Eastern fringe area of Khulna, Bangladesh, is still in progress to resettle internally displaced and homeless people. In terms of methodology, this research is primarily exploratory and adopts a case study method, and an analytical framework is developed through the deductive approach for evaluating the quality of life. Secondary data have been obtained from housing policy analysis and relevant literature review, while key informant interview, focus group discussion, necessary drawings and photographs and participant observation across dwelling, neighborhood, and community level have also been administered as primary data collection methodology. Findings have revealed that various shortages, inadequacies, and negligence of policymakers force to compromise with allocated designed space, physical infrastructure and economic opportunities across dwelling, neighborhood and mostly community level. Thus, the outcome of this study can be beneficial for a global-level understating of the compromising the ‘quality of life’ under top-down shelter policy. Locally, for instance, in the context of Bangladesh, it can help policymakers and concerned authorities to formulate the shelter policies and take initiatives to improve the well-being of marginalized.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
889
82738
Formex Algebra Adaptation into Parametric Design Tools: Dome Structures
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to present the adaptation of the dome construction tool for formex algebra to the parametric design software Grasshopper. Formex algebra is a mathematical system, primarily used for planning structural systems such like truss-grid domes and vaults, together with the programming language Formian. The goal of the research is to allow architects to plan truss-grid structures easily with parametric design tools based on the versatile formex algebra mathematical system. To produce regular structures, coordinate system transformations are used and the dome structures are defined in spherical coordinate system. Owing to the abilities of the parametric design software, it is possible to apply further modifications on the structures and gain special forms. The paper covers the basic dome types, and also additional dome-based structures using special coordinate-system solutions based on spherical coordinate systems. It also contains additional structural possibilities like making double layer grids in all geometry forms. The adaptation of formex algebra and the parametric workflow of Grasshopper together give the possibility of quick and easy design and optimization of special truss-grid domes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
888
82592
Study on Effectiveness of Strategies to Re-Establish Landscape Connectivity of Expressways with Reference to Southern Expressway Sri Lanka
Abstract:
Construction of highway is the most emerging development tendency in Sri Lanka. With these development activities, there are a lot of environmental and social issues started. Landscape fragmentation is one of the main issues that highly effect to the environment by the construction of expressways. Sri Lankan expressway system getting effort to treat fragmented landscape by using highway crossing structures. This paper designates, a highway post construction landscape study on the effectiveness of the landscape connectivity structures to restore connectivity. Geographic Information Systems (GIS), least cost path tool has been used in the selected two plots; 25km alone the expressway to identify animal crossing paths. Animal accident data use as measure for determining the most contributed plot for landscape connectivity. Number of patches, Mean patch size, Class area use as a parameter to determine the most effective land use class to reestablish the landscape connectivity. The findings of the research express scrub, grass and marsh were the most positively affected land use typologies for increase the landscape connectivity. It represents the growth increased by 8% within the 12 years of time. From the least cost analysis within the plot one, 28.5% of total animal crossing structures are within the high resistance land use classes. Southern expressway used reinforced compressed earth technologies for construction. It has been controlled the growth of the climax community. According to all findings, it could assume that involvement of the landscape crossing structures contributes to re-establish connectivity, but it is not enough to restore the majority of disturbance performed by the expressway. Connectivity measures used within the study can use as a tool for re-evaluate future involvement of highway crossing structures. Proper placement of the highway crossing structures leads to increase the rate of connectivity. The study recommends that monitoring the all stages (preconstruction, construction and post construction) of the project and preliminary design, and the involvement of the research applied connectivity assessment strategies helps to overcome the complication regarding the re-establishment of landscape connectivity using the highway crossing structures that facilitate the growth of flora and fauna.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
887
82563
A Study of the Relationship between Habitat Patch Metrics and Landscape Connectivity with Reference to Colombo Wetlands Sri Lanka
Abstract:
Natural Landscape fragmentation and habitat loss are emerging issues in Sri Lanka, which is due to rapid urban development and inadequate concern of managing Landscape connectivity. Urban Wetlands are the most vulnerable ecosystem effects from the fragmentation. Therefore, management of landscape connectivity with proper analysis and understanding has become a most important measure for urban wetland habitats. This study aimed to introduce spatial planning strategy to identify and locate landscape developments appropriately in order to restore landscape connectivity. Therefore, the study focuses on understanding the relationship between habitat patch metrics and landscape connectivity with reference to Colombo wetlands. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to measure the wetland patch metrics; Patch area, Total edge, Perimeter-area ratio, Core area index and Inter-patch distances. Further, GIS-enabled least-cost path tool was used to measure the Landscape connectivity and calculate the number of species flow paths per wetland patch. According to the research findings; increasing the patch area, maintaining a mean perimeter-area ratio and core area index also reducing the inter-patch distances could enhance the landscape connectivity. Further, this study introduces three patch typologies; ‘active patches,' ‘open patches’ and ‘closed patches’ that severs to landscape connectivity in different levels. In the end, the study proposes a strategy for Landscape Architects to select most suitable locations to implement ecological based landscape developments with adjacent to the existing urban habitat in order to enhance habitat patch metrics and to restore the landscape connectivity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
886
82480
Improved Thermal Comfort and Sensation with Occupant Control of Ceiling Personalized Ventilation System: A Lab Study
Abstract:
This study aims at determining the extent to which occupant control of microenvironment influences, improves thermal sensation and comfort, and saves energy in spaces equipped with ceiling personalized ventilation (CPV) system assisted by chair fans (CF) or desk fan (DF). Sixteen subjects participated in 2 experiments in a climatic chamber equipped with two-station CPV systems, one that allows control of fan flow rate and the other is set at fixed fan speed to provide occupant comfort. Each experiment included two participants each entering the cooled space from transitional environment at a conventional mixed ventilation (MV) at 24 ◦C. For CPV diffuser, fresh air was delivered at a rate of 20 CFM and a temperature of 16 ◦C while the recirculated air was delivered at the same temperature but at a flow rate 150 CFM. The macroclimate air of the space was at 26 ◦C. The 20 CFM was considered the minimum fresh airflow air of the CPV and could be changed to 25 or 30 CFM through fan control system. A third experiment where the fresh airflow rate was changed was conducted be eight participants in the same CPV testing chamber. The full speed flow rates for both the CFs and DFs were at 5 CFM and 20 CFM, respectively. Occupant 1 was allowed to operate the CFs or the DFs at (1/3 of the full speed, 2/3 of the full speed, and the full speed) while occupant 2 had no control on the fans. In a separate experiment, occupant 1 controlled the CPV fresh airflow rate while occupant 2 did not control CPV flow rate. Occupants recorded their subjective votes of thermal sensation (TS) and overall thermal comfort (TC) over a period of one hour. The results showed that most participants who controlled the CFs did feel comfortable within the first 12 minutes. Nonetheless, all occupants who did control the CFs did feel comfortable or neutral within the first 30 minutes. The participants, who did not control the CF speeds, did feel comfortable faster than the ones who did. For the DF speed control experiments, most participants who had to control the DFs felt comfortable within the first 12 minutes. Unlike with CF, the participants who did not control the DF speeds, felt comfortable at the same rate as the ones who did not. More participants found that the CPV testing chamber was more comfortable than the conventional MV system, in fact, 87.5% of participants found the CPV+CF and CPV+DF more comfortable, while a range of 60-75% of participants found the MV system comfortable. Most participants in the experiment in which CPV control was considered felt warm or neutral at the beginning, and they reach a point of comfort, or slightly cool when the fresh cool air fan is turned on to 20 CFM. However, when the fresh airflow rate is increased, the up to 50% participants do start feeling cold, and uncomfortable.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
885
82327
Generating a Functional Grammar for Architectural Design from Structural Hierarchy in Combination of Square and Equal Triangle
Abstract:
Islamic culture was accountable for a plethora of development in astronomy and science in the medieval term, and in geometry likewise. Geometric patterns are reputable in a considerable number of cultures, but in the Islamic culture, the patterns have specific features that connect the Islamic faith to mathematics. In Islamic art, three fundamental figure shapes are generating from the circle shape: triangle, square and hexagon. Originating from their quiddity, each of these geometric shapes has its own specific structure. Even though the geometric patterns were generated from such simple forms as the circle and the square, but they can be combined, duplicated, interlaced, and arranged in intricate combinations. So in order to explain geometrical principles between square and equal triangle, in the first step all kinds of forces of each shape, then forces between them would be illustrated. In this analysis, some angles will be created from intersection of their directions. All angles are categorized into some groups, and the mathematical expressions among them are analyzed. Since the most geometric patterns in Islamic art and architecture are based on the repetition of a single motif, the evaluation results which are obtained from a small portion is attributable to a large scale domain while the development of infinitely repeating patterns can represent the unchanging laws. Geometric ornamentation in Islamic art offers the possibility of infinite growth and can accommodate the incorporation of other types of architectural layout as well, so the logic and mathematical relationships obtained from the analysis is applicable in designing some architecture layers and developing the plan design.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
884
82001
Vegetation Integrated with Architecture: A Comparative Study in Vijayawada
Abstract:
Due to high dense areas, there is a continuous increase in the global warming and urban pollution, thus integrating green with the built environment is vital. The paper deals with the understanding of vegetation in architecture and how a proper design strategy can aim at improving not only the performances of buildings but also the outdoor climate. In the present scenario of cities, one cannot inhale pure air. Vegetations combat global warming by absorbing the carbon emitted by vehicles, lowering carbon emissions from fossil fuel-burning plants, and reducing the energy used for climate control in buildings by the use of plants which can reduce the carbon emission and thus, making the environment less polluted. A comparative study of areas, neighborhood and dwelling unit has been used as a scope for understanding different scenarios and scale. By comparing a system (area; building) with and without vegetation, and then finding out the difference. Understanding the Vijayawada city by taking its past and present conditions, and how these changes have affected the environment and people at a macro and micro level. Built environment and climactic performance at the building level and surrounding spaces are the areas that are covered in the study.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
883
81996
A Descriptive Study on Micro Living and Its Importance over Large Houses by Understanding Various Scenarios and Case Studies
Authors:
Abstract:
'Larger Houses Consume More Resources’ – both in construction and during operation. The most important aspect of smaller homes is that it uses less electricity and fuel for construction and maintenance. Here, an urban interpretation of the contemporary minimal existence movement is explained. In an attempt to restrict urban decay and to encourage inner-city renewal, the Tiny House principles are interpreted as alternative ways of dwelling in urban neighbourhoods. These tiny houses are usually pretty different from each other in interior planning, but almost similar in size. The disadvantage of large homes came up when people were asked to vacate as they were not able to pay the massive amount of mortgages. This made them reconsider their housing situation and discover the ideas of minimalism and the general rising inclination in environmental awareness that serve as the basis for the tiny house movement. One of the largest benefits of inhabiting a tiny house is the decrease in carbon footprint. Also, to increase social behaviour and freedom. It’s better for the environmental concern, financial concerns, and desire for more time and freedom. Examples of the tiny house village which are sustaining homeless population and the use of different reclaimed materials for the construction of these tiny houses are explained in the paper. It is proposed in the paper, that these houses will reflect the diversity while proposing an alternative model for the rehabilitation of decaying row-homes and the renewal of fading communities. The core objective is to design small or micro spaces for the economically backward people of the place and increase their social behaviour and freedom. Also, it’s better for the environmental concern, financial concerns, and desire for more time and freedom.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
882
81988
Urban City Centres: A Study of Centres and City Structure
Abstract:
Urban centre is one of the most important parts of the city where all the community activities take place. They are the active zones which enhance the structure of a city. The structure of the city refers to its form, mobility patterns, and concentration of people and lifestyles of people. The purpose of the research paper is to study how does the character or structure of city changes when a new centre is established. An attempt has been made to understand this by studying how the formation of centre has been changing the form or the structure of the city since the ancient times, what are the notions of a city and a centre by various architects, by studying the various models of the future city proposed by them. And then the data has been linked to how the formation of the new centres is changing the city. As the demands of the city are increasing, it also regulates how the new centres are formed. So both, the city and the centre are interdependent on each other.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
881
81979
The Role of Facades in Conserving the Image of the City
Authors:
Abstract:
The city is a blend of the possible interactions of the built form, open spaces and their spatial organization layout in a geographical area to obtain an integrated pattern and environment with building facades being a dominant figure in the body of a city. Façades of each city have their own inherent properties responsive to the human behaviour, weather conditions, safety factors, material availability and composition along with the necessary aesthetics in coordination with adjacent building facades. Cities experience a huge transformation in the culture, lifestyle; socioeconomic conditions and technology nowadays because of the increasing population, urban sprawl, industrialization, contemporary architectural style, post-disaster consequences, war reconstructions, etc. This leads to the loss of the actual identity and architectural character of the city which in turn induces chaos and turbulence in the city. This paper attempts to identify and learn from the traditional elements that would make us more aware of the unique identity of the local communities in a city. It further studies the architectural style, color, shape, and design techniques through the case studies of contextual cities. The work focuses on the observation and transformation of the image of the city through these considerations in the designing of the facades to achieve the reconciliation of the people with urban spaces.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
880
81955
Analyzing the Ancient Islamic Architectural Theories: Role of Geometric Proportionality as a Principle of Islamic Design
Authors:
Abstract:
Majority of the modern-day structures have less aesthetical value with minimum requirements set by foreign tribes. Numerous elements of traditional architecture can be incorporated into modern designs using appropriate principles to improve and enhance the functionality, aesthetics, and usability of any space. This paper reviews the diminishing ancient values of the traditional Islamic architecture. By introducing them into the modern-day structures like commercial, residential and recreational spaces in at least the Islamic states, the functionality of those spaces can be improved. For this, aspects like space planning, aesthetics, scale, hierarchy, value, and patterns are to be experimented with modern day structures. Case studies of few ancient Islamic architectural marvels are done to elaborate the whole. A brief analysis of materials and execution strategies are also a part of this paper. The analysis is formulated and is ready to design or redesign spaces using traditional Islamic principles and Elements of design to improve the quality of the architecture of modern day structures by studying the ancient Islamic architectural theories. For this, sources from the history and evolution of this architecture have been studied. Also, elements and principles of design from case studies of various mosques, forts, tombs, and palaces have been tabulated. All this data accumulated, will help revive the elements decorated by ancient principles in functional and aesthetical ways. By this, one of the most astonishing architectural styles can be conserved, reinstalled into modern day buildings and remembered.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
879
81952
Biomimetic Building Envelopes to Reduce Energy Consumption in Hot and Dry Climates
Abstract:
Energy shortage became a worldwide major problem since the 1970s, due to high energy consumption. Buildings are the primary energy users which consume 40% of global energy consumption, in which, 40%-50% of building’s energy usage is consumed due to its envelope. In hot and dry climates, 40% of energy is consumed only for cooling purpose, which implies major portion of energy savings can be worked through the envelopes. Biomimicry can be one solution for extracting efficient thermoregulation strategies found in nature. This paper aims to identify different biomimetic building envelopes which shall offer a higher potential to reduce energy consumption in hot and dry climates. It focuses on investigating the scope for reducing energy consumption through biomimetic approach in terms of envelopes. An in-depth research on different biomimetic building envelopes will be presented and analyzed in terms of heat absorption, in addition to, the impact it had on reducing the buildings energy consumption. This helps to understand feasible biomimetic building envelopes to mitigate heat absorption in hot and dry climates.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
878
81904
Residential Architecture and Its Representation in Movies: Bangkok's Spatial Research in the Study of Thai Cinematography
Authors:
Abstract:
Visual representation of a city creates unique perspectives that allow to interpret the urban environment and enable to understand a space that is culturally created and territorially organized. Residential complexes are an essential part of cities and cinema is a specific representation form of these areas. There has been very little research done on exploring how these areas are depicted in the Thai movies. The aim of this research is to interpret the discourse of residential areas of Bangkok throughout the 20th and 21st centuries and to examine essential changes in the residential structure. Specific cinematic formal techniques in relation to the urban image were used. The movie review results were compared with changes in Bangkok’s residential development. Movie analysis displayed that residential areas are frequently used in Thai cinematography and they make up an integral part of the urban visual perception.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
877
81902
Multi-Factor Optimization Method through Machine Learning in Building Envelope Design: Focusing on Perforated Metal Façade
Abstract:
Because the building envelope has a significant impact on the operation and maintenance stage of the building, designing the facade considering the performance can improve the performance of the building and lower the maintenance cost of the building. In general, however, optimizing two or more performance factors confronts the limits of time and computational tools. The optimization phase typically repeats infinitely until a series of processes that generate alternatives and analyze the generated alternatives achieve the desired performance. In particular, as complex geometry or precision increases, computational resources and time are prohibitive to find the required performance, so an optimization methodology is needed to deal with this. Instead of directly analyzing all the alternatives in the optimization process, applying experimental techniques (heuristic method) learned through experimentation and experience can reduce resource waste. This study proposes and verifies a method to optimize the double envelope of a building composed of a perforated panel using machine learning to the design geometry and quantitative performance. The proposed method is to achieve the required performance with fewer resources by supplementing the existing method which cannot calculate the complex shape of the perforated panel.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
876
81879
Morphological Investigation of Sprawling Along Emerging Peri-Urban Transit Corridor of Mowe-Ibafo Axis of the Lagos Megacity Region
Abstract:
The city as a complex system exhibiting chaotic behaviour is in a state of constant change, in response to prevailing social, economic, environmental and technological factors. Without adequate investigation and control mechanisms to tame the sporadic nature of growth in most urban areas of cities in developing regions, organic sprawling visibly manifests with its attendant problems, most especially at peri-urban areas. The Lagos Megacity region in southwest Nigeria, as one of the largest megacities in the world contends with the challenges of sprawling at the peri-urban areas especially along emerging transit corridors. Due to the seemingly unpredictable nature of this growth, this paper attempts a morphological investigation into the growth of peri-urban settlements along the Mowe-Ibafo transit corridor of the Megacity region over a temporal space of three decades (1984-2014). This study adopts the application of the Fractal Analysis and Regression Analysis methods through the correlation of population density and fractal dimension values to establish the pattern and nature of growth, due to the inadequacies of conventional methods of urban analysis which cannot deal with the unpredictability of such complex urban forms as the peri-urban areas. It was deduced that the dynamic urban expansion in the last three decades resulted in about 74.2% urban change rate between 1984 and 2000 and 63.4% urban change rate between 2000 and 2014. With the R2 value between the fractal dimension and population density been 1, the regression model indicates a positive correlation between Fractal Dimension (D) and Population Density (pop/km2), where the increase in the population density from 5740 pop/km2 to 8060 pop/km2 and later decrease to 7580 pop/km2 leads to an increase in the fractal dimension of urban growth from 1.451 in 1984 to 1.853 in 2014. This, therefore, justifies the ability to predict and determine the nature and direction of growth of complex entities and is sufficient to substantially suggest the need for adequate policy framework towards sustainable urban planning and infrastructural provision in the Peri-urban areas.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
875
81874
Impact of Elements of Rock and Water Combination on Landscape Perception: A Visual Landscape Quality Assessment on Kaludiya Pokuna in Sri Lanka
Abstract:
Landscape architecture needs to encompass a placemaking process carefully composing and manipulating landscape elements to address perceptual needs of humans, especially aesthetic, psychological and spiritual. The objective of this qualitative investigation is to inquire the impact of elements of rock and water combination on landscape perception and related feelings, emotions, and behavior. The past empirical studies have assessed the impact of landscape elements in isolation on user preference, yet the combined effect of elements have been less considered. This research was conducted with reference to the verity of qualities of water and rock through a visual landscape quality assessment focusing on landscape qualities derived from five visual concepts (coherence, historicity imageability, naturalness, and ephemera). 'Kaludiya Pokuna' archeological site in Anuradhapura was investigated with a sample of University students (n=19, male 14, female 5, age 20-25) using a five-point Likert scale via a perception based questionnaire and a visitor employed photographic survey (VEP). Two hypothetical questions were taken into investigation concerning biophilic (naturalness) and topophilic (historicity) aspects of humans to prefer a landscape with rock and water. The findings revealed that this combination encourages both biophilic and topophilic aspects, but in varying degrees. The identified hierarchy of visual concepts based on visitor’s preference signify coherence (93%), historicity (89%), imageability (79%), naturalness (75%) and ephemera (70%) respectively. It was further revealed that this combination creates a scenery more coherent dominating information processing aspect of humans to perceive a landscape over the biophilic and topophilic aspects. Different characteristics and secondary landscape effects generated by rock and water combination were found to affect in transforming a space into a place, full filling the aesthetic and spiritual aspects of the visitors. These findings enhance a means of making places for people, resource management and historical landscape conservation. Equalization of gender based participation, taking diverse cases and increasing the sample size with more analytical photographic analysis are recommended to enhance the quality of further research.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
874
81848
Numerical Simulation of Lightning Strike Direct Effects on Aircraft Skin Composite Laminate
Abstract:
Nowadays, the direct effects of lightning to aircrafts are of great importance because of the massive use of composite materials. In comparison with metallic materials, composites present several weaknesses for lightning strike direct effects. Especially, their low electrical and thermal conductivities, which lead to severe lightning strike damage. The lightning strike direct effects are burning, heating, magnetic force, sparking and arcing. As the problem is complex, we investigated it gradually. A MHD model is developed to simulate the lightning strikes in order to estimate the damages on the composite materials. Then, a coupled thermal-electrical finite element analysis is used to study the interaction between the lightning arc and the composite laminate and to investigate the material degradation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
873
81506
A Simple Approach to Establish Urban Energy Consumption Map Using the Combination of LiDAR and Thermal Image
Abstract:
Due to the urban heat island effect caused by highly development of city, the heat stress increased in recent year rapidly. Resulting in a sharp raise of the energy used in urban area. The heat stress during summer time exacerbated the usage of air conditioning and electric equipment, which caused more energy consumption and anthropogenic heat. Therefore, an accurate and simple method to measure energy used in urban area can be helpful for the architectures and urban planners to develop better energy efficiency goals. This research applies the combination of airborne LiDAR data and thermal imager to provide an innovate method to estimate energy consumption. Owing to the high resolution of remote sensing data, the accurate current volume and total floor area and the surface temperature of building derived from LiDAR and thermal imager can be herein obtained to predict energy used. In the estimate process, the LiDAR data will be divided into four type of land cover which including building, road, vegetation, and other obstacles. In this study, the points belong to building were selected to overlay with the land use information; therefore, the energy consumption can be estimated precisely with the real value of total floor area and energy use index for different use of building. After validating with the real energy used data from the government, the result shows the higher building in high development area like commercial district will present in higher energy consumption, caused by the large quantity of total floor area and more anthropogenic heat. Furthermore, because of the surface temperature can be warm up by electric equipment used, this study also applies the thermal image of building to find the hot spots of energy used and make the estimation method more complete.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
872
80866
Climate-Responsive Building Design and Its Performance: Rofaa Village as a Case Study, Sudan
Authors:
Abstract:
In Sudan, Green architecture is still at an experimental stage and cannot be defined correctly green architecture. In addition, energy consumption for buildings rapidly rises due to the in inappropriate using and understanding of techniques and materials. When designing an environmentally friendly building, the use of right design and green technologies should have high consideration. Sustainable or green buildings design elements vary from climate to climate. This paper analyses 'Rofaa Village', the project that designed based on the traditional buildings elements in dry- hot regions, as a great sample of the connection between architectural design and energy efficiency by analyzing design strategies of the village, which influence and affect its energy performance. Achieving thermal comfort with energy consumption in a hot dry climate like Sudan requires a sustainable reduction in heat and solar gains with optimization of cooling. This study will find the effective ways to deal with this climate Phenomena and the use of passive cooling systems to increase the Comfort Zone and reduce energy consumptions. Techniques like natural ventilation, shading devices, and wind towers can optimize thermal comfort in hot- dry climates. Results of this study can affect building common building design ideas and could help increase the awareness about the importance of low energy buildings.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):