Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 48522

Architectural and Environmental Engineering

950
83968
Steel Dust as a Coating Agent for Iron Ore Pellets at Ironmaking
Abstract:
In the moving-bed shaft direct reduction processes, such as Midrex and HYL III, the avoidance of sticking is absolutely essential. Decreasing the reducing temperature to avoid this problem can cause a significant drop in throughput. In order to prevent sticking of pellets a coating material, basically inactive under the reducing conditions prevailing in the shaft furnace, should be applied to cover the outer layer of the pellets. In the present work, steel dust is used as coating material for iron ore pellets to explore dust coating effectiveness and determines the best coating conditions. Steel dust coating is applied to iron ore pellets in various concentrations. Dust slurry concentrations of 5.0-30% were used to have a coated steel dust amount of 1.0-5.0 kg per ton iron ore. Using thermogravimetric technique the coated samples were reduced with gas mixture which is somewhat simulating the composition of the reducing gas in Midrex furnace. The influences of various coating conditions on the reduction behavior and the morphology were studied. The optimum reduced samples were comparatively applied for sticking index measurement. It was found that the optimized steel dust coating conditions that achieve higher reducibility with lower sticking index were 30% steel dust slurry concentration with 3.0 Kg steel dust/ton ore.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
949
83960
Installing Photovoltaic Panels to Generate Optimal Energy in SPAV Hostel, Vijayawada
Authors:
Abstract:
In this research paper, a procedure for installing and assessment of a solar PV plant to generate optimal solar energy SPAV hostel at Vijayawada city was analyzed. The hostel was experiencing power disruption and had a need for an unceasing energy source. The solar panel is one of the best solutions to obtain uninterrupted clean renewable energy for an institutional building as it neither makes din nor pollutes the atmosphere. The electricity usage per month was initially measured to discriminate the energy change. The solar array was installed with its financial and environmental assessment considering recent market prices. All the aspects related to a solar PV plant were considered for the feasibility and efficiency of PV plant near this site i.e., the orientation of the site, the size and shape of the terrace, the sun path were considered while installing panels. Various precautions were taken to intercept the factors which cause interference in energy generation, with respect to temperature, overshadowing, the wiring of panels, pollution etc. The solar panels were frequently installed, monitored and maintained properly to procure optimal energy output. Result obtained with the assessment of the proposed plant and deflation in the electric bill will show the maximal energy that can be generated in a month on that particular site.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
948
83685
Client's Decision-Making Optimization on the Use of Green Building Rating Tools: An Approach to the Conceptual Framework of Pre-Occupancy Evaluation
Abstract:
The impact of common buildings on climate and environment has prompted people to get involved in the green building standards aimed at implementing rating tools or certifications. To date, public attention have continued to grow in major factors such as cost, knowledge and time, which have a direct influence on pursuing green building rating systems. However, estimating total costs, required basic knowledge and duration of the registration and certification process of a particular project in the first stage can be challenging. Therefore, stakeholders and/or clients in the construction industry could benefit from a Pro-Occupancy Evaluation (PrOE) that could assist them clarifying the whole certification process in a way that is easier, more credible and predictable before making their decision on the use of a specific tool. This paper depicts an approach that integrates cost and time estimation within Green Star™ New Zealand, which is one of the most largely used rating tools in the Country. This integration would help inexperienced clients to predict actual costs related to registration, certification and extra fees based on the track of the amount of time it takes to implement the rating tool throughout all the related stages. Keywords—green building rating tools, Pre-Occupancy Evaluation (PrOE), client’s decision-making, certification Also, this paper describes how PrOE would enable clients to have a ‘first-hand’ experience of the entire process, helping them increasing their basic knowledge on the rating tool, credit requirements and final results through an online assessment tool. An external database connected to Green Star NZ™ certified case studies will be produced and stored as a part of the PrOE framework to suggest exemplary cases while inputting data of the proposed building information. Therefore, the PrOE framework can be considered to be an effective method to help client’s decision-making and will be presented in the future studies to develop the methodology demonstrating the acceptability and availability of the proposed project.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
947
83642
Compromising Quality of Life in Low Income Settlement's: The Case of Ashrayan Prakalpa, Khulna
Abstract:
This study aims to demonstrate how top-down shelter policy and its resultant dwelling environment leads to ‘everyday compromise’ by the grassroots according to subjective (satisfaction) and objective (physical design elements and physical environmental elements) indicators, which are measured across three levels of the settlement; macro (Community), meso (Neighborhood or shelter/built environment) and micro (family). Ashrayan Prakalpa is a resettlement /housing project of Government of Bangladesh for providing shelters and human resources development activities like education, microcredit, and training programme to landless, homeless and rootless people. Despite the integrated nature of the shelter policies (comprises poverty alleviation, employment opportunity, secured tenure, and livelihood training), the ‘quality of life’ issue at the different levels of settlements becomes questionable. As dwellers of shelter units (although formally termed as ‘barracks’ rather shelter or housing) remain on the receiving end of government’s resettlement policies, they often involve with spatial-physical and socio-economic negotiation and assume curious forms of spatial practice, which often upholds contradiction with policy planning. Thus, policy based shelter force dwellers to persistently compromise with their provided built environments both in overtly and covertly. Compromising with prescribed designed space and facilities across living places articulated their negotiation with the quality of allocated space, built form and infrastructures, which in turn exert as less quality of life. The top-down shelter project, Dakshin Chandani Mahal Ashrayan Prakalpa at Dighalia Upazila, the study area located at the Eastern fringe area of Khulna, Bangladesh, is still in progress to resettle internally displaced and homeless people. In terms of methodology, this research is primarily exploratory and adopts a case study method, and an analytical framework is developed through the deductive approach for evaluating the quality of life. Secondary data have been obtained from housing policy analysis and relevant literature review, while key informant interview, focus group discussion, necessary drawings and photographs and participant observation across dwelling, neighborhood, and community level have also been administered as primary data collection methodology. Findings have revealed that various shortages, inadequacies, and negligence of policymakers force to compromise with allocated designed space, physical infrastructure and economic opportunities across dwelling, neighborhood and mostly community level. Thus, the outcome of this study can be beneficial for a global-level understating of the compromising the ‘quality of life’ under top-down shelter policy. Locally, for instance, in the context of Bangladesh, it can help policymakers and concerned authorities to formulate the shelter policies and take initiatives to improve the well-being of marginalized.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
946
83412
Socio-Economic Insight of the Secondary Housing Market in Colombo Suburbs: Seller’s Point of Views
Abstract:
‘House’ is a powerful symbol of socio-economic background of individuals and families. In fact, housing provides all types of needs/wants from basic needs to self-actualization needs as described in Maslow’s Need Hierarchy. This phenomenon can be realized only having analyzed hidden motives of buyers and sellers of the housing market. Hence, the aim of this study is to examine the socio-economic insight of the secondary housing market in Colombo suburbs. This broader aim was achieved via analyzing the general pattern of the secondary housing market, identifying socio-economic motives of sellers of the secondary housing market, and reviewing sellers’ experience of buyer behavior. A purposive sample of 50 sellers from popular residential areas in Colombo such as Maharagama, Kottawa, Piliyandala, Punnipitiya, and Nugegoda was used to collect primary data instead of relevant secondary data from published and unpublished reports. The sample was limited to selling price ranging from Rs15 million to Rs 25 million, which apparently falls into middle and upper-middle income houses in the context. Participatory observation and semi-structured interviews were adopted as key data collection tools. Data was descriptively analyzed. This study found that the market is mainly handled by informal agents who are unqualified and unorganized. People such as taxi/tree-wheel drivers, boutique venders, security personals etc are engaged in housing brokerage as a part time career. Few fulltime and formally organized agents were found but they were also not professionally qualified. As far as housing quality is concerned, it was observed that 91% of houses was poorly maintained and illegally modified. They are situated in poorly maintained neighborhoods as well. Among the observed houses, 02% was moderately maintained and 07% was well maintained and modified. Major socio-economic motives of sellers were ‘migrating foreign countries for education and employment’ (80% and 10% respectively), ‘family problems’ (4%), and ‘social status’ (3%). Other motives were ‘health’ and ‘environmental/neighborhood problems’ (3%). This study clearly noted that the secondary middle-income housing market in the area directly related with the migrants who motivated for education in foreign countries, mainly Australia, UK and USA. As per the literature, families motivated for education tends to migrate Colombo suburbs from remote areas of the country. They are seeking temporary accommodation in lower middle-income housing. However, the secondary middle income housing market relates with the migration from Colombo to major global cities. Therefore, final transaction price of this market may depend on migration-related dates such as university deadlines, visa and other agreements. Hence, it creates a buyers’ market lowering the selling price. Also it was revealed that the buyers tend to trust more on this market as far as the quality of construction of houses is concerned than brand new houses which are built for selling purpose.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
945
83410
Accessible Facilities in Home Environment for Elderly Family Members in Sri Lanka
Abstract:
Several countries in the world are currently facing various socio-economic and demographic issues due to rapidly increasing ageing population. Sri Lanka, as a lower middle-income country, has recorded higher percentage of aged within its total population (by 2011- 12.5%). Within the Sri Lankan culture, caring elders is highly admired as a prime responsibility of a family and, therefore, more than 90% of elders in the country is looked after within their homes. However, with the complexity of the modern society and due to structural and functional changes of the family, 'caring elders' seems like an emerging social problem. Among many issues related to elders, 'lack of accessible and appropriate facilities in their houses as well as public buildings' can be identified as a major problem. Even though Sri Lanka has given higher attention to welfare facilities for the needy people, research evidence show attention drawn on facilities particularly in home environment for the aged is not adequate. Modern housing features such as bathrooms, pantries, lobbies, and leisure areas, etc. are questionable whether they are matched with elders’ physical and mental needs. Consequently, elders have to face domestic accidents and many other difficulties within their living environments. Records of hospitals in the country also proved this fact. Therefore, this study tries to identify how far the modern houses are suitable for elders’ needs. Is the 'aged' a considering matter when people are buying, planning and renovating houses? Randomly selected sample of 50 houses was observed, and 50 persons were interviewed around Maharagama urban area in Colombo district to obtain primary data while relevant secondary data and information were used to have a depth analysis. This study clearly revealed that none of the observed houses were planned or arranged considering elders’ needs. Generally, family members are used to giving priority to the external beauty, elegant look of interior and modern facilities, etc. Particularly bathrooms, pantry, large setting areas, balcony, parking slots for two vehicles, parapet walls with roller-gates are main concerns. A significant factor found here is that even though the sons and daughters of current elders are also reaching to older age in the near future, they do not consider health and safety living in their old age when designing, planning and renovating houses as society ignores the problems of the aged. Several cases were found that parents do not like to be with their children’s houses due to mismatch of the living environment in modern houses. In this context, this study argues that, in the short term, parents have to be isolated in their own houses due to increasing trend of young, educated people’s moving towards urban living in modern houses. Further, in the near future, may be in 01-02 decades time, when the current urban families become aged, these so-called modern houses would be totally inappropriate for them.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
944
83379
Application of Biomass Ashes as Supplementary Cementitious Materials in the Cement Mortar Production
Abstract:
The production of low cost and environmentally friendly products represents an important step for developing countries. Biomass is one of the largest renewable energy sources, and Serbia is among the top European countries in terms of the amount of available and unused biomass. Substituting cement with the ashes obtained by the combustion of biomass would reduce the negative impact of concrete industry on the environment and provide a waste valorisation by the reuse of this type of by-product in mortars and concretes manufacture. The study contains data on physical properties, chemical characteristics and pozzolanic properties of obtained biomass ashes in Serbia, which were, later, used as supplementary cementitious materials in preparation of mortars. Experimental research of influence of biomass ashes on physical and mechanical properties of cement mortars was conducted. The results indicate that the biomass ashes can be successfully used in mortars as substitutes of cement without compromising their physical and mechanical performances.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
943
83047
Research Insights into Making the Premises Spiritually Pure
Abstract:
The Maharshi University of Spirituality was founded on the base of 30 years of spiritual research. It specializes in conducting research on how the subtle-world and spiritual-vibrations affect the lives of people. One such area of research is how to create spiritually positive vibrations in the premises. By using aura and energy scanners along with the sixth sense, the spiritual research team has identified 3 aspects that are instrumental in enhancing or reducing the spiritual positivity of any premises. Firstly, the characteristics of the land should be considered holistically, that is, from a physical, psychological and spiritual point of view. While procedures for the physical assessment of land are well documented, due to ignorance and disbelief, the spiritual aspects are not considered. For example, if the land was previously a graveyard site, it can have highly detrimental effects on the residents within the premises at the spiritual level. This can further manifest as physical and psychological problems that are faced by the residents. Secondly, the manner of construction and the purpose/use of the building affects the subtle-vibrations in the premises. The manner of construction includes gross aspects such as the materials used, kind of architecture, etc. It also includes the subtle aspects provided in detail in the ancient science of Vastu Shastra and Feng Shui. For example, having the front door of the premises facing the south direction can negatively affect the premises because the southern direction is prone to distressing vibrations. The purpose and use of the premises also plays an important role in determining the type of subtle-vibrations that will be predominantly found within its area. Thirdly, the actions, thoughts, value systems and attitudes of the residents play an important part in determining whether the subtle-vibrations will be positive or negative. Residents with many personality defects emit negative vibrations. If some of the residents are affected with negative energies and are not doing any spiritual practice to overcome it, then it can have a harmful spiritual effect on the rest of the residents and the premises. If these three aspects are appropriately considered and attended to, then the premises will generate higher levels of spiritually positive vibrations. Both living and non-living objects within the premises imbibe this positivity and therefore, it holistically enhances the overall well-being of its residents. The positivity experienced in the premises of the Spiritual Research Centre of the Maharshi University of Spirituality, is a testimony to the success of this research. Due to regular and intense spiritual practice carried out by 10 Saints and over 500 seekers residing in its premises, the positivity in the environment can be felt by people when they enter its premises and even from a distance, and can easily be picked up by aura and energy scanners. Extraordinary and fascinating phenomena are observed and experienced in its premises as both living and non-living objects emit spiritually positive vibrations. This also protects the residents from negative vibrations. Examples of such phenomena and their positive impact are discussed in the paper.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
942
82988
The Learning Loops in the Public Realm Project in South Verona: Air Quality and Noise Pollution Participatory Data Collection towards Co-Design, Planning and Construction of Mitigation Measures in Urban Areas
Abstract:
Urban systems are places where the various actors involved interact and enter in conflict, in particular with reference to topics such as traffic congestion and security. But topics of discussion, and often clash because of their strong complexity, are air and noise pollution. For air pollution, the complexity stems from the fact that atmospheric pollution is due to many factors, but above all, the observation and measurement of the amount of pollution of a transparent, mobile and ethereal element like air is very difficult. Often the perceived condition of the inhabitants does not coincide with the real conditions, because it is conditioned - sometimes in positive ways other in negative ways - from many other factors such as the presence, or absence, of natural elements such as trees or rivers. These problems are seen with noise pollution as well, which is also less considered as an issue even if it’s problematic just as much as air quality. Starting from these opposite positions, it is difficult to identify and implement valid, and at the same time shared, mitigation solutions for the problem of urban pollution (air and noise pollution). The LOOPER (Learning Loops in the Public Realm) project –described in this paper – wants to build and test a methodology and a platform for participatory co-design, planning, and construction process inside a learning loop process. Novelties in this approach are various; the most relevant are three. The first is that citizens participation starts since from the research of problems and air quality analysis through a participatory data collection, and that continues in all process steps (design and construction). The second is that the methodology is characterized by a learning loop process. It means that after the first cycle of (1) problems identification, (2) planning and definition of design solution and (3) construction and implementation of mitigation measures, the effectiveness of implemented solutions is measured and verified through a new participatory data collection campaign. In this way, it is possible to understand if the policies and design solution had a positive impact on the territory. As a result of the learning process produced by the first loop, it will be possible to improve the design of the mitigation measures and start the second loop with new and more effective measures. The third relevant aspect is that the citizens' participation is carried out via Urban Living Labs that involve all stakeholder of the city (citizens, public administrators, associations of all urban stakeholders,…) and that the Urban Living Labs last for all the cycling of the design, planning and construction process. The paper will describe in detail the LOOPER methodology and the technical solution adopted for the participatory data collection and design and construction phases.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
941
82901
Mitigating Urban Flooding through Spatial Planning Interventions: A Case of Bhopal City
Abstract:
Flooding is one of the waterborne disasters that causes extensive destruction in urban areas. Developing countries are at a higher risk of such damage and more than half of the global flooding events take place in Asian countries including India. Urban flooding is more of a human-induced disaster rather than natural. This is highly influenced by the anthropogenic factors, besides metrological and hydrological causes. Unplanned urbanization and poor management of cities enhance the impact manifold and cause huge loss of life and property in urban areas. It is an irony that urban areas have been facing water scarcity in summers and flooding during monsoon. This paper is an attempt to highlight the factors responsible for flooding in a city especially from an urban planning perspective and to suggest mitigating measures through spatial planning interventions. Analysis has been done in two stages; first is to assess the impacts of previous flooding events and second to analyze the factors responsible for flooding at macro and micro level in cities. Bhopal, a city in Central India having nearly two million population, has been selected for the study. The city has been experiencing flooding during heavy rains in monsoon. The factors responsible for urban flooding were identified through literature review as well as various case studies from different cities across the world and India. The factors thus identified were analyzed for both macro and micro level influences. For macro level, the previous flooding events that have caused huge destructions were analyzed and the most affected areas in Bhopal city were identified. Since the identified area was falling within the catchment of a drain so the catchment area was delineated for the study. The factors analyzed were: rainfall pattern to calculate the return period using Weibull’s formula; imperviousness through mapping in ArcGIS; runoff discharge by using Rational method. The catchment was divided into micro watersheds and the micro watershed having maximum impervious surfaces was selected to analyze the coverage and effect of physical infrastructure such as: storm water management; sewerage system; solid waste management practices. The area was further analyzed to assess the extent of violation of ‘building byelaws’ and ‘development control regulations’ and encroachment over the natural water streams. Through analysis, the study has revealed that the main issues have been: lack of sewerage system; inadequate storm water drains; inefficient solid waste management in the study area; violation of building byelaws through extending building structures ether on to the drain or on the road; encroachments by slum dwellers along or on to the drain reducing the width and capacity of the drain. Other factors include faulty culvert’s design resulting in back water effect. Roads are at higher level than the plinth of houses which creates submersion of their ground floors. The study recommends spatial planning interventions for mitigating urban flooding and strategies for management of excess rain water during monsoon season. Recommendations have also been made for efficient land use management to mitigate water logging in areas vulnerable to flooding.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
940
82882
Window Seat: Examining Public Space, Politics, and Social Identity through Urban Public Transportation
Abstract:
'Window Seat' uses public transportation as an entry point for understanding the relationship between public space, politics, and social identity construction. This project argues that by bringing people of different races, classes, and genders in 'contact' with one another, public transit operates as a site of exposure, as people consciously and unconsciously perform social identity within these spaces. These performances offer a form of freedom that we associate with being in urban spaces while simultaneously rendering certain racialized, gendered, and classed bodies vulnerable to violence. Furthermore, due to its exposing function, public transit operates as a site through which we, as urbanites and scholars, can read social injustice and reflect on the work that is necessary to become a truly democratic society. The major questions guiding this research are: How does using public transit as the entry point provide unique insights into the relationship between social identity, politics, and public space? What ideas do Americans hold about public space and how might these ideas reflect a liberal yearning for a more democratic society? To address these research questions, 'Window Seat' critically examines ethnographic data collected on public buses and trains in Los Angeles, California, and online news media. It analyzes these sources through literature in socio-cultural psychology, sociology, and political science. It investigates the 'everyday urban hero' narrative or popular news stories that feature an individual or group of people acting against discriminatory or 'Anti-American' behavior on public buses and trains. 'Window Seat' studies these narratives to assert that by circulating stories of civility in news media, United Statsians construct and maintain ideas of the 'liberal city,' which is characterized by ideals of freedom and democracy. Furthermore, for those involved, these moments create an opportunity to perform the role of the Good Samaritan, an identity that is wrapped up in liberal beliefs in diversity and inclusion. This research expands conversations in urban studies by making a case for the political significance of urban public space. It demonstrates how these sites serve as spaces through which liberal beliefs are circulated and upheld through identity performance.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
939
82856
A Literature Synthesis to Understand Innovation Ambidexterity in Small Construction Project-Based Firms
Abstract:
Innovation in small construction project-based firms encompasses challenging endeavors, however, success on innovation uptake varies on several firm-specific characteristics. Due to the increasing external pressures exert from rapid technological advancement, high design complexity, client’s escalating demands for unique products, and constant upgradation for regulatory requirements, the small construction firms are facing challenges to deliver innovative products at a rapid rate. Therefore, small construction firms have to innovate at a rapid rate to survive amid higher business competitiveness, also at the same time, have to brood over sustainable growth in future to compete in business for longer span. Management studies emphasize the importance of innovation ambidexterity as a mean to achieve sustainable competitive advantage for organization by exploiting existing knowledge and technology base for short-term benefits, and at the same time, exploring new knowledge and technologies for long-term advancement. Although having such importance in general organizational context, the literature is deficient in understanding innovation ambidexterity within the context of construction project-based small firms. A better understanding of innovation ambidexterity can significantly contribute to the better management of it, leading to achieve sustainable competitiveness. Based on the synthesis of the literature on innovation in small construction firms, project-based firms and innovation ambidexterity, this study structured a conceptual framework to extend the understanding of innovation ambidexterity in small construction project-based firms. The paper also focuses on several context-specific ambiguity in innovation ambidexterity such as the ambiguity on exploration and exploitation focus, the dimensional ambiguity of innovation ambidexterity and innovation orientation. Significant small construction project-based firm specific attributes are identified to enhance the understanding of innovation ambidexterity through the conceptual framework. In spite of the contribution in extending the understanding, the framework constructed in this paper is also expected to guide future avenues of research for theoretical contribution and practical implications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
938
82803
Purple Spots on Historical Parchments: Confirming the Microbial Succession at the Basis of Biodeterioration
Abstract:
The preservation of cultural heritage is one of the major challenges of today’s society, because of the fundamental right of future generations to inherit it as the continuity with their historical and cultural identity. Parchments, consisting of a semi-solid matrix of collagen produced from animal skin (i.e., sheep or goats), are a significant part of the cultural heritage, being used as writing material for many centuries. Due to their animal origin, parchments easily undergo biodeterioration. The most common biological damage is characterized by isolated or coalescent purple spots that often leads to the detachment of the superficial layer and the loss of the written historical content of the document. Although many parchments with the same biodegradative features were analyzed, no common causative agent has been found so far. Very recently, a study was performed on a purple-damaged parchment roll dated back 1244 A.D, the A.A. Arm. I-XVIII 3328, belonging to the oldest collection of the Vatican Secret Archive (Fondo 'Archivum Arcis'), by comparing uncolored undamaged and purple damaged areas of the same document. As a whole, the study gave interesting results to hypothesize a model of biodeterioration, consisting of a microbial succession acting in two main phases: the first one, common to all the damaged parchments, is characterized by halophilic and halotolerant bacteria fostered by the salty environment within the parchment maybe induced by bringing of the hides; the second one, changing with the individual history of each parchment, determines the identity of its colonizers. The design of this model was pivotal to this study, performed by different labs of the Tor Vergata University (Rome, Italy), in collaboration with the Vatican Secret Archive. Three documents, belonging to a collection of dramatically damaged parchments archived as 'Faldone Patrizi A 19' (dated back XVII century A.D.), were analyzed through a multidisciplinary approach, including three updated technologies: (i) Next Generation Sequencing (NGS, Illumina) to describe the microbial communities colonizing the damaged and undamaged areas, (ii) RAMAN spectroscopy to analyze the purple pigments, (iii) Light Transmitted Analysis (LTA) to evaluate the kind and entity of the damage to native collagen. The metagenomic analysis obtained from NGS revealed DNA sequences belonging to Halobacterium salinarum mainly in the undamaged areas. RAMAN spectroscopy detected pigments within the purple spots, mainly bacteriorhodopsine/rhodopsin-like pigments, a purple transmembrane protein containing retinal and present in Halobacteria. The LTA technique revealed extremely damaged collagen structures in both damaged and undamaged areas of the parchments. In the light of these data, the study represents a first confirmation of the microbial succession model described above. The demonstration of this model is pivotal to start any possible new restoration strategy to bring back historical parchments to their original beauty, but also to open opportunities for intervention on a huge amount of documents.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
937
82791
Structural Analysis and Evolution of 18th Century Ottoman Imperial Mosques (1750-1799) in Comparison with the Classical Period Examples
Authors:
Abstract:
18th century which is the period of 'change' in the Ottoman Empire, affects the architecture as well, where the Classical period is left behind, architecture is differentiated in the form language. This change is especially noticeable in monumental buildings and thus manifested itself in the mosques. But, is it possible to talk about the structural context of the 'change' which has been occurred in decoration? The aim of this study is to investigate the changes and classical relations of the 18th century mosques through plan schedules and structure systems. This study focuses on the monumental mosques constructed during the reign of the three sultans who ruled in the second half of the century (Mustafa the 3rd 1757-1774, Abdülhamid the 1st 1774-1789 and Selim the 3rd). According to their construction years these are 'Ayazma, Laleli, Zeyneb Sultan, Fatih, Beylerbeyi, Şebsefa Kadın, Eyüb Sultan, Mihrişah Valide Sultan and Üsküdar-Selimiye' mosques. As a plan scheme, four mosques have a square or close to a rectangular square scheme, while the others have a rectangle scheme and showing the longitudinal development of the mihrab axis. This situation is widespread throughout the period. In addition to the longitudinal development plan, which is the general characteristic of the 18th century mosques, the use of the classical plan schemes continued in the same direction. Spatialization of the mihrab area was applied to the five mosques while other mosques were applied as niches on the wall surface. This situation is widespread in the period of the second half of the century. In the classical period, the lodges may be located at the back of the mosques interior, not interfering with the main worship area. In the period, the lodges were withdrawn from the main worship area. They are separated from the main interior with their own structural and covering systems. The plans seem to be formed as a result of the addition of lodge parts to the northern part of the Classical period mosques. The 18th century mosques are the constructions where the change of the architectural language and style can be observed easily. This change and the break from the classical period manifest themselves quickly in the structural elements, wall surface decorations, pencil work designs, small scale decor elements, motifs. The speed and intensity of change in the decor does not occur the same as in structural context. The mosque construction rules from the traditional and classical era still continues in the century. While some mosque structures have a plan which is inherited from the classical successor, some of were constructed with the same classical period rules. Nonetheless, the location and transformation of the lodges, which are affecting the interior design, are noteworthy. They provide a significant transition on the way to the new language of the mosque design that will be experienced in the next century. It is intended to draw attention to the structural evolution of the 18th century Ottoman architecture through the royal mosques within the scope of this conference.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
936
82757
Conviviality as a Principle in Natural and Social Realms
Authors:
Abstract:
There exists a challenge of accommodating/integrating people at risk and those from various backgrounds in urban areas. The success of interdependence as a tool for survival largely rests on the mutually beneficial relationships amongst individuals within a given society. One approach to meeting this challenge has been written by Ivan Illich in his book, Tools for Conviviality, where he defines 'conviviality' as interactions that help individuals. With the goal of helping the community and applying conviviality as a principle to actors in both natural and social realms of Moss Park in Toronto, the proposal involves redesigning the park and buildings as a series of different health care, extended learning, employment support, armoury, and recreation facilities that integrate the exterior landscape as treatment, teaching, military, and recreation areas; in other words, the proposal links services with access to park space. While buildings are traditionally known to physically provide shelter, parks embody shelter and act as service, as people often find comfort and relief from being in nature, and Moss Park, in particular, is home to many people at risk. This landscape is not only an important space for the homeless community but also the rest of the neighborhood. The thesis proposes that the federal government rebuilds the current armoury, as it is an obsolete building while acknowledging the extensive future developments proposed by developers and its impact on public space. The neighbourhood is an underserved area, and the new design develops not just a new armoury, but also a complex of interrelated services, which are completely integrated into the park. The armoury is redesigned as an integral component of the community that not only serves as training facilities for reservists but also serves as an emergency shelter in sub-zero temperatures for the homeless community. This paper proposes a new design for Moss Park through examining how 'park buildings', interconnected buildings and parks, can foster empowering relationships that create a supportive public realm.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
935
82738
Parametric Dome Design Tool Based on Formex Algebra
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to present the adaptation of the dome construction tool for formex algebra to the parametric design software Grasshopper. Formex algebra is a mathematical system created by Hoshyar Nooshin and Peter Disney, primarily used for planning structural systems such as truss-grid domes and vaults, together with the programming language Formian. The goal of the adaptation is to allow architects of planning truss-grid structures easily with parametric design tools. To produce regular structures coordinate system transformations are used and the dome structures are defined in spherical coordinate system. Owing to the abilities of the parametric design software, it is possible to apply further modifications on the structures and gain special forms. The adaptation covers the basic dome type introduced in the paper of Nooshin, entitled Formex Configuration processing I., and also additional dome-based structures using special coordinate-system solutions based on spherical coordinate systems. It also contains additional structural possibilities like making double layer grids in all geometry forms but does not cover some modifications presented in the mentioned paper which are already given by the tools of Grasshopper. The adaptation of formex algebra and the parametric workflow of Grasshopper together give the possibility of quick and easy design and optimisation of special truss-grid domes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
934
82625
Bioclimatic Design Approach for the Walls and Roofs of Vijayawada Housing
Abstract:
Nowadays human beings attain comfort zone artificially for heating, cooling and lighting the spaces they live, and their main importance is given to aesthetics of building and they are not designed to protect themselves from climate. They depend on artificial sources of energy resulting in energy wastage. In order to reduce the amount of energy being spent in the construction industry and Energy Package goals by 2020, new ways of constructing houses is required. The larger part of energy consumption of a building is directly related to architectural aspects hence nature has to be integrated into the building design to attain comfort zone and reduce the dependency on artificial source of energy. The research is to develop bioclimatic design strategies and techniques for the walls and roofs of Vijayawada houses. Study and analysis of design strategies and techniques of various cases like Kerala, Mangalore etc. for similar kind of climate is examined in this paper. Understanding the vernacular architecture and modern techniques of that various cases and implementing in the housing of Vijayawada not only decreases energy consumption but also enhances socio cultural values of Vijayawada. This study focuses on the comparison of vernacular techniques and modern building bio climatic strategies to attain thermal comfort and energy reduction in hot and humid climate. This research provides further thinking of new strategies which include both vernacular and modern bioclimatic techniques.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
933
82592
Study on Effectiveness of Strategies to Re-Establish Landscape Connectivity of Expressways; With Reference to Southern Expressway Sri Lanka
Abstract:
Construction of highway is the most emerging development tendency in Sri Lanka. With these development activities, there are a lot of environmental and social issues started. Landscape fragmentation is one of the main issues that highly effect to the environment by the construction of expressways. Sri Lankan expressway system getting effort to treat fragmented landscape by using highway crossing structures. This paper designates, a highway post construction landscape study on the effectiveness of the landscape connectivity structures to restore connectivity. Geographic Information Systems (GIS), least cost path tool has been used in the selected two plots; 25km alone the expressway to identify animal crossing paths. Animal accident data use as measure for determining the most contributed plot for landscape connectivity. Number of patches, Mean patch size, Class area use as a parameter to determine the most effective land use class to reestablish the landscape connectivity. The findings of the research express scrub, grass and marsh were the most positively affected land use typologies for increase the landscape connectivity. It represents the growth increased by 8% within the 12 years of time. From the least cost analysis within the plot one, 28.5% of total animal crossing structures are within the high resistance land use classes. Southern expressway used reinforced compressed earth technologies for construction. It has been controlled the growth of the climax community. According to all findings, it could assume that involvement of the landscape crossing structures contributes to re-establish connectivity, but it is not enough to restore the majority of disturbance performed by the expressway. Connectivity measures used within the study can use as a tool for re-evaluate future involvement of highway crossing structures. Proper placement of the highway crossing structures leads to increase the rate of connectivity. The study recommends that monitoring the all stages (preconstruction, construction and post construction) of the project and preliminary design, and the involvement of the research applied connectivity assessment strategies helps to overcome the complication regarding the re-establishment of landscape connectivity using the highway crossing structures that facilitate the growth of flora and fauna.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
932
82563
A Study of the Relationship between Habitat Patch Metrics and Landscape Connectivity with Reference to Colombo Wetlands Sri Lanka
Abstract:
Natural Landscape fragmentation and habitat loss are emerging issues in Sri Lanka, which is due to rapid urban development and inadequate concern of managing Landscape connectivity. Urban Wetlands are the most vulnerable ecosystem effects from the fragmentation. Therefore, management of landscape connectivity with proper analysis and understanding has become a most important measure for urban wetland habitats. This study aimed to introduce spatial planning strategy to identify and locate landscape developments appropriately in order to restore landscape connectivity. Therefore, the study focuses on understanding the relationship between habitat patch metrics and landscape connectivity with reference to Colombo wetlands. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to measure the wetland patch metrics; Patch area, Total edge, Perimeter-area ratio, Core area index and Inter-patch distances. Further, GIS-enabled least-cost path tool was used to measure the Landscape connectivity and calculate the number of species flow paths per wetland patch. According to the research findings; increasing the patch area, maintaining a mean perimeter-area ratio and core area index also reducing the inter-patch distances could enhance the landscape connectivity. Further, this study introduces three patch typologies; ‘active patches,' ‘open patches’ and ‘closed patches’ that severs to landscape connectivity in different levels. In the end, the study proposes a strategy for Landscape Architects to select most suitable locations to implement ecological based landscape developments with adjacent to the existing urban habitat in order to enhance habitat patch metrics and to restore the landscape connectivity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
931
82546
The Mechanical Properties of a Small-Size Seismic Isolation Rubber Bearing for Bridges
Abstract:
Taking a novel type of bridge bearings with the diameter being 100mm as an example, the theoretical analysis, the experimental research as well as the numerical simulation of the bearing were conducted. Since the normal compression-shear machines cannot be applied to the small-size bearing, an improved device to test the properties of the bearing was proposed and fabricated. Besides, the simulation of the bearing was conducted on the basis of the explicit finite element software ANSYS/LS-DYNA, and some parameters of the bearing are modified in the finite element model to effectively reduce the computation cost. Results show that all the research methods are capable of revealing the fundamental properties of the small-size bearings, and a combined use of these methods can better catch both the integral properties and the inner detailed mechanical behaviors of the bearing.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
930
82480
Improved Thermal Comfort and Sensation with Occupant Control of Ceiling Personalized Ventilation System: A Lab Study
Abstract:
This study aims at determining the extent to which occupant control of microenvironment influences, improves thermal sensation and comfort, and saves energy in spaces equipped with ceiling personalized ventilation (CPV) system assisted by chair fans (CF) or desk fan (DF). Sixteen subjects participated in 2 experiments in a climatic chamber equipped with two-station CPV systems, one that allows control of fan flow rate and the other is set at fixed fan speed to provide occupant comfort. Each experiment included two participants each entering the cooled space from transitional environment at a conventional mixed ventilation (MV) at 24 ◦C. For CPV diffuser, fresh air was delivered at a rate of 20 CFM and a temperature of 16 ◦C while the recirculated air was delivered at the same temperature but at a flow rate 150 CFM. The macroclimate air of the space was at 26 ◦C. The 20 CFM was considered the minimum fresh airflow air of the CPV and could be changed to 25 or 30 CFM through fan control system. A third experiment where the fresh airflow rate was changed was conducted be eight participants in the same CPV testing chamber. The full speed flow rates for both the CFs and DFs were at 5 CFM and 20 CFM, respectively. Occupant 1 was allowed to operate the CFs or the DFs at (1/3 of the full speed, 2/3 of the full speed, and the full speed) while occupant 2 had no control on the fans. In a separate experiment, occupant 1 controlled the CPV fresh airflow rate while occupant 2 did not control CPV flow rate. Occupants recorded their subjective votes of thermal sensation (TS) and overall thermal comfort (TC) over a period of one hour. The results showed that most participants who controlled the CFs did feel comfortable within the first 12 minutes. Nonetheless, all occupants who did control the CFs did feel comfortable or neutral within the first 30 minutes. The participants, who did not control the CF speeds, did feel comfortable faster than the ones who did. For the DF speed control experiments, most participants who had to control the DFs felt comfortable within the first 12 minutes. Unlike with CF, the participants who did not control the DF speeds, felt comfortable at the same rate as the ones who did not. More participants found that the CPV testing chamber was more comfortable than the conventional MV system, in fact, 87.5% of participants found the CPV+CF and CPV+DF more comfortable, while a range of 60-75% of participants found the MV system comfortable. Most participants in the experiment in which CPV control was considered felt warm or neutral at the beginning, and they reach a point of comfort, or slightly cool when the fresh cool air fan is turned on to 20 CFM. However, when the fresh airflow rate is increased, the up to 50% participants do start feeling cold, and uncomfortable.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
929
82327
Generating a Functional Grammar for Architectural Design from Structural Hierarchy in Combination of Square and Equal Triangle
Abstract:
Islamic culture was accountable for a plethora of development in astronomy and science in the medieval term, and in geometry likewise. Geometric patterns are reputable in a considerable number of cultures, but in the Islamic culture, the patterns have specific features that connect the Islamic faith to mathematics. In Islamic art, three fundamental figure shapes are generating from the circle shape: triangle, square and hexagon. Originating from their quiddity, each of these geometric shapes has its own specific structure. Even though the geometric patterns were generated from such simple forms as the circle and the square, but they can be combined, duplicated, interlaced, and arranged in intricate combinations. So in order to explain geometrical principles between square and equal triangle, in the first step all kinds of forces of each shape, then forces between them would be illustrated. In this analysis, some angles will be created from intersection of their directions. All angles are categorized into some groups, and the mathematical expressions among them are analyzed. Since the most geometric patterns in Islamic art and architecture are based on the repetition of a single motif, the evaluation results which are obtained from a small portion is attributable to a large scale domain while the development of infinitely repeating patterns can represent the unchanging laws. Geometric ornamentation in Islamic art offers the possibility of infinite growth and can accommodate the incorporation of other types of architectural layout as well, so the logic and mathematical relationships obtained from the analysis is applicable in designing some architecture layers and developing the plan design.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
928
82239
An Amphibious House for Flood Prone Areas in Godavari River Basin
Abstract:
In Andhra Pradesh traditionally, the flood problem had been confined to the flooding of smaller rivers. But the drainage problem in the coastal delta zones has worsened, multiplying the destructive potential of cyclones and increasing flood hazards. As a result of floods, the people living around these areas are forced to move out of their traditions in search of higher altitude places. This paper will be discussing about suitability of techniques used in Bangladesh in context of Godavari river basin in Andhra Pradesh. The study considers social, physical and environmental conditions of the region. The methods for achieving this objective includes the study of both cases from Bangladesh and Andhra Pradesh. Comparison with the existing techniques and suit to our requirements and context. If successful, we can adopt those techniques and this might help the people living in riverfront areas to stay safe during the floods without losing their traditional lands.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
927
82199
Transdisciplinarity Research Approach and Transit-Oriented Development Model for Urban Development Integration in South African Cities
Authors:
Abstract:
There is a need for academic research to focus on solving or contributing to solving real-world societal problems. Transdisciplinary research (TDR) provides a way to produce functional and applicable research findings, which can be used to advance developmental causes. This TDR study explores ways in which South Africa’s spatial divide, entrenched through decades of discriminatory planning policies, can be restructured to bring about equitable access to places of employment, business, leisure, and service for previously marginalised South Africans. It does by exploring the potential of the transit-orientated development (TOD) model to restructure and revitalise urban spaces in a collaborative model. The study focuses, through a case study, on the Du Toit station precinct in the town of Stellenbosch, on the peri-urban edge of the city of Cape Town, South Africa. The TOD model is increasingly viewed as an effective strategy for creating sustainable urban redevelopment initiatives, and it has been deployed successfully in other parts of the world. The model, which emphasises development density, diversity of land-use and infrastructure and transformative design, is customisable to a variety of country contexts. This study made use of case study approach with mixed methods to collect and analyse data. Various research methods used include the above-mentioned focus group discussions and interviews, as well as observation, transect walks This research contributes to the professional development of TDR studies that are focused on urbanisation issues.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
926
82003
Insight on Passive Design for Energy Efficiency in Commercial Building for Hot and Humid Climate
Authors:
Abstract:
Passive design can be referred to a way of designing buildings that takes advantage of the prevailing climate and natural energy resources. Which will be a key to reduce the increasing energy usage in commercial buildings. Most of the small scale commercial buildings made are merely a thermal mass inbuilt with active systems to bring lively conditions. By bringing the passive design strategies for energy efficiency in commercial buildings will reduce the usage of active systems. Thus the energy usage can be controlled through analysis of daylighting and improved living conditions in the indoor spaces by using passive techniques. And comparative study on different passive design systems and conventional methods will be approached for commercial buildings in hot and humid region. Possible effects of existing risks implied with solution for those problems is also a part of the paper. The result will be carried on with the design programme to prove the workability of the strategies.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
925
82001
Vegetation Integrated with Architecture: A Comparative Study in Vijayawada
Abstract:
Due to high dense areas, there is a continuous increase in the global warming and urban pollution, thus integrating green with the built environment is vital. The paper deals with the understanding of vegetation in architecture and how a proper design strategy can aim at improving not only the performances of buildings but also the outdoor climate. In the present scenario of cities, one cannot inhale pure air. Vegetations combat global warming by absorbing the carbon emitted by vehicles, lowering carbon emissions from fossil fuel-burning plants, and reducing the energy used for climate control in buildings by the use of plants which can reduce the carbon emission and thus, making the environment less polluted. A comparative study of areas, neighborhood and dwelling unit has been used as a scope for understanding different scenarios and scale. By comparing a system (area; building) with and without vegetation, and then finding out the difference. Understanding the Vijayawada city by taking its past and present conditions, and how these changes have affected the environment and people at a macro and micro level. Built environment and climactic performance at the building level and surrounding spaces are the areas that are covered in the study.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
924
81996
A Descriptive Study on Micro Living and Its Importance over Large Houses by Understanding Various Scenarios and Case Studies
Authors:
Abstract:
'Larger Houses Consume More Resources’ – both in construction and during operation. The most important aspect of smaller homes is that it uses less electricity and fuel for construction and maintenance. Here, an urban interpretation of the contemporary minimal existence movement is explained. In an attempt to restrict urban decay and to encourage inner-city renewal, the Tiny House principles are interpreted as alternative ways of dwelling in urban neighbourhoods. These tiny houses are usually pretty different from each other in interior planning, but almost similar in size. The disadvantage of large homes came up when people were asked to vacate as they were not able to pay the massive amount of mortgages. This made them reconsider their housing situation and discover the ideas of minimalism and the general rising inclination in environmental awareness that serve as the basis for the tiny house movement. One of the largest benefits of inhabiting a tiny house is the decrease in carbon footprint. Also, to increase social behaviour and freedom. It’s better for the environmental concern, financial concerns, and desire for more time and freedom. Examples of the tiny house village which are sustaining homeless population and the use of different reclaimed materials for the construction of these tiny houses are explained in the paper. It is proposed in the paper, that these houses will reflect the diversity while proposing an alternative model for the rehabilitation of decaying row-homes and the renewal of fading communities. The core objective is to design small or micro spaces for the economically backward people of the place and increase their social behaviour and freedom. Also, it’s better for the environmental concern, financial concerns, and desire for more time and freedom.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
923
81994
Understanding the Impact of Ambience, Acoustics, and Chroma on User Experience through Different Mediums and Study Scenarios
Abstract:
Humans that inhabit a designed space consciously or unconsciously accept the spaces which have an impact on how they perceive, feel and act accordingly. Spaces that are more interactive and communicative with the human senses become more interesting. Interaction in architecture is the art of building relationships between the user and the spaces. Often spaces are form-based, function-based or aesthetically pleasing spaces but they are not interactive with the user which actually has a greater impact on how the user perceives the designed space and appreciate it. It is very necessary for a designer to understand and appreciate the human character and design accordingly, wherein the user gets the flexibility to explore and experience it for themselves rather than the designed space dictating the user how to perceive or feel in that space. In this interaction between designed spaces and the user, a designer needs to understand the spatial potential and user’s needs because the design language varies with varied situations in accordance with these factors. Designers often have the tendency to construct spaces with their perspectives, observations, and sense the space in their range of different angles rather than the users. It is, therefore, necessary to understand the potential of the space by understanding different factors and improve the quality of space with the help of creating better interactive spaces. For an interaction to occur between the user and space, there is a need for some medium. In this paper, light, color, and sound will be used as the mediums to understand and create interactions between the user and space, considering these to be the primary sources which would not require any physical touch in the space and would help in triggering the human senses. This paper involves in studying and understanding the impact of light, color and sound on different typologies of spaces on the user through different findings, articles, case studies and surveys and try to get links between these three mediums to create an interaction. This paper also deals with understanding in which medium takes an upper hand in a varied typology of spaces and identify different techniques which would create interactions between the user and space with the help of light, color, and sound.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
922
81988
Urban City Centres: A Study of Centres and City Structure
Abstract:
Urban centre is one of the most important parts of the city where all the community activities take place. They are the active zones which enhance the structure of a city. The structure of the city refers to its form, mobility patterns, and concentration of people and lifestyles of people. The purpose of the research paper is to study how does the character or structure of city changes when a new centre is established. An attempt has been made to understand this by studying how the formation of centre has been changing the form or the structure of the city since the ancient times, what are the notions of a city and a centre by various architects, by studying the various models of the future city proposed by them. And then the data has been linked to how the formation of the new centres is changing the city. As the demands of the city are increasing, it also regulates how the new centres are formed. So both, the city and the centre are interdependent on each other.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
921
81979
The Role of Facades in Conserving the Image of the City
Authors:
Abstract:
The city is a blend of the possible interactions of the built form, open spaces and their spatial organization layout in a geographical area to obtain an integrated pattern and environment with building facades being a dominant figure in the body of a city. Façades of each city have their own inherent properties responsive to the human behaviour, weather conditions, safety factors, material availability and composition along with the necessary aesthetics in coordination with adjacent building facades. Cities experience a huge transformation in the culture, lifestyle; socioeconomic conditions and technology nowadays because of the increasing population, urban sprawl, industrialization, contemporary architectural style, post-disaster consequences, war reconstructions, etc. This leads to the loss of the actual identity and architectural character of the city which in turn induces chaos and turbulence in the city. This paper attempts to identify and learn from the traditional elements that would make us more aware of the unique identity of the local communities in a city. It further studies the architectural style, color, shape, and design techniques through the case studies of contextual cities. The work focuses on the observation and transformation of the image of the city through these considerations in the designing of the facades to achieve the reconciliation of the people with urban spaces.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):