Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 50278

Architectural and Environmental Engineering

874
85807
Survey of Related Field for Artificial Intelligence Window Development
Abstract:
To develop an artificial intelligence based automatic ventilation system, recent research trends were analyzed and analyzed. This research method is as follows. In the field of architecture and window technology, the use of artificial intelligence, the existing study of machine learning model and the theoretical review of the literature were carried out. This paper collected journals such as Journal of Energy and Buildings, Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, and articles published on Web-sites. The following keywords were searched for articles from 2000 to 2016. We searched for the above keywords mainly in the title, keyword, and abstract. As a result, the global artificial intelligence market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 14.0% from USD127bn in 2015 to USD165bn in 2017. Start-up investments in artificial intelligence increased from the US $ 45 million in 2010 to the US $ 310 million in 2015, and the number of investments increased from 6 to 54. Although AI is making efforts to advance to advanced countries, the level of technology is still in its infant stage. Especially in the field of architecture, artificial intelligence (AI) is very rare. Based on the data of this study, it is expected that the application of artificial intelligence and the application of architectural field will be revitalized through the activation of artificial intelligence in the field of architecture and window.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
873
84485
Case of an Engineering Design Class in Architectural Engineering
Abstract:
Most engineering colleges in South Korea have engineering design classes in order to develop and enhance a student's creativity and problem-solving ability. Many cases about engineering design class are shown in journals and magazines, but a case lasting many years is few. The engineering design class in the Department of Architectural Engineering, Jeju National University was open in 2009 and continues to this year. 3-5 teams in every year set up their problems found their solutions and produced good results. Three of the results obtained patents. The class also provides students with opportunities to improve communication skill because they have many discussions in solving their problems.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
872
83965
Strategies for Patient Families Integration in Caregiving: A Consensus Opinion
Abstract:
There is no reservation on the outstanding contribution of patient families to restoration of hospitalised patients, hence their consideration as an essential component of hospital ward regimen. The psychological and emotional support a patient requires has been found to be solely provided by the patients. However, consideration of their presence as one of the major functional requirements of an inpatient setting design have always been a source of disquiet, especially in developing countries where policies, norms and protocols of healthcare administration have no consideration for the patients’ family. This have been a major challenge to the hospital ward facilities, a concern for the hospital administration and patient management. The study therefore is aimed at obtaining a consensus opinion on the best approach for family integration in the design of an inpatient setting. A one day visioning charrette involving Architects, Nurses, Medical Doctors, Healthcare assistants and representatives from the Patient families was conducted with the aim of arriving at a consensus opinion on practical design approach for sustainable family integration. Patient’s family are found to be decisive character of hospital ward regimen that cannot be undermined. However, several challenges that impede family integration were identified and subsequently a recommendation for an ideal approach. This will serve as a guide to both architects and hospital management in implementing much desired Patient and Family Centred Care
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
871
83960
Installing Photovoltaic Panels to Generate Optimal Energy in SPAV Hostel, Vijayawada
Authors:
Abstract:
In this research paper, a procedure for installing and assessment of a solar PV plant to generate optimal solar energy SPAV hostel at Vijayawada city was analyzed. The hostel was experiencing power disruption and had a need for an unceasing energy source. The solar panel is one of the best solutions to obtain uninterrupted clean renewable energy for an institutional building as it neither makes din nor pollutes the atmosphere. The electricity usage per month was initially measured to discriminate the energy change. The solar array was installed with its financial and environmental assessment considering recent market prices. All the aspects related to a solar PV plant were considered for the feasibility and efficiency of PV plant near this site i.e., the orientation of the site, the size and shape of the terrace, the sun path were considered while installing panels. Various precautions were taken to intercept the factors which cause interference in energy generation, with respect to temperature, overshadowing, the wiring of panels, pollution etc. The solar panels were frequently installed, monitored and maintained properly to procure optimal energy output. Result obtained with the assessment of the proposed plant and deflation in the electric bill will show the maximal energy that can be generated in a month on that particular site.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
870
83642
Compromising Quality of Life in Low Income Settlement's: The Case of Ashrayan Prakalpa, Khulna
Abstract:
This study aims to demonstrate how top-down shelter policy and its resultant dwelling environment leads to ‘everyday compromise’ by the grassroots according to subjective (satisfaction) and objective (physical design elements and physical environmental elements) indicators, which are measured across three levels of the settlement; macro (Community), meso (Neighborhood or shelter/built environment) and micro (family). Ashrayan Prakalpa is a resettlement /housing project of Government of Bangladesh for providing shelters and human resources development activities like education, microcredit, and training programme to landless, homeless and rootless people. Despite the integrated nature of the shelter policies (comprises poverty alleviation, employment opportunity, secured tenure, and livelihood training), the ‘quality of life’ issue at the different levels of settlements becomes questionable. As dwellers of shelter units (although formally termed as ‘barracks’ rather shelter or housing) remain on the receiving end of government’s resettlement policies, they often involve with spatial-physical and socio-economic negotiation and assume curious forms of spatial practice, which often upholds contradiction with policy planning. Thus, policy based shelter force dwellers to persistently compromise with their provided built environments both in overtly and covertly. Compromising with prescribed designed space and facilities across living places articulated their negotiation with the quality of allocated space, built form and infrastructures, which in turn exert as less quality of life. The top-down shelter project, Dakshin Chandani Mahal Ashrayan Prakalpa at Dighalia Upazila, the study area located at the Eastern fringe area of Khulna, Bangladesh, is still in progress to resettle internally displaced and homeless people. In terms of methodology, this research is primarily exploratory and adopts a case study method, and an analytical framework is developed through the deductive approach for evaluating the quality of life. Secondary data have been obtained from housing policy analysis and relevant literature review, while key informant interview, focus group discussion, necessary drawings and photographs and participant observation across dwelling, neighborhood, and community level have also been administered as primary data collection methodology. Findings have revealed that various shortages, inadequacies, and negligence of policymakers force to compromise with allocated designed space, physical infrastructure and economic opportunities across dwelling, neighborhood and mostly community level. Thus, the outcome of this study can be beneficial for a global-level understating of the compromising the ‘quality of life’ under top-down shelter policy. Locally, for instance, in the context of Bangladesh, it can help policymakers and concerned authorities to formulate the shelter policies and take initiatives to improve the well-being of marginalized.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
869
82592
Study on Effectiveness of Strategies to Re-Establish Landscape Connectivity of Expressways with Reference to Southern Expressway Sri Lanka
Abstract:
Construction of highway is the most emerging development tendency in Sri Lanka. With these development activities, there are a lot of environmental and social issues started. Landscape fragmentation is one of the main issues that highly effect to the environment by the construction of expressways. Sri Lankan expressway system getting effort to treat fragmented landscape by using highway crossing structures. This paper designates, a highway post construction landscape study on the effectiveness of the landscape connectivity structures to restore connectivity. Geographic Information Systems (GIS), least cost path tool has been used in the selected two plots; 25km alone the expressway to identify animal crossing paths. Animal accident data use as measure for determining the most contributed plot for landscape connectivity. Number of patches, Mean patch size, Class area use as a parameter to determine the most effective land use class to reestablish the landscape connectivity. The findings of the research express scrub, grass and marsh were the most positively affected land use typologies for increase the landscape connectivity. It represents the growth increased by 8% within the 12 years of time. From the least cost analysis within the plot one, 28.5% of total animal crossing structures are within the high resistance land use classes. Southern expressway used reinforced compressed earth technologies for construction. It has been controlled the growth of the climax community. According to all findings, it could assume that involvement of the landscape crossing structures contributes to re-establish connectivity, but it is not enough to restore the majority of disturbance performed by the expressway. Connectivity measures used within the study can use as a tool for re-evaluate future involvement of highway crossing structures. Proper placement of the highway crossing structures leads to increase the rate of connectivity. The study recommends that monitoring the all stages (preconstruction, construction and post construction) of the project and preliminary design, and the involvement of the research applied connectivity assessment strategies helps to overcome the complication regarding the re-establishment of landscape connectivity using the highway crossing structures that facilitate the growth of flora and fauna.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
868
82563
A Study of the Relationship between Habitat Patch Metrics and Landscape Connectivity with Reference to Colombo Wetlands Sri Lanka
Abstract:
Natural Landscape fragmentation and habitat loss are emerging issues in Sri Lanka, which is due to rapid urban development and inadequate concern of managing Landscape connectivity. Urban Wetlands are the most vulnerable ecosystem effects from the fragmentation. Therefore, management of landscape connectivity with proper analysis and understanding has become a most important measure for urban wetland habitats. This study aimed to introduce spatial planning strategy to identify and locate landscape developments appropriately in order to restore landscape connectivity. Therefore, the study focuses on understanding the relationship between habitat patch metrics and landscape connectivity with reference to Colombo wetlands. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to measure the wetland patch metrics; Patch area, Total edge, Perimeter-area ratio, Core area index and Inter-patch distances. Further, GIS-enabled least-cost path tool was used to measure the Landscape connectivity and calculate the number of species flow paths per wetland patch. According to the research findings; increasing the patch area, maintaining a mean perimeter-area ratio and core area index also reducing the inter-patch distances could enhance the landscape connectivity. Further, this study introduces three patch typologies; ‘active patches,' ‘open patches’ and ‘closed patches’ that severs to landscape connectivity in different levels. In the end, the study proposes a strategy for Landscape Architects to select most suitable locations to implement ecological based landscape developments with adjacent to the existing urban habitat in order to enhance habitat patch metrics and to restore the landscape connectivity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
867
82327
Generating a Functional Grammar for Architectural Design from Structural Hierarchy in Combination of Square and Equal Triangle
Abstract:
Islamic culture was accountable for a plethora of development in astronomy and science in the medieval term, and in geometry likewise. Geometric patterns are reputable in a considerable number of cultures, but in the Islamic culture, the patterns have specific features that connect the Islamic faith to mathematics. In Islamic art, three fundamental figure shapes are generating from the circle shape: triangle, square and hexagon. Originating from their quiddity, each of these geometric shapes has its own specific structure. Even though the geometric patterns were generated from such simple forms as the circle and the square, but they can be combined, duplicated, interlaced, and arranged in intricate combinations. So in order to explain geometrical principles between square and equal triangle, in the first step all kinds of forces of each shape, then forces between them would be illustrated. In this analysis, some angles will be created from intersection of their directions. All angles are categorized into some groups, and the mathematical expressions among them are analyzed. Since the most geometric patterns in Islamic art and architecture are based on the repetition of a single motif, the evaluation results which are obtained from a small portion is attributable to a large scale domain while the development of infinitely repeating patterns can represent the unchanging laws. Geometric ornamentation in Islamic art offers the possibility of infinite growth and can accommodate the incorporation of other types of architectural layout as well, so the logic and mathematical relationships obtained from the analysis is applicable in designing some architecture layers and developing the plan design.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
866
82001
Vegetation Integrated with Architecture: A Comparative Study in Vijayawada
Abstract:
Due to high dense areas, there is a continuous increase in the global warming and urban pollution, thus integrating green with the built environment is vital. The paper deals with the understanding of vegetation in architecture and how a proper design strategy can aim at improving not only the performances of buildings but also the outdoor climate. In the present scenario of cities, one cannot inhale pure air. Vegetations combat global warming by absorbing the carbon emitted by vehicles, lowering carbon emissions from fossil fuel-burning plants, and reducing the energy used for climate control in buildings by the use of plants which can reduce the carbon emission and thus, making the environment less polluted. A comparative study of areas, neighborhood and dwelling unit has been used as a scope for understanding different scenarios and scale. By comparing a system (area; building) with and without vegetation, and then finding out the difference. Understanding the Vijayawada city by taking its past and present conditions, and how these changes have affected the environment and people at a macro and micro level. Built environment and climactic performance at the building level and surrounding spaces are the areas that are covered in the study.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
865
81996
A Descriptive Study on Micro Living and Its Importance over Large Houses by Understanding Various Scenarios and Case Studies
Authors:
Abstract:
'Larger Houses Consume More Resources’ – both in construction and during operation. The most important aspect of smaller homes is that it uses less electricity and fuel for construction and maintenance. Here, an urban interpretation of the contemporary minimal existence movement is explained. In an attempt to restrict urban decay and to encourage inner-city renewal, the Tiny House principles are interpreted as alternative ways of dwelling in urban neighbourhoods. These tiny houses are usually pretty different from each other in interior planning, but almost similar in size. The disadvantage of large homes came up when people were asked to vacate as they were not able to pay the massive amount of mortgages. This made them reconsider their housing situation and discover the ideas of minimalism and the general rising inclination in environmental awareness that serve as the basis for the tiny house movement. One of the largest benefits of inhabiting a tiny house is the decrease in carbon footprint. Also, to increase social behaviour and freedom. It’s better for the environmental concern, financial concerns, and desire for more time and freedom. Examples of the tiny house village which are sustaining homeless population and the use of different reclaimed materials for the construction of these tiny houses are explained in the paper. It is proposed in the paper, that these houses will reflect the diversity while proposing an alternative model for the rehabilitation of decaying row-homes and the renewal of fading communities. The core objective is to design small or micro spaces for the economically backward people of the place and increase their social behaviour and freedom. Also, it’s better for the environmental concern, financial concerns, and desire for more time and freedom.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
864
81955
Analyzing the Ancient Islamic Architectural Theories: Role of Geometric Proportionality as a Principle of Islamic Design
Authors:
Abstract:
Majority of the modern-day structures have less aesthetical value with minimum requirements set by foreign tribes. Numerous elements of traditional architecture can be incorporated into modern designs using appropriate principles to improve and enhance the functionality, aesthetics, and usability of any space. This paper reviews the diminishing ancient values of the traditional Islamic architecture. By introducing them into the modern-day structures like commercial, residential and recreational spaces in at least the Islamic states, the functionality of those spaces can be improved. For this, aspects like space planning, aesthetics, scale, hierarchy, value, and patterns are to be experimented with modern day structures. Case studies of few ancient Islamic architectural marvels are done to elaborate the whole. A brief analysis of materials and execution strategies are also a part of this paper. The analysis is formulated and is ready to design or redesign spaces using traditional Islamic principles and Elements of design to improve the quality of the architecture of modern day structures by studying the ancient Islamic architectural theories. For this, sources from the history and evolution of this architecture have been studied. Also, elements and principles of design from case studies of various mosques, forts, tombs, and palaces have been tabulated. All this data accumulated, will help revive the elements decorated by ancient principles in functional and aesthetical ways. By this, one of the most astonishing architectural styles can be conserved, reinstalled into modern day buildings and remembered.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
863
81902
Multi-Factor Optimization Method through Machine Learning in Building Envelope Design: Focused on Perforated Metal Façade
Abstract:
Because the building envelope has a significant impact on the operation and maintenance stage of the building, designing the facade considering the performance can improve the performance of the building and lower the maintenance cost of the building. In general, however, optimizing two or more performance factors confronts the limits of time and computational tools. The optimization phase typically repeats infinitely until a series of processes that generate alternatives and analyze the generated alternatives achieve the desired performance. In particular, as complex geometry or precision increases, computational resources and time are prohibitive to find the required performance, so an optimization methodology is needed to deal with this. Instead of directly analyzing all the alternatives in the optimization process, applying experimental techniques (heuristic method) learned through experimentation and experience can reduce resource waste. This study proposes and verifies a new method to optimize the double envelope of a building composed of a perforated panel using machine learning to the design geometry and quantitative performance. This method is a method to allocate fewer resources by complementing the existing method which cannot calculate the complex geometry of the perforated panel.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
862
81879
Morphological Investigation of Sprawling Along Emerging Peri-Urban Transit Corridor of Mowe-Ibafo Axis of the Lagos Megacity Region
Abstract:
The city as a complex system exhibiting chaotic behaviour is in a state of constant change, in response to prevailing social, economic, environmental and technological factors. Without adequate investigation and control mechanisms to tame the sporadic nature of growth in most urban areas of cities in developing regions, organic sprawling visibly manifests with its attendant problems, most especially at peri-urban areas. The Lagos Megacity region in southwest Nigeria, as one of the largest megacities in the world contends with the challenges of sprawling at the peri-urban areas especially along emerging transit corridors. Due to the seemingly unpredictable nature of this growth, this paper attempts a morphological investigation into the growth of peri-urban settlements along the Mowe-Ibafo transit corridor of the Megacity region over a temporal space of three decades (1984-2014). This study adopts the application of the Fractal Analysis and Regression Analysis methods through the correlation of population density and fractal dimension values to establish the pattern and nature of growth, due to the inadequacies of conventional methods of urban analysis which cannot deal with the unpredictability of such complex urban forms as the peri-urban areas. It was deduced that the dynamic urban expansion in the last three decades resulted in about 74.2% urban change rate between 1984 and 2000 and 63.4% urban change rate between 2000 and 2014. With the R2 value between the fractal dimension and population density been 1, the regression model indicates a positive correlation between Fractal Dimension (D) and Population Density (pop/km2), where the increase in the population density from 5740 pop/km2 to 8060 pop/km2 and later decrease to 7580 pop/km2 leads to an increase in the fractal dimension of urban growth from 1.451 in 1984 to 1.853 in 2014. This, therefore, justifies the ability to predict and determine the nature and direction of growth of complex entities and is sufficient to substantially suggest the need for adequate policy framework towards sustainable urban planning and infrastructural provision in the Peri-urban areas.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
861
81874
Impact of Elements of Rock and Water Combination on Landscape Perception: A Visual Landscape Quality Assessment on Kaludiya Pokuna in Sri Lanka
Abstract:
Landscape architecture needs to encompass a placemaking process carefully composing and manipulating landscape elements to address perceptual needs of humans, especially aesthetic, psychological and spiritual. The objective of this qualitative investigation is to inquire the impact of elements of rock and water combination on landscape perception and related feelings, emotions, and behavior. The past empirical studies have assessed the impact of landscape elements in isolation on user preference, yet the combined effect of elements have been less considered. This research was conducted with reference to the verity of qualities of water and rock through a visual landscape quality assessment focusing on landscape qualities derived from five visual concepts (coherence, historicity imageability, naturalness, and ephemera). 'Kaludiya Pokuna' archeological site in Anuradhapura was investigated with a sample of University students (n=19, male 14, female 5, age 20-25) using a five-point Likert scale via a perception based questionnaire and a visitor employed photographic survey (VEP). Two hypothetical questions were taken into investigation concerning biophilic (naturalness) and topophilic (historicity) aspects of humans to prefer a landscape with rock and water. The findings revealed that this combination encourages both biophilic and topophilic aspects, but in varying degrees. The identified hierarchy of visual concepts based on visitor’s preference signify coherence (93%), historicity (89%), imageability (79%), naturalness (75%) and ephemera (70%) respectively. It was further revealed that this combination creates a scenery more coherent dominating information processing aspect of humans to perceive a landscape over the biophilic and topophilic aspects. Different characteristics and secondary landscape effects generated by rock and water combination were found to affect in transforming a space into a place, full filling the aesthetic and spiritual aspects of the visitors. These findings enhance a means of making places for people, resource management and historical landscape conservation. Equalization of gender based participation, taking diverse cases and increasing the sample size with more analytical photographic analysis are recommended to enhance the quality of further research.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
860
81506
A Simple Approach to Establish Urban Energy Consumption Map Using the Combination of LiDAR and Thermal Image
Abstract:
Due to the urban heat island effect caused by highly development of city, the heat stress increased in recent year rapidly. Resulting in a sharp raise of the energy used in urban area. The heat stress during summer time exacerbated the usage of air conditioning and electric equipment, which caused more energy consumption and anthropogenic heat. Therefore, an accurate and simple method to measure energy used in urban area can be helpful for the architectures and urban planners to develop better energy efficiency goals. This research applies the combination of airborne LiDAR data and thermal imager to provide an innovate method to estimate energy consumption. Owing to the high resolution of remote sensing data, the accurate current volume and total floor area and the surface temperature of building derived from LiDAR and thermal imager can be herein obtained to predict energy used. In the estimate process, the LiDAR data will be divided into four type of land cover which including building, road, vegetation, and other obstacles. In this study, the points belong to building were selected to overlay with the land use information; therefore, the energy consumption can be estimated precisely with the real value of total floor area and energy use index for different use of building. After validating with the real energy used data from the government, the result shows the higher building in high development area like commercial district will present in higher energy consumption, caused by the large quantity of total floor area and more anthropogenic heat. Furthermore, because of the surface temperature can be warm up by electric equipment used, this study also applies the thermal image of building to find the hot spots of energy used and make the estimation method more complete.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
859
80866
Climate-Responsive Building Design and Its Performance: Rofaa Village as a Case Study, Sudan
Authors:
Abstract:
In Sudan, Green architecture is still at an experimental stage and cannot be defined correctly green architecture. In addition, energy consumption for buildings rapidly rises due to the in inappropriate using and understanding of techniques and materials. When designing an environmentally friendly building, the use of right design and green technologies should have high consideration. Sustainable or green buildings design elements vary from climate to climate. This paper analyses 'Rofaa Village', the project that designed based on the traditional buildings elements in dry- hot regions, as a great sample of the connection between architectural design and energy efficiency by analyzing design strategies of the village, which influence and affect its energy performance. Achieving thermal comfort with energy consumption in a hot dry climate like Sudan requires a sustainable reduction in heat and solar gains with optimization of cooling. This study will find the effective ways to deal with this climate Phenomena and the use of passive cooling systems to increase the Comfort Zone and reduce energy consumptions. Techniques like natural ventilation, shading devices, and wind towers can optimize thermal comfort in hot- dry climates. Results of this study can affect building common building design ideas and could help increase the awareness about the importance of low energy buildings.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
858
80695
Traditional Drawing, BIM and Erudite Design Process
Abstract:
Nowadays, parametric design, scientific analysis, and digital fabrication are dominant. Many architectural practices are increasingly seeking to incorporate advanced digital software and fabrication in their projects. Proposing an erudite design process that combines digital and practical aspects in a strong frame within the method was resulted from the dissertation research. The digital aspects are the progressive advancements in algorithm design and simulation software. These aspects have assisted the firms to develop more holistic concepts at the early stage and maintain collaboration among disciplines during the design process. The erudite design process enhances the current design processes by encouraging the designer to implement the construction and architecture knowledge within the algorithm to make successful design processes. The erudite design process also involves the ongoing improvements of applying the new method of 3D printing in construction. This is achieved through the ‘data-sketches’. The term ‘data-sketch’ was developed by the author in the dissertation that was recently completed. It accommodates the decisions of the architect on the algorithm. This paper introduces the erudite design process and its components. It will summarize the application of this process in development of the ‘3D printed construction unit’. This paper contributes to overlaying the academic and practice with advanced technology by presenting a design process that transfers the dominance of tool to the learned architect and encourages innovation in design processes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
857
80644
A Study on Performance Prediction in Early Design Stage of Apartment Housing Using Machine Learning
Abstract:
As the development of information and communication technology, the convergence of machine learning of the ICT area and design is attempted. In this way, it is possible to grasp the correlation between various design elements, which was difficult to grasp, and to reflect this in the design result. In architecture, there is an attempt to predict the performance, which is difficult to grasp in the past, by finding the correlation among multiple factors mainly through machine learning. In architectural design area, some attempts to predict the performance affected by various factors have been tried. With machine learning, it is possible to quickly predict performance. The aim of this study is to propose a model that predicts performance according to the block arrangement of apartment housing through machine learning and the design alternative which satisfies the performance such as the daylight hours in the most similar form to the alternative proposed by the designer. Through this study, a designer can proceed with the design considering various design alternatives and accurate performances quickly from the early design stage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
856
80557
The Methodology of Hand-Gesture Based Form Design in Digital Modeling
Abstract:
As the digital technology develops, studies on the TUI (Tangible User Interface) that links the physical environment utilizing the human senses with the virtual environment through the computer are actively being conducted. In addition, there has been a tremendous advance in computer design making through the use of computer-aided design techniques, which enable optimized decision-making through comparison with machine learning and parallel comparison of alternatives. However, a complex design that can respond to user requirements or performance can emerge through the intuition of the designer, but it is difficult to actualize the emerged design by the designer's ability alone. Ancillary tools such as Gaudí's Sandbag can be an instrument to reinforce and evolve emerged ideas from designers. With the advent of many commercial tools that support 3D objects, designers' intentions are easily reflected in their designs, but the degree of their reflection reflects their intentions according to the proficiency of design tools. This study embodies the environment in which the form can be implemented by the fingers of the most basic designer in the initial design phase of the complex type building design. Leapmotion is used as a sensor to recognize the hand motions of the designer, and it is converted into digital information to realize an environment that can be linked in real time in virtual reality (VR). In addition, the implemented design can be linked with Rhino™, a 3D authoring tool, and its plug-in Grasshopper™ in real time. As a result, it is possible to design sensibly using TUI, and it can serve as a tool for assisting designer intuition.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
855
80398
Application of the Standard Deviation in Regulating Design Variation of Urban Solutions Generated through Evolutionary Computation
Abstract:
Computational applications of natural evolutionary processes as problem-solving tools have been well established since the mid-20th century. However, their application within architecture and design has only gained ground in recent years, with an increasing number of academics and professionals in the field electing to utilize evolutionary computation to address problems comprised from multiple conflicting objectives with no clear optimal solution. Recent advances in computer science and its consequent constructive influence on the architectural discourse has led to the emergence of multiple algorithmic processes capable of simulating the evolutionary process in nature within an efficient timescale. Many of the developed processes of generating a population of candidate solutions to a design problem through an evolutionary based stochastic search process are often driven through the application of both environmental and architectural parameters. These methods allow for conflicting objectives to be simultaneously, independently, and objectively optimized. This is an essential approach in design problems with a final product that must address the demand of a multitude of individuals with various requirements. However, one of the main challenges encountered through the application of an evolutionary process as a design tool is the ability for the simulation to maintain variation amongst design solutions in the population while simultaneously increasing in fitness. This is most commonly known as the ‘golden rule’ of balancing exploration and exploitation over time; the difficulty of achieving this balance in the simulation is due to the tendency of either variation or optimization being favored as the simulation progresses. In such cases, the generated population of candidate solutions has either optimized very early in the simulation, or has continued to maintain high levels of variation to which an optimal set could not be discerned; thus, providing the user with a solution set that has not evolved efficiently to the objectives outlined in the problem at hand. As such, the experiments presented in this paper seek to achieve the ‘golden rule’ by incorporating a mathematical fitness criterion for the development of an urban tissue comprised from the superblock as its primary architectural element. The mathematical value investigated in the experiments is the standard deviation factor. Traditionally, the standard deviation factor has been used as an analytical value rather than a generative one, conventionally used to measure the distribution of variation within a population by calculating the degree by which the majority of the population deviates from the mean. A higher standard deviation value delineates a higher number of the population is clustered around the mean and thus limited variation within the population, while a lower standard deviation value is due to greater variation within the population and a lack of convergence towards an optimal solution. The results presented will aim to clarify the extent to which the utilization of the standard deviation factor as a fitness criterion can be advantageous to generating fitter individuals in a more efficient timeframe when compared to conventional simulations that only incorporate architectural and environmental parameters.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
854
80329
Furnishing The Envelope; 3D Printed Construction Unit as Furniture
Abstract:
The paper presents the construction unit that was proposed as a result of researching and finding solutions for challenges of the traditional masonry unit. The concept of ‘unit as arrangements of cells’ was investigated in four categories of structure, handling and assembly, thermal characteristics and weather ability which resulted in construction unit as an independent system which shapes a part of the envelope. Comparing to the traditional wall systems in which the system is in layers, the part system is a monolithic piece by itself. Even though the overall wythe-10 inches- is less than the combined layers-14 inches- in a traditional wall system, it is still seen as a spatial component. The component as a furnishing of envelope is discussed from material application point of view. The algorithm definition of the arrangement cells crafts the relationship between cells and functionality with material. This craft is realized as the envelope furnishing. Three alternative materials in relation to furnishing the envelope are discussed for printing the construction unit; transparent plastic, opaque plastic and glass. The qualities vary in the four categories, however this paper focuses on the visual qualities of materials applied. In a diagram the qualities of the materials are compared in relation to each other.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
853
80247
A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment: The Design of a High Performance Building Envelope and the Impact on Operational and Embodied Energy
Abstract:
The construction and operation of buildings greatly contribute to environmental degradation through resource and energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The design of the envelope system affects the environmental impact of a building in two major ways; 1) high thermal performance and air tightness can significantly reduce the operational energy of the building and 2) the material selection for the envelope largely impacts the embodied energy of the building. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a scientific methodology that is used to systematically analyze the environmental load of processes or products, such as buildings, over their life. The paper will discuss the results of a comparative LCA of different envelope designs and the long-term monitoring of the Wood Innovation Research Lab (WIRL); a Passive House (PH), industrial building under construction in Prince George, Canada. The WIRL has a footprint of 30m x 30m on a concrete raft slab foundation and consists of shop space as well as a portion of the building that includes a two-story office/classroom space. The lab building goes beyond what was previously thought possible in regards to energy efficiency of industrial buildings in cold climates due to their large volume to surface ratio, small floor area, and high air change rate, and will be the first PH certified industrial building in Canada. These challenges were mitigated through the envelope design which utilizes solar gains while minimizing overheating, reduces thermal bridges with thick (570mm) prefabricated truss walls filled with blown in mineral wool insulation and a concrete slab and roof insulated with EPS rigid insulation. The envelope design results in lower operational and embodied energy when compared to buildings built to local codes or with steel. The LCA conducted using Athena Impact Estimator for Buildings identifies project specific hot spots as well illustrates that for high-efficiency buildings where the operational energy is relatively low; the embodied energy of the material selection becomes a significant design decision as it greatly impacts the overall environmental footprint of the building. The results of the LCA will be reinforced by long-term monitoring of the buildings envelope performance through the installation of temperature and humidity sensors throughout the floor slab, wall and roof panels and through detailed metering of the energy consumption. The data collected from the sensors will also be used to reinforce the results of hygrothermal analysis using WUFI®, a program used to verify the durability of the wall and roof panels. The WIRL provides an opportunity to showcase the use of wood in a high performance envelope of an industrial building and to emphasize the importance of considering the embodied energy of a material in the early stages of design. The results of the LCA will be of interest to leading researchers and scientists committed to finding sustainable solutions for new construction and high-performance buildings.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
852
80083
Assessment of Noise Pollution in the City of Biskra, Algeria
Abstract:
In this research, a quantitative assessment of the urban sound environment of the city of Biskra, Algeria, was conducted. To determine the quality of the soundscape based on in-situ measurement, using a Landtek SL5868P sound level meter in 47 points, which have been identified to represent the whole city. The result shows that the urban noise level varies from 55.3 dB to 75.8 dB during the weekdays and from 51.7 dB to 74.3 dB during the weekend. On the other hand, we can also note that 70.20% of the results of the weekday measurements and 55.30% of the results of the weekend measurements have levels of sound intensity that exceed the levels allowed by Algerian law and the recommendations of the World Health Organization. These very high urban noise levels affect the quality of life, the acoustic comfort and may even pose multiple risks to people's health.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
851
80034
Vermicomposting of Textile Industries’ Dyeing Sludge by Using Eisenia foetida
Abstract:
Surat City in India is famous for textile and dyeing industries which generate textile sludge in huge quantity. Textile sludge contains harmful chemicals which are poisonous and carcinogenic. The safe disposal and reuse of textile dyeing sludge are challenging for owner of textile industries and government of the state. The aim of present study was the vermicomposting of textile industries dyeing sludge with cow dung and Eisenia foetida as earthworm spices. The vermicompost reactor of 0.3 m3 capacity was used for vermicomposting. Textile dyeing sludge was mixed with cow dung in different proportion, i.e., 0:100 (C1), 10:90 (C2), 20:80 (C3), 30:70 (C4). Vermicomposting duration was 120 days. All the combinations of the feed mixture, the pH was increased to a range 7.45-7.78, percentage of total organic carbon was decreased to a range of 31-33.3%, total nitrogen was decreased to a range of 1.15-1.32%, total phosphorus was increased in the range of 6.2-7.9 (g/kg).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
850
79723
Procedure for Impact Testing of Fused Recycled Glass
Abstract:
Recycled glass material is made from 100% recycled bottle glass and consumes less energy than re-melt technology. It also uses no additives in the manufacturing process allowing the recycled glass material, in principal, to go back to the recycling stream after end-of-use, contributing to the circular economy with a low ecological impact. The aim of this paper is to investigate the procedure for testing the recycled glass material for impact resistance, so it can be applied to pavements and other surfaces which are at risk of impact during service. A review of different impact test procedures for construction materials was undertaken, comparing methodologies and international standards applied to other materials such as natural stone, ceramics and glass. A drop weight impact testing machine was designed and manufactured in-house to perform these tests. As a case study, samples of the recycled glass material were manufactured with two different thicknesses and tested. The impact energy was calculated theoretically, obtaining results with 5 and 10 J. The results on the material were subsequently discussed. Improvements on the procedure can be made using high speed video technology to calculate velocity just before and immediately after the impact to know the absorbed energy. The initial results obtained in this procedure were positive although repeatability needs to be developed to obtain a correlation of results and finally be able to validate the procedure. The experiment with samples showed the practicality of this procedure and application to the recycled glass material impact testing although further research needs to be developed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
849
79410
Isogeometric Topology Optimization in Cracked Structures Design
Abstract:
In the present study, the isogeometric topology optimization is proposed for cracked structures through using Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP) as a design model. Design density variables defined in the variable space are used to approximate the element analysis density by the bivariate B-spline basis functions. The mathematical formulation of topology optimization problem solving minimum structural compliance is an alternating active-phase algorithm with the Gauss-Seidel version as an optimization model of optimality criteria. Stiffness and adjoint sensitivity formulations linked to strain energy of cracked structure are proposed in terms of design density variables. Numerical examples demonstrate interactions of topology optimization to structures design with cracks.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
848
79395
Recycled Aggregates from Construction and Demolition Waste in the Production of Concrete Blocks
Abstract:
The construction industry generates large amounts of waste, usually mixed, which can be composed of different origin materials, most of them catalogued as non-hazardous. The European Union targets for this waste for 2020 have been already achieved by the UK, but it is mainly developed in downcycling processes (backfilling) whereas upcycling (such as recycle in new concrete batches) still keeps at a low percentage. The aim of this paper is to explore further in the use of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW) in concrete mixes so as to improve upcycling. A review of most recent research and legislation applied in the UK is developed regarding the production of concrete blocks. As a case study, initial tests were developed with a CDW recycled aggregate sample from a CDW plant in Swansea. Composition by visual inspection and sieving tests of two samples were developed and compared to original aggregates. More than 70% was formed by soil waste from excavation, and the rest was a mix of waste from mortar, concrete, and ceramics with small traces of plaster, glass and organic matter. Two concrete mixes were made with 80% replacement of recycled aggregates and different water/cement ratio. Tests were carried out for slump, absorption, density and compression strength. The results were compared to a reference sample and showed a substantial reduction of quality in both mixes. Despite that, the discussion brings to identify different aspects to solve, such as heterogeneity or composition, and analyze them for the successful use of these recycled aggregates in the production of concrete blocks. The conclusions obtained can help increase upcycling processes ratio with mixed CDW as recycled aggregates in concrete mixes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
847
79309
Simultaneous Removal of Phosphate and Ammonium from Eutrophic Water Using Dolochar Based Media Filter
Abstract:
With the aim of enhancing the nutrient (ammonium and phosphate) removal from eutrophic wastewater with reduced cost, a novel media based multistage bio filter with drop aeration facility was developed in this work. The bio filter was packed with a discarded sponge iron industry by product, ‘dolochar’ primarily to remove phosphate via physicochemical approach. In the multi stage bio-filter drop, aeration was achieved by the process of percolation of the gravity-fed wastewater through the filter media and dropping down of wastewater from stage to stage. Ammonium present in wastewater got adsorbed by the filter media and biomass grown on the filter media and subsequently, got converted to nitrate through biological nitrification in the aerobic condition, as realized by drop aeration. The performance of the bio-filter in treating real eutrophic wastewater was monitored for a period of about 2 months. The influent phosphate concentration was in the range of 16-19 mg/L, and ammonium concentration was in the range of 65-78 mg/L. The average nutrient removal efficiency observed during the study period were 95.2% for phosphate and 88.7% for ammonium, with mean final effluent concentration of 0.91, and 8.74 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, the subsequent release of nutrient from the saturated filter media, after completion of treatment process has been undertaken in this study and thin layer funnel analytical test results reveal the slow nutrient release nature of spent dolochar, thereby, recommending its potential agricultural application. Thus, the bio-filter displays immense prospective for treating real eutrophic wastewater, significantly decreasing the level of nutrients and keeping the effluent nutrient concentrations at par with the permissible limit and more importantly, facilitating the conversion of the waste materials into usable ones.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
846
78963
An Assessment of Redevelopment of Cessed Properties in the Island City of Mumbai, India
Authors:
Abstract:
Mumbai is one of the largest cities of the country with a population of 12.44 million over 437 Sq.km, and it is known as financial hub of India. In early 20th century, with the expansion of industrialization and growth of port, a huge demand for housing was created. In response to this, government enacted rent controls. Over a period of time, due to rent controls, the existing rental housing stock has deteriorated. Therefore, in last 25 years, government has been focusing on redevelopment of these rental buildings, also called ‘Cessed buildings’, in order to provide better standard of living to the tenants and also, to supply new housing units in the market. In India, developers are the main players in the housing market as they are the supplier of maximum dwelling units in the market. Hence, government attempts are inclined toward facilitating developers for the cessed building redevelopment projects by incentivizing them through making special provisions in the development control regulations. This research focuses on the entire process of redevelopment by the developers and issues faced by the related stakeholders in the same to reduce the stress on housing. It also highlights the loopholes in the current system and inefficient functioning of the process. The research was carried out by interviewing various developers, tenants and landlords in the island city who have already gone through redevelopment. From the case studies, it is very evident that redevelopment is undoubtedly a huge profit making business. In some cases, developers make profit of almost double the amount of the investment. But yet, satisfactory results are not seen on ground. It clearly indicates that there are some issues faced by developers which have not been addressed. Some of these issues include cumbersome legal procedures, negotiations with landlords and tenants, congestion and narrow roads, small size of the plots, informal practicing of ‘Pagdi system’ and financial viability of the project. This research recommends the up gradation of the existing cessed buildings by sharing the repairing and maintenance cost between landlords and tenants and also, income levels of tenants can be traced and housing vouchers or incentives can be provided to those who actual need it so that landlord does not have to subsidize the tenants. For redevelopment, the current interventions are generalized in nature as it does not take on ground issues into the consideration. There is need to identify local issues and give area specific solutions. And also, government should play a role of mediator to ensure all the stakeholders are satisfied and project gets completed on time.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
845
78913
Fire Resistance Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Member Strengthened by Fiber Reinforced Polymer
Abstract:
Currently, FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) materials have been widely used for reinforcement of building structural members. However, since the FRP and the epoxy material for attaching it have very low resistance to heat, there is a problem in application where high temperature is an issue. In this paper, the resistance performance of FRP member made of carbon fiber at high temperature was investigated through experiment under temperature change. As a result, epoxy encapsulating FRP is damaged at not high temperatures, and the fibers are degraded. Therefore, when reinforcing a structure using FRP, a separate refractory heat treatment is necessary. The use of a 30 mm thick calcium silicate board as a fireproofing method can protect FRP up to 600ᵒC outside temperature.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):