The Intensity of Lighting and Its Impact on the Quality of Production and Workers Healthy
Lighting has an important role in improving the performance of employees and ensuring their safety. Therefore, the facilities are interested in improving the quality of lighting. Countries also set lighting standards for different activities. In this research, we measured lighting in several work sites, including factories, assembly sites, workshops and study places, and compared the lighting readings with the recommended values. The results indicate that lighting does not receive sufficient attention in the design of the factory, and the maintenance of lighting devices is almost non-zero, which makes lighting measurements are low for the standards only some exceptional cases, which can explain the improvement of lighting because of the presence of windows that allow natural light to pass. These windows may not work when the weather is not sunny. Therefore, we believe that many measures have been taken to improve the quality of lighting.
Bio-Inspired Design Approach Analysis; Case Studies: Antoni Gaudi and Santiago Calatrava
Antoni Gaudi and Santiago Calatrava have reputation for designing bio-inspired creative and technical buildings. Even though they have followed different independent approaches towards design, the source of bio-inspiration seems to be common. Taking a closer look at their projects reveals that Calatrava has been influenced by Gaudi in terms of interpreting nature and applying natural principles into the design process. This research firstly discusses the dialogue between biomimicry and architecture. This review also explores human/nature discourse during the history by focusing on how nature revealed itself to the fine arts. This is explained by introducing naturalism and romantic style in architecture as the outcome of designers’ inclination towards nature. Reviewing the literature, theoretical background and practical illustration of nature have been included. The most dominant practical aspects of imitating nature are form and function. As the literature suggests, symbolic mimesis (imitating nature’s patterns and shapes) is not a new idea and architects have always been inspired by natural forms, structures, and functions. Nature has been reflected in architectural science resulted in shaping different architectural styles such as organic, green, sustainable, bionic, and biomorphic. By defining a set of common aspects of Gaudi and Calatrava‘s design approach and by considering biomimetic design categories (organism, ecosystem, and behaviour as the main division and form, function, process, material, and construction as subdivisions), Gaudi and Calatrava’s project have been analysed. This analysis explores if their design approaches are equivalent or different. Based on this analysis, Gaudi’s architecture can be recognised as biomorphic while Calatrava’s projects are literally biomimetic. Referring to these architects, this review suggests a new set of principles by which a bio-inspired project can be determined either biomorphic or biomimetic.
Gap between Knowledge and Behaviour in Recycling Domestic Solid Waste: Evidence from Manipal, India
In the educational town of Manipal (located in southern India) households dispose their wastes without segregation. Mixed wastes (organic, inorganic and hazardous items) are collected either by private collectors or by the local municipal body in trucks and taken to dump yards. These collectors select certain recyclables from the collected trash and sell them to scrap merchants to earn some extra money. Rag pickers play a major role in picking up card board boxes, glass bottles and milk sachets from dump yards and public areas and scrap iron from construction sites for recycling. In keeping with the Indian Prime Minister’s mission of Swachh Bharat (A Clean India), the local municipal administration is taking efforts to ensure segregation of domestic waste at source. With this in mind, each household in a residential area in Manipal was given two buckets – for wet and dry wastes (wet waste referred to organic waste while dry waste included recyclable and hazardous items). A study was conducted in this locality covering a cluster of 145 households to assess the residents’ knowledge of recyclable, organic and hazardous items commonly disposed by households. Another objective of this research was to evaluate the extent to which the residents actually dispose their wastes appropriately. Questionnaires were self-administered to a member of each household with the assistance of individuals speaking the local language whenever needed. Respondents’ knowledge of whether an item was organic, inorganic or hazardous was captured through a questionnaire containing a list of 50 common items. Their behaviour was captured by asking how they disposed these items. Results show that more than 70% of respondents are aware that banana and orange peels, potato skin, egg shells and dried leaves are organic; similarly, more than 70% of them consider newspapers, notebook and printed paper are recyclable. Less than 65% of respondents are aware that plastic bags and covers and plastic bottles are recyclable. However, the results of the respondents’ recycling behaviour is less impressive. Fewer than 35% of respondents recycle card board boxes, milk sachets and glass bottles. Unfortunately, since plastic items like plastic bags and covers and plastic bottles are not accepted by scrap merchants, they are not recycled. This study shows that the local municipal authorities must find ways to recycle plastic into products, alternate fuel etc.
Social Sustainability Quotient of Vertical Habitats
With increasing immigration to urban areas, every city is experiencing shortage of housing. Vertical habitats are the only solution to this problem, it is hence important to make sure that these habitats are environmentally, socially and economically sustainable. A lot of work on vertical habitats has already been carried out in terms of environmental and economic sustainability, hence this research aims to study the aspects of social sustainability of the vertical habitats. It being the least studied topic, opens many reals of novelty and uniqueness. In this Research, user perception survey and various mapping methods have been used to study the social sustainability of the existing vertical habitats in the selected cities. The various aspects that can be used to define social sustainability of any place include; safety, equity, accessibility, legibility, imagibility, readability, memorability and ease of movement. This research would help to evolve new strategies in form of design and/or guidelines to make the existing vertical habitats socially sustainable.
Adaptive Architecture: Reformulation of Socio-Ecological Systems
This multidisciplinary study interrogates the reformulation of socio-ecological systems by bringing different disciplines together and incorporating ecological, social, and technological components to the sustainable design. The study seeks for a holistic sustainable system to understand the multidimensional impact of the evolving innovative technologies on responding to the variable socio-environmental conditions. Through a range of cases, from the vernacular built spaces to the sophisticated optimized systems, the research unfolds how far the environmental elements would impact the performance of a sustainable building, its micro-climatic ecological requirements, and its human inhabitation. As a product of the advancing technologies, an optimized and environmentally responsive building offers new identification, and realization of the built space through reformulating the connection to its internal and external environments (such as solar, thermal, and airflow), as well as its dwellers. The study inquires properties of optimized buildings, by bringing into the equation not only the environmental but also the socio-cultural, morphological, and phenomenal factors. Thus, the research underlines optimized built space as a product and practice which would not be meaningful without addressing and dynamically adjusting to the diversity and complexity of socio-ecological systems.
Disaster Mitigation from an Analysis of a Condemned Building Erected over Collapsible Clay Soil in Brazil
Differential settlement of foundations is a serious pathology in buildings that put at risk lives and property. A common reason for the occurrence of this specific pathology in central Brazil is the presence of collapsible clay, a typical soil in the region. In this study, the foundation of a condemned building erected above this soil is analyzed. The aim is to prevent problems in new constructions, to predict which buildings may be subjected to damages, and to make possible a more precise treatment in less advanced differential settlements observed in the buildings of the vicinity, which includes a hospital, a Military School, an indoor sporting arena, the Police Academy, and the Military Police Headquarters. The methodology consists of visual inspection, photographic report of the main pathologies, analysis of the existing foundations, determination of the soil properties, the study of the cracking level and assessment of structural failure risk of the building. The findings show that the presence of water weaken the soil structure on which the foundation rest, being the main cause of the pathologic settlement, indicating that even in a one store building it was necessary to consider deeper digging, other categories of foundations, and more elaborated and detailed foundation plans when the soil presents this behavior.
Urbanization and House Water Supply in Nigeria
The world is becoming increasingly urbanized and Nigeria is not left out. One of the indicators of human developments is housing and as such, water is needed by households for survival. This Paper assesses sources of water being used by residents in the newly urbanized areas of Ogbomoso, Southwest, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used and Oke-Adunin Community was purposively selected for the study as it has large concentration of staff and students of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology. The area was captured with Google earth and two hundred and twenty two inhabited houses were found. Questionnaire was the instrument for data collection which was administered using total enumeration technique. Data obtained however, were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistical analyses. Findings revealed that most of the respondents were male, while 36.03% house owners were between the ages of 46 and 55 years. Sources of water used by residents include well (56.94%), water vendors (17.77%), rain (15.29%) and borehole (3.72%). Distance travelled by house owners to sources of water was as high as 5.06 metres, resulting into stress (30.00 %), depression (25.00%) and aggressiveness (18.75%). Result of correlation analysis between the sources of water of respondents and disease prevalence showed that both rain water and water vendor had very strong positive correlation with typhoid, diarrhea and dysentery, while well water only had positive correlation with dysentery. Recommendations were therefore, proffered towards solving the problems associated with water in the area.
Impact of Farm Settlements' Facilities on Farm Patronage in Oyo State
The youths’ prevalent negative attitude to farming is partly due to amenities and facilities found in the urban centers at the expense of the rural areas. Hence, there is the need to create a befitting and conducive farm environment to retain farm employees and attract the youth to farming. This can be achieved through the provision of services and amenities that will ensure a comfortable standard of living higher than that obtained by a person of equal status in other forms of employment in urban centers, thereby eliminating the psychological feeling of lowered self-esteem associated with farming. This study assessed farm settlements’ facilities and patronage in Oyo State with a view to using the information to encourage sustainable agriculture in Nigeria. The study becomes necessary because of the dearth of information on the state of facilities in the farm settlements as it affects patronage of farm settlements for sustainable agriculture in the developing countries like Nigeria. The study utilized three purposely selected farm settlements- Ogbomoso, Fasola and Ilora out of the seven existing ones n Oyo State. One hundred percent (100%) of the 262 residential buildings in the three settlements were sampled, from where a household head from each of the buildings was randomly chosen. This translates to 262 household heads served with questionnaire out of which 47.7% of the questionnaires were recovered. Information obtained included respondents’ residency categories, residents’ status, residency years, housing types, types of holding and number of acres/holding. Others include the socio-economic attributes such as age, gender, income, educational status of respondents, assessment of existing facilities in the selected sites, the level of patronage of the farm settlements including perceived pull factors that can enhance farm settlements patronage. The study revealed that the residents were not satisfied with the adequacy and quality of all the facilities available in their settlements. Residents’ satisfaction with infrastructural facilities cannot be statistically linked with location across the study area. Findings suggested that residents of Ogbomoso farm settlements were not enjoying adequate provision of water supply and road as much as those from Ilora and Fasola. Patronage of the farm settlements were largely driven by farming activities and sale of farm produce. The respondents agreed that provision of farm resort centers, standard recreational and tourism facilities, vacation employment opportunities for youths, functional internet and communication networks among others are likely to boost the level of patronage of the farm settlements. The study concluded that improvement of the facilities both in quality and quantity will encourage the youths in going back to farming. It then recommends that maintenance of existing facilities and provision of more facilities such as resort centers be ensured.
Residents' Satisfaction with Infrastructural Facilities in the Peri-Urban Area of Ibadan, Southwest of Nigeria
This study examines residents’ assessment of with infrastructural facilities in the urban fringe of Ibadan, Nigeria. Random sampling technique was used in selecting four Local Government Areas out of the six suburban LGAs of the city. Google earth and ground trotting were used in capturing and selecting seven hundred and forty-two new houses. The questionnaires administered on house owners were harvested on the spot. The information collected includes socio-economic and demographic characteristics of residents as well as characteristics of infrastructural facilities. The study utilised both descriptive and inferential statistical analyses; Facility Availability Index (FAI) Facility Functionality Index (FFI) and Residents’ Satisfactions Index (RSI) were used to compare respectively residents’ perceived levels of availability of, the functionality of, and satisfaction with facilities across Local Government Areas. The study shows that levels of both availability of, and satisfaction with infrastructural facilities are low with respective overall FAI (0.8) and RSI (0.05), while the functionality of the facilities is generally very poor IFFI = - 0.58). Strategies were proposed to enhance the good, livable, and healthy environment.
Thoughts on the Degree of Openness for Opening Residential District from the Perspective of Landscape Design
The development of opening residential district is the inevitable trend in China. The landscape resources in opening districts are the main resource for their sharing. However, there is a certain contradiction between the ideal of urban development and the reality of constraints. How to find a balance, to ensure a reasonable open ‘degree’ is particularly important. The opening residential district landscape design should reflect the relative independence of living space, taking into account the basic needs of residents; but also the integration of space, resource sharing, to ensure that the order of daily life on the basis of social interaction and adapt to the dynamic development of the city changes. And ultimately to achieve a reasonable degree of openness to settlements.
Redefinition of Village Landscape with Wreckage - Taking Cunwei Village in Nanping City, Fujian Province as Example
Nowadays, villages still occupying 94.7% of the national territorial area (almost nine million square kilometers) of China. Some of them are meeting urbanization and grow as satellite, however, others are witnessing more and more citizens swarming into with nostalgia,seek enjoyment from the beautiful green countryside. In villages, new types of house come and we see billions of old houses lay unused, or even be dying at every second,which cause a lot of ‘bad palaces’, decadent and dangerous. In this context, there are lots of tries for gearing villages in China. This article deconstructs the traditional village house to excavate its’ landscape potential for future. By research in CunWei Village, Nanping City, Fujian Province, China, a method of reconstruction for old houses comes out: the wreckage will be a strong landscape,showing the great beauty of nature. It will be a better use of the old material as well as the space pattern. It was supposed to gain a juxtaposition of traditional villages life and modern social life by offering possibilities of multiple event,replacing the bad space to attractive one by strengthen the old structures without destroy traditional patterns. Furthermore, this method acts as a exploring for building redefinition of village landscape that fit Chinese villages, using local nature resource and traditional construction logic.
Elements of Successful Commercial Streets: A Socio-Spatial Analysis of Commercial Streets in Cairo
Historically, marketplaces were the most important nodes and focal points of cities, where different activities took place. Commercial streets offer more than just spaces for shopping; they also offer choices for social activities and cultural exchange. They are considered the backbone of the city’s vibrancy and vitality. Despite that, the public life in Cairo’s commercial streets has deteriorated, where the shopping activities became reliant mainly on 'planned formal places', mainly in privatized or indoor spaces like shopping malls. The main aim of this paper is to explore the key elements and tools of assessing the successfulness of commercial streets in Cairo. The methodology followed in this paper is based on a case study methodology (multiple cases) that is based on assessing and analyzing the physical and social elements in historical and contemporary commercial streets in El Muiz Street and Baghdad Street in Cairo. The data collection is based on personal observations, photographs, maps and street sections. Findings indicate that the key factors of analyzing commercial streets are factors affecting the sensory experience, factors affecting the social behavior, and general aspects that attract people. Findings also indicate that urban features have clear influence on shopping pedestrian activities in both streets. Moreover, in order for a commercial street to be successful, shopping patterns must provide people with a quality public space that can provide easy navigation and accessibility, good visual continuity, and well-designed urban features and social gathering. Outcomes of this study will be a significant endeavor in providing a good background for urban designers on analyzing and assessing successfulness of commercial streets. The study will also help in understanding the different physical and social pattern of vending activities taking place in Cairo.
The Interrelations between Niemeyer’s works and the Concept of Typology: A Computer-Based Analysis of Form and Structure
While the aim of the modernist movement was to deny known typology, the creation of a new formal language also gave it new meaning, which was now related to Form. This is specifically true in the modern capital of Brazil, where Niemeyer sought to demonstrate the manner in which the new materials available, such as reinforced concrete, were able to produce innovative forms. With this study, we aim to demonstrate the relationship between Niemeyer’s forms and the topological typology known as tessellation, through the presentation of two case studies, the Monument to Caxias and the Saint George Orthodox Church. At a first glance, our purpose is to present the definition of Form, especially with relationship to the works of Niemeyer, seeking to identify in them the concepts presented by Moussavi. Afterwards, we will use a computer-based approach to study and model the forms of two of his buildings with the McNeel Rhinoceros program, where, with the aid of diagrams and renderings, we will be able to clearly and legibly represent their organic forms and further understand their structural systems. When we recognise the concept of typology as a starting point for structural form, it can be concluded that the case studies presented here are encompassed by the typology presented by Moussavi since they derive from his basic structural systems.
A Study on the Strategy of Pocket Park in the Renewal of Old City in China
In recent years, the tendency that the decline of material and social vitality of old city in China becomes more and more serious. Nowadays, transformation and renewal of the old city have become a hot topic in urban research. The traditional mode of large-scale promotion has been criticized. Thus, exploration of new ways to update the city turns to be a necessity on the way of sustainable urban development. Pocket Park is a small city open space, its location choose is based on abandoned or idle lands on urban structure, is scattered or hidden in corner of the urban. It has a great significance on improving the old city environment. Based on the theory of ‘pocket park’, this paper summarizes the successful experience of domestic and foreign practice, and discusses the update strategies which are suitable for China's national conditions according to the characteristics and predicament of the old city in China. The main methods and results are as follows: 1)Based on the conception of ‘pocket park’, though describing the research status in domestic and foreign, summarizing the experience which is worth learning and existing problems. 2) From the analysis of ‘pocket park’ function, general design principles and types of the deep-seated difficulties in renewal the old city and the possibility of the application of ‘pocket park’,the varied implementation of ‘pocket park’ form are established, and application value in the old city renewal are summed up. 3) It can’t be denied that pocket park plays an irreplaceable role in solving the recession and renewing the vitality of the old city. Anymore, It is recommended to develop corresponding supportive development policies.
Sustainable Accommodation Design: Improving Residential Property Shortage for Low-Income People in Nigeria
The development of the residential property is very expensive in Nigeria, especially as it is observed in Port Harcourt, although it is also investment costly in the other cities of Nigeria. The costly development nature incidentally reasons to the high deficits in residential property availability and affordability for the low-income people. Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to provide sustainable accommodation design, which should improve residential property expensiveness and shortages for the low-income people. This is achieved through investigation of the tangible requirements and needs of the end-user of the property (low-income people), which thereafter would enhance sustainable and affordable residential property accommodation design for the end-users. Both the quantitative and qualitative instruments of data collection were utilised. The quantitative instrument via questionnaires was designed to examine the real needs and r requirement of the low-income people. However, the qualitative instrument via structured interview was espoused for the gathering of professionals’ opinions on the three predicted sustainable accommodation design alternatives. The analysis employed content analysis parameters, which offered a sustainable accommodation design and designed alternatives minimises costs and environmental impacts whereas exploiting the social satisfaction in residential accommodation developments. The finding underscores that sustainable accommodation design and development is practicable in Nigeria, so that cost of residential accommodation provided through this system is cheap to the low-income people. Further, erection of multi-storey residential accommodation units such as bedsit structure by utilising the concrete frame structure and building the internal and external walls with hollow concrete blocks within areas 60-130 square meters is encouraged. This paper philosophy indicates that by using sustainable accommodation design practices in Nigeria, improvements in the costs and shortages of residential accommodation can be attained for low-income people. However, policies support the government cannot be overemphasised for proper implementation of the suggested scheme.
Assessment of Urban Heat Island through Remote Sensing in Nagpur Urban Area Using Landsat 7 ETM+ Satellite Images
Urban Heat Island (UHI) is found more pronounced as a prominent urban environmental concern in developing cities. To study the UHI effect in Indian context, Nagpur urban area has been explored in this paper using Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite images through Remote Sensing and GIS techniques. Paper intends to study the effect of LU/ LC pattern on daytime Land Surface Temperature (LST) variation, contributing UHI formation within Nagpur Urban area. Supervised LU/ LC area classification was carried to study urban Change detection using ENVI 5. Change detection has been studied by carrying Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to understand the proportion of vegetative cover with respect to built-up ratio. Detection of spectral radiance from the thermal band of satellite images was processed to calibrate LST. Specific representative areas on the basis of urban built-up and vegetation classification were selected for observation of point LST. Entire Nagpur urban area shows that, as building density increases with decrease in vegetation cover, LST increases, thereby causes UHI effect. UHI intensity has been gradually increased by 0.7 °C during 2000 and 2006. But drastic increase has been observed with difference of 1.8 °C during 2006 and 2013. Within Nagpur urban area, UHI effect was formed due to increase in building density and decrease in vegetative cover.
Sustainable Housing in Steel: Prospects for Future World of Developing Countries
Developing countries are having significant additions to existing population of urban areas with loads of migrants from rural areas. There is a tremendous need to provide accommodation facility to cater to rapidly growing urban population. This leads to unprecedented growth in urban areas since the temporary shelters are constructed with any available material. Architecture in a broader sense serves to humanity in terms of making life of people happy and comfortable by providing comfortable shelters. It is also the need of the time for an architect to be extremely sensitive towards nature by providing design solution of human shelters with minimum impact on the environment. The sensitive approach towards designing of housing units and provision of comfortable and affordable housing units should go hand in hand for future growth of developing countries. Steel has proved itself a versatile material in terms of strength, uniformity and ease of operation and many such other advantages. Steel can be used as the most promising material for modern construction practices. The current research paper focuses on how effectively steel can be used probably in combination with other construction material to achieve the mentioned objectives for sustainable housing. The research available on sustainable housing in steel is studied along with few case studies of buildings with the efficient use of steel providing a solution with affordability and minimum harm to the environment. The research will conclude the effective solutions exploring possibilities of use of steel for sustainable housing units. The researcher shows how the use of steel in combination with other materials for human shelters can promote sustainable housing for community living which is the need of the time.
Place Attachment and Residential Satisfaction in Old Residential Buildings: A Case of Pune City
Old buildings have significance in many aspects. The manifold significance may include historic, architectural and cultural aspects. In a cultural city like Pune, India, numerous residential buildings exist in the core city whose age may range between 60-100 years. These represent the city’s history and culture. Most of them are still in use as residential buildings with adaptations in various degrees. Some of these buildings are enlisted as ‘Heritage Buildings’ by local municipal authority. However, there are number of buildings that have heritage value although they are not enlisted as heritage sites. A lot of these buildings have already been pulled down for several reasons such as end of technical life, inadequacy for users, increasing floor area ratios, inflating land prices and changing lifestyles etc. Literature suggest that place attachment and residential satisfaction are positively related. It also indicates that length of residency is positively correlated with the place attachment. Residential satisfaction is associated with number of factors including socio demographic characteristics of users, housing characteristics, neighborhood characteristics and behavioral characteristics. This research paper poses an inquiry about the dynamics of co-relation between place attachment and residential satisfaction in case of old residential buildings. The motive of this enquiry is to examine if place attachment can serve as a strong ground for restoration of these old buildings and evade the devastation of emblems of cultural heritage of the city. The methodology includes questionnaire survey of users as well as a qualitative assessment regarding place attachment and residential satisfaction. About 20 residential buildings in the core city of Pune are selected for this purpose. The results of survey are analyzed and conclusions are drawn.
Critical Temperature Evaluation for Steel Sway Frame Exposed to Fire
Three alternative design approaches to estimate the critical temperature of a steel sway frame load-bearing structure when exposed to fire are presented and discussed in detail. The first one deals with a classical first-order analysis according to which the member buckling lengths are identified, while the second and also the third ones with the other, second-order design techniques. The formal distinction between the second and the third procedures used in this paper lies in the complexity of the adopted computational model. In the first case, only the amplification coefficient is calculated, separately for each frame beam level, and finally the ordinary static analysis is performed but for the amplified load arrangement. In the second case, the analogous analysis is much more complex because the so called arc-length method is used to solve a system of non-linear equations in Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis 2010 software, so also the higher-order effects are additionally taken into account. All considered approaches are illustrated and compared one to another, both qualitatively and quantitatively, due to the presentation of a numerical example which deals with the prediction of the behaviour under fire conditions of two-aisle and two-storey steel sway frame structure. The main objective of the authors is to show in this paper that the value of the sought critical temperature of the whole frame, i.e. such the reference temperature value for which the fire resistance limit state of the examined structure is reached, strongly depends not only on the accurate reduction of mechanical properties characterizing the structural steel the considered frame is made of but also on the suitable joint stiffness decrease modelling for fire conditions when the temperature of the frame members is increasing. To do this two alternative joint formal models are taken into account in the analysis for comparative purposes. It is accepted that all beam-to-column joints designed in the frame have the same scheme. However, in the first model they are treated as fully-rigid during the whole time of a fire exposure. The second model is connected with the consideration of real joint flexibility which depends on the actual member temperature. In the second design model all beam-to-column joints are adopted to be the end-plate semi-rigid ones. Such choice is determined by the authors’ attainability to the experimentally obtained characteristics, representing by the set of the bending moment – member temperature – joint rotation curves given in the professional literature. The fully developed fire is modelled in the whole frame first floor area. This means that the second-story columns as well as the beams supporting the upper frame floor are perfectly isolated against the fire exposure so only the steel members localized inside the building first floor volume are monotonically heated by fire. The level of the frame external loading is accepted to be constant during fire and also to be independent on fire intensity.
Study of Environmental Impact Assessment Cases of Malaysia, Scotland and Pakistan
Environmental Impact Assessment worldwide known by its abbreviation EIA is a planning tool to sustain the natural environment in its outstanding place by evaluating the consequences of a planned activity before putting into practice. Today the developed countries, as well as the developing countries, are undertaking EIA as the precautionary measure to judge the aftereffects of new developments at the planning stage ensuring the well-being of ecosystems. The origin of EIA took place in 1969 in the form of a domestic law by the United States through initiating National Environmental Policy Act. Over the time period of many years, now many countries including the third world countries have started following the US set example by incorporating the study of EIA into their officially authorized system. In addition to this, a number of researches have revealed that EIA can play an important role in contributing sustainable environment by supporting the technical and scientific understanding and their improvement in different fields, providing guidance in concept and design of development projects, enhancing the governance of system and most importantly by modifying the attitudes of the society. For this reason, the role of EIA in the social, economic and environmental sectors has become significant. It would be interesting to look into how the different countries are implementing this concern in their institutions. In this regard, cases of Scotland, Malaysia and Pakistan are taken into account for the study of EIA.
Power of Doubling: Population Growth and Resource Consumption
Sustainability starts with conserving resources for the future generations. Since human’s existence on this earth, he has been consuming natural resources. The resource consumption pace in the past was very slow. Industrialization in eighteenth century brought change in the human lifestyle. New inventions and discoveries upgraded human workforce to machines. Mass manufacture of the goods provided easy access to the products. In the last few decades, the globalization and change in technologies brought consumer oriented market. The consumption of the resources has increased at a very high scale. This overconsumption pattern brought economic boom and provided multiple opportunities, but it also put stress on the natural resources. This paper tries to put forth the facts and figures of the population growth and consumption of the resources with examples. This is explained with the help of mathematical expression of doubling known as exponential growth. It compares the carrying capacity of the earth and resource consumption by human i.e ecological footprint and bio-capacity. Further, it presents the need to conserve the natural resources and re-examine sustainable resource use approach for sustainability.
The Methodology of Finger-Gesture Based Form Making in Digital Modeling
As the digital technology develops, studies on the TUI (Tangible User Interface) that links the physical environment utilizing the human senses with the virtual environment through the computer are actively being conducted. In addition, there has been a tremendous advance in computer design through the use of computer-aided design techniques, which enable optimized decision-making through comparison with machine learning and parallel comparison of alternatives. However, a complex design that can respond to user requirements or performance can emerge through the intuition of the designer, but it is difficult to actualize the emerged design by the designer's ability alone. Ancillary tools such as Gaudí's Sandbag can be an instrument to reinforce and evolve emerged ideas from designers. With the advent of many commercial tools that support 3D objects, designers' intentions are easily reflected in their designs, but the degree of their reflection reflects their intentions according to the proficiency of design tools. This study embodies the environment in which the form can be implemented by the hand of the most basic designer in the initial design phase of the complex type building design. Leapmotion is used as a sensor to recognize the hand motions of the designer, and it is converted into digital information to realize an environment that can be linked in real time in virtual reality (VR). In addition, the implemented design can be linked with Rhinoᵀᴹ, a 3D authoring tool, and its plug-in Grasshopperᵀᴹ in real time. As a result, it is possible to work sensibly using TUI, and it can serve as a tool for assisting designer intuition.
A Study on the Correlation Analysis between the Pre-Sale Competition Rate and the Apartment Unit Plan Factor through Machine Learning
The development of information and communication technology also affects human cognition and thinking, especially in the field of design, new techniques are being tried. In architecture, new design methodologies such as machine learning or data-driven design are being applied. In particular, these methodologies are used in analyzing the factors related to the value of real estate or analyzing the feasibility in the early planning stage of the apartment housing. However, since the value of apartment buildings is often determined by external factors such as location and traffic conditions, rather than the interior elements of buildings, data is rarely used in the design process. Therefore, although the technical conditions are provided, the internal elements of the apartment are difficult to apply the data-driven design in the design process of the apartment. As a result, the designers of apartment housing were forced to rely on designer experience or modular design alternatives rather than data-driven design at the design stage, resulting in a uniform arrangement of space in the apartment house. The purpose of this study is to propose a methodology to support the designers to design the apartment unit plan with high consumer preference by deriving the correlation and importance of the floor plan elements of the apartment preferred by the consumers through the machine learning and reflecting this information from the early design process. The data on the pre-sale competition rate and the elements of the floor plan are collected as data, and the correlation between pre-sale competition rate and independent variables is analyzed through machine learning. This analytical model can be used to review the apartment unit plan produced by the designer and to assist the designer. Therefore, it is possible to make a floor plan of apartment housing with high preference because it is possible to feedback apartment unit plan by using trained model when it is used in floor plan design of apartment housing.
Study on Eco-Feedback of Thermal Comfort and Cost Efficiency for Low Energy Residence
China with annual increasing 0.5-0.6 billion squares city residence has brought in enormous energy consumption by HVAC facilities and other appliances. In this regard, governments and researchers are encouraging renewable energy like solar energy, geothermal energy using in houses. However, high cost of equipment and low energy conversion result in a very low acceptable to residents. So what’s the equilibrium point of eco-feedback to reach economic benefit and thermal comfort? That is the main question should be answered. In this paper, the objective is an on-site solar PV and heater house, which has been evaluated as a low energy building. Since HVAC system is considered as main energy consumption equipment, the residence with 24-hour monitoring system set to measure temperature, wind velocity and energy in-out value with no HVAC system for one month of summer and winter. Thermal comfort time period will be analyzed and confirmed; then the air-conditioner will be started within thermal discomfort time for the following one summer and winter month. The same data will be recorded to calculate the average energy consumption monthly for a purpose of whole day thermal comfort. Finally, two analysis work will be done: 1) Original building thermal simulation by computer at design stage with actual measured temperature after construction will be contrastive analyzed; 2) The cost of renewable energy facilities and power consumption converted to cost efficient rate to assess the feasibility of renewable energy input for residence. The results of the experiment showed that a certain deviation exists between actual measured data and simulated one for human thermal comfort, especially in summer period. Moreover, the cost-effectiveness is high for a house in targeting city Guilin now with at least 11 years of cost-covering. The conclusion proves that an eco-feedback of a low energy residence is never only consideration of its energy net value, but also the cost efficiency that is the critical factor to push renewable energy acceptable by the public.
Health Benefit and Mechanism from Green Open Space: A Pathway to Connect Health to Design and Planning
In the highly urbanized district, green open space is playing an important role in human’s health and wellbeing as a physical, aesthetic and natural environment resources. The aim of this paper is to close this gap through providing a comprehensive, qualitative meta-analysis of existing studies related to this issue. A systematic scoping of current quantitative research is conducted which mostly focused on cross-sectional survey and experimental studies. Health benefits from contact with green open space could be categorized into physical health, psychological health and social wellbeing. Mechanism for the health related to green open space could be clearly identified with the regard to natural restoration, physical activities and social capital. These results indicate a multiple pathways framework between the health benefits and mechanism. In order to support design and planning, the most evident relationship was picked up that people could psychologically benefit from green open space through outdoors physical activities. Additionally, three design and planning strategies are put forward. Various and multi-level contacts with green open space would be considered as an explanation of the pathway results and tie to bridge the health to design and planning. There is a need to carry out long-term research emphasizing on causal relationship between health and green open space through excluding cofounding factors such as self-selection.
Landscape Reconstruction with Village Wreckage: Taking Villages House in Nanping City, Fujian Province as Example
Nowadays, China still owns almost 50% of its population living in villages ,occupying 94.7% of the national territorial area(almost 900 million square kilometer).The best answer for sustainable development of China’s urban must lay on the reconstruction of village .The villages witness more and more citizens swarming into ,bring with badly pollution and loss of traditional life custom. New types of house come and we see billions of old houses lay unused ,or even be dying at every second,which cause great obstruction of development. In this context, there are lots of tries for gearing villages in China. This article deconstructs the traditional village house to excavate its’ potential for future.By researching in three villages in Nanping City, Fujian Province, China, a method of reconstruction for old houses comes out: the wreckage will be a strong landscape or part of sharing space ,showing the great beauty of nature and make better use of the old material. It was supposed to gain a juxtaposition of traditional villages life and modern social life,.replacing the bad space to a attractive one. Furthermore , this method acts as a exploring for building new type of sustainable development in a low-technology way by mainly using local nature resource and traditional construction logic.
Sustainable Strategies for Post-Disaster Shelters: Case Study-Based Review and Future Prospects
When disasters occur, it is important to provide temporary shelters to protect victims from their environment and to comfort them with privacy and dignity. However, the commonly used shelters like tents and shanties can not ensure a comfortable condition. Furthermore, the demand for more energy and less pollution has become a major challenge. Focusing on the sustainable of temporary shelters, this study intends to clarify the essential role of temporary shelters before the reconstruction work is done. The paper also identifies the main problems from three aspects including spatial layout, thermal comfort and utilization of passive technology. Moreover, it expounds the passive strategies of ecological design by case study and simulation. It is found that the living condition of shelters can be improved from the perspective of architectural space, ventilation theory and construction techniques. Regardless of being temporary, these shelters are crucial elements in emergency situations and should be taken more seriously.
Exploring Methods for Urbanization Of 'Village in City' in China: A Case Study of Hangzhou
After the economic reform in 1978, the urbanization in China has grown fast. It urged cities to expand in an unprecedented high speed. Villages around were annexed unprepared, and it turned out to be a new type of community called 'village in city.' Two things happened here. First, the locals gave up farming and turned to secondary industry and tertiary industry, as a result of losing their land. Secondly, attracted by the high income in cities and low rent here, plenty of migrants came into the community. This area is important to a city in rapid growth for providing a transitional zone. But thanks to its passivity and low development, 'village in city' has caused lots of trouble to the city. Densities of population and construction are both high, while facilities are severely inadequate. Unplanned and illegal structures are built, which creates a complex mixed-function area and leads to a bad residential area. Besides, the locals have a strong property right consciousness for the land. It holds back the transformation and development of the community. Although the land capitalization can bring significant benefits, it’s inappropriate to make a great financial compensation to the locals, and considering the large population of city migrants, it’s important to explore the relationship among the 'village in city,' city immigrants and the city itself. Taking the example of Hangzhou, this paper analyzed the developing process, functions spatial distribution, industrial structure and current traffic system of 'village in city.' Above the research on the community, this paper put forward a common method to make urban planning through the following ways: adding city functions, building civil facilities, re-planning functions spatial distribution, changing the constitution of local industry and planning new traffic system. Under this plan, 'village in city' finally can be absorbed into cities and make its own contribution to the urbanization.
Compact Settlement: The Direction of Chinese Future Urban Residential Area Sustainable Development
Residential area construction links many problems such as population resources, ecology, social values, public services and transportation in the city. After Chinese housing reform, a large number of residential area development accompanied by the loss of agricultural and ecological land. To explore the future of Chinese urban residential area, this article concentrates on how the 'Compact Settlement' behaves in improving the living environment and saving the resources. Through the research of residential area in Hangzhou, there are some determines that increasing the development intensity of the area can indeed bring some improvement in the overall environment. In conclusion, possible design alternatives are discussed for leading Chinese urban development towards a more sustainable path.
Investigating Informal Vending Practices and Social Encounters along Commercial Streets in Cairo, Egypt
Marketplaces and commercial streets represent some of the most used and lively urban public spaces. Not only do they provide an outlet for commercial exchange, but they also facilitate social and recreational encounters. Such encounters can be influenced by both formal as well as informal vending activities. This paper explores and documents forms of informal vending practices and how they relate to social patterns that occur along the sidewalks of Commercial Streets in Cairo. A qualitative single case study approach of ‘Midan El Gami’ marketplace in Heliopolis, Cairo is adopted. The methodology applied includes direct and walk-by observations for two main commercial streets in the marketplace. Four zoomed-in activity maps are also done for three sidewalk segments that displayed varying vending and social features. Main findings include a documentation and classification of types of informal vending practices as well as a documentation of vendors’ distribution patterns in the urban space. Informal vending activities mainly included informal street vendors and shop spillovers, either as product or seating spillovers. Results indicated that staying and lingering activities were more prevalent in sidewalks that had certain physical features, such as diversity of shops, shaded areas, open frontages, and product or seating spillovers. Moreover, differences in social activity patterns were noted between sidewalks with street vendors and sidewalks with spillovers. While the first displayed more buying, selling, and people watching activities, the latter displayed more social relations and bonds amongst traders’ communities and café patrons. Ultimately, this paper provides a documentation, which suggests that informal vending can have a positive influence on creating a lively commercial street and on resulting patterns of use on the sidewalk space. The results can provide a basis for further investigations and analysis concerning this topic. This could aid in better accommodating informal vending activities within the design of future commercial streets.