Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 53145

Architectural and Environmental Engineering

882
94720
Compromising Quality of Life in Low-Income Settlements: The Case of Ashrayan Prakalpa, Khulna
Abstract:
Quality of life is a vast and comprehensive concept refers overall well-being of society. Current research and efforts of policymakers and planners are concerned to increase the urban quality of life through the sustainable development of city and country. While such efforts effectively improve the quality of life of urban dwellers through improved social, economic and housing infrastructures, very little has been paid to improve low-income settlement users more specifically government provided shelter projects. The top-down shelter policies and its objective indicators (physical design elements and physical environmental elements) indicators on low-income groups merely can ensure grassroots needs, aspiration and well-being refer as subjective qualities obliged to compromise with the quality of life. This research, therefore, aims to measure the quality of life of such government-provided low-income settlements. To do so, a conceptual framework has been developed to measure quality of life with arguing that quality of life depends on both objective and subjective indicators and needs to measure across three scales of living environment refers to macro (community), meso (neighborhood or shelter/built environment), and micro (family). The top-down shelter project, Dakshin Chandani Mahal Ashrayan Prakalpa is a resettlement/housing project of Government of Bangladesh for providing shelters and human resources development activities like education, microcredit, and training programme to landless, homeless and rootless people has been taken as case study. The study area is located at Dighalia Upazila, Khulna Bangladesh. In terms of methodology, this research is primarily exploratory and adopts a case study method and deductive approach for evaluating the quality of life. Data have been obtained from relevant literature review, key informant interview, focus group discussion, necessary drawings, photographs and participant observation across dwelling, neighborhood, and community level. Findings have revealed that Shelter users mostly compromise the quality of life at community level due to insufficient physical design elements and facilities while neighborhood and dwelling level have been manifested similar result like former ones. Thus, the outcome of this study can be beneficial for a global-level understating of the compromising the ‘quality of life’ under top-down shelter policy. Locally, for instance, in the context of Bangladesh, it can help policymakers and concerned authorities to formulate the shelter policies and take initiatives to improve the well-being of marginalized.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
881
94628
Analysis of Risks of Adopting Integrated Project Delivery: Application of Bayesian Theory
Authors:
Abstract:
Integrated project delivery (IPD) is a project delivery method distinguished by a shared risk/rewards mechanism and multiparty agreement. IPD has drawn increasing attention from construction industry due to its reliability to deliver high-performing buildings. However, unavailable IPD specific insurance concerns the industry participants who are interested in IPD implementation. Even though the risk management capability can be enhanced using shared risk mechanism, some risks may occur when the partners do not commit themselves into the integrated practices in a desired manner. This is because the intense collaboration and close integration can not only create added value but bring new opportunistic behaviors and disputes. The study is aimed to investigate the risks of implementing IPD using Bayesian theory. IPD risk taxonomy is presented to identify all potential risks of implementing IPD and a risk network map is developed to capture the interdependencies between IPD risks. The conditional relations between risk occurrences and the impacts of IPD risks on project performances are evaluated and simulated based on Bayesian theory. The probability of project outcomes is predicted by simulation. In addition, it is found that some risks caused by integration are most possible occurred risks. This study can help the IPD project participants identify critical risks of adopting IPD to improve project performances. In addition, it is helpful to develop IPD specific insurance when the pertinent risks can be identified.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
880
94429
A Future Urban Street Design in Baltimore, Maryland Based on a Hierarchy of Functional Needs and the Context of Autonomous Vehicles, Green Infrastructure, and Evolving Street Typologies
Authors:
Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to examine future urban street design in the context of developing technologies, evolving street typologies, and projected transportation trends. The goal was to envision a future urban street in the year 2060 that addresses the advent and implementation of autonomous vehicles, the promotion of new street typologies, and the projection of current transportation trends. Using a hierarchy of functional needs for urban streets, the future street was designed and evaluated based on the functions the street provides to the surrounding community. The site chosen for the future street design is an eight-block section of West North Avenue in the city of Baltimore, Maryland. Three different conceptual designs were initially completed and evaluated leading to a master plan for West North Avenue as well as street designs for connecting streets that represent different existing street types. Final designs were compared with the existing street design and evaluated with the adapted ‘Hierarchy of Needs’ theory. The review of the literature and the results from this paper indicate that urban streets will have to become increasingly multi-functional to meet the competing needs of the environment and community. Future streets will have to accommodate multimodal transit which will include mass transit, walking, and biking. Furthermore, a comprehensive implementation of green infrastructure within the urban street will provide access to nature for urban communities and essential stormwater management. With these developments, the future of an urban street will move closer to a greenway typology. Findings from this study indicate that urban street design will have to be policy-driven to promote and implement autonomous bus-rapid-transit in order to conserve street space for other functions. With this conservation of space, urban streets can then provide more functions to the surrounding community, taking a holistic approach to urban street design.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
879
94260
Theoretical, Numerical and Experimental Assessment of Elastomeric Bearing Stability
Abstract:
Elastomeric bearings (EB) are used in many applications, such as base isolation of bridges, seismic protection and vibration control of other structures and machinery. Their versatility is due to their particular behavior since they have different stiffness in the vertical and horizontal directions, allowing to sustain vertical loads and at the same time horizontal displacements. Therefore, vertical, horizontal and bending stiffnesses are important parameters to take into account in the design of EB. Modeling of EB is an important issue in order to predict their stability and consequently their effects on the dynamic response of structures. Many publications have been focused on theoretical, experimental, and numerical approaches separately, therefore, in this work, all these approaches will be considered at the same time in order to assess the behavior of EB, considering, to author’s best knowledge, this investigation a novelty. In particular, the recent large-displacement theory on the stability of EB formulated by Forcellini and Kelly is validated with both numerical simulations using the finite element method, and experimental results set at the University of Antioquia in Medellin, Colombia. In this regard, this study reproduces the behavior of EB under compression loads and investigates the stability behavior with the three mentioned points of view.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
878
93938
Approach for Demonstrating Reliability Targets for Rail Transport during Low Mileage Accumulation in the Field: Methodology and Case Study
Abstract:
In railway industry, trainsets are designed based on contractual requirements (mission profile), where reliability targets are measured in terms of mean distance between failures (MDBF). However, during the beginning of revenue services, trains don’t achieve the designed mission profile distance (mileage) within the timeframe due to infrastructure constraints, scarcity of commuters or other operational challenges thereby not respecting the original design inputs. Since trains don’t run sufficiently and do not achieve the designed mileage within the specified time car builder has a risk of not achieving the contractual MDBF target. This paper proposes a constant failure rate based model to deal with the situations where mileage accumulation is not at part of the design mission profile. The model provides appropriate MDBF target to be demonstrated based on actual accumulated mileage. A case study of rolling stock running in the field is undertaken to analyze the failure data and MDBF target demonstration during low mileage accumulation. The results of case study prove that with the proposed method, reliability targets are achieved under low mileage accumulation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
877
93766
Implementation of an Assessment System for the Facade Aesthetics towards Photovoltaics-Applied Buildings
Abstract:
With increasing interest in the environment, researches on buildings producing alternative energy are being carried out continuously. The most representative alternative energy source is solar lays using PV (Photovoltaics) system, and BIPV (Building-Integrated Photovoltaics) is deeply being considered for the issue of building design. Since the use of PV is sometimes used as an obstacle to building design, this study aims at investigating aesthetic factors affecting the buildings using PV and certifying the importance of each factor through Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). From the forty aesthetic factors induced from previous researches, the secondary evaluation factors were extracted by redundancy and integration possibility, objective evaluation possibility and evaluation suitability. The criteria of the evaluation index were set up through these secondary evaluation factors, and ten experts joined the simulations for two sites. Based on these processes, the first questionnaire and the AHP values were prepared. Then, the questionnaire was conducted through three sites and fifty experts consisting of twenty practitioners, twenty researchers, and ten students. On the basis of the first questionnaire, items with unclear evaluation criteria were revised and the question was also reconfigured. Finally, the preliminary evaluation was carried out from the modified questionnaire and this research has attempted to prove the evaluation system through fifteen sites. Furthermore, this study will be trying to provide a design guideline for PV-applied buildings in terms of BIPV.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
876
93765
Comparative Analyses for Setting Domiciliation Values of Hanok Focused on Resident Lifestyles
Abstract:
Korean traditional houses have unique residential values that match the Korean culture. The characteristic that the user is staying in the residence as long as possible is the most representative value like the comfort of the residence and the environmental performance around it. However, as Korea enters into modern society, it is affected by Western culture and various lifestyles are born, and traditional residence values are becoming meaningless. But, traditional residences have a tradition and emotion that are unique to Korea, and have representative images of Korea. Therefore, it is very important to understand the benefits and cultural values of Korean traditional houses to Koreans. The purpose of this study is to build a new evaluation system that insert the lifestyle of modern people in addition to the evaluation system of the domicile performance which is the inherent residence value of the Hanok. Also, this study considers contemporary residence value items suggested by previous researches at the same time with traditional values, and is trying to apply and evaluate it as a modern Hanok. The value of domiciliation can be divided into three categories according to the range: residence space, village space, and sustainability. The precedent study also classified the items into the above categories and evaluates representative residential performance such as planning performance, convenience, and safety in each item. However, precedent studies did not consider user's lifestyle and evaluation of residence value did not reflect characteristics of users. Therefore, this research intends to incorporate the inherent residential value that can be required for each user besides the evaluation items presented in the previous studies. This study analyzed the domiciliation evaluation items presented in the precedent study and established the primary evaluation criteria based on them. After that, this study selected age and furniture as representative user classifications among lifestyles, which are representative characteristics of users. According to the selected classification criteria, groups are composed of adolescents, adolescents, marriage age, middle-aged, and old age. This analysis analyzed the precedent research data for the user group and applied the analysis results to the typical residential type, and organized a single residential type into a diagram. Through the summary diagram, each user characteristic that was not considered or less important in the existing evaluation criteria was added to the evaluation criteria, which complemented the existing evaluation criteria. Finally, this study made detailed items through the supplementary evaluation criteria to create a new evaluation item for assessing the Hanok habitability. This study proposes an integrated evaluation item that evaluates the domiciliation of Korean traditional houses and evaluates the value of modern houses at the same time. Based on this evaluation item, Korean traditional houses show the strength of the domiciliation side.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
875
93764
An Evaluation System for the Residential Performance Focused on Hanok Habitability
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to suggest the establishment of an evaluation system for habitability of Hanok, the Korean traditional residence. For this study, Hanok’s degree of integrative residential performance was analyzed and its evaluation indexes have been classified into three main categories: architectural planning, site planning performance and spatial sustainability. For this research, survey data from examinees, the specimen residents, were collected for assessing habitability. Existing relevant studies about residential performance about Hanok were driven to reveal the evaluation elements of the suggested classification system. This study also contains a qualitative in-depth analysis of the planning factors in aspects of both architecture and site and will examine the effect of the spatial sustainability as well. This study has finally proposed an integrated assessment system for Hanok habitability that can assess over inhabitants of the interior living conditions by surveys. As a result, the proposed system will have to be turned on quite good applicability to preserve the original values of Hanok for the field of the relevant professions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
874
93456
A Case Study: Social Network Analysis of Construction Design Teams
Abstract:
Even though social network analysis (SNA) is an abundantly studied concept for many organizations and industries, a clear SNA approach to the project teams has not yet been adopted by the construction industry. The main challenges for performing SNA in construction and the apparent reason for this gap is the unique and complex structure of each construction project, the comparatively high circulation of project team members/contributing parties and the variety of authentic problems for each project. Additionally, there are stakeholders from a variety of professional backgrounds collaborating in a high-stress environment fueled by time and cost constraints. Within this case study on Project RE, a design & build project performed at the Urban Design Build Studio of Carnegie Mellon University, social network analysis of the project design team will be performed with the main goal of applying social network theory to construction project environments. The research objective is to determine a correlation between the network of how individuals relate to each other on one’s perception of their own professional strengths and weaknesses and the communication patterns within the team and the group dynamics. Data is collected through a survey performed over four rounds conducted monthly, detailed follow-up interviews and constant observations to assess the natural alteration in the network with the effect of time. The data collected is processed by the means of network analytics and in the light of the qualitative data collected with observations and individual interviews. This paper presents the full ethnography of this construction design team of fourteen architecture students based on an elaborate social network data analysis over time. This study is expected to be used as an initial step to perform a refined, targeted and large-scale social network data collection in construction projects in order to deduce the impacts of social networks on project performance and suggest better collaboration structures for construction project teams henceforth.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
873
92995
A Reading Attempt of the Urban Memory of Jordan University of Science and Technology Campus by Cognitive Mapping
Abstract:
The University campuses are a small city containing basic city functions such as educational spaces, accommodations, services and transportation. They are spaces of functional and social life with different activities, different occupants. The campus designed and transformed like cities so both experienced and memorized in same way. Campus memory is the ability of individuals to maintain and reveal the spatial components of designed physical spaces, which form the understandings, experiences, sensations of the environment in all. ‘Cognitive mapping’ is used to decode the physical interaction and emotional relationship between individuals and the city; Cognitive maps are created graphically using geometric and verbal elements on paper by remembering the images of the Urban Environment. In this study, to determine the emotional urban identity belonging to Jordan University of science and technology Campus, architecture students Asked to identify the areas they interact with in the campus by drawing a cognitive map. ‘Campus memory items’ are identified by analyzing the cognitive maps of the campus, then the spatial identity result of such data. The analysis based on the five basic elements of Lynch: paths, districts, edges, nodes, and landmarks. As a result of this analysis, it found that Spatial Identity constructed by the shared elements of the maps. The memory of most students listed the gates structure- which is a large desirable structure, located at the main entrances within the campus defined as major landmarks, then the square spaces defined as nodes, in addition to both stairs and corridors defined as paths. Finally, the districts, edges of educational buildings and service spaces are listed correspondingly in cognitive maps. Findings suggest that the spatial identity of the campus design is related mainly to the gates structures, squares and stairs.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
872
92785
The Impact of Green Building Envelopes on the Urban Microclimate of the Urban Canopy-Case Study: Fawzy Moaz Street, Alexandria, Egypt
Abstract:
The issue of temperature increase in the urban microclimate has been at the center of attention recently, especially in dense urban areas, such as the City of Alexandria in Egypt, where building surfaces have become the dominant element (more than green areas and streets). Temperatures have been rising during daytime as well as nighttime, however, the research focused on the rise of air temperature at night, a phenomenon known as the urban heat island. This phenomenon has many effects on ecological life, as well as human health. This study provided evidence of the possibility of reducing the urban heat island by using a green building envelope (green wall and green roof) in Alexandria, Egypt. This City has witnessed a boom in growth in its urban fabric and population. A simulation analysis using the Envi-met software to find the ratio of air temperature reduction was performed. The simulation depended on the orientation of the green areas and their density, which was defined through a process of climatic analysis made by the Diva plugin using the Grasshopper software. Results showed that the reduction in air temperature varies from 0.8–2.0 °C, increasing with the increasing density of green areas. Many systems of green wall and green roof can be found in the local market. However, treating an existing building requires a careful choice of system to fit the building construction load and the surrounding nature. Among the systems of choice, there was the ‘geometric system’ of vertical greening that can be fixed on a light aluminum structure for walls and the extensive green system for roofs. Finally, native plants were the best choice in the long term because they fare well in the local climate.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
871
92285
A Principal-Agent Model for Sharing Mechanism in Integrated Project Delivery Context
Authors:
Abstract:
Integrated project delivery (IPD) is a project delivery method distinguished by a shared risk/rewards mechanism and multiparty agreement. IPD has drawn increasingly attention from construction industry because of its efficiency of solving adversarial problems and reliability to deliver high-performing buildings. However, some evidence showed that some project participants obtained less profit from IPD projects than the typical projects. They attributed it to the unfair IPD sharing mechanism, which resulted in additional time and cost of negotiation on the sharing fractions among project participants. The study is aimed to investigate the reward distribution by constructing a principal-agent model. Based on cooperative game theory, it is examined how to distribute the shared project rewards between client and non-client parties, and identify the sharing fractions among non-client parties. It is found that at least half of the project savings should be allocated to the non-client parties to motivate them to create more project value. Second, the client should raise his sharing fractions when the integration among project participants is efficient. In addition, the client should allocate higher sharing fractions to the non-client party who is more able. This study can help the IPD project participants make fair and motivated sharing mechanisms.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
870
92152
Development of a Standardization Methodology Assessing the Comfort Performance for Hanok
Abstract:
Korean traditional residences have been built with deep design issues for various values such as social, cultural, and environmental influences to be started from a few thousand years ago, but its meaning is being vanished due to the different lifestyles these days. It is necessary, therefore, to grasp the meaning of the Korea traditional building called Hanok and to get Korean people understand its real advantages. The purpose of this study is to propose a standardization methodology for evaluating comfort features towards Korean traditional houses. This paper is also trying to build an official standard evaluation system and to integrate aesthetic and psychological values induced from Hanok. Its comfort performance values could be divided into two large categories that are physical and psychological, and fourteen methods have been defined as the Korean Standards (KS). For this research, field survey data from representative Hanok types were collected for each method. This study also contains a qualitative in-depth analysis of the Hanok comfort index by the professions using AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) and has examined the effect of the methods. As a result, this paper could define what methods can provide trustful outcomes and how to evaluate the own strengths in aspects of spatial comfort of Hanok using suggested procedures towards the spatial configuration of the traditional dwellings. This study has finally proposed an integrated development of a standardization methodology assessing the comfort performance for Korean traditional residences, and it is expected that they could evaluate inhabitants of the residents and interior environmental conditions especially structured by wood materials like Hanok.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
869
92036
Behavioral Response of Dogs to Interior Environment: An Exploratory Study on Design Parameters for Designing Dog Boarding Centers in Indian Context
Abstract:
Pet population in India is increasing phenomenally owing to the changes in urban lifestyle with increasing number of single professionals, single parents, delayed parenthood, etc. The animal companionship as a means of reducing stress levels, deriving emotional support, and unconditional love provided by dogs are a few reasons attributed for increasing pet ownership. The consequence is the booming of the pet care products and dog care centers catering to the different requirements of rearing the pets. Dog care centers quite popular in tier 1 metros of India cater to the requirement of the dog owners providing space for the dogs in the absence of the owner. However, it is often reported that the absence of the owner leads to destructive and exploratory behavior issues; the main being the anxiety disorders. In the above context, it becomes imperative for a designer to design dog boarding centers that help in reducing the separation anxiety in dogs keeping in mind the different interior design parameters. An exploratory research with focus group discussion is employed involving a group of dog owners, behaviorists, proprietors of daycare as well as boarding centers, and veterinarians to understand their perception of the significance of different interior parameters of color, texture, ventilation, aromatherapy and acoustics as a means of reducing the stress levels in dogs sent to the boarding centers. The data collected is organized as thematic networks thus enabling the listing of the interior design parameters that need to be considered in designing dog boarding centers.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
868
92001
Sustainable Design Features Implementing Public Rental Housing for Remodeling
Abstract:
Buildings produce more than one thirds of the total energy consumption and CO₂ emissions. Korean government agency pronounced and initiated Zero Energy Buildings policy for construction as of 2025. The net zero energy design features include passive (daylight, layout, materials, insulation, finishes, etc.) and active (renewable energy sources) elements. The Zero Energy House recently built in Nowon-gu, Korea is provided for 121 households as a public rental housing complex. However most of public rental housing did not include sustainable features which can reduce housing maintaining cost significantly including energy cost. It is necessary to implement net zero design features to the obsolete public rental housing during the remodeling procedure since it can reduce housing cost in long term. The purpose of this study is to investigate sustainable design elements implemented in Net Zero Energy House in Korea and passive and active housing design features in order to apply the sustainable features to the case public rental apartment for remodeling. Housing complex cases in this study are Nowan zero Energy house, Gangnam Bogemjari House, and public rental housings built in more than 20 years in Seoul areas. As results, energy consumption in public rental housing built in 5-years can be improved by exterior surfaces. Energy optimizing in case housing built in more than 20 years can be enhanced by renovated materials, insulation, replacement of windows, exterior finishes, lightings, gardening, water, renewable energy installation, Green IT except for sunlight and layout of buildings. Further life costing analysis is needed for energy optimizing for case housing alternatives.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
867
91827
Analysis of Construction Waste Generation and Its Effect in a Construction Site
Abstract:
The generation of solid waste and its effective management are debated topics in Sri Lanka as well as in the global environment. It was estimated that the most of the waste generated in global was originated from construction and demolition of buildings. Thus, the proportion of construction waste in solid waste generation cannot be underestimated. The construction waste, which is the by-product generated and removed from work sites is collected in direct and indirect processes. Hence, the objectives of this research are to identify the proportion of construction waste which can be reused and identify the methods to reduce the waste generation without reducing the quality of the process. A 6-storey building construction site was selected for this research. The site was divided into six zones depending on the process. Ten waste materials were identified by considering the adverse effects on safety and health of people and the economic value of them. The generated construction waste in each zone was recorded per week for a period of five months. The data revealed that sand, cement, wood used for form work and rusted steel rods were the generated waste which has higher economic value in all zones. Structured interviews were conducted to gather information on how the materials are categorized as waste and the capability of reducing, reusing and recycling the waste. It was identified that waste is generated in following processes; ineffective storage of material for a longer time and improper handling of material during the work process. Further, the alteration of scheduled activities of construction work also yielded more waste. Finally, a proper management of construction waste is suggested to reduce and reuse waste.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
866
91630
Resource Constrained Time-Cost Trade-Off Analysis in Construction Project Planning and Control
Abstract:
Time-cost trade-off (TCTO) is one of the most significant part of construction project management. Despite the significance, current TCTO analysis, based on the Critical Path Method, does not consider resource constraint, and accordingly sometimes generates an impractical and/or infeasible schedule planning in terms of resource availability. Therefore, resource constraint needs to be considered when doing TCTO analysis. In this research, genetic algorithms (GA) based optimization model is created in order to find the optimal schedule. This model is utilized to compare four distinct scenarios (i.e., 1) initial CPM, 2) TCTO without considering resource constraint, 3) resource allocation after TCTO, and 4) TCTO with considering resource constraint) in terms of duration, cost, and resource utilization. The comparison results identify that ‘TCTO with considering resource constraint’ generates the optimal schedule with the respect of duration, cost, and resource. This verifies the need for consideration of resource constraint when doing TCTO analysis. It is expected that the proposed model will produce more feasible and optimal schedule.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
865
90559
Toward Sustainable Building Design in Hot and Arid Climate with Reference to Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia
Authors:
Abstract:
One of the most common and traditional strategies in architecture is to design buildings passively. This is a way to ensure low building energy reliance with respect to specific micro-building locations. There are so many ways where buildings can be designed passively, some of which are applying thermal insulation, thermal mass, courtyard and glazing to wall ratio. This research investigates the impact of each of these aspects with respect to the hot and dry climate of the capital of Riyadh. Thermal Analysis Simulation (TAS) will be utilized which is powered by Environmental Design Simulation Limited company (EDSL). It is considered as one of the most powerful tools to predict energy performance in buildings. There are three primary building designs and methods which are using courtyard, thermal mass and thermal insulation. The same building size and fabrication properties have been applied to all designs. Riyadh city which is the capital of the country was taken as a case study of the research. The research has taken into account various zone direction within the building as it has a large contribution to indoor energy and thermal performance. It is revealed that it is possible to achieve nearly zero carbon building in the hot and dry region in winter with minimum reliance on energy loads for building zones facing south, west and east. Moreover, using courtyard is more beneficial than applying construction materials into building envelope. Glazing to wall ratio is recommended to be 10% and not exceeding 30% in all directions in hot and arid regions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
864
89721
The Identity of the Cairene Public Space: Manifestations of Social and Architectural Heritage in the City Square of Medieval Cairo
Abstract:
Cairo has been famous for the unique identity of its medieval architecture, which was formed by multiple dynasties that ruled Egypt. However, only a few researches were done on the identity of its public space. This paper links both the architectural and the socio-political aspects of the Cairene public space and studies how they affected each other. The subject of the study is Maydan Salah al-Din, the main city square of medieval Cairo, which reveals a quite useful information, not only about the architectural identity of the Cairene public space but also about the socio-political patterns that operated within. The analytical framework is based on Lefebvre’s theory, the ‘production of space’, in which he applied 'the Hegelian dialectic' in order to understand how the social practice forms the space, and how, in turn, the space forms the social practice. This framework offers a comprehensive understanding of the identity of the Cairene public space, which does not separate architecture from the social practice.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
863
89682
Strategic Analysis of Loss of Urban Heritage in Bhopal City Due to Infrastructure Development
Abstract:
Built along the edges of a 11th century CE man-made lake, the city of Bhopal has stood witness to historic layers dating back to Palaeolithic times; early and medieval kingdoms ranging from the Parmaras, Pratiharas to tribal Gonds; the Begum-Nawabs and finally became the Capital of Madhya Pradesh, post-Independence. The lake more popularly called the Upper Lake was created by the King Raja Bhoj from the Parmara dynasty in 1010 AD when he constructed a bund wall across the Kolans river. Atop this bund wall lies the Kamlapati Mahal - which was part of the royal enclosure built in 1702 belonging to the Gond Kingdom. The Mahal is the epicentre of development in the city because it lies in the centre of the axis joining the Old core and New City. Rapid urbanisation descended upon the city once it became the administrative capital of Madhya Pradesh, a newly-formed state of an Independent India. Industrial pockets began being set up and refugees from the Indo-Pakistan separation settled in various regions of the city. To cater to these sudden growth, there was a boom in infrastructure development in the late twentieth century which included precarious decisions made in terms of handling heritage sites causing the destruction of significant parts of the historic fabric. And this practice continues to this day as buffer/ protected zones are breached through exemptions and the absence of robust regulations allow further deterioration of urban heritage. The aim of the research is to systematically study in detail the effect of the urban infrastructure development of the city and its adverse effect on the existing heritage fabric. Through the paper, an attempt to study the parameters involved in preparing the Masterplan of the city and other development projects is done. The research would follow a values-led approach to study the heritage fabric where the significance of the place is assessed based on the values attributed by stakeholders. This approach will involve collection and analysis of site data, assessment of the significance of the site and listing of potential. The study would also attempt to arrive at a solution to deal with urban development along with the protection of the heritage fabric.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
862
89610
Smart Cities, Morphology of the Uncertain: A Study on Development Processes Applied by Amazonian Cities in Ecuador
Abstract:
The world changes constantly, every second its properties vary due either natural factors or human intervention. As the most intelligent creatures on the planet, human beings have transformed the environment and paradoxically –have allowed ‘mother nature’ to lose species, accelerate the processes of climate change, the deterioration of the ozone layer, among others. The rapid population growth, the procurement, administration and distribution of resources, waste management, and technological advances are some of the factors that boost urban sprawl whose gray stain extends over the territory, facing challenges such as pollution, overpopulation and scarcity of resources. In Ecuador, these problems are added to the social, cultural, economic and political anomalies that have historically affected it. This fact can represent a greater delay when trying to solve global problems, without having paid attention to local inconveniences –smaller ones, but ones that could be the key to project smart solutions on bigger ones. This research aims to highlight the main characteristics of the development models adopted by two Amazonian cities, and analyze the impact of such urban growth on society; to finally define the parameters that would allow the development of an intelligent city in Ecuador, prepared for the challenges of the XXI Century. Contrasts in the climate, temperature, and landscape of Ecuadorian cities are fused with the cultural diversity of its people, generating a multiplicity of nuances of an indecipherable wealth. However, we strive to apply development models that do not recognize that wealth, not understanding them and ignoring that their proposals will vary according to where they are applied. Urban plans seem to take a bit of each of the new theories and proposals of development, which, in the encounter with the informal growth of cities, with those excluded and ‘isolated’ societies, generate absurd morphologies - where the uncertain becomes tangible. The desire to project smart cities is ever growing, but it is important to consider that this concept does not only have to do with the use of information and communication technologies. Its success is achieved when advances in science and technology allow the establishment of a better relationship between people and their context (natural and built). As a research methodology, urban analysis through mappings, diagrams and geographical studies, as well as the identification of sensorial elements when living the city, will make evident the shortcomings of the urban models adopted by certain populations of the Ecuadorian Amazon. Following the vision of previous investigations started since 2014 as part of ‘Centro de Acciones Urbanas,’ the results of this study will encourage the dialogue between the city (as a physical fact) and those who ‘make the city’ (people as its main actors). This research will allow the development of workshops and meetings with different professionals, organizations and individuals in general.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
861
89571
Industrial Wastewater from Paper Mills Used for Biofuel Production and Soil Improvement
Abstract:
Paper mills produce wastewater with a high content of organic substances. Treatment usually consists of sedimentation, biological treatment of activated sludge basins, and chemical precipitation. The resulting sludges are currently a waste problem, deposited in landfills or used as low-grade fuels for incineration. There is a growing awareness of the need for energy efficiency and environmentally sound management of sludge. A resource-efficient method would be to digest the wastewater sludges anaerobically to produce biogas, refine the biogas to biomethane for use in the transportation sector, and utilize the resulting digestate for soil improvement. The biomethane yield of pulp and paper wastewater sludge is comparable to that of straw or manure. As a bonus, the digestate has an improved dewaterability compared to the feedstock biosludge. Limitations of this process are predominantly a weak economic viability - necessitating both sufficiently large-scale paper production for the necessary large amounts of produced wastewater sludge, and the resolving of remaining questions on the certifiability of the digestate and thus its sales price. A way to improve the practical and economical feasibility of using paper mill wastewater for biomethane production and soil improvement is to co-digest it with other feedstocks. In this study, pulp and paper sludge were co-digested with (1) silage and manure, (2) municipal sewage sludge, (3) food waste, or (4) microalgae. Biomethane yield analysis was performed in 500 ml batch reactors, using an Automatic Methane Potential Test System at thermophilic temperature, with a 20 days test duration. The results show that (1) the harvesting season of grass silage and manure collection was an important factor for methane production, with spring feedstocks producing much more than autumn feedstock, and pulp mill sludge benefitting the most from co-digestion; (2) pulp and paper mill sludge is a suitable co-substrate to add when a high nitrogen content cause impaired biogas production due to ammonia inhibition; (3) the combination of food waste and paper sludge gave higher methane yield than either of the substrates digested separately; (4) pure microalgae gave the highest methane yield. In conclusion, although pulp and paper mills are an almost untapped resource for biomethane production, their wastewater is a suitable feedstock for such a process. Furthermore, through co-digestion, the pulp and paper mill wastewater and mill sludges can aid biogas production from more nutrient-rich waste streams from other industries. Such co-digestion also enhances the soil improvement properties of the residue digestate.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
860
89391
Architectural and Structural Analysis of Selected Tall Buildings in Warsaw, Poland
Abstract:
This paper presents elements of architectural and structural analysis of selected high-rise buildings in the Polish capital city of Warsaw. When analyzing the architecture of Warsaw, it can be concluded that it is currently a rapidly growing city with technologically advanced skyscrapers that belong to the category of intelligent buildings. The constructional boom over the last dozen years has seen the erection of postmodern skyscrapers for office and residential use. This article focuses on how Warsaw has recently joined the most architecturally interesting cities in Europe. Warsaw is currently in fifth place in Europe in terms of the number of skyscrapers and is considered the second most preferred city in Europe (after London) for investment related to them. However, the architectural development of the city could not take place without the participation of eminent Polish and foreign architects such as Stefan Kuryłowicz, Lary Oltmans, Helmut Jahn or Daniel Libeskind.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
859
89360
Experiencing Daylight in Architectural Spaces: A Case Study of Public Buildings in the Context of Karachi, Pakistan
Abstract:
In a world with rapidly depleting resources, using artificial lighting during daytime is an act of human ignorance. Imitated light is the major source of energy consumption in public buildings. Despite, the fact that substantial working hours of these buildings usually persist in natural daylight time; there is a trend of isolated, un-fenestrated and a-contextual interiors majorly dependent on active energy sources. On the contrary, if direct and un-controlled sunlight is allowed inside the building, it will create visual and thermal discomfort. Controlled daylighting with appropriate design mechanisms is one of the important aspects of achieving thermal and visual comfort. The natural sunlight can be utilized intelligently with the help of architectural thermal controlling mechanisms to achieve a healthy and productive environment. This paper is an attempt to investigate and analyze the importance of daylighting with reference to energy efficiency and thermal comfort. For this purpose, three public buildings including two educational institutions and one general post office are selected, as case-studies in the context of Karachi, Pakistan. Various parameters of visual and thermal comfort are analyzed which includes orientation, ceiling heights, overall building profile along with daylight controlling mechanisms in terms of penetration, distribution, protection, and control. In the later part of the research, a questionnaire survey is also conducted to evaluate the user experience in terms of adequate daylighting and thermal comfort.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
858
89239
New Territories: Materiality and Craft from Natural Systems to Digital Experiments
Abstract:
Digital fabrication, between advancements in software and machinery, is pushing practice today towards more complexity in design, allowing for unparalleled explorations. It is giving designers the immediate capacity to apply their imagined objects into physical results. Yet at no time have questions of material knowledge become more relevant and crucial, as technological advancements approach a radical re-invention of the design process. As more and more designers look towards tactile crafts for material know-how, an interest in natural behaviors has also emerged trying to embed intelligence from nature into the designed objects. Concerned with enhancing their immediate environment, designers today are pushing the boundaries of design by bringing in natural systems, materiality, and advanced fabrication as essential processes to produce active designs. New Territories, a yearly architecture and design course on digital design and materiality, allows students to explore processes of digital fabrication in intersection with natural systems and hands-on experiments. This paper will highlight the importance of learning from nature and from physical materiality in a digital design process, and how the simultaneous move between the digital and physical realms has become an essential design method. It will detail the work done over the course of three years, on themes of natural systems, crafts, concrete plasticity, and active composite materials. The aim throughout the course is to explore the design of products and active systems, be it modular facades, intelligent cladding, or adaptable seating, by embedding current digital technologies with an understanding of natural systems and a physical know-how of material behavior. From this aim, three main themes of inquiry have emerged through the varied explorations across the three years, each one approaching materiality and digital technologies through a different lens. The first theme involves crossing the study of naturals systems as precedents for intelligent formal assemblies with traditional crafts methods. The students worked on designing performative facade systems, starting from the study of relevant natural systems and a specific craft, and then using parametric modeling to develop their modular facades. The second theme looks at the cross of craft and digital technologies through form-finding techniques and elastic material properties, bringing in flexible formwork into the digital fabrication process. Students explored concrete plasticity and behaviors with natural references, as they worked on the design of an exterior seating installation using lightweight concrete composites and complex casting methods. The third theme brings in bio-composite material properties with additive fabrication and environmental concerns to create performative cladding systems. Students experimented in concrete composites materials, biomaterials and clay 3D printing to produce different cladding and tiling prototypes that actively enhance their immediate environment. This paper thus will detail the work process done by the students under these three themes of inquiry, describing their material experimentation, digital and analog design methodologies, and their final results. It aims to shed light on the persisting importance of material knowledge as it intersects with advanced digital fabrication and the significance of learning from natural systems and biological properties to embed an active performance in today’s design process.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
857
89074
Testing the Impact of Landmarks on Navigation through the Use of Mobile-Based Games
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to understand the effect of landmarks on spatial navigation. For this study, a mobile-based virtual game, 'Sea Hero Quest' (SHQ), was used. At the beginning of the game, participants were asked to look at maps which included the specific locations of players and checkpoints. After the map disappeared, participants were asked to navigate a boat and find the checkpoints in a pre-given order. By analyzing this data, we aim to better understand an important component of cities, namely landmarks, on spatial navigation. Game levels were analyzed spatially and axial-based integration, choice and connectivity values of levels were calculated to make comparisons. To make this kind of a comparison, we focused on levels which include both local and global landmarks and levels which include only local landmarks. The most significant contribution of this study to urban design and planning fields is that it provides mounting evidence about the utility of landmarks and their roles in cities due to the fact that the game was played more than 2.5 million people. Moreover, by using these results, it can be possible to encourage cities with more global and local landmarks to have more identifiable/readable areas.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
856
88980
Acoustic Performance and Application of Three Personalized Sound-Absorbing Materials
Abstract:
In recent years, more and more personalized sound absorbing materials have entered the Chinese room acoustical decoration market. The acoustic performance of three kinds of personalized sound-absorbing materials: Flame-retardant Flax Fiber Sound-absorbing Cotton, Eco-Friendly Sand Acoustic Panel and Transparent Micro-perforated Panel (Film) are tested by Reverberation Room Method. The sound absorption characteristic curves show that their performance match for or even exceed the traditional sound absorbing material. Through the application in the actual projects, these personalized sound-absorbing materials also proved their sound absorption ability and unique decorative effect.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
855
88565
Architectural Design as Knowledge Production: A Comparative Science and Technology Study of Design Teaching and Research at Different Architecture Schools
Abstract:
Questions of style and reproducibility in relation to architectural design are not only continuously debated; the very concepts can seem quite provocative to architects, who like to think of architectural design as depending on intuition, ideas, and individual personalities. This standpoint - dominant in architectural discourse - is challenged in the present paper presenting early findings from a comparative STS-inspired research study of architectural design teaching and research at different architecture schools in varying national contexts. In philosophy of science framework, the paper reflects empirical observations of design teaching at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen and presents a tentative theoretical framework for the on-going research project. The framework suggests that architecture – as a field of knowledge production – is mainly dominated by three epistemological positions, which will be presented and discussed. Besides serving as a loosely structured framework for future data analysis, the proposed framework brings forth the argument that architecture can be roughly divided into different schools of thought, like the traditional science disciplines. Without reducing the complexity of the discipline, describing its main intellectual positions should prove fruitful for the future development of architecture as a theoretical discipline, moving an architectural critique beyond discussions of taste preferences. Unlike traditional science disciplines, there is a lack of a community-wide, shared pool of codified references in architecture, with architects instead referencing art projects, buildings, and famous architects, when positioning their standpoints. While these inscriptions work as an architectural reference system, to be compared to codified theories in academic writing of traditional research, they are not used systematically in the same way. As a result, architectural critique is often reduced to discussions of taste and subjectivity rather than epistemological positioning. Architects are often criticized as judges of taste and accused that their rationality is rooted in cultural-relative aesthetical concepts of taste closely linked to questions of style, but arguably their supposedly subjective reasoning, in fact, forms part of larger systems of thought. Putting architectural ‘styles’ under a loop, and tracing their philosophical roots, can potentially open up a black box in architectural theory. Besides ascertaining and recognizing the existence of specific ‘styles’ and thereby schools of thought in current architectural discourse, the study could potentially also point at some mutations of the conventional – something actually ‘new’ – of potentially high value for architectural design education.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
854
88439
Sustainable Renovation of Cultural Buildings Case Study: Red Bay National Historic Site, Canada
Abstract:
Sustainable renovations to cultural buildings and sites require a high level of competency in the sometimes conflicting areas of social/historical demands, environmental concerns, and the programmatic and technical requirements of the project. A detailed analysis of the existing site, building and client program are critical to reveal both challenges and opportunities. This forms the starting point for the design process – empirical explorations that search for a balanced and inspired architectural solution to the project. The Red Bay National Historic Site on the Labrador Coast of eastern Canada is a challenging project to explore and resolve these ideas. Originally the site of a 16ᵗʰ century whaling station occupied by Basque sailors from France and Spain, visitors now experience this history at the interpretive center, along with the unique geography, climate, local culture and vernacular architecture of the area. Working with our client, Parks Canada, the project called for significant alterations and expansion to the existing facility due to an increase in the number of annual visitors. Sustainable aspects of the design are focused on sensitive site development, passive energy strategies such as building orientation and building envelope efficiency, active renewable energy systems, carefully considered material selections, water efficiency, and interiors that respond to human comfort and a unique visitor experience.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
853
88345
Post Occupancy Evaluation of the Green Office Building with Different Air-Conditioning Systems
Abstract:
Retrofitting of existing buildings plays a critical role to achieve sustainable development. This is being considered as one of the approaches to achieving sustainability in the built environment. In order to evaluate the different air-conditioning systems effectiveness and user satisfaction of the existing building which had transformed into green building effectively and accurately. This article takes the green office building in Zhejiang province, China as an example, analyzing the energy consumption, occupant satisfaction and indoor environment quality (IEQ) from the perspective of the thermal environment. This building is special because it combines ground source heat pump system and Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) air-conditioning system. Results showed that the ground source heat pump system(EUIa≈25.6) consumes more energy than VRF(EUIb≈23.8). In terms of a satisfaction survey, the use of the VRF air-conditioning was more satisfactory in temperature. However, the ground source heat pump is more satisfied in air quality.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):