Recognizing Juxtaposition Patterns of the Dwelling Units in Housing Cluster: The Case Study of Aghayan Complex: An Example of Rural Residential Development in Qajar Era in Iran
Mayamei is a small town in Iran that is located between Shahrud and Sabzevar cities, on the Silk Road. It enjoys a history of approximately 1000 years. An alley entitled ‘Aghayan’ exists in this town that comprises residential buildings of a famous family. Bathhouse, mosque, telegraph center, cistern are all related to this alley. This architectural complex belongs to Sadat Mousavi, who is one of the Mayamei's major grandees and religious household. The alley after construction has been inherited from generation to generation within the family masters. The purpose of this study, which was conducted on Aghayan alley and its associated complex, was to elucidate Iranian vernacular domestic architecture of Qajar era in small towns and villages. We searched for large, medium, and small architectural patterns in the contemplated complex, and tried to elaborate their evolution from past to the present. The other objective of this project was finding a correlation between changes in the lifestyle of the alley’s inhabitants with the form of the building's architecture. Our investigation methods included: literature review especially in regard to historical travelogues, peer site visiting, mapping, interviewing of the elderly people of the Mousavi family (the owners), and examining the available documents especially the 4 meters’ scroll-type testament of 150 years ago. For the analysis of the aforementioned data, an effort was made to discover (1) the patterns of placing of different buildings in respect of the others, (2) finding the relation between function of the buildings with their relative location in the complex, as was considered in the original design, and (3) possible changes of functions of the buildings during the time. In such an investigation, special attention was paid to the chronological changes of lifestyles of the residents. In addition, we tried to take all different activities of the residents into account including their daily life activities, religious ceremonies, etc. By combining such methods, we were able to obtain a picture of the buildings in their original (construction) state, along with a knowledge of the temporal evolution of the architecture. An interesting finding is that the Aghayan complex seems to be a big structure of the horizontal type apartments, which are placed next to each other. The houses made in this way are connected to the adjacent neighbors both by the bifacial rooms and from the roofs.
Exploring the Implementation of Building Information Modelling Level 2 in the UK Construction Industry: The Case of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises
In the last few years, building information modelling (BIM) has been acknowledged as a new technology capable of transforming the construction sector to a collaborated industry. The implementation of BIM in the United Kingdom (UK) construction sector has increased significantly in the last decade, particularly after the UK government mandated the use of BIM in all public projects by 2016. Despite this, there are many indicators that BIM implementation is the main concern for large companies, while small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are lagging behind in adopting and implementing this new technology. This slow adoption of BIM leads to an uncompetitive disadvantage in public projects and possible private projects. On the other hand, there is limited research focusing on the implementation of BIM Level 2 within SMEs. Therefore, the aim of this study is to bridge this gap and provide a conceptual framework to aid SMEs in implementing BIM Level 2. This framework is a result of interpreting qualitative data obtained by conducting semi-structured interviews with BIM experts in the UK construction industry.
MegaProjects and the Governing Processes That Lead to Success and Failure: A Literature Review
Megaproject has long been a critical issue in project governance, for its low success rate and large impact on society. Although the extant literature on megaproject governance is vast, to our best knowledge, the lacking of a thorough literature review makes it hard for us to gain a holistic view on current scenario of megaproject governance. The study conducts a systematic literature review process to analyze the existing literatures on megaproject governance. The finding indicates that mega project governance needs to be handled at network level and forming a network level governance provides a holistic framework for governing megaproject towards sustainable development of the projects. Theoretical and practical implications, as well as future studies and limitations, were discussed.
Risk of Heatstroke Occurring in Indoor Built Environment Determined with Nationwide Sports and Health Database and Meteorological Outdoor Data
The paper describes how the frequencies of heatstroke occurring in indoor built environment are related to the outdoor thermal environment with big statistical data. As the statistical accident data of heatstroke, the nationwide accident data were obtained from the National Agency for the Advancement of Sports and Health (NAASH) . The meteorological database of the Japanese Meteorological Agency supplied data about 1-hour average temperature, humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, and so forth. Each heatstroke data point from the NAASH database was linked to the meteorological data point acquired from the nearest meteorological station where the accident of heatstroke occurred. This analysis was performed for a 10-year period (2005–2014). During the 10-year period, 3,819 cases of heatstroke were reported in the NAASH database for the investigated secondary/high schools of the nine Japanese representative cities. Heatstroke most commonly occurred in the outdoor schoolyard at a wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) of 31°C and in the indoor gymnasium during athletic club activities at a WBGT > 31°C. The determined accident ratio (number of accidents during each club activity divided by the club’s population) in the gymnasium during the female badminton club activities was the highest. Although badminton is played in a gymnasium, these WBGT results show that the risk level during badminton under hot and humid conditions is equal to that of baseball or rugby played in the schoolyard. Except sports, the high risk of heatstroke was observed in schools houses during cultural activities. The risk level for indoor environment under hot and humid condition would be equal to that for outdoor environment based on the above results of WBGT. Therefore control measures against hot and humid indoor condition were needed as installing air conditions not only schools but also residences.
Efficient Use of Power Light-Emitting Diode Chips in the Main Lighting System and in Generating Heat in Intelligent Buildings
Among common electronic parts which have been invented and have made a great revolution in the lighting system through the world, certainly LEDs have no rival. These small parts with their very low power consumption, very dazzling and powerful light and small size and with their extremely high lifetime- compared to incandescent bulbs and compact fluorescent lamp (CFLs) have undoubtedly revolutionized the lighting industry of the world. Based on conducted studies and experiments, in addition to their acceptable light and low power consumption -compared to incandescent bulbs and CFLs-, they have very low and in some cases zero environmental pollution and negative effects on human beings. Because of their longevity, in the case of using high-quality circuits and proper and consistent use of LEDs in conventional and intelligent buildings, there will be no need to replace the burnout lamps, for a long time (10 years). In this study which was conducted on 10-watt power LEDs with suitable heatsink/cooling, considerable amount of heat was generated during lighting after 5 minutes and 45 seconds. The temperature rose to above 99 degrees Celsius and this amount of heat can raise the water temperature to 60 degrees Celsius and more. Based on conducted experiments, this can provide the heat required for bathing, washing, radiators (in cold seasons) easily and only by imposing very low cost and it will be a big step in the optimization of energy consumption in the future.
Highlighting Adverse Effects of Privatization of Heritage on Taj Mahal and Providing Solutions to Improve the Condition without Privatizing
The paper studies the present condition of Taj Mahal (the UNESCO world heritage site) and the reasons behind deterioration. Analysis is done to explore the reasons behind this building to be included in the list of adopt heritage scheme, by the Government of India. The aim is to find out the future effects on Taj Mahal after being adopted by a private body. Finally, it suggests solutions which can lead to improvement of the present condition of the building. In order to establish a research, a further analysis is done through a case study of Red Fort, New Delhi (another UNESCO world heritage site). This monument was given to Dalmia Group of India Pvt. Ltd. for the tenure of 5 years. Paper discusses the consequences of privatization on Red Fort and then analyze it for Taj Mahal. It terms monument as riches of a heritage chest, not as a commercial tourist place. The study is concluded with the ideas and suggestions proposed for saving Taj Mahal and advantages on improving the health of the building.
Prediction of the Transmittance of Various Bended Angles Lightpipe by Using Neural Network under Different Sky Clearness Condition
Lightpipe as a mature solar light tube technique has been employed worldwide. Accurately assessing the performance of lightpipe and evaluate daylighting available has been a challenging topic. Previous research had used regression model and computational simulation methods to estimate the performance of lightpipe. However, due to the nonlinear nature of solar light transferring in lightpipe, the methods mentioned above express inaccurate and time-costing issues. In the present study, a neural network model as an alternative method is investigated to predict the transmittance of lightpipe. Four types of commercial lightpipe with bended angle 0°, 30°, 45° and 60° are discussed under clear, intermediate and overcast sky conditions respectively. The neural network is generated in MATLAB by using the outcomes of an optical software Photopia simulations as targets for networks training and testing. The coefficient of determination (R²) for each model is higher than 0.98, and the mean square error (MSE) is less than 0.0019, which indicate the neural network strong predictive ability and the use of the neural network method could be an efficient technique for determining the performance of lightpipe.
Safety Factors for Improvement of Labor's Health and Safety in Construction Industry of Pakistan
During past few years, researchers are emphasizing more on the need of safety in construction industry. This need of safety is an important issue in developing countries. As due to development they are facing huge construction growth. This research is done to evaluate labor safety condition in construction industry of Pakistan. The research carried out through questionnaire survey at different construction sites. Useful data are gathered from these sites which then factor analyzed resulting in five factors. These factors reflect that most of the workers are aware of the safety need, but they divert this responsibility towards management and claim that the work is more essential for management instead of safety. Moreover, those work force which is unaware of safety state that there is lack of any training and guidance from upper management which lead to many unfavorable events on construction sites. There is need of implementation safety activities by management like training, formulation of rules and policies. This research will be helpful to divert management attention towards safety need so they will make efforts for safety of their manpower—the workers.
Investigating the Role of Community in Heritage Conservation through the Ladder of Citizen Participation Approach: Case Study, Port Said, Egypt
Egypt has countless prestigious buildings and diversity of cultural heritage which are located in many cities. Most of the researchers, archaeologists, stakeholders and governmental bodies are paying more attention to the big cities such as Cairo and Alexandria, due to the country’s centralization nature. However, there are other historic cities that are grossly neglected and in need of emergency conservation. For instance, Port Said which is a former colonial city that was established in nineteenth century located at the edge of the northeast Egyptian coast between the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal. This city is chosen because it presents one of the important Egyptian archaeological sites that archive Egyptian architecture of the 19th and 20th centuries. The historic urban fabric is divided into three main districts; the Arab, the European (Al-Afrang), and Port Fouad. The European district is selected to be the research case study as it has culture diversity, significant buildings, and includes the largest number of the listed heritage buildings in Port Said. Based on questionnaires and interviews, since 2003 several initiative trials have been taken by Alliance Francaise, the National Organization for Urban Harmony (NOUH), some Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), and few number of community residents to highlight the important city legacy and protect it from being demolished. Unfortunately, the limitation of their participation in decision-making policies is considered a crucial threat facing sustainable heritage conservation. Therefore, encouraging the local community to participate in their architecture heritage conservation would create a self-confident one, capable of making decisions for the city’s future development. This paper aims to investigate the role of the local inhabitants in protecting their buildings heritage through listing the community level of participations twice (2012 and 2018) in preserving their heritage based on the ladder citizen participation approach. Also, it is to encourage community participation in order to promote city architecture conservation, heritage management, and sustainable development. The methodology followed in this empirical research involves using several data assembly methods such as structural observations, questionnaires, interviews, and mental mapping. The questionnaire was distributed among 92 local inhabitants aged 18-60 years. However, the outset of this research at the beginning demonstrated the majority negative attitude, motivation, and confidence of the local inhabitants’ role to safeguard their architectural heritage. Over time, there was a change in the negative attitudes. Therefore, raising public awareness and encouraging community participation by providing them with a real opportunity to take part in the decision-making. This may lead to a positive relationship between the community residents and the built heritage, which is essential for promoting its preservation and sustainable development.
Modernism’s Influence on Architect-Client Relationship: Comparative Case Studies of Schroder and Farnsworth Houses
The Modernist Movement initially flourished in France, Holland, Germany and the Soviet Union. Many architects and designers were inspired and followed its principles. Two of its most important architects (Gerrit Rietveld and Ludwig Mies van de Rohe) were introduced in this paper. Each did not follow the other’s principles and had their own particular rules; however, they shared the same features of the Modernist International Style, such as Anti-historicism, Abstraction, Technology, Function and Internationalism/ Universality. Key Modernist principles translated into high expectations, which sometimes did not meet the inhabitants’ aspirations of living comfortably; consequently, leading to a conflict and misunderstanding between the designer and their clients’ needs. Therefore, historical case studies (the Schroder and the Farnsworth houses) involving two Modernist pioneer architects have been chosen. This paper is an attempt to explore some of the influential factors affecting buildings design such as: needs, gender, and question concerning commonalities between both designers and their clients. The three aspects and two designers explored here have been chosen because they have been influenced the researchers to understand the impact of those factors on the design process, building’s performance, and the dweller’s satisfaction. This is a descriptive/ analytical research based on two historical comparative case studies that involve several steps such as: key evaluation questions (KEQs), observations, document analysis, etc. The methodology is based on data collation and finding validations. The research aims to state a manifest to regulate the relation between architects and their clients to reach the optimum building performance and functional interior design that suits their clients’ needs, reflects the architects’ character, and the school they belong to. At the end, through the investigation in this paper, the different needs between both the designers and the clients have been seen not only in the building itself but also it could convert the inhabitant’s life in various ways. Moreover, a successful relationship between the architect and their clients could play a significant role in the success of projects. In contrast, not every good design or celebrated building could end up with a successful relationship between the designer and their client or full-fill the inhabitant’s aspirations.
Guadua Bamboo as Eco-Friendly Element in Interior Design and Architecture
Utilizing renewable resources has become extensive solution for most problems in Egypt nowadays. It plays role in environmental issues such as energy crisis, lake of natural resources and climate change. This paper focuses on the importance of working with the key concepts of creating eco-friendly spaces in Egypt by using traditional perennial plants, such as Guadua bamboo as renewable resources in structures manufacture. Egypt is in critical need to search for alternative raw materials. Thus, this paper focuses on studying the usage of neglected yet affordable materials, such as Guadua bamboo in light weight structures and digital fabrication. Guadua bamboo has been cultivated throughout in tropical and subtropical areas. In Egypt, they exist in many rural areas where people try to control their growth by using pesticides as it serves no economic purpose. This paper aims to discuss the usage of Guadua bamboo either in its original state or after fabrication in the context of interior design and architecture. The results will show the applicability of using perennial plants as complementary materials in the manufacturing processes; also the conclusion will focus the lights on the importance of re-forming shallow water plants in interior design and architecture.
The Dead Alexandrian Historic Vein: The Revitalization of Mahmoudiyah Canal 'The Forgotten Environmental Asset'
In 1818, a seventy-five kilometer long canal was dug (called the Mahmoudiyah canal) connecting between Alexandria city in Egypt and the western branch of the Nile. It was a productive resource and vital to its environment, context, transportation, and recreation. It played a significant role in people’s lives and Alexandria city’s shape. The canal, which was the main vein of goods’ transporting from Alexandria’s seaport to the different parts of Egypt, was still in use today as a major source of clear water in the city. But nowadays, Mahmoudiyah canal is converting into ‘dead waterway’. The canal became sources of pollution as a result of solid and industrial waste thus causing many diseases, destroying communities and biodiversity, with urban invasion, the loss of community aesthetic value and healthy environment. Therefore, this paper aims to propose an urban strategy, as a solution to revive the forgotten canal, through recreating a cultural promenade on its shore. The main aim of this research is to formulate decent quality of life, unpolluted space, an area gathering the city space for nature, tourism and investments. As a case study, this paper investigates Mahmoudiyah canal through urban and ecological analyses, aiming to design an urban strategy for reviving it by creating a cultural promenade enriched with public spaces and green areas, which can most probably enhance the quality of life, city re-living and development. Community participation is also considered as vital and intrinsic implementation stage. The empirical research involved using several data assembly methods such as interviews, mental mapping, structural observations and questionnaires. The paper ends with a set of conclusions leading to proposals for the Mahmoudiyah canal revitalization considering the complex challenges and processes of sustainable regeneration focusing on city’s rehabilitation and lost identity.
Thermal and Visual Comfort Assessment in Office Buildings in Relation to Space Depth
In today’s compact cities, bringing daylighting and fresh air to buildings is a significant challenge, but it also presents opportunities to reduce energy consumption in buildings by reducing the need for artificial lighting and mechanical systems. Simple adjustments to building form can contribute to their efficiency. This paper examines how the relationship between the width and depth of the rooms in office buildings affects visual and thermal comfort, and consequently energy savings. Based on these evaluations, we can determine the best location for sedentary areas in a room. We can also propose improvements to occupant experience and minimize the difference between the predicted and measured performance in buildings by changing other design parameters, such as natural ventilation strategies, glazing properties, and shading. This study investigates the condition of spatial daylighting and thermal comfort for a range of room configurations using computer simulations, then it suggests the best depth for optimizing both daylighting and thermal comfort, and consequently energy performance in each room type. The Window-to-Wall Ratio (WWR) is 40% with 0.8m window sill and 0.4m window head. Also, there are some fixed parameters chosen according to building codes and standards, and the simulations are done in Seattle, USA. The simulation results are presented as evaluation grids using the thresholds for different metrics such as Daylight Autonomy (DA), spatial Daylight Autonomy (sDA), Annual Sunlight Exposure (ASE), and Daylight Glare Probability (DGP) for visual comfort, and Predicted Mean Vote (PMV), Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD), occupied Thermal Comfort Percentage (occTCP), over-heated percent, under-heated percent, and Standard Effective Temperature (SET) for thermal comfort that are extracted from Grasshopper scripts. The simulation tools are Grasshopper plugins such as Ladybug, Honeybee, and EnergyPlus. According to the results, some metrics do not change much along the room depth and some of them change significantly. So, we can overlap these grids in order to determine the comfort zone. The overlapped grids contain 8 metrics, and the pixels that meet all 8 mentioned metrics’ thresholds define the comfort zone. With these overlapped maps, we can determine the comfort zones inside rooms and locate sedentary areas there. Other parts can be used for other tasks that are not used permanently or need lower or higher amounts of daylight and thermal comfort is less critical to user experience. The results can be reflected in a table to be used as a guideline by designers in the early stages of the design process.
Mapping the Quotidian Life of Practitioners of Various Religious Sects in Late Medieval Bengal: Portrayals on the Front Facades of Baranagar Temple Cluster
Bengal has a long history (8th century A.D. onwards) of decorating the wall of brick-built temples with curved terracotta plaques on a diverse range of subjects. These could be considered as one of the most significant visual archives to understand the various facets of the then contemporary societies. The temples under focus include Char-Bangla temple complex (circa 1755 A.D.), Bhavanishvara temple (circa 1755 A.D.) and the Gangeshvara Shiva Jor-Bangla temple (circa 1753 A.D.). located within a part of the river Bhagirathi basin in Baranagar, Murshidabad, West Bengal, India. Though a diverse range of subjects has been intricately carved mainly on the front facades of the Baranagar temple cluster, the study specifically concentrates on the depiction related to religious and non-religious acts performed by practitioners of various religious sects of Late Medieval Bengal with the intention to acquire knowledge about the various facets of their life. Apart from this, the paper also mapped the spatial location of these religious performers on the temples facades to examine if any systematic plan or arrangement had been employed for connoting a particular idea. Further, an attempt is made to provide a commentary on the attire worn by followers of various religious sects of Late Medieval Bengal. The primary materials for the study comprise the depictions which denote religious activities carved on the terracotta plaques. The secondary material has been collected from published and unpublished theses, journals and books. This data has been further supplemented with photographic documentation, some useful line-drawings and description in table format to get a clear understanding of the concerned issues.
An Experimental Study on Intellectual Concentration Influenced by Indoor Airflow
In order to improve intellectual concentration, few
studies have verified the effect of indoor airflow among the thermal
environment conditions, and the differences of the season in effects
have not been studied. In this study, in order to investigate the
influence of the airflow in winter on the intellectual concentration,
an evaluation experiment was conducted. In the previous study, an
effective airflow in summer was proposed and the improvement of
intellectual concentration by evaluation experiment was confirmed.
Therefore, an airflow profile in winter was proposed with reference
to the airflow profile in summer. The airflows are a combination
of a simulative airflow and mild airflow. An experiment has been
conducted to investigate the influence of a room airflow in winter on
intellectual concentration. As a result of comparison with no airflow
condition, no significant difference was found. Based on the results,
it is a future task to ask preliminary preference in advance and
to establish a mechanism that can provide controllable airflow for
each individual, taking into account the preference for airflow to be
different for each individual.
Automatic Thresholding for Data Gap Detection for a Set of Sensors in Instrumented Buildings
Building systems are highly vulnerable to different
kinds of faults and failures. In fact, various faults, failures and human
behaviors could affect the building performance. This paper tackles
the detection of unreliable sensors in buildings. Different literature
surveys on diagnosis techniques for sensor grids in buildings have
been published but all of them treat only bias and outliers. Occurences
of data gaps have also not been given an adequate span of attention
in the academia. The proposed methodology comprises the automatic thresholding
for data gap detection for a set of heterogeneous sensors in
instrumented buildings. Sensor measurements are considered to be
regular time series. However, in reality, sensor values are not
uniformly sampled. So, the issue to solve is from which delay each
sensor become faulty? The use of time series is required for detection of abnormalities on
the delays. The efficiency of the method is evaluated on measurements
obtained from a real power plant: an office at Grenoble Institute of
technology equipped by 30 sensors.
Examination of Recreation Possibilities and Determination of Efficiency Zone in Bursa, Province Nilufer Creek
Water and water resources are characteristic areas with their special ecosystems Their natural, cultural and economic value and recreation opportunities are high. Recreational activities differ according to the natural, cultural, socio-economic resource values of the areas. In this sense, water and water edge areas, which are important for their resource values, are also important landscape values for recreational activities. From these landscapes values, creeks and the surrounding areas have become a major source of daily life in the past, as well as a major attraction for people's leisure time. However, their qualities and quantities must be sufficient to enable these areas to be used effectively in a recreational sense and to be able to fulfill their recreational functions. The purpose of the study is to identify the recreational use of the water-based activities and identify effective service areas in dense urbanization zones along the creek and green spaces around them. For this purpose, the study was carried out in the vicinity of Nilufer Creek in Bursa. The study area and its immediate surroundings are in the boundaries of Osmangazi and Nilufer districts. The study was carried out in the green spaces along the creek with an individual interaction of 17.930m. These areas are Hudavendigar Urban Park, Atatürk Urban Forest, Bursa Zoo, Soganlı Botanical Park, Mihrapli Park, Nilufer Valley Park. In the first phase of the study, the efficiency zones of these locations were calculated according to international standards. 3200m of this locations are serving the city population and 800m are serving the district and neighborhood population. These calculations are processed on the digitized map by the AUTOCAD program using the satellite image. The efficiency zone of these green spaces in the city were calculated as 71.04 km². In the second phase of the study, water-based current activities were determined by evaluating the recreational potential of these green spaces, which are located along the Nilufer Creek, where efficiency zones have been identified. It has been determined that water-based activities are used intensively in Hudavendigar Urban Park and interacted with Nilufer Creek. Within the scope of effective zones for the study area, appropriate recreational planning proposals have been developed and water-based activities have been suggested.
Evaluation of the Spatial Performance of Ancient Cities in the Context of Landscape Architecture
Ancient cities are, according to United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), landscape areas designed and created by people, at the same time naturally developing and constantly changing sustainable cultural landscapes. Ancient cities are the urban settlements where we can see the reflection of public lifestyle existed thousands of years ago. The conceptual and spatial traces in ancient cities, are crucial for examining the city history and its preservation. This study is intended to demonstrate the impacts of human life and physical environment on the cultural landscape. This research aims to protect and maintain cultural continuity of the ancient cities in Bursa which contain archeological and historical elements and could not majorly reach to the day because of not being protected and to show importance of landscape architecture to ensure this protection. In this context, ancient cities in Bursa were researched and a total of 7 ancient cities were identified. These ancient cities are; Apollonia, Lopadion, Nicaea, Myrleia, Cius, Daskyleion and Basilinopolis. In the next stage, the spatial performances of ancient cities were assessed by weighted criteria method. The highest score is the Nicaea Ancient City. Considering current situation of the ancient cities in Bursa, it is seen that most of them could not survive until our day due to lack of interest in these areas. As a result, according to the findings, it is a priority to create a protective band with green areas around the archaeological sites, thus adapting to nearby areas and emphasizing culture. In addition, proposals have been made to provide a transportation network that does not harm the ancient cities and the cultural landscape.
Evaluation of Monumental Trees in Bursa City in Terms of Cultural Landscape
Monumental trees make an important contribution to the cultural interaction between societies. At the same time, monument trees, which are considered as symbols of some beliefs, are living beings that are transmitted from generation to generation. Mystical, folkloric and dimensional aspects of our cultural heritage and the link between the past and present, the memorial trees of the generations of the stories conveyed the story of the legends at the same time with the aesthetic features of the objects attract attention. There are many monumental trees that witness historical processes in Bursa, which is a land of very different cultures from the Prusias (BC 232-192). Within this scope, monumental trees located within the boundaries of Bursa province and their contribution to urban culture were evaluated. Monument plane trees recorded in Bursa and its districts were determined by the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization, the Governorship of Bursa, the Provincial Directorate of Environment and Urbanism, the Directorate of Protection of Natural Assets, and these trees were examined in situ. As a result of the inspections made, the monument trees living today are classified according to their species. Within the scope of the study, it was determined that there were 1001 monumental tree species in different species within the boundaries of Bursa province. 71.83% of the recorded species were Platanus species and 11.79% were Pinus species. On the other hand, the stories about the contribution of cultural landscapes to the examples of living or now-disappearing examples of Bursa history from these monumental trees have been compiled and presented in the study.
An Approach to Spatial Planning for Water Conservation: The Case of Kovada Sub-Watershed (Turkey)
Today, the amount of water available is decreasing day by day due to global warming, environmental problems and population increase. To protect water resources, it is necessary to take a lot of measures from the global scale to the local scale. Some of these measures are related to spatial planning studies. In this study, the impact of water process analysis was assessed in the development of spatial planning for water conservation. The study was conducted in the Kovada sub-watershed (Isparta, Turkey). By means of water process analysis, the way to reach underground water of surface water in the study area is mapped. In this context, plant cover, soil and rock permeability were evaluated holistically with geographic information systems technologies. Then, on the map, water permeability is classified and this is spatially expressed. The findings show that the permeability of the water is different in the study case. As a result, the water permeability map needs to be included in the planning for water conservation planning.
The Transformation of Architecture through the Technological Developments in History: Future Architecture Scenario
Nowadays, design and architecture are being affected and underwent change with the rapid advancements in technology, economics, politics, society and culture. Architecture has been transforming with the latest developments after the inclusion of computers into design. Integration of design into the computational environment has revolutionized the architecture and new perspectives in architecture have been gained. The history of architecture shows the various technological developments and changes in which the architecture has transformed with time. Therefore, the analysis of integration between technology and the history of the architectural process makes it possible to build a consensus on the idea of how architecture is to proceed. In this study, each period that occurs with the integration of technology into architecture is addressed within historical process. At the same time, changes in architecture via technology are identified as important milestones and predictions with regards to the future of architecture have been determined. Developments and changes in technology and the use of technology in architecture within years are analyzed in charts and graphs comparatively. The historical process of architecture and its transformation via technology are supported with detailed literature review and they are consolidated with the examination of focal points of 20th-century architecture under the titles; parametric design, genetic architecture, simulation, and biomimicry. It is concluded that with the historical research between past and present; the developments in architecture cannot keep up with the advancements in technology and recent developments in technology overshadow the architecture, even the technology decides the direction of architecture. As a result, a scenario is presented with regards to the reach of technology in the future of architecture and the role of the architect.
Case Study Approach Using Scenario Analysis to Analyze Unabsorbed Head Office Overheads
Head office overhead (HOOH) is an indirect cost and is recovered through individual project billings by the contractor. Delay in a project impacts the absorption of HOOH cost allocated to that particular project and thus diminishes the expected profit of the contractor. This unabsorbed HOOH cost is later claimed by contractors as damages. The subjective nature of the available formulae to compute unabsorbed HOOH is the difficulty that contractors and owners face and thus dispute it. The paper attempts to bring together the rationale of various HOOH formulae by gathering contractor’s HOOH cost data on all of its project, using case study approach and comparing variations in values of HOOH using scenario analysis. The case study approach uses project data collected from four construction projects of a contractor in India to calculate unabsorbed HOOH costs from various available formulae. Scenario analysis provides further variations in HOOH values after considering two independent situations mainly scope changes and new projects during the delay period. Interestingly, one of the findings in this study reveals that, in spite of HOOH getting absorbed by additional works available during the period of delay, a few formulae depict an increase in the value of unabsorbed HOOH, neglecting any absorption by the increase in scope. This indicates that these formulae are inappropriate for use in case of a change to the scope of work. Results of this study can help both parties in deciding on an appropriate formula more objectively, considering the events on a project causing the delay and contractor's position in respect of obtaining new projects.
Integrated Genetic-A* Graph Search Algorithm Decision Model for Evaluating Cost and Quality of School Renovation Strategies
Energy consumption of buildings has been an increasing concern for researchers and practitioners in the last decade. Sustainable building renovation can reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions; meanwhile, it also can extend existing buildings useful life and facilitate environmental sustainability while providing social and economic benefits to the society. School buildings are different from other designed spaces as they are more crowded and host the largest portion of daily activities and occupants. Strategies that focus on reducing energy use but also improve the students’ learning environment becomes a significant subject in sustainable school buildings development. A decision model is developed in this study to solve complicated and large-scale combinational, discrete and determinate problems such as school renovation projects. The task of this model is to automatically search for the most cost-effective (lower cost and higher quality) renovation strategies. In this study, the search process of optimal school building renovation solutions is by nature a large-scale zero-one programming determinate problem. A* is suitable for solving deterministic problems due to its stable and effective search process, and genetic algorithms (GA) provides opportunities to acquire global optimal solutions in a short time via its indeterminate search process based on probability. These two algorithms are combined in this study to consider trade-offs between renovation cost and improved quality, this decision model is able to evaluate current school environmental conditions and suggest an optimal scheme of sustainable school buildings renovation strategies. Through adoption of this decision model, school managers can overcome existing limitations and transform school buildings into spaces more beneficial to students and friendly to the environment.
Sustainability of Performing Venues Considering Urban Connectivity and Facility Utilization
A sustainable built environment aims for minimizing both regional and global environmental impact while maintaining a healthy living for individuals. Sustainability of performing venues has rarely been discussed when compared with residential, office, and other popular building types. Life-cycle carbon emission due to the high standard requirements in acoustics, stage engineering, HVAC, and building structure need to be carefully examined. This can be complicated by social-economic and cultural concerns in addition to technical excellence. This paper reported case-based study and statistics of performing venues regarding urban connectivity and spatial layouts in enhancing facility usage and promoting cultural vitality. Interviews conducted for a major venue at Taipei indicated high linkage with surrounding leisure activity and the need for quality pedestrian and additional spaces open to the general public. Statistics of venues with various size and function suggested the possibility and strategies limit the size and height of reception and foyer spaces, and to maximize their use when there are no performances. Design strategies are identified to increase visual contact or facility sharing between the artists and the audience or the general public in reducing facility size and promoting potential involvement in cultural activities.
Smart Sustainable University Campus: Aspects on Efficient Space Utilization at National Taiwan University of Science and Technology
A smart sustainable university campus is multi-dimensional. The success requires intensive inter-disciplinary coordination among all users and the expert group and long-term optimization. This paper reported the design and realization process of the dense and campus NTUST campus where space sharing is essential. Two-phase web-based interviews with students were conducted regarding where they study between classes as well as how they move within the campus. Efficient and active utilization of public and semi-public spaces, in particular, the ones near the ground, were progressively designed and realized where lobbies, corridors, reading rooms, and classrooms not in use were considered. Most of the spaces were equipped with smart monitoring and controls in terms of access, lighting, ceiling fans, air condition, and energy use. Mobile device apps were developed regarding the management of the spaces while information about energy use, environmental quality, and the smart sustainable campus project itself were provided to stimulate the awareness of sustainability and active participation in optimizing the campus.
Dynamic Modeling of Energy Systems Adapted to Low Energy Buildings in Lebanon
Low energy buildings have been developed to achieve global climate commitments in reducing energy consumption. They comprise energy efficient buildings, zero energy buildings, positive buildings and passive house buildings. The reduced energy demands in Low Energy buildings call for advanced building energy modeling that focuses on studying active building systems such as heating, cooling and ventilation, improvement of systems performances, and development of control systems. Modeling and building simulation have expanded to cover different modeling approach i.e.: detailed physical model, dynamic empirical models, and hybrid approaches, which are adopted by various simulation tools. This paper uses DesignBuilder with EnergyPlus simulation engine in order to; First, study the impact of efficiency measures on building energy behavior by comparing Low energy residential model to a conventional one in Beirut-Lebanon. Second, choose the appropriate energy systems for the studied case characterized by an important cooling demand. Third, study dynamic modeling of Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) system in EnergyPlus that is chosen due to its advantages over other systems and its availability in the Lebanese market. Finally, simulation of different energy systems models with different modeling approaches is necessary to confront the different modeling approaches and to investigate the interaction between energy systems and building envelope that affects the total energy consumption of Low Energy buildings.
Visualizing the Commercial Activity of a City by Analyzing the Data Information in Layers
This paper aims to demonstrate how network models can be used to understand and to deal with some aspects of urban complexity. As it is well known, the Theory of Architecture and Urbanism has been using for decades’ intellectual tools based on the ‘sciences of complexity’ as a strategy to propose theoretical approaches about cities and about architecture. In this sense, it is possible to find a vast literature in which for instance network theory is used as an instrument to understand very diverse questions about cities: from their commercial activity to their heritage condition. The contribution of this research consists in adding one step of complexity to this process: instead of working with one single primal graph as it is usually done, we will show how new network models arise from the consideration of two different primal graphs interacting in two layers. When we model an urban network through a mathematical structure like a graph, the city is usually represented by a set of nodes and edges that reproduce its topology, with the data generated or extracted from the city embedded in it. All this information is normally displayed in a single layer. Here, we propose to separate the information in two layers so that we can evaluate the interaction between them. Besides, both layers may be composed of structures that do not have to coincide: from this bi-layer system, groups of interactions emerge, suggesting reflections and in consequence, possible actions.
Slum Dwellers Residential Location Choices Decision: A Determinant of Slum Growth in Lagos Mega City
Slums are important components of city development planning, especially in Africa where slum growth is on par with urban growth. Purposefully, our knowledge on the residential choice of slum dwellers, which contributes to population growth in slums, is limited. This is the case in Lagos, a megacity reportedly dominated by slum dwellers. Thus, this study aims to disclose the factors influencing the residential choices and causes of people to remain in Lagos slums. Data was collected through questionnaire administration and focus group discussions. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze and describe the factors influencing residential location choice; logistic regression was utilized to determine the extent to which the neighborhood and household attributes, influence slum dwellers decisions to remain in the slums. Results showed that movement to Lagos was the main cause of population growth in slums; most of the migrants were from closer geopolitical zones (in Nigeria). Further, the movement patterns observed support two theories of human mobility in slums: slum as a sink, and as a final destination. Also, the factors that brought most of the slum dwellers to the slums (cheap housing, proximity to work etc.) differs from the ones that made them stay (Gender, employment status, housing status etc.). This study concludes that residential choice and intention to stay are the major contributors to population growth in a slum. It is therefore important for Lagos state Government to incorporate these elements of residential choices of slum dwellers in their slum management policies if the city aims to be free of slums by 2030
Investigating Elements of Identity of Traditional Neighborhoods in Isfahan and Using These Elements in the Design of Modern Neighborhoods
The process of planning, designing and building neighborhoods is a complex and multidimensional part of urban planning. Understanding the elements that give a neighborhood a sense of identity can lead to successful city planning and result in a cohesive and functional community where people feel a sense of belonging. These factors are important in ensuring that the needs of the urban population are met to live in a safe, pleasant and healthy society. This research paper aims to identify the elements of the identity of traditional neighborhoods in Isfahan and analyzes ways of using these elements in the design of modern neighborhoods to increase social interaction between communities and cultural reunification of people. The neighborhood of Jolfa in Isfahan has a unique socio-cultural identity as it dates back to the Safavid Dynasty of the 16th century, and most of its inhabitants are Christian Armenians of a religious minority. The elements of the identity of Jolfa were analyzed through the following research methods: field observations, distribution of questionnaires and qualitative analysis. The basic methodology that was used to further understand the Jolfa neighborhood and deconstruct the identity image that residents associate with their respective neighborhoods was a qualitative research method. This was done through utilizing questionnaires that respondents had to fill out in response to a series of research questions. From collecting these qualitative data, the major finding was that traditional neighborhoods that have elements of identity embedded in them are seen to have closer-knit communities whose residents have strong societal ties. This area of study in urban planning is vital to ensuring that new neighborhoods are built with concepts of social cohesion, community and inclusion in mind as they are what lead to strong, connected, and prosperous societies.
Measurement and Research of Green Office Building Operational Performance in China: A Case Study of a Green Office Building in Zhejiang Province
In recent years, green buildings in China have been developing rapidly and have developed into a wide variety of types, of which office building is a very important part. In many green office buildings, the energy consumption of building operation is high; the indoor environment quality needs to be improved, and the level of occupants’ satisfaction is low. This paper conducted a one-year measurement of operational performance of a green office building in Zhejiang Province. The measurement includes energy consumption of the building's one-year operation, the quality of the indoor environment and occupants’ satisfaction in different seasons. The energy consumption is collected from the power bureau. The quality of the indoor environment have been measured at different measuring points including offices, meeting rooms and reception for the whole year. The satisfaction of occupants are obtained from questionnaires. The results are compared with given standards and goals and the reasons why occupants are dissatisfied with the indoor environment are analyzed. Regarding energy consumption, the energy consumption of the building operational performance is much higher than the standard. Regarding the indoor environment, the temperature and humidity meet the standard for most of the time, but fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration is pretty high. Regarding occupants satisfaction, occupants have a higher expectation for indoor air quality even when the indoor air quality is well and occupants prefer a relatively humid environment. However the overall satisfaction is more than 80%, which indicates that occupants have a higher tolerability.