Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 53145

Bioengineering and Life Sciences

1395
95287
The Advantages of Using DNA-Barcoding for Determining the Fraud in Seafood
Abstract:
Although seafood is an important part of human diet and categorized highly traded food industry internationally, it is remain overlooked generally in the global food security aspect. Food product authentication is the main interest in the aim of both avoids commercial fraud and to consider the risks that might be harmful to human health safety. In recent years, with increasing consumer demand for regarding food content and it's transparency, there are some instrumental analyses emerging for determining food fraud depend on some analytical methodologies such as proteomic and metabolomics. While, fish and seafood consumed as fresh previously, within advanced technology, processed or packaged seafood consumption have increased. After processing or packaging seafood, morphological identification is impossible when some of the external features have been removed. The main fish and seafood quality-related issues are the authentications of seafood contents such as mislabelling products which may be contaminated and replacement partly or completely, by lower quality or cheaper ones. For all mentioned reasons, truthful consistent and easily applicable analytical methods are needed for assurance the correct labelling and verifying of seafood products. DNA-barcoding methods become popular robust that used in taxonomic research for endangered or cryptic species in recent years; they are used for determining food traceability also. In this review, when comparing the other proteomic and metabolic analysis, DNA-based methods are allowing a chance to identification all type of food even as raw, spiced and processed products. This privilege caused by DNA is a comparatively stable molecule than protein and other molecules. Furthermore showing variations in sequence based on different species and founding in all organisms, make DNA-based analysis more preferable. This review was performed to clarify the main advantages of using DNA-barcoding for determining seafood fraud among other techniques.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1394
94858
The Sawdust Cultivation of Lentinula edodes with Broussonetia kazinoki
Abstract:
Broussonetia kazinoki (paper mulberry) is a plant native to Asia, and it grows at the foot of a mountain. Its bark is used as a raw material of Hanji, traditional Korean paper, and fruit is used as a medicinal material. However, inside the bark (woody part) is not used and discarded. We tried to use it for Lentinula edodes (oak mushroom) cultivation. It is commonly cultivated using oak trees and sawdust, but it could be grown with other trees. The woody part of paper mulberry was ground and mixed with oak sawdust by five different ratios. The 1.2 kg cylindrical bag media were prepared and water contents were adjusted to 65%. The media were autoclaved at 100℃ for 60 min and 121℃ for 90 min. Two strains of oak mushroom, NIFoS 2462 and NIFoS 2778 were inoculated and cultivated for 90 days in dark condition, and 40 days in light condition. Compared to the control, the mycelial growth period was long and the hardness of the media was low when paper mulberry sawdust was added. After incubation period, fruiting was stimulated at 18℃ and more than 85% humidity. After each flush, there was a resting period of 2 weeks. In the first flush, mushrooms were small, and a lot of small mushrooms were harvested. On the other hand, no mushrooms of 5 g or less were harvested in the secondary flush. The highest productivity was obtained in a 3:1 ratio of paper mulberry and oak sawdust. The size of NIFoS 2778 was uniform in each condition. On the other hand, NIFoS 2462 had smaller mushrooms in the media containing paper mulberry sawdust, but the appearance was not significantly different. This study showed that paper mulberry wood could be used to grow oak mushrooms and some oak sawdust could be substituted.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1393
94510
Chloride Ion Channels Play a Role in Mediating Immune Response during Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection
Abstract:
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disease that affects respiratory function and in EU it affects about 1 in 2,500 live births with an average 40-year life expectancy. This disease caused by mutations within the gene encoding the CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator) chloride channel leading to dysregulation of epithelial fluid transport and chronic lung inflammation, suggesting functional alterations of immune cells. In airways, CFTR been found to form a functional complex with S100A10 and AnxA2 in a cAMP/PKA dependent manner. The multiprotein complex of AnxA2-S100A10 and CFTR is also regulated by calcineurin. The aim of this study was i) to investigate whether chloride ion (Cl−) channels are activated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS from PA), ii) if this activation is regulated by cAMP/PKA/calcineurin pathway and iii) to investigate the role of LPS-activated Cl− channels in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by immune cells. Human peripheral blood monocytes were used in the study. Whole-cell patch records showed that LPS from PA can activate Cl− channels, including CFTR and outwardly-rectifying Cl− channel (ORCC). This activation appears to require an intact PKA/calcineurin signalling pathway. The Gout in the presence of LPS was significantly inhibited by diisothiocyanatostilbene-disulfonic acid (DIDS), an ORCC blocker (p< 0.001). The Gout was further suppressed by CFTR(inh)-172, a specific inhibitor for CFTR channels (p< 0.001). Monocytes pre-incubated with PKA inhibitor or calcineurin inhibitor before stimulated with LPS from PA that were resulted in DIDS and CFTR(inh)-172 insensitive currents. Activation of both ORCC and CFTR was however, observed in response to monocytes exposure to LPS. Additionally, ELISA showed that the CFTR and ORCC play a role in mediating the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β upon exposure of monocytes to LPS. However, this secretion was significantly inhibited due to CFTR and ORCC inhibition. However, Cl− may play a role in IL-1β release independent of cAMP/PKA/calcineurin signalling due to the enhancement of IL-1β secretion even when cAMP/PKA/calcineurin pathway was inhibited. In conclusion, our data confirmed that LPS from PA activates Cl− channels in human peripheral blood monocytes. Our data also confirmed that Cl− channels were involved in IL-1β release in monocytes upon exposure to LPS. However, it has been found that PKA and calcineurin does not seem to influence the Cl− dependent cytokine release.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1392
94497
Mouse Knockouts for Elucidating the Role of Cysteine-Rich Angiogenic Inducer 61 in Tendon Development and Maintenance
Abstract:
Of the musculoskeletal tissues, tendon is least understood in terms of biological development. The current study examines Cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61, or CCN1, a member of the CCN family of secreted matricellular proteins that regulate cell behavior via intercellular signaling. Though CCN1 is notable in limiting fibrosis by inducing senescence in fibroblasts, little is known about its role in normal fibrous tissue, where it may be essential to the development of ECM-rich structures like tendons. We found that CCN1 knockout mice (using limb-specific Prx1-Cre) exhibited clubfoot and waddling gaits, a unique phenotype not described in any other mutant to date. Histological analysis showed that the Achilles and patellar tendons, where we previously found high CCN1 expression in adult reporter mice, were thicker and denser in the Prx1-Cre knockouts than in their wildtype littermates. We then hypothesized that CCN1 is required directly in tendon progenitor cells for normal tendon development and generated tendon-specific CCN1 knockout mice using Scx-Cre. We observed similar Achilles/patellar tendon morphology among the Scx-Cre and Prx1-Cre mutants, indicating that the phenotype is a direct result of CCN1’s loss in tendon. To further study phenotype onset and progression, we will histologically characterize these tendons across different developmental time-points. We will also perform RNA-seq and qPCR to analyze tenocyte gene expression and expect fibrotic marker upregulation in the Scx-Cre mutants if CCN1 is required to maintain a normal tendon phenotype. Thus, our study aims to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying tendon formation and maintenance. Understanding tendons at the most basic level invites novel approaches to tendon repair.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1391
94082
Gene Expression and Staining Agents: Exploring the Factors That Influence the Electrophoretic Properties of Fluorescent Proteins
Abstract:
Fluorescent proteins are self-sufficient in forming chromophores with a visible wavelength from 3 amino acids sequence within their own polypeptide structure. This chromophore – a molecule that absorbs a photon of light and exhibits an energy transition equal to the energy of the absorbed photon. Fluorescent proteins (FPs) consisted of a chain of 238 amino acid residues and composed of 11 beta strands shaped in a cylinder surrounding an alpha helix structure. A better understanding of the system of the chromospheres and the increasing advance in protein engineering in recent years, the properties of FPs offers the potential for new applications. They have used sensors and probes in molecular biology and cell-based research that giving a chance to observe these FPs tagged cell localization, structural variation and movement. For clarifying functional uses of fluorescent proteins, electrophoretic properties of these proteins are one of the most important parameters. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis is used for determining electrophoretic properties commonly. While there are many techniques are used for determining the functionality of protein-based research, SDS-PAGE analysis can only provide a molecular level assessment of the proteolytic fragments. Before SDS-PAGE analysis, fluorescent proteins need to successfully purified. Due to directly purification of the target, FPs is difficult from the animal, gene expression is commonly used which must be done by transformation with the plasmid. Furthermore, used gel within electrophoresis and staining agents properties have a key role. In this review, the different factors that have the impact on the electrophoretic properties of fluorescent proteins explored. Fluorescent protein separation and purification are the essential steps before electrophoresis that should be done very carefully. For protein purification, gene expression process and following steps have a significant function. For successful gene expression, the properties of selected bacteria for expression, used plasmid are essential. Each bacteria has own characteristics which are very sensitive to gene expression, also used procedure is the important factor for fluorescent protein expression. Another important factors are gel formula and used staining agents. Gel formula has an effect on the specific proteins mobilization and staining with correct agents is a key step for visualization of electrophoretic bands of protein. Visuality of proteins can be changed depending on staining reagents. Apparently, this review has emphasized that gene expression and purification have a stronger effect than electrophoresis protocol and staining agents.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1390
93236
MSIpred: A Python 2 Package for the Classification of Tumor Microsatellite Instability from Tumor Mutation Annotation Data Using a Support Vector Machine
Abstract:
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is characterized by high degree of polymorphism in microsatellite (MS) length due to a deficiency in mismatch repair (MMR) system. MSI is associated with several tumor types and its status can be considered as an important indicator for tumor prognostic. Conventional clinical diagnosis of MSI examines PCR products of a panel of MS markers using electrophoresis (MSI-PCR) which is laborious, time consuming, and less reliable. MSIpred, a python 2 package for automatic classification of MSI was released by this study. It computes important somatic mutation features from files in mutation annotation format (MAF) generated from paired tumor-normal exome sequencing data, subsequently using these to predict tumor MSI status with a support vector machine (SVM) classifier trained by MAF files of 1074 tumors belonging to four types. Evaluation of MSIpred on an independent 358-tumor test set achieved overall accuracy of over 98% and area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.967. These results indicated that MSIpred is a robust pan-cancer MSI classification tool and can serve as a complementary diagnostic to MSI-PCR in MSI diagnosis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1389
93235
CRISPR-DT: Designing gRNAs for the CRISPR-Cpf1 System with Improved Target Efficiency and Specificity
Abstract:
The CRISPR-Cpf1 system has been successfully applied in genome editing. However, target efficiency of the CRISPR-Cpf1 system varies among different gRNA sequences. The published CRISPR-Cpf1 gRNA data was reanalyzed. Many sequences and structural features of gRNAs (e.g., the position-specific nucleotide composition, position-nonspecific nucleotide composition, GC content, minimum free energy, and melting temperature) correlated with target efficiency were found. Using machine learning technology, a support vector machine (SVM) model was created to predict target efficiency for any given gRNAs. The first web service application, CRISPR-DT (CRISPR DNA Targeting), has been developed to help users design optimal gRNAs for the CRISPR-Cpf1 system by considering both target efficiency and specificity. CRISPR-DT will empower researchers in genome editing.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1388
92615
Role of Micro-Patterning on Stem Cell-Material Interaction Modulation and Cell Fate
Abstract:
Micro-contact printing is a form of soft lithography that uses the relief patterns on a master polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp to form patterns of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of ink on the surface of a substrate through conformal contact technique. Here, we adopt this method to print proteins of different dimensions on our biodegradable polymer substrates. We started off with printing 20-500 μm scale lanes of fibronectin to engineer the shape of bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSCs). After 8 hours of culture, the hMSCs adopted elongated shapes, and upon analysis of the gene expressions, genes commonly associated with myogenesis (GATA-4, MyoD1, cTnT and β-MHC) and neurogenesis (NeuroD, Nestin, GFAP, and MAP2) were up-regulated but gene expression associated to osteogenesis (ALPL, RUNX2, and SPARC) were either down modulated or remained at the nominal level. This is the first evidence that cellular morphology control via micropatterning could be used to modulate stem cell fate without external biochemical stimuli. We further our studies to modulate the focal adhesion (FA) instead of the macro shape of cells. Micro-contact printed islands of different smaller dimensions were investigated. We successfully regulated the FAs into dense FAs and elongated FAs by micropatterning. Additionally, the combined effects of hard (40.4 kPa), and intermediate (10.6 kPa) PA gel and FAs patterning on hMSCs differentiation were studied. Results showed that FA and matrix compliance plays an important role in hMSCs differentiation, and there is a cross-talk between different physical stimulants and the significance of these stimuli can only be realized if they are combined at the optimum level.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1387
91976
Feeding Habitat of Parrot (Ringed Necked Parakeet) in District Mirpurkhas Sindh Pakistan
Abstract:
The parrot (Rose Ringed) commonly known as tota, belongs to the order ‘psiitaciformes’ and family ‘Psittacidea’, Four species of parakeet inhabits tropical and subtropical regions of Pakistan mostly adopted parks in cities deciduous woodlands, light secondary jungles, semidesert, and scrubland and in orchards and cultivated farmlands. They are mostly feed on citrus fruits, guava, mango, green unripen seed and almond nuts as well as bud and flowers etc. the core aim of the present study was to investigate the Feeding Habitat of Parrot (Ringed Necked Parakeet) in District Mirpurkhas Sindh Pakistan. Sampling was obtained from various adjoining areas of District Mirpurkhas by Non-Random Method, which was conducted from June to Nov 2017. During the present study, a total no: of 84 specimens were collected from different localities of City Mirpurkhas (42.8%) were male ♂ and (57.1%) were female ♀. Maximum population density of Psittaculla Krameri Borealis (50.0%) was collected from Guava (Psidium Guajava) Orchards, Mango (Mangifera Indica) orchard (41.6%), chekoo (Manilkara Zapota) orchard (5.9%) and the Minimum No: of Psittaculla krameri Borealis (2.3%) collected Date (Phoenix Dactylifera) orchard. It was observed that Psittaculla krameri Borealis were highly consumed Guava (Psidium Guajava) and the minimum consume food was Date (Phoenix Dactylifera).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1386
90989
Persistent Ribosomal In-Frame Mis-Translation of Stop Codons as Amino Acids in Multiple Open Reading Frames of a Human Long Non-Coding RNA
Abstract:
Two-thirds of human genes do not encode any known proteins. Aside from long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) genes with recently-discovered functions, the ~40,000 non-protein-coding human genes remain poorly understood, and a role for their transcripts as de-facto unconventional messenger RNAs has not been formally excluded. Ribosome profiling (Riboseq) predicts translational potential, but without independent evidence of proteins from lncRNA open reading frames (ORFs), ribosome binding of lncRNAs does not prove translation. Previously, we mass-spectrometrically documented translation of specific lncRNAs in human K562 and GM12878 cells. We now examined lncRNA translation in human MCF7 cells, integrating strand-specific Illumina RNAseq, Riboseq, and deep mass spectrometry in biological quadruplicates performed at two core facilities (BGI, China; City of Hope, USA). We excluded known-protein matches. UCSC Genome Browser-assisted manual annotation of imperfect (tryptic-digest-peptides)-to-(lncRNA-three-frame-translations) alignments revealed three peptides hypothetically explicable by 'stop-to-nonstop' in-frame replacement of stop codons by amino acids in two ORFs of the lncRNA MMP24-AS1. To search for this phenomenon genomewide, we designed and implemented a novel pipeline, matching tryptic-digest spectra to wildcard-instead-of-stop versions of repeat-masked, six-frame, whole-genome translations. Along with singleton putative stop-to-nonstop events affecting four other lncRNAs, we identified 24 additional peptides with stop-to-nonstop in-frame substitutions from multiple positive-strand MMP24-AS1 ORFs. Only UAG and UGA, never UAA, stop codons were impacted. All MMP24-AS1-matching spectra met the same significance thresholds as high-confidence known-protein signatures. Targeted resequencing of MMP24-AS1 genomic DNA and cDNA from the same samples did not reveal any mutations, polymorphisms, or sequencing-detectable RNA editing. This unprecedented apparent gene-specific violation of the genetic code highlights the importance of matching peptides to whole-genome, not known-genes-only, ORFs in mass-spectrometry workflows, and suggests a new mechanism enhancing the combinatorial complexity of the proteome. Funding: NIH Director’s New Innovator Award 1DP2-CA196375 to LL.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1385
90966
Diversity and Phylogenetic Placement of Seven Inocybe (Inocybaceae, Fungi) from Benin
Abstract:
Climate change and human actions cause the extinction of wild mushrooms. In Benin, the diversity of fungi is large and may still contain species new to science but the inventory effort remains low and focuses on particularly edible species (Russula, Lactarius, Lactifluus, and also Amanita). In addition, inventories have started recently and some groups of fungi are not sufficiently sampled, however, the degradation of fungal habitat continues to increase and some species are already disappearing. (Yorou and De Kesel, 2011), however, the degradation of fungi habitat continues to increase and some species may disappear without being known. This genus (Inocybe) overlooked has a worldwide distribution and includes more than 700 species with many undiscovered or poorly known species worldwide and particularly in tropical Africa. It is therefore important to orient the inventory to other genera or important families such as Inocybe (Fungi, Agaricales) in order to highlight their diversity and also to know their phylogenetic positions with a combined approach of gene regions. This study aims to evaluate the species richness and phylogenetic position of Inocybe species and affiliated taxa in West Africa. Thus, in North Benin, we visited the Forest Reserve of Ouémé Supérieur, the Okpara forest and the Alibori Supérieur Forest Reserve. In the center, we targeted the Forest Reserve of Toui-Kilibo. The surveys have been carried during the raining season in the study area meaning from June to October. A total of 24 taxa were collected, photographed and described. The DNA was extracted, the Polymerase Chain Reaction was carried out using primers (ITS1-F, ITS4-B) for Internal transcribed spacer (ITS), (LROR, LWRB, LR7, LR5) for nuclear ribosomal (LSU), (RPB2-f5F, RPB2-b6F, RPB2- b6R2, RPB2-b7R) for RNA polymerase II gene (RPB2) and sequenced. The ITS sequences of the 24 collections of Inocybaceae were edited in Staden and all the sequences were aligned and edited with Aliview v1.17. The sequences were examined by eye for sufficient similarity to be considered the same species. 13 different species were present in the collections. In addition, sequences similar to the ITS sequences of the thirteen final species were searched using BLAST. The nLSU and RPB2 markers for these species have been inserted in a complete alignment, where species from all major Inocybaceae clades as well as from all continents except Antarctica are present. Our new sequences for nLSU and RPB2 have been manually aligned in this dataset. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using the RAxML v7.2.6 maximum likelihood software. Bootstrap replications have been set to 100 and no partitioning of the dataset has been performed. The resulting tree was viewed and edited with FigTree v1.4.3. The preliminary tree resulting from the analysis of maximum likelihood shows us that these species coming from Benin are much diversified and are distributed in four different clades (Inosperma, Inocybe, Mallocybe and Pseudosperma) on the seven clades of Inocybaceae but the phylogeny position of 7 is currently known. This study marks the diversity of Inocybe in Benin and the investigations will continue and a protection plan will be developed in the coming years.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1384
90555
Excited State Structural Dynamics of Retinal Isomerization Revealed by a Femtosecond X-Ray Laser
Abstract:
Ultrafast isomerization of retinal is the primary step in a range of photoresponsive biological functions including vision in humans and ion-transport across bacterial membranes. We studied the sub-picosecond structural dynamics of retinal isomerization in the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin using an X-ray laser. Twenty snapshots with near-atomic spatial and temporal resolution in the femtosecond regime show how the excited all-trans retinal samples conformational states within the protein binding pocket prior to passing through a highly-twisted geometry and emerging in the 13-cis conformation. The aspartic acid residues and functional water molecules in proximity of the retinal Schiff base respond collectively to formation and decay of the initial excited state and retinal isomerization. These observations reveal how the protein scaffold guides this remarkably efficient photochemical reaction.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1383
89942
Ameliorative Effects of Ganoderma lucidum Extracts on Testosterone Induced Prostatic Hyperplasia in Rats
Authors:
Abstract:
Introduction: Nowadays, androgen-mediated diseases such as prostate cancer, hirsutism, acne, androgenic alopecia and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have become serious problems. The aim of the present study was to find out whether Ganoderma lucidum (GL) can be used as a clinically effective medicine for the management of prostatic hyperplasia. Methodology: In vitro studies were conducted to assess the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of GL. Testosterone (3 mg/kg s.c.) was administered to the rats along with the test extracts (10, 20 and 50 mg/kg p.o for a period of 28 days. Finasteride was used as a positive control (1 mg/kg p.o.). Major Findings: GL extracts attenuated the increase in the prostate/body weight ratio (P/BW) induced by testosterone. Most of the values were significant when compared to testosterone-treated group and finasteride treated groups. Petroleum ether extract (50 mg/kg p.o.) exhibited the best activity (P < 0.01). Ethanolic extract (20 and 50 mg/kg p.o.) also exhibited significant activity (P < 0.01). The urine output also improved significantly (P < 0.01 in all groups as compared to standard finasteride), which emphasize the clinical implications of the study. Testosterone levels measured weekly and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels measured at the end of the study also support the findings. Histological studies suggested improvement in prostatic histoarchitecture in extract-treated groups as compared to the testosterone-treated group. Conclusion: Study clearly reflects the utility of extracts in BPH. Because of conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, the prostate size is increased, thereby causing obstruction in urinary output. The observed effect that extracts do not allow the increase as reflected by urinary output, P/BW ratios and histoarchitecture showed that activity of administered testosterone was blocked by the extract and resulted in recovery.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1382
89522
Useful Characteristics of Pleurotus Mushroom Hybrids
Abstract:
Pleurotus mushroom is one of popular edible mushrooms in Thailand. It is much favored by consumers due to its delicious taste and high nutrition. It is commonly used as an ingredient in several dishes. The commercially cultivated strain grown in most farms is the Pleurotus sp., Hed Bhutan, that is widely distributed to mushroom farms throughout the country and can be cultivated almost all year round. However, it demands different cultivated strains from mushroom growers, therefore, the improving mushroom strains should be done to their benefits. In this study, we used a di-mon mating method to hybrid production from Hed Bhutan (P-3) as dikaryon material and monokaryotic mycelium were isolated from basidiospores of other three Pleurotus sp. by single spore isolation. The 3 hybrids: P-3XSA-6, P-3XSB-24 and P-3XSE-5 were recognized from the 12 hybridized successfully. They were appropriate hybridized in terms of fruiting body performance in the three time cycles of cultivation such as the number of days until growing, time for pinning, color and shape of fruiting bodies and yield. For genetic study, genomic DNAs of both Hed Bhutan (P-3) and three hybrids were extracted. A couple of primer ITS1 and ITS4 were used to amplify the gene coding for ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S rRNA. The similarities between these amplified genes and databases of DNA revealed that Hed Bhutan (P-3) was the Pleurotus pulmonarius as well as P-3XSA-6, P-3XSB-24 and P-3XSE-5 hybrids. Furthermore, Hed Bhutan (P3) and three hybrids were distributed to 3 small-scale farms, with mushroom farming experience, in the countryside. To address this, one hundred and twenty mushroom bags of each strain were supplied to them. The findings, by interview, indicated two mushroom farmers were satisfied with P-3XSA-6 hybrid and P-3XSB-24 hybrid, thanks to their simultaneous fruiting time and good yield. While the other was satisfied with P-3XSB-24 hybrid due to its good yield and P-3XSE-5 hybrids thanks to its gradually fruiting body, benefiting in frequent harvest. Overall, farmers adopted all hybrids to grow as commercially cultivated strains as well as Hed Bhutan (P-3) strain.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1381
89439
Energy Metabolites Show Cross-Protective Plastic Responses for Stress Resistance in a Circumtropical Drosophila Species
Abstract:
Plastic responses to multiple environmental stressors in wet or dry seasonal populations of tropical Drosophila species have received less attention. We tested plastic effects of heat hardening, acclimation to drought or starvation; and changes in trehalose, proline and body lipids in D. ananassae flies reared under wet or dry season specific conditions. Wet season flies revealed significant increase in heat knockdown, starvation resistance and body lipids after heat hardening. However, accumulation of proline was observed only after desiccation acclimation of dry season flies while wet season flies elicited no proline but trehalose only. Therefore, drought-induced proline can be a marker metabolite for dry season flies. Further, partial utilization of proline and trehalose under heat hardening reflects their possible thermoprotective effects. Heat hardening elicited cross-protection to starvation stress. Stressor-specific accumulation or utilization, as well as rates of metabolic change for each energy metabolite, were significantly higher in wet season flies than dry season flies. Energy metabolite changes due to inter-related stressors (heat vs. desiccation or starvation) resulted in possible maintenance of energetic homeostasis in wet or dry season flies. Thus, low or high humidity induced plastic changes in energy metabolites can provide cross-protection to seasonally varying climatic stressors.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1380
89438
The Increase in Functionalities of King Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) Mycelia Depending on the Increase in Nutritional Components
Abstract:
This study was conducted to research king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) mycelia with reinforced functionalities. 0 to 4% of saccharide components, such as glucose (glu), lactose (lac), mannitol (man), xylose (xyl), and fructose (fru) and 0 to 0.04% of amino acid components, such as aspartic acid (asp). Cysteine (cys), threonine (thr), glutamine (gln), and serine (ser) were added to liquid media, and antioxidant activities, nitrite scavenging activities, and total polyphenol contents of the cultured mycelia were measured. In the saccharide-added group, 4 strains except ASI 2887 had high antioxidant activities when 1% of xyl was added and especially, the antioxidant activity of ASI 2839 was 73.9%, which was the highest value. In the amino acid-added group, the antioxidant activity of ASI 2839 was 66.3% that was the highest value when 0.2% of ser was added. But all the 5 strains had lower antioxidant activities than the saccharide-added group overall. In the saccharide-added group, 4 strains except ASI 2887 had higher nitrite scavenging activities than other group when 1% of xyl was added and especially, the nitrite scavenging activity of ASI 2824 was 57.8% that was the highest value. It was revealed that the saccharide-added group and the amino acid-added group had a similar efficiency of nitrite scavenging activity. Although the same component-added group did not show a certain increase or decrease in total polyphenol contents, ASI 2839 with the highest antioxidant activity had 6.8mg/g, which was the highest content when 1% of xyl was added. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that when 1% of xyl was added, functionalities of Pleurotus eryngii mycelia, including antioxidant activities, nitrite scavenging activities, and total polyphenol contents improved.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1379
89246
Evaluation of Existence of Antithyroid Antibodies, Anti-Thyroid Peroxidase and Anti-Thyroglobulin in Patients with Hepatitis C Viral Infections
Abstract:
Chronic hepatitis or Hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection has been identified as one of the factors that could elicit autoimmune disease resulting in the development of auto-antibodies. Furthermore, HCV is implicated in contravening of forbearance to antigens, therefore, inciting auto-reactivity. In this regard, several near and past studies noted the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and production of anti-thyroid antibodies (ATAb) such as anti-thyroid peroxidase (AntiTPO) and anti-thyroglobulin (AntiTG) in patients with HCV. Likewise, one of the etiologies of augmentation of thyroid disease is basically interferon therapy for HCV infections, for which a number of autoimmune diseases have been noted including Grave’s disease, Hishimoto thyroiditis. A prospectively case-control study was therefore carried out at department of clinical biochemistry lab services and chemical pathology in collaboration with department of clinical microbiology, at Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, Karachi Pakistan for the period January 2015 to December 2017. Two control groups were inducted for comparison purpose, control group 1 = without HCV infection and with thyroid disorders (n = 20), control group 2 = with HCV infection and without thyroid disorders (n = 20), whereas HCV infected were n = 40 where more than half were noted to be positive for either of HCV IgG and Ag. In HCV group, patients with existing sub-clinical hypothyroidism and clinical hyperthyroidism were less than 5%. Analysis showed the presence of AntiTG in 12 HCV patients (30%), AntiTPO in 15 (37.5%) and both AntiTG and antiTPO in 10 patients (25%). Only 3 patients were found with the history of anti-thyroid auto-antibodies (7.5%) and one with parents and relatives with auto-immune disorders (2.5%). Patients that remained untreated were 12 (30%), under treatment 18 (45%) and with complete-course of treatment 10 (25%). As per review of the literature, meta-analysis of evident data and cross-sectional studies of selective cohorts (as studied in presented research), thyroid connection is designated as one of the most recurrent endocrine ailment associated with chronic HCV infection. Moreover, it also represents an extrahepatic disease in the continuum of HCV syndrome. In conclusion, HCV patients were more likely to encompass thyroid disorders especially related to development of either of ATAb or both antiTG and AntiTPO.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1378
89182
Expression Regulation of Membrane Protein by Codon Variation of Amino Acid at N-Terminal Region
Abstract:
Microbial rhodopsins are well-known seven-transmembrane proteins that have been extensively studied. These retinal-binding proteins have divided into two types. The type I is microbial rhodopsin, and type II (visual pigment) is expressed mostly in mammalian eyes. For type I rhodopsin, there are two main functions that are ion pumping activity and sensory transduction. Anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR) is one of the microbial rhodopsin with main function as photo-sensory transduction. Although ASR is expressed fairly well in Escherichia coli, the expression level is relatively less compare to Proteorhodopsin. In this study, full length of ASR was used to test for the expression influence by codon usage in E. coli. Eight amino acids of codon at N-terminal part of ASR were changed randomly with designed primers, which allow 8,192 nucleotide different cases. The codon changes were screened for the preferable codons of each residue, which have given higher expression yield. Among those 57 selected mutations, there are 24 color-enhanced E. coli colonies that contain ASR proteins, and it showed better expression level than the wild type ASR codon usage. This strongly suggests that high codon usage of only partial N-terminal of protein can increase the expression level of whole protein.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1377
88972
An Unbiased Profiling of Immune Repertoire via Sequencing and Analyzing T-Cell Receptor Genes
Abstract:
Adaptive immune system recognizes a wide range of antigens via expressing a large number of structurally distinct T cell and B cell receptor genes. The distinct receptor genes arise from complex rearrangements called V(D)J recombination, and constitute the immune repertoire. A common method of profiling immune repertoire is via amplifying recombined receptor genes using multiple primers and high-throughput sequencing. This multiplex-PCR approach is efficient; however, the resulting repertoire can be distorted because of primer bias. To eliminate primer bias, 5’ RACE is an alternative amplification approach. However, the application of RACE approach is limited by its low efficiency (i.e., the majority of data are non-regular receptor sequences, e.g., containing intronic segments) and lack of the convenient tool for analysis. We propose a computational tool that can correctly identify non-regular receptor sequences in RACE data via aligning receptor sequences against the whole gene instead of only the exon regions as done in all other tools. Using our tool, the remaining regular data allow for an accurate profiling of immune repertoire. In addition, a RACE approach is improved to yield a higher fraction of regular T-cell receptor sequences. Finally, we quantify the degree of primer bias of a multiplex-PCR approach via comparing it to the RACE approach. The results reveal significant differences in frequency of VJ combination by the two approaches. Together, we provide a new experimental and computation pipeline for an unbiased profiling of immune repertoire. As immune repertoire profiling has many applications, e.g., tracing bacterial and viral infection, detection of T cell lymphoma and minimal residual disease, monitoring cancer immunotherapy, etc., our work should benefit scientists who are interested in the applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1376
88746
A Study of Preliminary Findings of Behavioral Patterns under Captive Conditions in Chinkara (Gazella bennettii) with Prospects for Future Conservation
Abstract:
The present study was conducted from April 2013 to March 2014 to observe the behavioral parameters of Chinkara (Gazella bennettii) under captive conditions by comparing the captive-born and wild-caught animals for conservation strategies. Understanding the behavioral conformations plays a significant role in captive management. Due to human population explosion and mechanized hunting, the captive breeding seems to be the best way for sports hunting, bush meat, for leather industry and horns for traditional medicinal usage. Primarily, captive management has been used on trial and error basis due to deficiency of ethology of this least concerned species. Behavior of [(20 wild-caught (WC) and 10 captive-bred (CB)] adult Chinkara was observed at captive breeding facilities for ungulates at Ravi Campus, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences at Kasur district which is situated on southeast side of Lahore. The average annual rainfall is about 650 mm, with frequent raining during monsoon. A focal sample was used to observe the various behavioral patterns for CB and WC chinkara. A similarity was observed in behavioral parameters in WC and CB animals, however, when the differences were considered, WC male deer showed a significantly higher degree of agonistic interaction as compared to the CB male chinkara. These findings suggest that there is no immediate impact of captivity on behavior of chinkara nevertheless 10 generations of captivity. It is suggested that the Chinkara is not suitable for domestication and for successful deer farming, a further study is recommended for ethology of chinkara.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1375
88717
Conservation Detection Dogs to Protect Europe's Native Biodiversity from Invasive Species
Authors:
Abstract:
With dogs saving wildlife in New Zealand since 1890 and governments in Africa, Australia and Canada trusting them to give the best results, Conservation Dogs Ireland want to introduce more detection dogs to protect Europe's native wildlife. Conservation detection dogs are fast, portable and endlessly trainable. They are a cost-effective, highly sensitive and non-invasive way to detect protected and invasive species and wildlife disease. Conservation dogs find targets up to 40 times faster than any other method. They give results instantly, with near-perfect accuracy. They can search for multiple targets simultaneously, with no reduction in efficacy The European Red List indicates the decline in biodiversity has been most rapid in the past 50 years, and the risk of extinction never higher. Just two examples of major threats dogs are trained to tackle are: (I)Japanese Knotweed (Fallopia Japonica), not only a serious threat to ecosystems, crops, structures like bridges and roads - it can wipe out the entire value of a house. The property industry and homeowners are only just waking up to the full extent of the nightmare. When those working in construction on the roads move topsoil with a trace of Japanese Knotweed, it suffices to start a new colony. Japanese Knotweed grows up to 7cm a day. It can stay dormant and resprout after 20 years. In the UK, the cost of removing Japanese Knotweed from the London Olympic site in 2012 was around £70m (€83m). UK banks already no longer lend on a house that has Japanese Knotweed on-site. Legally, landowners are now obliged to excavate Japanese Knotweed and have it removed to a landfill. More and more, we see Japanese Knotweed grow where a new house has been constructed, and topsoil has been brought in. Conservation dogs are trained to detect small fragments of any part of the plant on sites and in topsoil. (II)Zebra mussels (Dreissena Polymorpha) are a threat to many waterways in the world. They colonize rivers, canals, docks, lakes, reservoirs, water pipes and cooling systems. They live up to 3 years and will release up to one million eggs each year. Zebra mussels attach to surfaces like rocks, anchors, boat hulls, intake pipes and boat engines. They cause changes in nutrient cycles, reduction of plankton and increased plant growth around lake edges, leading to the decline of Europe's native mussel and fish populations. There is no solution, only costly measures to keep it at bay. With many interconnected networks of waterways, they have spread uncontrollably. Conservation detection dogs detect the Zebra mussel from its early larvae stage, which is still invisible to the human eye. Detection dogs are more thorough and cost-effective than any other conservation method, and will greatly complement and speed up the work of biologists, surveyors, developers, ecologists and researchers.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1374
88317
Driving Forces of Net Carbon Emissions in a Tropical Dry Forest, Oaxaca, México
Abstract:
The Tropical Dry Forest not only is one of the most important tropical ecosystems in terms of area, but also it is one of the most degraded ecosystems. However, little is known about the degradation impacts on carbon stocks, therefore in carbon emissions. There are different studies which explain its deforestation dynamics, but there is still a lack of understanding of how they correlate to carbon losses. Recently different authors have built current biomass maps for the tropics and Mexico. However, it is not clear how well they predict at the local scale, and how they can be used to estimate carbon emissions. This study quantifies the forest net carbon losses by comparing the potential carbon stocks and the different current biomass maps in the Southern Pacific coast in Oaxaca, Mexico. The results show important differences in the current biomass estimates with not a clear agreement. However, by the aggregation of the information, it is possible to infer the general patterns of biomass distribution and it can identify the driving forces of the carbon emissions. This study estimated that currently ~44% of the potential carbon stock estimated for the region is still present. A total of 6,764 GgC has been emitted due to deforestation and degradation of the forest at a rate of above ground biomass loss of 66.4 Mg ha-1. Which, ~62% of the total carbon emissions can be regarded as being due to forest degradation. Most of carbon losses were identified in places suitable for agriculture, close to rural areas and to roads while the lowest losses were accounted in places with high water stress and within the boundaries of the National Protected Area. Moreover, places not suitable for agriculture, but close to the coast showed carbon losses as a result of urban settlements.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1373
88274
Development of R³ UV Exposure for the UV Dose-Insensitive and Cost-Effective Fabrication of Biodegradable Polymer Microneedles
Abstract:
Puncturing human skin with microneedles is critically important for microneedle-mediate drug delivery. Despite of extensive efforts in the past decades, the scale-up fabrication of sharp-tipped and high-aspect-ratio microneedles, especially made of biodegradable polymers, is still a long way off. Here, we present a UV dose insensitive and cost-effective microfabrication method for the biodegradable polymer microneedles with sharp tips and long lengths which can pierce human skin with low insertion force. The biodegradable polymer microneedles are fabricated with the polymer solution casting where a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA, 50:50) solution is coated onto a SU-8 mold prepared with a reverse, ramped, and rotational (R3) UV exposure. The R3 UV exposure is modified from the multidirectional UV exposure both to suppress UV reflection from the bottom surface without anti-reflection layers and to optimize solvent concentration in the SU-8 photoresist, therefore achieving robust (i.e., highly insensitive to UV dose) and cost-effective fabrication of biodegradable polymer microneedles. An optical model for describing the spatial distribution of UV irradiation dose of the R3 UV exposure is also developed to theoretically predict the microneedle geometry fabricated with the R3 UV exposure and also to demonstrate the insensitiveness of microneedle geometry to UV dose. In the experimental characterization, the microneedles fabricated with the R3 UV exposure are compared with those fabricated with a conventional method (i.e., multidirectional UV exposure). The R3 UV exposure-based microfabrication reduces the end-tip radius by a factor of 5.8 and the deviation from ideal aspect ratio by 74.8%, compared with conventional method-based microfabrication. The PLGA microneedles fabricated with the R3 UV exposure pierce full-thickness porcine skins successfully and are demonstrated to completely dissolve in PBS (phosphate-buffered saline). The findings of this study will lead to an explosive growth of the microneedle-mediated drug delivery market.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1372
88221
Production, Optimization, Characterization, and Kinetics of a Partially Purified Laccase from Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Its Application in Swift Bioremediation of Azo Dyes
Abstract:
Background: In the present investigation the efficiency of laccase (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.2) from Pleurotus citrinopileatus was assessed for the decolorization of azo dyes. Aim: Enzyme production, characterization and kinetics of a partially purified laccase from Pleurotus citrinopileatus were determined for its application in bioremediation of azo dyes. Methods & Results: Laccase has been partially purified by using 80% ammonium sulphate solution. Total activity, total protein, specific activity and purification fold for partially purified laccase were found to be 40.38U, 293.33mg/100ml, 0.91U/mg and 2.84, respectively. The pH and temperature optima of laccase were 5.0 and 50ºC, respectively, while the enzyme was most stable at pH 4.0 and temperature 30ºC when exposed for one hour. The Km of the partially purified laccase for substrates guaiacol, DMP (2,6-dimethoxyphenol) and syringaldazine (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde azine) were 60, 95 and 26, respectively. This laccase has been tested for the use in the bioremediation of azo dyes in the absence of mediator molecules. Two dyes namely congo red and bromophenol blue were tested. Discussion: It was observed that laccase enzyme was very effective in the decolorization of these two dyes. More than 80% decolorization was observed within half an hour even in the absence of mediator and their lower Km value indicates that efficiency of the enzyme is very high. The results were promising due to quicker decolorization in the absence of mediators showing that it can be used as a valuable biocatalyst for quick bioremediation of azo dyes. Conclusion: The enzymatic properties of laccase from P. citrinopileatus should be considered for a potential environmental (biodegradation and bioremediation) or industrial applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1371
88188
Predicting Dose Level and Length of Time for Radiation Exposure Using Gene Expression
Abstract:
In a large-scale radiologic emergency, potentially affected population need to be triaged efficiently using various biomarkers where personal dosimeters are not likely worn by the individuals. It has long been established that radiation injury can be estimated effectively using panels of genetic biomarkers. Furthermore, the rate of radiation, in addition to dose of radiation, plays a major role in determining biological responses. Therefore, a better and more accurate triage involves estimating both the dose level of the exposure and the length of time of that exposure. To that end, a large in vivo study was carried out on mice with internal emitter caesium-137 (¹³⁷Cs). Four different injection doses of ¹³⁷Cs were used: 157.5 μCi, 191 μCi, 214.5μCi, and 259 μCi. Cohorts of 6~7 mice from the control arm and each of the dose levels were sacrificed, and blood was collected 2, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days after injection for microarray RNA gene expression analysis. Using a generalized linear model with penalized maximum likelihood, a panel of 244 genes was established and both the doses of injection and the number of days after injection were accurately predicted for all 155 subjects using this panel. This has proven that microarray gene expression can be used effectively in radiation biodosimetry in predicting both the dose levels and the length of exposure time, which provides a more holistic view on radiation exposure and helps improving radiation damage assessment and treatment.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1370
88146
National Strategy for Swedish Wildlife Management
Abstract:
Nature, and the society it is a part of, is under constant change. The landscape, climate and game populations vary over time, as well as society's priorities and the way it uses the land where wildlife may proliferate. Sweden currently has historically large wildlife populations which are a resource for the benefit and joy of many people. Wildlife may also be seen as a problem as it may cause damage in contradiction to other human interests. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency introduces a new long-term strategy for national wildlife management. The strategy envisions a wildlife management in balance. It focuses on wildlife values in a broad sense including outdoor recreation and tourism as well as conservation of biodiversity. It is fundamental that these values should be open and accessible for the major part of the population. For that to be possible new ways to manage, mitigate and prevent damages and other problems that wildlife causes need to be developed. The strategy describes a roadmap for the development and strengthening of Sweden's wildlife management until 2020. It aims at being applicable for those authorities and stakeholders with interest in wildlife management being a guide for their own strategies, goals, and activities.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1369
87986
The Genetic Diversity and Conservation Status of Natural Populus Nigra Populations in Turkey
Abstract:
Populus nigra is one of the most economically and ecologically important forest trees in Turkey, well known for its rapid growth, good ability to vegetative propagation and the extreme uses of its wood. Due to overexploitation, loss of natural distribution area and extreme hybridization and introgression, Populus nigra is one of the most threatened tree species in Turkey and Europe. Using 20 nuclear microsatellite loci, the genetic structure of European black poplar populations along the two largest rivers of Turkey was analyzed. All tested loci were highly polymorphic, displaying 5 to 15 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosity (overall Ho = 0.79) has been higher than the expected (overall He = 0.58) in each population. Low level of genetic differentiation among populations (FST= 0,03) and excess of heterozygotes for each river were found. Human-mediated dispersal, phenotypic selection, high level of gene flow and extensive circulations of clonal materials may cause those situations. The genetic data obtained from this study could provide the basis for efficient in situ and ex-situ conservation and restoration of species natural populations in its natural habitat as well as having sustainable breeding and poplar plantations in the future.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1368
87882
Embryonic and Larval Development of Pelophylax bedriagae (Amphibia, Anura), in Iran
Abstract:
We studied the development and morphology of different larval stages of Pelophylax bedriagae at two rearing temperatures (20 and 24°C). Eggs collected from a breeding site in south-western Iran. Diagnostic morphological characters are provided for Gosner (1960) larval stages 1-46. The larvae hatched about seven days after egg deposition. Principal diagnostic feature including the formation of the funnel-shaped oral disc became discernible about ten days after hatch at Gosner stage 21 and degenerated at Gosner stage 42. Larvae developed faster at higher temperatures. The largest body length of larval P. bedriagae measured about 54mm in 70 days after egg deposition. Based on our results, the longest metamorphosis time was observed on temperature (20°C) whilst the shortest metamorphosis time occurred on temperature (24°C). Compared with the majority of other Palearctic Anurans, it appears that embryonic and larval development is usually slow rapid in P. bedriagae.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1367
87270
Steps of the Pancreatic Differentiation in the Grass Snake (Natrix natrix) Embryos
Abstract:
The pancreas is an important organ present in all vertebrate species. It contains two different tissues, exocrine and endocrine, that act as two glands in one. The development and differentiation of the pancreas in reptiles is poorly known in comparison to other vertebrates. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the particular steps concerning the differentiation of the pancreas in the grass snake (Natrix natrix) embryos. For this, histological methods (including hematoxylin and eosin, and Heidenhain's AZAN staining), transmission electron microscopy and three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions from serial paraffin sections were used. The results of this study indicated that the first step of pancreas development in Natrix was the connection of the two pancreatic buds: dorsal and ventral one. Then, duct walls in both buds started to be remodeled from the multilayered to single-layered epithelium. This remodeling started in the dorsal bud and was simultaneously with the differentiation of the duct lumens which occurred by the cavition. During this process, the cells that had no contact with the mesenchyme underwent cell death named anoikis. These findings indicated that the walls of ducts in the embryonic pancreas of the grass snake were initially formed by the abundant principal and single endocrine cells. Later the basal and goblet cells differentiated. Among the endocrine cells, as the first the B and A cells differentiated, then the D and PP cells. The next step of the pancreatic development was the withdrawing of the endocrine cells from the duct walls to form the pancreatic islets. The endocrine cells and islets were found only in the dorsal part of the pancreas in Natrix embryos what is different than in other vertebrate species. The islets were formed mainly by the A cells. Simultaneously, with the differentiation of the endocrine pancreas, the acinar tissue started to differentiate. The source of the acinar cells were pancreatic ducts similar as in other vertebrates. The acini formation began at the proximal part of the pancreas and went towards the caudal direction. Differentiating pancreatic ducts developed into the branched system that can be divided into extralobular, intralobular, and intercalated ducts, similarly as in other vertebrate species. However, the pattern of branching was different. In conclusions, particular steps of the pancreas differentiation in the grass snake were different than in other vertebrates. It can be supposed that these differences are related to the specific topography of the snake’s internal organs and their taxonomy position. All specimens used in the study were captured according to the Polish regulations concerning the protection of wild species. Permission was granted by the Local Ethics Commission in Katowice (41/2010; 87/2015) and the Regional Directorate for Environmental Protection in Katowice (WPN.6401.257.2015.DC).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1366
87266
Development of the Squamate Egg Tooth on the Basis of Grass Snake Natrix natrix Studies
Abstract:
The egg tooth is a crucial structure during hatching of lizards and snakes. In contrast to birds, turtles, crocodiles, and monotremes, egg tooth of squamate reptiles is a true tooth sharing common features of structure and development with all the other teeth of vertebrates. The egg tooth; however, due to its function, exhibits structural differences in relation to regular teeth. External morphology seems to be important in the context of phylogenetic relationships within Squamata but up to date, there is scarce information concerning structure and development of the egg tooth at the submicroscopical level. In presented studies detailed analysis of the egg tooth development in grass snake has been performed with the usage of light (including fluorescent), transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Grass snake embryo’s heads have been used in our studies. Grass snake is common snake species occurring in most of Europe including Poland. The grass snake is characterized by the presence of single unpaired egg tooth (as in most squamates) in contrast to geckos and dibamids possessing paired egg teeth. Studies show changes occurring on the external morphology, tissue and cellular levels of differentiating egg tooth. The egg tooth during its development changes its curvature. Initially, faces directly downward and in the course of its differentiation, it gradually changes to rostro-ventral orientation. Additionally, it forms conical dentinal protrusions on the sides. Histological analysis showed that egg tooth development occurs in similar steps in relation to regular teeth. It undergoes initiation, bud, cap and bell morphological stages. Analyses focused on describing morphological changes in hard tissues (mainly dentin and predentin) of egg tooth and in cells which enamel organ consists of. It included: outer enamel epithelium, stratum intermedium, inner enamel epithelium, odontoblasts, and cells of dental pulp. All specimens used in the study were captured according to the Polish regulations concerning the protection of wild species. Permission was granted by the Local Ethics Commission in Katowice (41/2010; 87/2015) and the Regional Directorate for Environmental Protection in Katowice (WPN.6401.257.2015.DC).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):