Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 50776

Biomedical and Biological Engineering

701
88547
Generation of Electro-Encephalography Readiness Potentials by Intention
Abstract:
The readiness potential in brain waves is a brain activity related with an intention whose potential arises even before its conscious intention. This study was carried out in order to understand the generation and mechanism of the readiness potential more. The experiment with two subjects was conducted in two ways following the Oddball task protocol. Firstly, auditory stimuli were randomly presented to the subjects. The subject was allowed to press the keyboard with the right index finger only when the subject heard the target stimulus but not the standard stimulus. Secondly, unlike the first one, the auditory stimuli were randomly presented, and the subjects pressed the keyboard in the same manner, but at the same time with grasping action of the left hand. The readiness potential showed up for both of these experiments. In the first Oddball experiment, the readiness potential was detected only when the target stimulus was presented. However, in the second Oddball experiment with the left hand action of grasping something, the readiness potential was detected at the presentation of for both standard and target stimuli. However, detected readiness potentials with the target stimuli were larger than those of the standard stimuli. We found an interesting phenomenon that the readiness potential was able to be detected even the standard stimulus. This indicates that motor-related readiness potentials can be generated only by the intention to move. These results present a new perspective in psychology and brain engineering since subconscious brain action may be prior to conscious recognition of the intention.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
700
87705
Integrating Molecular Approaches to Understand Diatom Assemblages in Marine Environment
Abstract:
Environmental processes acting at multiple spatial scales control marine diatom community structure. However, the contribution of local factors (e.g., temperature, salinity, etc.) in these highly complex systems is poorly understood. We, therefore, investigated the diatom community organization as a function of environmental predictors and determined the relative contribution of various environmental factors on the structure of marine diatoms assemblages in the world’s ocean. The dataset for this study was derived from the Tara Oceans expedition, constituting 46 sampling stations from diverse oceanic provinces. The V9 hypervariable region of 18s rDNA was organized into assemblages based on their distributional co-occurrence. Using Ward’s hierarchical clustering, nine clusters were defined. The number of ribotypes and reads varied within each cluster-three clusters (II, VIII and IX) contained only a few reads whereas two of them (I and IV) were highly abundant. Of the nine clusters, seven can be divided into two categories defined by a positive correlation with phosphate and nitrate and a negative correlation with longitude and, the other by a negative correlation with salinity, temperature, latitude and positive correlation with Lyapunov exponent. All the clusters were found to be remarkably dominant in South Pacific Ocean and can be placed into three classes, namely Southern Ocean-South Pacific Ocean clusters (I, II, V, VIII, IX), South Pacific Ocean clusters (IV and VII), and cosmopolitan clusters (III and VI). Our findings showed that co-occurring ribotypes can be significantly associated into recognizable clusters which exhibit a distinct response to environmental variables. This study, thus, demonstrated distinct behavior of each recognized assemblage displaying a taxonomic and environmental signature.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
699
87703
Unfolding Global Biodiversity Patterns of Marine Planktonic Diatom Communities across the World's Oceans
Abstract:
Analysis of microbial eukaryotic diversity is fundamental to understanding ecosystems’ structure, biology, and ecology. Diatoms (Stramenopiles, Bacillariophyceae) are one of the most diverse and ecologically prominent groups of phytoplankton. This study was performed to enhance the understanding of global biodiversity patterns and structure of planktonic diatom communities across the world's oceans. We used the metabarcoding data set generated from the biological samples and associated environmental data collected during the Tara Oceans (2009-2013) global circumnavigation covering all major oceanic provinces. A total of ~18 million diatom V9-18S rDNA tags from 126 sampling stations, constituting 631 size-fractionated plankton communities were generated. Using ~250,000 unique diatom metabarcodes, the global diatom distribution and diversity across size classes, genus and ecological niches was assessed. Notably, our analysis revealed: (i) a new estimate of the total number of planktonic diatom species, (ii) a considerable unknown diversity and exceptionally high diversity in the open ocean, and (iii) complex diversity patterns across oceanic provinces. Also, co-occurrence of several ribotypes in locations separated by great geographic distances (equatorial stations) demonstrated a widespread but not ubiquitous distribution. This work provides a comprehensive perspective on diatom distribution and diversity in the world’s oceans and elaborates interconnections between associated theories and underlying drivers. It shows how meta-barcoding approaches can provide a framework to investigate environmental diversity at a global scale, which is deemed as an essential step in answering various ecological research questions. Consequently, this work also provides a reference point to explore how microbial communities will respond to environmental conditions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
698
87624
Biospiral-Detect to Distinguish PrP Multimers from Monomers
Abstract:
The multimerisation of proteins is a common feature of many cellular processes; however, it could also impair protein functions and/or be associated with the occurrence of diseases. Thus, development of a research tool monitoring the appearance/presence of multimeric protein forms has great importance for a variety of research fields. Such a tool is potentially applicable in the ante-mortem diagnosis of certain conformational diseases, such as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and Alzheimer’s disease. These conditions are accompanied by the appearance of aggregated protein multimers, present in low concentrations in various tissues. This detection is particularly relevant for TSE where the handling of tissues derived from affected individuals and of meat products of infected animals have become an enormous health concern. Here we demonstrate the potential of such a multimer detection approach in TSE by developing a facile approach. The Biospiral-Detect system resembles a traditional sandwich ELISA, except that the capturing antibody that is attached to a solid surface and the detecting antibody is directed against the same or overlapping epitopes. As a consequence, the capturing antibody shields the epitope on the captured monomer from reacting with the detecting antibody, therefore monomers are not detected. Thus, MDS is capable of detecting only protein multimers with high specificity. We developed an alternative system as well, where RNA aptamers were employed instead of monoclonal antibodies. In order to minimize degradation, the 3' and 5' ends of the aptamer contained deoxyribonucleotides and phosphorothioate linkages. When compared the monoclonal antibodies-based system with the aptamers-based one, the former proved to be superior. Thus all subsequent experiments were conducted by employing the Biospiral -Detect modified sandwich ELISA kit. Our approach showed an order of magnitude higher sensitivity toward mulimers than monomers suggesting that this approach may become a valuable diagnostic tool for conformational diseases that are accompanied by multimerization.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
697
87040
Correlation Mapping for Measuring Platelet Adhesion
Authors:
Abstract:
Platelets can be activated by the surrounding blood flows where a blood vessel is narrowed as a result of atherosclerosis. Numerous studies have been conducted to identify the relation between platelets activation and thrombus formation. To measure platelet adhesion, this study proposes an image analysis technique. Blood samples are delivered in the microfluidic channel, and then platelets are activated by a stenotic micro-channel with 90% severity. By applying proposed correlation mapping, which visualizes decorrelation of the streaming blood flow, the area of adhered platelets (APlatelet) was estimated without labeling platelets. In order to evaluate the performance of correlation mapping on the detection of platelet adhesion, the effect of tile size was investigated by calculating 2D correlation coefficients with binary images obtained by manual labeling and the correlation mapping method with different sizes of the square tile ranging from 3 to 50 pixels. The maximum 2D correlation coefficient is observed with the optimum tile size of 5×5 pixels. As the area of the platelet adhesion increases, the platelets plug the channel and there is only a small amount of blood flows. This image analysis could provide new insights for better understanding of the interactions between platelet aggregation and blood flows in various physiological conditions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
696
86571
Multilayered Assembly of Gelatin on Nanofibrous Matrix for 3-D Cell Cultivation
Abstract:
Electrospinning is a versatile tool for fabricating nano-structured polymeric materials. Gelatin hydrogels are considered to be a good material for cell cultivation because of high water swellability as well as good biocompatibility. Three-dimensional (3-D) cell cultivation is a desirable method of cell cultivation for preparing tissues and organs because cell-to-cell interactions or cell-to-matrix interactions can be much enhanced through this approach. For this reason, hydrogels were widely employed as tissue scaffolds because they can support cultivating cells and tissue in multi-dimensions. Major disadvantages of hydrogel-based cell cultivation include low mechanical properties, lack of topography, which should be enhanced for successful tissue engineering. Herein we surface-immobilized gelatin on the surface of nanofibrous matrix for 3-D cell cultivation in topographical cues added environments. Electrospun nanofibers were electrospun with injection of poly(caprolactone) through a single nozzle syringe. Electrospun meshes were then chopped up with a high speed grinder to fine powders. This was hydrolyzed in optimized concentration of sodium hydroxide solution from 1 to 6 hours and harvested by centrifugation. The freeze-dried powders were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for revealing the morphology and fibrilar shaped with a length of ca. 20um was observed. This was subsequently immersed in gelatin solution for surface-coating of gelatin, where the process repeated up to 10 times for obtaining desirable coating of gelatin on the surface. Gelatin-coated nanofibrils showed high waterswellability in comparison to the unmodified nanofibrils, and this enabled good dispersion properties of the modified nanofibrils in aqueous phase. The degree of water-swellability was increased as the coating numbers of gelatin increased, however, it did not any meaning result after 10 times of gelatin coating process. Thus, by adjusting the gelatin coating times, we could successfully control the degree of hydrophilicity and water-swellability of nanofibrils.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
695
86147
Design and Development of a Bi-Leaflet Pulmonary Valve
Abstract:
Paediatric patients who require ventricular outflow tract reconstruction usually need valve construction to prevent valvular regurgitation. They would face problems like lack of suitable, affordable conduits and the need to undergo several operations in their lifetime due to the short lifespan of existing valves. Their natural growth and development are also of concern, even if they manage to receive suitable conduits. Current prosthesis including homografts, bioprosthetic valves, mechanical valves, and bovine jugular veins either do not have the long-term durability or the ability to adapt to the growth of such patients. We have developed a new design of bi-leaflet valve. This new technique accommodates patients’ annular size growth while maintaining valvular patency. A mock circulatory system was set up to assess the hemodynamic performance of the bi-leaflet pulmonary valve. It was found that the percentage regurgitation was acceptable and thus, validates this novel concept.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
694
85954
Evaluation of Gene Expression after in Vitro Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells to Insulin-Producing Cells
Abstract:
Many protocols were publicized for differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCS) into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) in order to excrete insulin hormone ingoing to treat diabetes disease. Our aim is to evaluate relative gene expression for each independent protocol. Human bone marrow cells were derived from three volunteers that suffer diabetes disease. After expansion of mesenchymal stem cells, differentiation of these cells was done by three different protocols (the one-step protocol was used conophylline protein, the two steps protocol was depending on trichostatin-A, and the three-step protocol was started by beta-mercaptoethanol). Evaluation of gene expression was carried out by real-time PCR: Pancreatic endocrine genes, transcription factors, glucose transporter, precursor markers, pancreatic enzymes, proteolytic cleavage, extracellular matrix and cell surface protein. Quantitation of insulin secretion was detected by immunofluorescence technique in 24-well plate. Most of the genes studied were up-regulated in the in vitro differentiated cells, and also insulin production was observed in the three independent protocols. There were some slight increases in expression of endocrine mRNA of two-step protocol and its insulin production. So, the two-step protocol was showed a more efficient in expressing of pancreatic endocrine genes and its insulin production than the other two protocols.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
693
85764
Selected Macrophyte Populations Promotes Coupled Nitrification and Denitrification Function in Eutrophic Urban Wetland Ecosystem
Abstract:
Macrophytes encompass major functional group in eutrophic wetland ecosystems. As a key functional element of freshwater lakes, they play a crucial role in regulating various wetland biogeochemical cycles, as well as maintain the biodiversity at the ecosystem level. The high carbon-rich underground biomass of macrophyte populations may harbour diverse microbial community having significant potential in maintaining different biogeochemical cycles. The present investigation was designed to study the macrophyte-microbe interaction in coupled nitrification and denitrification, considering Deepor Beel Lake (a Ramsar conservation site) of North East India as a model eutrophic system. Highly eutrophic sites of Deepor Beel were selected based on sediment oxygen demand and inorganic phosphorus and nitrogen (P&N) concentration. Sediment redox potential and depth of the lake was chosen as the benchmark for collecting the plant and sediment samples. The average highest depth in winter (January 2016) and summer (July 2016) were recorded as 20ft (6.096m) and 35ft (10.668m) respectively. Both sampling depth and sampling seasons had the distinct effect on variation in macrophyte community composition. Overall, the dominant macrophytic populations in the lake were Nymphaea alba, Hydrilla verticillata, Utricularia flexuosa, Vallisneria spiralis, Najas indica, Monochoria hastaefolia, Trapa bispinosa, Ipomea fistulosa, Hygrorhiza aristata, Polygonum hydropiper, Eichhornia crassipes and Euryale ferox. There was a distinct correlation in the variation of major sediment physicochemical parameters with change in macrophyte community compositions. Quantitative estimation revealed an almost even accumulation of nitrate and nitrite in the sediment samples dominated by the plant species Eichhornia crassipes, Nymphaea alba, Hydrilla verticillata, Vallisneria spiralis, Euryale ferox and Monochoria hastaefolia, which might have signified a stable nitrification and denitrification process in the sites dominated by the selected aquatic plants. This was further examined by a systematic analysis of microbial populations through culture dependent and independent approach. Culture-dependent bacterial community study revealed the higher population of nitrifiers and denitrifiers in the sediment samples dominated by the six macrophyte species. However, culture-independent study with bacterial 16S rDNA V3-V4 metagenome sequencing revealed the overall similar type of bacterial phylum in all the sediment samples collected during the study. Thus, there might be the possibility of uneven distribution of nitrifying and denitrifying molecular markers among the sediment samples collected during the investigation. The diversity and abundance of the nitrifying and denitrifying molecular markers in the sediment samples are under investigation. Thus, the role of different aquatic plant functional types in microorganism mediated nitrogen cycle coupling could be screened out further from the present initial investigation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
692
85718
Trabecular Bone Radiograph Characterization Using Fractal, Multifractal Analysis and SVM Classifier
Abstract:
Osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of micro-architectural bone tissue, which provokes an increased risk of fracture. This work treats the texture characterization of trabecular bone radiographs. The aim was to analyze according to clinical research a group of 174 subjects: 87 osteoporotic patients (OP) with various bone fracture types and 87 control cases (CC). To characterize osteoporosis, Fractal and MultiFractal (MF) methods were applied to images for features (attributes) extraction. In order to improve the results, a new method of MF spectrum based on the q-stucture function calculation was proposed and a combination of Fractal and MF attributes was used. The Support Vector Machines (SVM) was applied as a classifier to distinguish between OP patients and CC subjects. The features fusion (fractal and MF) allowed a good discrimination between the two groups with an accuracy rate of 96.22%.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
691
85545
Amino Acid Based Biodegradable Amphiphilic Polymers and Micelles Made from Them as Drug Delivery Systems: Synthesis and Study
Abstract:
Nanotherapy is an actual newest mode of treatment numerous diseases using nano-size particles (NPs) loading with different pharmaceuticals. NPs of biodegradable polymeric micelles (PMs) are gaining increased attention for their numerous and attractive abilities to be used in a variety of applications in the various fields of medicine. The present paper deals with the synthesis of a new class of biodegradable micelle-forming polymers, namely ABA triblock-copolymer in which A-blocks represent amino-poly(ethylene glycol) (H₂N-PEG) and B-block is biodegradable amino acid-based poly(ester amide) constituted of α-amino acid: L-phenylalanine. The obtained copolymer formed micelles of 70 ± 4 nm size at 10mg/mL concentration.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
690
84311
Biomimetic Luminescent Textile Using Biobased Products
Abstract:
Various organisms involve bioluminescence for their particular biological function. The bio-based molecules responsible for bioluminescence vary from one species to another, research has been done to identify the chemistry and different mechanisms involved in light production in living organisms. The light emitting chemical systems such as firefly and bacterial luminous mostly involves enzyme-catalyzed reactions and is widely used for ATP measurement, bioluminescence imaging, environmental biosensors etc. Our strategy is to design bioluminescent textiles using such bioluminescent systems. Hence, a detailed literature work was carried out to study on how to mimic bioluminescence effect seen in nature. Reaction mechanisms in various bioluminescent living organisms were studied and the components or molecules responsible for luminescence were identified. However, the challenge is to obtain the same effect on textiles by immobilizing enzymes responsible for light creation. Another challenge is also to regenerate substrates involved in the reaction system to create a longer lasting illumination in bioluminescent textiles. Natural film-forming polymers were used to immobilize the reactive components including enzymes on textile materials to design a biomimetic luminescent textile.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
689
84099
Carbon Based Wearable Patch Devices for Real-Time Electrocardiography Monitoring
Abstract:
We fabricated a wearable patch device including novel patch type flexible dry electrode based on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and silicone-based elastomer (MED 6215) for real-time ECG monitoring. There are many methods to make flexible conductive polymer by mixing metal or carbon-based nanoparticles. In this study, CNFs are selected for conductive nanoparticles because carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are difficult to disperse uniformly in elastomer compare with CNFs and silver nanowires are relatively high cost and easily oxidized in the air. Wearable patch is composed of 2 parts that dry electrode parts for recording bio signal and sticky patch parts for mounting on the skin. Dry electrode parts were made by vortexer and baking in prepared mold. To optimize electrical performance and diffusion degree of uniformity, we developed unique mixing and baking process. Secondly, sticky patch parts were made by patterning and detaching from smooth surface substrate after spin-coating soft skin adhesive. In this process, attachable and detachable strengths of sticky patch are measured and optimized for them, using a monitoring system. Assembled patch is flexible, stretchable, easily skin mountable and connectable directly with the system. To evaluate the performance of electrical characteristics and ECG (Electrocardiography) recording, wearable patch was tested by changing concentrations of CNFs and thickness of the dry electrode. In these results, the CNF concentration and thickness of dry electrodes were important variables to obtain high-quality ECG signals without incidental distractions. Cytotoxicity test is conducted to prove biocompatibility, and long-term wearing test showed no skin reactions such as itching or erythema. To minimize noises from motion artifacts and line noise, we make the customized wireless, light-weight data acquisition system. Measured ECG Signals from this system are stable and successfully monitored simultaneously. To sum up, we could fully utilize fabricated wearable patch devices for real-time ECG monitoring easily.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
688
83982
Management of Medical Equipment Maintenance
Abstract:
The role of medical equipment in modern advanced hospitals is irrefutable. Despite limited financial resources, developing countries have taken an uncontrollable manner to the purchase of complex and expensive equipment, although they have not taken good maintenance to keep these huge capitals. In our country, limited studies have indicated that the irregularities exist in the management of medical equipment maintenance. Research method: The research was done as a cross-sectional one, and in this study, a questionnaire was used to collect data in 10 hospitals. After distributing and collecting questionnaires in person, the collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and SPSS software. Research findings: According to the obtained results from the four dimensions of the management of medical equipment maintenance, only (maintenance planning) was in a moderate position and other components with a score of less than 50% were at a low level. There was a direct relationship between the total score of maintenance management and guidance points and coordination of medical equipment maintenance, and as well as the age of hospital managers. Discussion and conclusion: In sum, we can say that problems such as lack of skilled staff in medical engineering departments of hospitals, lack of funds and unaware of the authorities of medical engineering units to their duties have caused that the maintenance situation of medical equipment maintenance is in poor condition (near average). The low inexperience of the authorities of the unit has also contributed to this problem.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
687
82785
Finite Element Simulation for Preliminary Study on Microorganism Detection System
Abstract:
A microorganism detection system has a potential to be used with the advancement in a biosensor development. The detection system requires an optical sensing system, microfluidic device and biological reagent. Although, the biosensors are available in the market, a label free and a lab-on-chip approach will promote a flexible solution. As a preliminary study of microorganism detection, three mechanisms such as Total Internal Reflection (TIR), Micro Fluidic Channel (MFC) and magnetic-electric field propagation were study and simulated. The objective are to identify the TIR angle, MFC parabolic flow and the wavelength for the microorganism detection. The simulation result indicates that evanescent wave is achieved when TIR angle > 42°, the corner and centre of a parabolic velocity are 0.02 m/s and 0.06 m/s respectively, and a higher energy distribution of a perfect electromagnetic scattering with dipole resonance radiation occurs at 500 nm. This simulation is beneficial to determine the components of the microorganism detection system that does not rely on classical microbiological, immunological and genetic methods which are laborious, time-consuming procedures and confined to specialized laboratories with expensive instrumentation equipment.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
686
82186
Improvement of an Arm and Shoulder Exoskeleton Using Gyro Sensor
Authors:
Abstract:
The developed exoskeleton device has to control joints between shoulder and arm. Exoskeleton device can help patients with hemiplegia upper so that the patient can help themselves in their daily life. Exoskeleton device includes a robot arm wear that looks like the movement is similar to the normal arm. Exoskeleton arm is powered by the motor through the cable with a control system that developed to control the movement of the joint of a robot arm. The arm will include the shoulder, the elbow, and the wrist. The control system is used Arduino Mega 2560 controller and the operation of the DC motor through the relay module. The control system can be divided into two modes such as the manual control with the joystick mode and automatically control with the movement of the head by Gyro sensor. The controller is also designed to move between the shoulder and the arm movement from their original location. Results have shown that the controller gave the best performance and all movements can be controlled.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
685
81789
Engineering Ligand-Free Biodegradable-Based Nanoparticles for Cell Attachment and Growth
Abstract:
Tissue engineering aims to develop alternatives to treat damaged tissues by promoting their regeneration. Its basic principle is to place cells on a scaffold capable of promoting cell functions, and for this purpose, polymeric nanoparticles have been successfully used due to the ability of some macro chains to mimic the extracellular matrix and influence cell functions. In general, nanoparticles require surface chemical modification to achieve cell adhesion, and recent advances in their synthesis include methods for modifying the ligand density and distribution onto nanoparticles surface. However, this work reports the development of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles capable of promoting cellular adhesion without any surface chemical modification by ligands. Biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBHV) were synthesized by solvent evaporation method. The produced nanoparticles were small in size (85 and 125 nm) and colloidally stable against time in aqueous solution. Morphology evaluation showed their spherical shape with small polydispersity. Human osteoblast-like cells (MG63) were cultured in the presence of PHBHV nanoparticles, and growth kinetics were compared to those grown on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). Cell attachment on non-tissue culture polystyrene (non-TCPS) pre-coated with nanoparticles was assessed and compared to attachment on TCPS. These findings reveal the potential of PHBHV nanoparticles for cell adhesion and growth, without requiring a matrix ligand to support cells, to be used as scaffolds, in tissue engineering applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
684
81767
Poly(N-Vinylcaprolactam-Co-Itaconic Acid-Co-Ethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate)-Based Microgels Embedded in Chitosan Matrix for Controlled Release of Ketoprofen
Abstract:
Stimuli responsive and biocompatible hydrogel nanoparticles have gained special attention as systems for potential applications in controlled release of drugs to improve their therapeutic efficacy while minimizing side effects. In this work, novel solid dispersions based on thermo- and pH-responsive poly(N-vinylcaprolactam-co-itaconic acid-co-ethylene- glycol dimethacrylate) hydrogel nanoparticles embedded in chitosan matrices were prepared via spray drying for controlled release of ketoprofen. Firstly, the hydrogel nanoparticles containing ketoprofen were prepared via precipitation polymerization and their stimuli-responsive behavior, thermal properties, chemical composition, encapsulation efficiency and morphology were characterized. Then, hydrogel nanoparticles with different particles size were embedded into chitosan matrices via spray-drying. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were performed to investigate the particles size, dispersity and morphology. Finally, ketoprofen release profiles were studied as a function of pH and temperature. Chitosan/poly(NVCL-co-IA-co-EGDMA)-ketoprofen microparticles presented spherical shape, rough surface and pronounced agglomeration, indicating that hydrogels nanoparticles loaded with ketoprofen modified the surface of chitosan matrix. The maximum encapsulation efficiency of ketoprofen into hydrogel nanoparticles was 57.8% and the electrostatic interactions between amino groups from chitosan and carboxylic groups from hydrogel nanoparticles were able to control ketoprofen release. The hydrogel nanoparticles themselves were capable to retard the release of ketoprofen-loaded until 48h of in vitro release tests, while their incorporation into chitosan matrix achieved a maximum percentage of drug release of 45%, using a mass ratio of chitosan: poly(NVCL-co-IA-co-EGDMA equal to 10:7, and 69%, using a mass ratio of chitosan: poly(NVCL-co-IA-co-EGDMA equal to 5:2.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
683
81740
Mesoporous Nanocomposites for Sustained Release Applications
Abstract:
Our present work is related to the synthesis, characterization and applications of new nanocomposite materials based on silica mesoporous nanocompozites systems. The nanocomposite support was obtained by using a specific step–by–step multilayer structure buildup synthetic route, characterized by XRD (X-Ray Difraction), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), FT-IR (Fourier Transform-Infra Red Spectrometry), BET (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method) and loaded with Salvia officinalis plant extract obtained by a hydro-alcoholic extraction route. The sustained release of the target compounds was studied by a modified LC method, proving low release profiles, as expected for the high specific surface area support. The obtained results were further correlated with the in vitro / in vivo behavior of the nanocomposite material and recommending the silica mesoporous nanocomposites as good candidates for biomedical applications. Acknowledgements: This study has been funded by the Research Project PN-III-P2-2.1-PTE-2016-0160, 49-PTE / 2016 (PROZECHIMED) and Project Number PN-III-P4-ID-PCE-2016-0884 / 2017.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
682
81658
Design of Liquid Crystal Based Interface to Study the Interaction of Gram Negative Bacterial Endotoxin with Milk Protein Lactoferrin
Abstract:
Milk protein lactoferrin (Lf) exhibits potent antibacterial activity due to its interaction with Gram-negative bacterial cell membrane component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This paper represents fabrication of new Liquid crystals (LCs) based biosensors to explore the interaction between Lf and LPS. LPS self-assembled at aqueous/LCs interface and orients interfacial nematic 4-cyano-4’- pentylbiphenyl (5CB) LCs in a homeotropic fashion (exhibiting dark optical image under polarized optical microscope). Interestingly, on the exposure of Lf on LPS decorated aqueous/LCs interface, an optical image of LCs changed from dark to bright indicating an ordering alteration of interfacial LCs from homeotropic to tilted/planar state. The ordering transition reflects strong binding between Lf and interfacial LPS that, in turn, perturbs the orientation of LCs. With the help of epifluorescence microscopy, we further affirmed the interfacial LPS-Lf binding event by imaging the presence of FITC tagged Lf at the LPS laden aqueous/LCs interface. Finally, we have investigated the conformational behavior of Lf in solution as well as in the presence of LPS using Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and further reconfirmed with Vibrational Circular Dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy where we found that Lf undergoes alpha-helix to random coil-like structure in the presence of LPS. As a whole the entire results described in this paper establish a robust approach to envisage the interaction between LPS and Lf through the ordering transitions of LCs at aqueous/LCs interface.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
681
81656
Poly (L-Lysine)-Coated Liquid Crystal Droplets for Sensitive Detection of DNA and Its Applications in Controlled Release of Drug Molecules
Abstract:
Interactions between DNA and adsorbed Poly (L-lysine) (PLL) on liquid crystal (LC) droplets were investigated using polarizing optical microcopy (POM) and epi-fluorescence microscopy. Earlier, we demonstrated that adsorption of PLL to the LC/aqueous interface resulted in homeotropic orientation of the LC and thus exhibited a radial configuration of the LC confined within the droplets. Subsequent adsorption of DNA (single stranded DNA/double stranded DNA) at PLL coated LC droplets was found to trigger a LC reorientation within the droplets leading to pre-radial/bipolar configuration of those droplets. To our surprise, subsequent exposure of complementary ssDNA (c-ssDNA) to ssDNA/ adsorbed PLL modified LC droplets did not cause the LC reorientation. This is likely due to the formation of polyplexes (DNA-PLL complex) as confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In addition, dsDNA adsorbed PLL droplets have been found to be effectively used to displace (controlled release) propidium iodide (a model drug) encapsulated within dsDNA over time. These observations suggest the potential for a label free droplet based LC detection system that can respond to DNA and may provide a simple method to develop DNA-based drug nano-carriers.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
680
81523
Development of a Computer Aided Diagnosis Tool for Brain Tumor Extraction and Classification
Abstract:
The brain is an important organ in our body since it is responsible about the majority actions such as vision, memory, etc. However, different diseases such as Alzheimer and tumors could affect the brain and conduct to a partial or full disorder. Regular diagnosis are necessary as a preventive measure and could help doctors to early detect a possible trouble and therefore taking the appropriate treatment, especially in the case of brain tumors. Different imaging modalities are proposed for diagnosis of brain tumor. The powerful and most used modality is the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). MRI images are analyzed by doctor in order to locate eventual tumor in the brain and describe the appropriate and needed treatment. Diverse image processing methods are also proposed for helping doctors in identifying and analyzing the tumor. In fact, a large Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) tools including developed image processing algorithms are proposed and exploited by doctors as a second opinion to analyze and identify the brain tumors. In this paper, we proposed a new advanced CAD for brain tumor identification, classification and feature extraction. Our proposed CAD includes three main parts. Firstly, we load the brain MRI. Secondly, a robust technique for brain tumor extraction is proposed. This technique is based on both Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). DWT is characterized by its multiresolution analytic property, that’s why it was applied on MRI images with different decomposition levels for feature extraction. Nevertheless, this technique suffers from a main drawback since it necessitates a huge storage and is computationally expensive. To decrease the dimensions of the feature vector and the computing time, PCA technique is considered. In the last stage, according to different extracted features, the brain tumor is classified into either benign or malignant tumor using Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm. A CAD tool for brain tumor detection and classification, including all above-mentioned stages, is designed and developed using MATLAB guide user interface.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
679
81354
Biomechanical Evaluation of the Chronic Stroke with 3D-Printed Hand Device
Abstract:
Chronic stroke patients often have complaints about hand dysfunction due to flexor hypertonia and extensor weakness, which makes it difficult to open their affected hand for functional grasp. Hand rehabilitation after stroke is essential for restoring functional independence. Constraint-induced movement therapy has shown to be a successful treatment for patients who have acquired certain level of wrist and finger extension. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of task-oriented approach incorporating 3D-printed dynamic hand device by evaluating hand functional performance. This study manufactured a hand device using 3d printer for chronic stroke. The experimental group engaged task-oriented approach with dynamic hand device, but the control group only received task-oriented approach. Outcome measurements include palmar pinch force (PPF), lateral pinch force (LPF), grip force (GF), and Box and Blocks Test (BBT). The results of study revealed the improvement of PPF in experimental group but not in control group. Meanwhile, improvement in LPF, GF and BBT can be found in both groups. This study demonstrates that the 3D-printed dynamic hand device is an effective therapeutic assistive device to improve pinch force, grasp force, and dexterity and facilitate motivation during home program in individuals with chronic stroke.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
678
80807
Hybrid Polymer Microfluidic Platform for Studying Endothelial Cell Response to Micro Mechanical Environment
Abstract:
Endothelial cells respond to cues from both biochemical as well as micro mechanical environment. Significant effort has been directed to understand the effects of biochemical signaling, however, relatively little is known about regulation of endothelial cell biology by the micro mechanical environment. Numerous studies have been performed to understand how physical forces regulate endothelial cell behavior. In this regard, past studies have majorly focused on exploring how fluid shear stress governs endothelial cell behavior. Parallel plate flow chambers and rectangular microchannels are routinely employed for applying fluid shear force on endothelial cells. However, these studies fall short in mimicking the in vivo like micro environment from topological aspects. Few studies have only used circular microchannels to replicate in vivo like condition. Seldom efforts have been directed to elucidate the combined effect of topology, substrate rigidity and fluid shear stress on endothelial cell response. In this regard, we demonstrate a facile fabrication process to develop a hybrid polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic platform to study endothelial cell biology. On a single chip microchannels with different cross sections i.e., circular, rectangular and square have been fabricated. In addition, our fabrication approach allows variation in the substrate rigidity along the channel length. Two different variants of polydimethylsiloxane, namely Sylgard 184 and Sylgard 527, were utilized to achieve the variation in rigidity. Moreover, our approach also enables in creating Y bifurcation circular microchannels. Our microfluidic platform thus facilitates for conducting studies pertaining to endothelial cell morphology with respect to change in topology, substrate rigidity and fluid flow on a single chip. The hybrid platform was tested by culturing Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells in circular microchannels with varying substrate rigidity, and exposed to fluid shear stress of 12 dynes/cm² and static conditions. Results indicate the cell area response to flow induced shear stress was governed by the underlying substrate mechanics.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
677
80754
Electrophoretic Light Scattering Based on Total Internal Reflection as a Promising Diagnostic Method
Abstract:
The development of pathological processes, such as cardiovascular and oncological diseases, are accompanied by changes in molecular parameters in cells, tissues, and serum. The study of the behavior of protein molecules in solutions is of primarily importance for diagnosis of such diseases. Various physical and chemical methods are used to study molecular systems. With the advent of the laser and advances in electronics, optical methods, such as scanning electron microscopy, sedimentation analysis, nephelometry, static and dynamic light scattering, have become the most universal, informative and accurate tools for estimating the parameters of nanoscale objects. The electrophoretic light scattering is the most effective technique. It has a high potential in the study of biological solutions and their properties. This technique allows one to investigate the processes of aggregation and dissociation of different macromolecules and obtain information on their shapes, sizes and molecular weights. Electrophoretic light scattering is an analytical method for registration of the motion of microscopic particles under the influence of an electric field by means of quasi-elastic light scattering in a homogeneous solution with a subsequent registration of the spectral or correlation characteristics of the light scattered from a moving object. We modified the technique by using the regime of total internal reflection with the aim of increasing its sensitivity and reducing the volume of the sample to be investigated, which opens the prospects of automating simultaneous multiparameter measurements. In addition, the method of total internal reflection allows one to study biological fluids on the level of single molecules, which also makes it possible to increase the sensitivity and the informativeness of the results because the data obtained from an individual molecule is not averaged over an ensemble, which is important in the study of bimolecular fluids. To our best knowledge the study of electrophoretic light scattering in the regime of total internal reflection is proposed for the first time, latex microspheres 1 μm in size were used as test objects. In this study, the total internal reflection regime was realized on a quartz prism where the free electrophoresis regime was set. A semiconductor laser with a wavelength of 655 nm was used as a radiation source, and the light scattering signal was registered by a pin-diode. Then the signal from a photodetector was transmitted to a digital oscilloscope and to a computer. The autocorrelation functions and the fast Fourier transform in the regime of Brownian motion and under the action of the field were calculated to obtain the parameters of the object investigated. The main result of the study was the dependence of the autocorrelation function on the concentration of microspheres and the applied field magnitude. The effect of heating became more pronounced with increasing sample concentrations and electric field. The results obtained in our study demonstrated the applicability of the method for the examination of liquid solutions, including biological fluids.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
676
80700
Scattering Operator and Spectral Clustering for Ultrasound Images: Application on Deep Venous Thrombi
Abstract:
Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a thrombus is formed within a deep vein (most often in the legs). This disease can be deadly if a part or the whole thrombus reaches the lung and causes a Pulmonary Embolism (PE). This disorder, often asymptomatic, has multifactorial causes: immobilization, surgery, pregnancy, age, cancers, and genetic variations. Our project aims to relate the thrombus epidemiology (origins, patient predispositions, PE) to its structure using ultrasound images. Ultrasonography and elastography were collected using Toshiba Aplio 500 at Brest Hospital. This manuscript compares two classification approaches: spectral clustering and scattering operator. The former is based on the graph and matrix theories while the latter cascades wavelet convolutions with nonlinear modulus and averaging operators.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
675
80209
In silico Analysis of a Causative Mutation in Cadherin-23 Gene Identified in an Omani Family with Hearing Loss
Abstract:
Hereditary hearing loss is a heterogeneous group of complex disorders with an overall incidence of one in every five hundred newborns presented as syndromic and non-syndromic forms. Cadherin-related 23 (CDH23) is one of the listed deafness causative genes. CDH23 is found to be expressed in the stereocilia of hair cells and the retina photoreceptor cells. Defective CDH23 has been associated mostly with prelingual severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in either syndromic (USH1D) or non-syndromic SNHL (DFNB12). An Omani family diagnosed clinically with severe-profound sensorineural hearing loss was genetically analysed by whole exome sequencing technique. A novel homozygous missense variant, c.A7451C (p.D2484A), in exon 53 of CDH23 was detected. One hundred and thirty control samples were analysed where all were negative for the detected variant. The variant was analysed in silico for pathogenicity verification using several mutation prediction software. The variant proved to be a pathogenic mutation and is reported for the first time in Oman and worldwide. It is concluded that in silico mutation prediction analysis might be used as a useful molecular diagnostics tool benefiting both genetic counseling and mutation verification. The aspartic acid 2484 alanine missense substitution might be the main disease-causing mutation that damages CDH23 function and could be used as a genetic hearing loss marker for this particular Omani family.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
674
79856
Fabrication of Biosensor Based on Layered Double Hydroxide/Polypyrrole/Carbon Paste Electrode for Determination of Anti-Hypertensive and Prostatic Hyperplasia Drug Terazosin
Abstract:
New insights into the design of highly sensitive, carbon-based electrochemical sensors are presented in this work. This was achieved by exploring the interesting properties of conductive (Mg/Al) layered double hydroxide- Dodecyl Sulphate/Polypyrrole nanocomposites which were synthesized by in-situ polymerization of pyrrole during the assembly of (Mg/Al) layered double hydroxide, and by employing the anionic surfactant Dodecyl sulphate as a modifier. The morphology and surface area of the nanocomposites changed with the percentage of Pyrrole. Under optimal conditions, the modified carbon paste electrode successfully achieved detection limits of 0.057 and 0.134 nmol.L-1 of Terazosin hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulation and spiked human serum fluid, respectively. Moreover, the sensors are highly stable, reusable, and free from interference by other commonly present excipients in drug formulations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
673
79677
Wireless Based System for Continuous Electrocardiography Monitoring during Surgery
Abstract:
This paper presents a system designed for wireless acquisition, the recording of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals and the monitoring of the heart’s health during surgery. This wireless recording system allows us to visualize and monitor the state of the heart’s health during a surgery, even if the patient is moved from the operating theater to post anesthesia care unit. The acquired signal is transmitted via a Bluetooth unit to a PC where the data are displayed, stored and processed. To test the reliability of our system, a comparison between ECG signals processed by a conventional ECG monitoring system (Datex-Ohmeda) and by our wireless system is made. The comparison is based on the shape of the ECG signal, the duration of the QRS complex, the P and T waves, as well as the position of the ST segments with respect to the isoelectric line. The proposed system is presented and discussed. The results have confirmed that the use of Bluetooth during surgery does not affect the devices used and vice versa. Pre- and post-processing steps are briefly discussed. Experimental results are also provided.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
672
79114
Electrochemical Biosensor Based on Chitosan-Gold Nanoparticles, Carbon Nanotubes for Detection of Ovarian Cancer Biomarker
Abstract:
Ovarian cancer is one of the leading cause of mortality among the gynecological malignancies, and it remains the one of the most prevalent cancer in females worldwide. Tumor markers are biochemical molecules in blood or tissues which can indicates cancers occurrence in the human body. So, the sensitive and specific detection of cancer markers typically recruited for diagnosing and evaluating cancers. Recently extensive research efforts are underway to achieve a simple, inexpensive and accurate device for detection of cancer biomarkers. Compared with conventional immunoassay techniques, electrochemical immunosensors are of great interest, because they are specific, simple, inexpensive, easy to handling and miniaturization. Moreover, in the past decade nanotechnology has played a crucial role in the development of biosensors. In this study, a signal-off electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of CA125 antigen has been developed using chitosan-gold nanoparticles (CS-AuNP) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites. Toluidine blue (TB) is used as redox probe which is immobilized on the electrode surface. CS-AuNP is synthesized by a simple one step method that HAuCl4 is reduced by NH2 groups of chitosan. The CS-AuNP-MWCNT modified electrode has shown excellent electrochemical performance compared with bare Au electrode. MWCNTs and AuNPs increased electrochemical conductivity and accelerate electrons transfer between solution and electrode surface while excessive amine groups on chitosan lead to the effective loading of the biological material (CA125 antibody) and TB on the electrode surface. The electrochemical, immobilization and sensing properties CS-AuNP-MWCNT-TB modified electrodes are characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, differential pulse voltammetry and square wave voltammetry with Fe(CN)63−/4−as an electrochemical redox indicator.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):