Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 48522

Biomedical and Biological Engineering

717
83982
Management of Medical Equipment Maintenance
Abstract:
The role of medical equipment in modern advanced hospitals is irrefutable. Despite limited financial resources, developing countries have taken an uncontrollable manner to the purchase of complex and expensive equipment, although they have not taken good maintenance to keep these huge capitals. In our country, limited studies have indicated that the irregularities exist in the management of medical equipment maintenance. Research method: The research was done as a cross-sectional one, and in this study, a questionnaire was used to collect data in 10 hospitals. After distributing and collecting questionnaires in person, the collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and SPSS software. Research findings: According to the obtained results from the four dimensions of the management of medical equipment maintenance, only (maintenance planning) was in a moderate position and other components with a score of less than 50% were at a low level. There was a direct relationship between the total score of maintenance management and guidance points and coordination of medical equipment maintenance, and as well as the age of hospital managers. Discussion and conclusion: In sum, we can say that problems such as lack of skilled staff in medical engineering departments of hospitals, lack of funds and unaware of the authorities of medical engineering units to their duties have caused that the maintenance situation of medical equipment maintenance is in poor condition (near average). The low inexperience of the authorities of the unit has also contributed to this problem.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
716
83613
Modeling the Saltatory Conduction in Myelinated Axons by Order Reduction
Abstract:
The saltatory conduction is the way the action potential is transmitted along a myelinated axon. The potential diffuses along the myelinated compartments and it is regenerated in the Ranvier nodes due to the ion channels allowing the flow across the membrane. For an efficient simulation of populations of neurons, it is important to use reduced order models both for myelinated compartments and for Ranvier nodes and to have control over their accuracy and inner parameters. The paper presents a reduced order model of this neural system, and consequently an efficient simulation method for the saltatory conduction in myelinated axons. It is obtained by concatenating reduced order linear models of 1D myelinated segments and nonlinear 0D models of Ranvier nodes. The models of myelinated compartments are selected from a developed series of spatially distributed models hierarchized according to their modeling errors. The extracted model described by a nonlinear PDE of hyperbolic type is able to reproduce the saltatory conduction with acceptable accuracy and takes into account the finite propagation speed of potential. Its reduced complexity makes it suitable for inclusion in large-scale neural circuits.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
715
83558
Preliminary Results on a Maximum Mean Discrepancy Approach for Seizure Detection
Abstract:
We introduce a data-driven method for seizure detection drawing on recent progress in Machine Learning. The method is based on embedding probability measures in a high (or infinite) dimensional reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) where the Maximum Mean Discrepancy (MMD) is computed. The MMD is metric between probability measures that are computed as the difference between the means of probability measures after being embedded in an RKHS. Working in RKHS provides a convenient, general functional-analytical framework for theoretical understanding of data. We apply this approach to the problem of seizure detection.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
714
83204
A Dose Distribution Approach Using Monte Carlo Simulation in Dosimetric Accuracy Calculation for Treating the Lung Tumour
Abstract:
This paper presents a Monte Carlo (MC) method based dose distributions on lung tumour for 6 MV photon beam to improve the dosimetric accuracy for cancer treatment. For this study, lung tumour density equivalent tissue material polystyrene has been used. In the empirical calculations TRS-398 formalism of IAEA has been used and the setup was made according to the ICRU recommendations. Results were compared with the state of the art experimental results. From the experimental results, it is observed that the proposed based approach provide more accurate results and improve the accuracy than the existing approaches. The average % variation between measured and TPS simulated values were obtained 1.337 ± 0.531 which shows a substantial improvement compared with the state-of-the-art technology.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
713
82785
Finite Element Simulation for Preliminary Study on Microorganism Detection System
Abstract:
A microorganism detection system has a potential to be used with the advancement in a biosensor development. The detection system requires an optical sensing system, microfluidic device and biological reagent. Although, the biosensors are available in the market, a label free and a lab-on-chip approach will promote a flexible solution. As a preliminary study of microorganism detection, three mechanisms such as Total Internal Reflection (TIR), Micro Fluidic Channel (MFC) and magnetic-electric field propagation were study and simulated. The objective are to identify the TIR angle, MFC parabolic flow and the wavelength for the microorganism detection. The simulation result indicates that evanescent wave is achieved when TIR angle > 42°, the corner and centre of a parabolic velocity are 0.02 m/s and 0.06 m/s respectively, and a higher energy distribution of a perfect electromagnetic scattering with dipole resonance radiation occurs at 500 nm. This simulation is beneficial to determine the components of the microorganism detection system that does not rely on classical microbiological, immunological and genetic methods which are laborious, time-consuming procedures and confined to specialized laboratories with expensive instrumentation equipment.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
712
82186
Improvement of an Arm and Shoulder Exoskeleton Using Gyro Sensor
Authors:
Abstract:
The developed exoskeleton device has to control joints between shoulder and arm. Exoskeleton device can help patients with hemiplegia upper so that the patient can help themselves in their daily life. Exoskeleton device includes a robot arm wear that looks like the movement is similar to the normal arm. Exoskeleton arm is powered by the motor through the cable with a control system that developed to control the movement of the joint of a robot arm. The arm will include the shoulder, the elbow, and the wrist. The control system is used Arduino Mega 2560 controller and the operation of the DC motor through the relay module. The control system can be divided into two modes such as the manual control with the joystick mode and automatically control with the movement of the head by Gyro sensor. The controller is also designed to move between the shoulder and the arm movement from their original location. Results have shown that the controller gave the best performance and all movements can be controlled.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
711
81789
Engineering Ligand-Free Biodegradable-Based Nanoparticles for Cell Attachment and Growth
Abstract:
Tissue engineering aims to develop alternatives to treat damaged tissues by promoting their regeneration. Its basic principle is to place cells on a scaffold capable of promoting cell functions, and for this purpose, polymeric nanoparticles have been successfully used due to the ability of some macro chains to mimic the extracellular matrix and influence cell functions. In general, nanoparticles require surface chemical modification to achieve cell adhesion, and recent advances in their synthesis include methods for modifying the ligand density and distribution onto nanoparticles surface. However, this work reports the development of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles capable of promoting cellular adhesion without any surface chemical modification by ligands. Biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBHV) were synthesized by solvent evaporation method. The produced nanoparticles were small in size (85 and 125 nm) and colloidally stable against time in aqueous solution. Morphology evaluation showed their spherical shape with small polydispersity. Human osteoblast-like cells (MG63) were cultured in the presence of PHBHV nanoparticles, and growth kinetics were compared to those grown on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). Cell attachment on non-tissue culture polystyrene (non-TCPS) pre-coated with nanoparticles was assessed and compared to attachment on TCPS. These findings reveal the potential of PHBHV nanoparticles for cell adhesion and growth, without requiring a matrix ligand to support cells, to be used as scaffolds, in tissue engineering applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
710
81767
Poly(N-Vinylcaprolactam-Co-Itaconic Acid-Co-Ethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate)-Based Microgels Embedded in Chitosan Matrix for Controlled Release of Ketoprofen
Abstract:
Stimuli responsive and biocompatible hydrogel nanoparticles have gained special attention as systems for potential applications in controlled release of drugs to improve their therapeutic efficacy while minimizing side effects. In this work, novel solid dispersions based on thermo- and pH-responsive poly(N-vinylcaprolactam-co-itaconic acid-co-ethylene- glycol dimethacrylate) hydrogel nanoparticles embedded in chitosan matrices were prepared via spray drying for controlled release of ketoprofen. Firstly, the hydrogel nanoparticles containing ketoprofen were prepared via precipitation polymerization and their stimuli-responsive behavior, thermal properties, chemical composition, encapsulation efficiency and morphology were characterized. Then, hydrogel nanoparticles with different particles size were embedded into chitosan matrices via spray-drying. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were performed to investigate the particles size, dispersity and morphology. Finally, ketoprofen release profiles were studied as a function of pH and temperature. Chitosan/poly(NVCL-co-IA-co-EGDMA)-ketoprofen microparticles presented spherical shape, rough surface and pronounced agglomeration, indicating that hydrogels nanoparticles loaded with ketoprofen modified the surface of chitosan matrix. The maximum encapsulation efficiency of ketoprofen into hydrogel nanoparticles was 57.8% and the electrostatic interactions between amino groups from chitosan and carboxylic groups from hydrogel nanoparticles were able to control ketoprofen release. The hydrogel nanoparticles themselves were capable to retard the release of ketoprofen-loaded until 48h of in vitro release tests, while their incorporation into chitosan matrix achieved a maximum percentage of drug release of 45%, using a mass ratio of chitosan: poly(NVCL-co-IA-co-EGDMA equal to 10:7, and 69%, using a mass ratio of chitosan: poly(NVCL-co-IA-co-EGDMA equal to 5:2.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
709
81706
Understanding What People with Epilepsy and Their Care-Partners Value about an Electronic Patient Portal
Abstract:
Introduction: Providing people with access to their own healthcare information and engaging them as co-authors of their health record can promote better transparency, trust, and inclusivity in the healthcare system. With the advent of electronic health records, there is a move towards involving patients as partners in their healthcare by providing them with access to their own health data via electronic patient portals (ePortal). For example, a recently developed ePortal to the Irish National Epilepsy Electronic Patient Record (EPR) provides access to summary medical records, tools for Patient Reported Outcomes (PROM), health goal-setting and preparation for clinical appointments. Aim: To determine what people with epilepsy (their families/carers) value about the Irish epilepsy ePortal. Methods: A socio-technical process was employed recruiting 30 families of people with epilepsy who also have an intellectual disability (ID). Family members who are a care partner of the person with epilepsy (PWE) were invited to co-design, develop and implement the ePortal. Family members engaged in usability and utility testing which involved a face to face meeting to learn about the ePortal, register for a user account and evaluate its structure and content. Family members were instructed to login to the portal on at least two separate occasions following the meeting and to complete a self-report evaluation tool during this time. The evaluation tool, based on a Usability Questionnaire (Lewis, 1993), consists of a short assessment of comfort using technology, instructions for using the ePortal and some tasks to complete. Tasks included validating summary record details, assessing ePortal ease of use, evaluation of information presented. Participants were asked for suggestions on how to improve the portal and make it more applicable to PWE who also have an ID. Results: Family members responded positively to the ePortal and valued the ability to share information between clinicians and care partners; use the ePortal as a passport between different healthcare settings (e.g., primary care to hospital). In the context of elderly parents of PWE, the ePortal is valued as a tool for supporting shared care between family members. Participants welcomed the facility to log lists of questions and goals to discuss with the clinician at the next clinical appointment as a means of improving quality of care. Participants also suggested further enhancements to the ePortal such as access to clinic letters which can provide an aide memoir in terms of the careplan agreed with the clinical team. For example, through the ePortal, people could see what investigations or therapies are scheduled. Conclusion: The Epilepsy Patient Portal is accessible via a range of devices such as smartphones and tablets. ePortals have the potential to help personalise care, improve patient involvement in clinical decision making, engage them as quality and safety partners, and help clinicians be more responsive to patient needs. Acknowledgement: The epilepsy ePortal project is part of PISCES, a Lighthouse Project funded by eHealth Ireland and HSE to help build an understanding of the benefits of eHealth technologies in the Irish Healthcare System.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
708
81658
Design of Liquid Crystal Based Interface to Study the Interaction of Gram Negative Bacterial Endotoxin with Milk Protein Lactoferrin
Abstract:
Milk protein lactoferrin (Lf) exhibits potent antibacterial activity due to its interaction with Gram-negative bacterial cell membrane component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This paper represents fabrication of new Liquid crystals (LCs) based biosensors to explore the interaction between Lf and LPS. LPS self-assembled at aqueous/LCs interface and orients interfacial nematic 4-cyano-4’- pentylbiphenyl (5CB) LCs in a homeotropic fashion (exhibiting dark optical image under polarized optical microscope). Interestingly, on the exposure of Lf on LPS decorated aqueous/LCs interface, an optical image of LCs changed from dark to bright indicating an ordering alteration of interfacial LCs from homeotropic to tilted/planar state. The ordering transition reflects strong binding between Lf and interfacial LPS that, in turn, perturbs the orientation of LCs. With the help of epifluorescence microscopy, we further affirmed the interfacial LPS-Lf binding event by imaging the presence of FITC tagged Lf at the LPS laden aqueous/LCs interface. Finally, we have investigated the conformational behavior of Lf in solution as well as in the presence of LPS using Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and further reconfirmed with Vibrational Circular Dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy where we found that Lf undergoes alpha-helix to random coil-like structure in the presence of LPS. As a whole the entire results described in this paper establish a robust approach to envisage the interaction between LPS and Lf through the ordering transitions of LCs at aqueous/LCs interface.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
707
81656
Poly (L-Lysine)-Coated Liquid Crystal Droplets for Sensitive Detection of DNA and Its Applications in Controlled Release of Drug Molecules
Abstract:
Interactions between DNA and adsorbed Poly (L-lysine) (PLL) on liquid crystal (LC) droplets were investigated using polarizing optical microcopy (POM) and epi-fluorescence microscopy. Earlier, we demonstrated that adsorption of PLL to the LC/aqueous interface resulted in homeotropic orientation of the LC and thus exhibited a radial configuration of the LC confined within the droplets. Subsequent adsorption of DNA (single stranded DNA/double stranded DNA) at PLL coated LC droplets was found to trigger a LC reorientation within the droplets leading to pre-radial/bipolar configuration of those droplets. To our surprise, subsequent exposure of complementary ssDNA (c-ssDNA) to ssDNA/ adsorbed PLL modified LC droplets did not cause the LC reorientation. This is likely due to the formation of polyplexes (DNA-PLL complex) as confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In addition, dsDNA adsorbed PLL droplets have been found to be effectively used to displace (controlled release) propidium iodide (a model drug) encapsulated within dsDNA over time. These observations suggest the potential for a label free droplet based LC detection system that can respond to DNA and may provide a simple method to develop DNA-based drug nano-carriers.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
706
81627
The Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Risk Taking with and without Sleep Deprivation Stress
Abstract:
Introduction: Humans are constantly faced with making tough decisions. Making a too risky or too cautious decision can have devastating consequences. To complicate matters, fatigue can strongly influence decision making and there are many professions such as medicine, transportation, and military operations that require people to make hard decisions during extended duty periods. Caffeine has been shown to decrease risky decisions during periods of extended wakefulness but it is short-lived and can have other negative side-effects. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to perform much like caffeine during sleep deprivation periods but with fewer side effects and longer lasting effects for arousal and attention. This study aimed to investigate the effects of tDCS on risk-taking in both sleep deprived and non-sleep deprived populations. Methods: Thirty-six healthy adult volunteers were divided into 3 groups. One group received tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, another received tDCS over M1, and the final group received sham brain stimulation. Participants completed both a sleep deprivation night of testing where they remained awake for 37 hours and completed 9 sessions of testing in the laboratory and a non-sleep deprived single session of testing. These sessions were randomized, counterbalanced, and separated by 1 week. Results: Results indicate that individuals receiving brain stimulation (regardless of the location) exhibited less risk-taking behavior. Interestingly, people receiving stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were more delay adverse than sham stimulation while individuals receiving motor stimulation were less delay adverse than sham. Discussion: Brain stimulation aided in less risky decision making but the location of the stimulation impacted the speed of that decision making. The results were the same regardless of the participant being sleep deprived or not. Further research needs to investigate or confirm this finding. More stimulation paradigms should be examined as well as different types of decision-making other than just risk.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
705
81618
Ageing Gingiva: A New Hope for Autologous Stem Cell Therapy
Abstract:
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from ageing gingival tissues, in order to suggest their potential role in autologous stem cell therapy for old individuals. Methods: MSCs were isolated from gingival tissues of young (18-45 years) and old (above 45 years) donors by enzymatic digestion. MSCs were analysed for cfu-f, surface marker expression by flow-cytometry and multilineage differentiation potential. The angiogenic potential was compared in a chick embryo yolk sac membrane model. The aging and differentiation markers including SA-β-galactosidase and p21 respectively were analysed by staining and flow-cytometry analysis. Additionally, osteogenic markers such as glucocorticoid receptor (GR), vitamin D receptor (VDR) were measured by flow-cytometry and RT-qPCR was performed for quantification of osteogenic gene expression. Alizarin Red S and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were also quantitated. Results: Gingival MSCs (GMSCs) from both the age groups were similar in their morphology and displayed cfu-f. They had similar expression of MSC surface markers and p21, comparable rate of proliferation and differentiated to all the four lineages. GMSCs from young donors had a higher adipogenic differentiation potential as compared to the old GMSCs. Moreover, these cells did not display a significant difference in ALP activity probably due to comparable expression of GR, VDR, and osteogenic genes. Conclusions: Ageing of GMSCs occurs at a much slower rate than stem cells from other sources. Thus we suggest GMSCs as an excellent candidate for autologous stem cell therapy in degenerative diseases of elderly individuals. Clinical Significance: GMSCs could help overcome the setbacks in clinical implementation of autologous stem cell therapy for regenerative medicine in all age group of patient.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
704
81529
A Novel Cochlear Implants Electrode Array Intracochlear Pattern Discrimination System
Authors:
Abstract:
The intracochlear electrode array insertion is considered as a crucial process for the cochlear implant surgery. The behaviour of the intracochlear electrode array remains unknown for surgeons. In order to minimize or eliminate the trauma induced by electrode array insertion, the electrode capacitive sensing method is developed to discriminate certain patterns and provide surgeons with tactile feedback signals. The capacitive measurements of adjacent electrodes in a cochlear array can not only be used for diagnostic purpose, but also show useful information about the state of the electrodes. A channel switching aboard is developed to switch the measuring of different bipolar electrodes to extend the sensing scope. Results demonstrate that capacitance values are systematically affected by intracochlear forces between the scala tympani wall and the contact electrode. Certain insertion patterns such as tip folding over, buckling and smooth insertion can be discriminated by the sensing method.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
703
81354
Biomechanical Evaluation of the Chronic Stroke with 3D-Printed Hand Device
Abstract:
Chronic stroke patients often have complaints about hand dysfunction due to flexor hypertonia and extensor weakness, which makes it difficult to open their affected hand for functional grasp. Hand rehabilitation after stroke is essential for restoring functional independence. Constraint-induced movement therapy has shown to be a successful treatment for patients who have acquired certain level of wrist and finger extension. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of task-oriented approach incorporating 3D-printed dynamic hand device by evaluating hand functional performance. This study manufactured a hand device using 3d printer for chronic stroke. The experimental group engaged task-oriented approach with dynamic hand device, but the control group only received task-oriented approach. Outcome measurements include palmar pinch force (PPF), lateral pinch force (LPF), grip force (GF), and Box and Blocks Test (BBT). The results of study revealed the improvement of PPF in experimental group but not in control group. Meanwhile, improvement in LPF, GF and BBT can be found in both groups. This study demonstrates that the 3D-printed dynamic hand device is an effective therapeutic assistive device to improve pinch force, grasp force, and dexterity and facilitate motivation during home program in individuals with chronic stroke.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
702
81099
Correlation between Thyroid Ultrasonographic Reports and Thyroid Function Test Reports of Euthyroid Subjects
Abstract:
The objective of our study is to correlate the normal ultrasonographic (USG) results with the thyroid function test (TFT) reports of the hospital based euthyroid subjects. The USG findings have been done at Department of Radiology and Imaging and TFT reports have been obtained from the Biochemistry Lab of Institute of Medicine (IOM), Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH), Kathmandu, Nepal. Along with age, gender and demography dependent variations of normal thyroid volume and TFT values, new reference ranges for the thyroid lobe volume (TLV), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) have also been established. The statistical as well as graphical analyses have been done to develop the empirical relations so that another variable can be estimated after knowing one variable. The errors in the constant values such as slope, intercept, coefficients in the equation of polynomial fit measure the reliability and variability of the obtained results. The degree of correlations between the variables has been found from positive and negative correlation coefficients in the related graphs. The graphical study of the TFT reports also verifies the negative feedback mechanism in the thyroid cycle.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
701
80992
The Strategy for Detection of Catecholamines in Body Fluids: Optical Sensor
Abstract:
Catecholamines are the principal neurotransmitters that mediate a variety of the central nervous system functions, such as motor control, cognition, emotion, memory processing, and endocrine modulation. Dysfunctions in catecholamine neurotransmission are induced in some neurologic and neuropsychiatric diseases. Changeable neurotransmitters level in biological fluids can be a marker of several neurological disorders. Because of its significance in analytical techniques and diagnostics, sensitive and selective detection of neurotransmitters is increasingly attracting a lot of attention in different areas of bio-analysis or biomedical research. Recently, fluorescent techniques for detection of catecholamines have attracted interests due to their reasonable cost, convenient control, as well as maneuverability in biological environments. Nevertheless, with the observed need for a sensitive and selective catecholamines sensor, the development of a convenient method for this neurotransmitter is still at its basic level. The manipulation of nanostructured materials in conjunction with biological molecules has led to the development of a new class of hybrid modified biosensors in which both enhancement of charge transport and biological activity preservation may be obtained. Immobilization of biomaterials on electrode surfaces is the crucial step in fabricating electrochemical as well as optical biosensors and bioelectronic devices. Continuing systematic investigation in the manufacturing of enzyme–conducting sensitive systems, here is presented a convenient fluorescence sensing strategy for catecholamines detection based on FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) phenomena observed for, i.e., complexes of Fe²⁺ and epinephrine. The biosensor was constructed using low temperature co-fired ceramics technology (LTCC). This sensing system used the catalytical oxidation of catecholamines and quench of the strong luminescence of obtained complexes due to FRET. The detection process was based on the oxidation of substrate in the presence of the enzyme–laccase/tyrosinase.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
700
80976
Development of Three-Dimensional Bio-Reactor Using Magnetic Field Stimulation to Enhance PC12 Cell Axonal Extension
Abstract:
The regeneration of injured central nerve network caused by the cerebrovascular accidents is difficult, because of poor regeneration capability of central nerve system composed of the brain and the spinal cord. Recently, new regeneration methods such as transplant of nerve cells and supply of nerve nutritional factor were proposed and examined. However, there still remain many problems with the canceration of engrafted cells and so on and it is strongly required to establish an efficacious treating method of a central nerve system. Blackman proposed the electromagnetic stimulation method to enhance the axonal nerve extension. In this study, we try to design and fabricate a new three-dimensional (3D) bio-reactor, which can load a uniform AC magnetic field stimulation on PC12 cells in the extracellular environment for enhancement of an axonal nerve extension and 3D nerve network generation. Simultaneously, we measure the morphology of PC12 cell bodies, axons, and dendrites by the multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscope (MPM) and evaluate the effectiveness of the uniform AC magnetic stimulation to enhance the axonal nerve extension. Firstly, we designed and fabricated the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation bio-reactor. For the AC magnetic stimulation system, we used the laminated silicon steel sheets for a yoke structure of 3D chamber, which had a high magnetic permeability. Next, we adopted the pole piece structure and installed similar specification coils on both sides of the yoke. We searched an optimum pole piece structure using the magnetic field finite element (FE) analyses and the response surface methodology. We confirmed that the optimum 3D chamber structure showed a uniform magnetic flux density in the PC12 cell culture area by using FE analysis. Then, we fabricated the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation bio-reactor by adopting analytically determined specifications, such as the size of chamber and electromagnetic conditions. We confirmed that measurement results of magnetic field in the chamber showed a good agreement with FE results. Secondly, we fabricated a dish, which set inside the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation of bio-reactor. PC12 cells were disseminated with collagen gel and could be 3D cultured in the dish. The collagen gel were poured in the dish. The collagen gel, which had a disk shape of 6 mm diameter and 3mm height, was set on the membrane filter, which was located at 4 mm height from the bottom of dish. The disk was full filled with the culture medium inside the dish. Finally, we evaluated the effectiveness of the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation to enhance the nurve axonal extension. We confirmed that a 6.8 increase in the average axonal extension length of PC12 under the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation at 7 days culture in our bio-reactor, and a 24.7 increase in the maximum axonal extension length. Further, we confirmed that a 60 increase in the number of dendrites of PC12 under the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation. Finally, we confirm the availability of our uniform AC magnetic stimulation bio-reactor for the nerve axonal extension and the nerve network generation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
699
80821
The Effect of Hesperidin on Troponin's Serum Level Changes as a Heart Tissue Damage Biomarker Due to Gamma Irradiation of Rat's Mediastinum
Abstract:
The heart is a radiosensitive organ, and its damage is a dose-limiting factor in radiotherapy. Different side effects including vascular plaque and heart fibrosis occur in patients with thorax irradiation. The present study aimed to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of Hesperidin (HES), a naturally occurring citrus flavanoglycone, against γ-radiation induced tissue damage in the heart of male rats. Sixty-eight rats were divided into four groups. The rats in group 1 received PBS, and those in group 2 received HES. Also, the rats in group 3 received PBS and underwent γ-irradiation, and those in group 4 received HES and underwent γ-irradiation. They were exposed to 20 Gy γ-radiation using a single fraction cobalt-60 unit, and the dose of Hesperidin was (100 mg/kg/d, orally) for 7 days prior irradiation. Each group was divided into two subgroups. Samplings of rats in subgroup A was done 4-6 hours after irradiation. The samples were sent to laboratory for determination of Troponin’s I (TnI) serum level changes as a cardiac biomarker. The remaining animals (subgroups B) were sacrificed 8 weeks after radiotherapy for histopathological evaluation. In group 3, TnI obviously increased in comparison with group 1 (p < 0.05). The comparison of groups 1 and 4 showed no significant difference. Evaluation of histopathological parameters in subgroup B showed significant differences between groups 1 and 3 in some of the cases. Inflammation (p=0.008), pericardial effusion (p=0.001) and vascular plaque (p=0.001) increased in the rats exposed to 20 Gy γ-irradiation. Using oral administration of HES significantly decreased all the above factors when compared to group 4 (P > 0.016). Administration of 100 mg/kg/day Hesperidin for 7 days resulted in decreased Troponin I and radiation heart injury. This agent may have protective effects against radiation-induced heart damage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
698
80807
Hybrid Polymer Microfluidic Platform for Studying Endothelial Cell Response to Micro Mechanical Environment
Abstract:
Endothelial cells respond to cues from both biochemical as well as micro mechanical environment. Significant effort has been directed to understand the effects of biochemical signaling, however, relatively little is known about regulation of endothelial cell biology by the micro mechanical environment. Numerous studies have been performed to understand how physical forces regulate endothelial cell behavior. In this regard, past studies have majorly focused on exploring how fluid shear stress governs endothelial cell behavior. Parallel plate flow chambers and rectangular microchannels are routinely employed for applying fluid shear force on endothelial cells. However, these studies fall short in mimicking the in vivo like micro environment from topological aspects. Few studies have only used circular microchannels to replicate in vivo like condition. Seldom efforts have been directed to elucidate the combined effect of topology, substrate rigidity and fluid shear stress on endothelial cell response. In this regard, we demonstrate a facile fabrication process to develop a hybrid polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic platform to study endothelial cell biology. On a single chip microchannels with different cross sections i.e., circular, rectangular and square have been fabricated. In addition, our fabrication approach allows variation in the substrate rigidity along the channel length. Two different variants of polydimethylsiloxane, namely Sylgard 184 and Sylgard 527, were utilized to achieve the variation in rigidity. Moreover, our approach also enables in creating Y bifurcation circular microchannels. Our microfluidic platform thus facilitates for conducting studies pertaining to endothelial cell morphology with respect to change in topology, substrate rigidity and fluid flow on a single chip. The hybrid platform was tested by culturing Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells in circular microchannels with varying substrate rigidity, and exposed to fluid shear stress of 12 dynes/cm² and static conditions. Results indicate the cell area response to flow induced shear stress was governed by the underlying substrate mechanics.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
697
80794
In vitro Characterization of Mice Bone Microstructural Changes by Low-Field and High-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Abstract:
The objective of this study is to develop Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques to enhance bone related research applied on normal and disuse (Biglycan knockout) mice bone in vitro by using both low-field and high-field NMR simultaneously. It is known that the total amplitude of T₂ relaxation envelopes, measured by the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill NMR spin echo train (CPMG), is a representation of the liquid phase inside the pores. Therefore, the NMR CPMG magnetization amplitude can be transferred to the volume of water after calibration with the NMR signal amplitude of the known volume of the selected water. In this study, the distribution of mobile water, porosity that can be determined by using low-field (20 MHz) CPMG relaxation technique, and the pore size distributions can be determined by a computational inversion relaxation method. It is also known that the total proton intensity of magnetization from the NMR free induction decay (FID) signal is due to the water present inside the pores (mobile water), the water that has undergone hydration with the bone (bound water), and the protons in the collagen and mineral matter (solid-like protons). Therefore, the components of total mobile and bound water within bone that can be determined by low-field NMR free induction decay technique. Furthermore, the bound water in solid phase (mineral and organic constituents), especially, the dominated component of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca₁₀(OH)₂(PO₄)₆) can be determined by using high-field (400 MHz) magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR. With MAS technique reducing NMR spectral linewidth inhomogeneous broadening and susceptibility broadening of liquid-solid mix, in particular, we can conduct further research into the ¹H and ³¹P elements and environments of bone materials to identify the locations of bound water such as OH- group within minerals and bone architecture. We hypothesize that with low-field and high-field magic angle spinning NMR can provide a more complete interpretation of water distribution, particularly, in bound water, and these data are important to access bone quality and predict the mechanical behavior of bone.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
696
80754
Electrophoretic Light Scattering Based on Total Internal Reflection as a Promising Diagnostic Method
Abstract:
The development of pathological processes, such as cardiovascular and oncological diseases, are accompanied by changes in molecular parameters in cells, tissues, and serum. The study of the behavior of protein molecules in solutions is of primarily importance for diagnosis of such diseases. Various physical and chemical methods are used to study molecular systems. With the advent of the laser and advances in electronics, optical methods, such as scanning electron microscopy, sedimentation analysis, nephelometry, static and dynamic light scattering, have become the most universal, informative and accurate tools for estimating the parameters of nanoscale objects. The electrophoretic light scattering is the most effective technique. It has a high potential in the study of biological solutions and their properties. This technique allows one to investigate the processes of aggregation and dissociation of different macromolecules and obtain information on their shapes, sizes and molecular weights. Electrophoretic light scattering is an analytical method for registration of the motion of microscopic particles under the influence of an electric field by means of quasi-elastic light scattering in a homogeneous solution with a subsequent registration of the spectral or correlation characteristics of the light scattered from a moving object. We modified the technique by using the regime of total internal reflection with the aim of increasing its sensitivity and reducing the volume of the sample to be investigated, which opens the prospects of automating simultaneous multiparameter measurements. In addition, the method of total internal reflection allows one to study biological fluids on the level of single molecules, which also makes it possible to increase the sensitivity and the informativeness of the results because the data obtained from an individual molecule is not averaged over an ensemble, which is important in the study of bimolecular fluids. To our best knowledge the study of electrophoretic light scattering in the regime of total internal reflection is proposed for the first time, latex microspheres 1 μm in size were used as test objects. In this study, the total internal reflection regime was realized on a quartz prism where the free electrophoresis regime was set. A semiconductor laser with a wavelength of 655 nm was used as a radiation source, and the light scattering signal was registered by a pin-diode. Then the signal from a photodetector was transmitted to a digital oscilloscope and to a computer. The autocorrelation functions and the fast Fourier transform in the regime of Brownian motion and under the action of the field were calculated to obtain the parameters of the object investigated. The main result of the study was the dependence of the autocorrelation function on the concentration of microspheres and the applied field magnitude. The effect of heating became more pronounced with increasing sample concentrations and electric field. The results obtained in our study demonstrated the applicability of the method for the examination of liquid solutions, including biological fluids.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
695
80700
Scattering Operator and Spectral Clustering for Ultrasound Images: Application on Deep Venous Thrombi
Abstract:
Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a thrombus is formed within a deep vein (most often in the legs). This disease can be deadly if a part or the whole thrombus reaches the lung and causes a Pulmonary Embolism (PE). This disorder, often asymptomatic, has multifactorial causes: immobilization, surgery, pregnancy, age, cancers, and genetic variations. Our project aims to relate the thrombus epidemiology (origins, patient predispositions, PE) to its structure using ultrasound images. Ultrasonography and elastography were collected using Toshiba Aplio 500 at Brest Hospital. This manuscript compares two classification approaches: spectral clustering and scattering operator. The former is based on the graph and matrix theories while the latter cascades wavelet convolutions with nonlinear modulus and averaging operators.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
694
80384
Tracking the Effect of Ibutilide on Amplitude and Frequency of Fibrillatory Intracardiac Electrograms Using the Regression Analysis
Abstract:
Background: Catheter ablation is an effective therapy for symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF). The intracardiac electrocardiogram (IEGM) collected during this procedure contains precious information that has not been explored to its full capacity. Novel processing techniques allow looking at these recordings from different perspectives which can lead to improved therapeutic approaches. In our previous study, we showed that variation in amplitude measured through Shannon Entropy could be used as an AF recurrence risk stratification factor in patients who received Ibutilide before the electrograms were recorded. The aim of this study is to further investigate the effect of Ibutilide on characteristics of the recorded signals from the left atrium (LA) of a patient with persistent AF before and after administration of the drug. Methods: The IEGMs collected from different intra-atrial sites of 12 patients were studied and compared before and after Ibutilide administration. First, the before and after Ibutilide IEGMs that were recorded within a Euclidian distance of 3 mm in LA were selected as pairs for comparison. For every selected pair of IEGMs, the Probability Distribution Function (PDF) of the amplitude in time domain and magnitude in frequency domain was estimated using the regression analysis. The PDF represents the relative likelihood of a variable falling within a specific range of values. Results: Our observations showed that in time domain, the PDF of amplitudes was fitted to a Gaussian distribution while in frequency domain, it was fitted to a Rayleigh distribution. Our observations also revealed that after Ibutilide administration, the IEGMs would have significantly narrower short-tailed PDFs both in time and frequency domains. Conclusion: This study shows that the PDFs of the IEGMs before and after administration of Ibutilide represents significantly different properties, both in time and frequency domains. Hence, by fitting the PDF of IEGMs in time domain to a Gaussian distribution or in frequency domain to a Rayleigh distribution, the effect of Ibutilide can easily be tracked using the statistics of their PDF (e.g., standard deviation) while this is difficult through the waveform of IEGMs itself.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
693
80209
In silico Analysis of a Causative Mutation in Cadherin-23 Gene Identified in an Omani Family with Hearing Loss
Abstract:
Hereditary hearing loss is a heterogeneous group of complex disorders with an overall incidence of one in every five hundred newborns presented as syndromic and non-syndromic forms. Cadherin-related 23 (CDH23) is one of the listed deafness causative genes. CDH23 is found to be expressed in the stereocilia of hair cells and the retina photoreceptor cells. Defective CDH23 has been associated mostly with prelingual severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in either syndromic (USH1D) or non-syndromic SNHL (DFNB12). An Omani family diagnosed clinically with severe-profound sensorineural hearing loss was genetically analysed by whole exome sequencing technique. A novel homozygous missense variant, c.A7451C (p.D2484A), in exon 53 of CDH23 was detected. One hundred and thirty control samples were analysed where all were negative for the detected variant. The variant was analysed in silico for pathogenicity verification using several mutation prediction software. The variant proved to be a pathogenic mutation and is reported for the first time in Oman and worldwide. It is concluded that in silico mutation prediction analysis might be used as a useful molecular diagnostics tool benefiting both genetic counseling and mutation verification. The aspartic acid 2484 alanine missense substitution might be the main disease-causing mutation that damages CDH23 function and could be used as a genetic hearing loss marker for this particular Omani family.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
692
79910
Design of Nanoreinforced Polyacrylamide-Based Hybrid Hydrogels for Bone Tissue Engineering
Abstract:
Bone tissue engineering has emerged as a potentially alternative method for localized bone defects or diseases, congenital deformation, and surgical reconstruction. The designing and the fabrication of the ideal scaffold is a great challenge, in restoring of the damaged bone tissues via cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation under three-dimensional (3D) biological micro-/nano-environment. In this case, hydrogel system composed of high hydrophilic 3D polymeric-network that is able to mimic some of the functional physical and chemical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and possibly may provide a suitable 3D micro-/nano-environment (i.e., resemblance of native bone tissues). Thus, this proposed hydrogel system is highly permeable and facilitates the transport of the nutrients and metabolites. However, the use of hydrogels in bone tissue engineering is limited because of their low mechanical properties (toughness and stiffness) that continue to posing challenges in designing and fabrication of tough and stiff hydrogels along with improved bioactive properties. For this purpose, in our lab, polyacrylamide-based hybrid hydrogels were synthesized by involving sodium alginate, cellulose nanocrystals and silica-based glass using one-step free-radical polymerization. The results showed good in vitro apatite-forming ability (biomineralization) and improved mechanical properties (under compression in the form of strength and stiffness in both wet and dry conditions), and in vitro osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1 cells) cytocompatibility. For in vitro cytocompatibility assessment, both qualitative (attachment and spreading of cells using FESEM) and quantitative (cell viability and proliferation using MTT assay) analyses were performed. The obtained hybrid hydrogels may potentially be used in bone tissue engineering applications after establishment of in vivo characterization.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
691
79856
Fabrication of Biosensor Based on Layered Double Hydroxide/Polypyrrole/Carbon Paste Electrode for Determination of Anti-Hypertensive and Prostatic Hyperplasia Drug Terazosin
Abstract:
New insights into the design of highly sensitive, carbon-based electrochemical sensors are presented in this work. This was achieved by exploring the interesting properties of conductive (Mg/Al) layered double hydroxide- Dodecyl Sulphate/Polypyrrole nanocomposites which were synthesized by in-situ polymerization of pyrrole during the assembly of (Mg/Al) layered double hydroxide, and by employing the anionic surfactant Dodecyl sulphate as a modifier. The morphology and surface area of the nanocomposites changed with the percentage of Pyrrole. Under optimal conditions, the modified carbon paste electrode successfully achieved detection limits of 0.057 and 0.134 nmol.L-1 of Terazosin hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulation and spiked human serum fluid, respectively. Moreover, the sensors are highly stable, reusable, and free from interference by other commonly present excipients in drug formulations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
690
79823
Cesium Toxicity by Potassium-Deficiency and the Gene Expression Patterns by Cesium Treatment in Arabidopsis thaliana
Authors:
Abstract:
After the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in 2011, a large amount of cesium was exposed to the environment and spread to the global area. Cesium is toxic by itself, but when absorbed, it exposes fatal radiation in the body, causing much harm to human beings and the natural environment. Thus, efforts to remove cesium from the environment have been made worldwide. As a method for removing cesium, physical and chemical methods are considered first, but these methods are environmentally unfriendly, and recent decontamination techniques using biological methods are attracting attention. A representative method of this biological decontamination technique is a plant-decontamination technology, phytoremediation. Current phytoremediation research remains largely at a level of simple and comparative screening of how well naturally occurring plants absorb cesium exposed to the environment. However, the absorption rate of cesium is so low that it is not economical to use such biological decontamination techniques. Thus, to realize this phytoremediation idea more economically, it is first necessary to identify the plant response to cesium and its physiological characteristics when cesium is treated. For this purpose, in this study, we first examined cesium toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana as a model plant. It was observed that the growth of A. thaliana was decreased through cesium treatment. As a result of analyzing the absorption rate of cesium after treatment, the concentration-dependent increase in cesium absorption was observed. On the other hand, absorption of potassium was decreased. This result implies that the growth inhibitory effect of high concentrations of cesium is due to a potassium deficiency. We compared the gene expression analysis in cesium-treated A. thaliana and untreated A. thaliana, and finally discussed the meaning.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
689
79677
Wireless Based System for Continuous Electrocardiography Monitoring during Surgery
Abstract:
This paper presents a system designed for wireless acquisition, the recording of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals and the monitoring of the heart&rsquo;s health during surgery. This wireless recording system allows us to visualize and monitor the state of the heart&rsquo;s health during a surgery, even if the patient is moved from the operating theater to post anesthesia care unit. The acquired signal is transmitted via a Bluetooth unit to a PC where the data are displayed, stored and processed. To test the reliability of our system, a comparison between ECG signals processed by a conventional ECG monitoring system (Datex-Ohmeda) and by our wireless system is made. The comparison is based on the shape of the ECG signal, the duration of the QRS complex, the P and T waves, as well as the position of the ST segments with respect to the isoelectric line. The proposed system is presented and discussed. The results have confirmed that the use of Bluetooth during surgery does not affect the devices used and vice versa. Pre- and post-processing steps are briefly discussed. Experimental results are also provided.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
688
79437
Photostability Study of CdTe Quantum Dots Using Laser Induced Fluorescence
Abstract:
Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are characterized by their high quantum yields and unique photostability. This research studies the optical properties of the synthesized CdTe QDs with two different sizes using laser-induced fluorescence for investigating their photostability. TEM images illustrate that the two prepared QDs sizes are 2.4 and 3.5 nm. FTIR analysis revealed that the prepared QD capped with oleic acid. LIF technique showed that there is a red shift of the fluorescence emission of the bigger size QDs compared to the smaller one. The small size QD has a lower photostability when compared to the big size 2.4 nm. This study introduces guidance adapting CdTe photophysical properties for generalized applications especially biological laser imaging and solar cell applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):