Feature Selection of Personal Authentication Based on EEG Signal for K-Means Cluster Analysis Using Silhouettes Score
Personal authentication based on electroencephalography (EEG) signals is one of the important field for the biometric technology. More and more researchers have used EEG signals as data source for biometric. However, there are some disadvantages for biometrics based on EEG signals. The proposed method employs entropy measures for feature extraction from EEG signals. Four type of entropies measures, sample entropy (SE), fuzzy entropy (FE), approximate entropy (AE) and spectral entropy (PE), were deployed as feature set. In a silhouettes calculation, the distance from each data point in a cluster to all another point within the same cluster and to all other data points in the closest cluster are determined. Thus silhouettes provide a measure of how well a data point was classified when it was assigned to a cluster and the separation between them. This feature renders silhouettes potentially well suited for assessing cluster quality in personal authentication methods. In this study, “silhouettes scores” was used for assessing the cluster quality of k-means clustering algorithm is well suited for comparing the performance of each EEG dataset. The main goals of this study are: (1) to represent each target as a tuple of multiple feature sets, (2) to assign a suitable measure to each feature set, (3) to combine different feature sets, (4) to determine the optimal feature weighting. Using precision/recall evaluations, the effectiveness of feature weighting in clustering was analyzed. EEG data from 22 subjects were collected. Results showed that: (1) It is possible to use fewer electrodes (3-4) for personal authentication. (2) There was the difference between each electrode for personal authentication (p< 0.01). (3) There is no significant difference for authentication performance among feature sets (except feature PE). Conclusion: The combination of k-means clustering algorithm and silhouette approach proved to be an accurate method for personal authentication based on EEG signals.
Automatic Differentiation of Ultrasonic Images of Cystic and Solid Breast Lesions
In most cases, typical cysts are easily recognized at ultrasonography. The specificity of this method for typical cysts reaches 98%, and it is usually considered as gold standard for typical cyst diagnosis. However, it is necessary to have all the following features to conclude the typical cyst: clear margin, the absence of internal echoes and dorsal acoustic enhancement. At the same time, not every breast cyst is typical. It is especially characteristic for protein-contained cysts that may have significant internal echoes. On the other hand, some solid lesions (predominantly malignant) may have cystic appearance and may be falsely accepted as cysts. Therefore we tried to develop the automatic method of cystic and solid breast lesions differentiation. Materials and methods. The input data were the ultrasonography digital images with the 256-gradations of gray color (Medison SA8000SE, Siemens X150, Esaote MyLab C). Identification of the lesion on these images was performed in two steps. On the first one, the region of interest (or contour of lesion) was searched and selected. Selection of such region is carried out using the sigmoid filter where the threshold is calculated according to the empirical distribution function of the image brightness and, if necessary, it was corrected according to the average brightness of the image points which have the highest gradient of brightness. At the second step, the identification of the selected region to one of lesion groups by its statistical characteristics of brightness distribution was made. The following characteristics were used: entropy, coefficients of the linear and polynomial regression, quantiles of different orders, an average gradient of brightness, etc. For determination of decisive criterion of belonging to one of lesion groups (cystic or solid) the training set of these characteristics of brightness distribution separately for benign and malignant lesions were received. To test our approach we used a set of 217 ultrasonic images of 107 cystic (including 53 atypical, difficult for bare eye differentiation) and 110 solid lesions. All lesions were cytologically and/or histologically confirmed. Visual identification was performed by trained specialist in breast ultrasonography. Results. Our system correctly distinguished all (107, 100%) typical cysts, 107 of 110 (97.3%) solid lesions and 50 of 53 (94.3%) atypical cysts. On the contrary, with the bare eye it was possible to identify correctly all (107, 100%) typical cysts, 96 of 110 (87.3%) solid lesions and 32 of 53 (60.4%) atypical cysts. Conclusion. Automatic approach significantly surpasses the visual assessment performed by trained specialist. The difference is especially large for atypical cysts and hypoechoic solid lesions with the clear margin. This data may have a clinical significance.
Nanotechnology-Based Treatment of Liver Cancer
We present method of Nanoparticle enhanced laser thermal ablation of HepG2 cells (Human hepatocellular liver carcinomacell line), using gold nanoparticles combuned with a specific growth factor and demonstrate its selective therapeutic efficacy usig ex vivo specimens. Ex vivo-perfused liver specimens were obtained from hepatocellular carcinoma patients similarly to the surgical technique of transplantation. Ab bound to GNPs was inoculated intra-arterially onto the resulting specimen and determined the specific delivery of the nano-bioconjugate into the malignant tissue by means of the capillary bed. The extent of necrosis was considerable following laser therapy and at the same time surrounding parenchyma was not seriously affected. The selective photothermal ablation of the malignant liver tissue was obtained after the selective accumulation of Ab bound to GNPs into tumor cells following ex-vivo intravascular perfusion. These unique results may represent a major step in liver cancer treatment using nanolocalized thermal ablation by laser heating.
Preparation and Characterizations of Hydroxyapatite-Sodium Alginate Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications
Polymer-inorganic nanocomposites are presently impacting diverse areas, specifically in biomedical sciences. In this research, hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate has been prepared, and characterized, with emphasis on the influence of sodium alginate on its characteristics. In situ wet chemical precipitation method was used in the preparation. The prepared nanocomposite was characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), with image analysis, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The FTIR study shows peaks characteristics of hydroxyapatite and confirmed formation of the nanocomposite via chemical interaction between sodium alginate and hydroxyapatite. Image analysis shows the nanocomposites to be of irregular morphologies which did not show significant change with increasing sodium alginate addition, while particle size decreased with increase in sodium alginate addition (359.46 nm to 109.98 nm). From the XRD data, both the crystallite size and degree of crystallinity also decreased with increasing sodium alginate composition (32.36 nm to 9.47 nm and 72.87% to 1.82% respectively), while the specific surface area and microstrain increased with increasing sodium alginate composition (0.0041 to 0.0139 and 58.99 m²/g to 201.58 m²/g respectively). The results show that the formulation with 50%wt of sodium alginate (HASA-50%wt), possess exceptional characteristics for biomedical applications such as drug delivery.
Thermosensitive Polypeptide Hydrogel for Immunosuppressive Drug Delivery in Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation
Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressive agent which is usually applied to patients who received allotransplantation to reduce immune rejection. The strong hydrophobicity of tacrolimus makes it difficult to be applied in aqueous system. It has been studied to be encapsulated by micelles. However, the low efficiency of encapsulation in micelles is an obstacle for further application. Polypeptide thermosensitive hydrogel is considered as a great candidate for drug delivery because of several advantages, such as excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, low concentration for gelation and sensitive response temperature change. In this study, we synthesized a thermo-responsive polypeptide hydrogel by copolymerizing poloxamer (PLX) and poly(ʟ-alanine) with ʟ-lysine segments at the both ends to form PLX-b-poly(ʟ-alanine-lysine) (P-Lys-Ala-PLX) copolymers. Poly(ʟ-alanine) is the hydrophobic chain of P-Lys-Ala-PLX copolymers which was designed to capture the hydrophobic agents. The synthesis was examined by 1H NMR and showed that P-Lys-Ala-PLX copolymers was successfully synthesized. P-Lys-Ala-PLX has a sol-gel behavior with low concentration of 3-7 wt% and has high degree of drug encapsulation. The experiment of drug release also showed that the tacrolimus released constantly over time. This study indicates that P-Lys-Ala-PLX is a high potential injectable drug carrier for biomedical application.
The Study of Dissolving Microneedle Patch for Androgenetic Alopecia
Microneedle patch is a painless transdermal drug delivery method; it could solve some problems in traditional drug delivery such as digestive system causing drug metabolism and subcutaneous injection causing some side effects. Coating drug on or loading drug in microneedle can carry active ingredient through stratum corneum, also can control dose well when microneedle patch is applied on localized topical area. We used hyaluronic acid to fabricate dissolvable microneedle patch and encapsulated minoxidil into microneedles. Minoxdil is a drug for an exterior use that can be used to treat Androgenetic alopecia, but related commercial products have some shortcomings, for example, propylene glycol which is used to soften stratum corneum cause skin allergic reaction, comparing chemical promotion, microneedle patch provide a physical way to make drugs through nature barrier of the skin. In this research, we designed a two-step process to fabricate microneedle patch, that can effectively reduce drug waste, and gentle production process could maintain drug activity well. We use Fluorescein Isothiocyanate Isomer I in microneedles to understand the distribution of the drug in the needle body, also do In vitro test on cadaver to make sure patch has enough mechanical strength to penetrate stratum corneum. In this study, we may determine that germinal MNs patch is a potential commodity.
Concept of Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Cage Insertion Device
Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) surgeries are nowadays becoming popular for the treatment of degenerated spinal disorders. The interbody fusion technique like TLIF maintains load bearing capacity of the spine and a suitable disc height. Currently, many techniques have been introduced to cure Spondylolisthesis. This surgery provides greater rehabilitation of degenerative spines. While performing this TLIF surgery, existing methods use guideway which is a troublesome surgery technique as the use of two separate instruments is required to perform this surgery. Here we are introducing the concept which eliminates the use of guideway. Also, a problem can occur such as reverting the cage. Concept discussed in this paper also gives high accuracy while performing surgery.
Pattern Recognition Approach Based on Metabolite Profiling Using In vitro Cancer Cell Line
Metabolite profiling is a strategy to be approached in the pattern recognition method focused on three types of cancer cell line that driving the most to death specifically lung, breast, and colon cancer. The purpose of this study was to discriminate the VOCs pattern among cancerous and control group based on metabolite profiling. The sampling was executed utilizing the cell culture technique. All culture flasks were incubated till 72 hours and data collection started after 24 hours. Every running sample took 24 minutes to be completed accordingly. The comparative metabolite patterns were identified by the implementation of headspace-solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) sampling coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). The optimizations of the main experimental variables such as oven temperature and time were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM) to get the optimal condition. Volatiles were acknowledged through the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) mass spectral database and retention time libraries. To improve the reliability of significance, it is of crucial importance to eliminate background noise which data from 3rd minutes to 17th minutes were selected for statistical analysis. Targeted metabolites, of which were annotated as known compounds with the peak area greater than 0.5 percent were highlighted and subsequently treated statistically. Volatiles produced contain hundreds to thousands of compounds; therefore, it will be optimized by chemometric analysis, such as principal component analysis (PCA) as a preliminary analysis before subjected to a pattern classifier for identification of VOC samples. The volatile organic compound profiling has shown to be significantly distinguished among cancerous and control group based on metabolite profiling.
Study of Mixing Conditions for Different Endothelial Dysfunction in Arteriosclerosis
In this work, we studied the microscale interaction of foreign substances with blood inside an artificial transparent artery system that represents medium and small muscular arteries. This artery system had channels ranging from 75 μm to 930 μm and was fabricated using glass and transparent polymer blends like Phenylbis(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl) phosphine oxide, Poly(ethylene glycol) and PDMS in order to be monitored in real time. The setup was performed using a computer controlled precision micropump and a high resolution optical microscope capable of tracking fluids at fast capture. Observation and analysis were performed using a real time software that reconstructs the fluid dynamics determining the flux velocity, injection dependency, turbulence and rheology. All experiments were carried out with fully computer controlled equipment. Interactions between substances like water, serum (0.9% sodium chloride and electrolyte with a ratio of 4 ppm) and blood cells were studied at microscale as high as 400nm of resolution and the analysis was performed using a frame-by-frame observation and HD-video capture. These observations lead us to understand the fluid and mixing behavior of the interest substance in the blood stream and to shed a light on the use of implantable devices for drug delivery at arteries with different Endothelial dysfunction. Several substances were tested using the artificial artery system. Initially, Milli-Q water was used as a control substance for the study of the basic fluid dynamics of the artificial artery system. However, serum and other low viscous substances were pumped into the system with the presence of other liquids to study the mixing profiles and behaviors. Finally, mammal blood was used for the final test while serum was injected. Different flow conditions, pumping rates, and time rates were evaluated for the determination of the optimal mixing conditions. Our results suggested the use of a very fine controlled microinjection for better mixing profiles with and approximately rate of 135.000 μm3/s for the administration of drugs inside arteries.
An Approach of Knowledge Cell Clustering in Biologically Inspired Design
Biologically inspired design (BID) is a rising creative design method, however, sometimes the BID analogies cannot be easily acquired and transferred into engineering design. Focus on the problem of biotic knowledge cells acquisition clustering in BID, a two-level clustering method is proposed for knowledge cells in biological domain based on semantic information and environmental information. In the process of the proposed method, the proper functional words for cross domain clustering is chosen first, and a set of knowledge cells which related to design demanding is obtained. Then, the group average linkage (GAL)-agglomerative hierarchical method is employed to conduct the first level knowledge cell clustering based on semantic information. On this basis, the AFCM clustering method is proposed to execute the second level clustering, and finally, the clustering results, which can efficiently help designers reduce the amount of research objects and play roles of design analogies, are acquired. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methodology are verified in the clustering of knowledge cells which related to design demanding of the visual prosthesis.
Dose Saving and Image Quality Evaluation for Computed Tomography Head Scanning with Eye Protection
Computed tomography (CT) scan of the head is a good method for investigating cranial lesions. However, radiation-induced oxidative stress can be accumulated in the eyes and promote carcinogenesis and cataract. In this regard, we aimed to protect the eyes with barium sulfate shield(s) during CT scans and investigate the resultant image quality and radiation dose to the eye.
A human head phantom and a water-based marker were simultaneously scanned by a 16-slice CT scanner at a fixed tube current of 300 mAs and a 256-slice dual-source CT (DSCT) scanner with automatic tube current modulation, respectively. At various tube voltages, air dose was measured by pencil-shaped ionization chambers with or without barium sulfate shield(s) laid on above. For the assessment of image quality CT images at slice planes that exhibit the interested regions on the zygomatic, orbital and nasal bones of the head phantom as well as the water-based marker were used for calculating the signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios.
Quantitative results show that radiation dose from both CT scanners decreased with decreasing tube voltages as well as the increasing number of shields. The application of two shields on the high-dose irradiator, i.e., the 16-slice CT scanner, reduced up to 52% of dose close to the eye. Under tube current modulation (116~126 mAs), two shields reduced up to 44% of the eye dose of DSCT scans. On the other hand, the signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios of DSCT images maintained relatively consistent with the increasing number of barium sulfate shield(s). In contrast, these ratios deviated or elevated along with the shield increment on 16-slice CT images, indicating the degradation of image quality in proximity to barium sulfate shield.
The results of this study suggested that eye dose saving through the use of shield(s) could change the photon attenuation characteristics of tissues that are close to the shield(s). The application of barium sulfate shields on eye protection hence is not recommended for seeking intraorbital lesions.
Improvement of the Geometric of Dental Bridge Framework through Automatic Program
The dental bridge is one of the clinical methods of the treatment for missing teeth. The dental bridge is generally designed for two layers, containing the inner layer of the framework(zirconia) and the outer layer of the porcelain-fused to framework restorations. The design of a conventional bridge is generally based on the antagonist tooth profile so that the framework evenly indented by an equal thickness from outer contour. All-ceramic dental bridge made of zirconia have well demonstrated remarkable potential to withstand a higher physiological occlusal load in posterior region, but it was found that there is still the risk of all-ceramic bridge failure in five years. Thus, how to reduce the incidence of failure is still a problem to be solved. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop mechanical designs for all-ceramic dental bridges framework by reducing the stress and enhancing fracture resistance under given loading conditions by finite element method. In this study, dental design software is used to design dental bridge based on tooth CT images. After building model, Bi-directional Evolutionary Structural Optimization (BESO) Method algorithm implemented in finite element software was employed to analyze results of finite element software and determine the distribution of the materials in dental bridge; BESO searches the optimum distribution of two different materials, namely porcelain and zirconia. According to the previous calculation of the stress value of each element, when the element stress value is higher than the threshold value, the element would be replaced by the framework material; besides, the difference of maximum stress peak value is less than 0.1%, calculation is complete. After completing the design of dental bridge, the stress distribution of the whole structure is changed. BESO reduces the peak values of principle stress of 10% in outer-layer porcelain and avoids producing tensile stress failure.
Detection of Alzheimer's Protein on Nano Designed Polymer Surfaces in Water and Artificial Saliva
Alzheimer’s disease is responsible for irreversible neural damage of brain parts. One of the disease markers is Amyloid-β 1-42 protein that accumulates in the brain in the form plaques. The basic problem for detection of the protein is the low amount of protein that cannot be detected properly in body liquids such as blood, saliva or urine. To solve this problem, tests like ELISA or PCR are proposed which are expensive, require specialized personnel and can contain complex protocols. Therefore, Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) a good candidate for detection of Amyloid-β 1-42 protein. Because the spectroscopic technique can potentially allow even single molecule detection from liquid and solid surfaces. Besides SERS signal can be improved by using nanopattern surface and also is specific to molecules. In this context, our study proposes to fabricate diagnostic test models that utilize Au-coated nanopatterned polycarbonate (PC) surfaces modified with Thioflavin - T to detect low concentrations of Amyloid-β 1-42 protein in water and artificial saliva medium by the enhancement of protein SERS signal. The nanopatterned PC surface that was used to enhance SERS signal was fabricated by using Anodic Alumina Membranes (AAM) as a template. It is possible to produce AAMs with different column structures and varying thicknesses depending on voltage and anodization time. After fabrication process, the pore diameter of AAMs can be arranged with dilute acid solution treatment. In this study, two different columns structures were prepared. After a surface modification to decrease their surface energy, AAMs were treated with PC solution. Following the solvent evaporation, nanopatterned PC films with tunable pillared structures were peeled off from the membrane surface. The PC film was then modified with Au and Thioflavin-T for the detection of Amyloid-β 1-42 protein. The protein detection studies were conducted first in water via this biosensor platform. Same measurements were conducted in artificial saliva to detect the presence of Amyloid Amyloid-β 1-42 protein. SEM, SERS and contact angle measurements were carried out for the characterization of different surfaces and further demonstration of the protein attachment. SERS enhancement factor calculations were also completed via experimental results. As a result, our research group fabricated diagnostic test models that utilize Au-coated nanopatterned polycarbonate (PC) surfaces modified with Thioflavin-T to detect low concentrations of Alzheimer’s Amiloid – β protein in water and artificial saliva medium. This work was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) Grant No: 214Z167.
Effect of Class V Cavity Configuration and Loading Situation on the Stress Concentration
Objective: This study was to examine the stress distribution of tooth with different class V restorations under different loading situations and geometry by 3D finite element (FE) analysis. `Methods: A series of FE models of mandibular premolars containing class V cavities were constructed using micro-CT. The class V cavities were assigned as the combinations of different cavity depths x occlusal -gingival heights: 1x2, 1x4, 2x2, and 2x4 mm. Three alveolar bone loss conditions were examined: 0, 1, and 2 mm. 200 N force was exerted on the buccal cusp tip under various directions (vertical, V; obliquely 30° angled, O; oblique and parallel the individual occlusal cavity wall, P). A 3-D FE analysis was performed and the von-Mises stress was used to summarize the data of stress distribution and maximum stress. Results: The maximal stress did not vary in different alveolar bone heights. For each geometry, the maximal stress was found at bilateral corners of the cavity. The peak stress of restorations was significantly higher under load P compared to those under loads V and O while the latter two were similar. 2x2mm cavity exhibited significantly increased (2.88 fold) stress under load P compared to that under load V, followed by 1x2mm (2.11 fold), 2x4mm (1.98 fold) and 1x4mm (1.1fold). Conclusion: Load direction causes the greatest impact on the results of stress, while the effect of alveolar bone loss is minor. Load direction parallel to the cavity wall may enhance the stress concentration especially in deep and narrow class cavities.
Biomechanical Investigation of Fragment Shape and Screw Configuration in the Fixation of Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy
Tibial tubercle osteotomy (TTO) is frequently used for its better exposure and field, less violation of soft tissue and predictable recovery through bony healing in the revision total knee arthroplasty. However, to our note, the fragmented shape of tibia tubercle and screw configuration were less mentioned in the literature. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the stability of tibia with various shape of fragment and screw configuration in the fixation of TTO by finite element (FE) method. An intact tibia model was created based on the CT images of a healthy subject without any disorder of the low limb. The shape of the fragment (tibial tubercle) was created in CAD software. The screws were built and inserted into the tibia by Boolean operation to simulate the operation procedure in CAD software, too. Totally three different kinds of fragment shape and four different kinds of screw configuration were used in the present simulation. Those fragments shape included the superior surface of the fragment perpendicular, 50 degrees and 10 degrees to the longitudinal axis of the tibia and those screw configuration included two parallel horizontal screws, two parallel up-ward screws, two parallel down-ward screws and two diverge screws. The results indicated that the fragmented shape effected the stability more than the screw configuration and the fragment with superior surface perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of tibia resulted in highest structural stability with least displacement of the fragment in identical loading. Among those screw configurations, two parallel down-ward screws resulted in highest stability in identical fragment shape. Based on the present results, the fragment with superior surface perpendicular to the longitudinal axis and with two parallel down-ward screws for fixation is suggest in the management of tibial tubercle osteotomy.
Mechanical Characterization of Porcine Skin with the Finite Element Method Based Inverse Optimization Approach
Skin tissue is an inhomogeneous and anisotropic material. Uniaxial tensile testing is one of the primary testing techniques for the mechanical characterization of skin at large scales. In order to predict the mechanical behavior of materials, the direct or inverse analytical approaches are often used. However, in case of an inhomogeneous and anisotropic material as skin tissue, analytical approaches are not able to provide solutions. The numerical simulation is thus necessary. In this work, the uniaxial tensile test and the FEM (finite element method) based inverse method were used to identify the anisotropic mechanical properties of porcine skin tissue. The uniaxial tensile experiments were performed using Instron 8800 tensile machine®. The uniaxial tensile test was simulated with FEM, and then the inverse optimization approach (or the inverse calibration) was used for the identification of mechanical properties of the samples. Experimentally results were compared to finite element solutions. The results showed that the finite element model predictions of the mechanical behavior of the tested skin samples were well correlated with experimental results.
Role of Maternal Astaxanthin Supplementation on Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Spatial Learning Behavior in Wistar Rat Offspring’s
Background: Maternal health and nutrition are considered as the predominant factors influencing brain functional development. If the mother is free of illness and genetic defects, maternal nutrition would be one of the most critical factors affecting the brain development. Calorie restrictions cause significant impairment in spatial learning ability and the levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in rats. But, the mechanism by which the prenatal under-nutrition leads to impairment in brain learning and memory function is still unclear. In the present study, prenatal Astaxanthin supplementation on BDNF level, spatial learning and memory performance in the offspring’s of normal, calorie restricted and Astaxanthin supplemented rats was investigated. Methodology: The rats were administered with 6mg and 12 mg of astaxanthin /kg bw for 21 days following which acquisition and retention of spatial memory was tested in a partially-baited eight arm radial maze. The BDNF level in different regions of the brain (cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum) was estimated by ELISA method. Results: Calorie restricted animals treated with astaxanthin made significantly more correct choices (P < 0.05), and fewer reference memory errors (P < 0.05) on the tenth day of training compared to offsprings of calorie restricted animals. Calorie restricted animals treated with astaxanthin also made significantly higher correct choices (P < 0.001) than untreated calorie restricted animals in a retention test 10 days after the training period. The mean BDNF level in cerebral cortex, Hippocampus and cerebellum in Calorie restricted animals treated with astaxanthin didnot show significant variation from that of control animals. Conclusion: Findings of the study indicated that memory and learning was impaired in the offspring’s of calorie restricted rats which was effectively modulated by astaxanthin at the dosage of 12 mg/kg body weight. In the same way the BDNF level at cerebral cortex, Hippocampus and Cerebellum was also declined in the offspring’s of calorie restricted animals, which was also found to be effectively normalized by astaxanthin.
Neuron Based Control Mechanisms for a Robotic Arm and Hand
A robotic arm and hand controlled by simulated neurons are
presented. The robot makes use of a biological neuron simulator using
a point neural model. The neurons and synapses are organized
to create a finite state automaton including neural inputs from
sensors, and outputs to effectors. The robot performs a simple
pick-and-place task. This work is a proof of concept study for a
longer term approach. It is hoped that further work will lead to more
effective and flexible robots. As another benefit, it is hoped that
further work will also lead to a better understanding of human and
another animal neural processing, particularly for physical motion.
This is a multidisciplinary approach combining cognitive neuroscience,
robotics, and psychology.
Structure-Based Drug Design of Daptomycin, Antimicrobial lipopeptide
Contagious diseases enact severe public health problems and have upsetting consequences. The cyclic lipopeptides explained by bacteria Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Streptomyces, Serratia, Propionibacterium and fungus Fusarium are very critical in confining the pathogens. As the degree of drug resistance upsurges in unparalleled manner, the perseverance of searching novel cyclic lipopeptides is being professed. The intense study has shown the implication of these bioactive compounds extending beyond antibacterial and antifungal. Lipopeptides, composed of single units of peptide and fatty acyl moiety, show broad spectrum antimicrobial effects. Among the surplus of cyclic lipopeptides, only few have materialized as strong antibiotics. For their functional vigor, polymyxin, daptomycin, surfactin, iturin and bacillomycin have been integrated in mainstream healthcare. In our work daptomycin has been a major part of antimicrobial resource since the past decade. Daptomycin, a cyclic lipopeptide consists of 13-member amino acid with a decanoyl side-chain. This structure of daptomycin confers it the mechanism of action through which it forms pore in the bacterial cell membrane resulting in the death of cell. Daptomycin is produced by Streptococccus roseoporus and acts against Streptococcus pneumonia (PSRP), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). The PDB structure and ligands of daptomycin are available online. The molecular docking studies of these ligands with the lipopeptides were performed and their docking score and glide energy were recorded.
Atomic Force Microscopy Studies of DNA Binding Properties of the Archaeal Mini Chromosome Maintenance Complex
Basic cellular processes as DNA replication are crucial to cell life. Understanding at the molecular level the mechanisms that govern DNA replication in proliferating cells is fundamental to understand disease connected to genomic instabilities, as a genetic disease and cancer. A key step for DNA replication to take place, is unwinding the DNA double helix and this carried out by proteins called helicases. The archaeal MCM (minichromosome maintenance) complex from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus have being studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), imaging in air and liquid (Physiological environment). The accurate analysis of AFM topographic images allowed to understand the static conformations as well the interaction dynamic of MCM and DNA double helix in the present of ATP.
Early Detection of Arterial Stiffness in Diabetes Using Photoplethysmograph
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder and with the increase of global prevalence of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mortality related to diabetes has also increased. Diabetes causes the increase of arterial stiffness by elusive hormonal and metabolic abnormalities. We used photoplethysmograph (PPG), a simple non-invasive method to study the change in arterial stiffness due to diabetes. Toe PPG signals were taken from 29 diabetic subjects with mean age of (65±8.4) years and 21 non-diabetic subjects of mean age of (49±14) years. Mean duration of diabetes is 12±8 years for diabetic group. Rise-time (RT) and area under rise time (AUR) were calculated from the PPG signal of each subject and Welch’s t-test is used to find the significant difference between two groups. We obtained a significant difference of (p-value) 0.0005 and 0.03 for RT and AUR respectively between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Average value of RT and AUR is 0.298±0.003 msec and 14.4±4.2 arbitrary units respectively for diabetic subject compared to 0.277±0.0005 msec and 13.66±2.3 a.u respectively for non-diabetic subjects. In conclusion, this study support that arterial stiffness is increased in diabetes and can be detected early using PPG.
Neuro-Connectivity Analysis Using Abide Data in Autism Study
Human brain is an amazingly complex network. Aberrant activities in this network can lead to various neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and autism. fMRI has emerged as an important tool to delineate the neural networks affected by such diseases, particularly autism. In this paper, we propose mixed-effects models together with an appropriate procedure for controlling false discoveries to detect disrupted connectivities in whole brain studies. Results are illustrated with a large data set known as Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange or ABIDE which includes 361 subjects from 8 medical centers. We believe that our findings have addressed adequately the small sample inference problem, and thus are more reliable for therapeutic target for intervention. In addition, our result can be used for early detection of subjects who are at high risk of developing neurological disorders.
Simulation Model of Biosensor Based on Gold Nanoparticles
In this study COMSOL Multiphysics was used to design lateral flow biosensors (LFBs) which provide advantages in low cost, simplicity, rapidity, stability and portability thus making LFBs popular in biomedical, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This study was focused on simulation model of biosensor based on gold nanoparticles (GNPs) designed using software package (COMSOL Multiphysics), the magnitude of the laminar velocity field in the flow cell, concentration distribution in the analyte stream and surface coverage of adsorbed species and average fractional surface coverage of adsorbed analyte were discussed from the model and couples of suggestion was given in order to functionalize GNPs and to increase the accuracy of the biosensor design, all above were obtained acceptable results.
Estimation of Adult Patient Doses for Chest X-Ray Diagnostic Examinations in a Tertiary Instruction Health Centre
This study is on the estimation of adult patient doses for Chest X-ray diagnostic examinations of new admitted undergraduate students attending a tertiary institution health centre as part of their routine clearance and check up on admitted into the institution. A total of 531 newly admitted undergraduate students were recruited for this survey in the first quarter of 2016 (January to March, 2016). CALDOSE_X 5.0 software was used to compute the Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) and Effective Dose (ED); while the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0 was used to carry out the statistical analyses. The basic patients' data and exposure parameters required for the software are age, sex, examination type, projection posture, tube potential and current-time product. The mean Entrance Surface Dose and Effective Doses of the undergraduate students were calculated using the software, and the values were compared with existing literature and internationally established diagnostic reference levels. The mean ESD calculated is 0.29 mGy, and the mean effective dose is 0.04 mSv. The values of ESD and ED obtained are below the internationally established diagnostic reference levels, which could be attributed to good radiographic techniques employed during the chest X-ray procedure for these students.
Characterization of WNK2 Role on Glioma Cells Vesicular Traffic
Autophagy is a recycling and degradative system suggested to be a major cell death pathway in cancer cells. Autophagy pathway is interconnected with the endocytosis pathways sharing the same ultimate lysosomal destination. Lysosomes are crucial regulators of cell homeostasis, responsible to downregulate receptor signalling and turnover. It seems highly likely that derailed endocytosis can make major contributions to several hallmarks of cancer. WNK2, a member of the WNK (with-no-lysine [K]) subfamily of protein kinases, had been found downregulated by its promoter hypermethylation, and has been proposed to act as a specific tumour-suppressor gene in brain tumors. Although some contradictory studies indicated WNK2 as an autophagy modulator, its role in cancer cell death is largely unknown. There is also growing evidence for additional roles of WNK kinases in vesicular traffic. Aim: To evaluate the role of WNK2 in autophagy and endocytosis on glioma context. Methods: Wild-type (wt) A172 cells (WNK2 promoter-methylated), and A172 transfected either with an empty vector (Ev) or with a WNK2 expression vector, were used to assess the cellular basal capacities to promote autophagy, through western blot and flow-cytometry analysis. Additionally, we evaluated the effect of WNK2 on general endocytosis trafficking routes by immunofluorescence. Results: The re-expression of ectopic WNK2 did not interfere with autophagy-related protein light chain 3 (LC3-II) expression levels as well as did not promote mTOR signaling pathway alteration when compared with Ev or wt A172 cells. However, the restoration of WNK2 resulted in a marked increase (8 to 92,4%) of Acidic Vesicular Organelles formation (AVOs). Moreover, our results also suggest that WNK2 cells promotes delay in uptake and internalization rate of cholera toxin B and transferrin ligands. Conclusions: The restoration of WNK2 interferes in vesicular traffic during endocytosis pathway and increase AVOs formation. This results also suggest the role of WNK2 in growth factor receptor turnover related to cell growth and homeostasis and associates one more time, WNK2 silencing contribution in genesis of gliomas.
A Stepwise Approach for Piezoresistive Microcantilever Biosensor Optimization
Due to the low concentration of the analytes in biological samples, the use of Biological Microelectromechanical System (Bio-MEMS) biosensors for biomolecules detection results in a minuscule output signal that is not good enough for practical applications. In response to this, a need has arisen for an optimized biosensor capable of giving high output signal in response the detection of few analytes in the sample; the ultimate goal is being able to convert the attachment of a single biomolecule into a measurable quantity. For this purpose, MEMS microcantilevers based biosensors emerged as a promising sensing solution because it is simple, cheap, very sensitive and more importantly does not need analytes optical labeling (Label-free). Among the different microcantilever transducing techniques, piezoresistive based microcantilever biosensors became more prominent because it works well in liquid environments and has an integrated readout system. However, the design of piezoresistive microcantilevers is not a straightforward problem due to coupling between the design parameters, constraints, process conditions, and performance. It was found that the parameters that can be optimized to enhance the sensitivity of Piezoresistive microcantilever-based sensors are: cantilever dimensions, cantilever material, cantilever shape, piezoresistor material, piezoresistor doping level, piezoresistor dimensions, piezoresistor position, Stress Concentration Region's (SCR) shape and position. After a systematic analyzation of the effect of each design and process parameters on the sensitivity, a step-wise optimization approach was developed in which almost all these parameters were variated one at each step while fixing the others to get the maximum possible sensitivity at the end. At each step, the goal was to optimize the parameter in a way that it maximizes and concentrates the stress in the piezoresistor region for the same applied force thus get the higher sensitivity. Using this approach, an optimized sensor that has 73.5x times higher electrical sensitivity (ΔR⁄R) than the starting sensor was obtained. In addition to that, this piezoresistive microcantilever biosensor it is more sensitive than the other similar sensors previously reported in the open literature. The mechanical sensitivity of the final senior is -1.5×10-8 Ω/Ω ⁄pN; which means that for each 1pN (10-10 g) biomolecules attach to this biosensor; the piezoresistor resistivity will decrease by 1.5×10-8 Ω. Throughout this work COMSOL Multiphysics 5.0, a commercial Finite Element Analysis (FEA) tool, has been used to simulate the sensor performance.
Investigation of Surface Electromyograph Signal Acquired from the around Shoulder Muscles of Upper Limb Amputees
Surface electromyography is a strategy to measure the muscle activity of the skin. Sensors placed on the skin recognize the electrical current or signal generated by active muscles. A lot of the research has focussed on the detection of signal from upper limb amputee with activity of triceps and biceps muscles. The purpose of this study was to correlate phantom movement and sEMG activity in residual stump muscles of transhumeral amputee from the shoulder muscles. Eight non- amputee and seven right hand amputees were recruited for this study. sEMG data were collected for the trapezius, pectoralis and teres muscles for elevation, protraction and retraction of shoulder. Contrast between the amputees and non-amputees muscles action have been investigated. Subsequently, to investigate the impact of class separability for different motions of shoulder, analysis of variance for experimental recorded data was carried out. Results were analyzed to recognize different shoulder movements and represent a step towards the surface electromyography controlled system for amputees. Difference in F ratio (p < 0.05) values indicates the distinction in mean therefore these analysis helps to determine the independent motion. The identified signal would be used to design more accurate and efficient controllers for the upper-limb amputee for researchers.
Fatigue Test and Stress-Life Analysis of Nanocomposite-Based Bone Fixation Device
Durability assessment of nanocomposite-based bone fixation device was performed by flexural fatigue tests, for which the changes in the life cycles of nanocomposite samples synthesized by blending bioabsorbable polymer (PLGA) and ceramic nanoparticles (β-TCP) with different ratios were monitored. The nanocomposite samples were kept in a constant temperature/humidity chamber at 37°C/50%RH for varied incubation periods for the degradation of nanocomposite samples under the temperature/humidity stress. It was found that the life cycles were increasing as the incubation time in the chamber were increasing in the initial stage irrespective of sample compositions, which was due to the annealing effect of the polymer. However, the life cycle was getting shorter as the incubation time increased afterward, which was due to the overall degradation of nanocomposites. It was found that the life cycle of the nanocomposite sample with high ceramic content was shorter than the one with low ceramic content, which was attributed to the increased brittleness of the composite with high ceramic content. The changes in chemical properties were also monitored by FT-IR, which indicated that the degradation of the biodegradable polymer could be confirmed by the increased intensities of carboxyl groups and hydroxyl groups since the hydrolysis of ester bonds connecting two successive monomers yielded carboxyl end groups and hydroxyl groups.
Cadmium Telluride Quantum Dots (CdTe QDs)-Thymine Conjugate Based Fluorescence Biosensor for Sensitive Determination of Nucleobases/Nucleosides
The analysis of nucleobases is of great importance for bioscience since their abnormal concentration in body fluids suggests the deficiency and mutation of the immune system, and it is considered to be an important parameter for diagnosis of various diseases. The presented conjugate meets the need for development of the effective, selective and highly sensitive sensor for nucleobase/nucleoside detection. The novel, highly fluorescent cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) functionalized with thymine and stabilized with thioglycolic acid (TGA) conjugates has been developed and thoroughly characterized. Successful formation of the material was confirmed by elemental analysis, and UV–Vis fluorescence and FTIR spectroscopies. The crystalline structure of the obtained product was characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The composition of CdTe QDs and their thymine conjugate was also examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The size of the CdTe-thymine was 3-6 nm as demonstrated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging. The plasmon resonance fluorescence band at 540 nm on excitation at 351 nm was observed for these nanoparticles. The intensity of this band increased with the increase in the amount of conjugated thymine with no shift in its position. Based on the fluorescence measurements, it was found that the CdTe-thymine conjugate interacted efficiently and selectively not only with adenine, a nucleobase complementary to thymine, but also with nucleosides and adenine-containing modified nucleosides, i.e., 5′-deoxy-5′-(methylthio)adenosine (MTA) and 2’-O-methyladenosine, the urinary tumor markers which allow monitoring of the disease progression. The applicability of the CdTe-thymine sensor for the real sample analysis was also investigated in simulated urine conditions. High sensitivity and selectivity of CdTe-thymine fluorescence towards adenine, adenosine and modified adenosine suggest that obtained conjugate can be potentially useful for development of the biosensor for complementary nucleobase/nucleoside detection.
Development of an Optimization Method for Myoelectric Signal Processing by Active Matrix Sensing in Robot Rehabilitation
Training by exoskeleton robot is drawing attention as a rehabilitation method for body paralysis seen in many cases, and there are many forms that assist with the myoelectric signal generated by exercise commands from the brain. Rehabilitation requires more frequent training, but it is one of the reasons that the technology is required for the identification of the myoelectric potential derivation site and attachment of the device is preventing the spread of paralysis.
In this research, we focus on improving the efficiency of gait training by exoskeleton type robots, improvement of myoelectric acquisition and analysis method using active matrix sensing method, and improvement of walking rehabilitation and walking by optimization of robot control.