Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 50278

Biomedical and Biological Engineering

675
87624
Biospiral-Detect to Distinguish PrP Multimers from Monomers
Abstract:
The multimerisation of proteins is a common feature of many cellular processes; however, it could also impair protein functions and/or be associated with the occurrence of diseases. Thus, development of a research tool monitoring the appearance/presence of multimeric protein forms has great importance for a variety of research fields. Such a tool is potentially applicable in the ante-mortem diagnosis of certain conformational diseases, such as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and Alzheimer’s disease. These conditions are accompanied by the appearance of aggregated protein multimers, present in low concentrations in various tissues. This detection is particularly relevant for TSE where the handling of tissues derived from affected individuals and of meat products of infected animals have become an enormous health concern. Here we demonstrate the potential of such a multimer detection approach in TSE by developing a facile approach. The Biospiral-Detect system resembles a traditional sandwich ELISA, except that the capturing antibody that is attached to a solid surface and the detecting antibody is directed against the same or overlapping epitopes. As a consequence, the capturing antibody shields the epitope on the captured monomer from reacting with the detecting antibody, therefore monomers are not detected. Thus, MDS is capable of detecting only protein multimers with high specificity. We developed an alternative system as well, where RNA aptamers were employed instead of monoclonal antibodies. In order to minimize degradation, the 3' and 5' ends of the aptamer contained deoxyribonucleotides and phosphorothioate linkages. When compared the monoclonal antibodies-based system with the aptamers-based one, the former proved to be superior. Thus all subsequent experiments were conducted by employing the Biospiral -Detect modified sandwich ELISA kit. Our approach showed an order of magnitude higher sensitivity toward mulimers than monomers suggesting that this approach may become a valuable diagnostic tool for conformational diseases that are accompanied by multimerization.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
674
86571
Multilayered Assembly of Gelatin on Nanofibrous Matrix for 3-D Cell Cultivation
Abstract:
Electrospinning is a versatile tool for fabricating nano-structured polymeric materials. Gelatin hydrogels are considered to be a good material for cell cultivation because of high water swellability as well as good biocompatibility. Three-dimensional (3-D) cell cultivation is a desirable method of cell cultivation for preparing tissues and organs because cell-to-cell interactions or cell-to-matrix interactions can be much enhanced through this approach. For this reason, hydrogels were widely employed as tissue scaffolds because they can support cultivating cells and tissue in multi-dimensions. Major disadvantages of hydrogel-based cell cultivation include low mechanical properties, lack of topography, which should be enhanced for successful tissue engineering. Herein we surface-immobilized gelatin on the surface of nanofibrous matrix for 3-D cell cultivation in topographical cues added environments. Electrospun nanofibers were electrospun with injection of poly(caprolactone) through a single nozzle syringe. Electrospun meshes were then chopped up with a high speed grinder to fine powders. This was hydrolyzed in optimized concentration of sodium hydroxide solution from 1 to 6 hours and harvested by centrifugation. The freeze-dried powders were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for revealing the morphology and fibrilar shaped with a length of ca. 20um was observed. This was subsequently immersed in gelatin solution for surface-coating of gelatin, where the process repeated up to 10 times for obtaining desirable coating of gelatin on the surface. Gelatin-coated nanofibrils showed high waterswellability in comparison to the unmodified nanofibrils, and this enabled good dispersion properties of the modified nanofibrils in aqueous phase. The degree of water-swellability was increased as the coating numbers of gelatin increased, however, it did not any meaning result after 10 times of gelatin coating process. Thus, by adjusting the gelatin coating times, we could successfully control the degree of hydrophilicity and water-swellability of nanofibrils.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
673
85545
Amino Acid Based Biodegradable Amphiphilic Polymers and Micelles Made from Them as Drug Delivery Systems: Synthesis and Study
Abstract:
Nanotherapy is an actual newest mode of treatment numerous diseases using nano-size particles (NPs) loading with different pharmaceuticals. NPs of biodegradable polymeric micelles (PMs) are gaining increased attention for their numerous and attractive abilities to be used in a variety of applications in the various fields of medicine. The present paper deals with the synthesis of a new class of biodegradable micelle-forming polymers, namely ABA triblock-copolymer in which A-blocks represent amino-poly(ethylene glycol) (H₂N-PEG) and B-block is biodegradable amino acid-based poly(ester amide) constituted of α-amino acid: L-phenylalanine. The obtained copolymer formed micelles of 70 ± 4 nm size at 10mg/mL concentration.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
672
84311
Biomimetic Luminescent Textile Using Biobased Products
Abstract:
Various organisms involve bioluminescence for their particular biological function. The bio-based molecules responsible for bioluminescence vary from one species to another, research has been done to identify the chemistry and different mechanisms involved in light production in living organisms. The light emitting chemical systems such as firefly and bacterial luminous mostly involves enzyme-catalyzed reactions and is widely used for ATP measurement, bioluminescence imaging, environmental biosensors etc. Our strategy is to design bioluminescent textiles using such bioluminescent systems. Hence, a detailed literature work was carried out to study on how to mimic bioluminescence effect seen in nature. Reaction mechanisms in various bioluminescent living organisms were studied and the components or molecules responsible for luminescence were identified. However, the challenge is to obtain the same effect on textiles by immobilizing enzymes responsible for light creation. Another challenge is also to regenerate substrates involved in the reaction system to create a longer lasting illumination in bioluminescent textiles. Natural film-forming polymers were used to immobilize the reactive components including enzymes on textile materials to design a biomimetic luminescent textile.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
671
82785
Finite Element Simulation for Preliminary Study on Microorganism Detection System
Abstract:
A microorganism detection system has a potential to be used with the advancement in a biosensor development. The detection system requires an optical sensing system, microfluidic device and biological reagent. Although, the biosensors are available in the market, a label free and a lab-on-chip approach will promote a flexible solution. As a preliminary study of microorganism detection, three mechanisms such as Total Internal Reflection (TIR), Micro Fluidic Channel (MFC) and magnetic-electric field propagation were study and simulated. The objective are to identify the TIR angle, MFC parabolic flow and the wavelength for the microorganism detection. The simulation result indicates that evanescent wave is achieved when TIR angle > 42°, the corner and centre of a parabolic velocity are 0.02 m/s and 0.06 m/s respectively, and a higher energy distribution of a perfect electromagnetic scattering with dipole resonance radiation occurs at 500 nm. This simulation is beneficial to determine the components of the microorganism detection system that does not rely on classical microbiological, immunological and genetic methods which are laborious, time-consuming procedures and confined to specialized laboratories with expensive instrumentation equipment.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
670
82186
Improvement of an Arm and Shoulder Exoskeleton Using Gyro Sensor
Authors:
Abstract:
The developed exoskeleton device has to control joints between shoulder and arm. Exoskeleton device can help patients with hemiplegia upper so that the patient can help themselves in their daily life. Exoskeleton device includes a robot arm wear that looks like the movement is similar to the normal arm. Exoskeleton arm is powered by the motor through the cable with a control system that developed to control the movement of the joint of a robot arm. The arm will include the shoulder, the elbow, and the wrist. The control system is used Arduino Mega 2560 controller and the operation of the DC motor through the relay module. The control system can be divided into two modes such as the manual control with the joystick mode and automatically control with the movement of the head by Gyro sensor. The controller is also designed to move between the shoulder and the arm movement from their original location. Results have shown that the controller gave the best performance and all movements can be controlled.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
669
81740
Mesoporous Nanocomposites for Sustained Release Applications
Abstract:
Our present work is related to the synthesis, characterization and applications of new nanocomposite materials based on silica mesoporous nanocompozites systems. The nanocomposite support was obtained by using a specific step–by–step multilayer structure buildup synthetic route, characterized by XRD (X-Ray Difraction), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), FT-IR (Fourier Transform-Infra Red Spectrometry), BET (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method) and loaded with Salvia officinalis plant extract obtained by a hydro-alcoholic extraction route. The sustained release of the target compounds was studied by a modified LC method, proving low release profiles, as expected for the high specific surface area support. The obtained results were further correlated with the in vitro / in vivo behavior of the nanocomposite material and recommending the silica mesoporous nanocomposites as good candidates for biomedical applications. Acknowledgements: This study has been funded by the Research Project PN-III-P2-2.1-PTE-2016-0160, 49-PTE / 2016 (PROZECHIMED) and Project Number PN-III-P4-ID-PCE-2016-0884 / 2017.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
668
81658
Design of Liquid Crystal Based Interface to Study the Interaction of Gram Negative Bacterial Endotoxin with Milk Protein Lactoferrin
Abstract:
Milk protein lactoferrin (Lf) exhibits potent antibacterial activity due to its interaction with Gram-negative bacterial cell membrane component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This paper represents fabrication of new Liquid crystals (LCs) based biosensors to explore the interaction between Lf and LPS. LPS self-assembled at aqueous/LCs interface and orients interfacial nematic 4-cyano-4’- pentylbiphenyl (5CB) LCs in a homeotropic fashion (exhibiting dark optical image under polarized optical microscope). Interestingly, on the exposure of Lf on LPS decorated aqueous/LCs interface, an optical image of LCs changed from dark to bright indicating an ordering alteration of interfacial LCs from homeotropic to tilted/planar state. The ordering transition reflects strong binding between Lf and interfacial LPS that, in turn, perturbs the orientation of LCs. With the help of epifluorescence microscopy, we further affirmed the interfacial LPS-Lf binding event by imaging the presence of FITC tagged Lf at the LPS laden aqueous/LCs interface. Finally, we have investigated the conformational behavior of Lf in solution as well as in the presence of LPS using Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and further reconfirmed with Vibrational Circular Dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy where we found that Lf undergoes alpha-helix to random coil-like structure in the presence of LPS. As a whole the entire results described in this paper establish a robust approach to envisage the interaction between LPS and Lf through the ordering transitions of LCs at aqueous/LCs interface.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
667
80807
Hybrid Polymer Microfluidic Platform for Studying Endothelial Cell Response to Micro Mechanical Environment
Abstract:
Endothelial cells respond to cues from both biochemical as well as micro mechanical environment. Significant effort has been directed to understand the effects of biochemical signaling, however, relatively little is known about regulation of endothelial cell biology by the micro mechanical environment. Numerous studies have been performed to understand how physical forces regulate endothelial cell behavior. In this regard, past studies have majorly focused on exploring how fluid shear stress governs endothelial cell behavior. Parallel plate flow chambers and rectangular microchannels are routinely employed for applying fluid shear force on endothelial cells. However, these studies fall short in mimicking the in vivo like micro environment from topological aspects. Few studies have only used circular microchannels to replicate in vivo like condition. Seldom efforts have been directed to elucidate the combined effect of topology, substrate rigidity and fluid shear stress on endothelial cell response. In this regard, we demonstrate a facile fabrication process to develop a hybrid polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic platform to study endothelial cell biology. On a single chip microchannels with different cross sections i.e., circular, rectangular and square have been fabricated. In addition, our fabrication approach allows variation in the substrate rigidity along the channel length. Two different variants of polydimethylsiloxane, namely Sylgard 184 and Sylgard 527, were utilized to achieve the variation in rigidity. Moreover, our approach also enables in creating Y bifurcation circular microchannels. Our microfluidic platform thus facilitates for conducting studies pertaining to endothelial cell morphology with respect to change in topology, substrate rigidity and fluid flow on a single chip. The hybrid platform was tested by culturing Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells in circular microchannels with varying substrate rigidity, and exposed to fluid shear stress of 12 dynes/cm² and static conditions. Results indicate the cell area response to flow induced shear stress was governed by the underlying substrate mechanics.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
666
80754
Electrophoretic Light Scattering Based on Total Internal Reflection as a Promising Diagnostic Method
Abstract:
The development of pathological processes, such as cardiovascular and oncological diseases, are accompanied by changes in molecular parameters in cells, tissues, and serum. The study of the behavior of protein molecules in solutions is of primarily importance for diagnosis of such diseases. Various physical and chemical methods are used to study molecular systems. With the advent of the laser and advances in electronics, optical methods, such as scanning electron microscopy, sedimentation analysis, nephelometry, static and dynamic light scattering, have become the most universal, informative and accurate tools for estimating the parameters of nanoscale objects. The electrophoretic light scattering is the most effective technique. It has a high potential in the study of biological solutions and their properties. This technique allows one to investigate the processes of aggregation and dissociation of different macromolecules and obtain information on their shapes, sizes and molecular weights. Electrophoretic light scattering is an analytical method for registration of the motion of microscopic particles under the influence of an electric field by means of quasi-elastic light scattering in a homogeneous solution with a subsequent registration of the spectral or correlation characteristics of the light scattered from a moving object. We modified the technique by using the regime of total internal reflection with the aim of increasing its sensitivity and reducing the volume of the sample to be investigated, which opens the prospects of automating simultaneous multiparameter measurements. In addition, the method of total internal reflection allows one to study biological fluids on the level of single molecules, which also makes it possible to increase the sensitivity and the informativeness of the results because the data obtained from an individual molecule is not averaged over an ensemble, which is important in the study of bimolecular fluids. To our best knowledge the study of electrophoretic light scattering in the regime of total internal reflection is proposed for the first time, latex microspheres 1 μm in size were used as test objects. In this study, the total internal reflection regime was realized on a quartz prism where the free electrophoresis regime was set. A semiconductor laser with a wavelength of 655 nm was used as a radiation source, and the light scattering signal was registered by a pin-diode. Then the signal from a photodetector was transmitted to a digital oscilloscope and to a computer. The autocorrelation functions and the fast Fourier transform in the regime of Brownian motion and under the action of the field were calculated to obtain the parameters of the object investigated. The main result of the study was the dependence of the autocorrelation function on the concentration of microspheres and the applied field magnitude. The effect of heating became more pronounced with increasing sample concentrations and electric field. The results obtained in our study demonstrated the applicability of the method for the examination of liquid solutions, including biological fluids.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
665
80700
Scattering Operator and Spectral Clustering for Ultrasound Images: Application on Deep Venous Thrombi
Abstract:
Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a thrombus is formed within a deep vein (most often in the legs). This disease can be deadly if a part or the whole thrombus reaches the lung and causes a Pulmonary Embolism (PE). This disorder, often asymptomatic, has multifactorial causes: immobilization, surgery, pregnancy, age, cancers, and genetic variations. Our project aims to relate the thrombus epidemiology (origins, patient predispositions, PE) to its structure using ultrasound images. Ultrasonography and elastography were collected using Toshiba Aplio 500 at Brest Hospital. This manuscript compares two classification approaches: spectral clustering and scattering operator. The former is based on the graph and matrix theories while the latter cascades wavelet convolutions with nonlinear modulus and averaging operators.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
664
79856
Fabrication of Biosensor Based on Layered Double Hydroxide/Polypyrrole/Carbon Paste Electrode for Determination of Anti-Hypertensive and Prostatic Hyperplasia Drug Terazosin
Abstract:
New insights into the design of highly sensitive, carbon-based electrochemical sensors are presented in this work. This was achieved by exploring the interesting properties of conductive (Mg/Al) layered double hydroxide- Dodecyl Sulphate/Polypyrrole nanocomposites which were synthesized by in-situ polymerization of pyrrole during the assembly of (Mg/Al) layered double hydroxide, and by employing the anionic surfactant Dodecyl sulphate as a modifier. The morphology and surface area of the nanocomposites changed with the percentage of Pyrrole. Under optimal conditions, the modified carbon paste electrode successfully achieved detection limits of 0.057 and 0.134 nmol.L-1 of Terazosin hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulation and spiked human serum fluid, respectively. Moreover, the sensors are highly stable, reusable, and free from interference by other commonly present excipients in drug formulations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
663
79677
Wireless Based System for Continuous Electrocardiography Monitoring during Surgery
Abstract:
This paper presents a system designed for wireless acquisition, the recording of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals and the monitoring of the heart’s health during surgery. This wireless recording system allows us to visualize and monitor the state of the heart’s health during a surgery, even if the patient is moved from the operating theater to post anesthesia care unit. The acquired signal is transmitted via a Bluetooth unit to a PC where the data are displayed, stored and processed. To test the reliability of our system, a comparison between ECG signals processed by a conventional ECG monitoring system (Datex-Ohmeda) and by our wireless system is made. The comparison is based on the shape of the ECG signal, the duration of the QRS complex, the P and T waves, as well as the position of the ST segments with respect to the isoelectric line. The proposed system is presented and discussed. The results have confirmed that the use of Bluetooth during surgery does not affect the devices used and vice versa. Pre- and post-processing steps are briefly discussed. Experimental results are also provided.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
662
79114
Electrochemical Biosensor Based on Chitosan-Gold Nanoparticles, Carbon Nanotubes for Detection of Ovarian Cancer Biomarker
Abstract:
Ovarian cancer is one of the leading cause of mortality among the gynecological malignancies, and it remains the one of the most prevalent cancer in females worldwide. Tumor markers are biochemical molecules in blood or tissues which can indicates cancers occurrence in the human body. So, the sensitive and specific detection of cancer markers typically recruited for diagnosing and evaluating cancers. Recently extensive research efforts are underway to achieve a simple, inexpensive and accurate device for detection of cancer biomarkers. Compared with conventional immunoassay techniques, electrochemical immunosensors are of great interest, because they are specific, simple, inexpensive, easy to handling and miniaturization. Moreover, in the past decade nanotechnology has played a crucial role in the development of biosensors. In this study, a signal-off electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of CA125 antigen has been developed using chitosan-gold nanoparticles (CS-AuNP) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites. Toluidine blue (TB) is used as redox probe which is immobilized on the electrode surface. CS-AuNP is synthesized by a simple one step method that HAuCl4 is reduced by NH2 groups of chitosan. The CS-AuNP-MWCNT modified electrode has shown excellent electrochemical performance compared with bare Au electrode. MWCNTs and AuNPs increased electrochemical conductivity and accelerate electrons transfer between solution and electrode surface while excessive amine groups on chitosan lead to the effective loading of the biological material (CA125 antibody) and TB on the electrode surface. The electrochemical, immobilization and sensing properties CS-AuNP-MWCNT-TB modified electrodes are characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, differential pulse voltammetry and square wave voltammetry with Fe(CN)63−/4−as an electrochemical redox indicator.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
661
78955
Detection of Important Biological Elements in Drug-Drug Interaction Occurrence
Abstract:
Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are main cause of the adverse drug reactions and nature of the functional and molecular complexity of drugs behavior in human body make them hard to prevent and treat. With the aid of new technologies derived from mathematical and computational science the DDIs problems can be addressed with minimum cost and efforts. Market basket analysis is known as powerful method to identify co-occurrence of thing to discover patterns and frequency of the elements. In this research, we used market basket analysis to identify important bio-elements in DDIs occurrence. For this, we collected all known DDIs from DrugBank. The obtained data were analyzed by market basket analysis method. We investigated all drug-enzyme, drug-carrier, drug-transporter and drug-target associations. To determine the importance of the extracted bio-elements, extracted rules were evaluated in terms of confidence and support. Market basket analysis of the over 45,000 known DDIs reveals more than 300 important rules that can be used to identify DDIs, CYP 450 family were the most frequent shared bio-elements. We applied extracted rules over 2,000,000 unknown drug pairs that lead to discovery of more than 200,000 potential DDIs. Analysis of the underlying reason behind the DDI phenomena can help to predict and prevent DDI occurrence. Ranking of the extracted rules based on strangeness of them can be a supportive tool to predict the outcome of an unknown DDI.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
660
78748
Multi-Layer Perceptron and Radial Basis Function Neural Network Models for Classification of Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Using Video-Oculography Signals
Abstract:
Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes) is a disease based on insulin hormone disorders and causes high blood glucose. Clinical findings determine that diabetes can be diagnosed by electrophysiological signals obtained from the vital organs. 'Diabetic Retinopathy' is one of the most common eye diseases resulting on diabetes and it is the leading cause of vision loss due to structural alteration of the retinal layer vessels. In this study, features of horizontal and vertical Video-Oculography (VOG) signals have been used to classify non-proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy disease. Twenty-five features are acquired by using discrete wavelet transform with VOG signals which are taken from 21 subjects. Two models, based on multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function, are recommended in the diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy. The proposed models also can detect level of the disease. We show comparative classification performance of the proposed models. Our results show that proposed the RBF model (100%) results in better classification performance than the MLP model (94%).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
659
78071
The Validation of RadCalc for Clinical Use: An Independent Monitor Unit Verification Software
Authors:
Abstract:
In the matter of patient treatment planning quality assurance in 3D conformational therapy (3D-CRT) and volumetric arc therapy (VMAT or RapidArc), the independent monitor unit verification calculation (MUVC) is an indispensable part of the process. Concerning 3D-CRT treatment planning, the MUVC can be performed manually applying the standard ESTRO formalism. However, due to the complex shape and the amount of beams in advanced treatment planning technic such as RapidArc, the manual independent MUVC is inadequate. Therefore, commercially available software such as RadCalc can be used to perform the MUVC in complex treatment planning been. Indeed, RadCalc (version 6.3 LifeLine Inc.) uses a simplified Clarkson algorithm to compute the dose contribution for individual RapidArc fields to the isocenter. The purpose of this project is the validation of RadCalc in 3D-CRT and RapidArc for treatment planning dosimetry quality assurance at Antoine Lacassagne center (Nice, France). Firstly, the interfaces between RadCalc and our treatment planning systems (TPS) Isogray (version 4.2) and Eclipse (version13.6) were checked for data transfer accuracy. Secondly, we created test plans in both Isogray and Eclipse featuring open fields, wedges fields, and irregular MLC fields. These test plans were transferred from TPSs according to the radiotherapy protocol of DICOM RT to RadCalc and the linac via Mosaiq (version 2.5). Measurements were performed in water phantom using a PTW cylindrical semiflex ionisation chamber (0.3 cm³, 31010) and compared with the TPSs and RadCalc calculation. Finally, 30 3D-CRT plans and 40 RapidArc plans created with patients CT scan were recalculated using the CT scan of a solid PMMA water equivalent phantom for 3D-CRT and the Octavius II phantom (PTW) CT scan for RapidArc. Next, we measure the doses delivered into these phantoms for each plan with a 0.3 cm³ PTW 31010 cylindrical semiflex ionisation chamber (3D-CRT) and 0.015 cm³ PTW PinPoint ionisation chamber (Rapidarc). For our test plans, good agreements were found between calculation (RadCalc and TPSs) and measurement (mean: 1.3%; standard deviation: ± 0.8%). Regarding the patient plans, the measured doses were compared to the calculation in RadCalc and in our TPSs. Moreover, RadCalc calculations were compared to Isogray and Eclispse ones. Agreements better than (2.8%; ± 1.2%) were found between RadCalc and TPSs. As for the comparison between calculation and measurement the agreement for all of our plans was better than (2.3%; ± 1.1%). The independent MU verification calculation software RadCal has been validated for clinical use and for both 3D-CRT and RapidArc techniques. The perspective of this project includes the validation of RadCal for the Tomotherapy machine installed at centre Antoine Lacassagne.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
658
77939
Liver Regeneration of Small in situ Injury
Abstract:
Liver is the center of detoxification and exposed to toxic metabolites all the time. It is highly regenerative after injury, with the ability to restore even after 70% partial hepatectomy. Most of the previous studies were using hepatectomy as injury models for liver regeneration study. There is limited understanding of small-scale liver injury, which can be caused by either low dose drug consumption or hepatocyte routine metabolism. Although these small in situ injuries do not cause immediate symptoms, repeated injuries will lead to aberrant wound healing in liver. Therefore, the cellular dynamics during liver regeneration is critical for our understanding of liver regeneration mechanism. We aim to study the liver regeneration of small-scale in situ liver injury in transgenic mice labeling actin (Lifeact-GFP). Previous studies have been using sample sections and biopsies of liver, which lack real-time information. In order to trace every individual hepatocyte during the regeneration process, we have developed and optimized an intravital imaging system that allows in vivo imaging of mouse liver for consecutive 5 days, allowing real-time cellular tracking and quantification of hepatocytes. We used femtosecond-laser ablation to make controlled and repeatable liver injury model, which mimics the real-life small in situ liver injury. This injury model is the first case of its kind for in vivo study on liver. We found that small-scale in situ liver injury is repaired by the coordination of hypertrophy and migration of hepatocytes. Hypertrophy is only transient at initial phase, while migration is the main driving force to complete the regeneration process. From cellular aspect, Akt/mTOR pathway is activated immediately after injury, which leads to transient hepatocyte hypertrophy. From mechano-sensing aspect, the actin cable, formed at apical surface of wound proximal hepatocytes, provides mechanical tension for hepatocyte migration. This study provides important information on both chemical and mechanical signals that promote liver regeneration of small in situ injury. We conclude that hypertrophy and migration play a dominant role at different stages of liver regeneration.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
657
77356
A Sui Generis Technique to Detect Pathogens in Post-Partum Breast Milk Using Image Processing Techniques
Abstract:
Mother’s milk provides the most superior source of nutrition to a child. There is no other substitute to the mother’s milk. Postpartum secretions like breast milk can be analyzed on the go for testing the presence of any harmful pathogen before a mother can feed the child or donate the milk for the milk bank. Since breast feeding is one of the main causes for transmission of diseases to the newborn, it is mandatory to test the secretions. In this paper, we describe the detection of pathogens like E-coli, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Zika and Ebola virus through an innovative method, in which we are developing a unique chip for testing the mother’s milk sample. The chip will contain an antibody specific to the target pathogen that will show a color change if there are enough pathogens present in the fluid that will be considered dangerous. A smart-phone camera will then be acquiring the image of the strip and using various image processing techniques we will detect the color development due to antigen antibody interaction within 5 minutes, thereby not adding to any delay, before the newborn is fed or prior to the collection of the milk for the milk bank. If the target pathogen comes positive through this method, then the health care provider can provide adequate treatment to bring down the number of pathogens. This will reduce the postpartum related mortality and morbidity which arises due to feeding infectious breast milk to own child.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
656
77128
Effectiveness of Dry Needling on Pain and Pressure Point Threshold in Cervicogenic Headache
Abstract:
Headache disorders are one of the 10 most disabling conditions for men and women. Headache that originated from upper cervical spine and refereed to the one side of the head and/or face is known as cervicogenic headache (CH) which constitute15% to 20% among all the headaches. In our best knowledge manual therapy is often advocated for managing CH, but very little focus given on muscle system although it is a musculoskeletal disorder. In this study, 75 patients with CH were selected and divided into two groups Group A: Manual therapy and Group B: dry needling along with manual therapy group. Assessment was done using NPRS (0-10) for pain, wide spread pressure pain threshold using an algometer at the beginning and end of the study. There is a consistent reduction in pain and tenderness in both the group but significant improvement was shown in combined group. Outcome of the study has explored that the effectiveness of dry needling along with Mulligan is more beneficial in patients with cervicogenic headaches.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
655
77099
An Interpretable Data-Driven Approach for the Stratification of the Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Abstract:
The continued exploration of clinically relevant predictive models continues to be an important pursuit. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) portends clinical vital information and as such its accurate prediction is of high importance. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to develop a data-driven model, based on computational intelligence techniques and, in particular, clustering approaches, to predict CRF. Two prediction models were implemented and compared: 1) the traditional Wasserman/Hansen Equations; and 2) an interpretable clustering approach. Data used for this analysis were from the 'FRIEND - Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise: The National Data Base'; in the present study a subset of 10690 apparently healthy individuals were utilized. The accuracy of the models was performed through the computation of sensitivity, specificity, and geometric mean values. The results show the superiority of the clustering approach in the accurate estimation of CRF (i.e., maximal oxygen consumption).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
654
77055
Linking Excellence in Biomedical Knowledge and Computational Intelligence Research for Personalized Management of Cardiovascular Diseases within Personal Health Care
Abstract:
The main goal of LINK project is to join competences in intelligent processing in order to create a research ecosystem to address two central scientific and technical challenges for personal health care (PHC) deployment: i) how to merge clinical evidence knowledge in computational decision support systems for PHC management and ii) how to provide achieve personalized services, i.e., solutions adapted to the specific user needs and characteristics. The final goal of one of the work packages (WP2), designated Sustainable Linking and Synergies for Excellence, is the definition, implementation and coordination of the necessary activities to create and to strengthen durable links between the LiNK partners. This work focuses on the strategy that has been followed to achieve the definition of the Research Tracks (RT), which will support a set of actions to be pursued along the LiNK project. These include common research activities, knowledge transfer among the researchers of the consortium, and PhD student and post-doc co-advisement. Moreover, the RTs will establish the basis for the definition of concepts and their evolution to project proposals.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
653
76813
Trastuzumab Decorated Bioadhesive Nanoparticles for Targeted Breast Cancer Therapy
Abstract:
Brest cancer, up-regulated with human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER-2) led to the concept of developing HER-2 targeted anticancer therapeutics. Docetaxel-loaded D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate 1000 conjugated chitosan (TPGS-g-chitosan) nanoparticles were prepared with or without Trastuzumab decoration. The particle size and entrapment efficiency of conventional, non-targeted and targeted nanoparticles were found to be in the range of 126-186 nm and 74-78% respectively. In-vitro, MDA-MB-231 cells showed that docetaxel-loaded non-targeted and HER-2 receptor targeted TPGS-g-chitosan nanoparticles have enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity with a promising bioadhesion property, in comparison to conventional nanoparticles. The IC50 values of non-targeted and targeted nanoparticles from cytotoxic assay were found to be 43 and 223 folds higher than DocelTM. The in-vivo pharmacokinetic study showed 2.33, and 2.82-fold enhancement in relative bioavailability of docetaxel for non-targeted and HER-2 receptor targeted nanoparticles, respectively than DocelTM, and after i.v administration, non-targeted and targeted nanoparticle achieved 3.48 and 5.94 times prolonged half-life in comparison to DocelTM. The area under the curve (AUC), relative bioavailability (FR) and mean residence time (MRT) were found to be higher for non-targeted and targeted nanoparticles compared to DocelTM. Further, histopathology results of non-targeted and targeted nanoparticles showed less toxicity on vital organs such as lungs, liver, and kidney compared to DocelTM.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
652
76682
Investigating Role of Autophagy in Cispaltin Induced Stemness and Chemoresistance in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Abstract:
Background: Regardless of the development multimodal treatment strategies, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is often associated with a high rate of recurrence, metastasis and chemo- and radio- resistance. The present study inspected the relevance of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 expression as a putative stem cell compartment in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and deciphered the role of autophagy in regulating the expression of aforementioned proteins, stemness and chemoresistance. Methods: A retrospective analysis of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 expression with respect to the various clinicopathological factors of sixty OSCC patients were determined via immunohistochemistry. The correlation among CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 expression was established. Sphere formation assay, flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy were conducted to elucidate the stemness and chemoresistance nature of established cisplatin-resistant oral cancer cells (FaDu). The pattern of expression of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 in parental (FaDu-P) and resistant FaDu cells (FaDu-CDDP-R) were investigated through fluorescence microscopy. Western blot analysis of autophagy marker proteins was performed to compare the status of autophagy in parental and resistant FaDu cell. To investigate the role of autophagy in chemoresistance and stemness, sphere formation assay, immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis was performed post transfection with siATG14 and the level of expression of autophagic proteins, mitochondrial protein and stemness-associated proteins were analyzed. The statistical analysis was performed by GraphPad Prism 4.0 software. p-value was defined as follows: not significant (n.s.): p > 0.05;*: p ≤ 0.05; **: p ≤ 0.01; ***: p ≤ 0.001; ****: p ≤ 0.0001 were considered statistically significant. Results: In OSCC, high CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 expression were significantly correlated with higher tumor grades and poor differentiation. However, the expression of these proteins was not related to the age and sex of OSCC patients. Moreover, the expression of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 were positively correlated with each other. In vitro and OSCC tissue double labeling experiment data showed that CD44+ cells were highly associated with ABCB1 and ADAM17 expression. Further, FaDu-CDDP-R cells showed higher sphere forming capacity along with increased fraction of the CD44+ population and β-catenin expression FaDu-CDDP-R cells also showed accelerated expression of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17. A comparatively higher autophagic flux was observed in FaDu-CDDP-R against FaDu-P cells. The expression of mitochondrial proteins was noticeably reduced in resistant cells as compared to parental cells indicating the occurrence of autophagy-mediated mitochondrial degradation in oral cancer. Moreover, inhibition of autophagy was coupled with the decreased formation of orospheres suggesting autophagy-mediated stemness in oral cancer. Blockade of autophagy was also found to induce the restoration of mitochondrial proteins in FaDu-CDDP-R cells indicating the involvement of mitophagy in chemoresistance. Furthermore, a reduced expression of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 was also observed in ATG14 deficient cells FaDu-P and FaDu-CDDP-R cells. Conclusion: The CD44+ ⁄ABCB1+ ⁄ADAM17+ expression in OSCC might be associated with chemoresistance and a putative CSC compartment. Further, the present study highlights the contribution of mitophagy in chemoresistance and confirms the potential involvement of autophagic regulation in acquisition of stem-like characteristics in OSCC.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
651
76599
Methodology for Obtaining Static Alignment Model
Abstract:
In this paper, a methodology is presented to obtain the Static Alignment Model for any transtibial amputee person. The proposed methodology starts from experimental data collected on the Hospital Militar Central, Bogotá, Colombia. The effects of transtibial prosthesis malalignment on amputees were measured in terms of joint angles, center of pressure (COP) and weight distribution. Some statistical tools are used to obtain the model parameters. Mathematical predictive models of prosthetic alignment were created. The proposed models are validated in amputees and finding promising results for the prosthesis Static Alignment. Static alignment process is unique to each subject; nevertheless the proposed methodology can be used in each transtibial amputee.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
650
75884
Electrospun Alginate Nanofibers Containing Spirulina Extract Double-Layered with Polycaprolactone Nanofibers
Abstract:
Nanofibrous sheets are of interest in the beauty industries due to the properties of moisturizing, adhesion to skin and delivery of nutrient materials. The benefit and function of the cosmetic products should not be considered without safety thus a non-toxic manufacturing process is ideal when fabricating the products. In this study, we have developed cosmetic patches consisting of alginate and Spirulina extract, a marine resource which has antibacterial and antioxidant effects, without addition of harmful cross-linkers. The patches obtained their structural stabilities by layer-upon-layer electrospinning of an alginate layer on a formerly spread polycaprolactone (PCL) layer instead of crosslinking method. The morphological characteristics, release of Spirulina extract, water absorption, skin adhesiveness and cytotoxicity of the double-layered patches were assessed. The image of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the addition of Spirulina extract has made the fiber diameter of alginate layers thinner. Impregnation of Spirulina extract increased their hydrophilicity, moisture absorption ability and skin adhesive ability. In addition, wetting the pre-dried patches resulted in releasing the Spirulina extract within 30 min. The patches were detected to have no cytotoxicity in the human keratinocyte cell-based MTT assay, but rather showed increased cell viability. All the results indicate the bioactive and hydro-adhesive double-layered patches have an excellent applicability to bioproducts for personal skin care in the trend of ‘A mask pack a day’.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
649
75882
A Promising Thrombolytic and Anticoagulant Serine Protease Purified from Lug Worms Inhabiting Tidal Flats
Abstract:
Ischemic stroke means the caused brain damage due to neurological defects, occurring occlusion of cerebral vascular resulting in thrombus or embolism. t-PA (tissue Plasminogen Activator) is the only thrombolytic agent passed the FDA (Food and Drug Administration). However, t-PA directly dissolves the thrombus (direct activity) through fibrinolysis, showing side effects such as re-occlusion. In this study, we evaluated the thrombolytic activities of the serine protease extracted from lugworms inhabiting tidal flats. The new serine protease identified as 38 kDa by SDS-PAGE was not toxic to brain endothelial cells line (hCMEC/D3). Also, the plasmin synthesis inhibition activity (indirect activity) of the new serine protease was confirmed through fibrin zymography assay and fibrin plate assay. It was higher than direct activity as compared to u-PA (urokinase Plasminogen Activator). The activities were found to be maintained at a wide range of temperature (4-70 ℃) and pH 7-10 compared to previous thrombolytic agents from the azocasein assay. In addition, the new serine protease has shown anticoagulant activity from fibrinogenolytic activity assay. In conclusion, the serine protease in lug worms inhabiting the tidal flats could be considered a promising thrombolytic candidate for the treatment of ischemic stroke.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
648
75881
Chitosan Coated Liposome Incorporated Cyanobacterial Pigment for Nasal Administration in the Brain Stroke
Abstract:
When a thrombolysis agent is administered to treat ischemic stroke, excessive reactive oxygen species are generated due to a sudden provision of oxygen and occurs secondary damage cell necrosis. Thus, it is necessary to administrate adjuvant as well as thrombolysis agent to protect and reduce damaged tissue. As cerebral blood vessels have specific structure called blood-brain barrier (BBB), it is not easy to transfer substances from blood to tissue. Therefore, development of a drug carrier is required to increase drug delivery efficiency to brain tissue. In this study, cyanobacterial pigment from the blue-green algae known for having neuroprotective effect as well as antioxidant effect was nasally administrated for bypassing BBB. In order to deliver cyanobacterial pigment efficiently, the nano-sized liposome was used as a carrier. Liposomes were coated with a positive charge of chitosan since negative residues are present at the nasal mucosa the first gateway of nasal administration. Characteristics of liposome including morphology, size and zeta potential were analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and zeta analyzer. As a result of cytotoxic test, the liposomes were not harmful. Also, being administered a drug to the ischemic stroke animal model, we could confirm that the pharmacological effect of the pigment delivered by chitosan coated liposome was enhanced compared to that of non-coated liposome. Consequently, chitosan coated liposome could be considered as an optimized drug delivery system for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
647
75876
Effective Removal of Tetrodotoxin with Fiber Mat Containing Activated Charcoal
Abstract:
From 2013, small eel farms, which are located in Han River Estuary, South Korea suffer damage because of unknown massive perish. In the middle of discussion that the cause of perish could be environmental changes or waste water, a large amount of unknown nemertean was discovered during that time. Some nemerteans are known releasing neurotoxin substance. In this study, we isolated intestinal bacteria using selective media and conducted 16s rDNA microbial identification by gene alignment. As a result, there was a type of bacteria producing TTX, blocks sodium-channel inducing organism’s death. TTX production from the bacteria was confirmed by ELISA and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. Additionally, the activated-charcoal which has an ability to absorb small molecules like toxin was applied to fibrous mesh to prevent ingestion of aquatic organisms and increase applicable area. The viability of zebrafish in the water with TTX and charcoal fiber mat were not decreased meaning it could be used for solving the perishing problem in fish farm.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
646
75824
Iron(III)-Tosylate Doped PEDOT and PEG: A Nanoscale Conductivity Study of an Electrochemical System with Biosensing Applications
Abstract:
The addition of PEG of different molecular weights has important effects on the physical, electrical and electrochemical properties of iron(III)-tosylate doped PEDOT. This particular polymer can be easily spin coated over plastic discs, optimizing thickness and uniformity of the PEDOT-PEG films. The conductivity and morphological analysis of the hybrid PEDOT-PEG polymer by 4-point probe (4PP), 12-point probe (12PP), and conductive AFM (C-AFM) show strong effects of the PEG doping. Moreover, the conductive films kinetics at the nanoscale, in response to different bias voltages, change radically depending on the PEG molecular weight. The hybrid conductive films show also interesting electrochemical properties, making the PEDOT PEG doping appealing for biosensing applications both for EIS-based and amperometric affinity/catalytic biosensors.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):