Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 54437

Biotechnology and Bioengineering

605
96826
Metabolic Manipulation as a Strategy for Optimization of Biomass Productivity and Oil Content in the Microalgae Desmodesmus Sp.
Abstract:
The microalgae oil emerges as a promising source of raw material for many industrial applications. Thus, this study had as a main focus on the cultivation of the microalgae species Desmodesmus sp. in laboratory scale with a view to maximizing biomass production and triglyceride content in the lipid fraction. Initially, culture conditions were selected to optimize biomass production, which was subsequently subjected to nutritional stress by varying nitrate and phosphate concentrations in order to increase the content and productivity of fatty acids. The culture medium BOLD 3N, nitrate and phosphate, light intensity 250,500 and 1000 μmol photons.m².s⁻¹, photoperiod of 12:12 were evaluated. Under the best conditions of the tests, a maximum cell division of 1.13 div.dia⁻¹ was obtained on the sixth day of culture, beginning of the exponential phase, and a maximum concentration of 8.42x107 cell.mL⁻¹ and dry biomass of 3.49 gL⁻¹ on the 20th day, in the stationary phase. The lipid content in the first stage of culture was approximately 8% after 12 days and at the end of the culture in the stationary phase ranged from 12% to 16% (20 days). In the microalgae grown at 250 μmol fotons.m2.s-1 the fatty acid profile was mostly polyunsaturated (52%). The total of unsaturated fatty acids, identified in this species of microalga, reached values between 70 and 75%, being qualified for use in the food and pharmaceutical industry. In addition, this study showed that the cultivation conditions influenced mainly the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids, with the predominance of γ-linolenic acid. However, in the cultures submitted to the highest the intensity of light (1000 μmol photons.m².s⁻¹) and low concentrations of nitrate and phosphate, saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, which present greater oxidative stability, were identified mainly (60 to 70 %) being qualified for the production of biodiesel and for oleochemistry.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
604
96332
Hormones and Mineral Elements Associated with Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women in Eastern Slovakia
Abstract:
Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease that results in reduced quality of life, causes decreased bone strength, and changes in their microarchitecture. Mostly postmenopausal women are at risk. In our study, we measured anthropometric parameters of postmenopausal women (104 women of control group – CG and 105 women of osteoporotic group - OG) and determined TSH hormone levels and PTH as well as mineral elements - Ca, P, Mg and enzyme alkaline phosphatase. Through the correlation analysis in CG, we have found association based on age and BMI, P and Ca, as well as Mg and Ca; in OG we determined interdependence based on an association of age and BMI, age and Ca. Using the Student's t test, we found significantly important differences in biochemical parameters of Mg (p ˂ 0,001) and TSH (p ˂ 0,05) between CG and OG.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
603
96049
Association of miRNA146a rs2910164 Polymorphism and Helicobacter pylori Infection in Colorectal Cancer
Abstract:
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-step disease, and chronic gastric infection with H. pylori could play a role in one or more of the steps in this pathogenic process. Polymorphisms in several miRNAs are considered to increase the risk for the development of CRC by controlling proliferation, apoptosis and H. pylori pathogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate miRNA146a rs2910164 polymorphism and Helicobacter pylori infection in CRC. A total of 65 patients with CRC were divided into 2 groups: 28 patients < 50 years of age and 37 patients ≥ 50 years of age. DNA was extracted from all samples by a standard method and H. pylori cagA and miRNA146a rs2910164 genotypes were determined by PCR method. The results show that there was no significant difference in the frequency of H. pylori cagA gene between the two groups but there was a significant difference in the distribution of rs2910164 genotypes in patients < 50 years of age with the p-value of 0.05 and odds ratio equal to 2.69. On other hand, patients < 50 years of age with genotype CC of miRNA146a showed a significant difference in CRC risk. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between rs2910164 CC genotype with Helicobacter pylori infection in patients < 50 years of age. The present study suggests that the CC genotype of miRNA146a in combination with H. pylori infection can be effective as risk factors and molecular markers for early diagnosis and treatment of CRC.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
602
96000
Design and Fabrication of Optical Nanobiosensors for Detection of MicroRNAs Involved in Neurodegenerative Diseases
Authors:
Abstract:
MicroRNAs are a novel class of small RNAs which regulate gene expression by translational repression or degradation of messenger RNAs. To produce sensitive, simple and cost-effective assays for microRNAs, detection is in urgent demand due to important role of these biomolecules in progression of human disease such as Alzheimer’s, Multiple sclerosis, and some other neurodegenerative diseases. Herein, we report several novel, sensitive and specific microRNA nanobiosensors which were designed based on colorimetric and fluorescence detection of nanoparticles and hybridization chain reaction amplification as an enzyme-free amplification. These new strategies eliminate the need for enzymatic reactions, chemical changes, separation processes and sophisticated equipment whereas less limit of detection with most specify are acceptable. The important features of these methods are high sensitivity and specificity to differentiate between perfectly matched, mismatched and non-complementary target microRNAs and also decent response in the real sample analysis with blood plasma. These nanobiosensors can clinically be used not only for the early detection of neuro diseases but also for every sickness related to miRNAs by direct detection of the plasma microRNAs in real clinical samples, without a need for sample preparation, RNA extraction and/or amplification.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
601
95371
Production, Characterisation, and in vitro Degradation and Biocompatibility of a Solvent-Free Polylactic-Acid/Hydroxyapatite Composite for 3D-Printed Maxillofacial Bone-Regeneration Implants
Abstract:
The current gold-standard for maxillofacial reconstruction surgery (MRS) utilizes auto-grafted cancellous bone as a filler. This study was aimed towards developing a polylactic-acid/hydroxyapatite (PLA-HA) composite suitable for fused-deposition 3D printing. Functionalization of the polymer through the addition of HA was directed to promoting bone-regeneration properties so that the material can rival the performance of cancellous bone grafts in terms of bone-lesion repair. This kind of composite enables the production of MRS implants based off 3D-reconstructions from image studies – namely computed tomography – for anatomically-correct fitting. The present study encompassed in-vitro degradation and in-vitro biocompatibility profiling for 3D-printed PLA and PLA-HA composites. PLA filament (Verbatim Co.) and Captal S hydroxyapatite micro-scale HA powder (Plasma Biotal Ltd) were used to produce PLA-HA composites at 5, 10, and 20%-by-weight HA concentration. These were extruded into 3D-printing filament, and processed in a BFB-3000 3D-Printer (3D Systems Co.) into tensile specimens, and were mechanically challenged as per ASTM D638-03. Furthermore, tensile specimens were subjected to accelerated degradation in phosphate-buffered saline solution at 70°C for 23 days, as per ISO-10993-13-2010. This included monitoring of mass loss (through dry-weighing), crystallinity (through thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis), molecular weight (through gel-permeation chromatography), and tensile strength. In-vitro biocompatibility analysis included cell-viability and extracellular matrix deposition, which were performed both on flat surfaces and on 3D-constructs – both produced through 3D-printing. Discs of 1 cm in diameter and cubic 3D-meshes of 1 cm3 were 3D printed in PLA and PLA-HA composites (n = 6). The samples were seeded with 5000 MG-63 osteosarcoma-like cells, with cell viability extrapolated throughout 21 days via resazurin reduction assays. As evidence of osteogenicity, collagen and calcium deposition were indirectly estimated through Sirius Red staining and Alizarin Red staining respectively. Results have shown that 3D printed PLA loses structural integrity as early as the first day of accelerated degradation, which was significantly faster than the literature suggests. This was reflected in the loss of tensile strength down to untestable brittleness. During degradation, mass loss, molecular weight, and crystallinity behaved similarly to results found in similar studies for PLA. All composite versions and pure PLA were found to perform equivalent to tissue-culture plastic (TCP) in supporting the seeded-cell population. Significant differences (p = 0.05) were found on collagen deposition for higher HA concentrations, with composite samples performing better than pure PLA and TCP. Additionally, per-cell-calcium deposition on the 3D-meshes was significantly lower when comparing 3D-meshes to discs of the same material (p = 0.05). These results support the idea that 3D-printable PLA-HA composites are a viable resorbable material for artificial grafts for bone-regeneration. Degradation data suggests that 3D-printing of these materials – as opposed to other manufacturing methods – might result in faster resorption than currently-used PLA implants.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
600
95364
Effects of Obesity and Family History of Diabetes on the Association of Cholesterol Ester Transfer Protein Gene with High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Korean Population
Abstract:
Lipid levels are related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) gene is one of the candidate genes of cardiovascular diseases. A total of 2,304 persons were chosen from a Hospital (N=4,294) in South Korea. Female subjects with the CG/GG genotype had a 2.03 -fold (p=0.0001) higher risk of having abnormal HDL cholesterol levels (=25.69 (OR=1.55, 95% CI: 1.15-2.07, P=0.0037) than in male lean subjects. When analyzed by family history of diabetes, the association with CETP was much stronger in male subjects with positive family history of low physical activity (OR=4.82, 95% CI: 1.86-12.5, P=0.0012) than in male subjects with negative family history of diabetes. This study clearly demonstrates that genetic variants in CETP influence HDL cholesterol levels in Korean adults.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
599
95352
Establishment and Validation of Correlation Equations to Estimate Volumetric Oxygen Mass Transfer Coefficient (KLa) from Process Parameters in Stirred-Tank Bioreactors Using Response Surface Methodology
Abstract:
Process scale-up is essential for the biological process to increase production capacity from bench-scale bioreactors to either pilot or commercial production. Scale-up based on constant volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient (KLa) is mostly used as a scale-up factor since oxygen supply is one of the key limiting factors for cell growth. However, to estimate KLa of culture vessels operated with different conditions are time-consuming since it is considerably influenced by a lot of factors. To overcome the issue, this study aimed to establish correlation equations of KLa and operating parameters in 0.5 L and 5 L bioreactor employed with pitched-blade impeller and gas sparger. Temperature, gas flow rate, agitation speed, and impeller position were selected as process parameters and equations were created using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). In addition, the effects of these parameters on KLa were also investigated. Based on RSM, second-order polynomial models for 0.5 L and 5 L bioreactor were obtained with an acceptable determination coefficient (R²) as 0.9736 and 0.9190, respectively. These models were validated, and experimental values showed differences less than 10% from the predicted values. Moreover, RSM revealed that gas flow rate is the most significant parameter while temperature and agitation speed were also found to greatly affect the KLa in both bioreactors. Nevertheless, impeller position was shown to influence KLa in only 5L system. To sum up, these modeled correlations can be used to accurately predict KLa within the specified range of process parameters of two different sizes of bioreactors for further scale-up application.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
598
95345
Platform Development for Vero Cell Culture on Microcarriers Using Dissociation-Reassociation Method
Abstract:
Vero cell is a continuous cell line that is widely used for the production of viral vaccines. However, due to its adherent characteristic, scaling up strategy in large-scale production remains complicated and thus limited. Consequently, suspension-like Vero cell culture processes based on microcarriers have been introduced and employed while also providing increased surface area per volume unit. However, harvesting Vero cells from microcarriers is a huge challenge due to difficulties in cells detaching, lower recovery yield, time-consuming and dissociation agent carry-over. To overcome these problems, we developed a dissociation-association platform technology for detaching and re-attaching cells during subculturing from microcarriers to microcarriers, which will be conveniently applied to seed trains strategies in large scale bioreactors. Herein, Hillex-2 was used to culture Vero cells in serum-containing media using spinner flasks as a scale-down model. The overall confluency of cells on microcarriers was observed using inverted microscope, and the sample cells were daily detached in order to obtain the kinetics data. The metabolites consumption and by-products formation were determined by Nova Biomedical BioprofileFlex.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
597
95337
Optimization of Tangential Flow Filtration Process for Purifying DNA Vaccine
Abstract:
Nowadays, DNA vaccines become an interesting subject in the third vaccine generation. The platform of DNA vaccines production has been developed and its downstream process becomes challenging due to the quality of the products in terms of purity and percentage of supercoiled DNA. To overcome these challenges, tangential flow filtration (TFF), which is involved in the purification process, could be used since it provides effective separation of impurity prior to performing further purification steps. However, operating conditions of TFF is varied based on several factors such as sizes of target particle and impurities, a concentration of solution as well as a concentration polarization on the membrane surface. In this study, pVAX1/lacZ was used as a model of TFF optimization in order to prevent a concentration polarization that can lead to the membrane fouling and also minimize a diafiltration volume while maintaining the maximum permeate flux resulting in proper operating times and buffer volume. By using trans membrane pressure (TMP) excursion method, feed flow rates and TMP were varied. The results showed a correlation of permeate flux with TMP where the maximum volume concentration factor reached 2.5 times of the initial volume when feed flow rate and TMP were 7 liters/m²/min and 1 bar, respectively. It was optimal operating conditions before TFF system undergone pressure independent regime. In addition, the diafiltration volume was 14 times of the concentrated volume prior to performing a further anion chromatography process.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
596
95304
Process Development of pVAX1/lacZ Plasmid DNA Purification Using Design of Experiment
Abstract:
Third generation of vaccines is based on gene therapy where DNA is introduced into patients. The antigenic or therapeutic proteins encoded from transgenes DNA triggers an immune-response to counteract various diseases. Moreover, DNA vaccine offers the customization of its ability on protection and treatment with high stability. The production of DNA vaccines become of interest. According to USFDA guidance for industry, the recommended limits for impurities from host cell are lower than 1%, and the active conformation homogeneity supercoiled DNA, is more than 80%. Thus, the purification strategy using two-steps chromatography has been established and verified for its robustness. Herein, pVax1/lacZ, a pre-approved USFDA DNA vaccine backbone, was used and transformed into E. coli strain DH5α. Three purification process parameters including sample-loading flow rate, the salt concentration in washing and eluting buffer, were studied and the experiment was designed using response surface method with central composite face-centered (CCF) as a model. The designed range of selected parameters was 10% variation from the optimized set point as a safety factor. The purity in the percentage of supercoiled conformation obtained from each chromatography step, AIEX and HIC, were analyzed by HPLC. The response data were used to establish regression model and statistically analyzed followed by Monte Carlo simulation using SAS JMP. The results on the purity of the product obtained from AIEX and HIC are between 89.4 to 92.5% and 88.3 to 100.0%, respectively. Monte Carlo simulation showed that the pVAX1/lacZ purification process is robust with confidence intervals of 0.90 in range of 90.18-91.00% and 95.88-100.00%, for AIEX and HIC respectively.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
595
94798
A Scalable Model of Fair Socioeconomic Relations Based on Blockchain and Machine Learning Algorithms-1: On Hyperinteraction and Intuition
Abstract:
This series of interdisciplinary studies is an attempt to investigate and develop a scalable model of fair socioeconomic relations on the base of blockchain using positive psychology techniques and Machine Learning algorithms for data analytics. In this particular study, we use hyperinteraction approach and intuition to investigate their influence on 'wisdom of crowds' via created mobile application which was created for the purpose of this research. Along with the public blockchain and private Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO) which were elaborated by us on the base of Ethereum blockchain, a model of fair financial relations of members of DAO was developed. We developed a smart contract, so-called, Fair Price Protocol and use it for implementation of model. The data obtained from mobile application was analyzed by ML algorithms. A model was tested on football matches.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
594
94708
The Fracture Resistance of Zirconia Based Dental Crowns from Cyclic Loading: A Function of Relative Wear Depth
Abstract:
This in vitro study focused on investigating the fatigue resistance of veneered zirconia molar crowns with different veneering ceramic thicknesses, simulating the relative wear depths under simulated cyclic loading. A mandibular first molar was prepared and then scanned using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology to fabricate 32 zirconia copings of uniform 0.5 mm thickness. The manufactured copings then veneered with 1.5 mm, 1.0 mm, 0.5 mm, and 0.0 mm representing 0%, 33%, 66%, and 100% relative wear of a normal ceramic thickness of 1.5 mm. All samples were thermally aged to 6000 thermo-cycles for 2 minutes with distilled water between 5 ˚C and 55 ˚C. The samples subjected to cyclic fatigue and fracture testing using SD Mechatronik chewing simulator. These samples&nbsp;are&nbsp;loaded up to 1.25x10⁶ cycles or until they fail. During fatigue, testing, extensive cracks were observed in samples with 0.5 mm veneering layer thickness. Veneering layer thickness 1.5-mm group and 1.0-mm group were not different in terms of resisting loads necessary to cause an initial crack or final failure. All ceramic zirconia-based crown restorations with varying occlusal veneering layer thicknesses appeared to be fatigue resistant. Fracture load measurement for all tested groups before and after fatigue loading exceeded the clinical chewing forces in the posterior region. In general, the fracture loads increased after fatigue loading and with the increase in the thickness of the occlusal layering ceramic.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
593
94652
Optimization of the Production Processes of Biodiesel from a Locally Sourced Gossypium herbaceum and Moringa oleifera
Abstract:
This research project addresses the optimization of biodiesel production from gossypium herbaceum (cottonseed) and moringa oleifera seeds. Soxhlet extractor method using n-hexane for gossypium herbaceum (cottonseed) and ethanol for moringa oleifera were used for solvent extraction. 1250 ml of oil was realized from both gossypium herbaceum (cottonseed) and moringa oleifera seeds before characterization. In transesterification process, a 4-factor-3-level experiment was conducted using an optimal design of Response Surface Methodology. The effects of methanol/oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration (%), temperature (°C) and time (mins), on the yield of methyl ester for both cottonseed and moringa oleifera oils were determined. The design consisted of 25 experimental runs (5 lack of fit points, five replicate points, 0 additional center points and I optimality) and provided sufficient information to fit a second-degree polynomial model. The experimental results suggested that optimum conditions were as follows; cottonseed yield (96.231%), catalyst concentration (0.972%), temperature (55oC), time (60mins) and methanol/oil molar ratios (8/1) respectively while moringa oleifera optimum values were yield (80.811%), catalyst concentration (1.0%), temperature (54.7oC), time (30mins ) and methanol/oil molar ratios (8/1) respectively. This optimized conditions were validated with the actual biodiesel yield in experimental trials and literature.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
592
94378
The Molecular Mechanism of Vacuolar Function in Yeast Cell Homeostasis
Abstract:
Cell homeostasis is regulated by vacuolar activity and it has been shown that lipid composition of the vacuole plays an important role in vacuolar function. The major phosphoinositide species present in the vacuolar membrane include phosphatidylinositol 3,5-biphosphate (PI(3,5)P₂) which is generated from PI(3)P controlled by Fab1p. Deletion of FAB1 gene reduce the synthesis of PI(3,5)P₂ and thus result in enlarged or fragmented vacuoles, with neutral vacuolar pH due to reduced vacuolar H⁺-ATPase activity. These mutants also exhibited poor growth at high extracellular pH and in the presence of CaCl₂. Conversely, VPS34 regulates the synthesis of PI(3)P from phosphatidylinositol (PI), and the lack of Vps34p results in the reduction of vacuolar activity. Although the cellular observations are clear, it is still unknown about the molecular mechanism between the phospholipid biosynthesis pathway and vacuolar activity. Since both VPS34 and FAB1 are important in vacuolar activity, we hypothesize that the molecular mechanism of vacuolar function might be regulated by the transcriptional regulators of phospholipid biosynthesis. In this study, we study the role of the major phospholipid biosynthesis transcription factor, INO2, in the regulation of vacuolar activity. We first performed qRT-PCR to examine the effect of Ino2p on the expression of VPS34 and FAB1. Our results showed that VPS34 was upregulated in the presence of inositol for both WT and ino2Δ cells. However, FAB1 was only upregulated significantly in ino2Δ cells. This indicated that Ino2p might be the negative regulator for FAB1 expression. Next, growth sensitivity experiment showed that WT, vma3Δ, and ino2Δ grew well in growth medium buffered to pH 5.5 containing 10 mM CaCl₂. As cells were switched to growth medium buffered to pH 7 containing CaCl₂ WT, ino2Δ and opi1Δ showed growth reduction, whereas vma3Δ was completely nonviable. As the concentration of CaCl₂ was increased to 60 mM, ino2Δ cells showed moderate growth reduction compared to WT. This result suggests that ino2Δ cells have better vacuolar activity. Microscopic analysis and vacuolar acidification were employed to further elucidate the importance of INO2 in vacuolar homeostasis. Analysis of vacuolar morphology indicated that WT and vma3Δ cells displayed vacuoles that occupied a small area of the cell when grown in media buffered to pH 5.5. Whereas, ino2Δ displayed fragmented vacuoles. On the other hand, all strains grown in media buffered to pH 7, exhibited enlarged vacuoles that occupied most of the cell’s surface. This indicated that the presence of INO2 may play negative effect in vacuolar morphology when cells are grown in media buffered to pH 5.5. Furthermore, vacuolar acidification assay showed that only vma3Δ cells displayed notably less acidic vacuoles as cells were grown in media buffered to pH 5.5 and pH 7. Whereas, ino2Δ cells displayed more acidic pH compared to WT at pH7. Taken together, our results demonstrated the molecular mechanism of the vacuolar activity regulated by the phospholipid biosynthesis transcription factors Ino2p. Ino2p negatively regulates vacuolar activity through the expression of FAB1.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
591
94277
Impact of Nitrogenous Wastewater and Seawater Acidification on Algae
Abstract:
Oysters (Ostreidae) and hard clams (Meretrix lusoria) are important shallow sea-cultured shellfish in Taiwan, and are mainly farmed in Changhua, Yunlin, Chiayi and Tainan. As these shellfish are fed primarily on natural plankton, the artificial feed is not required, leading to high economic value in aquatic farming. However, in recent years, though mariculture production areas have expanded steadily, large-scale deaths of farmed shellfish have also become increasingly common due to climate change and human factors. Through studies over the past few years, our research team has determined the impact of nitrogen deprivation on growth and morphological variations in algae and sea anemones (Actiniaria) and identified the target genes affected by adverse environmental factors. In mariculture, high-density farming is commonly adopted, which results in elevated concentrations of nitrogenous waste in the water. In addition, excessive carbon dioxide from the atmosphere also dissolves in seawater, causing a steady decrease in the pH of seawater, leading to acidification. This study to observe the impact of high concentrations of nitrogen sources and carbon dioxide on algae.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
590
93585
Effects of Ophiocordyceps dipterigena BCC 2073 β-Glucan as a Prebiotic on the in vitro Growth of Probiotic and Pathogenic Bacteria
Abstract:
The β-glucan produced by Ophiocordyceps dipterigena BCC 2073 is a (1, 3)-β-D-glucan with highly branching O-6-linkedside chains that are resistant to acid hydrolysis (by hydrochloric acid and porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase). This β-glucan can be utilized as a prebiotic due to its advantageous structural and biological properties. The effects of using this β-glucan as the sole carbon source for the in vitro growth of two probiotic bacteria (L. acidophilus BCC 13938 and B. animalis ATCC 25527) were investigated. Compared with the effect of using 1% glucose or FOS as the sole carbon source, using 1% β-glucan for this purpose showed that this prebiotic supported and stimulated the growth of both types of probiotic bacteria and induced them to produce the highest levels of metabolites during their growth. The highest levels of lactic and acetic acid, 10.04 g·L⁻¹ and 2.82 g·L⁻¹, respectively, were observed at 2 h of cultivation using glucose as the sole carbon source. Furthermore, the fermentation broth obtained using 1% β-glucan as the sole carbon source had greater antibacterial activity against selected pathogenic bacteria (B. subtilis TISTR 008, E. coli TISTR 780, and S. typhimurium TISTR 292) than did the broths prepared using glucose or fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) as the sole carbon source. The fermentation broth obtained by growing L. acidophilus BCC 13938 in the presence of β-glucan inhibited the growth of B. subtilis TISTR 008 by more than 70% and inhibited the growth of both S. typhimurium TISTR 292 and E. coli TISTR 780 by more than 90%. In conclusion, O. dipterigena BCC 2073 is a potential source of a β-glucan prebiotic that could be used for commercial production in the near future.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
589
93479
Biomechanical Performance of the Synovial Capsule of the Glenohumeral Joint with a BANKART Lesion through Finite Element Analysis
Abstract:
Mechanical Computation is a great tool to study the performance of complex models. An example of it is the study of the human body structure. This paper took advantage of different types of software to make a 3D model of the glenohumeral joint and apply a finite element analysis. The main objective was to study the change in the biomechanical properties of the joint when it presents an injury. Specifically, a BANKART lesion, which consists in the detachment of the anteroinferior labrum from the glenoid. Stress and strain distribution of the soft tissues were the focus of this study. First, a 3D model was made of a joint without any pathology, as a control sample, using segmentation software for the bones with the support of medical imagery and a cadaveric model to represent the soft tissue. The joint was built to simulate a compression and external rotation test using CAD to prepare the model in the adequate position. When the healthy model was finished, it was submitted to a finite element analysis and the results were validated with experimental model data. With the validated model, it was sensitized to obtain the best mesh measurement. Finally, the geometry of the 3D model was changed to imitate a BANKART lesion. Then, the contact zone of the glenoid with the labrum was slightly separated simulating a tissue detachment. With this new geometry, the finite element analysis was applied again, and the results were compared with the control sample created initially. With the data gathered, this study can be used to improve understanding of the labrum tears. Nevertheless, it is important to remember that the computational analysis are approximations and the initial data was taken from an in vitro assay.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
588
92719
Improved Production, Purification and Characterization of Invertase from Penicillium lilacinum by Shaken Flask Technique of Submerged Fermentation
Authors:
Abstract:
Recent years researchers have been motivated towards extensive exploring of living organism, which could be utilized effectively in intense industrial conditions. The present study shows enhanced production, purification and characterization of industrial enzyme, invertase (Beta-D-fructofuranosidase) from Penicillium lilacinum. Various agricultural based by-products (cotton stalk, sunflower waste, rice husk, molasses and date syrup) were used as energy source. The highest amount of enzyme (13.05 Units/mL) was produced when the strain was cultured on growth medium containing date syrup as energy source. Yeast extract was used as nitrogen source after 96 h of incubation at incubation temperature of 40º C. Initial pH of medium was 8.0, inoculum size 6x10⁶ conidia and 200 rev/min agitation rate. The enzyme was also purified (7 folds than crude) and characterized. Molecular mass of purified enzyme (65 kDa) was determined by 10 % SDS-PAGE. Lineweaver-Burk Plot was used to determine Kinetic constants (Vmax 178.6 U/mL/min and Km 2.76 mM). Temperature and pH optima were 55º C and 5.5 respectively. MnCl₂ (52.9 %), MgSO₄ (48.9 %), BaCl₂ (24.6 %), MgCl₂ (9.6 %), CoCl₂ (5.7 %) and NaCl (4.2 %) enhanced the relative activity of enzyme and HgCl₂ (-92.8 %), CuSO₄ (-80.2 %) and CuCl₂ (-76.6 %) were proved inhibitors. The strain was showing enzyme activity even at extreme conditions of temperature (up to 60º C) and pH (up to 9), so it can be used in industries.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
587
92550
Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Sunflower Oil Using Central Composite Design
Abstract:
The current study investigated the effect of catalyst ratio and methanol to oil ratio on biodiesel production by using central composite design. Biodiesel was produced by transesterification using sodium hydroxide as a homogeneous catalyst, a laboratory scale reactor consisting of flat bottom flask mounts with a reflux condenser and a heating plate was used to produce biodiesel. Key parameters, including, time, temperature and mixing rate were kept constant at 60 minutes, 60 oC and 600 RPM, respectively. From the results obtained, it was observed that the biodiesel yield depends on catalyst ratio and methanol to oil ratio. The highest yield of 50.65% was obtained at catalyst ratio of 0.5 wt.% and methanol to oil mole ratio 10.5. The analysis of variances of biodiesel yield showed the R Squared value of 0.8387. A quadratic mathematical model was developed to predict the biodiesel yield in the specified parameters ranges.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
586
92107
Synthesis and Two-Photon Polymerization of a Cytocompatibility Tyramine Functionalized Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel That Mimics the Chemical, Mechanical, and Structural Characteristics of Spinal Cord Tissue
Abstract:
Regeneration of the spinal cord after injury remains a great challenge due to the complexity of this organ. Inflammation and gliosis at the injury site hinder the outgrowth of axons and hence prevent synaptic reconnection and reinnervation. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is the main component of the spinal cord extracellular matrix and plays a vital role in cell proliferation and axonal guidance. In this study, we have synthesized and characterized a photo-cross-linkable HA-tyramine (tyr) hydrogel from a chemical, mechanical, electrical, biological and structural perspective. From our experimentation, we have found that HA-tyr can be synthesized with controllable degrees of tyramine substitution using click chemistry. The complex modulus (G*) of HA-tyr can be tuned to mimic the mechanical properties of the native spinal cord via optimization of the photo-initiator concentration and UV exposure. We have examined the degree of tyramine-tyramine covalent bonding (polymerization) as a function of UV exposure and photo-initiator use via Photo and Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Both swelling and enzymatic degradation assays were conducted to examine the resilience of our 3D printed hydrogel constructs in-vitro. Using a femtosecond 780nm laser, the two-photon polymerization of HA-tyr hydrogel in the presence of riboflavin photoinitiator was optimized. A laser power of 50mW and scan speed of 30,000 μm/s produced high-resolution spatial patterning within the hydrogel with sustained mechanical integrity. Using dorsal root ganglion explants, the cytocompatibility of photo-crosslinked HA-tyr was assessed. Using potentiometry, the electrical conductivity of photo-crosslinked HA-tyr was assessed and compared to that of native spinal cord tissue as a function of frequency. In conclusion, we have developed a biocompatible hydrogel that can be used for photolithographic 3D printing to fabricate tissue engineered constructs for neural tissue regeneration applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
585
91315
Phylogenetic Analysis and a Review of the History of the Accidental Phytoplankter, Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin (Bacillariophyta)
Abstract:
The diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has been used as a model for cell biologists and ecologists for over a century. We have incorporated several new raphid pennates into a three-gene phylogenetic dataset (SSU, rbcL, psbC), and recover Gomphonemopsis sp. as sister to P. tricornutum with 100% BS support. This is the first time a close relative has been identified for P. tricornutum with robust statistical support. We test and reject a succession of hypotheses for other relatives. Our molecular data are statistically significantly incongruent with placement of either or both species among the Cymbellales, an order of diatoms with which both have been associated. We believe that further resolution of the phylogenetic position of P. tricornutum will rely more on increased taxon sampling than increased genetic sampling. Gomphonemopsis is a benthic diatom, and its phylogenetic relationship with P. tricornutum is congruent with the hypothesis that P. tricornutum is a benthic diatom with specific adaptations that lead to active recruitment into the plankton. We hypothesize that other benthic diatoms are likely to have similar adaptations and are not merely passively recruited into the plankton.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
584
90969
Effect of Core Puncture Diameter on Bio-Char Kiln Efficiency
Abstract:
Bio-char has been used as a soil amendment since it has high porous structure and has proper nutrients and chemical properties for plants. Bio-char kiln efficiency is dependent on process condition and physical characteristic of the biochar kiln. In this study, the slow pyrolysis process on bio-char kiln was therefore conducted aimed at determining the effect of core puncture diameter on bio-char kiln efficiency, i.e., yields of biochar and produced gas. Corncob was used as raw material to produce biochar. Briquette from agricultural wastes was used as fuel. Each treatment was performed by changing the core puncture diameter. From the experiment, it revealed that the yield of biochar at the core puncture diameter of 3.18 mm, 4.76 mm, and 6.35 mm was 10.42 wt. %, 24.01 wt. %, and 23.20 wt. %, respectively. The yield of produced gas increased with increasing the core puncture diameter. The maximum percentage by weight of the yield of produced gas was 81.56 wt. % which was found at the core puncture diameter of 6.35 mm. The core puncture diameter was furthermore found to affect the temperature distribution inside the kiln and its thermal efficiency. In conclusion, the high efficient bio-char kiln can be designed and constructed by using the proper core puncture diameter.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
583
90942
Effect of Coffee Grounds on Physical and Heating Value Properties of Sugarcane Bagasse Pellets
Abstract:
The objective of this research is to study the effect of coffee grounds on physical and heating value properties of sugarcane bagasse pellets. The coffee grounds were tested as an additive for pelletizing process of bagasse pellets. Pelletizing was performed using a Flat–die pellet mill machine. The moisture content of raw materials was controlled at 10-13%. Die temperature range during the process was 75-80 oC. Physical characteristics (bulk density and durability) of the bagasse pellet and pellets with 1-5% coffee ground were determined following the standard assigned by the Pellet Fuel Institute (PFI). The results revealed increasing values of 648±3.4, 659±3.1, 679±3.3 and 685± 3.1 kg/m³ (for pellet bulk density); and 98.7±0.11, 99.2±0.26, 99.3±0.19 and 99.4± 0.07 % (for pellet durability), respectively. In addition, the heating values of the coffee ground supplemented pellets (15.9±1.16, 17.0±1.23 and 18.8±1.34 MJ/kg) were improved compared to the non-supplemented control (14.9±1.14 MJ/kg), respectively. The results indicated that both the bulk density and durability values of the bagasse pellets were increased with the increasing proportion of the coffee ground additive.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
582
90817
Genome-Wide Analysis of Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) Retrotransposons in Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
Abstract:
European or common rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) belongs to class Mammalia, order Lagomorpha of family Leporidae. They are distributed worldwide and are native to Europe (France, Spain and Portugal) and Africa (Morocco and Algeria). LTR retrotransposons are major Class I mobile genetic elements of eukaryotic genomes and play a crucial role in genome expansion, evolution and diversification. They were mostly annotated in various genomes by conventional approaches of homology searches, which restricted the annotation of novel elements. Present work involved de novo identification of LTR retrotransposons by LTR_FINDER in haploid genome of rabbit (2247.74 Mb) distributed in 22 chromosomes, of which 7,933 putative full-length or partial copies were identified containing 69.38 Mb of elements, accounting 3.08% of the genome. Highest copy numbers (731) were found on chromosome 7, followed by chromosome 12 (705), while the lowest copy numbers (27) were detected in chromosome 19 with no elements identified from chromosome 21 due to partially sequenced chromosome, unidentified nucleotides (N) and repeated simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The identified elements ranged in sizes from 1.2 - 25.8 Kb with average sizes between 2-10 Kb. Highest percentage (4.77%) of elements was found in chromosome 15, while lowest (0.55%) in chromosome 19. The most frequent tRNA type was Arginine present in majority of the elements. Based on gained results, it was estimated that rabbit exhibits 15,866 copies having 137.73 Mb of elements accounting 6.16% of diploid genome (44 chromosomes). Further molecular analyses will be helpful in chromosomal localization and distribution of these elements on chromosomes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
581
90719
Seed Priming Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for Germination and Emergence
Abstract:
In order to evaluate the effect of the different sources of salt on germination and early growth of five wheat cultivars (Katea, Bezostaja, Koksal-2000, Golia, Pehlivan) an experiment was conducted at the seed laboratory of the Uludag University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Field Crops in Bursa/Turkey. Seeds were applied in five different resources media (KCl % 2, KCl %4, KNO₃ %0,5, KH₂PO₄ %0,5, PEG %10) and distilled water as the control). The seed was fully immersed in priming media at a temperature of 24ᵒC for durations of 12 and 24hours. Six different agronomic characters (seed germination, stem length, stem weight, radicle length, fresh weight, dry weight) were measured in 7th days and 14th days. Maximum seed germination percentage of seven days are Pehlivan was observed when the seeds were applied by KH₂PO₄ and Katea by distilled water as a control. The most stem length and stem weight were obtained for seeds were applied by KH₂PO₄ %0,5 with Katea and Bezostja immersed in priming media at 12h intervals beginning 7d after planting. Seeds were applied KH₂PO₄ %0,5 media produced maximum radicle length by Koksal and dry weight by Katea. The freshest weight obtains in Katea by KNO₃ %0,5 immersed in priming media at 24h. The most germination percent, dry weight, stem length of fourteen days was observed in Katea which subjected to KH₂PO₄ %0,5 solution. The most radicle length was observed Katea and Koksal in media of KH₂PO₄ %0,5. The most stem length was obtained for seeds were applied by KH₂PO₄ %0,5 and KNO₃ with Katea and Bezostaja. When the applied chemicals and all days examined KH₂PO₄ %0,5 treatment in fourteen days and immersed for the duration of 24 hours had better effects than other medias, seven days treatments and 12hours immersed. As a result of this research, the best response of media for the wheat germination can be said that the KH₂PO₄ %0,5 immersed in priming media at 24h intervals beginning 14 days after planting.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
580
90168
Neuroprotective Effect of Vildagliptin against Cerebral Ischemia in Rats
Abstract:
The burden of stroke is intensely increasing worldwide. Brain injury following transient or permanent focal cerebral ischemia develops ischemic stroke as a consequence of a complex series of pathophysiological events. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible neuroprotective effect of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, independent on its insulinotropic properties in non-diabetic rats subjected to cerebral ischemia. Anaesthetized Wistar rats were subjected to either left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or sham operation followed by reperfusion after 30 min of MCAO. The other three groups were orally administered vildagliptin at 3 dose levels (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg) for 3 successive weeks before subjected to left focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and till the end of the study. Neurological deficit scores and motor activity were assessed 24h following reperfusion. 48h following reperfusion, rats were euthanized and their left brain hemispheres were harvested and used in the biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical investigations. Vildagliptin pretreatment improved neurological score deficit, locomotor activity and motor coordination in MCAO rats. Moreover, vildagliptin reduced malondialdehyde (MDA), elevated reduced glutathione (GSH), phosphotylinosital 3 kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated of protein kinase B (p-AKT), and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) brain contents in addition to reducing protein expression of caspase-3. Also, vildagliptin showed a dose-dependent attenuation in neuronal cell loss and histopathological alterations in MCAO rats. This study proves that vildagliptin exerted the neuroprotective effect in a dose-dependent manner as shown in amelioration of neuronal cell loss and histopathological damage in MCAO rats, which may be mediated by attenuating neuronal and motor deficits, it’s anti-oxidant property, activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and its anti-apoptotic effect.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
579
90029
Utilizing the RhlR/RhlI Quorum Sensing System to Express the ß-Galactosidase Reporter Gene by Using the N-Butanoyl Homoserine Lactone and N-Hexanoyl Homoserine Lactone
Abstract:
Quorum sensing is a phenomenon present in many gram-negative bacteria that allows bacterial communication and controlled expression of a large suite of genes through quorum sensing signals - N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). In order to investigate the ability of the rhlR/rhlI quorum sensing system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa to express the ß-Galactosidase reporter gene, an engineered E. coli strain EpHL02, was genetically engineered. This engineered E. coli strain EpHL02 responded to the presence of the N-butanoyl homoserine lactone and N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone to express the ß-Galactosidase reporter gene at a concentration limit of 5x10⁻⁸ M. This was also found to be comparable to AHLs extraction from Serratia marcescens H31. Moreover, we examined this ability of this engineered E. coli strain for respond of AHLs from extractions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC9027. The results demonstrated that the rhlR/rhlI quorum sensing system can express the ß-Galactosidase reporter gene by using the N-butanoyl homoserine lactone, N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone and AHLs from extractions of Serratia marcescens H31 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC9027 in the engineered E. coli strain EpHL02.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
578
89490
Antioxidant Face Mask from Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomea Batatas) with Oleum Cytrus
Abstract:
Facial mask is an important part of every beauty treatment because it will give a smooth and gentle effect on the face. This research is done to make edible film that will be applied for face mask. The main ingredient in making this edible film is purple sweet potato powder with the addition of glycerol as plasticizer. One of the ingredients in purple sweet potato is a flavonoid compound. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of increasing the amount of glycerol to flavonoids release and the effect on the physical properties and biological properties of edible film produced. The stages of this research are the making of edible film, then perform some analysis, among others, spectrophotometer UV-vis analysis to find out how many flavonoids can be released into facial skin, tensile strength and elongation of break analysis, biodegradability analysis, and microbiological analysis. The variation of edible film is the volume of glycerol that is 1 ml, 2 ml, 3 ml. The results of spectrophotometer UV-vis analysis showed that the most flavonoid release concentration is 20.33 ppm in the 2 ml glycerol variation. The best tensile strength value is 8,502 N, and the greatest elongation of break value is 14% in 1 ml glycerol variation. In the biodegradability test, the more volume of glycerol added the faster the edible film is degraded. The results of microbiological analysis showed that purple sweet potato extract has the ability to inhibit the growth of Propionibacterium acnes seen in the presence of inhibiting zone which is 18.9 mm.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
577
89448
Impact of Autoclave Sterilization of Gelatin on Endotoxin Level and Physical Properties Compared to Surfactant Purified Gelatins
Authors:
Abstract:
Introduction and Purpose: Endotoxins are found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria and have profound in vitro and in vivo responses. They can trigger strong immune responses and negatively affect various cellar activities particular cells expressing toll-like receptors. They are therefore unwanted contaminants of biomaterials sourced from natural raw materials, and their activity must be as low as possible. Collagen and gelatin are natural extracellular matrix components and have, due to their low allergenic potential, suitable biological properties, and tunable physical characteristics, high potential in biomedical applications. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of autoclave sterilization of gelatin on physical properties and endotoxin level compared to surfactant purified gelatin. Methods: Type A gelatin from Sigma-Aldrich (G1890) with endotoxin level of 35000 endotoxin units (EU) per gram gelatin and type A gelatins from Rousselot Gent with endotoxin activity of 30000 EU per gram were used. A 10 w/w% G1890 gelatin solution was autoclave sterilized during 30 minutes at 121°C and 1 bar over pressure. The physical properties and the endotoxin level of the sterilized G1890 gelatin were compared to a type A gelatin from Rousselot purified with Triton X100 surfactant. The Triton X100 was added to a concentration of 0.5 w/w% which is above the critical micellar concentration. The gelatin surfactant mixtures were kept for 30-45 minutes under constant stirring at 55-60°C. The Triton X100 was removed by active carbon filtration. The endotoxin levels of the gelatins were measured using the Endozyme recombinant factor C method from Hyglos GmbH (Germany). Results and Discussion: Autoclave sterilization significantly affect the physical properties of gelatin. Molecular weight of G1890 decreased from 140 to 50kDa, and gel strength decreased from 300 to 40g. The endotoxin level of the gelatin reduced after sterilization from 35000 EU/g to levels of 400-500 EU/g. These endotoxin levels are however still far above the upper endotoxin level of 0.05 EU/ml, which resembles 5 EU/g gelatin based on a 1% gelatin solution, to avoid cell proliferation alteration. Molecular weight and gel strength of Rousselot gelatin was not altered after Triton X100 purification and remained 150kDa and 300g respectively. The endotoxin levels of Triton X100 purified Rousselot gelatin was < 5EU/g gelatin. Conclusion: Autoclave sterilization of gelatin is, in comparison to Triton X100 purification, not efficient to inactivate endotoxin levels in gelatin to levels below the upper limit to avoid cell proliferation alteration. Autoclave sterilization gave a significant decrease in molecular weight and gel strength which makes autoclave sterilized gelatin, in comparison to Triton X100 purified gelatin, not suitable for 3D printing.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
576
89334
Enhanced Functional Production of a Crucial Biomolecule Human Serum Albumin in Escherichia coli
Authors:
Abstract:
Human Serum Albumin (HSA)- one of the most demanded therapeutic proteins with immense biotechnological applications- is a large multidomain protein containing 17 disulfide bonds. The current source of HSA is human blood plasma which is a limited and unsafe source. Thus, there exists an indispensable need to promote non-animal derived recombinant HSA (rHSA) production. Escherichia coli is one of the most convenient hosts which had contributed to the production of more than 30% of the FDA approved recombinant pharmaceuticals. It grows rapidly and reaches high cell density using inexpensive and simple substrates. E. coli derived recombinant products have more economic potential as fermentation processes are cheaper compared to the other expression hosts. The major bottleneck in exploiting E. coli as a host for a disulfide-rich multidomain protein is the formation of aggregates of overexpressed protein. The majority of the expressed HSA forms inclusion bodies (more than 90% of the total expressed rHSA) in the E. coli cytosol. Recovery of functional rHSA from inclusion bodies is not preferred because it is difficult to obtain a large multidomain disulfide bond rich protein like rHSA in its functional native form. Purification is tedious, time-consuming, laborious and expensive. Because of such limitations, the E. coli host system was neglected for rHSA production for the past few decades despite its numerous advantages. In the present work, we have exploited the capabilities of E. coli as a host for the enhanced functional production of rHSA (~60% of the total expressed rHSA in the soluble fraction). Parameters like intracellular environment, temperature, induction type, duration of induction, cell lysis conditions etc. which play an important role in enhancing the level of production of the desired protein in its native form in vivo have been optimized. We have studied the effect of assistance of different types of exogenously employed chaperone systems on the functional expression of rHSA in the E. coli host system. Different aspects of cell growth parameters during the production of rHSA in presence and absence of molecular chaperones in E. coli have also been studied. Upon overcoming the difficulties to produce functional rHSA in E. coli, it has been possible to produce significant levels of functional protein through engineering the biological system of protein folding in the cell, the E. coli-derived rHSA has been purified to homogeneity. Its detailed physicochemical characterization has been performed by monitoring its conformational properties, secondary and tertiary structure elements, surface properties, ligand binding properties, stability issues etc. These parameters of the recombinant protein have been compared with the naturally occurring protein from the human source. The outcome of the comparison reveals that the recombinant protein resembles exactly the same as the natural one. Hence, we propose that the E. coli-derived rHSA is an ideal biosimilar for human blood plasma-derived serum albumin. Therefore, in the present study, we have introduced and promoted the E. coli- derived rHSA as an alternative to the preparation from a human source, pHSA.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):