User Acceptance Criteria for Digital Libraries
The Internet and digital publication technologies have brought dramatic impacts on how people collect, organize, disseminate, access, store, and use information. More and more governments, schools, and organizations spent huge funds to develop digital libraries. A digital library can be regarded as a web extension of traditional physically libraries. People can search diverse publications, find out the position of knowledge resources, and borrow or buy publications through digital libraries. People can gain knowledge and students or employees can finish their reports by using digital libraries. Since the considerable funds and energy have been invested in implementing digital libraries, it is important to understand the evaluative criteria from the users’ viewpoint in order to enhance user acceptance. This study develops a list of user acceptance criteria for digital libraries. An initial criteria list was developed based on some previously validated instruments related to digital libraries. Data were collected from user experiences of digital libraries. The exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were adopted to purify the criteria list. The reliabilities and validities were tested. After validating the criteria list, a user survey was conducted to collect the comparative importance of criteria. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method was utilized to derive the importance of each criterion. The results of this study contribute to an e understanding of the criteria and relative importance that users evaluate for digital libraries.
A Study on the Relationship between Transaction Fairness, Social Capital, Supply Chain Integration and Sustainability: Focusing on Manufacturing Companies of South Korea
The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between transaction fairness, social capital, supply chain integration, and sustainability. Based on the previous studies, measurement items were determined by using SPSS 22, and exploratory factor analysis was performed, and again by using AMOS 21 confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis was performed by using study items that satisfy reliability, validity, and appropriateness of measurement model.
It has shown that transaction fairness has a (+) significant effect on social capital, social capital on supply chain integration, supply chain integration on economic sustainability and social sustainability, and has (+), but not significant effect on environmental sustainability. It has shown that supply chain integration has been proven to play a role as a parameter between social capital and economic and social sustainability, but not as a parameter between environmental sustainability. Through this study, it is suggested that clearly examining the relationship between fairness of trade, social capital, supply chain integration, and sustainability, maintaining fairness of the transaction make formation of social capital, and further integration of supply chain, and achieve sustainability of entire supply chain.
eTransformation Framework for the Cognitive Systems
Digital systems are in the cognitive wave of the eTransformations and are now extensively aimed at meeting the individuals’ demands, both those of customers requiring services and those of service providers. It is also apparent that successful future systems will not just simply open doors to the traditional owners/users to offer and receive services such as Uber for example does today, but will in the future require more customized and cognitively enabled infrastructures that will be responsive to the system user’s needs. To be able to identify what is required for such systems, this research reviews the historical and the current effects of the eTransformation process by studying: 1. eTransitions of company websites and mobile applications, 2. Emergence of new sheared economy business models as Uber and, 3. New requirements for demand driven, cognitive systems capable of learning and just in time decision making. Based on the analysis, this study proposes a Cognitive eTransformation Framework capable of guiding implementations of new responsive and user aware systems.
Resource Windfalls and the Victory of Distributive against Productive Policies
The huge popularity of distributive policies in many resource abundant countries coincided with the rise in oil and gas prices that started in 2004. Following the sharp recent price decrease, however, this popularity is becoming fragile and a tendency is increasing toward more productive policies. Using a theoretical model, this paper studies the optimal composition of public spending and demonstrates that, for sufficiently low amount of any exogenous revenue, e.g. resource revenue, investing all revenue in productive public goods is preferred by the voters. On the other hand, if resource revenue is sufficiently high, voters opt for more distributive policies as the amount of resource revenue increases. Furthermore, the initial productivity of the resource abundant economy plays an important role in determining the composition of public spending preferred by the individuals. If the initial level of productivity in a country is too low or too high, people may prefer distributive policies even for a low amount of resource revenue. Yet there is an important difference. Resource revenue eradicates the individuals' incentive to work in countries with low initial productivity while in highly productive countries, individuals always prefer to work.
[Keynote Speech]: Feature Selection and Predictive Modeling of Housing Data Using Random Forest
Predictive data analysis and modeling involving machine learning techniques become challenging in presence of too many explanatory variables or features. Presence of too many features in machine learning is known to not only cause algorithms to slow down, but they can also lead to decrease in model prediction accuracy. This study involves housing dataset with 79 quantitative and qualitative features that describe various aspects people consider while buying a new house. Boruta algorithm that supports feature selection using a wrapper approach build around random forest is used in this study. This feature selection process leads to 49 confirmed features which are then used for developing predictive random forest models. The study also explores five different data partitioning ratios and their impact on model accuracy are captured using coefficient of determination (r-square) and root mean square error (rsme).
Compensation Mechanism Applied to Eco-Tourism Development in China
With the rapid development eco-tourism resources exploitation, the conflict between economy development and ecological environment is increasingly prominent. The environmental protection laws, however, are lack of necessary legal support to use market mechanism and economic means to carry out ecological compensation and promote the environmental protection. In order to protect the sustainable utilization of eco-tourism resources and the benign development of the interests of various stakeholders, protection of ecological compensation balance should be put on schedule. The main role of institutional guarantee in eco-tourism resources' value compensation mechanism is to solve the question 'how to guarantee compensation'. The evaluation of the game model in this paper reveals that interest balance of stakeholders is an important cornerstone to obtain the sustainable development. The findings result in constructing a sustainable development pattern of eco- tourism industry based on tripartite game equilibrium among government, tourism enterprises and tourists. It is important that the social, economic and ecological environment should be harmonious development during the pursuit of eco-tourism growth.
Review of the Studies on Agility in Knowledge Management
Agility in Knowledge Management (AKM) tries to capture agility requirements and their respective answers within the framework of knowledge and learning for the organizations. Since it is rather a new construct, it is difficult to claim that it has been sufficiently discussed and analyzed in the practical and theoretical realms. Like the term ‘agile learning’ it is also commonly addressed in the software development and information technology fields and across the related areas where those technologies can be applied. The organizational perspective towards AKM, seems to need some more time to become scholarly mature. Nevertheless, in the literature one can come across some implicit usages of this term occasionally. This research is aimed to explore the conceptual background of agility in KM, re-conceptualize it and extend it to business applications with a special focus on e-business.
Overall Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment Inflows in Kenya
Empirical literature on the determinants of foreign direct investments (FDI) flows is extensive but controversial over some determinants of FDI in-flows in developing countries. The objective of this study therefore was to investigate the overall determinants of FDI inflows in Kenya. Dynamic macroeconomic theory and correlational study design provided theoretical framework for specification of a time series model. The study used data observed from 1970 to 2015 in World Development Indicators (WDI) data bank. The results show that annual growth rate of GDP, inflation rates and external debt as a proportion of GDP are significant determinants of FDI inflows in Kenya and are therefore important macroeconomic parameters for policy formulation for promotion of FDI inflows in Kenya.
Economic Assessment Methodology to Support Decisions for Transport Infrastructure Development
The decades after the end of the second War provide evidence that investments to new infrastructures are key drivers in strengthening the national economy and enhancing nation’s productivity, as it creates economic benefits and additional income. In national level, the assets portfolio is helping to enhance productivity and competitiveness through the funding of significant infrastructure projects and a comprehensive regulatory reform agenda. However, such a decision often must be made in environments that are much more fraught with uncertainty. The key question in such decisions is if the effects caused by the new infrastructure could be able to boost economic development on one hand, and create new jobs and activities on the other. This paper deals with the review of estimation of the mega transport infrastructure projects economic effects in economy.
Recursive Equilibria in a Bewley-Style Economy with Rich Information Structure
This paper proves the existence of recursive equilibria in stochastic economies with heterogeneous agents and incomplete financial markets. We assume a diffuse information structure, modeled as a super-atomless probability space. Agents face two types of uncertainty: the standard exogenous shock and the non-standard noise component. The exogenous shock follows a first order Markov process with a known transition probability. However, the measure space for the noise component is pinned down in equilibrium, i.e., in equilibrium both agents' choices and agents' beliefs about the uncertainty are coordinated. The state space in the recursive equilibrium is limited to the current shock and the beginning-of-period financial wealth. Thanks to the super-atomless probability space we obtain the convexity of the equilibrium payoff correspondence, and we use the Fan-Glicksberg fixed point theorem to get the existence.
Diversity and Intensity of International Technology Transfer and their Impacts on Organizational Performance
Under the environment of fierce competition and globalized economy, international technology collaboration has gained increasing attention as a way to improve innovation efficiency. While international technology transfer helps a firm to acquire necessary technology in a short period of time, it also has a risk; embedding external technology from overseas partners may cause a transaction cost due to the regional, cultural and language barriers, which tend to offset the benefits of such transfer. Though a number of previous studies have focused on the effects of technology in-transfer on firm performance, few have conducted in the context of international technology transfer. To fill this gap, this study aims to investigate the impact of international technology in-transfer on firm performance – both innovation and financial performance, with a particular emphasis on the diversity and intensity of such transfer. To do this, we adopted technology balance payment (TBP) data of Korean firms from 2010 to 2011, where an intermediate regression analysis was used to identify the intermediate effects of absorptive capacity. The analysis results indicate that i) the diversity and intensity of international technology transfer influence innovation performance by improving R&D capability positively; and ii) the diversity has a positive impact but the intensity has a negative impact on financial performance through the intermediation of R&D intensity. The research findings are expected to provide meaningful implications for establishing global technology strategy and developing policy programs to facilitate technology transfer.
Analyzing the Risk Based Approach in General Data Protection Regulation: Basic Challenges Connected with Adapting the Regulation
The adoption of the Regulation of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data (General Data Protection Regulation, GDPR) finished the four-year work of the European Commission in this area in European Union. Considering far-reaching changes, which will be applied by GDPR, European legislator envisaged two-year transitional period. Member states and companies have until 25 of May 2018 to prepare for new regulation. The idea, which becomes a new look at an attitude to data protection in European Union is a risk-based approach. So far, as a result of implementation of Directive 95/46/WE, in many European countries (including Poland) were adopted very particular regulations, specifying technical and organisational security measures e.g. polish implementing rules indicate even how long password should be. According to new approach from May 2018, controllers and processors will be obliged to applying security measures adequate to level of risk associated with specific data processing. The risk in GDPR should be interpreted as the likelihood of breach of the rights and freedoms of the data subject. According to Recital 76, The likelihood and severity of the risk to the rights and freedoms of the data subject should be determined by reference to the nature, scope, context and purposes of the processing. GDPR does not indicate security measures which should be applied – in recitals are only examples such as anonymization or encryption. It depends on controller’s decision what type of security measures he considered as sufficient and he will be responsible if these measures are not sufficient or if his identification of risk level is incorrect. Data protection regulation indicate few levels of risk. Recital 76 indicates risk and high risk, but some lawyers think, that there is one more category – low risk/now risk. Low risk/now risk data processing is situation when is unlikely to result in a risk to the rights and freedoms of natural persons. GDPR mentions types of data processing when controller do not have to evaluate level of risk because it has been classified as ‘high risk’ processing e.g. processing on a large scale of special categories of data, processing with using new technologies. The methodology will include analysis of legal regulations e.g. GDPR, the polish Act on the Protection of personal data. Moreover: ICO Guidelines and articles concerning risk-based approach in GDPR. The main conclusion is that appropriate risk assessment is a key to keeping data safe and avoid financial penalties. On the one hand this approach seems to be more equitable, not only for controllers or processors but also for data subjects, but on the other hand, it increases controllers’ uncertainties in the assessment which could have direct impact on incorrect data protection and potential responsibility for infringement of regulation.
Makerspaces as Centers of Innovation: An Assessment of the Impact of Technology Incubation Centers in Nigeria
The idea of knowledge sharing facilitated by the internet and complemented by a collaborative offline process in form of shared workshops called Makerspaces has become an attractive economic development agenda worldwide. Towards this end, Nigeria has established a number of Technology Incubation Centers (TICs) across the country with a view to using them as institutional mechanisms for commercializing Research and Development results; thus helping to promote venture creation and economic development. This study thus examines the impact of the nurturing by the TICs, on the performance of selected incubated enterprises that have grown into medium scale businesses in different sectors of the economy. The objective is to determine the extent to which the process of incubation has contributed to their growth in relation to similar businesses that developed outside the TICs. Six enterprises nurtured by TICs and six others outside, these were selected for the study. Data were collected in respect of the twelve enterprises covering their first five years of operation. Performances in terms of annual turnover, market share, and product range were analysed by scatter diagram plotted to show these variables against time and on comparative basis between TIC and non-TIC enterprises. Results showed an initial decline in performance for most of the incubatees in the first two years due to sluggish adjustment to withdrawal of subsidies enjoyed at the TICs. However, four of them were able to catch up with improved performance and surpass their non–TIC counterparts consistently from the third year. Analysis of year on year performance also showed average growth rate of 7% and 5 % respectively for TIC and non–TIC enterprises. The study, therefore, concludes that TICs have great role to play in nurturing new, innovative businesses but sees the need for government to address the provision of critical facilities especially electricity and utilities that constitute critical cost components for businesses. It must also address the issue of investment grants, loans including the development of technology/industrial parks that will serve to boost business survival.
Development of Mechanisms of Value Creation and Risk Management Organization in the Conditions of Transformation of Economy of Russia
This paper analyzes the features and key aspects of formation and development of risk management systems of the owner of the organization in the Russian economy. The relevance of this study is determined by the radical of changes which exist in the last 25 years in the Russian economy. The economic transformations which took place in Russia at the turn of XX-XXI centuries led to the formation of a class of owners’ associations. The process of interaction of the owner with control system owned by the organization is associated with a significant number of risks and threats. Risk management requires the formation of special systems and mechanisms for the participation of the owner in the process of their identification, analysis and evaluation. In modern conditions the owner of the organization is one of the participants of the management model of the enterprise, which is not directly operated business, and directs top management to the strategic objectives and monitor the situation, asking the landmark action taken by its management decision. New models of analysis, evaluation, organization, regulation and risk management are in the process of functioning of the organizations and entrepreneurs, business consultants and firms providing professional services. These entities control, directly and indirectly, create new control patterns, the owners 'risk, as they have a wide range of research practices, the emergence of different types of business threats, which allows them to redefine the strategic importance and value of formation and development of control systems owners' risk. Based on the analysis of problems of perfection of the architecture of control systems of owners ' risk in domestic and foreign management science, the authors offer their own interpretation of the main directions of this development. The problem of formation and development of the system of risk management and value creation of the organization in modern conditions is relevant not only for top managers and owners of private companies, but also for representatives of the highest levels of the national economy. New models of analysis, evaluation, organization, regulation, risk management and value creation companies are in the process of functioning of the organizations and entrepreneurs, business consultants and firms providing professional services. These entities of control, directly and indirectly, create new control patterns the owners 'risk and value creation of the organization, as they have a wide range of research practices. In the conditions emergence of different types of business threats, its allows to owners to define the strategic importance and direction of formation and development of systems of risk management and value creation of the organization. Based on the analysis of problems of perfection of the architecture of control systems owners ' risk and value creation of the organization in Russian and foreign management science, the authors offer their own interpretation of the main directions of this development.
Default-Implied Asset Correlation: Empirical Study for Moroccan Companies
The asset correlation is a key regulatory parameter in the calculation of the capital charge for credit risk under the second Basel agreement. This parameter has been set in a uniform manner for all banking institutions wishing to integrate the Basel framework. However, estimation of the asset correlation has not often been discussed, even though it substantially affects the estimates of the Unexpected Loss. Importantly, it is essential that financial institutions use the appropriate method and data to calculate the asset correlation in order to compute the Unexpected Loss accurately. In this work, we developed the theoretical framework for the calculation of the Default-Implied Asset Correlation. Using the developed model, we calculated the correlation of the assets that was decreasing according to the probability of default. By comparing our model with the Basel model, we found a significant difference on the asset correlation value and the regulatory capital coefficient. This resulted in a large Risk-Weighted Assets difference between our model and the Basel Framework.
The Limits of the Effectiveness of Digital Advertising: Demonstration by the Economic Approach of Measuring Advertising Effectiveness
In our article, we use the economic approach of measuring advertising effectiveness to show the margin of advertising spread gained through digital communication. For economists, profit maximization depends on determining the optimal advertising budget. For this, they use the theories of the marginalist current to determine when the maximum level of benefits is reached. Using the economic approach we show the significant return on investment for advertisers. We then discuss the risks of perception of advertising pressure by consumers.
A Markov Model for the Elderly Disability Transition and Related Factors in China
Background: As one of typical case for the developing countries who are stepping into the aging times globally, more and more older people in China might face the problem of which they could not maintain normal life due to the functional disability. While the government take efforts to build long-term care system and further carry out related policies for the core concept, there is still lack of strong evidence to evaluating the profile of disability states in the elderly population and its transition rate. It has been proved that disability is a dynamic condition of the person rather than irreversible so it means possible to intervene timely on them who might be in a risk of severe disability. Objective: The aim of this study was to depict the picture of the disability transferring status of the older people in China, and then find out individual characteristics that change the state of disability to provide theory basis for disability prevention and early intervention among elderly people. Methods: Data for this study came from the 2011 baseline survey and the 2013 follow-up survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Normal ADL function, 1~2 ADLs disability,3 or above ADLs disability and death were defined from state 1 to state 4. Multi-state Markov model was applied and the four-state homogeneous model with discrete states and discrete times from two visits follow-up data was constructed to explore factors for various progressive stages. We modeled the effect of explanatory variables on the rates of transition by using a proportional intensities model with covariate, such as gender. Result: In the total sample, state 2 constituent ratio is nearly about 17.0%, while state 3 proportion is blow the former, accounting for 8.5%. Moreover, ADL disability statistics difference is not obvious between two years. About half of the state 2 in 2011 improved to become normal in 2013 even though they get elder. However, state 3 transferred into the proportion of death increased obviously, closed to the proportion back to state 2 or normal functions. From the estimated intensities, we see the older people are eleven times as likely to develop at 1~2 ADLs disability than dying. After disability onset (state 2), progression to state 3 is 30% more likely than recovery. Once in state 3, a mean of 0.76 years is spent before death or recovery. In this model, a typical person in state 2 has a probability of 0.5 of disability-free one year from now while the moderate disabled or above has a probability of 0.14 being dead. Conclusion: On the long-term care cost considerations, preventive programs for delay the disability progression of the elderly could be adopted based on the current disabled state and main factors of each stage. And in general terms, those focusing elderly individuals who are moderate or above disabled should go first.
Modern Trends in Foreign Direct Investments in Georgia
Investment is a driving force behind interdependent national economies and the study and analysis of investments are important. It is also clear that, for the development and modernization of the economy of Georgia, foreign direct investments (FDI) opportunities should be best used and relevant environment should be established. This will be a prerequisite for the effectiveness of this process. Therefore, qualitative, as well as quantitative study of FDIs, characterizing their trends and future development is important. The methodology of the study is represented by the papers and works of the world's leading specialists and the experts of the specific problem, the researching materials by international and local scientific organizations, the analyses of the result of Georgia's economics innovative activity and its developing process study. The study uses the methods of statistical observation, grouping and analysis, the methods of analytical indicators of time series, trend identification and the predicted values are calculated. Thus the following has to be noted: Reforms and initiatives directed towards the improvement of investment climate, implemented since 2003, have had positive outcomes, as evidenced by international studies and assessments as well. Modern investment policy in Georgia is favorable for domestic as well as foreign investors. Georgia is still a net importer of investments. In 2006-2015 of FDI was characterized by the growth trend, highest FDI was in 2007, which is 69.3% higher as compared to previous year data. In 2015 share of FDI by three major foreign direct investor countries allocated as follows: Azerbaijan, United Kingdom and Netherlands. in 2015. The largest share of FDI was allocated in transports and communications sector, the financial sector was the second, the followed by the Health and social work sector.
The Impact of Informal Care on Health Behavior among Older People with Chronic Diseases: A Study in China Using Propensity Score Matching
Improvement of health behavior among people with chronic diseases is vital for increasing longevity and enhancing quality of life. This paper researched the causal effects of informal care on the compliance with doctor’s health advices – smoking control, dietetic regulation, weight control and keep exercising – among older people with chronic diseases in China, which is facing the challenge of aging. We addressed the selection bias by using propensity score matching in the estimation process. We used the 2011-2012 national baseline data of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Our results showed informal care can help improve health behavior of older people. First, informal care improved the compliance of smoking controls: whether smoke, frequency of smoking, and the time lag between wake up and the first cigarette was all lower for these older people with informal care; Second, for dietetic regulation, older people with informal care had more meals every day than older people without informal care; Third, three variables: BMI, whether gain weight and whether lose weight were used to measure the outcome of weight control. There were no significant difference between group with informal care and that without for BMI and the possibility of losing weight. Older people with informal care had lower possibility of gain weight than that without; Last, for the advice of keeping exercising, informal care increased the probability of walking exercise, however, the difference between groups for moderate and vigorous exercise were not significant. Our results indicate policy makers who aim to decrease accidents should take informal care to elders into account and provide an appropriate policy to meet the demand of informal care. Our birth policy and postponed retirement policy may decrease the informal caregiving hours, so adjustments of these policies are important and urgent to meet the current situation of aged tendency of population. In addition, government could give more support to develop organizations to provide formal care, such as nursing home. We infer that formal care is also useful for health behavior improvements.
Casual Effects of Informal Care and Health on Falls and Other Accidents among the Elderly Population in China
This article analyzes the causal effects of informal care, mental health, and physical health on falls and other accidents (e.g. traffic accidents) among elderly people. To purge potential reversal causal effects, e.g., past accidents induce more future informal care, we use two-stage least squares to identify the impacts. By using longitudinal data from a representative national China Health and retirement longitudinal study of people aged 45 and older in China, our findings indicate that informal care decreases while poor health conditions increase the occurrence of accidents. We also find heterogeneous impacts on the occurrence of accidents, varying by gender, urban status, and past accident history. Our findings suggest the following three policy implications. First, policy makers who aim to decrease accidents should take informal care to elders into account. Second, ease of birth policy and postponed retirement policy are urgent to meet the demand of informal care. Third, medical policies should attach great importance to not only physical health but also mental health of elderly parents especially for older people with accident history.
Games behind Bars: A Longitudinal Study of Inmates Pro-Social Preferences
The paper presents the results of a Longitudinal Randomized Control Trial implemented in 2016 two State Prisons in California (USA). The subjects were randomly assigned to a 10-months program (GRIP, Guiding Rage Into Power) aiming at undoing the destructive behavioral patterns that lead to criminal actions by raising the individual’s 'mindfulness'. This study tests whether the participation to this program (treatment), based on strong relationships and mutual help, affects pro-social behavior of participants, in particular with reference to trust and inequality aversion. The research protocol entails the administration of two questionnaires including a set of behavioral situations ('games') - widely used in the relevant literature in the field - to 80 inmates, 42 treated (enrolled in the program) and 38 controls. The first questionnaire has been administered before treatment and randomization took place; the second questionnaire at the end of the program. The results of a Difference-in-Differences estimation procedure, show that trust significantly increases GRIP participants to compared to the control group. The result is robust to alternative estimation techniques and to the inclusion of a set of covariates to further control for idiosyncratic characteristics of the prisoners.
Comparison of Sourcing Process in Supply Chain Operation References Model and Business Information Systems
Although using powerful systems like ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning), companies still cannot benchmark their processes and measure their process performance easily based on predefined SCOR (Supply Chain Operation References) terms. The purpose of this research is to identify common and corresponding processes to present a conceptual model to model and measure the purchasing process of an organization. The main steps for the research study are: Literature review related to 'procure to pay' process in ERP system; Literature review related to 'sourcing' process in SCOR model; To develop a conceptual model integrating 'sourcing' of SCOR model and 'procure to pay' of ERP model. In this study, we examined the similarities and differences between these two models. The proposed framework is based on the assumptions that are drawn from (1) the body of literature, (2) the authors’ experience by working in the field of enterprise and logistics information systems. The modeling framework provides a structured and systematic way to model and decompose necessary information from conceptual representation to process element specification. This conceptual model will help the organizations to make quality purchasing system measurement instruments and tools. And offered adaptation issues for ERP systems and SCOR model will provide a more benchmarkable and worldwide standard business process.
A Mixed Integer Programming Model for Optimizing the Layout of an Emergency Department
During the recent years, demand for healthcare services has dramatically increased. As the demand for healthcare services increases, so does the necessity of constructing new healthcare buildings and redesigning and renovating existing ones. Increasing demands necessitate the use of optimization techniques to improve the overall service efficiency in healthcare settings. However, high complexity of care processes remains the major challenge to accomplish this goal. This study proposes a method based on process mining results to address the high complexity of care processes and to find the optimal layout of the various medical centers in an emergency department. ProM framework is used to discover clinical pathway patterns and relationship between activities. Sequence clustering plug-in is used to remove infrequent events and to derive the process model in the form of Markov chain. The process mining results served as an input for the next phase which consists of the development of the optimization model. Comparison of the current ED design with the one obtained from the proposed method indicated that a carefully designed layout can significantly decrease the distances that patients must travel.
Dynamic Capabilities and Disorganization: A Conceptual Exploration
This paper prompts debate about whether disorganization can be positioned as a mechanism that facilitates the creation and enactment of important dynamic capabilities within an organization. This particular article is a conceptual exploration of the link between dynamic capabilities and disorganization and presents the case for agent-based modelling as a viable methodological tool which can be used to explore this link. Dynamic capabilities are those capabilities that an organization needs to sustain competitive advantage in complex environments. Disorganization is the process of breaking down restrictive organizational structures and routines that commonly reside in organizations in order to increase organizational performance. In the 20th century, disorganization was largely viewed as an undesirable phenomenon within an organization. However, the concept of disorganization has been revitalized and garnered research interest in the recent years due to studies which demonstrate some of the advantages of disorganization to an organization. Furthermore, recent Agent-based simulation studies have shown the capability of disorganization to be managed and argue for disorganization to be viewed as an enabler of organizational productivity. Given the natural state of disorganization and resulting fear this can create, this paper argues that instead of trying to ‘correct’ disorganization, it should be actively encouraged to have functional purpose. The study of dynamic capabilities emerged as a result of heightened dynamism and consequentially the very nature of dynamism denotes a level of fluidity and flexibility, something which this paper argues many organizations do not truly foster due to a constrained commitment to organization and order. We argue in this paper that the very state of disorganization is a state that should be encouraged to develop dynamic capabilities needed to not only deal with the complexities of the modern business environment but also to sustain competitive success. The significance of this paper stems from the fact that both dynamic capabilities and disorganization are two concepts that are gaining prominence in their respective academic genres. Despite the attention each concept has received individually, no conceptual link has been established to depict how they actually interact with each other. We argue that the link between these two concepts present a novel way of looking at organizational performance. By doing so, we explore the potential of these two concepts working in tandem in order to increase organizational productivity which has significant implications for both academics and practitioners alike.
Various Perspectives for the Concept of the Emotion Labor
Radical changes in the industrial environment, and spectacular developments of IT have changed the current of managements from people-centered to technology- or IT-centered. Interpersonal emotion exchanges have long become insipid and interactive services have also come as mechanical reactions. This study offers various concepts for the emotional labor based on traditional studies on emotional labor. Especially the present day, on which human emotions are subject to being served as machinized thing, is the time when the study on human emotions comes momentous. Precedent researches on emotional labors commonly and basically dealt with the relationship between the active group who performs actions and the passive group who is done with the action. This study focuses on the passive group and tries to offer a new perspective of 'liquid emotion' as a defence mechanism for the passive group from the external environment. Especially, this addresses a concrete discussion on directions of following studies on the liquid labor as a newly suggested perspective.
A Non-Parametric Analysis of District Disaster Management Authorities in Punjab, Pakistan
Provincial Disaster Management Authority (PDMA) Punjab was established under NDM Act 2010 and now working under Senior Member Board of Revenue, deals with the whole spectrum of disasters including preparedness, mitigation, early warning, response, relief, rescue, recovery and rehabilitation. The District Disaster Management Authorities (DDMA) are acting as implementing arms of PDMA in the districts to respond any disaster. DDMAs' role is very important in disaster mitigation, response and recovery as they are the first responder and closest tier to the community. Keeping in view the significant role of DDMAs, technical and human resource capacity are need to be checked. For calculating the technical efficiencies of District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA) in Punjab, three inputs like number of labour, the number of transportation and number of equipment, two outputs like relief assistance and the number of rescue and 25 districts as decision making unit have been selected. For this purpose, 8 years secondary data from 2005 to 2012 has been used. Data Envelopment Analysis technique has been applied. DEA estimates the relative efficiency of peer entities or entities performing the similar tasks. The findings show that all decision making unit (DMU) (districts) are inefficient on techonological and scale efficiency scale while technically efficient on pure and total factor productivity efficiency scale. All DMU are found technically inefficient only in the year 2006. Labour and equipment were not efficiently used in the year 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2012. Furthermore, only three years 2006, 2010 and 2011 show that districts could not efficiently use transportation in a disaster situation. This study suggests that all districts should curtail labour, transportation and equipment to be efficient. Similarly, overall all districts are not required to achieve number of rescue and relief assistant, these should be reduced.
Identifying E-Learning Components at North-West University, Mafikeng Campus
Educational institutions are under pressure from their competitors. Regulators and community groups need educational institutions to adopt appropriate business and organizational practices. Globally, educational institutions are now using e-learning as the best teaching and learning approach. E-learning is becoming the center of attention to the learning institutions, educational systems and software inventors. North-West University (NWU) is currently using eFundi, a Learning Management System (LMS). LMS are all information systems and procedures that adds value to students learning and support the learning material in text or any multimedia files. With various e-learning tools, students would be able to access all the materials related to the course in electronic copies. The study was tasked with identifying the e-learning components at the NWU, Mafikeng campus. Quantitative research methodology was considered in data collection and descriptive statistics for data analysis. The Activity Theory (AT) was used as a theory to guide the study. AT outlines the limitations amongst e-learning at the macro-organizational level (plan, guiding principle, campus-wide solutions) and micro-organization (daily functioning practice, collaborative transformation, specific adaptation). On a technological environment, AT gives people an opportunity to change from concentrating on computers as an area of concern but also understand that technology is part of human activities. The findings have identified the university’s current IT tools and knowledge on e-learning elements. It was recommended that university should consider buying computer resources that consumes less power and practice e-learning effectively.
Correlation between Entrepreneur's Perception of Human Resource Function and Company's Growth
Micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME) are important factors of the economy in each country. Recent years have brought increased number and higher sophistication of scientific research related to numerous aspects of entrepreneurship. Various authors try to find the positive correlation between entrepreneur's personal characteristics, skills and knowledge on one hand, and company growth and success of small business on the other hand. Different models recognize staff as one of the key elements in every organizational system. Human resource (HR) function is present in almost all large companies, despite the geographical location or industry. Small and medium enterprises also often have separate positions or even departments for HR administration. However, in early stages of organizational life cycle human resources are usually managed by the founder, entrepreneur. In this paper we want to question whether the companies where founder, entrepreneur, recognizes the significance of human capital in the organization and understands the importance of HR management have higher growth rate and better business results. The findings of this research can be implemented in practice, but also in the academia, for improving the curricula related to the MSME and entrepreneurship.
A Case from China on the Situation of Knowledge Management in Government
Organizational scholars have paid enormous attention on how local governments manage their knowledge during the past two decades. Government knowledge management (KM) research recognizes that the management of knowledge flows and networks is critical to reforms on government service efficiency and the effect of administration. When dealing with complex affairs, all the limitations resulting from a lack of KM concept, processes and technologies among all the involved organizations begin to be exposed and further compound the processing difficulty of the affair. As a result, the challenges for individual or group knowledge sharing, knowledge digging and organizations’ collaboration in government's activities are diverse and immense. This analysis presents recent situation of government KM in China drawing from a total of more than 300 questionnaires and highlights important challenges that remain. The causes of the lapses in KM processes within and across the government agencies are discussed.
The Role of Multinational Enterprises' Investments in Emerging Country's Economic Development, Case of Georgia
From the strategic point of view, not all Foreign Direct Investments (FDIs) are always positively benefiting the host economy, i.e. not all Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) are promoting local/host economies. FDI could have different impact on different sectors of the economy, based not only on annual investment amount, but MNE motivations and peculiarities of the host economy in particular. FDI analysis based only on its amount can lead to incorrect decisions, it is much more important to understand the essence of investment. Consequently, our research is oriented on MNE’s motivations, answering which sectors are most popular among international investors and why, what motivated them to invest into one or another business. Georgian economy for the last period of time is attracting more and more efficiency seeking investments, which could be translated as - concentrating production in a limited number of locations to supply various markets, while benefiting local economy with: new technologies, employment, exports diversification, increased income for the local economy and so on. Foreign investors and MNEs in particular are no longer and not so much interested in the resource seeking investments, which was the case for Georgia in the last decade of XX century. Despite the fact of huge progress for the Georgian economy, still there is a room for foreign investors to make a local market oriented investments. The local market is still rich in imported products, which should be replaced by local ones. And the last but not the least important issue is that approximately 30% of all FDIs in Georgia according to this research are "efficiency seeking" investments, which is an enormous progress and a hope for future Georgian success.