Stock Market Prediction Using Convolutional Neural Network That Learns from a Graph
Over the past decade, deep learning has been in spotlight among various machine learning algorithms. In particular, CNN (Convolutional Neural Network), which is known as effective solution for recognizing and classifying images, has been popularly applied to classification and prediction problems in various fields. In this study, we try to apply CNN to stock market prediction, one of the most challenging tasks in the machine learning research. In specific, we propose to apply CNN as the binary classifier that predicts stock market direction (up or down) by using a graph as its input. That is, our proposal is to build a machine learning algorithm that mimics a person who looks at the graph and predicts whether the trend will go up or down. Our proposed model consists of four steps. In the first step, it divides the dataset into 5 days, 10 days, 15 days, and 20 days. And then, it creates graphs for each interval in step 2. In the next step, CNN classifiers are trained using the graphs generated in the previous step. In step 4, it optimizes the hyper parameters of the trained model by using the validation dataset. To validate our model, we will apply it to the prediction of KOSPI200 for 1,986 days in eight years (from 2009 to 2016). The experimental dataset will include 14 technical indicators such as CCI, Momentum, ROC and daily closing price of KOSPI200 of Korean stock market.
Fake News Detection for Korean News Using Machine Learning Techniques
Fake news is defined as the news articles that are intentionally and verifiably false, and could mislead readers. Spread of fake news may provoke anxiety, chaos, fear, or irrational decisions of the public. Thus, detecting fake news and preventing its spread has become very important issue in our society. However, due to the huge amount of fake news produced every day, it is almost impossible to identify it by a human. Under this context, researchers have tried to develop automated fake news detection using machine learning techniques over the past years. But, there have been no prior studies proposed an automated fake news detection method for Korean news to our best knowledge. In this study, we aim to detect Korean fake news using text mining and machine learning techniques. Our proposed method consists of two steps. In the first step, the news contents to be analyzed is convert to quantified values using various text mining techniques (topic modeling, TF-IDF, and so on). After that, in step 2, classifiers are trained using the values produced in step 1. As the classifiers, machine learning techniques such as logistic regression, backpropagation network, support vector machine, and deep neural network can be applied. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we collected about 200 short Korean news from Seoul National University’s FactCheck. which provides with detailed analysis reports from 20 media outlets and links to source documents for each case. Using this dataset, we will identify which text features are important as well as which classifiers are effective in detecting Korean fake news.
Solar-Powered Charging Station for Electrical Vehicles at Grocery Stores: A Designing and Feasibility Perspective
This study evaluates the feasibility of solar powered charging station in public places such as grocery stores. In fact, a business process modeling for a solar powered charging station in a grocery store was done in Bizagi software in order to evaluate cost of implementing a charging station in a grocery store, payback period, revenue of charging station within a year, PV equipment cost, customers’ energy consumption within a year and customers charging time. The study result indicates that implementing electric vehicle charging solar powered can be a good business plan that pays its payback in a short period of time. Furthermore, spreading these services will broaden EV adoption as a result of its clean energy and economic point of view.
Exploratory Research on Outsourcing Practices and Benefits on Telecommunication Industry in Oman
This research has been conducted in order to analyse the impact of outsourcing on telecommunication industry in Oman. The research is conducted by collecting qualitative and quantitative data in order to widen the area of comprehension. The data has been collected from genuine sources which showcased that results were reliable and possess validity. The outsourcing is very important because it helps the organisation in saving the cost and efforts of the workers. In Oman, the telecommunication industry largely uses the outsourcing service which is provided by the third party. The third party is responsible for providing outsourcing to the telecommunication companies. This research gives an overall view of the outsourcing in the telecommunication companies of Oman. The IT companies of Oman give their work to the outsourcing services as this will help in reducing the cost the project. Rather employing the experts to do the projects, the organization can easily give their products to the outsourcing services in which they complete the work for a cheaper rate for the telecommunication company of Oman. It will help in reducing the work load on the staffs and management of the telecommunication companies in Oman. The IT outsourcing in Oman is very common because some of the staff are not well experienced to do the IT work. The outsourcing has positive as well as negative impact on the telecommunication industry in Oman. The research has been done while considering ethical aspect in an effective and efficient manner. Furthermore, the literature is adequately reviewed so that views of various specialists can be considered for future guidance.
Digital Customer Relationship Management on Service Delivery Performance
Digital platforms, such as The Internet, and the advent of digital marketing strategies, have led to many changes in the marketing of goods and services. These have resulted in improved service quality, enhanced customer relations, productivity gains, marketing transaction cost reductions, improved customer service and flexibility in fulfilling customers’ changing needs and lifestyles. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of digital marketing practices on the financial performance of mobile network operators in the telecommunications industry in Kenya. The objectives of the study were to establish how digital customer relationship management strategies on performance of mobile network operators in Kenya. The study used an explanatory cross-sectional survey research design, while the target population was made up of from the 4 major mobile network operators in Kenya, namely Safaricom Limited, Airtel Networks Kenya Limited, Finserve Africa Limited and Telkom Kenya Limited. Sampling strategy was stratified sampling with a sample size of 97 respondents. Digital customer relationship strategies were seen to influence firm performance, through enhancing convenience, building trust, encouraging growth in market share through creating sustainable relationships, building commitment with customers, enhancing customer retention and customer satisfaction. Digital customer relationship management were seen to maximize gross profits by increasing customer satisfaction, loyalty and retention. The study recommended upscaling the use of digital customer relationship management strategies to further enhance firm performance, given their great potential in this regard.
The Role of Creative Entrepreneurship in the Development of Croatian Economy
Creative industries are an important sector of growth and development of knowledge economies. They have a positive impact on employment, economic growth, export and the quality of life in the areas where they are developed. Creative sectors include architecture, design, advertising, publishing, music, film, television and radio, video games, visual and performing arts and heritage. Following the positive trends of development of creative industries on the global and European level, this paper analyzes creative industries in general and specific characteristics of creative entrepreneurship. Special focus in this paper is put on the influence of the information communication technology on the development of new creative business models and protection of the intellectual property rights. One part of the paper is oriented on the analysis of the status of creative industries and creative entrepreneurship in Croatia. The main objective of the paper is by using the statistical analysis of creative industries in Croatia and information gained during the interviews with entrepreneurs, to make conclusions about potentials and development of creative industries in Croatia. Creative industries in Croatia are at the beginning of their development and growth strategy still does not exist at the national level. Statistical analysis pointed out that in 2015 creative enterprises made 9% of all enterprises in Croatia, employed 5,5% of employed people and their share in GDP was 4,01%. Croatian creative entrepreneurs are building competitive advantage using their creative resources and creating specific business models. The main obstacles they meet are lack of business experience and impossibility of focusing on the creative activities only. In their business, they use digital technologies and are focused on export. The conclusion is that creative industries in Croatia have development potential, but it is necessary to take adequate measures to use this potential in a right way.
Moderating Role of Positive External Factors in Relationship of Abusive Supervision and Knowledge Sharing
Knowledge sharing is very important in organizations for their future progress and survival. This study investigates the impact of destructive leadership (abusive supervision) on knowledge sharing in employees. Further, the authors want to investigate a context variable (group cohesion) and explore its cross level influence on the relationship of abusive supervision and knowledge sharing. Conservation of resource theory (COR) claims loss of psychological capital (an internal positive resource) in employees due to abusive supervision and hence decrease occurs in knowledge sharing. This study tests psychological capital as mediator and group cohesion as moderator in relationship of abusive supervision and knowledge sharing. Data was collected from 239 respondents from more than 40 different organizations and 50 different groups from all over Pakistan. Results show that abusive supervision has negative effect on knowledge sharing through reduction in psychological capital of employees, and increased group cohesion in employees reduces this negative effect improving psychological capital in employees.
A Critical Review of Intrapreneurial Behavior as an Answer to Small and Medium-Sized Organizations' Stagnation
The primer objective of the present research is to provide a comprehensive analysis on intrapreneurial literature aiming to highlight the gaps in current research methodology that focuses primarily on intrapreneurship in large organizations. Secondly, the paper suggests directions for future research. Intrapreneurship is a term used to describe entrepreneurship within existing organizations. In international literature, intrapreneurship has been acknowledged as a vital element of organizations’ performance and competitiveness, and has come to the fore as organizations’ unique competitive advantage in their search for success. Although intrapreneurship exists in firms in general irrespective of their size, the majority of researches on intrapreneurial behavior had a primarily focus on large corporations in U.S.A. basis, leading to a lack of researches on smaller companies established in other countries. However, intrapreneurship is a vivid phenomenon that is affected by various organizational conditions and it seems that does not apply, exactly, to the intrapreneurial norms as proposed by researches conducted on large corporations.
How Social Capital Mediates the Relationships between Interpersonal Interaction and Health: Location-Based Augmented Reality Games
Recently location-based augmented reality games (LBS+AR) have become increasingly popular as a major form of entertainment. Location-based augmented reality games have provided a lot of opportunities for face-to-face interaction among players. Prior studies also indicate that the social side of location-based augmented reality games are one of the major reasons for players to engage in the games. However, the impact of the usage of location-based augmented reality games has not been well explored. The study examines how interpersonal interaction affects social capital and health through playing location-based augmented reality games. The study also investigates how social capital mediates the relationships between interpersonal interaction and health. The study uses survey method to collect data. Six-hundred forty-seven questionnaires are collected. Structural equation modeling is used to investigate the relationships among variables. The causal relationships between variables in the research model are tested. The results of the study indicated that four interpersonal attraction attributes, including ability, proximity, similarity, and familiarity, are identified by ways of factor analysis. Interpersonal attraction is important for location-based augmented reality game-players to develop bonding and bridging social capital. Bonding and bridging social capital have a positive impact on the mental and social health of game-players. The results of the study provide academic and practical implications for future growth of location-based augmented reality games.
The Impact of Work Stress on Professionals' Life and Health: The Usage of Instant Messaging Applications
Work and family life are the most important areas for men and women today. Every professional is required to meet and fulfill the responsibilities of work and family roles. Although the development and popularity of communication technology bring a lot of benefits, including effective and efficient communication, may also generate conflicts between work and family life. Since mobile devices and the applications of mobile devices, such as instant messages, are ubiquitous, the boundaries of work and family roles are increasingly blurred. Professionals may be in the risk of work over-loading and work-family conflict. This study examines the impact of work stress on professionals’ life and health in the context of instant messaging application of smart phone. This study uses a web-based questionnaire to collect samples. The questionnaires are sent via virtual community sites, instant messaging applications, and e-mail. The study develops and empirically validates a work-family conflict model by integrating the pressure theory and technostress factors. The causal relationship between variables in the research model is tested. In terms of data analysis, Partial Least Square (PLS) in Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is used for sample analysis and research model testing. The results of this study are as follows. First, both the variables of work-related stress and technological violations positively affect the work-family conflict. Second, both the variables of work-loading and technology-overloading have no effect on work-family conflict. Third, work-family conflict has negative effect on job satisfaction, family satisfaction, physical health, and mental health.
A Conceptual Analysis of Teams’ Climate Role in the Intrapreneurial Process
The present research focuses on the role of teams’ climate in the intrapreneurial process. Although climate exists in every level of the organizational structure and in every subgroup of the organization, we observe that literature focuses on the study of climate in organizational level. However, the climate that characterizes a work team can differentiate from the organizational climate and in fact can be far more influential over the members of the team and their performance. At the same time, intrapreneurship, which corresponds for entrepreneurship in existing organizations, puts special emphasis on climate as an influential factor of intrapreneurial behavior. The paper, provides a conceptual analysis of organizational climate from the intrapreneurial point of view, and leads light upon teams’ climate role in intrapreneurship.
Government Intervention in Land Market
In the land market, there are two kinds of government intervention. First one is the control of development and second is the supply of land. In the both intervention Government has a lot of benefits. In development control the government designation of conservation areas and the effects of growth controls which may increase the price of land. On other hand Government also apply charge fee on land. The second type of intervention is to increase the supply of land, either by direct action or indirect action, as in the Pakistan, by obligatory purchase or important domain.
Contrasting Infrastructure Sharing and Resource Substitution Synergies Business Models
Industrial symbiosis (I.S) rely on two modes of cooperation that are infrastructure sharing and resource substitution to obtain economic and environmental benefits. The former consists in the intensification of use of an asset while the latter is based on the use of waste, fatal energy (and utilities) as alternatives to standard inputs. Both modes, in fact, rely on the shift from a business-as-usual functioning towards an alternative production system structure so that in a business point of view the distinction is not clear. In order to investigate the way those cooperation modes can be distinguished, we consider the stakeholders' interplay in the business model structure regarding their resources and requirements. For infrastructure sharing (following economic engineering literature) the cost function of capacity induces economies of scale so that demand pooling reduces global expanses. Grassroot investment sizing decision and the ex-post pricing strongly depends on the design optimization phase for capacity sizing whereas ex-post operational cost sharing minimizing budgets are less dependent upon production rates. Value is then mainly design driven. For resource substitution, synergies value stems from availability and is at risk regarding both supplier and user load profiles and market prices of the standard input. Baseline input purchasing cost reduction is thus more driven by the operational phase of the symbiosis and must be analyzed within the whole sourcing policy (including diversification strategies and expensive back-up replacement). Moreover, while resource substitution involves a chain of intermediate processors to match quality requirements, the infrastructure model relies on a single operator whose competencies allow to produce non-rival goods. Transaction costs appear higher in resource substitution synergies due to the high level of customization which induces asset specificity, and non-homogeneity following transaction costs economics arguments.
The Effectiveness of the South African Government Theory of Expanded Public Works Program: Infrastructure
The Expanded Public Works Program (EPWP) is an instrument that the South African Government uses to reduce unemployment and poverty and also stimulate economic growth. However, due to the limited budget and programs in the EPWP, the program has had challenges in reducing unemployment, poverty and stimulating economic growth. The EPWP Vuk’uphile program had positive outcomes in developing Black emerging contractors, in order for them to participate in the main stream economy far better than when the EPWP program was not introduced. The Skills component of the program particularly the EPWP Infrastructure, which is the most funded program under EPWP has had limited success in transferring appropriate skills to ensure labour participants can penetrate the labour market after participating in the EPWP. Education and skills are important attributes that can contribute to labour absorption, however, the EPWP particularly the infrastructure program needs to strengthen skills development over a longer period of time suggested a year with multi skills relevant to the labour market. Longer and more sustained employment provides a safety net and reduces poverty better that short term employment. The EPWP program can be expanded in the infrastructure sector, focusing on rural infrastructure, agricultural infrastructure, infrastructure related components like property, ownership, management, and other services. These can stimulate the Economic sector Infrastructure of EPWP, offer longer term and more sustained employment and rural enterprise development and further employment. The Expanded Public Works Program (EPWP) is an instrument that the South African Government uses to reduce unemployment and poverty and also stimulate economic growth. However, due to the limited budget and programs in the EPWP, the program has had challenges in reducing unemployment, poverty and stimulating economic growth. The EPWP Vuk’uphile program has had positive outcomes in developing Black emerging contractors, in order for them to participate in the main stream economy far better than when the EPWP program was not introduced. The Skills component of the program particularly the EPWP Infrastructure, which is the most funded program under EPWP has had limited success in transferring appropriate skills to ensure labour participants are able to penetrate the labour market after participating in the EPWP. Education and skills are important attributes that can contribute to labour absorption, however, the EPWP particularly the infrastructure program needs to strengthen skills development over a longer period of time suggested a year with multi skills relevant to the labour market. Longer and more sustained employment provides a safety net and reduces poverty better that short term employment. The EPWP program can be expanded in the infrastructure sector, focusing on rural infrastructure, agricultural infrastructure, infrastructure related components like property, ownership, management, and other services. These can stimulate the Economic sector Infrastructure of EPWP, offer longer term and more sustained employment and rural enterprise development and further employment.
Essentiality of Core Strategic Vision in Continuous Cost Reduction Management
Many markets are maturing, consumer buying powers are weakening and customer preferences change rapidly. To survive, many adopt fast paced continuous cost reduction and competitive pricing to remain relevance. Marketers desire to push for more sales to increase revenues have intensified competitions at time cannibalize the product and market. The amazing technologies changes have created both hope and despair to the industries. The pressure to constantly reduce cost, on the one hand, create and market new products in cheaper prices and shorter life cycles, on the other has become a continuous endeavour. The twin trends appear irreconcilable. Can core strategic vision provides and adapts new directions in continuous cost reduction? This study investigates core strategic vision able to meet this need, for firms to survive and stay profitable. Under current uncertainty market, are firms falling back on their core strategic visions to take them out of the unfavourable positions?
Fighting Counterfeit Alcohol by Means of New Technological Solutions Which Allow for Merchandise Turnover Control and Authenticity Verification: A Case Study
Modern tobacco and alcohol industries are extremely susceptible to counterfeiting. Even though governments impose excise taxes as an attempt to control flows of commodities in those industries at the state level, there are still plenty of occurrences when illegal producers infiltrate the market with substandard quality merchandise. This case study will analyse the techniques that can be used by both the alcohol producers and the state to control the flows of merchandise and prevent unauthorised products’ retail. Three case studies will analyse the problems and solutions of two alcohol manufacturers and one importer. The research will give useful implications for other industries where there is a clear need to control turnover of commodities. Product traceability and security are questions of paramount importance nowadays. Counterfeiters derive huge profits from illegal trade and support illegal activities such as document fraud, corruption, money laundering and other related crimes. The main task of this research is not only to show how businesses, with the use of innovative technologies, can protect their commodities from being counterfeited or repacked, but also to hypothesize on how a system of product protection and traceability could be a useful instrument in confronting global shadow economy and illegal trade.
The Relationship between Renewable Energy, Real Income, Tourism and Air Pollution
One criticism of the energy-growth-environment literature, to the best of our knowledge, is that only a few studies analyze the influence of tourism on CO₂ emissions even though tourism sector is closely related to the environment. The other criticism is the selection of methodology. Panel estimation techniques that fail to consider both heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence across countries can cause forecasting errors. To fulfill the mentioned gaps in the literature, this study analyzes the impacts of real GDP, renewable energy and tourism on the levels of carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions for the top 10 most-visited countries around the world. This study focuses on the top 10 touristic (most-visited) countries because they receive about the half of the worldwide tourist arrivals in late years and are among the top ones in 'Renewables Energy Country Attractiveness Index (RECAI)'. By looking at Pesaran’s CD test and average growth rates of variables for each country, we detect the presence of cross-sectional dependence and heterogeneity. Hence, this study uses second generation econometric techniques (cross-sectionally augmented Dickey-Fuller (CADF), and cross-sectionally augmented IPS (CIPS) unit root test, the LM bootstrap cointegration test, and the DOLS and the FMOLS estimators) which are robust to the mentioned issues. Therefore, the reported results become accurate and reliable. It is found that renewable energy mitigates the pollution whereas real GDP and tourism contribute to carbon emissions. Thus, regulatory policies are necessary to increase the awareness of sustainable tourism. In addition, the use of renewable energy and the adoption of clean technologies in tourism sector as well as in producing goods and services play significant roles in reducing the levels of emissions.
Stage-Gate Based Integrated Project Management Methodology for New Product Development
In order to achieve new product development (NPD) activities on time and within budgetary constraints, the NPD managers need a well-designed methodology. This study intends to create an integrated project management methodology for the ones who focus on new product development projects. In the scope of the study, four different management systems are combined. These systems are called as 'Schedule-oriented Stage-Gate Method, Risk Management, Change Management and Earned Value Management'. New product development term is quite common in many different industries such as defense industry, construction, health care/dental, higher education, fast moving consumer goods, white goods, electronic devices, marketing and advertising and software development. All product manufacturers run against each other’s for introducing a new product to the market. In order to achieve to produce a more competitive product in the market, an optimum project management methodology is chosen, and this methodology is adapted to company culture. The right methodology helps the company to present perfect product to the customers at the right time. The benefits of proposed methodology are discussed as an application by a company. As a result, how the integrated methodology improves the efficiency and how it achieves the success of the project are unfolded.
Social Media Marketing Efforts to Influence Brand Equity and Consumer Behavior: The Case of Luxury Fashion Brands in Pakistan
Social media is not only acting as a medium of communication; rather it has provided a platform where customers can actually live with the brands they so dearly envy and interact with others with same interest. Organizations are making social media marketing efforts (SMME) to convert this opportunity into a meaningful experience. It may be resembled or considered as an act of branding where the notion is not only to understand the consumer behavior but also developing a strong link with them. Ultimately the quest is to influence and bend it into a mutual benefit of the stakeholders. This study investigates SMME of brands with the help of five dimensions (i.e., entertainment, interaction, trendiness, customization and word of mouth). The study has found that there is no significant impact of SMME as a construct on brand equity and consumer behavior. However, few of the dimensions (i.e. customization and word of mouth), have been found to have influence on brand equity (brand association, brand image) and consumer response (brand preferences).
Leveraging on Application of Customer Relationship Management Strategy as Business Driving Force: A Case Study of Major Industries
Customer relationship management is a business strategy that is centred on the idea that ‘Customer is the driving force of any business’ i.e. Customer is placed in a central position in any business. However, this belief coupled with the advancement in information technology in the past twenty years has experienced a change. In any form of business today it can be concluded that customers are the modern dictators to whom the industry always adjusts its business operations due to the increase in availability of information, intense market competition and ever growing negotiating ideas of customers in the process of buying and selling. The most vital role of any organization is to satisfy or meet customer’s needs and demands, which eventually determines customer’s long-term value to the industry. Therefore, this paper analyses and describes the application of customer relationship management operational strategies in some of the major industries in business. Both developed and up-coming companies nowadays value the quality of customer services and client’s loyalty, they also recognize the customers that are not very sensitive when it comes to changes in price and thereby realize that attracting new customers is more tasking and expensive than retaining the existing customers. However, research shows that several factors have recently amounts to the sudden rise in the execution of CRM strategies in the marketplace, such as a diverted attention of some organization towards integrating ideas in retaining existing customers rather than attracting new one, gathering data about customers through the use of internal database system and acquiring of external syndicate data, also exponential increase in technological intelligence. Apparently, with this development in business operations, CRM research in Academia remain nascent; hence this paper gives detailed critical analysis of the recent advancement in the use of CRM and key research opportunities for future development in using the implementation of CRM as a determinant factor for successful business optimization.
The Impact of Socio-Demographic and Motivational Factors on Social Entrepreneurial Intentions
While the formation of general entrepreneurial intentions has been broadly researched, far less is known about factors that influence the intent to start a social enterprise. This paper focuses on the interaction effects of attitude toward entrepreneurship and socio-demographic and motivational factors on social entrepreneurial intentions. Building on data from 610 students, results support that the positive effect of attitude toward entrepreneurship on social entrepreneurial intentions is stronger for women and for sustainability-oriented individuals. The study does not find those interaction effects for general entrepreneurial intentions. Findings further indicate that religiousness does not significantly affect both general and social entrepreneurial intentions. The study offers important implications for research and practice in the field of social entrepreneurship.
Investigating the Relationship between the Kuwait Stock Market and Its Marketing Sectors
The main objective of this research is to measure the relationship between the Kuwait stock Exchange (KSE) index and its two marketing sectors after the new market classification. The findings of this research are important for Public economic policy makers as they need to know if the new system (new classification) is efficient and to what level, to monitor the markets and intervene with appropriate measures. The data used are the daily index of the whole Kuwaiti market and the daily closing price, number of deals and volume of shares traded of two marketing sectors (consumer goods and consumer services) for the period from the 13th of May 2012 till the 12th of December 2016. The results indicate a positive direct impact of the closing price, volume and deals indexes of the consumer goods and the consumer services companies on the overall KSE index, volume and deals of the Kuwaiti stock market (KSE).
The Global Language Teaching Spots to Accelerate Globalization and Equitable Economic Development Worldwide
The basis of this research is to create an international business project by developing an area in every country which focused on global language teaching to accelerate huge project of internationalization for mankind better with equity. It is to make an ease, learning more effective and efficient as well as economic development significantly at the place. Some have attempted to establish it, but could have not succeeded. This study uses stratified random sampling method to determine respondents. It is caused by population coming from around of Indonesia which is heterogeneity. Above all, researcher has already known well the spot including the mapping of students and societies, over 5-year, from beginning studying English (2011) until teaching English (2015). This quantitative research is able to analyze the vital factor of successful Language Village at Pare, Kediri, East Java, Indonesia which has never been obtained anywhere. This project provides valuable information regarding management used by the Language Village. Overall approach depicts vigorous marketing strategy and dedication blended. This will allow for more individual consideration of economist and may direct future research on the uniqueness of the Language Village to ascertain more profound understanding of the village which succeeds inviting people from other places to come, beside formal management and marketing.
Tax Competition and Partial Tax Coordination under Fiscal Decentralization
This article analyzes the conditions where decentralization and partial tax harmonization in a coalition of asymmetric jurisdictions plays a role in the fight of fiscal competition (i.e. the race to bottom). Starting from a centralized economies, we use the ZM-W model to analyze the fiscal competition and coordination among three countries. We find that the asymmetry of jurisdictions facilitates partial tax harmonization between jurisdictions when these asymmetries are not too large. Furthermore, when the asymmetries are large enough, the level of labor tax plays an important role in the decision of decentralize capital tax. Accordingly, decentralization is achievable when labor tax is low. This result indicates that decentralization and partial tax harmonization between jurisdictions can be possible results in order to fight the negative externalities from fiscal competition, and more in the European Union countries where the asymmetries are substantial.
The Effect of Public Debt on the Economic Growth and Development in Nigeria
This paper examines the influence of public debts (external and internal) on economic growth and development in Nigeria from (1980-2015). The study uses aggregate GDP as a proxy for economic growth, per capital income as a proxy for standard of living and Government expenditure on health as a proxy for human capital development, while Foreign Direct Investment, Unemployment rate, and Oil revenue were used as control variables. The study made use of ex-post facto research design with the data extracted from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletin and the World Bank database. It adopted a multiple regression analysis of the ordinary least square (OLS) method with the help of E-View version 3.0. The results revealed that external debt has a negative and insignificant effect on GDP, per capital income and human capital development. The study concluded that external debts were being channeled to meet the recurrent expenditures of the nation’s economy at the expense of productive investment that could stimulate growth and poverty alleviation. It, however, recommended that government should ensure that the bulk of the total borrowings are mostly sourced from within the domestic economy so that the repayment of the principal and interest will serve as a crowd in-effect rather that crowd out-effect which in turn further accelerates the country’s economic growth and development.
User Acceptance Criteria for Digital Libraries
The Internet and digital publication technologies have brought dramatic impacts on how people collect, organize, disseminate, access, store, and use information. More and more governments, schools, and organizations spent huge funds to develop digital libraries. A digital library can be regarded as a web extension of traditional physically libraries. People can search diverse publications, find out the position of knowledge resources, and borrow or buy publications through digital libraries. People can gain knowledge and students or employees can finish their reports by using digital libraries. Since the considerable funds and energy have been invested in implementing digital libraries, it is important to understand the evaluative criteria from the users’ viewpoint in order to enhance user acceptance. This study develops a list of user acceptance criteria for digital libraries. An initial criteria list was developed based on some previously validated instruments related to digital libraries. Data were collected from user experiences of digital libraries. The exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were adopted to purify the criteria list. The reliabilities and validities were tested. After validating the criteria list, a user survey was conducted to collect the comparative importance of criteria. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method was utilized to derive the importance of each criterion. The results of this study contribute to an e understanding of the criteria and relative importance that users evaluate for digital libraries.
A Study on the Relationship between Transaction Fairness, Social Capital, Supply Chain Integration and Sustainability: Focusing on Manufacturing Companies of South Korea
The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between transaction fairness, social capital, supply chain integration and sustainability. Based on the previous studies, measurement items were determined by using SPSS 22 and exploratory factor analysis was performed, and again, using AMOS 21 for confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis was performed by using study items that satisfy reliability, validity, and appropriateness of measurement model. It has shown that transaction fairness has a (+) significant effect on social capital, social capital on supply chain integration, supply chain integration on economic sustainability and social sustainability, and has a (+), but not significant effect on environmental sustainability. It has shown that supply chain integration has been proven to play a role as a parameter between social capital and economic and social sustainability, but not as a parameter between environmental sustainability. Through this study, it is suggested that clearly examining the relationship between fairness of trade, social capital, supply chain integration and sustainability, maintaining fairness of the transaction make formation of social capital, and further integration of supply chain, and achieve sustainability of entire supply chain.
Contractual Risk Transfer in Islamic Home Financing: Analysis in Bank Malaysia
Risk management has implications on pricing, governance arrangements, business practices and strategy. Nowadays, home financing contract offers more in the risk transfer form to increase bank profit. This is parallel with Islamic jurisprudence method al-Kharaj bi al-thaman (gain accompanies liability for loss) and al-ghurm bil ghunm (gain is justified with risk) that determine the matching between risk transfer and returns. Malaysian financing trend is to buy house. Besides, exists transparency lacking risk transfer issues to the clients because of not been informed clearly. Terms and conditions of each financing also do not reflect clearly that the risk has been transferred to the client, justifying a determination price been made. The assumption on risk occurrence is also inaccurate as each risk is different with the type of financing contract. This makes the Islamic Financial Services Act 2013 in providing standards that transparent and consistent can be used by Islamic financial institution less effective. This study examines how far the level of the risk and obligation incurred by bank and client under various Islamic home financing contract. This research is qualitative by using two methods, document analysis, and semi-structured interviews. Document analysis from literature review to identify profile, themes and risk transfer element in home financing from Islamic jurisprudence perspective. This study finds that need to create a risk transfer parameter by banks which are consistent with risk transfer theory according to Islamic jurisprudence. This study has potential to assist the authority in Islamic finance such as The Central Bank of Malaysia (Bank Negara Malaysia) in regulating Islamic banking industry so that the risk transfer valuation in home financing contract based on home financing good practice and determined risk limits.
eTransformation Framework for the Cognitive Systems
Digital systems are in the cognitive wave of the eTransformations and are now extensively aimed at meeting the individuals’ demands, both those of customers requiring services and those of service providers. It is also apparent that successful future systems will not just simply open doors to the traditional owners/users to offer and receive services such as Uber for example does today, but will in the future require more customized and cognitively enabled infrastructures that will be responsive to the system user’s needs. To be able to identify what is required for such systems, this research reviews the historical and the current effects of the eTransformation process by studying: 1. eTransitions of company websites and mobile applications, 2. Emergence of new sheared economy business models as Uber and, 3. New requirements for demand driven, cognitive systems capable of learning and just in time decision making. Based on the analysis, this study proposes a Cognitive eTransformation Framework capable of guiding implementations of new responsive and user aware systems.
Resource Windfalls and the Victory of Distributive against Productive Policies
The huge popularity of distributive policies in many resource abundant countries coincided with the rise in oil and gas prices that started in 2004. Following the sharp recent price decrease, however, this popularity is becoming fragile and a tendency is increasing toward more productive policies. Using a theoretical model, this paper studies the optimal composition of public spending and demonstrates that, for sufficiently low amount of any exogenous revenue, e.g. resource revenue, investing all revenue in productive public goods is preferred by the voters. On the other hand, if resource revenue is sufficiently high, voters opt for more distributive policies as the amount of resource revenue increases. Furthermore, the initial productivity of the resource abundant economy plays an important role in determining the composition of public spending preferred by the individuals. If the initial level of productivity in a country is too low or too high, people may prefer distributive policies even for a low amount of resource revenue. Yet there is an important difference. Resource revenue eradicates the individuals' incentive to work in countries with low initial productivity while in highly productive countries, individuals always prefer to work.