Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 53174

Chemical and Molecular Engineering

1822
95973
Asymmetric Synthesis of Catalponol Using Chiral Iridium Catalyst
Abstract:
The development of catalytic asymmetric reaction is important for the synthesis of natural products. To construct the multiple stereogenic centers, the desymmetrization of meso compounds is powerful strategy for the synthesis of chiral molecules. Oxidative desymmetrization of meso diols using chiral iridium catalyst provides a chiral hydroxyl ketone. The reaction is practical and an environmentally benign method which does not require the use of stoichiometric amount of heavy metals. This time we report here catalytic asymmetric synthesis of catalponol based on tandem coupling of meso-diols and an aldehyde. The tandem reaction includes oxidative desymmetrization of meso-diols, aldol condensation with an aldehyde. The reaction of meso-diol, benzaldehyde in the presence of a catalytic amount of chiral Ir complex and CsOH in tetrahydrofuran afforded the desired benzylidene ketone in 82% yield with 96% ee (enantiomeric excess). Next, we applied this benzylidene ketone derivative to the synthesis of catalponol. The corresponding benzylidene ketone was obtained in 87% yield with 99% ee. Finally, catalponol was synthesized by the regio- and stereo-selective reduction of dienone moiety in good yield.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1821
94598
Silica Nanoparticles Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in MRC-5 Human Lung Fibroblasts
Abstract:
Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) are widely used in consumer products such as paints, plastics, insulation materials, tires, concrete production, as well as in gene delivery systems and imaging procedures. Environmental human exposure to them occurs during utilization of these products, in a time-dependent manner, the uptake being by topic and inhalation route especially. SiO2-NPs enter cells and induce membrane damage, oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions in a concentration-dependent manner. In this study, MRC-5 cells (human fetal lung fibroblasts) were exposed to amorphous SiO2-NPs at a dose of 62.5 μg/ml for 24, 48 and 72 hours. The size distribution of NPs was a lognormal function, in the range 3-14 nm. A time-dependent decrease of total reduced glutathione concentration by 36%, 50%, and 78% and an increase of NO level by 62%, 32%, respectively 24% compared to control were noticed. An up-regulation of NF-kB expression by 20%, 50% respectively 10% and of Nrf-2 by 139%, 58%, and 16% compared to control after 24, 48 and 72 hours was noticed also. The expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and COX-2 was up-regulated in a time-dependent manner. Also, the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were down-regulated after 48 and 72 hours, whereas their activities raised in a time-dependent manner. Exposure of cells to NPs up-regulated the expression of inducible NO synthase, as previously was shown, and probably this is the reason for the increased level of NO, that can react with the thiol groups of reduced glutathione molecules, diminishing its concentration Nrf2 is a transcription factor translocated in nucleus, under oxidative stress, where downstream gene expression activates in order to modulate the adaptive intracellular response against oxidative stress. The cross-talk between Nrf2 and NF-kB activities regulates the inflammatory processes. The activation of NF-kB could activate up-regulation of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8. The increase of COX-2 expression could be correlated with IL-1β one. Also, probably in response to the pro-inflammatory cytokines, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were induced and activated. In conclusion, the exposure of MRC-5 cells to SiO2-NPs generated inflammation in a time-dependent manner.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1820
93791
Comparative Study of Solid State and Solution Aldol Reaction of Lithium Enolate of Pinacolone
Abstract:
We reported a systematic study of the solid-state aldol reactions of lithium pinacolone enolate with various aromatic solid aldehydes, in comparison with the same reactions performed in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution. In solution, the reactions are selective with the aldol condensation product, except for the reaction involving 2-nitrobenzaldehyde. In the solid state, the reactions with THF-solvated lithium enolate of pinacolone showed the mixture of aldol condensation and aldol addition products. The usage of unsolvated lithium enolate of pinacolone in the solid-state reactions resulted in a higher ratio of aldol addition to aldol condensation product than THF-solvated lithium enolate of pinacolone. At lower temperatures (0 °C), the solid-state reactions can afford a higher ratio of aldol addition to aldol condensation product in the system. The solid-state reactions generally afforded low yields and low conversion of the aldehydes. For those aldehydes with halogen group on the para position of benzaldehyde, the Tishchenko product was formed in a large amount in the system catalyzed by lithium enolate of pinacolone (as the strong base).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1819
93748
Effect of Lithium Bromide Concentration on the Structure and Performance of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Membrane for Wastewater Treatment
Abstract:
The requirements for quality drinking and industrial water are increasing and water resources are depleting. Moreover large amount of wastewater is being generated and dumped into water bodies without treatment. These have made improvement in water treatment efficiency and its reuse, an important agenda. Membrane technology for wastewater treatment is an advanced process and has become increasingly popular in past few decades. There are many traditional methods for tertiary treatment such as chemical coagulation, adsorption, etc. However recent developments in membrane technology field have led to manufacturing of better quality membranes at reduced costs. This along with the high costs of conventional treatment processes, high separation efficiency and relative simplicity of the membrane treatment process has made it an economically viable option for municipal and industrial purposes. Ultrafiltration polymeric membranes can be used for wastewater treatment and drinking water applications. The proposed work focuses on preparation of one such UF membrane - Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) doped with LiBr for wastewater treatment. Majorly all polymeric membranes are hydrophobic in nature. This property leads to repulsion of water and hence solute particles occupy the pores, decreasing the lifetime of a membrane. Thus modification of membrane through addition of small amount of salt such as LiBr helped us attain certain characteristics of membrane, which can then be used for wastewater treatment. The membrane characteristics are investigated through measuring its various properties such as porosity, contact angle and wettability to find out the hydrophilic nature of the membrane and morphology (surface as well as structure). Pure water flux, solute rejection and permeability of membrane is determined by permeation experiments. A study of membrane characteristics with various concentration of LiBr helped us to compare its effectivity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1818
92220
Altering Surface Properties of Magnetic Nanoparticles with Single-Step Surface Modification with Various Surface Active Agents
Abstract:
Owing to the dominating surface forces and large-scale surface interactions, the nano-scale particles face difficulties in getting suspended in various media. Magnetic nanoparticles of iron oxide offer a great deal of promise due to their ease of preparation, reasonable magnetic properties, low cost and environmental compatibility. We intend to modify the surface of magnetic Fe₂O₃ nanoparticles with selected surface modifying agents using simple and effective single-step chemical reactions in order to enhance dispersibility of magnetic nanoparticles in non-polar media. Magnetic particles were prepared by hydrolysis of Fe²⁺/Fe³⁺ chlorides and their subsequent oxidation in aqueous medium. The dried particles were then treated with Octadecyl quaternary ammonium silane (Terrasil™), stearic acid and gallic acid ester of stearyl alcohol in ethanol separately to yield S-2 to S-4 respectively. The untreated Fe₂O₃ was designated as S-1. The surface modified nanoparticles were then analysed with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy dispersive X-Ray analysis (SEM-EDAX). Characterization reveals the particle size averaging 20-50 nm with and without modification. However, the crystallite size in all cases remained ~7.0 nm with the diffractogram matching to Fe₂O₃ crystal structure. FT-IR suggested the presence of surfactants on nanoparticles’ surface, also confirmed by SEM-EDAX where mapping of elements proved their presence. TGA indicated the weight losses in S-2 to S-4 at 300°C onwards suggesting the presence of organic moiety. Hydrophobic character of modified surfaces was confirmed with contact angle analysis, all modified nanoparticles showed super hydrophobic behaviour with average contact angles ~129° for S-2, ~139.5° for S-3 and ~151° for S-4. This indicated that surface modified particles are super hydrophobic and they are easily dispersible in non-polar media. These modified particles could be ideal candidates to be suspended in oil-based fluids, polymer matrices, etc. We are pursuing elaborate suspension/sedimentation studies of these particles in various oils to establish this conjecture.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1817
92023
Carbon Nanotubes Functionalization via Ullmann-Type Reactions Yielding C-C, C-O and C-N Bonds
Abstract:
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) represent a combination of lightness and nanoscopic size with high tensile strength, excellent thermal and electrical conductivity. By now, CNTs have been used as a support in heterogeneous catalysis (CuCl anchored to pre-functionalized CNTs) in the Ullmann-type coupling with aryl halides toward formation of C-N and C-O bonds. The results indicated that the stability of the catalyst was much improved and the elaborated catalytic system was efficient and recyclable. However, CNTs have not been considered as the substrate itself in the Ullmann-type reactions. But if successful, this functionalization would open new areas of CNT chemistry leading to enhanced in-solvent/matrix nanotube individualization. The copper-catalyzed Ullmann-type reaction is an attractive method for the formation of carbon-heteroatom and carbon-carbon bonds in organic synthesis. This condensation reaction is usually conducted at temperature as high as 200 oC, often in the presence of stoichiometric amounts of copper reagent and with activated aryl halides. However, a small amount of organic additive (e.g. diamines, amino acids, diols, 1,10-phenanthroline) can be applied in order to increase the solubility and stability of copper catalyst, and at the same time to allow performing the reaction under mild conditions. The copper (pre-)catalyst is prepared by in situ mixing of copper salt and the appropriate chelator. Our research is focused on the application of Ullmann-type reaction for the covalent functionalization of CNTs. Firstly, CNTs were chlorinated by using iodine trichloride (ICl3) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). This method involves formation of several chemical species (ICl, Cl2 and I2Cl6), but the most reactive is the dimer. The fact (that the dimer is the main individual in CCl4) is the reason for high reactivity and possibly high functionalization levels of CNTs. This method, indeed, yielded a notable amount of chlorine onto the MWCNT surface. The next step was the reaction of CNT-Cl with three substrates: aniline, iodobenzene and phenol for the formation C-N, C-C and C-O bonds, respectively, in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline and cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) as a base. As the CNT substrates, two multi-wall CNT (MWCNT) types were used: commercially available Nanocyl NC7000™ (9.6 nm diameter, 1.5 µm length, 90% purity) and thicker MWCNTs (in-house) synthesized in our laboratory using catalytic chemical vapour deposition (c-CVD). In-house CNTs had diameter ranging between 60-70 nm and length up to 300 µm. Since classical Ullmann reaction was found as suffering from poor yields, we have investigated the effect of various solvents (toluene, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide and N,N-dimethylformamide) on the coupling of substrates. Owing to the fact that the aryl halides show the reactivity order of I>Br>Cl>F, we have also investigated the effect of iodine presence on CNT surface on reaction yield. In this case, in first step we have used iodine monochloride instead of iodine trichloride. Finally, we have used the optimized reaction conditions with p-bromophenol and 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene for the control of CNT dispersion.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1816
91833
Ionophore-Based Materials for Selective Optical Sensing of Iron(III)
Abstract:
Development of selective, fast-responsive, and economical sensors for diverse ions detection and determination is one of the most extensively studied areas due to its importance in the field of clinical, environmental and industrial analysis. Among chemical sensors, vast popularity has gained ionophore-based optical sensors, where the generated analytical signal is a consequence of the molecular recognition of ion by the ionophore. Change of color occurring during host-guest interactions allows for quantitative analysis and for 'naked-eye' detection without the need of using sophisticated equipment. An example of application of such sensors is colorimetric detection of iron(III) cations. Iron as one of the most significant trace elements plays roles in many biochemical processes. For these reasons, the development of reliable, fast, and selective methods of iron ions determination is highly demanded. Taking all mentioned above into account a chromogenic amide derivative of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid was synthesized, and its ability to iron(III) recognition was tested. To the best of authors knowledge (according to chemical abstracts) the obtained ligand has not been described in the literature so far. The catechol moiety was introduced to the ligand structure in order to mimic the action of naturally occurring siderophores-iron(III)-selective receptors. The ligand–ion interactions were studied using spectroscopic methods: UV-Vis spectrophotometry and infrared spectroscopy. The spectrophotometric measurements revealed that the amide exhibits affinity to iron(III) in dimethyl sulfoxide and fully aqueous solution, what is manifested by the change of color from yellow to green. Incorporation of the tested amide into a polymeric matrix (cellulose triacetate) ensured effective recognition of iron(III) at pH 3 with the detection limit 1.58×10⁻⁵ M. For the obtained sensor material parameters like linear response range, response time, selectivity, and possibility of regeneration were determined. In order to evaluate the effect of the size of the sensing material on iron(III) detection nanospheres (in the form of nanoemulsion) containing the tested amide were also prepared. According to DLS (dynamic light scattering) measurements, the size of the nanospheres is 308.02 ± 0.67 nm. Work parameters of the nanospheres were determined and compared with cellulose triacetate-based material. Additionally, for fast, qualitative experiments the test strips were prepared by adsorption of the amide solution on a glass microfiber material. Visual limit of detection of iron(III) at pH 3 by the test strips was estimated at the level 10⁻⁴ M. In conclusion, reported here amide derived from 3,4- dihydroxybenzoic acid proved to be an effective candidate for optical sensing of iron(III) in fully aqueous solutions. N. L. kindly acknowledges financial support from National Science Centre Poland the grant no. 2017/01/X/ST4/01680. Authors thank for financial support from Gdansk University of Technology grant no. 032406.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1815
91532
Photochemical Degradation of Ibuprofren in Aqueous Solutions
Abstract:
Day after day more pharmaceutical compounds that are not efficiently removed by conventional treatment methods are found in treated wastewaters and drinking waters. Due to their refractory nature, they escape conventional wastewater treatment facilities, and thus advanced oxidation processes have to be utilized to effectively eliminate them. In the present study, the removal of Ibuprofen from aqueous solutions containing the commercial drug Algofren (non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory) using UV irradiation, hydrogen peroxide, titanium dioxide and ferric ions was examined. All experiments were conducted in a batch photoreactor operated for 120 min. The main target was to select the most effective operating conditions for the mineralization of the solutions treated. The combination of Fe(III)/ H₂O₂/UV proved to be very efficient in terms of total organic carbon removal and ibuprofen conversion. For solutions containing 5 mg/L ibuprofen and initial total carbon 51.1 mg/L, complete mineralization was achieved by means of 2.2 ppm Fe(III) and 333 mg/L H₂O₂.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1814
91429
Design Considerations on Cathodic Protection for X65 Steel Tank Containing Fresh Water
Abstract:
The present study focused on critical and detailed approach for using aluminum electrode as impressed current anode for cathodic protection of X65 steel tank containing fresh water. The impressed current design calculation showed 0.6 A of current demand and voltage of 0.33 V required to adequately protect the X65 steel tank with internal surface area of 421 m². We used here one transformer rectifier with current and voltage output of 25 A and 25 V, respectively. The data showed that the potentials ranged from -0.474 to -0.509 V (vs. Cu/CuSO₄), prior to the application of cathodic protection. When the potential was measured 1 h after the application of cathodic protection, the potential values showed considerable shift within protection range (-0.950 V vs. Cu/CuSO₄). The results confirmed that aluminum anode can be used in freshwater applications with high efficiency (current capacity) and low consumption rate.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1813
91010
Understanding the Origins of Pesticides Metabolites in Natural Waters through the Land Use, Hydroclimatic Conditions and Water Quality
Abstract:
Brittany (France) is an agricultural region, where emerging pollutants are highly at risk to reach water bodies. Among them, pesticides metabolites are frequently detected in surface waters. The Vilaine watershed (11 000 km²) is of great interest, as a large drinking water treatment plant (100 000 m³/day) is located at the extreme downstream of it. This study aims to provide an evaluation of the pesticides metabolites pollution in the Vilaine watershed, and an understanding of their availability, in order to protect the water resource. Hydroclimatic conditions, land use, and water quality parameters controlling metabolites availability are emphasized. Later this knowledge will be used to understand the favoring conditions resulting in metabolites export towards surface water. 19 sampling points have been strategically chosen along the 220 km of the Vilaine river and its 3 main influents. Furthermore, the intakes of two drinking water plants have been sampled, one is located at the extreme downstream of the Vilaine river and the other is the riparian groundwater under the Vilaine river. 5 sampling campaigns with various hydroclimatic conditions have been carried out. Water quality parameters and hydroclimatic conditions have been measured. 15 environmentally relevant pesticides and metabolites have been analyzed. Also, these compounds are recalcitrant to classic water treatment that is why they have been selected. An evaluation of the watershed contamination has been done in 2016-2017. First observations showed that aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid (MESA) are the most detected compounds in surface waters samples with 100 % and 98 % frequency of detection respectively. They are the main pollutants of the watershed regardless of the hydroclimatic conditions. AMPA concentration in the river strongly increases downstream of Rennes agglomeration (220k inhabitants) and reaches a maximum of 2.3 µg/l in low waters conditions. Groundwater contains mainly MESA, Diuron and metazachlor ESA at concentrations close to limits of quantification (LOQ) (0.02 µg/L). Metolachlor, metazachlor and alachlor due to their fast degradation in soils were found in small amounts (LOQ – 0.2 µg/L). Conversely glyphosate was regularly found during warm and sunny periods up to 0.6 µg/L. Soil uses (agricultural cultures types, urban areas, forests, wastewater treatment plants implementation), water quality parameters, and hydroclimatic conditions have been correlated to pesticides and metabolites concentration in waters. Statistical treatments showed that chloroacetamides metabolites and AMPA behave differently regardless of the hydroclimatic conditions. Chloroacetamides are correlated to each other, to agricultural areas and to typical agricultural tracers as nitrates. They are present in waters the whole year, especially during rainy periods, suggesting important stocks in soils. Also Chloroacetamides are negatively correlated with AMPA, the different forms of phosphorus, and organic matter. AMPA is ubiquitous but strongly correlated with urban areas despite the recent French regulation, restricting glyphosate to agricultural and private uses. This work helps to predict and understand metabolites present in the water resource used to craft drinking water. As the studied metabolites are difficult to remove, this project will be completed by a water treatment part.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1812
90974
Application of Stabilized Polyaniline Microparticles for Better Protective Ability of Zinc Coatings
Abstract:
Coatings based on polyaniline (PANI) can improve the resistance of steel against corrosion. In this work, the preparation of stable suspensions of colloidal PANI-SiO2 particles, suitable for obtaining of composite anticorrosive coating on steel, is described. Electrokinetic data as a function of pH are presented, showing that the zeta potentials of the PANI-SiO2 particles are governed primarily by the charged groups at the silica oxide surface. Electrosteric stabilization of the PANI-SiO2 particles’ suspension against aggregation is realized at pH>5.5 (EB form of PANI) by adsorption of positively charged polyelectrolyte molecules onto negatively charged PANI-SiO2 particles. The PANI-SiO2 particles are incorporated by electrodeposition into the metal matrix of zinc in order to obtain composite (hybrid) coatings. The latter are aimed to ensure sacrificial protection of steel mainly in aggressive media leading to local corrosion damages. The surface morphology of the composite zinc coatings is investigated with SEM. The influence of PANI-SiO2 particles on the cathodic and anodic processes occurring in the starting electrolyte for obtaining of the coatings is followed with cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical and corrosion behavior is evaluated with potentiodynamic polarization curves and polarization resistance measurements. The beneficial effect of the stabilized PANI-SiO2 particles for the increased protective ability of the composites is commented and discussed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1811
90935
Formation of Stable Aqueous Dispersions of Polyaniline-Silica Particles for Application in Anticorrosive Coatings on Steel
Abstract:
Coatings based on polyaniline (PANI) can improve the resistance of steel against corrosion. Two forms of PANI are generally accepted to have effective protection of steel: the conducting emeraldine salt (ES) and the non-conducting emeraldine base (EB). The ability to intercept electrons at the metal surface and to transport them is typically attributed to ES, while the success of EB as an anticorrosive additive in the coating is attributed to its ability to oxidize and reduce in a reversible way. This electrochemical mechanism is probably combined with barrier effect against corrosion species. In this work, we describe the preparation of stable suspensions of colloidal PANI-SiO₂ particles, suitable for obtaining of composite anticorrosive coating on steel. Electrokinetic data as a function of pH are presented, showing that the zeta potentials of the PANI-SiO₂ particles are governed primarily by the charged groups at the silica oxide surface. Electrosteric stabilization of the PANI-SiO₂ particles’ suspension against aggregation is realized at pH > 5.5 (EB form of PANI) by adsorption of positively charged polyelectrolyte molecules onto negatively charged PANI-SiO₂ particles. We anticipate that incorporation of the small particles will provide a more homogeneous distribution in the coating matrix and will decrease the negative effect on barrier properties of the composite coating.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1810
90785
Optimizing the Morphology and Flow Patterns of Scaffold Perfusion Systems for Effective Cell Deposition Using Computational Fluid Dynamics
Abstract:
A bioreactor is an engineered system that supports a biologically active environment. Along the years, the advancements in bioreactors have been widely accepted all over the world for varied applications ranging from sewage treatment to tissue cloning. Driven by tissue and organ shortage, tissue engineering has emerged as an alternative to transplantation for the reconstruction of lost or damaged organs. In this study, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to model porous medium flow in scaffolds (taken from the literature) with different flow patterns. A detailed analysis of different scaffold geometries and their influence on cell deposition in the perfusion system is been carried out using Computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Considering the fact that, the scaffold should mimic the organs or tissues structures in a three-dimensional manner, certain assumptions were made accordingly. The research on scaffolds has been extensively carried out in different bioreactors. However, there has been less focus on the morphology of the scaffolds and the flow patterns in which the perfusion system is laid upon. The objective of this paper is to employ a computational approach using CFD simulation to determine the optimal morphology and the anisotropic measurements of the various samples of scaffolds. Using predictive computational modelling approach, variables which exert dominant effects on the cell deposition within the scaffold were prioritised and corresponding changes in morphology of scaffold and flow patterns in the perfusion systems are made. A Eulerian approach was carried on in multiple CFD simulations, and it is observed that the morphological and topological changes in the scaffold perfusion system are of great importance in the commercial applications of scaffolds.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1809
90514
Mentha crispa Essential Oil and Rotundifolone Analogues: Cytotoxic Effect on Glioblastoma
Abstract:
Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive cancer from the brain and with high prevalence and significant morbimortality. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate new therapeutic options against this pathology. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antitumor activity from Mentha crispa essential oil (MCEO), its major constituent rotundifolone (ROT) and a series of six analogues on human U87MG glioblastoma cell line. The antitumor effects of the compounds on human U87MG-GBM cell line were assessed using in vitro cell viability assays. In addition, biosafety tests were performed on cultured human blood cells. The data show that MCEO, 1,2-perillaldehyde epoxide (EPER1) and perillaldehyde (PALD) were the most cytotoxic compounds against the U87MG cells, with IC50 values of 16.263, 15.087 and 14.888 μg/mL, respectively. The treatment with MCEO, EPER1 and PALD did not lead to damage in blood cells. These chemical analogues may be useful as prototypes for development of novel antitumor drugs due to their promising activities and toxicological safety.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1808
90131
Separation Performance of CO₂ by Mixed Matrix Membrane Comprising Carbide-Derived Carbon
Abstract:
In this study, the development of mixed matrix membrane (MMM) containing carbide-derived carbon (CDC) for the separation of CO₂ was investigated. MMM with four different loadings (0.1 to 2 wt%) were prepared by the dry/wet phase inversion technique. Prior to this, the formula of the control polysulfone (PSF) membrane was optimized in terms of the PSF concentration in a mixture of NMP/THF solvents and ethanol. Prepared samples were characterized and tested for CO₂ and CH₄ gas permeation. The optimization of the control PSF membrane revealed that 30 wt% PSF is the critical polymer concentration in the formulation. Characterization results unveiled reinforcement of thermal stability and improved polarity imparted by CDC in the MMM, in addition to uniform dispersion of filler up to 1 wt% loading. Furthermore, the incorporation of CDC in PSF membrane formulation enhanced both the CO₂ permeance and ideal selectivity over the control membrane. A CDC loading of 0.5 wt% resulted in the highest CO₂ permeance of 5.5 GPU corresponding to 120% increase in permeance while a CDC loading of 1 wt% resulted in the highest selectivity (CO₂ /CH₄) of 27 corresponding to 29% increase in selectivity. Studies of operating temperature effect showed that an optimum operating temperature for M1.0 membrane is 20 ⁰C. In addition, the feed pressure studies showed that high pressure feeds will favor high performance of the membrane and a good CO₂ /CH₄ separation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1807
90107
Segmental Motion of Polymer Chain at Glass Transition Probed by Single Molecule Detection
Authors:
Abstract:
The glass transition phenomenon has been extensively studied for a long time. The glass transition of polymer materials is assigned to the transition of the dynamics of the chain backbone segment. However, the detailed mechanism of the transition behavior of the segmental motion is still unclear. In the current work, the single molecule detection technique was employed to reveal the trajectory of the molecular motion of the single polymer chain. The center segment of poly(butyl methacrylate) chain was labeled by a perylenediimide dye molecule and observed by a highly sensitive fluorescence microscope in a defocus condition. The translational and rotational diffusion of the center segment in a single polymer chain was analyzed near the glass transition temperature. The direct observation of the individual polymer chains revealed the intermittent behavior of the segmental motion, indicating the spatial inhomogeneity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1806
89958
Eu³⁺ PVC Membrane Sensor Based on 1,2-Diaminopropane-N,N,N',N'-Tetraacetic Acid
Abstract:
A highly selective poly(vinyl chloride)-based membrane sensor produced by using 1,2-Diaminopropane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (DAPTA) as active material is described. The electrode displays Nernstian behavior over the concentration range 1.0×10⁻⁶ to 1.0×10⁻² M. The detection limit of the electrode is 7.2×10⁻⁷ M. The best performance was obtained with the membrane containing 30% polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 65% nitrobenzene (NB), 2% sodium tetra phenyl borate (Na TPB), 3% DAPTA. The potentiometric response of the proposed electrode is pH independent in the range of 2.5–‎‎9.1. ‎The proposed sensor displays a fast response time 'less than 10s'. The electrode shows a good selectivity for Eu (III) ion with respect to most common cations including alkali, alkaline earth, transition, and heavy metal ions. It was used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric ‎titration of 25 mL of a 1.0×10⁻⁴ M Eu (III) solution with a 1.0×10⁻² M EDTA solution.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1805
89906
An Efficient Emitting Supramolecular Material Derived from Calixarene: Synthesis, Optical and Electrochemical Features
Abstract:
High attention on the organic light-emitting diodes has been paid since their efficient properties in the flat panel displays, and solid-state lighting was realized. Because of their high efficient electroluminescence, brightness and providing eminent in the emission range, organic light emitting diodes have been preferred a material compared with the other materials consisting of the liquid crystal. Calixarenes obtained from the reaction of p-tert-butyl phenol and formaldehyde in a suitable base have been potentially used in various research area such as catalysis, enzyme immobilization, and applications, ion carrier, sensors, nanoscience, etc. In addition, their tremendous frameworks, as well as their easily functionalization, make them an effective candidate in the applied chemistry. Herein, a calix[4]arene derivative has been synthesized, and its structure has been fully characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR), carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (¹³C-NMR), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and elemental analysis techniques. The calixarene derivative has been employed as an emitting layer in the fabrication of the organic light-emitting diodes. The optical and electrochemical features of calixarane-contained organic light-emitting diodes (Clx-OLED) have been also performed. The results showed that Clx-OLED exhibited blue emission and high external quantum efficacy. As a conclusion obtained results attributed that the synthesized calixarane derivative is a promising chromophore with efficient fluorescent quantum yield that provides it an attractive candidate for fabricating effective materials for fluorescent probes and labeling studies. This study was financially supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK Grant no. 117Z402).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1804
89747
Natural Mexican Zeolite Modified with Iron to Remove Arsenic Ions from Water Sources
Abstract:
Arsenic is an element present in the earth's crust and is dispersed in the environment through natural processes and some anthropogenic activities. Naturally released into the environment through the weathering and erosion of sulphides mineral, some activities such as mining, the use of pesticides or wood preservatives potentially increase the concentration of arsenic in air, water, and soil. The natural arsenic release of a geological material is a threat to the world's drinking water sources. In aqueous phase is found in inorganic form, as arsenate and arsenite mainly, the contamination of groundwater by salts of this element originates what is known as endemic regional hydroarsenicism. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) categorizes the inorganic As within group I, as a substance with proven carcinogenic action for humans. It has been found the presence of As in groundwater in several countries such as Argentina, Mexico, Bangladesh, Canada and the United States. Regarding the concentration of arsenic in drinking water according to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establish maximum concentrations of 10 μg L⁻¹. In Mexico, in some states as Hidalgo, Morelos and Michoacán concentrations of arsenic have been found in bodies of water around 1000 μg L⁻¹, a concentration that is well above what is allowed by Mexican regulations with the NOM-127- SSA1-1994 that establishes a limit of 25 μg L⁻¹. Given this problem in Mexico, this research proposes the use of a natural Mexican zeolite (clinoptilolite type) native to the district of Etla in the central valley region of Oaxaca, as an adsorbent for the removal of arsenic. The zeolite was subjected to a conditioning with iron oxide by the precipitation-impregnation method with 0.5 M iron nitrate solution, in order to increase the natural adsorption capacity of this material. The removal of arsenic was carried out in a column with a fixed bed of conditioned zeolite, since it combines the advantages of a conventional filter with those of a natural adsorbent medium, providing a continuous treatment, of low cost and relatively easy to operate, for its implementation in marginalized areas. The zeolite was characterized by XRD, SEM/EDS, and FTIR before and after the arsenic adsorption tests, the results showed that the modification methods used are adequate to prepare adsorbent materials since it does not modify its structure, the results showed that with a particle size of 1.18 mm, an initial concentration of As (V) ions of 1 ppm, a pH of 7 and at room temperature, a removal of 98.7% was obtained with an adsorption capacity of 260 μg As g⁻¹ zeolite. The results obtained indicated that the conditioned zeolite is favorable for the elimination of arsenate in water containing up to 1000 μg As L⁻¹ and could be suitable for removing arsenate from pits of water.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1803
89543
The Role of Piceatannol in Counteracting Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Aggregation and Nuclear Translocation
Abstract:
In the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, protein and peptide aggregation processes play a vital role in contributing to the formation of intracellular and extracellular protein deposits. One of the major components of these deposits is the oxidatively modified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Therefore, the purpose of this research was to answer the question whether piceatannol, a stilbene derivative, counteracts and/or slows down oxidative stress-induced GAPDH aggregation. The study also aimed to determine if this natural occurring compound prevents unfavorable nuclear translocation of GAPDH in hippocampal cells. The isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) analysis indicated that one molecule of GAPDH can bind up to 8 molecules of piceatannol (7.3 ± 0.9). As a consequence of piceatannol binding to the enzyme, the loss of activity was observed. Parallel with GAPDH inactivation the changes in zeta potential, and loss of free thiol groups were noted. Nevertheless, the ligand-protein binding does not influence the secondary structure of the GAPDH. Precise molecular docking analysis of the interactions inside the active center allowed to presume that these effects are due to piceatannol ability to assemble a covalent binding with nucleophilic cysteine residue (Cys149) which is directly involved in the catalytic reaction. Molecular docking also showed that simultaneously 11 molecules of ligand can be bound to dehydrogenase. Taking into consideration obtained data, the influence of piceatannol on level of GAPDH aggregation induced by excessive oxidative stress was examined. The applied methods (thioflavin-T binding-dependent fluorescence as well as microscopy methods - transmission electron microscopy, Congo Red staining) revealed that piceatannol significantly diminishes level of GAPDH aggregation. Finally, studies involving cellular model (Western blot analyses of nuclear and cytosolic fractions and confocal microscopy) indicated that piceatannol-GAPDH binding prevents GAPDH from nuclear translocation induced by excessive oxidative stress in hippocampal cells. In consequence, it counteracts cell apoptosis. These studies demonstrate that by binding with GAPDH, piceatannol blocks cysteine residue and counteracts its oxidative modifications, that induce oligomerization and GAPDH aggregation as well as it prevents hippocampal cells from apoptosis by retaining GAPDH in the cytoplasm. All these findings provide a new insight into the role of piceatannol interaction with GAPDH and present a potential therapeutic strategy for some neurological disorders related to GAPDH aggregation. This work was supported by the by National Science Centre, Poland (grant number 2017/25/N/NZ1/02849).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1802
89460
Electrophoretic Deposition of Ultrasonically Synthesized Nanostructured Conducting Poly(o-phenylenediamine)-Co-Poly(1-naphthylamine) Film for Detection of Glucose
Abstract:
The ultrasonic synthesis of nanostructured conducting copolymer is an effective technique to synthesize polymer with desired chemical properties. This tailored nanostructure, shows tremendous improvement in sensitivity and stability to detect a variety of analytes. The present work reports ultrasonically synthesized nanostructured conducting poly(o-phenylenediamine)-co-poly(1-naphthylamine) (POPD-co-PNA). The synthesized material has been characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and cyclic voltammetry. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed random copolymerization, while UV-visible studies reveal the variation in polaronic states upon copolymerization. High crystallinity was achieved via ultrasonic synthesis which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, and the controlled morphology of the nanostructures was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. Cyclic voltammetry shows that POPD-co-PNA has rather high electrochemical activity. This behavior was explained on the basis of variable orientations adopted by the conducting polymer chains. The synthesized material was electrophoretically deposited at onto indium tin oxide coated glass substrate which is used as cathode and parallel platinum plate as the counter electrode. The fabricated bioelectrode was further used for detection of glucose by crosslinking of glucose oxidase in the PODP-co-PNA film. The bioelectrode shows a surface-controlled electrode reaction with the electron transfer coefficient (α) of 0.72, charge transfer rate constant (ks) of 21.77 s⁻¹ and diffusion coefficient 7.354 × 10⁻¹⁵ cm²s⁻¹.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1801
89402
Solar Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Glycerol Reforming Using Ternary Cu/TiO2/Graphene
Abstract:
A ternary Cu/TiO2/rGO photocatalysts was prepared using solvothermal method. Firstly, pure anatase TiO2 hollow spheres were prepared with titanium butoxide, ethanol, ammonium sulphate, and urea via hydrothermal method; and Cu nanoparticles were subsequently loaded on the surface of the hollow spheres by wet impregnation. During the solvothermal process, the deposition and well dispersion of Cu-TiO2 hollow spheres composites onto the graphene oxide surface, as well as the reduction of graphene oxide to graphene were achieved. The morphological and structural properties of the prepared samples were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Tellet (BET), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and UV-vis DRS, and photoelectrochemical. The activities of the prepared catalysts were tested for hydrogen production via simultaneous photocatalytic water-splitting and glycerol reforming under visible light irradiation. The excellent photocatalytic activity of the Cu-TiO2-hollow-spheres/rGO catalyst was attributed the rGO which acts as both storage and transferor of electrons generated at the Cu and TiO2 heterojunction, thus increasing the electron-hole pairs separation. This paper reports the preparation of photocatalyst which is highly active by coupling reduced graphene oxide with nano-structured TiO2 with high surface area that can efficiently harvest the visible light for effective water-splitting and glycerol photocatalytic reforming in order to achieve efficient hydrogen evolution.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1800
89318
Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Leaf Extract of Tithonia diversifolia and Its Antimicrobial Properties
Abstract:
High costs and toxicological hazards associated with the physicochemical methods of producing nanoparticles have limited their widespread use in clinical and biomedical applications. An ethically sound alternative is the utilization of plant bioresources as a low cost and eco–friendly biological approach. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from aqueous leaf extract of Tithonia diversifolia plant. The UV-Vis Spectrophotometer was used to monitor the formation of the AgNPs at different time intervals and different ratios of plant extract to the AgNO₃ solution. The biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by FTIR, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Antimicrobial activities of the AgNPs were investigated against ten human pathogens using agar well diffusion method. The AgNPs yields were modeled using a second-order factorial design. The result showed that the rate of formation of the AgNPs increased with respect to time while the optimum ratio of plant extract to the AgNO₃ solution was 1:1. The hydroxyl group was strongly involved in the bioreduction of the silver salt as indicated by the FTIR spectra. The synthesized AgNPs were crystalline in nature, with a uniformly distributed network of the web-like structure. The factorial model predicted the nanoparticles yields with minimal errors. The nanoparticles were active against all the tested pathogens and thus have great potentials as antimicrobial agents.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1799
89245
Quantum Modelling of AgHMoO₄, CsHMoO₄ and AgCsMoO₄ Chemistry in the Field of Nuclear Power Plant Safety
Abstract:
In a major nuclear accident, the released fission products (FPs) and the structural materials are likely to influence the transport of iodine in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). So far, the thermodynamic data on cesium and silver species used to estimate the magnitude of FP release show some discrepancies, data are scarce and not reliable. For this reason, it is crucial to review the thermodynamic values related to cesium and silver materials. To this end, we have used state-of-the-art quantum chemical methods to compute the formation enthalpies and entropies of AgHMoO₄, CsHMoO₄, and AgCsMoO₄ in the gas phase. Different quantum chemical methods have been investigated (DFT and CCSD(T)) in order to predict the geometrical parameters and the energetics including the correlation energy. The geometries were optimized with TPSSh-5%HF method, followed by a single point calculation of the total electronic energies using the CCSD(T) wavefunction method. We thus propose with a final uncertainty of about 2 kJmol⁻¹ standard enthalpies of formation of AgHMoO₄, CsHMoO₄, and AgCsMoO₄.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1798
89209
Towards a Rigorous Analysis for a Supercritical Particulate Process
Abstract:
Crystallization with supercritical fluids (SCFs), as a developed technology to produce particles of micron and sub-micron size with narrow size distribution, has found appreciable importance as an environmentally friendly technology. Particle synthesis using SCFs can be achieved employing a number of special processes involving solvent and antisolvent mechanisms. In this study, the compressed antisolvent (PCA) process is utilized as a model to analyze the theoretical complexity of crystallization with supercritical fluids. The population balance approach has proven to be an effectual technique to simulate and predict the particle size and size distribution. The nucleation and growth mechanisms of the particles formation in the PCA process is investigated using the population balance equation, which describes the evolution of the particle through coalescence and breakup levels with time. The employed mathematical population balance model contains a set of the partial differential equation with algebraic constraints, which demands a rigorous numerical approach. The combined Collocation and Galerkin finite element method are proposed as a high-resolution technique to solve the dynamics of the PCA process.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1797
89207
Comparative Catalytic Activity of Some Ferrites for Phenol Degradation in Aqueous Solutions
Abstract:
The treatment of wastewater from highly toxic pollutants is one of the most challenging issues for humanity. In this study, the advanced oxidation process (AOP) was employed to study the catalytic degradation of phenol using different ferrite catalysts which are CoFe₂O₄, CrFe₂O₄, CuFe₂O₄, MgFe₂O₄, MnFe₂O₄, NiFe₂O₄ and ZnFe₂O₄. The ferrite catalysts were prepared via sol-gel and co-precipitation methods. Different ferrite composites were also prepared either by varying the metal ratios or incorporating chemically reduced graphene oxide in the ferrite cluster. The effect of phosphoric acid treatment on the copper ferrite activity. All of the prepared catalysts were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ferrites catalytic activities were tested towards phenol degradation using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The experimental results showed that ferrites prepared through sol-gel route were more active than those of the co-precipitation method towards phenol degradation. In both cases, CuFe₂O₄ exhibited the highest degradation of phenol compared to the other ferrites. The photocatalytic properties of the ferrites were also investigated.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1796
89193
A Comparative Study: Influences of Polymerization Temperature on Phosphoric Acid Doped Polybenzimidazole Membranes
Abstract:
Fuel cells are electrochemical devices which convert the chemical energy of hydrogen into the electricity. Among the types of fuel cells, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are attracting considerable attention as non-polluting power generators with high energy conversion efficiencies in mobile applications. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) is one of the essential components of PEMFCs. Perfluorosulfonic acid based membranes known as Nafion® is widely used as PEMs. Nafion® membranes water dependent proton conductivity which limits the operating temperature below 100ᵒC. At higher temperatures, proton conductivity and mechanical stability of these membranes decrease because of dehydration. Polybenzimidazole (PBI), which has good anhydrous proton conductivity after doped with acids, as well as excellent thermal stability, shows great potential in the application of high temperature PEMFCs. In the present study, PBI polymers were synthesized by solution polycondensation at 190 and 210ᵒC. The synthesized polymers were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, and TGA. Phosphoric acid doped PBI membranes were prepared and tested in a PEMFC. The influences of reaction temperature on structural properties of synthesized polymers were investigated. Mechanical properties, acid-doping level, proton conductivity, and fuel cell performances of prepared phosphoric acid doped PBI membranes were evaluated. The maximum power density was found as 32.5 mW/cm² at 120ᵒC.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1795
89192
Conventional and Computational Investigation of the Synthesized Organotin(IV) Complexes Derived from o-Vanillin and 3-Nitro-o-Phenylenediamine
Abstract:
Schiff base with general formula H₂L was derived from condensation of o-vanillin and 3-nitro-o-phenylenediamine. This Schiff base was used for the synthesis of organotin(IV) complexes with general formula R₂SnL [R=Phenyl or n-octyl] using equimolar quantities. Elemental analysis UV-Vis, FTIR, and multinuclear spectroscopic techniques (¹H, ¹³C, and ¹¹⁹Sn) NMR were carried out for the characterization of the synthesized complexes. These complexes were coloured and soluble in polar solvents. Computational studies have been performed to obtain the details of the geometry and electronic structures of ligand as well as complexes. Geometry of the ligands and complexes have been optimized at the level of Density Functional Theory with B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) and B3LYP/MPW1PW91 respectively followed by vibrational frequency analysis using Gaussian 09. Observed ¹¹⁹Sn NMR chemical shifts of one of the synthesized complexes showed tetrahedral geometry around Tin atom which is also confirmed by DFT. HOMO-LUMO energy distribution was calculated. FTIR, ¹HNMR and ¹³CNMR spectra were also obtained theoretically using DFT. Further IRC calculations were employed to determine the transition state for the reaction and to get the theoretical information about the reaction pathway. Moreover, molecular docking studies can be explored to ensure the anticancer activity of the newly synthesized organotin(IV) complexes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1794
89080
Removal of Phenol from Aqueous Solutions by Ferrite Catalysts
Abstract:
The large-scale production of wastewater containing highly toxic pollutants made it necessary to find efficient water treatment technologies. Phenolic compounds, which are known to be persistent and hazardous, are highly presented in wastewater. In this study, different ferrite catalysts CrFe₂O₄, CuFe₂O₄, MgFe₂O₄, MnFe₂O₄, NiFe₂O₄, and ZnFe₂O₄ were employed to study the catalytic degradation of phenol aqueous solutions. The catalysts were prepared via sol-gel and co-precipitation methods. All of the prepared catalysts were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ferrites catalytic activities were tested towards phenol degradation using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The photocatalytic properties of the ferrites were also investigated. The experimental results suggested that CuFe₂O₄ is an effective catalyst for the removal of phenol from wastewater. Additionally, different CuFe₂O₄composites were also prepared either by varying the metal ratios or incorporating chemically reduced graphene oxide in the ferrite cluster.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1793
89032
Clathrate Hydrate Measurements and Thermodynamic Modelling for Refrigerants with Electrolytes Solution in the Presence of Cyclopentane
Abstract:
Phase equilibrium data (dissociation data) for clathrate hydrate (gas hydrate) were undertaken for systems involving fluorinated refrigerants with a single and mixed electrolytes (NaCl, CaCl₂, MgCl₂, and Na₂SO₄) aqueous solution at various salt concentrations in the absence and presence of cyclopentane (CP). The ternary systems for (R410a or R507) with the water system in the presence of CP were performed in the temperature and pressures ranges of (279.8 to 294.4) K and (0.158 to 1.385) MPa, respectively. Measurements for R410a with single electrolyte {NaCl or CaCl₂} solution in the presence of CP were undertaken at salt concentrations of (0.10, 0.15 and 0.20) mass fractions in the temperature and pressure ranges of (278.4 to 293.7) K and (0.214 to1.179) MPa, respectively. The temperature and pressure conditions for R410a with Na₂SO₄ aqueous solution system were investigated at a salt concentration of 0.10 mass fraction in the range of (283.3 to 291.6) K and (0.483 to 1.373) MPa respectively. Measurements for {R410a or R507} with mixed electrolytes {NaCl, CaCl₂, MgCl₂} aqueous solution was undertaken at various salt concentrations of (0.002 to 0.15) mass fractions in the temperature and pressure ranges of (274.5 to 292.9) K and (0.149 to1.119) MPa in the absence and presence of CP, in which there is no published data related to mixed salt and a promoter. The phase equilibrium measurements were performed using a non-visual isochoric equilibrium cell that co-operates the pressure-search technique. This study is focused on obtaining equilibrium data that can be utilized to design and optimize industrial wastewater, desalination process and the development of Hydrate Electrolyte–Cubic Plus Association (HE–CPA) Equation of State. The results show an impressive improvement in the presence of promoter (CP) on hydrate formation because it increases the dissociation temperatures near ambient conditions. The results obtained were modeled using a developed HE–CPA equation of state. The model results strongly agree with the measured hydrate dissociation data.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):