Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 44166

Chemical and Molecular Engineering

Wastewater Treatment in the Abrasives Industry via Fenton and Photo-Fenton Oxidation Processes: A Case Study from Peru
Phenols are toxic for life and the environment and may come from many sources. Uncured phenolic monomers present in phenolic resins used as binders in grinding wheels and emery paper can contaminate industrial wastewaters in abrasives manufacture plants. Furthermore, vestiges of resol and novolacs resins generated by wear and tear of abrasives are also possible sources of water contamination by phenolics in these facilities. Fortunately, advanced oxidation by dark Fenton and photo-Fenton techniques are capable of oxidizing phenols and their degradation products up to their mineralization into H₂O and CO₂. The maximal allowable concentrations for phenols in Peruvian waterbodies is very low, such that insufficiently treated effluents from the abrasives industry are a potential environmental noncompliance. The current case study highlights findings obtained during the lab-scale application of Fenton’s and photo-assisted Fenton’s chemistries to real industrial wastewater samples from an abrasives manufacture plant in Peru. The goal was to reduce the phenolic content and sample toxicity. For this purpose, two independent variables-reaction time and effect of ultraviolet radiation–were studied as for their impacts on the concentration of total phenols, total organic carbon (TOC), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). In this study, diluted samples (1 L) of the industrial effluent were treated with Fenton’s reagent (H₂O₂ and Fe²⁺ from FeSO₄.H₂O) during 10 min in a photochemical batch reactor (Alphatec RFS-500, Brazil) at pH 2.92. In the case of photo-Fenton tests with ultraviolet lamps of 9 W, UV-A, UV-B and UV-C lamps were evaluated. All process conditions achieved 100% of phenols degraded within 5 minutes. TOC, BOD and COD decreased by 49%, 52% and 86% respectively (all processes together). However, Fenton treatment was not capable of reducing BOD, COD and TOC below a certain value even after 10 minutes, contrarily to photo-Fenton. It was also possible to conclude that the processes here studied degrade other compounds in addition to phenols, what is an advantage. In all cases, elevated effluent dilution factors and high amounts of oxidant agent impact negatively the overall economy of the processes here investigated.
Sulfur-Doped Hierarchically Porous Boron Nitride Nanosheets as an Efficient Carbon Dioxide Adsorbent
Carbon dioxide (CO₂) gas has been a major cause for the world wide increase in green house effect which leads to climate change and global warming. So an effective way to reduce the concentration of CO₂ in the environment is to capture it in porous materials by adsorption process. One such potential material is hexagonal boron nitride or 'white graphene' which is a well known two dimensional layered material. In this particular work, a cost effective single step synthesis of highly porous boron nitride nanosheets doped with sulfur doping had been carried out. It had been investigated that the sample with hierarchical pore structure and high specific surface area shows excellent performance in capturing carbon dioxide gas and thereby mitigating the problem of environmental pollution to certain extent. The presence of sulfur as well as nitrogen in the sample synergistically helps in the increase in adsorption capacity. The CO₂ adsorption-desorption studies were carried on using a pressure reduction technique using Micromeritics ASAP 2020 instrument. In addition, the nanosheets exhibit excellent cyclic stability in storage performance. Thermodynamic studies suggest that the adsorption takes place mainly through physisorption. Thus it has been seen that this particular material has the potential to be an excellent absorber of carbon dioxide gas.
A Hydrometallurgical Route for the Recovery of Molybdenum from Mo-Co Spent Catalyst
Molybdenum is a strategic metal and finds applications in petroleum refining, thermocouples, X-ray tubes and in making of steel alloy owing to its high melting temperature and tensile strength. The growing significance and economic value of molybdenum have increased interest in the development of efficient processes aiming its recovery from secondary sources. Main secondary sources of Mo are molybdenum catalysts which are used for hydrodesulphurisation process in petrochemical refineries. The activity of these catalysts gradually decreases with time during the desulphurisation process as the catalysts get contaminated with toxic material and are dumped as waste which leads to environmental issues. In this scenario, recovery of molybdenum from spent catalyst is significant from both economic and environmental point of view. Recently ionic liquids have gained prominence due to their low vapour pressure, high thermal stability, good extraction efficiency and recycling capacity. Present study reports recovery of molybdenum from Mo-Co spent leach liquor using Cyphos IL 102[trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bromide] as an extractant. Spent catalyst was leached with 3 mol/L HCl and the leach liquor containing Mo-870 ppm, Co-341 ppm, Al-508 ppm and Fe-42 ppm was subjected to extraction step. The effect of extractant concentration on the leach liquor was investigated and almost 85% extraction of Mo was achieved with 0.05 mol/L Cyphos IL 102. Results of stripping studies revealed that 2 mol/L HNO3 can effectively strip 94% of the extracted Mo from the loaded organic phase. McCabe-Thiele diagrams were constructed to determine the number of stages required for quantitative extraction and stripping of molybdenum and were confirmed by counter current simulation studies. According to McCabe-Thiele extraction and stripping isotherms, two stages are required for quantitative extraction and stripping of molybdenum at A/O= 1:1. Around 95.4% extraction of molybdenum was achieved in two stage counter current at A/O= 1:1 with negligible extraction of Co and Al. However, iron was coextracted and removed from the loaded organic phase by scrubbing with 0.01 mol/L HCl. Quantitative stripping (~99.5 %) of molybdenum was achieved with 2.0 mol/L HNO3 in two stages at O/A=1:1. Overall ~95.0% molybdenum with 99 % purity was recovered from Mo-Co spent catalyst. From the strip solution, MoO3 was obtained by crystallization followed by thermal decomposition. The product obtained after thermal decomposition was characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and EDX techniques. XRD peaks of MoO3correspond to molybdite Syn-MoO3 structure. FE-SEM depicts the rod like morphology of synthesized MoO3. EDX analysis of MoO3 shows 1:3 atomic percentage of molybdenum and oxygen. The synthesised MoO3 can find application in gas sensors, electrodes of batteries, display devices, smart windows, lubricants and as catalyst.
Demetallization of Crude Oil: Comparative Analysis of Deasphalting and Electrochemical Removal Methods of Ni and V
Extraction of the vanadium and nickel compounds is complex due to the high stability of porphyrin, nickel is catalytic poison which deactivates catalysis during the catalytic cracking of the oil, while vanadyl is abrasive and valuable metal. Thus, high concentration of the Ni and V in the crude oil makes their removal relevant. Two methods of the demetallization of crude oil were tested, therefore, the present research is conducted for comparative analysis of the deasphalting with organic solvents (cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform) and electrochemical method. Percentage of Ni extraction reached maximum of approximately 55% by using the electrochemical method in electrolysis cell, which was developed for this research and consists of three sections: oil and protonating agent (EtOH) solution between two conducting membranes which divides it from two capsules of 10% sulfuric acid and two graphite electrodes which cover all three parts in electrical circuit. Ions of metals pass through membranes and remain in acid solutions. The best result was obtained in 60 minutes with ethanol to oil ratio 25% to 75% respectively, current fits in to the range from 0.3A to 0.4A, voltage changed from 12.8V to 17.3V. Maximum efficiency of deasphalting, with cyclohexane as the solvent, in Soxhlet extractor was 66.4% for Ni and 51.2% for V. Thus, applying the voltammetry, ICP MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) and AAS (atomic absorption spectroscopy), these mentioned types of metal extraction methods were compared in this paper.
Water Absorption Studies on Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites
In the recent years, researchers have drawn their focus on natural fibers reinforced composite materials because of their excellent properties like low cost, lower weight, better tensile and flexural strengths, biodegradability etc. There is little concern however that when these materials are put in moist conditions for long duration, their mechanical properties degrade. Therefore, in order to take maximum advantage of these novel materials, one should have a complete understanding of their moisture or water absorption phenomena. Various fiber surface treatment methods like alkaline treatment, acetylation etc. have also been suggested for reduction in water absorption of these composites. In the present study, a detailed review is done for water absorption behavior of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites, and experiments also have been performed on these composites with varying the parameters like fiber loading etc. for understanding the water absorption kinetics. Various surface treatment methods also performed to reduce the water absorption behavior of these materials and effort is made to develop a proper understanding of water absorption mechanism mathematically and experimentally for full potential utilization of natural fiber reinforced polymer composite materials.
A Modified QuEChERS Method Using Activated Carbon Fibers as r-DSPE Sorbent for Sample Cleanup: Application to Pesticides Residues Analysis in Food Commodities Using GC-MS/MS
A simple, sensitive and effective gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous analysis of multi pesticide residues (organophosphate, organochlorines, synthetic pyrethroids and herbicides) in food commodities using phenolic resin based activated carbon fibers (ACFs) as reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction (r-DSPE) sorbent in modified QuEChERS (Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe) method. The acetonitrile-based QuEChERS technique was used for the extraction of the analytes from food matrices followed by sample cleanup with ACFs instead of traditionally used primary secondary amine (PSA). Different physico-chemical characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller surface area analysis were employed to investigate the engineering and structural properties of ACFs. The recovery of pesticides and herbicides was tested at concentration levels of 0.02 and 0.2 mg/kg in different commodities such as cauliflower, cucumber, banana, apple, wheat and black gram. The recoveries of all twenty-six pesticides and herbicides were found in acceptable limit (70-120%) according to SANCO guideline with relative standard deviation value < 15%. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of the method was in the range of 0.38-3.69 ng/mL and 1.26 -12.19 ng/mL, respectively. In traditional QuEChERS method, PSA used as r-DSPE sorbent plays a vital role in sample clean-up process and demonstrates good recoveries for multiclass pesticides. This study reports that ACFs are better in terms of removal of co-extractives in comparison of PSA without compromising the recoveries of multi pesticides from food matrices. Further, ACF replaces the need of charcoal in addition to the PSA from traditional QuEChERS method which is used to remove pigments. The developed method will be cost effective because the ACFs are significantly cheaper than the PSA. So the proposed modified QuEChERS method is more robust, effective and has better sample cleanup efficiency for multiclass multi pesticide residues analysis in different food matrices such as vegetables, grains and fruits.
Curcumin Derivatives as Potent Inhibitors of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Osteoarthritis: A Molecular Docking Study
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. Nitric oxide (NO) was found to play a catabolic role in the development of osteoarthritis. It is a toxic free radical gas generated during the metabolism of L-arginine by the enzyme Nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) is one of the isoform of NOS, and its overexpression leads to the excessive formation of NO that results in pathophysiological joint conditions. Several synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs and inhibitors are present to date, but all showed side effects and complications. Therefore, the pursuit of natural disease-modifying drugs remains a top priority. Curcumin is an active component of turmeric, and the past few decades have witnessed intense research devoted to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin. The present study focused on curcumin and its derivatives in the search for new iNOS inhibitors for the treatment of osteoarthritis. We conducted a molecular docking study on curcumin and its four derivatives; cyclocurcumin, tetrahydrocurcumin, demethoxycurcumin and curcumin monoglucoside with iNOS using CLC Drug discovery work bench 3.02. We selected two co-crystallized ligands for this study; tetrahydrobiopterin and N-omega-propyl-L-arginine present in complex with the enzyme iNOS. Results showed the best binding affinity of N-omega-propyl-L-arginine with cyclocurcumin and curcumin monoglucoside that exhibit binding energies of -65.2 kcal/mol and -68 kcal/mol respectively. Whereas with tetrahydrobiopterin, best binding scores of -64.7 kcal/mol and -62.2 kcal/mol were found with tetrahydrocurcumin and demethoxycurcumin respectively. This information could open doors of research for the designing of novel drugs using herbs such as curcumin for the treatment of inflammatory joint diseases.
Reaction Coupling for Sustainable Hydrogen Free Selective Catalytic Hydrogenation
The clean conversion of reactant(s) to high value product(s) is an imperative for 21ˢᵗ century chemical processes. Catalysis holds the key where sustainability demands atom efficiency that eliminates by-products. Escalating costs, diminishing supply and the environmental impact of fossil fuels have led the drive for alternative chemical feedstock. Furfural is a biomass derived heterocyclic aldehyde that is attracting attention as a non-petroleum based platform chemical. Furfural hydrogenation generates furfuryl alcohol, a chemical building block for drug synthesis. Selectivity is crucial where furan ring reduction/opening, C=O hydrogenolysis and decarbonylation generate a range of by-products. There is a pressing need for more environmentally acceptable systems than the non-selective toxic copper chromite catalysts currently used in industry. Gold catalysts exhibit enhanced selectivity in the hydrogenation of functionalized nitrobenzenes and aromatic aldehydes in continuous gas phase operation at ambient pressure. Though ultra-selective, reaction rates over Au are lower than standard non-selective metal catalysts. Reactions are conducted in excess H₂ that must be recovered. Hydrogen is not a naturally occurring feedstock and production, storage and transport represent sustainability constraints. This work considers an innovative coupling of catalytic dehydrogenation (as a source of reactive hydrogen) with hydrogenation. Gold is inactive for dehydrogenation and a second catalytic metal (Cu) is required in the coupled system. The model system chosen was the coupling of 2-butanol dehydrogenation (to 2-butanone) with furfural hydrogenation to simultaneous produce two high-value products. As Au takes the hydrogen generated in situ via Cu promoted dehydrogenation, the coupled system circumvents use of compressed H₂ with important safety implications for large scale production. The work presented considers catalyst structure/performance in stand-alone dehydrogenation and hydrogenation, reaction coupling using Au+Cu physical mixtures and supported Au-Cu. Preparation of oxide (CeO₂, Al₂O₃ and MgO) supported Au by precipitation/deposition generated Au particles in the size range
Impure CO₂ Solubility Trapping in Deep Saline Aquifers: Role of Operating Conditions
Injection of impurities along with CO₂ into saline aquifers provides an exceptional prospect for low-cost carbon capture and storage technologies and can potentially accelerate large-scale implementation of geological storage of CO₂. We have conducted linear stability analyses and numerical simulations to investigate the effects of permitted impurities in CO₂ streams on the onset of natural convection and dynamics of subsequent convective mixing. We have shown that the rate of dissolution of an impure CO₂ stream with H₂S highly depends on the operating conditions such as temperature, pressure, and composition of impurity. Contrary to findings of previous studies, our results show that an impurity such as H₂S can potentially reduce the onset time of natural convection and can accelerate the subsequent convective mixing. However, at the later times, the rate of convective dissolution is adversely affected by the impurities. Therefore, the injection of an impure CO₂ stream can be engineered to improve the rate of dissolution of CO₂, which leads to higher storage security and efficiency. Accordingly, we have identified the most favorable CO₂ stream compositions based on the geophysical properties of target aquifers. Information related to the onset of natural convection such as the scaling relations and the most favorable operating conditions for CO₂ storage developed in this study are important in proper design, site screening, characterization and safety of geological storage. This information can be used to either identify future geological candidates for acid gas disposal or reviewing the current operating conditions of licensed injection sites.
Protein and Lipid Extraction from Microalgae with Ultrasound Assisted Osmotic Shock Method
Microalgae has a potential to be utilized as food and natural colorant. The microalgae components consists of three main parts, these are lipid, protein, and carbohydrate. Crucial step in producing lipid and protein from microalgae is extraction. Microalgae has high water level (70-90%), it causes drying process of biomass needs much more energy and also has potential to distract lipid and protein from microalgae. Extraction of lipid from wet biomass is able to take place efficiently with cell disruption of microalgae by osmotic shock method. In this study, osmotic shock method was going to be integrated with ultrasound to maximalize the extraction yield of lipid and protein from wet biomass Spirulina sp. with osmotic shock method assisted ultrasound. This study consisted of two steps, these were osmotic shock process toward wet biomass and ultrasound extraction assisted. NaCl solution was used as osmotic agent, with the variation of concentrations were 10%, 20%, and 30%. Extraction was conducted in 40°C for 20 minutes with frequency of ultrasound wave was 40kHz. The optimal yield of protein (2.7%) and (lipid 38%) were achieved at 20% osmotic agent concentration.
Promotional Effects of Zn in Cu-Zn/Core-Shell Al-MCM-41 for Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO with NH3: Acidic Properties, NOx Adsorption Properties, and Nature of Copper
Cu-Zn/core-shell Al-MCM-41 catalyst with various copper species, prepared by a combination of three methods—substitution, ion-exchange, and impregnation, was studied for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 at 300 °C for 150 min. In order to investigate the effects of Zn introduction on the nature of the catalyst, Cu/core-shell Al-MCM-41 and Zn/core-shell Al-MCM-41 catalysts were also studied. The roles of Zn promoter in the acidity and the NOx adsorption properties of the catalysts were investigated by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of NH3 and NOx adsorption, and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of NH3 and NOx. The results demonstrated that the acidity of the catalyst was enhanced by the Zn introduction, as exchanged Zn(II) cations loosely bonded with Al-O-Si framework could create Brønsted acid sites by interacting with OH groups. Moreover, Zn species also provided the additional sites for NO adsorption in the form of nitrite (NO2–) and nitrate (NO3–) species, which are the key intermediates for SCR reaction. In addition, the effect of Zn on the nature of copper was studied by in situ FTIR of CO adsorption and in situ X-ray adsorption near edge structure (XANES). It was found that Zn species hindered the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(0), resulting in higher Cu(I) species in the Zn promoted catalyst. The Cu-Zn/core-shell Al-MCM-41 exhibited higher catalytic activity compared with that of the Cu/core-shell Al-MCM-41 for the whole reaction time, as it possesses the highest amount of Cu(I) sites, which are responsible for SCR catalytic activity. The Cu-Zn/core-shell Al-MCM-41 catalyst also reached the maximum NO conversion of 100% with the average NO conversion of 76 %. The catalytic performance of the catalyst was further improved by using Zn promoter in the form of ZnO instead of reduced Zn species. The Cu-ZnO/core-shell Al-MCM-41 catalyst showed better catalytic performance with longer working reaction time, and achieved the average NO conversion of 81%.
Anticancer Potentials of Aqueous Tinospora Cordifolia and Its Bioactive Polysaccharide, Arabinogalactan on Benzo(a)Pyrene Induced Pulmonary Tumorigenesis: A Study with Relevance to Blood Based Biomarkers
Aim: To evaluate the potential of Aqueous Tinospora cordifolia stem extract (Aq.Tc) and Arabinogalactan (AG) on pulmonary carcinogenesis and associated tumor markers. Background: Lung cancer is one of the most frequent malignancy with high mortality rate due to limitation of early detection resulting in low cure rates. Current research effort focuses on identifying some blood-based biomarkers like CEA, ctDNA and LDH which may have potential to detect cancer at an early stage, evaluation of therapeutic response and its recurrence. Medicinal plants and their active components have been widely investigated for their anticancer potentials. Aqueous preparation of T. Cordifolia extract is enriched in the polysaccharide fraction i.e., AG when compared with other types of extract. Moreover, reports are available of polysaccharide fraction of T. Cordifolia in in vitro lung cancer models which showed profound anti-metastatic activity against these cell lines. However, not much has been explored about its effect in in vivo lung cancer models and the underlying mechanism involved. Experimental Design: Mice were randomly segregated into six groups. Group I animals served as control. Group II animals were administered with Aq. Tc extract (200 mg/kg b.w.) p.o.on the alternate days. Group III animals were fed with AG (7.5 mg/kg b.w.) p.o. on the alternate days (thrice a week). Group IV animals were installed with Benzo(a)pyrene (50 mg/kg b.w.), i.p. twice within an interval of two weeks. Group V animals received Aq. Tc extract as in group II along with it B(a)P was installed after two weeks of Aq. Tc administration following the same protocol as for group IV. Group VI animals received AG as in group III along with it B(a)P was installed after two weeks of AG administration. Results: Administration of B(a)P to mice resulted in increased tumor incidence, multiplicity and pulmonary somatic index with concomitant increase in serum/plasma markers like CEA, ctDNA, LDH and TNF-α.Aq.Tc and AG supplementation significantly attenuated these alterations at different stages of tumorigenesis thereby showing potent anti-cancer effect in lung cancer. A pronounced decrease in serum/plasma markers were observed in animals treated with Aq.Tc as compared to those fed with AG. Also, extensive hyperproliferation of alveolar epithelium was prominent in B(a)P induced lung tumors. However, treatment of Aq.Tc and AG to lung tumor bearing mice exhibited reduced alveolar damage evident from decreased number of hyperchromatic irregular nuclei. A direct correlation between the concentration of tumor markers and the intensity of lung cancer was observed in animals bearing cancer co-treated with Aq.Tc and AG. Conclusion: These findings substantiate the chemopreventive potential of Aq.Tc and AG against lung tumorigenesis. Interestingly, Aq.Tc was found to be more effective in modulating the cancer as reflected by various observations which may be attributed to the synergism offered by various components of Aq.Tc. Further studies are in progress to understand the underlined mechanism in inhibiting lung tumorigenesis by Aq.Tc and AG.
Aloe Vera Prevents Injuries Induced by Whole Body X-Ray Irradiation in Rodents
Purpose: The present study was designed to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of Aloe vera from whole body X-ray exposure in rodents. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, after on week’s acclimatization, male balb/c mice procured from Central Animal House, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India), were divided into four groups: Group I mice served as control. Group II mice were orally administrated Aloe vera pulp extract (50 mg/ kg body weight) on alternate days for 30 days. Group III mice were subjected to whole body X-ray irradiation to cumulative dose of 2Gy (0.258Gy twice a day for four days in the last week). Group IV animals were pretreated with Aloe vera pulp extract on alternate days as in Group II and in the last week of the study, they were exposed to X-ray as in Group III. Results: Spleen of X-ray irradiated mice showed histopathological alterations accompanied with enhanced activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO), enhanced activities in Glutathione based enzymes such as Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), Glutathione reductase (GR), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) associated with depletion in reduced Glutathione (GSH) concentration were observed after X-ray exposure in blood plasma and spleen.. Pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factors (TNF-α) and Inteleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were also found to be enhanced in serum of irradiated mice. Irradiation-induced significant elevation in Total leucocyte counts (TLC), neutrophil counts and decline in platelet counts, associated with unaltered levels of red blood cell counts (RBC’s) and haemoglobin (Hb) in various treatment groups. Clastogenic damage and apoptosis was also found to be increase in splenic tissue of X-ray exposed mice as assessed by micronucleus and TUNEL assay. However, X-ray irradiated animals administered with Aloe vera revealed significant improvement in levels of ROS/ LPO, LDH activity, and antioxidant mechanism. Aloe vera pretreated animals exhibited less severe damage, and early recovery in micronucleated cells, hematological parameters, apoptotic cells and inflammatory markers as compared to X-ray exposed mice. Conclusion: These results indicate that the radioprotective potential of Aloe vera against X-ray induced damage. This may be due to its free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties.
Nanomaterial Based Electrochemical Sensors for Endocrine Disrupting Compounds
Main sources of endocrine disrupting compounds in the ecosystem are hormones, pesticides, phthalates, flame retardants, dioxins, personal-care products, coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), bisphenol A, and parabens. These endocrine disrupting compounds are responsible for learning disabilities, brain development problems, deformations of the body, cancer, reproductive abnormalities in females and decreased sperm count in human males. Although, discharge of these chemical compounds into the environment cannot be stopped, yet their amount can be retarded through proper evaluation and detection techniques. The available techniques for determination of these endocrine disrupting compounds mainly include high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectroscopy (MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). These techniques are accurate and reliable but have certain limitations like need of skilled personnel, time-consuming, interference and requirement of pretreatment steps. Moreover, these techniques are laboratory bound and sample is required in large amount for analysis. In view of above facts, new methods for detection of endocrine disrupting compounds should be devised that promise high specificity, ultrasensitivity, cost effective, efficient and easy-to-operate procedure. Nowaday, electrochemical sensors/biosensors modified with nanomaterials are gaining high attention among researchers. Bioelement present in these system makes the developed sensors selective towards analyte of interest. Nanomaterials provide large surface area, high electron communication feature, enhanced catalytic activity and possibilities of chemical modifications. In most of the cases, nanomaterials also serve as an electron mediator or electrocatalyst for some analytes.
Response Surface Methodology for Design of Porous Hollow Sphere Thermal Insulator
In this study, polystyrene (PS) particles by suspension polymerization synthesized and used as sacrificial templates for preparing core-shell structures of polystyrene-silica and also hollow spheres of silica in order to use in thermal insulators. Experimental design (response surface method) is used for synthesizing polystyrene and optimizing the particle size. The properties of the polymer particles were investigated using FTIR, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. For this purpose, three factors of initiator, stabilizer concentration and also stirring rate were selected as variable factors. After this step, three different concentration of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) added to reaction media and core-shell structure with PS core and silica shell was developed. Finally, core-shell structure was changed to hollow silica sphere for using as thermal insulator. Particles obtained from experimental design method were measured using DLS test. SEM test was used to study morphology and the optimum amount of TEOS obtained after calcinations to maintain the strength of the shell. In this research, controllable size of PS particles by suspension polymerization were obtained and observed that increased initiator concentration caused to larger PS particles, increase the stirring rate caused the smaller PS and also with increased the stabilizer concentration obtained that particle size decrease then after 2.5% began to increase. Also the optimum amount of TEOS was found.
Hybrid Treatment Method for Decolorization of Mixed Dyes Rhodamine-B, Brilliant Green and Congo Red
The untreated industrial wastewater discharged into the environment causes the contamination of soil, water and air. Advanced treatment methods for enhanced wastewater treatment are attracting substantial interest among the currently employed unit processes in wastewater treatment. The textile industry is one of the predominant in wastewater production at current industrialized situation. The refused dyes at textile industry need to be treated in proper manner before its discharge into water bodies. In the present investigation, hybrid treatment process has been developed for the treatment of synthetic mixed dye wastewater. Photocatalysis and ceramic nanoporous membrane are mainly used for process integration to minimize the fouling and increase the flux. Commercial semiconducting powders (TiO2 and ZnO) has used as a nano photocatalyst for the degradation of mixed dye in the hybrid system. Commercial ceramic nanoporous tubular membranes have been used for the rejection of dye and suspended catalysts. Photocatalysis with catalyst has shown the average of 34% of decolorization (RB-32%, BG-34% and CR-36%), whereas ceramic nanofiltration has shown the 56% (RB-54%, BG-56% and CR-58%) of decolorization. Integration of photocatalysis and ceramic nanofiltration has shown 96% (RB-94%, BG-96% and CR-98%) of dye decolorization over 90 min of operation.
Experimental Analysis on the Thermal Performance of Vacuum Membrane Distillation Module Using Polyvinylidene Fluoride Hollow Fiber Membrane
Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) uses pressure lower than the atmospheric pressure. The feed seawater is capable of producing more vapor at the same temperature than Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD), Air Gap Membrane Distillation (AGMD) or Sweep Gas Membrane Distillation (SGMD). It is advantageous because it is operable at a lower temperature than other membrane distillations. However, no commercial product is available that uses the VMD method, as it is still in the study stage. In this study, therefore, thermal performance test according to the feed water conditions was performed prior to both construction of the demonstration plant, which uses VMD module of the capacity of 400m³/d in South Korea, and commercialization of VMD module with hollow fiber membrane. Such study was performed by designing and constructing the VMD module of the capacity of 2 m³/day which utilizes the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane. The results obtained from the VMD module manufactured by ECONITY Co., Ltd in South Korea, showed that the maximum performance ratio (PR) value of 0.904, feed water temperature of 75 ℃, and the flow rate of 8 m3/h. As the temperature of and flow rate of the feed water increased, the PR value of the VMD module also increased.
Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Studies of Root Bark Extracts from Glossonema boveanum (Decne)
The root bark of Glossonema boveanum (Decne), a member of Apocynaceae family, is used by traditional medicine practitioner to treat urinary and respiratory tract infections, bacteremia, typhoid fever, bacillary dysentery, diarrhea and stomach pain. This present study aims to validate the medicinal claims ascribed to the root bark of the plant. Preliminary phytochemical study of the root bark extracts (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol extracts) showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids, triterpenes, cardiac glycosides, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Antimicrobial study of the extracts showed activities against Staphylococus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhii, Shigella dysenteriae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Candida albicans while Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella Pneumoniae showed resistance to all the extracts. The inhibitory effect was compared with the standard drug ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. MIC and MBC for both extracts were also determined using the tube dilution method. This study concluded that the root bark of G. boveanum, used traditionally as a medicinal plant, has antimicrobial activities against some causative organisms.
Synthesis of Iron-Based Perovskite Type Catalysts from Rust Wastes as a Source of Iron
For the first time, commercial iron nitrate was replaced by rust wastes, as a source of Iron for the preparation of LaFeO₃ powders by solution combustion synthesis (SCS). A detailed comparison with a reference powder obtained by SCS, starting from a commercial iron nitrate, was also performed. Several techniques such as X-ray diffraction combined with Rietveld refinement, mass plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption measurements, temperature programmed reduction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform analysis and scanning electron microscopy were used for the characterization of the rust wastes as well as of the perovskite powders. The performance of this ecofriendly material was evaluated by testing the activity and selectivity in the propylene oxidation, in order to use it for the benefit of the environment. Characterization and performance results clearly evidenced limitations and peculiarities of this new approach.
The Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Water-Soluble Silane Coupling Agents for Increasing Silica Filler Content in Styrene-Butadiene Rubber
The synthetic rubber compound, which is widely used as the core material for automobile tire industry, is manufactured by mixing styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and organic/inorganic fillers. It is known that the most important factor for the physical properties of rubber compound is the interaction between the filler and the rubber, which affects the rotational, braking and abrasion resistance. Silica filler has hydrophilic groups such as a silanol group on their surface which has a low affinity with hydrophobic rubbers. In order to solve this problem, researches on an efficient silane coupling agent (SCA) has been continuously carried out. In this study, highly water-soluble SCAs which are expected to show higher hydrolysis efficiency were synthesized. The hydrophobization process of the silica with the prepared SCAs was economical and environment-friendly. The SCAs structures were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, their hydrolysis efficiency and condensation side reaction in SBR wet master batch were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC), respectively.
Ionic Liquids as Substrates for Metal-Organic Framework Synthesis
During the last two decades, the synthesis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has gained ever increasing attention. Based on their pore size and shape as well as host-guest interactions, they are of interest for numerous fields related to porous materials, like catalysis and gas separation. Usually, MOF-synthesis takes place in an organic solvent between room temperature and approximately 220 °C, with mixtures of polyfunctional organic linker molecules and metal precursors as substrates. Reaction temperatures above the boiling point of the solvent, i.e. solvothermal reactions, are run in autoclaves or sealed glass vessels under autogenous pressures. A relatively new approach for the synthesis of MOFs is the so-called ionothermal synthesis route. It applies an ionic liquid as a solvent, which can serve as a structure-directing template and/or a charge-compensating agent in the final coordination polymer structure. Furthermore, this method often allows for less harsh reaction conditions than the solvothermal route. Here a variation of the ionothermal approach is reported, where the ionic liquid also serves as an organic linker source. By using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium terephthalates ([EMIM][Hbdc] and [EMIM]₂[bdc]), the one-step synthesis of MIL-53(Al)/Boehemite composites with interesting features is possible. The resulting material is already formed at moderate temperatures (90-130 °C) and is stabilized in the usually unfavored ht-phase. Additionally, in contrast to already published procedures for MIL-53(Al) synthesis, no further activation at high temperatures is mandatory. A full characterization of this novel composite material is provided, including XRD, SS-NMR, El-Al., SEM as well as sorption measurements and its interesting features are compared to MIL-53(Al) samples produced by the classical solvothermal route. Furthermore, the syntheses of the applied ionic liquids and salts is discussed. The influence of the degree of ionicity of the linker source [EMIM]x[H(2-x)bdc] on the crystal structure and the achievable synthesis temperature are investigated and give insight into the role of the IL during synthesis. Aside from the synthesis of MIL-53 from EMIM terephthalates, the use of the phosphonium cation in this approach is discussed as well. Additionally, the employment of ILs in the preparation of other MOFs is presented briefly. This includes the ZIF-4 framework from the respective imidazolate ILs and chiral camphorate based frameworks from their imidazolium precursors.
Synthesis of Functionalized-2-Aryl-2, 3-Dihydroquinoline-4(1H)-Ones via Fries Rearrangement of Azetidin-2-Ones
Quinoline-4-ones represent an important class of heterocyclic scaffolds that have attracted significant interest due to their various biological and pharmacological activities. This heterocyclic unit also constitutes an integral component in drugs used for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, sleep disorders and in antibiotics viz. norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The synthetic accessibility and possibility of fictionalization at varied positions in quinoline-4-ones exemplifies an elegant platform for the designing of combinatorial libraries of functionally enriched scaffolds with a range of pharmacological profles. They are also considered to be attractive precursors for the synthesis of medicinally imperative molecules such as non-steroidal androgen receptor antagonists, antimalarial drug Chloroquine and martinellines with antibacterial activity. 2-Aryl-2,3-dihydroquinolin-4(1H)-ones are present in many natural and non-natural compounds and are considered to be the aza-analogs of favanones. The β-lactam class of antibiotics is generally recognized to be a cornerstone of human health care due to the unparalleled clinical efficacy and safety of this type of antibacterial compound. In addition to their biological relevance as potential antibiotics, β-lactams have also acquired a prominent place in organic chemistry as synthons and provide highly efficient routes to a variety of non-protein amino acids, such as oligopeptides, peptidomimetics, nitrogen-heterocycles, as well as biologically active natural and unnatural products of medicinal interest such as indolizidine alkaloids, paclitaxel, docetaxel, taxoids, cyptophycins, lankacidins, etc. A straight forward route toward the synthesis of quinoline-4-ones via the triflic acid assisted Fries rearrangement of N-aryl-βlactams has been reported by Tepe and co-workers. The ring expansion observed in this case was solely attributed to the inherent ring strain in β-lactam ring because -lactam failed to undergo rearrangement under reaction conditions. Theabovementioned protocol has been recently extended by our group for the synthesis of benzo[b]-azocinon-6-ones via a tandem Michael addition–Fries rearrangement of sorbyl anilides as well as for the single-pot synthesis of 2-aryl-quinolin-4(3H)-ones through the Fries rearrangement of 3-dienyl-βlactams. In continuation with our synthetic endeavours with the β-lactam ring and in view of the lack of convenient approaches for the synthesis of C-3 functionalized quinolin-4(1H)-ones, the present work describes the single-pot synthesis of C-3 functionalized quinolin-4(1H)-ones via the trific acid promoted Fries rearrangement of C-3 vinyl/isopropenyl substituted β-lactams. In addition, DFT calculations and MD simulations were performed to investigate the stability profles of synthetic compounds.
Forced Degradation Study of Rifaximin Formulated Tablets to Determine Stability Indicating Nature of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Analytical Method
Forced degradation study of Rifaximin was conducted to determine the stability indicating potential of HPLC testing method for detection of Rifaximin in formulated tablets to be employed for quality control and stability testing. The questioned method applied with mobile phase methanol: water (70:30), 5µm, 250 x 4.6mm, C18 column, wavelength 293nm and flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Forced degradation study was performed under oxidative, acidic, basic, thermal and photolytic conditions. The applied method successfully determined the degradation products after acidic and basic degradation without interfering with Rifaximin detection. Therefore, the method was said to be stability indicating and can be applied for quality control and stability testing of Rifaxmin tablets during its shelf life.
The Aromaticity of p-Substituted o-(N-Dialkyl)aminomethylphenols
Aromaticity, one of the most important concepts in organic chemistry, has attracted considerable interest from both experimentalists and theoreticians. The geometry optimization of p-substituted o-(N-dialkyl)aminomethylphenols, o-DEAMPH XC₆ H₅CH ₂Y (X=p-OCH₃, CH₃, H, F, Cl, Br, COCH₃, COOCH₃, CHO, CN and NO₂, Y=o-N (C₂H₅)₂, o-DEAMPHs have been performed in the gas phase using the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level. Aromaticities of the considered molecules were investigated using different indices included geometrical (HOMA and Bird), electronic (FLU, PDI and SA) magnetic (NICS(0), NICS(1) and NICS(1)zz indices. The linear dependencies were obtained between some aromaticity indices. The best correlation is observed between the Bird and PDI indices (R² =0.9240). However, not all types of indices or even different indices within the same type correlate well among each other. Surprisingly, for studied molecules in which geometrical and electronic cannot correctly give the aromaticity of ring, the magnetism based index successfully predicts the aromaticity of systems. 1H NMR spectra of compounds were obtained at B3LYP/6–311+G(d,p) level using the GIAO method. Excellent linear correlation (R²= 0.9996) between values the chemical shift of hydrogen atom obtained experimentally of 1H NMR and calculated using B3LYP/6–311+G(d,p) demonstrates a good assignment of the experimental values chemical shift to the calculated structures of o-DEAMPH. It is found that the best linear correlation with the Hammett substituent constants is observed for the NICS(1)zz index in comparison with the other indices: NICS(1)zz =-21.5552+1,1070 σp- (R²=0.9394). The presence intramolecular hydrogen bond in the studied molecules also revealed changes the aromatic character of substituted o-DEAMPHs. The HOMA index predicted for R=NO2 the reduction in the π-electron delocalization of 3.4% was about double that observed for p-nitrophenol. The influence intramolecular H-bonding on aromaticity of benzene ring in the ground state (S0) are described by equations between NICS(1)zz and H-bond energies: experimental, Eₑₓₚ, predicted IR spectroscopical, Eν and topological, EQTAIM with correlation coefficients R² =0.9666, R² =0.9028 and R² =0.8864, respectively. The NICS(1)zz index also correlates with usual descriptors of the hydrogen bond, while the other indices do not give any meaningful results. The influence of the intramolecular H-bonding formation on the aromaticity of some substituted o-DEAMPHs is criteria to consider the multidimensional character of aromaticity. The linear relationships as well as revealed between NICS(1)zz and both pyramidality nitrogen atom, ΣN(C₂H₅)₂ and dihedral angle, φ CAr – CAr -CCH₂ –N, to characterizing out-of-plane properties.These results demonstrated the nonplanar structure of o-DEAMPHs. Finally, when considering dependencies of NICS(1)zz, were excluded data for R=H, because the NICS(1) and NICS(1)zz values are the most negative for unsubstituted DEAMPH, indicating its highest aromaticity; that was not the case for NICS(0) index.
Organic Co-Polymer Monolithic Columns for Liquid Chromatography Mixed Mode Protein Separations
Organic mixed mode monolithic columns were fabricated from; glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate-co-stearyl methacrylate, using glycidyl methacrylate and stearyl methacrylate as co monomers representing 30% and 70% respectively of the liquid volume with ethylene dimethacrylate crosslinker and 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone as the free radical initiator. The monomers were mixed with a binary porogenic solvent, comprising propan-1-ol, and methanol (0.825 mL each). The monolith was formed by photo polymerization (365 nm) inside a borosilicate glass tube (1.5 mm ID and 3 mm OD x 50 mm length). The monolith was observed to have formed correctly by optical examination and generated reasonable backpressure, approximately 650 psi at a flow rate of 0.2 mL min⁻¹ 50:50 acetonitrile: water. The morphological properties of the monolithic columns were investigated using scanning electron microscopy images, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, the results showed that the monolith was formed properly with 19.98 ± 0.01 mm² surface area, 0.0205 ± 0.01 cm³ g⁻¹ pore volume and 6.93 ± 0.01 nm average pore size. The polymer monolith formed was further investigated using proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The monolithic columns were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography to test their ability to separate different samples with a range of properties. The columns displayed both hydrophobic/hydrophilic and hydrophobic/ion exchange interactions with the compounds tested indicating that true mixed mode separations. The mixed mode monolithic columns exhibited significant separation of proteins.
Extraction of Strontium Ions through Ligand Assisted Ionic Liquids
Extraction of Strontium by crown ether (DCH18C6) hasbeen investigated in [BMIM][TF2N] Ionic Liquid (IL) giving higher extraction ~98% and distribution ratio as compared to other organic solvents (Dodecane, Hexane, & Isodecyl alcohol + Dodecane). Distribution ratio of Sr in IL at 0.15M DCH18C6 indicates an enhancement of 20000, 2000, 500 times over Dodecane, Hexane and 5% Isodecyl Alcohol + 95 % Dodecane at 0.01M aqueous acidity respectively. In presence of IL, Sr extraction decreases with increase in HNO3 concentration in aqueous phase whereas opposite trend was observed with organic solvents.Extraction of Sr initially increases with increase in DCH18C6 concentration in IL, finally reaching an asymptotic constant.
Extraction of Silica and Alumina from Coal Combustion Residues Using Ammonium Sulphate and Citric Acid
The future generation of Coal Combustion Residues (CCRs) in India due to addition of new Thermal Power Plants (TPPs) will be enormous in quantity which is currently being disposed off in ash ponds and low laying areas. It is expected that CCRs will be generating to the tune of 225 MT by year 2017. The generation of CCRs is tremendous in quantity whereas; the bulk utilization areas are limited in nature. CCRs contains wide varieties of metal oxides such as SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, K2O, TiO2 etc., and can serve as an alternative source for useful mineral extractions or recovery of value added products. The present study investigate extraction of Silica (Si) and Alumina (Al) from CCRs both Coal Fly Ash (CFA) and Coal Bottom Ash (CBA) using Ammonium sulphate (NH4)2SO4 and Citric acid (C6H8O7) at fixed weight ratio of 2:3 followed by high-temperature calcination. In order to examine potential of extraction process, the fused and calcined mass of CCRs with Ammonium sulphate and Citric acid were analysed for presence of Si and Al via XRD and FTIR analysis. The results show well identified intense peak of α-SiO2 as well as α-Al2O3 at 2θ positions. It can be stated that the extraction of Si as well as Al can be feasible via Ammonium sulphate and Citric acid at higher temperature which was revealed by XRD and FTIR analysis. Still the feasibility and practicability of this process for using metal extraction need to be researched intensively.
A Green Process for Drop-In Liquid Fuels from Carbon Dioxide, Water, and Solar Power
Carbo dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel combustion is a prime green-house gas emission. It can be mitigated by microalgae through conventional photosynthesis. The algal oil is a feedstock of biodiesel, a carbon neutral liquid fuel for transportation. The conventional CO2 fixation, however, is quite slow and affected by the intermittent solar irradiation. It is also a technical challenge to reform the bio-oil into a drop-in liquid fuel that can be directly used in the modern combustion engines with expected performance. Here, an artificial photosynthesis system is presented to produce a biopolyester and liquid fuels from CO2, water, and solar power. In this green process, solar energy is captured using photovoltaic modules and converted into hydrogen as a stable energy source via water electrolysis. The solar hydrogen is then used to fix CO2 by Cupriavidus necator, a hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium. Under the autotrophic conditions, CO2 was reduced to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) that is further utilized for cell growth and biosynthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). The maximum cell growth rate reached 10.1 g L-1 day-1, about 25 times faster than that of a typical bio-oil-producing microalga (Neochloris Oleoabundans) under stable indoor conditions. With nitrogen nutrient limitation, a large portion of the reduced carbon is stored in PHB (C4H6O2)n, accounting for 50-60% of dry cell mass. PHB is a biodegradable thermoplastic that can find a variety of environmentally friendly applications. It is also a platform material from which small chemicals can be derived. At a high temperature (240 - 290 oC), the biopolyester is degraded into crotonic acid (C4H6O2). On a solid phosphoric acid catalyst, PHB is deoxygenated via decarboxylation into a hydrocarbon oil (C6-C18) at 240 oC or so. Aromatics and alkenes are the major compounds, depending on the reaction conditions. A gasoline-grade liquid fuel (77 wt% oil) and a biodiesel-grade fuel (23 wt% oil) were obtained from the hydrocarbon oil via distillation. The formation routes of hydrocarbon oil from crotonic acid, the major PHB degradation intermediate, are revealed and discussed. This work shows a novel green process from which biodegradable plastics and high-grade liquid fuels can be directly produced from carbon dioxide, water and solar power. The productivity of the green polyester (5.3 g L-1 d-1) is much higher than that of microalgal oil (0.13 g L-1 d-1). Other technical merits of the new green process may include continuous operation under intermittent solar irradiation and convenient scale up in outdoor.
An Introductory Study on Optimization Algorithm for Movable Sensor Network-Based Odor Source Localization
In this paper, the method of optimization algorithm for sensor network comprised of movable sensor nodes which can be used for odor source localization was proposed. A sensor node is composed of an odor sensor, an anemometer, and a wireless communication module. The odor intensity measured from the sensor nodes are sent to the processor to perform the localization based on optimization algorithm by which the odor source localization map is obtained as a result. The map can represent the exact position of the odor source or show the direction toward it remotely. The proposed method was experimentally validated by creating the odor source localization map using three, four, and five sensor nodes in which the accuracy to predict the position of the odor source can be observed.
Mechanical Analysis of Pineapple Leaf Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites
In the field of material engineering, composites are in great concern for their nonbiodegradability and their cost. In order to reduce its cost and weight, plant derived fibers witnessed miraculous triumph. Plant fibers can be of different types like seed fibers, blast fibers, leaf fibers, etc. Composites can be reinforced with exclusively one type of natural fiber or also can be combined with two or more different types of natural or synthetic fibers to boost up their specific properties. Among all natural fibers, wheat straw, bagasse, kenaf, pineapple leaf, banana, coir, ramie, flax, etc. pineapple leaf fibers have very good mechanical properties. Being hydrophilic in nature, pineapple leaf fibers have very less affinity towards all types of polymer matrixes like HDPE, LDPE, PET, epoxy, etc. Surface treatments like alkaline treatment in different concentrations were conducted to improve its adhesion and compatibility towards hydrophobic polymer matrix i.e. epoxy resin. Pineapple leaf fiber epoxy composites have been prepared using hand layup method. Effect of fiber loading and surface treatments have been studied for different mechanical properties i.e. tensile strength, flexural strength and impact properties of pineapple leaf fiber composites. Analysis of fiber morphology has also been studied using FTIR, XRD. Scanning electron microscopy has also been used to study and compare the morphology of untreated and treated fibers. Also, the fracture surface has been reviewed comparing the reported literature of other eminent researchers of this field.