Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 50781

Chemical and Molecular Engineering

1918
87249
Designing a Thermal Management System for Lithium Ion Battery Packs in Electric Vehicles
Abstract:
Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have been replacing lead-acid batteries for the last decade due to their outstanding properties such as high energy density, long shelf life, and almost no memory effect. Besides these, being very light compared to lead acid batteries has gained them their dominant place in the portable electronics market, and they are now the leading candidate for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). However, their performance strongly depends on temperature, and this causes some inconveniences for their utilization in extreme temperatures. Since weather conditions vary across the globe, this situation limits their utilization for EVs and HEVs and makes a thermal management system obligatory for the battery units. The objective of this study is to understand thermal characteristics of Li-ion battery modules for various operation conditions and design a thermal management system to enhance battery performance in EVs and HEVs. In the first part of our study, we investigated thermal behavior of commercially available pouch type 20Ah LiFePO₄ (LFP) cells under various conditions. Main parameters were chosen as ambient temperature and discharge current rate. Each cell was charged and discharged at temperatures of 0°C, 10°C, 20°C, 30°C, 40°C, and 50°C. The current rate of charging process was 1C while it was 1C, 2C, 3C, 4C, and 5C for discharge process. Temperatures of 7 different points on the cells were measured throughout charging and discharging with N-type thermocouples, and a detailed temperature profile was obtained. In the second part of our study, we connected 4 cells in series by clinching and prepared 4S1P battery modules similar to ones in EVs and HEVs. Three reference points were determined according to the findings of the first part of the study, and a thermocouple is placed on each reference point on the cells composing the 4S1P battery modules. In the end, temperatures of 6 points in the module and 3 points on the top surface were measured and changes in the surface temperatures were recorded for different discharge rates (0.2C, 0.5C, 0.7C, and 1C) at various ambient temperatures (0°C – 50°C). Afterwards, aluminum plates with channels were placed between the cells in the 4S1P battery modules, and temperatures were controlled with airflow. Airflow was provided with a regular compressor, and the effect of flow rate on cell temperature was analyzed. Diameters of the channels were in mm range, and shapes of the channels were determined in order to make the cell temperatures uniform. Results showed that the designed thermal management system could help keeping the cell temperatures in the modules uniform throughout charge and discharge processes. Other than temperature uniformity, the system was also beneficial to keep cell temperature close to the optimum working temperature of Li-ion batteries. It is known that keeping the temperature at an optimum degree and maintaining uniform temperature throughout utilization can help obtaining maximum power from the cells in battery modules for a longer time. Furthermore, it will increase safety by decreasing the risk of thermal runaways. Therefore, the current study is believed to be beneficial for wider use of Li batteries for battery modules of EVs and HEVs globally.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1917
87232
Study of Motion of Impurity Ions in Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) from View Point of Microstructure of Polymer Solid
Authors:
Abstract:
Electrical properties of polymer solid is characterized by dielectric relaxation phenomenon. Complex permittivity shows a high dependence on frequency of external stimulation in the broad frequency range from 0.1mHz to 10GHz. The complex-permittivity dispersion gives us a lot of useful information about the molecular motion of polymers and the structure of polymer aggregates. However, the large dispersion of permittivity at low frequencies due to DC conduction of impurity ions often covers the dielectric relaxation in polymer solid. In experimental investigation, many researchers have tried to remove the DC conduction experimentally or analytically for a long time. On the other hand, our laboratory chose another way of research for this problem from the point of view of a reversal in thinking. The way of our research is to use the impurity ions in the DC conduction as a probe to detect the motion of polymer molecules and to investigate the structure of polymer aggregates. In addition to the complex permittivity, the electric modulus and the conductivity relaxation time are strong tools for investigating the ionic motion in DC conduction. In a non-crystalline part of melt-crystallized polymers, free spaces with inhomogeneous size exist between crystallites. As the impurity ions exist in the non-crystalline part and move through these inhomogeneous free spaces, the motion of ions reflects the microstructure of non-crystalline part. The ionic motion of impurity ions in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is investigated in this study. Frequency dependence of the loss permittivity of PVDF shows a characteristic of the direct current (DC) conduction below 1 kHz of frequency at 435 K. The electric modulus-frequency curve shows a characteristic of the dispersion with the single conductivity relaxation time. Namely, it is the Debye-type dispersion. The conductivity relaxation time analyzed from this curve is 0.00003 s at 435 K. From the plot of conductivity relaxation time of PVDF together with the other polymers against permittivity, it was found that there are two group of polymers; one of the group is characterized by small conductivity relaxation time and large permittivity, and another is characterized by large conductivity relaxation time and small permittivity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1916
86896
Numerical Optimization of Cooling System Parameters for Multilayer Lithium Ion Cell and Battery Packs
Abstract:
Lithium-ion batteries are a commonly used type of rechargeable batteries because of their high specific energy and specific power. With the growing popularity of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles, increasing attentions have been paid to rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries. However, safety problems, high cost and poor performance in low ambient temperatures and high current rates, are big obstacles for commercial utilization of these batteries. By proper thermal management, most of the mentioned limitations could be eliminated. Temperature profile of the Li-ion cells has a significant role in the performance, safety, and cycle life of the battery. That is why little temperature gradient can lead to great loss in the performances of the battery packs. In recent years, numerous researchers are working on new techniques to imply a better thermal management on Li-ion batteries. Keeping the battery cells within an optimum range is the main objective of battery thermal management. Commercial Li-ion cells are composed of several electrochemical layers each consisting negative-current collector, negative electrode, separator, positive electrode, and positive current collector. However, many researchers have adopted a single-layer cell to save in computing time. Their hypothesis is that thermal conductivity of the layer elements is so high and heat transfer rate is so fast. Therefore, instead of several thin layers, they model the cell as one thick layer unit. In previous work, we showed that single-layer model is insufficient to simulate the thermal behavior and temperature nonuniformity of the high-capacity Li-ion cells. We also studied the effects of the number of layers on thermal behavior of the Li-ion batteries. In this work, first thermal and electrochemical behavior of the LiFePO₄ battery is modeled with 3D multilayer cell. The model is validated with the experimental measurements at different current rates and ambient temperatures. Real time heat generation rate is also studied at different discharge rates. Results showed non-uniform temperature distribution along the cell which requires thermal management system. Therefore, aluminum plates with mini-channel system were designed to control the temperature uniformity. Design parameters such as channel number and widths, inlet flow rate, and cooling fluids are optimized. As cooling fluids, water and air are compared. Pressure drop and velocity profiles inside the channels are illustrated. Both surface and internal temperature profiles of single cell and battery packs are investigated with and without cooling systems. Our results show that using optimized Mini-channel cooling plates effectively controls the temperature rise and uniformity of the single cells and battery packs. With increasing the inlet flow rate, cooling efficiency could be reached up to 60%.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1915
86183
Superhydrophobic Behavior of SnO₂-TiO₂ Composite Thin Films
Abstract:
SnO₂-TiO₂ nanocomposite thin films were prepared by the sol-gel method on borosilicate glass substrate. The films were annealed at a temperature of 300ᵒC, 400ᵒC, and 500ᵒC respectively for 2h in the air. The films obtained were further modified with stearic acid in order to decrease the surface energy. The X-ray diffraction patterns for the SnO₂-TiO₂ thin films after annealing at different temperatures can be indexed to the mixture of TiO₂ (rutile and anatase) and SnO₂ (tetragonal) phases. The average crystallite size calculated from Scherrer’s formula is found to be 6 nm. The SnO₂-TiO₂ thin films were hydrophilic which on modification with stearic acid exhibit superhydrophobic behavior. The increase in hydrophobicity of SnO₂ film with stearic acid modification is attributed to the change in surface energy of the film. The films exhibit superhydrophilic behavior under UV irradiation for 1h. Thus, it is observed that stearic acid modified surfaces are superhydrophobic but convert into superhydrophilic on being subjected to UV irradiation. SnO₂-TiO₂ thin films have potential for self-cleaning applications because of photoinduced hydrophilicity under UV irradiation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1914
85931
Metallacyclodimeric Array Containing Both Suprachannels and Cages: Selective Reservoir and Recognition of Diiodomethane
Abstract:
Self-assembly of a series of ZnX2 (X- = Cl-, Br-, and I-) with 2,3-bis(4’-nicotinamidephenoxy)naphthalene (L) as a new bidentate pyridyl-donor ligand yields systematic metallacyclodimeric unit, [ZnX2L]2. The supramolecule constitutes a characteristically stacked forming both 1D suprachannels and cages. Weak C-H⋯π and inter-digitated π⋯π interactions are main driving forces in the formation of both suprachannels and cages. The slightly different features between the suprachannel and cage have been investigated by 1H NMR and TG analysis, which solvent quantitatively exchange within only suprachannels. Photo-unstable CH2I2 molecules are stabilized via capturing within suprachannels, which is monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Furthermore, the photoluminescence intensity, from the chromophore naphthyl moiety of [ZnCl2L]2, gradually decreases with the addition of CH2I2. And washing off the CH2I2 by dichloromethane returned the PL intensity back to its approximately original signal.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1913
85921
Preparation of Indium Tin Oxide Nanoparticle-Modified 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane-Functionalized Indium Tin Oxide Electrode for Electrochemical Sulfide Detection
Abstract:
Sulfide ion is water soluble, highly corrosive, toxic and harmful to the human beings. As a result, knowing the exact concentration of sulfide in water is very important. However, the existing detection and quantification methods have several shortcomings, such as high cost, low sensitivity, and massive instrumentation. Consequently, the development of novel sulfide sensor is relevant. Nevertheless, electrochemical methods gained enormous popularity due to a vast improvement in the technique and instrumentation, portability, low cost, rapid analysis and simplicity of design. Successful field application of electrochemical devices still requires vast improvement, which depends on the physical, chemical and electrochemical aspects of the working electrode. The working electrode made of bulk gold (Au) and platinum (Pt) are quite common, being very robust and endowed with good electrocatalytic properties. High cost, and electrode poisoning, however, have so far hindered their practical application in many industries. To overcome these obstacles, we developed a sulfide sensor based on an indium tin oxide nanoparticle (ITONP)-modified ITO electrode. To prepare ITONP-modified ITO, various methods were tested. Drop-drying of ITONPs (aq.) on aminopropyltrimethoxysilane-functionalized ITO (APTMS/ITO) was found to be the best method on the basis of voltammetric analysis of the sulfide ion. ITONP-modified APTMS/ITO (ITONP/APTMS/ITO) yielded much better electrocatalytic properties toward sulfide electro-οxidation than did bare or APTMS/ITO electrodes. The ITONPs and ITONP-modified ITO were also characterized using transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Optimization of the type of inert electrolyte and pH yielded an ITONP/APTMS/ITO detector whose amperometrically and chronocoulοmetrically determined limits of detection for sulfide in aqueous solution were 3.0 µM and 0.90 µM, respectively. ITONP/APTMS/ITO electrodes which displayed reproducible performances were highly stable and were not susceptible to interference by common contaminants. Thus, the developed electrode can be considered as a promising tool for sensing sulfide.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1912
85850
Photo-Induced Reversible Surface Wettability Analysis of GLAD Synthesized In2O3/TiO2 Heterostructure Nanocolumn
Abstract:
A novel vertical 1D In2O3/TiO2 nanocolumn (NC) axial heterostructure has been successfully synthesized using Glancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) technique inside E-Beam Evaporator chamber. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) has been used to evaluate the morphology of the structure grown. The estimated length of In2O3/TiO2 NC is ~250 nm and ~300nm for In2O3 and TiO2 respectively with diameter ~60-90 nm. The surface of the heterostructure is porous in nature which can affect the interfacial wettability properties. The grown structure has been further characterized using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible absorption measurement. The polycrystalline nature of the sample has been examined using XRD with prominent peaks obtained with phase (101) for anatase TiO2 and (211) for In2O3. Here, 1D axial heterostructure NC thus favors efficient segregation of photo-excited carriers due to their type II band alignment between the constituent materials. Moreover, the 1D nanostructure is known for their large surface area and excellent ionic charge transport property. On exposure to UV light illumination, the surface properties of In2O3/TiO2 NC changes whereby the hydrophobic nature of the heterostructure changes to hydrophilic. As a result, the reversible surface wettability of heterostructure on interaction with UV light can give potential applications as antifogging and self-cleaning surfaces.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1911
85432
Towards the Integration of a Micro Pump in μTAS
Authors:
Abstract:
The objective of this study is to present a micro mechanical pump that was fabricated using SwIFT™ microfabrication surface micromachining process and to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating such micro pump into a micro analysis system. The micropump circulates the bio-sample and magnetic nanoparticles through different compartments to separate and purify the targeted bio-sample. This article reports the flow characteristics in the microchannels and in a crescent micro pump.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1910
84998
A Comparative Study of the Preparation Method of CuMgAl Mixed Oxides on the Catalytic Activity of SCR of NO with Ammonia
Abstract:
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with ammonia ([NO] = [NH3] = 1000 ppm) has been studied over both hydrotalcite-based CuMgAl mixed oxide catalysts prepared by co-precipitation method and Cu/MgAl prepared by impregnation of copper in MgAl mixed oxides. The solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy-dispersive_X-ray_spectroscopy (EDX) and N2 physisorption (BET). The results of the catalytic test revealed that the main product is N2. Copper-free samples MgAl (1:1) and MgAl (2:1) don’t present any activity toward SCR of NO. CuAl sample presents low catalytic activity. The influence of impregnation of the transition metal on the catalytic performance has been investigated. When copper species are impregnated on MgA l (1:1) a better NO conversion is obtained nearly 40% at 543 K with a volume space velocity of 60000 h-1.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1909
84916
Impact of Microwave Heating Temperatures on the Pharmaceutical Powder Characteristics
Abstract:
Drying temperature is an important factor impacting the physicochemical properties of the dried materials, particularly the pharmaceutical powders. Drying of pharmaceuticals by using microwave radiation is very limited, and the available information about the interaction between the electromagnetic radiations and the pharmaceutical material is still scarce. Therefore, microwave drying process is employed in this work to dry the wet (moisturised) granules of the formulated naproxen-sodium drug. This study aims to investigate the influences of the microwave radiation temperatures on the moisture removal, the crystalline structure, the size and morphology of the dried naproxen-sodium particles, and identify any potential changes in the chemical groups of the drug. In this work, newly formulated naproxen-sodium is prepared and moisturized by wet granulation process and hence dried by using microwave radiation at different temperatures. Moisture analyzer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscope are used to characterise the non-moisturised powder (reference powder), the moisturised granules, and the dried particles. The results show that microwave drying of naproxen-sodium at high drying temperature is more efficient than that at low temperatures in terms of the moisture removal. Although there is no significant change in the chemical structure of the dried particles, the particle size, crystallinity and morphology are relatively changed with changing of heating temperature.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1908
84409
Improvement of Diesel Oil Properties by Batch Adsorption and Simple Distillation Processes
Abstract:
In this research, diesel oil properties, such as aniline point, density, diesel index, cetane index and cetane number before and after treatment were studied. The investigation was considered for diesel oil samples after batch adsorption process using powdered activated carbon. Batch distillation process was applied to all treated diesel oil samples for separation of the solid-liquid mixture. The diesel oil properties were studied to observe the impact of adsorptive desulfurization process on fuel quality. Results showed that the best cetane number for desulfurized diesel oil was found at the best-operating conditions 60℃, 10g activated carbon and 180 minute contact time. The best-desulfurized diesel oil cetane number was obtained around 51 while the cetane number of untreated diesel oil was 34. Results also showed that the calculated cetane number increases as the operating temperature and amounts of adsorbent increases. This behavior was same for other diesel oil properties such as aniline point, diesel index, cetane index and density. The best value for all the fuel properties was found at same operating conditions mentioned above. Thus, it can be concluded that adsorptive desulfurization using powdered activated carbon as adsorbent had significantly improved the fuel quality of diesel oil by reducing aromatic contents of diesel oil.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1907
84407
Carboxylic Acid-Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes-Polyindole/Ti2O3 Nanocomposite: Electrochemical Nanomolar Detection of α-Lipoic Acid in Vegetables
Abstract:
A highly sensitive, and selective α-Lipoic acid (ALA) sensor based on a functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes-polyindole/Ti2O3 (f-MWCNTs-PIN/Ti2O3) nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was developed. The fabricated f-MWCNTs-PIN/Ti2O3/GCE displayed an enhanced voltammetric response for oxidation towards ALA relative to that of a f-MWCNTs/GCE, f-MWCNTs-PIN/GCE, Ti2O3/GCE, and a bare GCE. Under optimum conditions, the f-MWCNTs-PIN/Ti2O3/GCE showed a wide linear range at ALA concentrations of 0.39-115.8 µM. The limit of detection of 12 nM and sensitivity of about 6.39 µA µM-1cm-2. The developed sensor showed anti-interference, reproducibility, good repeatability, and operational stability. Applied possibility of the sensor has been confirmed in vegetable samples.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1906
84359
Enhanced Magnetic Hyperthermic Efficiency of Ferrite Based Nanoparticles
Abstract:
Hyperthermia is one of many techniques used destroys cancerous cell. It uses the physical methods to heat certain organ or tissue delivering an adequate temperature in an appropriate period of time, to the entire tumor volume for achieving optimal therapeutic results. Magnetic Metal ferrites nanoparticles (MFe₂O₄ where M = Mn, Zn, Ni, Co, Mg, etc.) are one of the most potential candidates for hyperthermia due to their tunability, biocompatibility, chemical stability and notable ability to mediate high rate of heat induction. However, to obtain the desirable properties for these applications, it is important to optimize their chemical composition, structure and magnetic properties. These properties are mainly sensitive to cation distribution of tetrahedral and octahedral sites. Among the ferrites, zinc ferrite (ZnFe₂O₄) and Manganese ferrite ((MnFe₂O₄) is one of a strong candidate for hyperthermia application because Mn and zinc have a non-magnetic cation and therefore the magnetic property is determined only by the cation distribution of iron, which provides a better platform to manipulate or tailor the properties. In this talk, influence of doping and surfactant towards cation re-distribution leading to an enhancement of magnetic properties of ferrite nanoparticles will be demonstrated. The efficiency of heat generation in association with the enhanced magnetic property is also well discussed in this talk.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1905
84261
Experimental Design and Optimization of Diesel Oil Desulfurization Process by Adsorption Processes
Abstract:
Thiophene sulfur compounds' removal from diesel oil by batch adsorption process using commercial powdered activated carbon was designed and optimized in two-level factorial design method. This design analysis was used to find out the effects of operating parameters directing the adsorption process, such as amount of adsorbent, temperature and stirring time. The desulfurization efficiency was considered the response or output variable. Results showed that the stirring time had the largest effects on sulfur removal efficiency as compared with other operating parameters and their interactions under the experimental ranges studied. A regression model was generated to observe the closeness between predicted and experimental values. The three-dimensional plots and contour plots of main factors were generated according to the regression results to observe the optimal points.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1904
84065
Biodiesel Production from Edible Oil Wastewater Sludge with Bioethanol Using Nano-Magnetic Catalysis
Abstract:
Currently, most sludge from the wastewater treatment plants of edible oil factories is disposed to landfills, but landfill sites are finite and potential sources of environmental pollution. Production of biodiesel from wastewater sludge can contribute to energy production and waste minimization. However, conventional biodiesel production is energy and waste intensive. Generally, biodiesel is produced from the transesterification reaction of oils with alcohol (i.e., Methanol, ethanol) in the presence of a catalyst. Homogeneously catalysed transesterification is the conventional approach for large-scale production of biodiesel as reaction times are relatively short. Nevertheless, homogenous catalysis presents several challenges such as high probability of soap. The current study aimed to reuse wastewater sludge from the edible oil industry as a novel feedstock for both monounsaturated fats and bioethanol for the production of biodiesel. Preliminary results have shown that the fatty acid profile of the oilseed wastewater sludge is favourable for biodiesel production with 48% (w/w) monounsaturated fats and that the residue left after the extraction of fats from the sludge contains sufficient fermentable sugars after steam explosion followed by an enzymatic hydrolysis for the successful production of bioethanol [29% (w/w)] using a commercial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A novel nano-magnetic catalyst was synthesised from mineral processing alkaline tailings, mainly containing dolomite originating from cupriferous ores using a modified sol-gel. The catalyst elemental chemical compositions and structural properties were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and the BET for the surface area with 14.3 m²/g and 34.1 nm average pore diameter. The mass magnetization of the nano-magnetic catalyst was 170 emu/g. Both the catalytic properties and reusability of the catalyst were investigated. A maximum biodiesel yield of 78% was obtained, which dropped to 52% after the fourth transesterification reaction cycle. The proposed approach has the potential to reduce material costs, energy consumption and water usage associated with conventional biodiesel production technologies. It may also mitigate the impact of conventional biodiesel production on food and land security, while simultaneously reducing waste.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1903
83956
Cloning, Expression and N-Terminal Pegylation of Human Interferon Alpha-2b Analogs and Their Cytotoxic Evaluation against Cancer Cell Lines
Abstract:
In the current research, three recombinant human interferon alpha-2b proteins (two modified and one normal form) were produced and Pegylated with an aim to produce more effective drugs against viral infections and cancers. The modified recombinant human interferon alpha-2b proteins were produced by site-directed modifications of interferon alpha 2b gene, targeting the amino acids at positions ‘R23’ and ‘H34’. The resulting chemically modified and unmodified forms of human interferon alpha 2b were conjugated with methoxy-polyethylene glycol propanealdehyde (400 KDa) and methoxy-polyethylene glycol succinimidyl succinate (400 KDa). Pegylation of normal and modified forms of Interferon alpha-2b prolong their release time and enhance their efficacy. The conjugation of PEG with modified and unmodified human interferon alpha 2b protein drugs was also characterized with 1H-NMR, HPLC, and SDS-PAGE. Antiproliferative assays of modified and unmodified forms of drugs were performed in cell based bioassays using MDBK cell lines. The results indicated that experimentally produced recombinant human interferon alpha-2b proteins were biologically active and resulted in significant inhibition of cell growth.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1902
83178
Effect of Al on Glancing Angle Deposition Synthesized In₂O₃ Nanocolumn for Photodetector Application
Abstract:
Aluminium (Al) doped In2O3 (Indium Oxide) nanocolumn array was synthesized by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique on Si (n-type) substrate for photodetector application. The sample was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The average diameter of the nanocolumn was calculated from the top view of the SEM image and found to be ∼80 nm. The length of the nanocolumn (~500 nm) was calculated from cross sectional SEM image and it shows that the nanocolumns are perpendicular to the substrate. The EDX analysis confirmed the presence of Al (Aluminium), In (Indium), O (Oxygen) elements in the samples. The XRD patterns of the Al-doped In2O3 nanocolumn show the presence of different phases of the Al doped In2O3 nanocolumn i.e. (222) and (622). Three different peaks were observed from the PL analysis of Al doped In2O3 nanocolumn at 365 nm, 415 nm and 435 nm respectively. The peak at PL emission at 365 nm can be attributed to the near band gap transition of In2O3 whereas the peaks at 415 nm and 435 nm can be attributed to the trap state emissions due to oxygen vacancies and oxygen–indium vacancy centre in Al doped In2O3 nanocolumn. The current-voltage (I–V) characteristics of the Al doped In2O3 nanocolumn based detector was measured through the Au Schottky contact. The devices were then examined under the halogen light (20 W) illumination for photocurrent measurement. The Al-doped In2O3 nanocolumn based optical detector showed high conductivity and low turn on voltage at 0.69 V under white light illumination. A maximum photoresponsivity of 82 A/W at 380 nm was observed for the device. The device shows a high internal gain of ~267 at UV region (380 nm) and ∼127 at visible region (760 nm). Also the rise time and fall time for the device at 650 nm is 0.15 and 0.16 sec respectively which makes it suitable for fast response detector.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1901
83104
Adsorption of Methylene Blue by Pectin from Durian (Durio zibethinus) Seeds
Abstract:
Methylene blue is a popular water-soluble dye that is used for dyeing a variety of substrates such as bacteria, wool, and silk. Methylene blue discharged into the aquatic environment will cause health problems for living things. Treatment method for industrial wastewater may be divided into three main categories: physical, chemical, and biological. Among them, adsorption technology is generally considered to be an effective method for quickly lowering the concentration of dissolved dyes in a wastewater. This has attracted considerable research into low-cost alternative adsorbents for adsorbing or removing coloring matter. In this research, pectin from durian seeds was utilized here to assess their ability for the removal of methylene blue. Adsorption parameters are contact time and dye concentration were examined in the batch adsorption processes. Pectin characterization was performed by FTIR spectrometry. Methylene blue concentration was determined by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. FTIR results show that the samples showed the typical fingerprint in IR spectrogram. The adsorption result on 10 mL of 5 mg/L methylene blue solution achieved 95.12% when contact time 10 minutes and pectin 0.2 g.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1900
82633
Structural and Photoluminescence Properties of Glancing Angle Deposition Synthesized SiOₓ/ZnO Heterostructure Nanocluster
Abstract:
We report on the synthesis of ZnO nanocluster and SiOₓ/ZnO heterostructure nanocluster on a Si p-type (100) substrate using Glancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) technique. The structural and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanocluster and SiOₓ/ZnO heterostructure nanocluster were measured using X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Photoluminescence (PL) spectrophotometer characterization techniques. The XRD spectrum of both samples revealed the formation of crystalline ZnO having wurtzite structure characterized with dominant (100), (002), (101), and (110) peaks. No characteristic peak of SiOₓ nanocluster was detected which confirms amorphous in nature. The enhancement in the intensity of ZnO (002) diffraction peak is attributed to the preferential growth of SiOₓ/ZnO heterostructure nanocluster as compared to the ZnO nanocluster. We determined the average crystallite size estimated from the full width half maximum (FWHM) for ZnO nanocluster and SiOₓ deposited on ZnO nanocluster and found to be ~ 8.051 nm and ~ 10.436 nm respectively. HRTEM image showed the formation of heterostructure nanocluster which consists of ZnO with length ~225 nm and SiOₓ with length ~248 nm. The vibrational frequencies in the FTIR spectra further confirm the formation of wurtzite structure in ZnO. The peak that appeared in 420 cm⁻¹ of the spectra is due to stretching vibration mode of ZnO, and the Si-O asymmetric stretching at 1109 cm⁻¹ is attributed to oxygen impurities dissolved in the Si-substrate. The PL properties of ZnO nanocluster and SiOₓ/ZnO heterostructure nanocluster at different excitation wavelengths of 325 nm and 350 nm were investigated in details. Visible emission in ZnO nanocluster is attributed to different intrinsic defects. A broad blue-violet peak emission at 450 nm (~ 2.75 eV) at room temperature is due to the non-radiative recombination between the electrons in a deep defect level or a shallow surface defect level of Zinc interstitials (Zni) and the holes in the valence band. Compared with ZnO nanocluster, the emission peak shifted to 457 nm in SiOₓ/ZnO heterostructure nanocluster. The intensity of blue emissions exhibits nonlinear increase-decrease dependence, in SiOₓ/ZnO heterostructure nanocluster first increasing, the saturation at the bandgap energy as the optimal excitation energy and finally decreasing but still effectively emitting as slowly dropping tail emission peaks at 468 nm which is due to transitions from Zni and extended Zni states to the valence band. The property of blue violet emission and interesting peak shift indicate potential applications in optoelectronics device.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1899
82076
Real-Time Observation of Concentration Distribution for Mix Liquids including Water in Micro Fluid Channel with Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging Method
Abstract:
In order to quantitatively comprehend thermal flow for some industrial applications such as nuclear and chemical reactors, detailed measurements for temperature and abundance (concentration) of materials at high temporal and spatial resolution are required. Additionally, rigorous evaluation of the size effect is also important for practical realization. This paper introduces a real-time spectroscopic imaging method in micro scale field, which visualizes temperature and concentration distribution of a liquid or mix liquids with near-infrared (NIR) wavelength region. This imaging principle is based on absorption of pre-selected narrow band from absorption spectrum peak or its dependence property of target liquid in NIR region. For example, water has a positive temperature sensitivity in the wavelength at 1905 nm, therefore the temperature of water can be measured using the wavelength band. In the experiment, the real-time imaging observation of concentration distribution in micro channel was demonstrated to investigate the applicability of micro-scale diffusion coefficient and temperature measurement technique using this proposed method. The effect of thermal diffusion and binary mutual diffusion was evaluated with the time-series visualizations of concentration distribution.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1898
81626
ZnO Nanoparticles as Photocatalysts: Synthesis, Characterization and Application
Abstract:
ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized successfully in high yield via catalyst-free chemical precipitation technique by varying zinc source (either zinc nitrate or zinc acetate) and oxygen source (either oxalic acid or urea) without using any surfactant, organic solvent or capping agent. The ZnO nanostructures were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS), and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The FTIR peak in the range of 450-470 cm-1 corresponded to Zn-O stretching in ZnO structure. The synthesized ZnO samples showed well crystalized hexagonal wurtzite structure. SEM micrographs displayed spherical droplet of about 50-100 nm. The band gap of prepared ZnO was found to be 3.4-3.5 eV. The presence of PL peak at 468 nm was attributed to surface defect state. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO was studied by monitoring the photodegradation of reactive red (RR141) azo dye under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. Blank experiment was also separately carried out by irradiating the aqueous solution of the dye in absence of the photocatalyst. The initial concentration of the dye was fixed at 10 mgL-1. About 50 mg of ZnO photocatalyst was dispersed in 200 mL dye solution. The sample was collected at a regular time interval during the irradiation and then was analyzed after centrifugation. The concentration of the dye was determined by monitoring the absorbance at its maximum wavelength (λₘₐₓ) of 544 nm using UV-vis spectroscopic analysis technique. The sources of Zn and O played an important role on photocatalytic performance of the ZnO photocatalyst. ZnO nanoparticles which prepared by zinc acetate and oxalic acid at molar ratio of 1:1 showed high photocatalytic performance of about 97% toward photodegradation of reactive red azo dye (RR141) under UV light irradiation for only 60 min. This work demonstrates the promising potential of ZnO nanomaterials as photocatalysts for environmental remediation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1897
81570
Effect of Environmental Stress Factors on the Degradation of Display Glass
Abstract:
The effects of environmental stress factors such as storage conditions on the deterioration phenomenon and the characteristic of the display glass were studied. In order to investigate the effect of chemical stress on the glass during the period of storage, the respective components of commercial glass were first identified by XRF (X-ray fluorescence). The glass was exposed in the acid, alkali, neutral environment for about one month. Thin film formed on the glass surface was analyzed by XRD (X-ray diffraction) and FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared). The degree of corrosion and the rate of deterioration of each sample were confirmed by measuring the concentrations of silicon, calcium and chromium with ICP-OES (Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry). The optical properties of the glass surface were confirmed by SEM (Scanning electron microscope) before and after the treatment. Acknowledgement—The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (Grant Number: 10076817)
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1896
81569
Evaluation of Nanoparticle Application to Control Formation Damage in Porous Media: Laboratory and Mathematical Modelling
Abstract:
Suspension-Colloidal flow in porous media occurs in numerous engineering fields, such as industrial water treatment, the disposal of industrial wastes into aquifers with the propagation of contaminants and low salinity water injection into petroleum reservoirs. The main effects are particle mobilization and captured by the porous rock, which can cause pore plugging and permeability reduction which is known as formation damage. Various factors such as fluid salinity, pH, temperature, and rock properties affect particle detachment. Formation damage is unfavorable specifically near injection and production wells. One way to control formation damage is pre-treatment of the rock with nanoparticles. Adsorption of nanoparticles on fines and rock surfaces alters zeta-potential of the surfaces and enhances the attachment force between the rock and fine particles. The main objective of this study is to develop a two-stage mathematical model for (1) flow and adsorption of nanoparticles on the rock in the pre-treatment stage and (2) fines migration and permeability reduction during the water production after the pre-treatment. The model accounts for adsorption and desorption of nanoparticles, fines migration, and kinetics of particle capture. The system of equations allows for the exact solution. The non-self-similar wave-interaction problem was solved by the Method of Characteristics. The analytical model is new in two ways: First, it accounts for the specific boundary and initial condition describing the injection of nanoparticle and production from the pre-treated porous media; second, it contains the effect of nanoparticle sorption hysteresis. The derived analytical model contains explicit formulae for the concentration fronts along with pressure drop. The solution is used to determine the optimal injection concentration of nanoparticle to avoid formation damage. The mathematical model was validated via an innovative laboratory program. The laboratory study includes two sets of core-flood experiments: (1) production of water without nanoparticle pre-treatment; (2) pre-treatment of a similar core with nanoparticles followed by water production. Positively-charged Alumina nanoparticles with the average particle size of 100 nm were used for the rock pre-treatment. The core was saturated with the nanoparticles and then flushed with low salinity water; pressure drop across the core and the outlet fine concentration was monitored and used for model validation. The results of the analytical modeling showed a significant reduction in the fine outlet concentration and formation damage. This observation was in great agreement with the results of core-flood data. The exact solution accurately describes fines particle breakthroughs and evaluates the positive effect of nanoparticles in formation damage. We show that the adsorbed concentration of nanoparticle highly affects the permeability of the porous media. For the laboratory case presented, the reduction of permeability after 1 PVI production in the pre-treated scenario is 50% lower than the reference case. The main outcome of this study is to provide a validated mathematical model to evaluate the effect of nanoparticles on formation damage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1895
81522
Buoyant Gas Dispersion in a Small Fuel Cell Enclosure: A Comparison Study Using Plain and Pressed Louvre Vent Passive Ventilation Schemes
Abstract:
The transition from a ‘carbon rich’ fossil fuel dependent to a ‘sustainable’ and ‘renewable’ hydrogen based society will see the deployment of hydrogen fuel cells (HFC) in transport applications and in the generation of heat and power for buildings, as part of a decentralised power network. Many deployments will be low power HFCs for domestic combined heat and power (CHP) and commercial ‘transportable’ HFCs for environmental situations, such as lighting and telephone towers. For broad commercialisation of small fuel cells to be achieved there needs to be significant confidence in their safety in both domestic and environmental applications. Low power HFCs are housed in protective steel enclosures. Standard enclosures have plain rectangular ventilation openings intended for thermal management of electronics and not the dispersion of a buoyant gas. Degradation of the HFC or supply pipework in use could lead to a low-level leak and a build-up of hydrogen gas in the enclosure. Hydrogen’s wide flammable range (4-75%) is a significant safety concern, with ineffective enclosure ventilation having the potential to cause flammable mixtures to develop with the risk of explosion. Mechanical ventilation is effective at managing enclosure hydrogen concentrations, but drains HFC power and is vulnerable to failure. This is undesirable in low power and remote installations and reliable passive ventilation systems are preferred. Passive ventilation depends upon buoyancy driven flow, with the size, shape and position of ventilation openings critical for producing predictable flows and maintaining low buoyant gas concentrations. With environmentally sited enclosures, ventilation openings with pressed horizontal and angled louvres are preferred to protect the HFC and electronics inside. There is an economic cost to adding louvres, but also a safety concern. A question arises over whether the use of pressed louvre vents impairs enclosure passive ventilation performance, when compared to same opening area plain vents. Comparison small enclosure (0.144m³) tests of same opening area pressed louvre and plain vents were undertaken. A displacement ventilation arrangement was incorporated into the enclosure with opposing upper and lower ventilation openings. A range of vent areas were tested. Helium (used as a safe analogue for hydrogen) was released from a 4mm nozzle at the base of the enclosure to simulate a hydrogen leak at leak rates from 1 to 10 lpm. Helium sensors were used to record concentrations at eight heights in the enclosure. The enclosure was otherwise empty. These tests determined that the use of pressed and angled louvre ventilation openings on the enclosure impaired the passive ventilation flow and increased helium concentrations in the enclosure. High-level stratified buoyant gas layers were also found to be deeper than with plain vent openings and were within the flammable range. The presence of gas within the flammable range is of concern, particularly as the addition of the fuel cell and electronics in the enclosure would further reduce the available volume and increase concentrations. The opening area of louvre vents would need to be greater than equivalent plain vents to achieve comparable ventilation flows or alternative schemes would need to be considered.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1894
81299
Graphene Supported Nano Cerium Oxides Hybrid as an Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reactions
Abstract:
Today, the world is facing a severe challenge due to depletion of traditional fossil fuels. Scientists across the globe are working for a solution that involves a dramatic shift to practical and environmentally sustainable energy sources. High-capacity energy systems, such as metal-air batteries, fuel cells, are highly desirable to meet the urgent requirement of sustainable energies. Among the fuel cells, Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are recognized as an ideal power source for mobile applications and have received considerable attention in recent past. In this advanced electrochemical energy conversion technologies, Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) is of utmost importance. However, the poor kinetics of cathodic ORR in DMFCs significantly hampers their possibilities of commercialization. The oxygen is reduced in alkaline medium either through a 4-electron (equation i) or a 2-electron (equation ii) reduction pathway at the cathode ((i) O₂ + 2H₂O + 4e⁻ → 4OH⁻, (ii) O₂ + H₂O + 2e⁻ → OH⁻ + HO₂⁻ ). Due to sluggish ORR kinetics the ability to control the reduction of molecular oxygen electrocatalytically is still limited. The electrocatalytic ORR starts with adsorption of O₂ on the electrode surface followed by O–O bond activation/cleavage and oxide removal. The reaction further involves transfer of 4 electrons and 4 protons. The sluggish kinetics of ORR, on the one hand, demands high loading of precious metal-containing catalysts (e.g., Pt), which unfavorably increases the cost of these electrochemical energy conversion devices. Therefore, synthesis of active electrocatalyst with an increase in ORR performance is need of the hour. In the recent literature, there are many reports on transition metal oxide (TMO) based ORR catalysts for their high activity TMOs are also having drawbacks like low electrical conductivity, which seriously affects the electron transfer process during ORR. It was found that 2D graphene layer is having high electrical conductivity, large surface area, and excellent chemical stability, appeared to be an ultimate choice as support material to enhance the catalytic performance of bare metal oxide. g-C₃N₄ is also another candidate that has been used by the researcher for improving the ORR performance of metal oxides. This material provides more active reaction sites than other N containing carbon materials. Rare earth oxide like CeO₂ is also a good candidate for studying the ORR activity as the metal oxide not only possess unique electronic properties but also possess catalytically active sites. Here we will discuss the ORR performance (in alkaline medium) of N-rGO/C₃N₄ supported nano Cerium Oxides hybrid synthesized by microwave assisted Solvothermal method. These materials exhibit superior electrochemical stability and methanol tolerance capability to that of commercial Pt/C.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1893
81146
Energy Options and Environmental Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Utilization Pathways
Abstract:
The energy requirements of carbon dioxide utilization (CDU) technologies/processes are diverse, so also are their environmental footprints. This paper explores the energy and environmental impacts of systems for CO₂ conversion to fuels, chemicals, and materials. Energy needs of the technologies and processes deployable in CO₂ conversion systems are met by one or combinations of hydrogen (chemical), electricity, heat, and light. Likewise, the environmental footprint of any CO₂ utilization pathway depends on the systems involved. So far, evaluation of CDU systems has been constrained to particular energy source/type or a subset of the overall system needed to make CDU possible. This introduces limitations to the general understanding of the energy and environmental implications of CDU, which has led to various pitfalls in past studies. A CDU system has an energy source, CO₂ supply, and conversion units. We apply a holistic approach to consider the impacts of all components in the process, including various sources of energy, CO₂ feedstock, and conversion technologies. The electricity sources include nuclear power, renewables (wind and solar PV), gas turbine, and coal. Heat is supplied from either electricity or natural gas, and hydrogen is produced from either steam methane reforming or electrolysis. The CO₂ capture unit uses either direct air capture or post-combustion capture via amine scrubbing, where applicable, integrated configurations of the CDU system are explored. We demonstrate how the overall energy and environmental impacts of each utilization pathway are obtained by aggregating the values for all components involved. Proper accounting of the energy and emission intensities of CDU must incorporate total balances for the utilization process and differences in timescales between alternative conversion pathways. Our results highlight opportunities for the use of clean energy sources, direct air capture, and a number of promising CO₂ conversion pathways for producing methanol, ethanol, synfuel, urea, and polymer materials.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1892
80725
Nanofluid-Based Emulsion Liquid Membrane for Selective Extraction and Separation of Dysprosium
Abstract:
Dysprosium is a rare earth element which is essential for many growing high-technology applications. Dysprosium along with neodymium plays a significant role in different applications such as metal halide lamps, permanent magnets, and nuclear reactor control rods preparation. The purification and separation of rare earth elements are challenging because of their similar chemical and physical properties. Among the various methods, membrane processes provide many advantages over the conventional separation processes such as ion exchange and solvent extraction. In this work, selective extraction and separation of dysprosium from aqueous solutions containing an equimolar mixture of dysprosium and neodymium by emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) was investigated. The organic membrane phase of the ELM was a nanofluid consisting of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), Span80 as surfactant, Cyanex 272 as carrier, kerosene as base fluid, and nitric acid solution as internal aqueous phase. Factors affecting separation of dysprosium such as carrier concentration, MWCNT concentration, feed phase pH and stripping phase concentration were analyzed using Taguchi method. Optimal experimental condition was obtained using analysis of variance (ANOVA) after 10 min extraction. Based on the results, using MWCNT nanofluid in ELM process leads to increase the extraction due to higher stability of membrane and mass transfer enhancement and separation factor of 6 for dysprosium over neodymium can be achieved under the optimum conditions. Additionally, demulsification process was successfully performed and the membrane phase reused effectively in the optimum condition.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1891
80675
Comparison between Post- and Oxy-Combustion Systems in a Petroleum Refinery Unit Using Modeling and Optimization
Abstract:
A fluidized catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) is one of the effective units in many refineries. Modeling and optimization of FCCU were done by many researchers in past decades, but in this research, comparison between post- and oxy-combustion was studied in the regenerator-FCCU. Therefore, a simplified mathematical model was derived by doing mass/heat balances around both reactor and regenerator. A state space analysis was employed to show effects of the flow rates variables such as air, feed, spent catalyst, regenerated catalyst and flue gas on the output variables. The main aim of studying dynamic responses is to figure out the most influencing variables that affect both reactor/regenerator temperatures; also, finding the upper/lower limits of the influencing variables to ensure that temperatures of the reactors and regenerator work within normal operating conditions. Therefore, those values will be used as side constraints in the optimization technique to find appropriate operating regimes. The objective functions were modeled to be maximizing the energy in the reactor while minimizing the energy consumption in the regenerator. In conclusion, an oxy-combustion process can be used instead of a post-combustion one.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1890
80658
Co₂Fe LDH on Aromatic Acid Functionalized N Doped Graphene: Hybrid Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Evolution Reaction
Abstract:
Designing highly active and low-cost oxygen evolution (2H₂O → 4H⁺ + 4e⁻ + O₂) electrocatalyst is one of the most active areas of advanced energy research. Some precious metal-based electrocatalysts, such as IrO₂ and RuO₂, have shown excellent performance for oxygen evolution reaction (OER); however, they suffer from high-cost and low abundance which limits their applications. Recently, layered double hydroxides (LDHs), composed of layers of divalent and trivalent transition metal cations coordinated to hydroxide anions, have gathered attention as an alternative OER catalyst. However, LDHs are insulators and coupled with carbon materials for the electrocatalytic applications. Graphene covalently doped with nitrogen has been demonstrated to be an excellent electrocatalyst for energy conversion technologies such as; oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), oxygen evolution reaction (OER) & hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, they operate at high overpotentials, significantly above the thermodynamic standard potentials. Recently, we reported remarkably enhanced catalytic activity of benzoate or 1-pyrenebutyrate functionalized N-doped graphene towards the ORR in alkaline medium. The molecular and heteroatom co-doping on graphene is expected to tune the electronic structure of graphene. Therefore, an innovative catalyst architecture, in which LDHs are anchored on aromatic acid functionalized ‘N’ doped graphene may presumably boost the OER activity to a new benchmark. Herein, we report fabrication of Co₂Fe-LDH on aromatic acid (AA) functionalized ‘N’ doped reduced graphene oxide (NG) and studied their OER activities in alkaline medium. In the first step, a novel polyol method is applied for synthesis of AA functionalized NG, which is well dispersed in aqueous medium. In the second step, Co₂Fe LDH were grown on AA functionalized NG by co-precipitation method. The hybrid samples are abbreviated as Co₂Fe LDH/AA-NG, where AA is either Benzoic acid or 1, 3-Benzene dicarboxylic acid (BDA) or 1, 3, 5 Benzene tricarboxylic acid (BTA). The crystal structure and morphology of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). These studies confirmed the growth of layered single phase LDH. The electrocatalytic OER activity of these hybrid materials was investigated by rotating disc electrode (RDE) technique on a glassy carbon electrode. The linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) on these catalyst samples were taken at 1600rpm. We observed significant OER performance enhancement in terms of onset potential and current density on Co₂Fe LDH/BTA-NG hybrid, indicating the synergic effect. This exploration of molecular functionalization effect in doped graphene and LDH system may provide an excellent platform for innovative design of OER catalysts.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1889
80594
Removal of Nickel and Vanadium from Crude Oil by Using Solvent Extraction and Electrochemical Process
Abstract:
Last decades crude oils have tended to become more challenge to process due to increasing amounts of sour and heavy crude oils. Some crude oils contain high vanadium and nickel content, for example Pavlodar LLP crude oil, which contains more than 23.09 g/t nickel and 58.59 g/t vanadium. In this study, we used two types of metal removing methods such as solvent extraction and electrochemical. The present research is conducted for comparative analysis of the deasphalting with organic solvents (cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform) and electrochemical method. Applying the cyclic voltametric analysis (CVA) and Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS), these mentioned types of metal extraction methods were compared in this paper. Maximum efficiency of deasphalting, with cyclohexane as the solvent, in Soxhlet extractor was 66.4% for nickel and 51.2% for vanadium content from crude oil. Percentage of Ni extraction reached maximum of approximately 55% by using the electrochemical method in electrolysis cell, which was developed for this research and consists of three sections: oil and protonating agent (EtOH) solution between two conducting membranes which divides it from two capsules of 10% sulfuric acid and two graphite electrodes which cover all three parts in electrical circuit. Ions of metals pass through membranes and remain in acid solutions. The best result was obtained in 60 minutes with ethanol to oil ratio 25% to 75% respectively, current fits into the range from 0.3A to 0.4A, voltage changed from 12.8V to 17.3V.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):