Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 54424

Civil and Environmental Engineering

1851
98880
Behavior Factors Evaluation for Reinforced Concrete Structures
Abstract:
Seismic behavior factors are evaluated for the performance assessment of low rise reinforced concrete RC frame structures based on experimental study of unidirectional dynamic shake table testing of two 1/3rd reduced scaled two storey frames, with a code confirming special moment resisting frame (SMRF) model and a noncompliant model of similar characteristics but built in low strength concrete .The models were subjected to a scaled accelerogram record of 1994 Northridge earthquake to deformed the test models to final collapse stage in order to obtain the structural response parameters. The fully compliant model was observed with more stable beam-sway response, experiencing beam flexure yielding and ground-storey column base yielding upon subjecting to 100% of the record. The response modification factor - R factor obtained for the code complaint and deficient prototype structures were 7.5 and 4.5 respectively, which is about 10% and 40% less than the UBC-97 specified value for special moment resisting reinforced concrete frame structures.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1850
96709
Seismic Fragility of Base-Isolated Multi-Story Piping System in Critical Facilities
Abstract:
This study is focused on the evaluation of seismic fragility of multi-story piping system installed in critical structures, isolated with triple friction pendulum bearing. The concept of this study is to isolate the critical building structure as well as nonstructural component, especially piping system in order to mitigate the earthquake damage and achieve the reliable seismic design. Then, the building system and multi-story piping system was modeled in OpenSees. In particular, the triple friction pendulum isolator was accounted for the vertical and horizontal coupling behavior in the building system subjected to seismic ground motions. Consequently, in order to generate the seismic fragility of base-isolated multi-story piping system, 21 selected seismic ground motions were carried out, by using Monte Carlo Simulation accounted for the uncertainties in demand. Finally, the system-level fragility curves corresponding to the limit state of the piping system was conducted at each T-joint system, which was commonly failure points in piping systems during and after an earthquake. Additionally, the system-level fragilities were performed to the first floor and second floor level in critical structures.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1849
96176
Studying the Theoretical and Laboratory Design of a Concrete Frame and Optimizing Its Design for Impact and Earthquake Resistance
Abstract:
This paper includes experimental results and analytical studies about increasing resistance of single-span reinforced concreted frames against impact factor and their modeling according to optimization methods and optimizing the behavior of these frames under impact loads. During this study, about 30 designs for different frames were modeled and made using specialized software like Ansys and Sap and their behavior were examined under variable impacts. Then suitable strategies were offered for frames whether in terms of concrete mixing design or features and properties of reinforcements used in it in order to optimize frame modeling. To reduce the weight of the frames, we had to use fine-grained stones. After designing about eight types of frames for each type of frames, three samples were made with the aim of controlling impact strength parameters and we obtained an optimal shape of frame for impact strength which was a completely solid frame with muscular legs and as a link away from each other, as much as possible, with the slope of 3° in the upper part of the beam.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1848
96050
A Numerical Study on Semi-Active Control of a Bridge Deck under Seismic Excitation
Abstract:
This study investigates the benefits of implementing the semi-active devices in relation to passive viscous damping in the context of seismically isolated bridge structures. Since the intrinsically nonlinear nature of semi-active devices prevents the direct evaluation of Laplace transforms, frequency response functions are compiled from the computed time history response to sinusoidal and pulse-like seismic excitation. A simple semi-active control policy is used in regard to passive linear viscous damping and an optimal non-causal semi-active control strategy. The control strategy requires optimization. Euler-Lagrange equations are solved numerically during this procedure. The optimal closed-loop performance is evaluated for an idealized controllable dash-pot. A simplified single-degree-of-freedom model of an isolated bridge is used as numerical example. Two bridge cases are investigated. These cases are; bridge deck without the isolation bearing and bridge deck with the isolation bearing. To compare the performances of the passive and semi-active control cases, frequency dependent acceleration, velocity and displacement response transmissibility ratios Ta(w), Tv(w), and Td(w) are defined. To fully investigate the behavior of the structure subjected to the sinusoidal and pulse type excitations, different damping levels are considered. Numerical results showed that, under the effect of external excitation, bridge deck with semi-active control showed better structural performance than the passive bridge deck case.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1847
95712
Non-Linear Static Pushover Analysis of 15 Storied Reinforced Concrete Building Structure with Shear Wall
Abstract:
In this paper, nonlinear static pushover analysis is performed on 15 storied RC building structure with a shear wall to evaluate the seismic performance of the building. Section sizes of the members are obtained based on structural optimization method utilizing MATLAB frame optimizer, then the structure is simulated and designed in ETABS program conforming ACI 318-14 design code. The pushover curve has been generated by pushing the top node of the structure to the limited target displacement. Members failure due to the formation of plastic hinges, considering shear wall-frame structure was observed and the result of this study is presented based on current regulation of FEMA356, ASCE7-10, and ACI 318-14 design criteria
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1846
95685
Evaluating Damage Spectra for Steel Braced Frames Due to Near-Field and Far-Field Earthquakes
Abstract:
Recent ground motion records demonstrate that the near-field earthquakes have various properties compared to far-field earthquakes. In general, most of these properties are affected by an important phenomenon called ‘forward directivity’ in near-fault earthquakes. Measuring structural damages are one of the common activities administered after an earthquake. Predicting the amount of damage caused by the earthquake as well as determining the vulnerability of the structure is extremely significant. In order to measure the amount of structural damages, instead of calculating the acceleration and velocity spectrum, it is possible to use the damage spectra of the structure. The damage spectrum is a kind of nonlinear spectrum that is drawn by setting the nonlinear parameters related to the single degree of freedom structures and its dynamic analysis under the specific record and measuring damage of any structure. In this study, the damage spectra of steel structures have been drawn. For this purpose, different kinds of concentric and eccentric braced structures with various ductility coefficients in hard and soft soil under near-field and far-field ground motion records have been considered using the Krawinkler and Zohrei damage index. The results indicate that, by increasing the structures' fundamental period, the amount of damage increases under the near-field earthquakes compared to far-field earthquakes. In addition, by increasing the structure ductility, the amount of damage based on near-field and far-field earthquakes decreases noticeably. Furthermore, in concentric braced structures, the amount of damage under the near-field earthquakes is almost two times more than the amount of damage in eccentrically braced structures especially for fundamental periods larger than 0.6 s.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1845
95649
Non-Linear Behavior of Granular Materials in Pavement Design
Abstract:
The design of flexible pavements is currently carried out using a multilayer elastic theory. However, for thin-surface pavements subject to light or medium traffic volumes, the importance of the non-linear stress-strain behavior of unbound granular materials requires the use of more sophisticated numerical models for the structural design of these pavements. The simplified analysis of the nonlinear behavior of granular materials in pavement design will be developed in this study. To achieve this objective, an equivalent linear model derived from a volumetric shear stress model is used to simulate the nonlinear elastic behavior of two unlinked local granular materials often used in pavements. This model is included here to adequately incorporate material non-linearity due to stress dependence and stiffness of the granular layers in the flexible pavement analysis. The sensitivity of the pavement design criteria to the likely variations in asphalt layer thickness and the mineralogical nature of unbound granular materials commonly used in pavement structures are also evaluated.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1844
95638
Building Information Management Advantages, Adaptation, and Challenges of Implementation in Kabul Metropolitan Area
Abstract:
Building Information Management (BIM) at recent years has widespread consideration on the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC). BIM has been bringing innovation in AEC industry and has the ability to improve the construction industry with high quality, reduction time and budget of project. Meanwhile, BIM support model and process in AEC industry, the process include the project time cycle, estimating, delivery and generally the way of management of project but not limited to those. This research carried the BIM advantages, adaptation and challenges of implementation in Kabul region. Capital Region Independence Development Authority (CRIDA) have responsibilities to implement the development projects in Kabul region. The method of study were considers on advantages and reasons of BIM performance in Afghanistan based on online survey and data. Besides that, five projects were studied, the reason of consideration were many times design revises and changes. Although, most of the projects had problems regard to designing and implementation stage, hence in canal project was discussed in detail with the main reason of problems. Which were many time changes and revises due to the lack of information, planning, and management. In addition, two projects based on BIM utilization in Japan were also discussed. The Shinsuizenji Station and Oita River dam projects. Those are implemented and implementing consequently according to the BIM requirements. The investigation focused on BIM usage, project implementation process. Eventually, the projects were the comparison with CRIDA and BIM utilization in Japan. The comparison will focus on the using of the model and the way of solving the problems based upon on the BIM. In conclusion, that BIM had the capacity to prevent many times design changes and revises. On behalf of achieving those objectives are required to focus on data management and sharing, BIM training and using new technology.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1843
95517
Influence of Behavior Models on the Response of a Reinforced Concrete Frame: The Multi-Fiber Approach
Abstract:
The objective of this work is to study the influence of the nonlinear behavior models of the concrete (concrete_BAEL and concrete_UNI) as well as the confinement brought by the transverse reinforcement on the seismic response of reinforced concrete frame (RC/frame). These models, as well as the confinement, are integrated into the Cast3m finite element calculation code. The consideration of confinement (taking into account the confinement, TAC) provided by the transverse reinforcement and the non-consideration of confinement (without consideration of containment, WCC) in the presence and absence of a vertical load is studied. The application was made on a reinforced concrete frame (RC/frame) with three levels and two spans. The results show that on the one hand, the concrete_BAEL model slightly underestimates the resistance of the RC/frame in the plastic field, whereas the concrete_uni model presents the best results compared to the simplified model ‘concrete_BAEL’, on the other hand, for the concrete-uni model, taking into account the confinement has no influence on the behavior of the RC/frame under imposed displacement up to a vertical load of 500 KN.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1842
95475
Stability Evaluation on Accumulation Body of Reservoir Slope in Rumei Hydropower Station, China
Abstract:
In recent years, geological explorations have been carried out on the Rumei hydropower station, China. After preliminary analysis of results, the mainly problem of slope in reservoir area is about the stability of accumulation body. It is found that there are 23 accumulations in various sizes in the reservoir area, and most of them are unfavorable geological bodies. Three typical (No. 1, 7, 17) accumulation body slopes were selected as subjects to investigate the stability of the slopes. Take No. 1 accumulation body slope as an example and basic geological condition investigation and formation mechanism analysis were carried out to study the stability and geological analysis of engineering influence of the slope. The accumulation body in the research area distributes along the river with natural slope of 32° ~ 37° which is the natural angle of repose of gravel. The formation mechanism is analyzed based on the composition and structure of the accumulation body. The middle and lower part of the body is dense full of gravel soil mixed with a small amount of sand gravel which is stable. In the upper part, gravel soil is interbedded with bad cemented gravel which as a weak surface is not conducive to slope stability. Under the natural condition before storing water, the underground water level is deep buried, mainly distributed in the bedrock, and the surface and groundwater discharge conditions of the accumulation body are good, which is beneficial to the stability of slope. The safety coefficient calculated by the limit equilibrium method is 1.14, which indicates the slope is basically stable. However, the safety coefficient drops to 1.02 when the normal storage level is 2895m, which is in a dangerous state. The accumulation body will be destabilized by a small-area instability to large-scale or overall instability.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1841
95163
Analysis of Behaviors of Single and Group Helical Piles in Sands from Experiment Results
Abstract:
The typically-used oil sand plant foundations are driven pile or drilled shaft. With more strict environmental regulations world widely, it became more important to completely remove the foundation during the stage of plant demolition. However, it is difficult to remove driven piles or drilled shafts that are installed at a deeper and stronger depth to gain more bearing pile capacity. The helical pile can be easily removed after its use and recycled; therefore it is suitable for oil sand plant foundation. This study analyzes the behavior of helical piles in sands. Axial pile load tests were carried out the varying spacing of helix plates (helices), rotation speed and weight of axial loading during pile installation. From the experiments, optimal helix plate spacing, rotation speed, axial loading during installation were determined. In addition, the behavior of helical pile groups was examined varying pile spacing. Finally, the behavior of single helical piles and that of group helical piles were compared.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1840
94792
The Role of Knowledge and Institutional Challenges to the Adoption of Sustainable Urban Drainage in Saudi Arabia: Implications for Sustainable Environmental Development
Authors:
Abstract:
Saudi Arabia is facing increasing challenges in managing urban drainage, due to a combination of factors including climate change and urban expansion. Traditional drainage systems are unable to cope with demand, resulting in flooding and damage to property. Consequently, new ways of dealing with this issue need to be found and Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) appear to be a possible solution. This paper suggests that knowledge is a central issue in the adoption of Sustainable Urban Drainage approaches, as revealed through qualitative research with representative officials and professionals from key government departments and organisations in Riyadh. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-six participants. The interviews explored the challenges of adopting sustainable drainage approaches, and grounded theory analysis was used to examine the role of knowledge. However, a number of barriers have been identified with regard to the adoption of sustainable drainage approaches, such as the marginal status of sustainability in drainage decisions; lack of technical standards for other unconventional drainage solutions, and lack of consideration by decision makers of contributions from environmental and geographical studies. Due to centralisation, decision-making processes are complex and time-consuming, resulting in the discouragement of the adoption of new knowledge and approaches. Stakeholders with knowledge of sustainable approaches are often excluded from the hierarchical system of urban planning and drainage management. In addition, the multiplicity of actors involved in the implementation of the drainage system, as well as the different technical standards involved, often causes problems around coordination and cooperation. Although those with procedural and explicit knowledge have revealed a range of opportunities, such as a significant increase in government support for rainwater drainage in urban areas, they also identified a number of obstacles. These are mainly related to the lack of specialists in sustainable approaches, and a reluctance to involve external experts. Therefore, recommendations for overcoming some of these challenges are presented, which include enhancing the decision-making process through applying decentralisation and promoting awareness of sustainability through establishing educational and outreach programmes. This may serve to increase knowledge and facilitate the adoption of sustainable drainage approaches to promote sustainable development in the context of Saudi Arabia.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1839
94533
Mechanical Properties of Ordinary Portland Cement Modified Cold Bitumen Emulsion Mixture
Abstract:
Cold bitumen emulsion mixture (CBEM) offers a series benefits as compared with hot mix asphalt (HMA); these include environmental factors, energy saving, the resolution of logistical challenges that can characterise hot mix, and the potential to reserve funds. However, this mixture has some problems similar to any bituminous mixtures as it has low early strength, long curing time that needed to obtain the maximum performance, high air voids and considered inferior to HMA. Thus, CBEM has been used in limited applications such as lightly trafficked roads, footways and reinstatements. This laboratory study describes the development of CBEM using ordinary Portland cement (OPC) instead of the traditional mineral filler. Stiffness modulus, moisture damage and temperature sensitivity tests were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the produced mixtures. The study concluded that there is a substantial improvement in the mechanical properties and moisture damage resistance of CBEMs containing OPC. Also, the produced cement modified CBEM shows a considerable lower thermal sensitivity than the conventional CBEM.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1838
94516
Development of Groundwater Management Model Using Groundwater Sustainability Index
Abstract:
Development of a groundwater management model is an important step in the exploitation and management of any groundwater aquifer as it assists in the long-term sustainable planning of the resource. The current study was conducted in Central Limpopo province of South Africa with the overall objective of determining how much water can be withdrawn from the aquifer without producing nonreversible impacts on the groundwater quantity, hence developing a model which can sustainably protect the aquifer. The development was done through the computation of Groundwater Sustainability Index (GSI). Values of GSI close to unity and above indicated overexploitation. In this study, an index of 0.8 was considered as overexploitation. The results indicated that there is potential for higher abstraction rates compared to the current abstraction rates. GSI approach can be used in the management of groundwater aquifer to sustainably develop the resource and also provides water managers and policy makers with fundamental information on where future water developments can be carried out.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1837
93917
Investigation of Contact Pressure Distribution at Expanded Polystyrene Geofoam Interfaces Using Tactile Sensors
Abstract:
EPS (Expanded Polystyrene) geofoam as light-weight material in geotechnical applications are made of pre-expanded resin beads that form fused cellular micro-structures. The strength and deformation properties of geofoam blocks are determined by unconfined compression of small test samples between rigid loading plates. Applied loads are presumed to be supported uniformly over the entire mating end areas. Predictions of field performance on the basis of such laboratory tests widely over-estimate actual post-construction settlements and exaggerate predictions of long-term creep deformations. This investigation examined the development of contact pressures at a large number of discrete points at low and large strain levels for different densities of geofoam. Development of pressure patterns for fine and coarse interface material textures as well as for molding skin and hot wire cut geofoam surfaces were examined. The lab testing showed that I-Scan tactile sensors are useful for detailed observation of contact pressures at a large number of discrete points simultaneously. At low strain level (1%), the lower density EPS block presents low variations in localized stress distribution compared to higher density EPS. At high strain level (10%), the dense geofoam reached the sensor cut-off limit. The imprint and pressure patterns for different interface textures can be distinguished with tactile sensing. The pressure sensing system can be used in many fields with real-time pressure detection. The research findings provide a better understanding of EPS geofoam behavior for improvement of design methods and performance prediction of critical infrastructures, which will be anticipated to guide future improvements in design and rapid construction of critical transportation infrastructures with geofoam in geotechnical applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1836
93914
Experimental Study of Application of Steel Slag as Aggregate in Road Construction
Abstract:
Steel slag is a by-product of the steel production and utilizing it potentially as new or substitute materials in road construction is advantageous regarding cost reduction and flattening improvement or properties pavement. Ease of use, low cost, and resource availability are some of few advantages of reuse and recycling of steel slag. This study assesses the use of Steel Slag Aggregates (SSA) as an alternative to natural road building aggregates. This paper discusses the basic characteristics of steel slag based on extensive laboratory tests, and to determine the possibilities of using steel slag in road construction. Samples were taken from the furnaces directly at different times and dates. Moreover, random samples were also taken from the slag field from various areas at different far distances from each other. A necessary analysis was performed through the use of (XRF). Three different percentages of SSA (0, 50 and 100%) were added as an alternative to natural aggregate in hot mix asphalt (HMA) production. The proposed design of the mix was made according to the Marshall mix design. The results of the experiments revealed that the percentages of iron oxide ranged from (9 to 26%) and that the addition of SSA has a significant improvement on HMA properties. It was observed that the Marshall stability obtained in the mix of 100% slag ranged from 600 to 800 N as a minimum, and the flow of Marshall obtained from 2.4 to 3.23 mm and the specification requires from 2 to 4 mm. The results may be showed possibilities to use steel slag as new or substitute materials in road construction in Libya.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1835
93413
Window Opening Behavior in High-Density Housing Development in Subtropical Climate
Abstract:
This research discusses the results of a study of window opening behavior of large housing developments in the high-density megacity of Hong Kong. The methods used for the study involved field observations using photo documentation of the four cardinal elevations (north, south-east, and west) of two large housing developments in a very dense urban area of approx. 46,000 persons per square meter within the city of Hong Kong. The targeted housing developments (A and B) are large public housing with a population of about 13,000 in each development of lower income. However, the mean income level in development A is about 40% higher than development B and home ownership is 60% in development A and 0% in development B. Mapping of the surrounding amenities and layout of the developments were also studied to understand the available activities to the residents. The photo documentation of the elevations was taken from November 2016 to February 2018 to gather a full spectrum of different seasons and both in the morning and afternoon (am/pm) times. From the photograph, the window opening behavior was measured by counting the amount of windows opened as a percentage of all the windows on that façade. For each date of survey data collected, weather data was recorded from weather stations located in the same region to collect temperature, humidity and wind speed. To further understand the behavior, simulation studies of microclimate conditions of the housing development was conducted using the software ENVI-met, a widely used simulation tool by researchers studying urban climate. Four major conclusions can be drawn from the data analysis and simulation results. Firstly, there is little change in the amount of window opening during the different seasons within a temperature range of 10 to 35 degrees Celsius. This means that people who tend to open their windows have consistent window opening behavior throughout the year and high tolerance of indoor thermal conditions. Secondly, for all four elevations the lower-income development B opened more windows (almost two times more units) than higher-income development A meaning window opening behavior had strong correlations with income level. Thirdly, there is a lack of correlation between outdoor horizontal wind speed and window opening behavior, as the changes of wind speed do not seem to affect the action of opening windows in most conditions. Similar to the low correlation between horizontal wind speed and window opening percentage, it is found that vertical wind speed also cannot explain the window opening behavior of occupants. Fourthly, there is a slightly higher average of window opening on the south elevation than the north elevation, which may be due to the south elevation being well shaded from high angle sun during the summer and allowing heat into units from lower angle sun during the winter season. These findings are important to providing insight into how to better design urban environments and indoor thermal environments for a liveable high density city.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1834
93161
The Use of Plant-Based Natural Fibers in Reinforced Cement Composites
Abstract:
Plant-based natural fibers are used more increasingly in construction materials. It is done to reduce the pressure on the built environment, which has been increased dramatically due to the increases world population and their needs. Plant-based natural fibers are abundant in many countries. Despite the low-cost of such environmental friendly renewable material, it has the ability to enhance the mechanical properties of construction materials. This paper presents an extensive discussion on the use of plant-based natural fibers as reinforcement for cement-based composites, with a particular emphasis upon fiber types; fiber characteristics, and fiber-cement composites performance. It also covers a thorough overview on the main factors, affecting the properties of plant-based natural fiber cement composite in it fresh and hardened state. The feasibility of using plant-based natural fibers in producing various construction materials; such as, mud bricks and blocks is investigated. In addition, other applications of using such fibers as internal curing agents as well as durability enhancer are also discussed. Finally, recommendation for possible future work in this area is presented.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1833
93061
Accurate Energy Assessment Technique for Mine-Water District Heat Network
Abstract:
UK buildings and energy infrastructures are heavily dependent on natural gas, a large proportion of which is used for domestic space heating. However, approximately half of the gas consumed in the UK is imported. Improving energy security and reducing carbon emissions are major government drivers for reducing gas dependency. In order to do so there needs to be a wholesale shift in the energy provision to householders without impacting on thermal comfort levels, convenience or cost of supply to the end user. Heat pumps are seen as a potential alternative in modern well insulated homes, however, can the same be said of older homes? A large proportion of housing stock in Britain was built prior to 1919. The age of the buildings bears testimony to the quality of construction; however, their thermal performance falls far below the minimum currently set by UK building standards. In recent years significant sums of money have been invested to improve energy efficiency and combat fuel poverty in some of the most deprived areas of Wales. Increasing energy efficiency of older properties remains a significant challenge, which cannot be achieved through insulation and air-tightness interventions alone, particularly when alterations to historically important architectural features of the building are not permitted. This paper investigates the energy demand of pre-1919 dwellings in a former Welsh mining village, the feasibility of meeting that demand using water from the disused mine workings to supply a district heat network and potential barriers to success of the scheme. The use of renewable solar energy generation and storage technologies, both thermal and electrical, to reduce the load and offset increased electricity demand, are considered. A wholistic surveying approach to provide a more accurate assessment of total household heat demand is proposed. Several surveying techniques, including condition surveys, air permeability, heat loss calculations, and thermography were employed to provide a clear picture of energy demand. Additional insulation can bring unforeseen consequences which are detrimental to the fabric of the building, potentially leading to accelerated dilapidation of the asset being ‘protected’. Increasing ventilation should be considered in parallel, to compensate for the associated reduction in uncontrolled infiltration. The effectiveness of thermal performance improvements are demonstrated and the detrimental effects of incorrect material choice and poor installation are highlighted. The findings show estimated heat demand to be in close correlation to household energy bills. Major areas of heat loss were identified such that improvements to building thermal performance could be targeted. The findings demonstrate that the use of heat pumps in older buildings is viable, provided sufficient improvement to thermal performance is possible. Addition of passive solar thermal and photovoltaic generation can help reduce the load and running cost for the householder. The results were used to predict future heat demand following energy efficiency improvements, thereby informing the size of heat pumps required.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1832
92965
On the Development of a Homogenized Earthquake Catalogue for Northern Algeria
Abstract:
Regions with a significant percentage of non-seismically designed buildings and reduced urban planning are particularly vulnerable to natural hazards. In this context, the project ‘Improved Tools for Disaster Risk Mitigation in Algeria’ (ITERATE) aims at seismic risk mitigation in Algeria. Past earthquakes in North Algeria caused extensive damages, e.g. the El Asnam 1980 moment magnitude (Mw) 7.1 and Boumerdes 2003 Mw 6.8 earthquakes. This paper will address a number of proposed developments and considerations made towards a further improvement of the component of seismic hazard. In specific, an updated earthquake catalog (until year 2018) is compiled and new conversion equations to moment magnitude are introduced. Furthermore, a network-based method for the estimation of the spatial and temporal distribution of the minimum magnitude of completeness is applied. We found relatively large values for Mc, due to the sparse network, and a nonlinear trend between Mw and body wave (mb) or local magnitude (ML), which are the most common scales reported in the region. Lastly, the resulting b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter distribution is sensitive to the declustering method.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1831
92781
Determination of Failure Modes of Screwed Connections in Cold-Formed Steel Structures
Abstract:
Steel, which is one of the base materials we prefer in the building construction, is the material with the highest ratio to weight of carrying capacity. Due to the carrying capacity, lighter and better quality steel in smaller sections and sizes has recently been used as a frame system in cold-formed steel structures. While light steel elements used as secondary frame elements during the past, they have nowadays started to be preferred as the main frame in low/middle story buildings and detached houses with advantages such as quick and easy installation, time-saving, and small amount of scrap. It is also economically ideal because the weight of structure is lighter than other steel profiles. Structural performances and failure modes of cold-formed structures are different from conventional ones due to their thin-walled structures. One of the most important elements of light steel structures to ensure stability is the connection. The screwed connections, which have self-drilling properties with special drilling tools, are widely used in the installation of cold-formed profiles. The length of the screw is selected according to the total thickness of the elements after the screw thickness is determined according to the elements of connections. The thickness of the material depends on the length of the drilling portion at the end of the screw. The shear tests of plates connected with self-drilling screws are carried out depending on the screw length, and their failure modes were evaluated in this study.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1830
92742
Composite 'C' Springs for Anti-Seismic Building Suspension: Positioning 'Virtual Center of Pendulation above Gravity Center'
Abstract:
Now that weight saving is mandatory, to author best knowledge composite springs, that we have invented, are best choice for automotive suspensions, against steel. So, we have created a Joint Ventures called S.ARA, in order to mass produce composite coils springs. Start of Production of composite coils springs was in 2014 for AUDI. As we have demonstrated, on the road, that composite springs are not a sweet dream. The present paper describes all the benefits of ‘C’ springs and ‘S’ springs for high performance vehicles suspension, for rocket stage separation, and for satellite injection into orbit. Developing rocket stage separation, we have developed for CNES (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales) the following concept. If we call ‘line of action’ a line going from one end of a spring to the other. Our concept is to use for instance two springs inclined. In such a way that their line of action cross together and create at this crossing point a virtual center well above the springs. This virtual center, is pulling from above the top stage and is offering a guidance, perfectly stable and straight. About buildings, our solution is to transfer this rocket technology, creating a ‘virtual center’ of pendulation positioned above the building center of gravity. This is achieved by using tilted composite springs benches oriented in such a way that their line of action converges creating the ‘virtual center’. Thanks to the ‘virtual center’ position, the building behaves as a pendulum, hanged from above. When earthquake happen then the building will oscillate around its ‘virtual center’ and will go back safely to equilibrium after the tremor. ‘C’ springs, offering anti-rust, anti-settlement, fail-safe suspension, plus virtual center solution is the must for long-lasting, perfect protection of buildings against earthquakes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1829
92736
Reduction of Cooling Demands in a Subtropical Humid Climate Zone: A Study on Roofs of Existing Residential Building Using Passive
Abstract:
In sub-tropical humid climates, it is estimated most of the urban peak load of energy consumption is used to satisfy air-conditioning or air-coolers cooling demand in summer time. As the urbanization rate in developing nation – like the case in India is rising rapidly, the pressure placed on energy resources to satisfy inhabitants’ indoor comfort requirements is consequently increasing too. This paper introduces passive cooling through roof as a means of reducing energy cooling loads for satisfying human comfort requirements in a sub-tropical climate. Experiments were performed by applying different insulators which are locally available solar reflective materials to insulate the roofs of five rooms of 4 case buildings; three rooms having RCC (Reinforced Cement Concrete) roof and two having Asbestos sheet roof of existing buildings. The results are verified by computer simulation using Computational Fluid Dynamics tools with FLUENT software. The result of using solar reflective paint with high albedo coating shows a fall of 4.8⁰C in peak hours and saves 303 kWh considering energy load with air conditioner during the summer season in comparison to non insulated flat roof energy load of residential buildings in Bhopal. An optimum solution of insulator for both types of roofs is presented. It is recommended that the selected cool roof solution be combined with insulation on other elements of envelope, to increase the indoor thermal comfort. The application is intended for low cost residential buildings in composite and warm climate like Bhopal.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1828
92435
Historical Geotechnical Study and Evaluation of Project Progress for the Tafila City Center Development Project
Authors:
Abstract:
The geotechnical study can be employed successfully to assess and follow the expected development or delay in the project construction. The development project of city center or downtown was taken as a case study for the investigation of the project conditions that might support progress or cause delay. The project was proposed to build 7447 m2 by reinforced concrete mainly to serve and support the services provided to people in Tafila. The project construction had faced challenges and obstacles such as soil collapse because of excavation of the weak soil that found in the project site. In addition, the topography of the project area showed a high slope from South-West to North. The slope through the project footprint reached to 83.3% which is considered very high slope. One year and a half proposed to finish the project construction since the 1st of March 2013 and it was planned to be finished by the 31th of August 2014, but the project needs more than one year and a half as extension according to the consultant engineer. The collecting of data was conducted through the interviews with the engineers and officials, and by analyzing the soil reports and samples taken during design and excavation. The major findings came out to weak and fractured soil and construction waste that were found at project site. Also, soil was considered very fine according to the plasticity index (PI) values, in addition to the high depths required for foundation that contribute to the collapse of soil and the increase of project cost. The current project aims to present how the unseen conditions can delay the project construction and increase the cost of the project that rises to JD8.305 Million.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1827
92386
Fabric Softener Deposition on Cellulose Nanocrystals and Cotton Fibers
Abstract:
Fabric softeners are aqueous formulations that contain ~10 wt. % double tailed cationic surfactants. Here, a formulation in which 50% surfactant was replaced with low quantities of natural guar polymers was developed. Thanks to the reduced surfactant quantity this product has less environmental impact while the guars presence was found to maintain the product’s performance. The objective of this work is to elucidate the effect of the guar polymers on the softener deposition and the adsorption mechanism on the cotton surface. The surfactants in these formulations are assembled into large distributed (0.1 – 1 µm) vesicles that are stable in the presence of guars and upon dilution. The effect of guars on the vesicles adsorption on cotton was first estimated by using cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) as a stand-in for cotton. The dispersion of CNC in water permits to follow the interaction between the vesicles, guars, and CNC in the bulk. It was found that guars enhance the deposition on CNC and that the vesicles are deposited intactly on the fibers driven by electrostatics. The mechanism of the vesicles/guars adsorption on cellulose fibers was identified by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. It was found that the guars increase the surfactant deposited quantity, in agreement with the results in the bulk. Also, the structure of the adsorbed surfactant on the fibers' surfaces (vesicle or bilayer) was influenced by the guars presence. Deposition studies on cotton fabrics were also conducted. Attenuated total reflection and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the effect of the polymers on this deposition. Finally, fluorescent microscopy was used to follow the adsorption of surfactant vesicles, labeled with a fluorescent dye, on cotton fabrics in water. It was found that, in the presence or not of polymers, the surfactant vesicles are adsorbed on fiber maintaining their vesicular structure in water (supported vesicular bilayer structure). The guars influence this process. However, upon drying the vesicles are transformed into bilayers and eventually wrap the fibers (supported lipid bilayer structure). This mechanism is proposed for the adsorption of vesicular conditioner on cotton fiber and can be affected by the presence of polymers.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1826
92338
Fiber-Based 3D Cellular Reinforcing Structures for Mineral-Bonded Composites with Enhanced Structural Impact Tolerance
Abstract:
The development of solutions to improve the resistance of buildings to short-term dynamic loads, particularly impact load, is driven by the urgent demand worldwide on securing human life and critical infrastructures. The research training group GRK 2250/1 aims to develop mineral-bonded composites that allow the fabrication of thin-layered strengthening layers providing available concrete members with enhanced impact resistance. This paper presents the development of 3D woven wire cellular structures that can be used as innovative reinforcement for targeted composites. 3D woven wire cellular structures are truss-like architectures that can be fabricated in an automatized process with a great customization possibility. The specific architecture allows this kind of structures to have good load bearing capability and forming behavior, which is of great potential to give strength against impact loading. An appropriate combination of topology and material enables an optimal use of thin-layered reinforcement in concrete constructions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1825
92286
Analytical Solution for End Depth Ratio in Rectangular Channels
Abstract:
Free over-fall is an instrument for measuring discharge in open channels by measuring end depth. A comprehensive researchers investigated theoretically and experimentally brink phenomenon with various approaches for different cross-sectional shapes. Anderson's method, based on Boussinq's approximation and energy approach was used to derive a pressure distribution factor at end depth. Applying the one-dimensional momentum equation and the principles of limit slope analysis, a relevant analytical solution may be derived for brink depth ratio (EDR) in prismatic rectangular channel. Also relationships between end depth ratio and slope ratio for a given non-dimensional normal or critical depth with upstream supercritical flow regime are presented. Simple indirect procedure is used to estimate the end depth discharge ratio (EDD) for subcritical and supercritical flow using measured end depth. The comparison of this analysis with all previous theoretical and experimental studies showed an excellent agreement.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1824
92261
The Soviet Union-Style of Urban Planning in China: Historical Review and Enlightenment from the Output Mode of Contemporary Cooperative Parks
Abstract:
The Soviet Union-style of urban planning has produced a broad and profound influence on China’s urban planning system. The study on extendibility and development experience of Soviet planning in China helps to change the current embarrassing situation 'one-hand planning practice, second-hand planning theory', and also beneficial to facilitate the establishment of China's domestic urban planning theory from the planning source, especially the overseas cooperation parks rich in 'Chinese characteristics'. In practice, as the world’s major infrastructure country, China is exporting to the world especially countries along 'the Belt and Road' a development model featuring cooperation parks as Chinese characteristics. This is of great significance to evaluate and summarize the experiences of Soviet Union-style of planning for China's development objectively and rationally, from removing ideological factors and extracting positive factors to carry them forward in overseas cooperation parks. This article briefly reviews the Soviet influence on urban planning after the founding of China and divided the influences stages into 'guidance, internalization and absorption, selective learning, decline' four periods. The impact includes production-oriented planning and planning concepts continue to be implemented, the establishment of the regional planning, master planning, detailed planning of the basic framework of urban planning, and homogenized cellular structure of the space, as well as planning techniques, professional training, planning techniques and so on. China and even most socialist countries now still carry such planning genes. At present, in the process of implementing 'the Belt and Road' strategy, the planning and construction of China’s overseas cooperation parks generally encounter many problems as lack of strategic planning and systematic planning, lack of top-level design, uncoordinated planning and layout in parks, and redundant construction in some areas. After sublating the planning genes of the Soviet Union-style of urban planning for the development of the socialist countries, especially the industrial planning system, this paper puts forward some views as follows to realize the overseas output and development of China's planning model and technology. Firstly the future development of overseas cooperation park should be from a rational planning point of view. Secondly the government should not only rigidly and equitably allocate the resources of the parks but also closely integrate the national economic plans or economic development strategies. Lastly management department should frame the threshold of development rationally, give full play to the pragmatic planning style in accordance with the local land system and planning system. It has an important guiding and reference role for the development of China's overseas cooperation park under the 'go global' strategy, after objectively evaluating the impact of the Soviet Union-style urban planning and absorbing the beneficial components on China. However, we should also recognize that the cooperation parks and the urban industrial system behind it are only part of urban development. More attention should be payed on the design of the local and the general rules of urban development to take the lead effect of cooperation parks suitable. Foundation item: Under the auspices of the Specific Plan for Strategic International Cooperation in Scientific and Technological Innovation, the National Key Research and Development Plan 'Research Cooperation and Exemplary Application in Planning of Development of Overseas Industrial Parks' (No 2016YFE0201000).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1823
92239
Research on the Planning Spatial Mode of China's Overseas Industrial Park
Abstract:
Recently, the government of China has provided strong support the developments of overseas industrial parks. The global distribution of China overseas industrial parks has gradually moved from the 'sparks of fire' to the 'prairie fires.' The support and distribution have promoted developing overseas industrial parks to a strategy of constructing a China's new open economic system and a typical representative of the 'Chinese wisdom' and the 'China's plans' that China has contributed to the globalization of the new era under the initiative of the Belt and Road. As the industrial parks are the basis of 'work/employment', a basic function of a city (Athens Constitution), planning for developments of industrial parks has become a long-term focus of urban planning. Based on the research of the planning and the analysis of the present developments of some typical China overseas industrial parks, we found some interesting rules: First, large numbers of the China overseas industrial parks are located in less developed countries. These industrial parks have become significant drives of the developments of the host cities and even the regions in those countries, especially in investment, employment and paid tax fee for the local, etc. so, the planning and development of overseas industrial parks have received extensive attention. Second, there are some problems in the small part of the overseas Park, such as the planning of the park not following the planning of the host city and lack of implementation of the park planning, etc. These problems have led to the difficulties of the implementation of the planning and the sustainable developments of the parks. Third, a unique pattern of space development has been formed. in the dimension of the patterns of regional spatial distribution, there are five characteristics - along with the coast, along the river, along with the main traffic lines and hubs, along with the central urban area and along the connections of regions economic. In the dimension of the spatial relationships between the industrial park and the city, there is a growing and evolving trend as 'separation – integration - union'. In the dimension of spatial mode of the industrial parks, there are different patterns of development, such as a specialized industrial park, complex industrial park, characteristic town and new urban area of industry, etc. From the perspective of the trends of the developments and spatial modes, in the future, the planning of China overseas industrial parks should emphasize the idea of 'building a city based on the industrial park'. In other words, it's making the developments of China overseas industrial parks move from 'driven by policy' to 'driven by the functions of the city', accelerating forming the system of China overseas industrial parks and integrating the industrial parks and the cities.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1822
92020
Analytical Formulae for Parameters Involved in Side Slopes of Embankments Stability
Abstract:
The stability of slopes of earthen embankments is usually examined by Swedish slip circle method or the slices method. The factor of safety against sliding using Fellenius procedure depends upon the angle formed by the arc of sliding at the center ψ and the radius of the slip circle r. The values of both mentioned parameters ψ and r aren't precisely predicted because they are measured from the drawing. In this paper, analytical formulae were derived for finding the exact values of both ψ and r. Also this paper presents the different conditions of intersections the slip circle with the body of an earthen dam and the coordinate of intersection points. Numerical examples are chosen for demonstration the proposed solution
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):