Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 48522

Civil and Environmental Engineering

1893
84842
Prediction of Mechanical Strength of Multiscale Hybrid Reinforced Cementitious Composite
Abstract:
Novel multiscale hybrid reinforced cementitious composites based on carbon nanotubes (MHRCC-CNT), and carbon nanofibers (MHRCC-CNF) are new types of cement-based material fabricated with micro steel fibers and nanofilaments, featuring superior strain hardening, ductility, and energy absorption. This study focused on established models to predict the compressive strength, and direct and splitting tensile strengths of the produced cementitious composites. The analysis was carried out based on the experimental data presented by the previous author’s study, regression analysis, and the established models that available in the literature. The obtained models showed small differences in the predictions and target values with experimental verification indicated that the estimation of the mechanical properties could be achieved with good accuracy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1892
84382
Seismic Behavior of a Jumbo Container Crane in the Low Seismicity Zone Using Time-History Analyses
Abstract:
Jumbo container crane is an important part of port structures that need to be designed properly, even when the port locates in low seismicity zone such as in Korea. In this paper, 30 artificial ground motions derived from the elastic response spectra of Korean Building Code (2005) are used for time history analysis. It is found that the uplift might not occur in this analysis when the crane locates in the low seismic zone. Therefore, a selection of a pinned or a gap element for base supporting has not much effect on the determination of the total base shear. The relationships between the total base shear and peak ground acceleration (PGA); and the relationships between the portal drift and the PGA are proposed in this study.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1891
84378
Nondestructive Testing for Reinforced Concrete Buildings with Active Infrared Thermography
Abstract:
Infrared thermography (IRT) technique has been proven to be a good method for nondestructive evaluation of concrete material. In the building, a broad range of applications has been used such as subsurface defect inspection, energy loss, and moisture detection. The purpose of this research is to consider the qualitative and quantitative performance of reinforced concrete deteriorations using active infrared thermography technique. An experiment of three different heating regimes was conducted on a concrete slab in the laboratory. The thermal characteristics of the IRT method, i.e., absolute contrast and observation time, are investigated. A linear relationship between the observation time and the real depth was established with a well linear regression R-squared of 0.931. The results showed that the absolute contrast above defective area increases with the rise of the size of delamination and the heating time. In addition, the depth of delamination can be predicted by using the proposal relationship of this study.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1890
84151
Combined Effect of High Curing Temperature and Crack Width on Chloride Migration in Reinforced Concrete Beams
Abstract:
Deterioration of reinforced concrete structures is a serious concern in the construction engineering, largely due to chloride induced corrosion of reinforcement. Chloride penetration is markedly influenced by one or several major factors at the same time such as cuing in combination with different crack widths which have spectacular effect on reinforced concrete structures. This research presents the results of an experimental investigation involving reinforced concrete beams with three different crack widths ranging from 0 to 0.2mm, curing temperatures of 20°C or 40°C and water-to-cement of 0.5. Chloride content profiles were determined under non-steady state diffusion at 20°C. Based on the obtained results, higher chloride content was obtained under condition of high curing temperature in combination with large crack more than 0.1mm and there are no significant differences between narrow crack width (less than 0.1 mm) and beams without crack (0mm).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1889
83817
Study on Application of Lime to Improve Rheological Properties of the Polymer Modified Bitumen
Abstract:
Bitumen is one of the most applicable materials in pavement engineering. It is a binding material with unique visco-elastic properties especially when it mixes with a polymer. In this study, to figure out visco-elastic behaviour of the polymer mixed with bitumen (PMB), a series of dynamic shearing rheological (DSR) tests were conducted. Four percentages of lime (i.e., 1%, 2%, 4% and 5%) were mixed with polymer modified bitumen (PMB) and tested under four different temperatures including 64ºC, 70ºC, 76ºC, and 82ºC. The results indicated that complex shearing modulus (G*) increased by increasing the frequency due to increasing the resistance against deformation. The phase angle (δ) showed a decreasing trend by incrementing the frequency. Addition of lime percentages increased the complex modulus value and declined phase angle parameter. Increasing the temperature decreased the complex modulus and increased the phase angle until 70ºC. The decreasing trend of rutting factor with increasing temperature revealed that rutting factor improved by addition of the lime to the polymer modified bitumen.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1888
83776
The Carbonation Resistance of Concrete in the Context of the Swiss Concrete Standard and Its Prediction
Abstract:
The Swiss standard SN EN 206 specifies 12 concrete types according to their application and thus, exposure classes. For every concrete type, the minimum cement content and maximum w/c ratio are prescribed, along with the required durability tests and their limiting values. Two concrete types for building construction fall into the exposure classes XC3 and XC4 and therefore have to meet specifications on carbonation resistance given in the National Annex of SN EN 206. For a service life of 50 years, the average carbonation coefficient KN has to be at maximum 5.0 mm/y¹/². The carbonation resistance is measured using an accelerated test according to the Swiss standard SIA 262/1. The concrete samples are stored in a carbonation chamber with an increased CO₂ content in the air. At defined intervals, the carbonation depth is measured. From these data, the carbonation coefficient at natural conditions KN is calculated. The test can be done on lab concrete prisms and cores drilled from existing structures. The concrete carbonation resistance can be reliably predicted from concrete design parameters. This allows fast progress in the optimization of concrete mix designs.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1887
83756
Probabilistic Benefit-Cost Analysis for Seismic Loss Mitigation of Reinforced Concrete Buildings with Substandard Details
Abstract:
A significant part of the world's building stock is made up of Reinforced Concrete (RC) buildings built according to obsolete and inadequate seismic design criteria, which make them potentially vulnerable to earthquake damage or collapse, thereby endangering the lives of the occupants and also causing huge economic losses. When safety requirements are not met, appropriate interventions of seismic rehabilitation are needed. In most cases, different retrofit strategies can be pursued (e.g. increasing the strength and/or ductility of the structure, reducing the seismic demand on the structure) and different solutions can be implemented in practice (e.g. strengthening external beam-column joints, improved confinement of columns and beams, insertion of shear walls, reduction of seismic effects through supplementary damping or seismic isolation, etc.). The retrofit strategies and techniques listed above involve different initial costs and levels of achievable performance. A rational choice of the best intervention strategy can only be made on a case-by-case basis, using suitable parameters which account for the expected economic losses, considering a wide range of possible earthquake scenarios and various sources of uncertainty (structural modeling, record-to-record variability, damage model, etc.). Recently, some authors have started proposing the use of the Expected Annual Loss (EAL) as a rational parameter for making decision about the best seismic rehabilitation strategy and intervention for existing buildings. The EAL represents the expected loss, in terms of average yearly amount, associated with repairing earthquake damage, considering the frequency and severity of all the possible future earthquakes compatible with the seismic hazard at the site of interest. In this work, the EAL of a real case study of pre-70’ RC frame building, pre- and post-rehabilitation, is evaluated, following a probabilistic seismic loss assessment approach. Alternative retrofit strategies are examined, including local strengthening of RC columns, seismic isolation technique, and energy dissipation technique. A cost/benefit analysis is performed to compare the selected retrofit solutions, considering the initial cost of each intervention and the corresponding expected benefits in terms of EAL reduction. Finally, the break-even time associated with each intervention (i.e., the number of years needed to fully amortize the costs of each intervention) is evaluated.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1886
83745
Building Information Modeling Application and Construction Schedule Simulation for the Horizontal Work Area
Abstract:
The use of BIM, including 4D CAD system, in a construction project, is gradually increasing. Since the building construction works repeatedly in the vertical space, it is relatively easy to confirm the interference effect when applying the BIM, but the interference effect for the civil engineering project is relatively small because the civil works perform non-repetitive processes in the horizontal space. For this reason, the BIM of the civil engineering works should be utilized during the construction phase, and 4D CAD is a typical utilization tool in the construction phase. This paper proposes the application procedure of BIM by the construction phase of civil engineering project and a linear 4D CAD construction methodology suitable for the civil engineering project in which linear work is performed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1885
83646
Three Demotions Dynamic Analysis of Water Storage Tanks Considering Fluid–Structure Interaction Using Finite Element Method
Abstract:
In this study, to investigate and analyze the seismic behavior of concrete in open rectangular water storage tanks in two-dimensional and three-dimensional spaces, the Finite Element Method has been used. Through this method, dynamic responses can be investigated together in fluid storages system. Soil behavior has been simulated using tanks boundary conditions in linear form. In this research, in addition to flexibility of wall, the effects of fluid-structure interaction on seismic response of tanks have been investigated to account for the effects of flexible foundation in linear boundary conditions form, and a dynamic response of rectangular tanks in two-dimensional and three-dimensional spaces using finite element method has been provided. The boundary conditions of both rigid and flexible walls in two-dimensional finite element method have been considered to investigate the effect of wall flexibility on seismic response of fluid and storage system. Furthermore, three-dimensional model of fluid-structure interaction issue together with wall flexibility has been analyzed under the three components of earthquake. The obtained results show that two-dimensional model is also accurately near to the results of three-dimension as well as flexibility of foundation leads to absorb received energy and relative reduction of responses.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1884
83328
The Role of Building Information Modeling as a Design Teaching Method in Architecture, Engineering and Construction Schools in Brazil
Abstract:
Despite the significant advances made by the construction industry in recent years, the crystalized absence of integration between the design and construction phases is still an evident and costly problem in building construction. Globally, the construction industry has sought to adopt collaborative practices through new technologies to mitigate impacts of this fragmented process and to optimize its production. In this new technological business environment, professionals are required to develop new methodologies based on the notion of collaboration and integration of information throughout the building lifecycle. This scenario also represents the industry’s reality in developing nations, and the increasing need for overall efficiency has demanded new educational alternatives at the undergraduate and post-graduate levels. In countries like Brazil, it is the common understanding that Architecture, Engineering and Building Construction educational programs are being required to review the traditional design pedagogical processes to promote a comprehensive notion about integration and simultaneity between the phases of the project. In this context, the coherent inclusion of computation design to all segments of the educational programs of construction related professionals represents a significant research topic that, in fact, can affect the industry practice. Thus, the main objective of the present study was to comparatively measure the effectiveness of the Building Information Modeling courses offered by the University of Sao Paulo, the most important academic institution in Brazil, at the Schools of Architecture and Civil Engineering and the courses offered in well recognized BIM research institutions, such as the School of Design in the College of Architecture of the Georgia Institute of Technology, USA, to evaluate the dissemination of BIM knowledge amongst students in post graduate level. The qualitative research methodology was developed based on the analysis of the program and activities proposed by two BIM courses offered in each of the above-mentioned institutions, which were used as case studies. The data collection instruments were a student questionnaire, semi-structured interviews, participatory evaluation and pedagogical practices. The found results have detected a broad heterogeneity of the students regarding their professional experience, hours dedicated to training, and especially in relation to their general knowledge of BIM technology and its applications. The research observed that BIM is mostly understood as an operational tool and not as methodological project development approach, relevant to the whole building life cycle. The present research offers in its conclusion an assessment about the importance of the incorporation of BIM, with efficiency and in its totality, as a teaching method in undergraduate and graduate courses in the Brazilian architecture, engineering and building construction schools.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1883
83317
A Semi-Markov Chain-Based Model for the Prediction of Deterioration of Concrete Bridges in Quebec
Abstract:
Infrastructure systems are crucial to every aspect of life on Earth. Existing Infrastructure is subjected to degradation while the demands are growing for a better infrastructure system in response to the high standards of safety, health, population growth, and environmental protection. Bridges play a crucial role in urban transportation networks. Moreover, they are subjected to high level of deterioration because of the variable traffic loading, extreme weather conditions, cycles of freeze and thaw, etc. The development of Bridge Management Systems (BMSs) has become a fundamental imperative nowadays especially in the large transportation networks due to the huge variance between the need for maintenance actions, and the available funds to perform such actions. Deterioration models represent a very important aspect for the effective use of BMSs. This paper presents a probabilistic time-based model that is capable of predicting the condition ratings of the concrete bridge decks along its service life. The deterioration process of the concrete bridge decks is modeled using semi-Markov process. One of the main challenges of the Markov Chain Decision Process (MCDP) is the construction of the transition probability matrix. Yet, the proposed model overcomes this issue by modeling the sojourn times based on some probability density functions. The sojourn times of each condition state are fitted to probability density functions based on some goodness of fit tests such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Anderson Darling, and chi-squared test. The parameters of the probability density functions are obtained using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). The condition ratings obtained from the Ministry of Transportation in Quebec (MTQ) are utilized as a database to construct the deterioration model. Finally, a comparison is conducted between the Markov Chain and semi-Markov chain to select the most feasible prediction model.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1882
83314
Environmental Performance Measurement for Network-Level Pavement Management
Abstract:
The recent Canadian infrastructure report card reveals the unhealthy state of municipal infrastructure intensified challenged faced by municipalities to maintain adequate infrastructure performance thresholds and meet user’s required service levels. For a road agency, huge funding gap issue is inflated by growing concerns of the environmental repercussion of road construction, operation and maintenance activities. As the reduction of material consumption and greenhouse gas emission when maintain and rehabilitating road networks can achieve added benefits including improved life cycle performance of pavements, reduced climate change impacts and human health effect due to less air pollution, improved productivity due to optimal allocation of resources and reduced road user cost. Incorporating environmental sustainability measure into pavement management is solution widely cited and studied. However measuring the environmental performance of road network is still a far-fetched practice in road network management, more so an ostensive agency-wide environmental sustainability or sustainable maintenance specifications is missing. To address this challenge, this present research focuses on the environmental sustainability performance of network-level pavement management. The ultimate goal is to develop a framework to incorporate environmental sustainability in pavement management systems for network-level maintenance programming. In order to achieve this goal, this study reviewed previous studies that employed environmental performance measures, as well as the suitability of environmental performance indicators for the evaluation of the sustainability of network-level pavement maintenance strategies. Through an industry practice survey, this paper provides a brief forward regarding the pavement manager motivations and barriers to making more sustainable decisions, and data needed to support the network-level environmental sustainability. The trends in network-level sustainable pavement management are also presented, existing gaps are highlighted, and ideas are proposed for sustainable network-level pavement management.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1881
83307
Developing Pavement Structural Deterioration Curves
Abstract:
A Structural Number (SN) can be calculated for a road pavement from the properties and thicknesses of the surface, base course, sub-base, and subgrade. Historically, the cost of collecting structural data has been very high. Data were initially collected using Benkelman Beams and now by Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD). The structural strength of pavements weakens over time due to environmental and traffic loading factors, but due to a lack of data, no structural deterioration curve for pavements has been implemented in a Pavement Management System (PMS). International Roughness Index (IRI) is a measure of the road longitudinal profile and has been used as a proxy for a pavement’s structural integrity. This paper offers two conceptual methods to develop Pavement Structural Deterioration Curves (PSDC). Firstly, structural data are grouped in sets by design Equivalent Standard Axles (ESA). An ‘Initial’ SN (ISN), Intermediate SN’s (SNI) and a Terminal SN (TSN), are used to develop the curves. Using FWD data, the ISN is the SN after the pavement is rehabilitated (Financial Accounting ‘Modern Equivalent’). Intermediate SNIs, are SNs other than the ISN and TSN. The TSN was defined as the SN of the pavement when it was approved for pavement rehabilitation. The second method is to use Traffic Speed Deflectometer data (TSD). The road network already divided into road blocks, is grouped by traffic loading. For each traffic loading group, road blocks that have had a recent pavement rehabilitation, are used to calculate the ISN and those planned for pavement rehabilitation to calculate the TSN. The remaining SNs are used to complete the age-based or if available, historical traffic loading-based SNI’s.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1880
83299
Hybrid Diagrid System for High-Rise Buildings
Abstract:
Nowadays, using modern structural systems with specific capabilities, like Diagrid, is emerging around the world. In this paper, a new resisting system, a combination of both Diagrid axial behavior and proper seismic performance of regular moment frames in tall buildings, named 'Hybrid Diagrid' is presented. The scaled specimen of the suggested hybrid system was built and tested using IIEES shaking table. The natural frequency and structural response of the analytical model were updated with the real experimental results. In order to compare its performance with the traditional Diagrid and moment frame systems, time history analysis was carried out. Extensive analysis shows the efficient seismic responses and economical behavior of Hybrid Diagrid structure with respect to the other two systems.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1879
83285
A Preparatory Method for Building Construction Implemented in a Case Study in Brazil
Abstract:
During the last twenty years, the construction field in Brazil has evolved significantly in response to its market growing and competitiveness. However, this evolving path has faced many obstacles such as cultural barriers and the lack of efforts to achieve quality at the construction site. At the same time, the greatest amount of information generated on the designing or construction phases is lost due to the lack of an effective coordination of these activities. Face this problem, the aim of this research was to implement a French method named PEO which means preparation for building construction (in Portuguese) seeking to understand the design management process and its interface with the building construction phase. The research method applied was qualitative, and it was carried out through two case studies in the city of Goiania, in Goias, Brazil. The research was divided into two stages called pilot study at Company A and implementation of PEO at Company B. After the implementation; the results demonstrated the PEO method's effectiveness and feasibility while a booster on the quality improvement of design management. The analysis showed that the method has a purpose to improve the design and allow the reduction of failures, errors and rework commonly found in the production of buildings. Therefore, it can be concluded that the PEO is feasible to be applied to real estate and building companies. But, companies need to believe in the contribution they can make to the discovery of design failures in conjunction with other stakeholders forming a construction team. The result of PEO can be maximized when adopting the principles of simultaneous engineering and insertion of new computer technologies, which use a three-dimensional model of the building with BIM process.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1878
83264
Steel Bridge Coating Inspection Using Image Processing with Neural Network Approach
Abstract:
Steel bridges deterioration has been one of the problems in North America for the last years. Steel bridges deterioration mainly attributed to the difficult weather conditions. Steel bridges suffer fatigue cracks and corrosion, which necessitate immediate inspection. Visual inspection is the most common technique for steel bridges inspection, but it depends on the inspector experience, conditions, and work environment. So many Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) models have been developed use Non-destructive technologies to be more accurate, reliable and non-human dependent. Non-destructive techniques such as The Eddy Current Method, The Radiographic Method (RT), Ultra-Sonic Method (UT), Infra-red thermography and Laser technology have been used. Digital Image processing will be used for Corrosion detection as an Alternative for visual inspection. Different models had used grey-level and colored digital image for processing. However, color image proved to be better as it uses the color of the rust to distinguish it from the different backgrounds. The detection of the rust is an important process as it’s the first warning for the corrosion and a sign of coating erosion. To decide which is the steel element to be repainted and how urgent it is the percentage of rust should be calculated. In this paper, an image processing approach will be developed to detect corrosion and its severity. Two models were developed 1st to detect rust and 2nd to detect rust percentage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1877
83240
Empirical Study of Correlation between the Cost Performance Index Stability and the Project Cost Forecast Accuracy in Construction Projects
Abstract:
Earned value management (EVM) has been introduced as an integrated method to combine schedule, budget, and work breakdown structure (WBS). EVM provides various indices to demonstrate project performance including the cost performance index (CPI). CPI is also used to forecast final project cost at completion based on the cost performance during the project execution. Knowing the final project cost during execution can initiate corrective actions, which can enhance project outputs. CPI, however, is not constant during the project, and calculating the final project cost using a variable index is an inaccurate and challenging task for practitioners. Since CPI is based on the cumulative progress values and because of the learning curve effect, CPI variation dampens and stabilizes as project progress. Although various definitions for the CPI stability have been proposed in literature, many scholars have agreed upon the definition that considers a project as stable if the CPI at 20% completion varies less than 0.1 from the final CPI. While 20% completion point is recognized as the stability point for military development projects, construction projects stability have not been studied. In the current study, an empirical study was first conducted using construction project data to determine the stability point for construction projects. Early findings have demonstrated that a majority of construction projects stabilize towards completion (i.e., after 70% completion point). To investigate the effect of CPI stability on cost forecast accuracy, the correlation between CPI stability and project cost at completion forecast accuracy was also investigated. It was determined that as projects progress closer towards completion, variation of the CPI decreases and final project cost forecast accuracy increases. Most projects were found to have 90% accuracy in the final cost forecast at 70% completion point, which is inlined with findings from the CPI stability findings. It can be concluded that early stabilization of the project CPI results in more accurate cost at completion forecasts.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1876
83224
Clustering-Based Threshold Model for Condition Rating of Concrete Bridge Decks
Abstract:
To ensure safety and serviceability of bridge infrastructure, accurate condition assessment and rating methods are needed to provide basis for bridge Maintenance, Repair and Replacement (MRR) decisions. In North America, the common practices to assess condition of bridges are through visual inspection. These practices are limited to detect surface defects and external flaws. Further, the thresholds that define the severity of bridge deterioration are selected arbitrarily. The current research discusses the main deteriorations and defects identified during visual inspection and Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE). NDE techniques are becoming popular in augmenting the visual examination during inspection to detect subsurface defects. Quality inspection data and accurate condition assessment and rating are the basis for determining appropriate MRR decisions. Thus, in this paper, a novel method for bridge condition assessment using the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) theory is utilized. The QFD model is designed to provide an integrated condition by evaluating both the surface and subsurface defects for concrete bridges. Moreover, an integrated condition rating index with four thresholds is developed based on the QFD condition assessment model and using K-means clustering technique. Twenty case studies are analyzed by applying the QFD model and implementing the developed rating index. The results from the analyzed case studies show that the proposed threshold model produces robust MRR recommendations consistent with decisions and recommendations made by bridge managers on these projects. The proposed method is expected to advance the state of the art of bridges condition assessment and rating.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1875
83214
Furnishing Ancillary Alternatives for High Speed Corridors and Pedestrian Crossing: Elevated Cycle Track, an Expedient to Urban Space Prototype in New Delhi
Abstract:
Delhi, the National Capital, has undergone a surge in development rate, consequently engendering an unprecedented increase in population. Over the years the city has transformed into a car-centric infrastructure with high-speed corridors, flyovers and fast lanes. A considerable section of the population is hankering to rehabilitate to the good old cycling days, in order to contribute towards a green environment as well as to maintain their physical well-being. Furthermore, an extant section of Delhi’s population relies on cycles as their primary means of commuting in the city. Delhi has the highest number of cyclists and second highest number of pedestrians in the country. However, the tumultuous problems of unregulated traffic, inadequate space on roads, adverse weather conditions stifle them to opt for cycling. Lately, the city has been facing a conglomeration of problems such as haphazard traffic movement, clogged roads, congestion, pollution, accidents, safety issues, etc. In 1957, Delhi’s cyclists accounted for 36 per cent of trips which dropped down to a mere 4 per cent in 2008. The declining rate is due to unsafe roads and lack of proper cycle lanes. Now as the 10 percent of the city has cycle tracks. There is also a lack of public recreational activities in the city. These conundrums incite the need of a covered elevated cycling bridge track to facilitate the safe and smooth cycle commutation in the city which would also serve the purpose of an alternate urban public space over the cycle bridge reducing the cost as well as the space requirement for the same, developing a user–friendly transportation and public interaction system for urban areas in the city. Based on the archival research methodologies, the following research draws information and extracts records from the data accounts of the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. as well as the Centre for Science and Environment, India. This research will predominantly focus on developing a prototype design for high speed elevated bicycle lanes based on different road typologies, which can be replicated with minor variations in similar situations, all across the major cities of our country including the proposed smart cities. Furthermore, how these cycling lanes could be utilized for the place making process accommodating cycle parking and renting spaces, public recreational spaces, food courts as well as convenient shopping facilities with appropriate optimization. How to preserve and increase the share of smooth and safe cycling commute cycling for the routine transportation of the urban community of the polluted capital which has been on a steady decline over the past few decades.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1874
83213
Criticality Assessment Model for Water Pipelines Using Fuzzy Analytical Network Process
Authors:
Abstract:
Water networks (WNs) are responsible of providing adequate amounts of safe, high quality, water to the public. As other critical infrastructure systems, water networks are subjected to deterioration which increases the number of breaks and leaks and lower water quality. Thus, the need for efficient rehabilitation programs is becoming more urgent given the paradigm of aging infrastructure and tight budget. The first step towards developing such programs is to formulate a Performance Index that reflects the current condition of water assets along with its criticality. While numerous studies in the literature have focused on various aspects of condition assessment and reliability, limited efforts have investigated the criticality of such components. Critical water mains are those whose failure cause significant economic, environmental or social impacts on a community. Inclusion of criticality in computing the performance index will serve as a prioritizing tool for the optimum allocating of the available resources and budget. In this study, several social, economic, and environmental factors that dictate the criticality of water pipelines have been elicited from analyzing the literature. Expert opinions were sought to provide pairwise comparisons of the importance of such factors. Subsequently, Fuzzy Logic along with Analytical Network Process (ANP) was utilized to calculate the weights of several criteria factors. Multi Attribute Utility Theories (MAUT) was then employed to integrate the aforementioned weights with the attribute values of several pipelines in Montreal WN. The result is a criticality index, 0-1, that quantifies the severity of the consequence of failure of each pipeline. A novel contribution of this approach is that it accounts for both the interdependency between criteria factors as well as the inherited uncertainties in calculating the criticality. The practical value of the current study is represented by the automated tool, Excel-Matlab, which can be used by the utility managers and decision makers in planning for future maintenance and rehabilitation activities where high level efficiency in use of materials and time resources is required.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1873
83192
Railway Composite Flooring Design: Numerical Simulation and Experimental Studies
Abstract:
The future of the railway industry lies in the innovation of lighter, more efficient and more sustainable trains. Weight optimizations in railway vehicles allow reducing power consumption and CO₂ emissions, increasing the efficiency of the engines and the maximum speed reached. Additionally, they reduce wear of wheels and rails, increase the space available for passengers, etc. Among the various systems that integrate railway interiors, the flooring system is one which has greater impact both on passenger safety and comfort, as well as on the weight of the interior systems. Due to the high weight saving potential, relative high mechanical resistance, good acoustic and thermal performance, ease of modular design, cost-effectiveness and long life, the use of new sustainable composite materials and panels provide the latest innovations for competitive solutions in the development of flooring systems. However, one of the main drawbacks of the flooring systems is their relatively poor resistance to point loads. Point loads in railway interiors can be caused by passengers or by components fixed to the flooring system, such as seats and restraint systems, handrails, etc. In this way, they can originate higher fatigue solicitations under service loads or zones with high stress concentrations under exceptional loads (higher longitudinal, transverse and vertical accelerations), thus reducing its useful life. Therefore, to verify all the mechanical and functional requirements of the flooring systems, many physical prototypes would be created during the design phase, with all of the high costs associated with it. Nowadays, the use of virtual prototyping methods by computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) softwares allow validating a product before committing to making physical test prototypes. The scope of this work was to current computer tools and integrate the processes of innovation, development, and manufacturing to reduce the time from design to finished product and optimise the development of the product for higher levels of performance and reliability. In this case, the mechanical response of several sandwich panels with different cores, polystyrene foams, and composite corks, were assessed, to optimise the weight and the mechanical performance of a flooring solution for railways. Sandwich panels with aluminum face sheets were tested to characterise its mechanical performance and determine the polystyrene foam and cork properties when used as inner cores. Then, a railway flooring solution was fully modelled (including the elastomer pads to provide the required vibration isolation from the car body) and perform structural simulations using FEM analysis to comply all the technical product specifications for the supply of a flooring system. Zones with high stress concentrations are studied and tested. The influence of vibration modes on the comfort level and stability is discussed. The information obtained with the computer tools was then completed with several mechanical tests performed on some solutions, and on specific components. The results of the numerical simulations and experimental campaign carried out are presented in this paper. This research work was performed as part of the POCI-01-0247-FEDER-003474 (coMMUTe) Project funded by Portugal 2020 through COMPETE 2020.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1872
83191
Experimental Characterisation of Composite Panels for Railway Flooring
Abstract:
Railway transportation is considered the most economical and sustainable way to travel. However, future mobility brings important challenges to railway operators. The main target is to develop solutions that stimulate sustainable mobility. The research and innovation goals for this domain are efficient solutions, ensuring an increased level of safety and reliability, improved resource efficiency, high availability of the means (train), and satisfied passengers with the travel comfort level. These requirements are in line with the European Strategic Agenda for the 2020 rail sector, promoted by the European Rail Research Advisory Council (ERRAC). All these aspects involve redesigning current equipment and, in particular, the interior of the carriages. Recent studies have shown that two of the most important requirements for passengers are reasonable ticket prices and comfortable interiors. Passengers tend to use their travel time to rest or to work, so train interiors and their systems need to incorporate features that meet these requirements. Among the various systems that integrate train interiors, the flooring system is one of the systems with the greatest impact on passenger safety and comfort. It is also one of the systems that takes more time to install on the train, and which contributes seriously to the weight (mass) of all interior systems. Additionally, it presents a strong impact on manufacturing costs. The design of railway floor, in the development phase, is usually made relying on a design software that allows to draw and calculate several solutions in a short period of time. After obtaining the best solution, considering the goals previously defined, experimental data is always necessary and required. This experimental phase has such great significance, that its outcome can provoke the revision of the designed solution. This paper presents the methodology and some of the results of an experimental characterisation of composite panels for railway application. The mechanical tests were made for unaged specimens and for specimens that suffered some type of aging, i.e. heat, cold and humidity cycles or freezing/thawing cycles. These conditionings aim to simulate not only the time effect, but also the impact of severe environmental conditions. Both full solutions and separated components/materials were tested. For the full solution, (panel) these were: four-point bending tests, tensile shear strength, tensile strength perpendicular to the plane, determination of the spreading of water, and impact tests. For individual characterisation of the components, more specifically for the covering, the following tests were made: determination of the tensile stress-strain properties, determination of flexibility, determination of tear strength, peel test, tensile shear strength test, adhesion resistance test and dimensional stability. The main conclusions were that experimental characterisation brings a huge contribution to understand the behaviour of the materials both individually and assembled. This knowledge contributes to the increase the quality and improvements of premium solutions. This research work was framed within the POCI-01-0247-FEDER-003474 (coMMUTe) Project funded by Portugal 2020 through the COMPETE 2020.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1871
83042
Power and Wear Reduction Using Composite Links of Crank-Rocker Mechanism with Optimum Transmission Angle
Abstract:
Reducing energy consumption became the major concern for all countries of the world during the recent decades. In general, power saving is currently the nominal goal of most industrial countries. It is well known that fossil fuels are the main pillar of development of world countries. Unfortunately, the increased rate of fossil fuel consumption will lead to serious problems caused by an expected depletion of fuels. Moreover, dangerous gases and vapors emission lead to severe environmental problems during fuel burning. Consequently, most engineering sectors especially the mechanical sectors are looking for improving any machine accompanied by reducing its energy consumption. Crank-Rocker planar mechanism is the most applied in mechanical systems. Besides, it is one of the most significant parts of the machines for obtaining the oscillatory motion. The transmission angle of this mechanism can be considered as an optimum value when its extreme values are equally varied around 900. In addition, the transmission angle plays an important role in decreasing the required driving power and improving the dynamic properties of the mechanism. Hence, the driving power of this mechanism can be decreased with selecting its appropriate links lengthens which have an optimum transmission angle. Moreover, mechanism's links manufactured from composite materials affords link's lightweight which decreases the required driving torque. Furthermore, wear and corrosion problems can be treated through using composite links instead of using metal ones. This paper is dealing with improving the performance of crank-rocker mechanism using composite links due to their flexural elastic modulus values and stiffness in addition to high damping of composite materials.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1870
83012
Numerical Modeling Analysis for the Double-Layered Asphalt Pavement Structure Behavior with Interface Bonding
Abstract:
Bonding characteristics between pavement layers have an important influence on responses of pavement structures. This paper deals with analytical solution for the stresses, strains, and deflections of double-layered asphalt pavement structure. This solution is based on the homogeneous half-space of layered theory developed by Burmister (1943). The partial interaction between the layers is taken into account by considering an interface bonding behavior which is obtained by push-out shear test. Numerical applications considering three cases of bonding (unbonded, partially bonded, and fully bonded overlays) are carried out to the influence of the interface bonding on the structural behavior of asphalt pavement under static loading. Further, it was observed that numerical results indicate that the horizontal shear reaction modulus at the interface (Ks) will significantly affect pavement structure behavior.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1869
82999
Reasons for Slow Uptake of Embodied Carbon Estimation in Sri Lankan Building Sector
Abstract:
Global carbon reduction is not merely a responsibility of developed countries. Even though the carbon emission in developing countries is comparatively less, it is a responsibility of them as well. In recognition of that, Sri Lanka has initiated promoting green/sustainable building construction as one measure of reducing local and global carbon emissions. However, most of its strategies have focused on reducing Operational Carbon (OC) (through improving operational energy) and the focus on Embodied Carbon (EC) reduction found very little. EC estimation is the primary step towards EC reduction, however EC estimation is also a poorly addressed aspect in Sri Lanka. Recognising that gap, this study aims to identify the reasons for the slow uptake of EC estimation in Sri Lankan building sector. To achieve this aim, sixteen numbers of global challenges for/barriers to estimating EC were identified through literature review. They were then subjected to pilot survey to identify the relevance of them as reasons for the slow uptake in estimating EC in buildings in Sri Lanka. A questionnaire with the three-point Likert scale was used to this end. The collected data were analysed using descriptive statistics. The findings revealed that eleven out of sixteen challenges/ barriers are highly relevant as reasons for the slow uptake in estimating EC in buildings in Sri Lanka while the other five remains as moderately relevant reasons. Further, the findings revealed that there are no low relevant reasons. Eventually, the paper concluded that all the reasons are significant to the Sri Lankan building sector and immediate actions need to be taken to overcome them.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1868
82996
Agent-Based Modeling of Pedestrian Corridor Congestion on the Characteristics of Physical Space Form
Authors:
Abstract:
The pedestrian corridor is the most crowded area in the public space. The crowded severity has been focused on the field of evacuation strategies of the entrance in large public spaces. The aim of this paper is to analyze the walking efficiency in different spaces of pedestrian corridor with the variation of spatial parameters. The congestion condition caused by the variation of walking efficiency is modeled as well. This study established the space model of the walking corridor by setting the width, slope, turning form and turning angle of the pedestrian corridor. The pedestrian preference of walking mode varied with the difference of the crowded severity, walking speed, field of vision, sight direction and the expected destination, which is influenced by the characters of physical space form. Swarm software is applied to build Agent model. According to the output of the Agent model, the relationship between the pedestrian corridor width, ground slope, turning forms, turning angle and the walking efficiency, crowded severity is acquired. The results of the simulation can be applied to pedestrian corridor design in order to reduce the crowded severity and the potential safety risks caused by crowded people.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1867
82980
Selection of Landscape Plant Species: A Experiment of Noise Reduction by Vibration of Plant Leaves
Abstract:
With the rapid development of the city, the noise pollution becomes more and more serious. Noise has seriously affected people's normal life, study and work. In addition, noise has seriously affected the city's ecological environment and the migration of birds. Therefore, it is urgent to control the noise. As one of natural noise-reducing materials, plants have been paid more and more attention. In urban landscape design, it is very important to choose plant species with good noise reduction effect to the sustainable development of urban ecology. The aim of this paper is to find out the characteristics of the plant with good noise reduction effect and apply it in urban landscape design. This study investigated the vibration of leaves of six plant species in a sound field using a Keyence (IG-1000/CCD) Laser Micrometer. The results of the experiments showed that the vibration speed of plant leaves increased obviously after being stimulated by sound source, about 5-10 times. In addition, when driven by the same sound, the speed of all leaves varied with the difference of leaf thickness, leaf size and leaf mass. The speed of all leaves would increase with the increase of leaf size and leaf mass, while those would decrease with the increase of leaf thickness.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1866
82951
Analysis of Bed Load Sediment Transport Mataram-Babarsari Irrigation Canal
Abstract:
Mataram Irrigation Canal has 31,2 km length, is the main irrigation canal in Special Region Province of Yogyakarta, connecting Progo River on the west side and Opak River on the east side. It has an important role as the main water carrier distribution for various purposes such as agriculture, fishery, and plantation which should be free from sediment material. Bed Load Sediment is the basic sediment that will make the sediment process on the irrigation canal. Sediment process is a simultaneous event that can make deposition sediment at the base of irrigation canal and can make the height of elevation water change, it will affect the availability of water to be used for irrigation functions. To predict the amount of drowning sediments in the irrigation canal using two methods: Meyer-Peter and Muller’s Method which is an energy approach method and Einstein Method which is a probabilistic approach. Speed measurement using floating method and using current meters. The channel geometry is measured directly in the field. The basic sediment of the channel is taken in the field by taking three samples from three different points. The result of the research shows that by using the formula Meyer -Peter Muller get the result of 60,75799 kg/s, whereas with Einsten’s Method get result of 13,06461 kg/s. the results may serve as a reference for dredging the sediments on the channel so as not to disrupt the flow of water in irrigation canal.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1865
82949
Mobile Application Tool for Individual Maintenance Users on High-Rise Residential Buildings in South Korea
Authors:
Cha, H., Ph, D, , Kim, J., Kim, D., Shin, J., Lee, K.
Abstract:
Since 1980's, the rapid economic growth resulted in so many aged apartment buildings in South Korea. Nevertheless, there is insufficient maintenance practice of buildings. In this study, to facilitate the building maintenance the authors classified the building defects into three levels according to their level of performance and developed a mobile application tool based on each level's appropriate feedback. The feedback structure consisted of 'Maintenance manual phase', 'Online feedback phase', 'Repair work phase of the specialty contractors'. In order to implement each phase the authors devised the necessary database for each phase and created a prototype system that can develop on its own. The authors expect that the building users can easily maintain their buildings by using this application.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1864
82869
Thermodynamic Phase Equilibria and Formation Kinetics of Cyclopentane, Cyclopentanone and Cyclopentanol Hydrates in the Presence of Gaseous Guest Molecules including Methane and Carbon Dioxide
Abstract:
Gas hydrate is an inclusion compound in which a low-molecular-weight gas or organic molecule is trapped inside a three-dimensional lattice structure created by water-molecule via intermolecular hydrogen bonding. It is generally formed at low temperature and high pressure, and exists as crystal structures of cubic systems − structure I, structure II, and hexagonal system − structure H. Many efforts have been made to apply them to various energy and environmental fields such as gas transportation and storage, CO₂ capture and separation, and desalination of seawater. Particularly, studies on the behavior of gas hydrates by new organic materials for CO₂ storage and various applications are underway. In this study, thermodynamic and spectroscopic analyses of the gas hydrate system were performed focusing on cyclopentanol, an organic molecule that forms gas hydrate at relatively low pressure. The thermodynamic equilibria of CH₄ and CO₂ hydrate systems including cyclopentanol were measured and spectroscopic analyses of XRD and Raman were performed. The differences in thermodynamic systems and formation kinetics of CO₂ added cyclopentane, cyclopentanol and cyclopentanone hydrate systems were compared. From the thermodynamic point of view, cyclopentanol was found to be a hydrate promotor. Spectroscopic analyses showed that cyclopentanol formed a hydrate crystal structure of cubic structure II in the presence of CH₄ and CO₂. It was found that the differences in the functional groups among the organic guest molecules significantly affected the rate of hydrate formation and the total amounts of CO₂ stored in the hydrate systems. The total amount of CO₂ stored in the cyclopentanone hydrate was found to be twice that of the amount of CO₂ stored in the cyclopentane and the cyclopentanol hydrates. The findings are expected to open up new opportunity to develop the gas hydrate based wastewater desalination technology.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):