Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 50781

Civil and Environmental Engineering

1797
88558
Dynamics Analyses of Swing Structure Subject to Rotational Forces
Abstract:
Large-scale swing has been used in entertainment and performance, especially in circus, for a very long time. To increase the safety of this type of structure, a thorough analysis for displacement and bearing stress was performed for an extreme condition where a full cycle swing occurs. Different masses, ranging from 40 kg to 220 kg, and velocities were applied on the swing. Then, based on the solution of differential dynamics equation, swing velocity response to harmonic force was obtained. Moreover, the resistance capacity was estimated based on ACI steel structure design guide. Subsequently, numerical analysis was performed in ABAQUS to obtain the stress on each frame of the swing. Finally, the analysis shows that the expansion of swing structure frame section was required for mass bigger than 150kg.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1796
88549
Fragility Analysis of Weir Structure Subjected to Flooding Water Damage
Abstract:
In this study, seepage analysis was performed by the level difference between upstream and downstream of weir structure for safety evaluation of weir structure against flooding. Monte Carlo Simulation method was employed by considering the probability distribution of the adjacent ground parameter, i.e., permeability coefficient of weir structure. Moreover, by using a commercially available finite element program (ABAQUS), modeling of the weir structure is carried out. Based on this model, the characteristic of water seepage during flooding was determined at each water level with consideration of the uncertainty of their corresponding permeability coefficient. Subsequently, fragility function could be constructed based on this response from the numerical analysis; this result can combine with probabilistic risk assessment to determine weakness of the weir structure of subjected to flooding disaster. They can also be used as a reference data that can comprehensively predict the probability of failure and the degree of damage of a weir structure.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1795
86572
Developing a High Performance Cement Based Material: The Influence of Silica Fume and Organosilane
Abstract:
Additives and mineral admixtures have become an integral part of cement-based materials. It is common practice to add silica fume to cement based mixes in order to produce high-performance concrete. There is still a lack of scientific understanding regarding the effects that silica fume has on the microstructure of hydrated cement paste. The aim of the current study is to develop high-performance materials with low permeability and high resistance to flexural stress using silica fume and an organosilane. Organosilane bonds with cement grains and silica fume, influencing both the workability and the final properties of the mix, especially the pore size distributions and pore connectivity. Silica fume is a known pozzolanic agent which reacts with the calcium hydroxide in hydrated cement paste, producing more C-S-H and improving the mechanical properties of the mix. It is believed that particles of silica fume act as capillary pore fillers and nucleation centers for C-S-H and other hydration products. In order to be able to design cement-based materials with added silica fume and organosilane, it is necessary first to understand the formation of the porous network during hydration and to observe the distribution of pores and their connectivity. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods in low-fields are non-destructive and allow the study of cement-based materials from the standpoint of their porous structure. Other methods, such as XRD and SEM-EDS, help create a comprehensive picture of the samples, along with the classic mechanical tests (compressive and flexural strength measurements). The transverse relaxation time (T₂) was measured during the hydration of 16 samples prepared with two water/cement ratios (0.3 and 0.4) and different concentrations or organosilane (APTES, up to 2% by mass of cement) and silica fume (up to 6%). After their hydration, the pore size distribution was assessed using the same NMR approach on the samples filled with cyclohexane. The SEM-EDS and XRD measurements were applied on pieces and powders prepared from the samples that were used in mechanical testing, which were kept under water for 28 days. Adding silica fume does not influence the hydration dynamics of cement paste, while the addition of organosilane extends the dormancy stage up to 10 hours. The size distribution of the capillary pores is not influenced by the addition of silica fume or organosilane, while the connectivity of capillary pores is decreased only when there is organosilane in the mix. No filling effect is observed even at the highest concentration of silica fume. There is an apparent increase in flexural strength of samples prepared only with silica fume and a decrease for those prepared with organosilane, with a few exceptions. XRD reveals that the pozzolanic reactivity of silica fume can only be observed when there is no organosilane present and the SEM-EDS method reveals the pore distribution, as well as hydration products and the presence or absence of calcium hydroxide. The current work was funded by the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, CNCS – UEFISCDI, through project PN-III-P2-2.1-PED-2016-0719.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1794
86411
Investigating the Behavior of Underground Structures in the Event of an Earthquake
Abstract:
The progress of technology and producing new machinery have made a big change in excavation operations and construction of underground structures. The limitations of space and some other economic, politic and military considerations gained the attention of most developed and developing countries towards the construction of these structures for mine, military, and development objectives. Underground highways, tunnels, subways, oil reservoir resources, fuels, nuclear wastes burying reservoir and underground stores are increasingly developing and being used in these countries. The existence and habitability of the cities depend on these underground installations or in other words these vital arteries. Stopping the flow of water, gas leakage and explosion, collapsing of sewage paths, etc., resulting from the earthquake are among the factors that can severely harm the environment and increase the casualty. Lack of sewage network and complete stoppage of the flow of water in Bam (Iran) is a good example of this kind. In this paper, we investigate the effect of wave orientation on structures and deformation of them and the effect of faulting on underground structures, and then, we study resistance of reinforced concrete against earthquake, simulate two different samples, analyze the result and point out the importance of paying attention to underground installations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1793
86079
Strength of the Basement Wall Combined with a Temporary Retaining Wall for Excavation
Abstract:
In recent years, the need for remodeling of many apartments built 30 years ago is increasing. Therefore, researches on the structural reinforcement technology of existing apartments have been conducted. On the other hand, there is a growing need for research on the existing underground space expansion technology to expand the parking space required for remodeling. When expanding an existing underground space, for earthworks, an earth retaining wall must be installed between the existing apartment building and it. In order to maximize the possible underground space, it is necessary to minimize the thickness of the portion of earth retaining wall and underground basement wall. In this manner, the calculation procedure is studied for the evaluation of shear strength of the composite basement wall corresponding to shear span-to-depth ratio in this study. As a result, it was shown that the proposed calculation procedure can be used to evaluate the shear strength of the composite basement wall as safe. On the other hand, when shear span-to-depth ratio is small, shear strength is very underestimated.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1792
86064
Thermodynamic Cycle Using Cyclopentane for Waste Heat Recovery Power Generation from Clinker Cooler Exhaust Flue Gas
Abstract:
Waste heat recovery from Pre Heater exhaust gases and Clinker cooler vent gases is now common place in Cement Industry. Most common practice is to use Steam Rankine cycle for heat to power conversion. In this process, waste heat from the flue gas is recovered through a Heat Recovery steam generator where steam is generated and fed to a conventional Steam turbine generator. However steam Rankine cycle tends to have lesser efficiency for smaller power plants with less than 5MW capacity and where the steam temperature at the inlet of the turbine is less than 350 deg C. further a steam Rankine cycle needs treated water and maintenance intensive. These problems can be overcome by using Thermodynamic cycle using Cyclopentane vapour in place of steam. This innovative cycle is best suited for Heat recovery in cement plants and results in best possible heat to power conversion efficiency. This paper discusses about Heat Recovery Power generation using innovative thermal cycle which uses Cyclopentane vapour in place of water- steam. And how this technology has been adopted for a Clinker cooler hot gas from mid-tap.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1791
86061
Seismic Retrofitting of Structures Using Steel Plate Slit Dampers Based on Genetic Algorithm
Abstract:
In this study, a genetic algorithm was used to find out the optimum locations of the slit dampers satisfying a target displacement. A seismic retrofit scheme for a building structure was presented using steel plate slit dampers. A cyclic loading test was used to verify the energy dissipation capacity of the slit damper. The seismic retrofit of the model structure using the slit dampers was compared with the retrofit with enlarging shear walls. The capacity spectrum method was used to propose a simple damper distribution scheme proportional to the inter-story drifts. The validity of the simple story-wise damper distribution procedure was verified by comparing the results of the genetic algorithm. It was observed that the proposed simple damper distribution pattern was in a good agreement with the optimum distribution obtained from the genetic algorithm. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1D1A1B03032809).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1790
85805
Properties of Ettringite According to Hydration, Dehydration and Carbonation Process
Abstract:
The contradiction between energy consumption, environment protection, and social development is increasingly intensified during recent decade years. At the same time, as avoiding fossil-fuels-thirsty, people turn their view on the renewable green energy, such as solar energy, wind power, hydropower, etc. However, due to the unavoidable mismatch on geography and time for production and consumption, energy storage seems to be one of the most reasonable solutions to enlarge the use of renewable energies. Thermal energy storage (TES), a branch of energy storage solution, mainly concerns the capture, storage and consumption of thermal energy for later use in different scales (individual house, apartment, district, and city). In TES research field, sensible heat and latent heat storage have been widely studied and presented at an advanced stage of development. Compared with them, thermochemical energy storage is still at initial phase but provides a relatively higher theoretical energy density and a long shelf life without heat dissipation during storage. Among thermochemical energy storage materials, inorganic pure or composite compounds like micro-porous silica gel, SrBr₂ hydrate and MgSO₄-Zeolithe have been reported as promising to be integrated into thermal energy storage systems. However, the cost of these materials, one of main obstacles, may hinder the wide use of energy storage systems in real application scales (individual house, apartment, district and even city). New studies on ettringite show promising application for thermal energy storage since its high energy density and large resource from cementitious materials. Ettringite, or calcium trisulfoaluminate hydrate, of which chemical formula is 3CaO∙Al₂O₃∙3CaSO₄∙32H₂O, or C₆AS̅₃H₃₂ as known in cement chemistry notation, is one of the most important members of AFt group. As a common compound in hydrated cements, ettringite has been widely studied for its performances in construction but barely known as a thermochemical material. For this study, we summarize available data about the structure and properties of ettringite and its metastable phase (meta-ettringite), including the processes of hydration, thermal conversion and carbonation durability for thermal energy storage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1789
85579
Evaluation of Wind Fragility for Set Anchor Used in Sign Structure in Korea
Abstract:
Recently, damage to domestic facilities by strong winds and typhoons are growing. Therefore, this study focused on sign structure among various vulnerable facilities. The evaluation of the wind fragility was carried out considering the destruction of the anchor, which is one of the various failure modes of the sign structure. The performance evaluation of the anchor was carried out to derive the wind fragility. Two parameters were set, and four anchor types were selected to perform the pull-out and shear tests. The resistance capacity was estimated based on the experimental results. Wind loads were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation method. Based on these results, we derived the wind fragility according to anchor type and wind exposure category. Finally, the evaluation of the wind fragility was performed according to the experimental parameters such as anchor length and anchor diameter. This study shows that the depth of anchor was more significant for the safety of structure compared to diameter of anchor.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1788
85547
Automation of Embodied Energy Calculations for Buildings through Building Information Modelling
Authors:
Abstract:
Researchers are currently more concerned about the calculations of energy at the operational stage, mainly due to its larger environmental impact, but the fact remains, embodied energies represent a substantial contributor unaccounted for in the overall energy computation method. The calculation of materials’ embodied energy during the construction stage is complicated. This is due to the various factors involved. The equipment used, fuel needed, and electricity required for each type of materials varies with location and thus the embodied energy will differ for each project. Moreover, the method used in manufacturing, transporting and putting in place will have significant influence on the materials’ embodied energy. This anomaly has made it difficult to calculate or even bench mark the usage of such energies. This paper presents a model aimed at calculating embodied energies based on such variabilities. It presents a systematic approach that uses an efficient method of calculation to provide a new insight for the selection of construction materials. The model is developed in a BIM environment. The quantification of materials’ energy is determined over the three main stages of their lifecycle: manufacturing, transporting and placing. The model uses three major databases each of which contains set of the construction materials that are most commonly used in building projects. The first dataset holds information about the energy required to manufacture any type of materials, the second includes information about the energy required for transporting the materials while the third stores information about the energy required by machinery to place the materials in their intended locations. Through geospatial data analysis, the model automatically calculates the distances between the suppliers and construction sites and then uses dataset information for energy computations. The computational sum of all the energies is automatically calculated and then the model provides designers with a list of usable equipment along with the associated embodied energies.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1787
85215
Development of Building Information Modeling in Property Industry: Beginning with Building Information Modeling Construction
Abstract:
In France, construction BIM actors commonly evoke the BIM gains for exploitation by integrating of the life cycle of a building. The standardization of level 7 of development would achieve this stage of the digital model. The householders include local public authorities, social landlords, public institutions (health and education), enterprises, facilities management companies. They have a dual role: owner and manager of their housing complex. In a context of financial constraint, the BIM of exploitation aims to control costs, make long-term investment choices, renew the portfolio and enable environmental standards to be met. It assumes a knowledge of the existing buildings, marked by its size and complexity. The information sought must be synthetic and structured, it concerns, in general, a real estate complex. We conducted a study with professionals about their concerns and ways to use it to see how householders could benefit from this development. To obtain results, we had in mind the recurring interrogation of the project management, on the needs of the operators, we tested the following stages: 1) Inculcate a minimal culture of BIM with multidisciplinary teams of the operator then by business, 2) Learn by BIM tools, the adaptation of their trade in operations, 3) Understand the place and creation of a graphic and technical database management system, determine the components of its library so their needs, 4) Identify the cross-functional interventions of its managers by business (operations, technical, information system, purchasing and legal aspects), 5) Set an internal protocol and define the BIM impact in their digital strategy. In addition, continuity of management by the integration of construction models in the operation phase raises the question of interoperability in the control of the production of IFC files in the operator’s proprietary format and the export and import processes, a solution rivaled by the traditional method of vectorization of paper plans. Companies that digitize housing complex and those in FM produce a file IFC, directly, according to their needs without recourse to the model of construction, they produce models business for the exploitation. They standardize components, equipment that are useful for coding. We observed the consequences resulting from the use of the BIM in the property industry and, made the following observations: a) The value of data prevail over the graphics, 3D is little used b) The owner must, through his organization, promote the feedback of technical management information during the design phase c) The operator's reflection on outsourcing concerns the acquisition of its information system and these services, observing the risks and costs related to their internal or external developments. This study allows us to highlight: i) The need for an internal organization of operators prior to a response to the construction management ii) The evolution towards automated methods for creating models dedicated to the exploitation, a specialization would be required iii) A review of the communication of the project management, management continuity not articulating around his building model, it must take into account the environment of the operator and reflect on its scope of action.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1786
85118
Future Metro Station: Remodeling Underground Environment Based on Experience Scenarios and IoT Technology
Abstract:
The project Future Station (FS) seek for a deeper understanding of metro station. The main idea of the project is enhancing the underground environment by combining new architectural design with IoT technology. This research shows the understanding of the metro environment giving references regarding traditional design approaches and IoT combined space design. Based on the analysis, this research presents design alternatives in two metro stations those are chosen for a testbed. It also presents how the FS platform giving a response to travelers and deliver the benefit to metro operators. In conclusion, the project describes methods to build future metro service and platform that understand traveler’s intentions and giving appropriate services back for enhancing travel experience. It basically used contemporary technology such as smart sensing grid, big data analysis, smart building, and machine learning technology.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1785
84877
Examination of Corrosion Durability Related to Installed Environments of Steel Bridges
Abstract:
Corrosion durability of steel bridges can be generally affected by atmospheric environments of bridge installation, since corrosion problem is related to environmental factors such as humidity, temperature, airborne salt, chemical components as SO₂, chlorides, etc. Thus, atmospheric environment condition should be measured to estimate corrosion condition of steel bridges as well as measurement of actual corrosion damage of structural members of steel bridge. Even in the same atmospheric environment, the corrosion environment may be different depending on the installation direction of structural members. In this study, therefore, atmospheric corrosion monitoring was conducted using atmospheric corrosion monitoring sensor, hygrometer, thermometer and airborne salt collection device to examine the corrosion durability of steel bridges. As a target steel bridge for corrosion durability monitoring, a cable-stayed bridge with truss steel members was selected. This cable-stayed bridge was located on the coast to connect the islands with the islands. Especially, atmospheric corrosion monitoring was carried out depending on structural direction of a cable-stayed bridge with truss type girders since it consists of structural members with various directions. For atmospheric corrosion monitoring, daily average electricity (corrosion current) was measured at each monitoring members to evaluate corrosion environments and corrosion level depending on structural members with various direction which have different corrosion environment in the same installed area. To compare corrosion durability connected with monitoring data depending on corrosion monitoring members, monitoring steel plate was additionally installed in same monitoring members. Monitoring steel plates of carbon steel was fabricated with dimension of 60mm width and 3mm thickness. And its surface was cleaned for removing rust on the surface by blasting, and its weight was measured before its installation on each structural members. After a 3 month exposure period on real atmospheric corrosion environment at bridge, surface condition of atmospheric corrosion monitoring sensors and monitoring steel plates were observed for corrosion damage. When severe deterioration of atmospheric corrosion monitoring sensors or corrosion damage of monitoring steel plates were found, they were replaced or collected. From 3month exposure tests in the actual steel bridge with various structural member with various direction, the rust on the surface of monitoring steel plate was found, and the difference in the corrosion rate was found depending on the direction of structural member from their visual inspection. And daily average electricity (corrosion current) was changed depending on the direction of structural member. However, it is difficult to identify the relative differences in corrosion durability of steel structural members using short-term monitoring results. After long exposure tests in this corrosion environments, it can be clearly evaluated the difference in corrosion durability depending on installed conditions of steel bridges. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1D1A1B03028755).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1784
84842
Prediction of Mechanical Strength of Multiscale Hybrid Reinforced Cementitious Composite
Abstract:
Novel multiscale hybrid reinforced cementitious composites based on carbon nanotubes (MHRCC-CNT), and carbon nanofibers (MHRCC-CNF) are new types of cement-based material fabricated with micro steel fibers and nanofilaments, featuring superior strain hardening, ductility, and energy absorption. This study focused on established models to predict the compressive strength, and direct and splitting tensile strengths of the produced cementitious composites. The analysis was carried out based on the experimental data presented by the previous author’s study, regression analysis, and the established models that available in the literature. The obtained models showed small differences in the predictions and target values with experimental verification indicated that the estimation of the mechanical properties could be achieved with good accuracy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1783
84835
One or More Building Information Modeling Managers in France: The Confusion of the Kind
Abstract:
Since 2015, the arrival of BIM in the building sector in France has turned the corporation world upside down. Not only constructive practices have been impacted, but also the uses and the men who have undergone important changes. Thus, the new collaborative mode generated by the BIM and the digital model has challenged the supremacy of some construction actors because the process involves working together taking into account the needs of other contributors. New BIM tools have emerged and actors in the act of building must take ownership of them. It is in this context that under the impetus of a European directive and the French government's encouragement of new missions and job profiles have. Moreover, concurrent engineering requires that each actor can advance at the same time as the others, at the whim of the information that reaches him, and the information he has to transmit. However, in the French legal system around public procurement, things are not planned in this direction. Also, a consequent evolution must take place to adapt to the methodology. The new missions generated by the BIM in France require a good mastery of the tools and the process. Also, to meet the objectives of the BIM approach, it is possible to define a typical job profile around the BIM, adapted to the various sectors concerned. The multitude of job offers using the same terms with very different objectives and the complexity of the proposed missions motivated by our approach. In order to reinforce exchanges with professionals or specialists, we carried out a statistical study to answer this problem. Five topics are discussed around the business area: the BIM in the company, the function (business), software used and BIM missions practiced (39 items). About 1400 professionals were interviewed. These people work in companies (micro businesses, SMEs, and Groups) of construction, engineering offices or, architectural agencies. 77% of respondents have the status of employees. All participants are graduated in their trade, the majority having level 1. Most people have less than a year of experience in BIM, but some have 10 years. The results of our survey help to understand why it is not possible to define a single type of BIM Manager. Indeed, the specificities of the companies are so numerous and complex and the missions so varied, that there is not a single model for a function. On the other hand, it was possible to define 3 main professions around the BIM (Manager, Coordinator and Modeler) and 3 main missions for the BIM Manager (deployment of the method, assistance to project management and management of a project).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1782
84702
Thermodynamic and Spectroscopic Investigation of Binary 2,2-Dimethyl-1-Propanol+ CO₂ Gas Hydrates
Abstract:
Gas hydrate is a non-stoichiometric crystalline compound consisting of host water-framework and low molecular weight guest molecules. Small gaseous molecules such as CH₄, CO₂, and N₂ can be captured in the host water framework lattices of the gas hydrate with specific temperature and pressure conditions. The three well-known crystal structures of structure I (sI), structure II (sII), and structure H (sH) are determined by the size and shape of guest molecules. In this study, we measured the phase equilibria of binary (2,2-dimethyl-1-propanol + CO₂, CH₄, N₂) hydrates to explore their fundamental thermodynamic characteristics. We identified the structure of the binary gas hydrate by employing synchrotron high-resolution powder diffraction (HRPD), and the guest distributions in the lattice of gas hydrate were investigated via dispersive Raman and ¹³C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. The end-to-end distance of 2,2-dimethyl-1-propanol was calculated to be 7.76 Å, which seems difficult to be enclathrated in large cages of sI or sII. However, due to the flexibility of the host water framework, binary hydrates of sI or sII types can be formed with the help of small gas molecule. Also, the synchrotron HRPD patterns revealed that the binary hydrate structure highly depends on the type of help gases; a cubic Fd3m sII hydrate was formed with CH₄ or N₂, and a cubic Pm3n sI hydrate was formed with CO₂. Interestingly, dispersive Raman and ¹³C NMR spectra showed that the unique tuning phenomenon occurred in binary (2,2-dimethyl-1-propanol + CO₂) hydrate. By optimizing the composition of NPA, we can achieve both thermodynamic stability and high CO₂ storage capacity for the practical application to CO₂ capture.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1781
84410
Development of Coke-Tolerant Transition Bimetallic Catalysts for Dry Reforming of Methane
Abstract:
Catalytic reforming of methane with carbon dioxide has gained a lot of interest in recent years, as the process converts two greenhouse gases (CH₄ and CO₂) into valuable syngas (H₂/CO) close to unity. The highly endothermic dry reforming of methane (DRM) proceeds via CH₄ decomposition to leave surface carbon species, followed by removal of C with CO₂-derived species to give CO. Tuning the reactivity of the active metal towards these reactions during DRM allows in principle the catalyst surface to remain active and clean without carbon deposition for a long-term. The reactivity tuning for stoichiometric CH₄/CO₂ reactants was attempted by alloying non-noble metal Co and Ni. The bimetallic CoNi catalysts were compared with monometallic Co and Ni catalysts, all of which were prepared by homogeneous deposition precipitation (HDP) method. The ZrO₂ support was chosen because of its high thermal stability and absence of mixed oxide formation with the active metals (Co, Ni). The catalytic behavior of these catalysts was investigated at high reaction temperatures (750-800°C) under atmospheric pressure. On the CoNi catalyst, the first-order effects with respect to CH₄ pressure and negative-order effects with respect to CO₂ pressure on the DRM rate resembling Co catalyst. The results suggest that for an appropriate Co/Ni ratio the bimetallic Co-Ni/ZrO₂ catalyst exhibits intermediate reactivity towards DRM between Co and Ni producing negligible carbon deposition by balancing CH₄ and CO₂ activation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1780
84382
Seismic Behavior of a Jumbo Container Crane in the Low Seismicity Zone Using Time-History Analyses
Abstract:
Jumbo container crane is an important part of port structures that needs to be designed properly, even when the port locates in low seismicity zone such as in Korea. In this paper, 30 artificial ground motions derived from the elastic response spectra of Korean Building Code (2005) are used for time history analysis. It is found that the uplift might not occur in this analysis when the crane locates in the low seismic zone. Therefore, a selection of a pinned or a gap element for base supporting has not much effect on the determination of the total base shear. The relationships between the total base shear and peak ground acceleration (PGA) and the relationships between the portal drift and the PGA are proposed in this study.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1779
84378
Nondestructive Testing for Reinforced Concrete Buildings with Active Infrared Thermography
Abstract:
Infrared thermography (IRT) technique has been proven to be a good method for nondestructive evaluation of concrete material. In the building, a broad range of applications has been used such as subsurface defect inspection, energy loss, and moisture detection. The purpose of this research is to consider the qualitative and quantitative performance of reinforced concrete deteriorations using active infrared thermography technique. An experiment of three different heating regimes was conducted on a concrete slab in the laboratory. The thermal characteristics of the IRT method, i.e., absolute contrast and observation time, are investigated. A linear relationship between the observation time and the real depth was established with a well linear regression R-squared of 0.931. The results showed that the absolute contrast above defective area increases with the rise of the size of delamination and the heating time. In addition, the depth of delamination can be predicted by using the proposal relationship of this study.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1778
84151
Combined Effect of High Curing Temperature and Crack Width on Chloride Migration in Reinforced Concrete Beams
Abstract:
Deterioration of reinforced concrete structures is a serious concern in the construction engineering, largely due to chloride induced corrosion of reinforcement. Chloride penetration is markedly influenced by one or several major factors at the same time such as cuing in combination with different crack widths which have spectacular effect on reinforced concrete structures. This research presents the results of an experimental investigation involving reinforced concrete beams with three different crack widths ranging from 0 to 0.2mm, curing temperatures of 20°C or 40°C and water-to-cement of 0.5. Chloride content profiles were determined under non-steady state diffusion at 20°C. Based on the obtained results, higher chloride content was obtained under condition of high curing temperature in combination with large crack more than 0.1mm and there are no significant differences between narrow crack width (less than 0.1 mm) and beams without crack (0mm).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1777
84006
Environmental Impact Assessment Methodology of the Tirana–Elbasan Road Project
Abstract:
The Tirana – Elbasan Road project is the most important highway project in Albania, constructed in the period May 2011 - ongoing. This project included construction of 38 km highway category road including 2.6 km of tunnel. It serves as a corridor connecting the Tirana, Capital of Albania and South-East area, and in the near future it is expected to continue in the direction of Macedonian border. Environmental Impact Assesment procedure for this project is provided by the Albanian Environmental Law No. 10431. This law establishes the regulation of procedures for identifying, assessment and reporting on the effects of certain projects on the environment, and the associated administrative procedures, during the decision-making process by the Ministry of Environment and Tourism for issuing environmental permit, and ensures that all relevant information concerning the environment are provided and considered. Due to the nature and size of the project, during the environmental impact assessment process, the European Union legislation, namely the EIA Directive 85/337 / EEC is considered. Moreover, in some cases, due to the lack of national standards and practical guidelines, when necessary those of EU member countries are considered. This paper presents an analysis of the EIA procedure followed on ‘Tirana – Elbasan’ Road project, with a focus on the application of the main stages of the procedure such as: screening, scoping, review, the EIA report; and consideration of alternatives, measures for impact prevention and reduction, and the public hearing T/discussion.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1776
83817
Study on the Application of Lime to Improve the Rheological Properties of Polymer Modified Bitumen
Abstract:
Bitumen is one of the most applicable materials in pavement engineering. It is a binding material with unique viscoelastic properties, especially when it mixes with polymer. In this study, to figure out the viscoelastic behaviour of the polymer modified with bitumen (PMB), a series of dynamic shearing rheological (DSR) tests were conducted. Four percentages of lime (i.e. 1%, 2%, 4% and 5%) were mixed with PMB and tested under four different temperatures including 64ºC, 70ºC, 76ºC and 82ºC. The results indicated that complex shearing modulus (G*) increased by increasing the frequency due to raised resistance against deformation. The phase angle (δ) showed a decreasing trend by incrementing the frequency. The addition of lime percentages increased the complex modulus value and declined phase angle parameter. Increasing the temperature decreased the complex modulus and increased the phase angle until 70ºC. The decreasing trend of rutting factor with increasing temperature revealed that rutting factor improved by the addition of the lime to the PMB.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1775
83745
BIM Application and Construction Schedule Simulation for the Horizontal Work Area
Abstract:
The use of BIM, including 4D CAD system, in a construction project is gradually increasing. Since the building construction works repeatedly in the vertical space, it is relatively easy to confirm the interference effect when applying the BIM, but the interference effect for the civil engineering project is relatively small because the civil works perform non-repetitive processes in the horizontal space. For this reason, it is desirable to apply BIM to the construction phase when applying BIM to the civil engineering project, and the most active BIM tool applied to the construction phase is the 4D CAD function for the schedule management. This paper proposes the application procedure of BIM by the construction phase of civil engineering project and a linear 4D CAD construction methodology suitable for the civil engineering project in which linear work is performed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1774
83307
Developing Pavement Structural Deterioration Curves
Abstract:
A Structural Number (SN) can be calculated for a road pavement from the properties and thicknesses of the surface, base course, sub-base, and subgrade. Historically, the cost of collecting structural data has been very high. Data were initially collected using Benkelman Beams and now by Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD). The structural strength of pavements weakens over time due to environmental and traffic loading factors, but due to a lack of data, no structural deterioration curve for pavements has been implemented in a Pavement Management System (PMS). International Roughness Index (IRI) is a measure of the road longitudinal profile and has been used as a proxy for a pavement’s structural integrity. This paper offers two conceptual methods to develop Pavement Structural Deterioration Curves (PSDC). Firstly, structural data are grouped in sets by design Equivalent Standard Axles (ESA). An ‘Initial’ SN (ISN), Intermediate SN’s (SNI) and a Terminal SN (TSN), are used to develop the curves. Using FWD data, the ISN is the SN after the pavement is rehabilitated (Financial Accounting ‘Modern Equivalent’). Intermediate SNIs, are SNs other than the ISN and TSN. The TSN was defined as the SN of the pavement when it was approved for pavement rehabilitation. The second method is to use Traffic Speed Deflectometer data (TSD). The road network already divided into road blocks, is grouped by traffic loading. For each traffic loading group, road blocks that have had a recent pavement rehabilitation, are used to calculate the ISN and those planned for pavement rehabilitation to calculate the TSN. The remaining SNs are used to complete the age-based or if available, historical traffic loading-based SNI’s.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1773
83192
Railway Composite Flooring Design: Numerical Simulation and Experimental Studies
Abstract:
The future of the railway industry lies in the innovation of lighter, more efficient and more sustainable trains. Weight optimizations in railway vehicles allow reducing power consumption and CO₂ emissions, increasing the efficiency of the engines and the maximum speed reached. Additionally, they reduce wear of wheels and rails, increase the space available for passengers, etc. Among the various systems that integrate railway interiors, the flooring system is one which has greater impact both on passenger safety and comfort, as well as on the weight of the interior systems. Due to the high weight saving potential, relative high mechanical resistance, good acoustic and thermal performance, ease of modular design, cost-effectiveness and long life, the use of new sustainable composite materials and panels provide the latest innovations for competitive solutions in the development of flooring systems. However, one of the main drawbacks of the flooring systems is their relatively poor resistance to point loads. Point loads in railway interiors can be caused by passengers or by components fixed to the flooring system, such as seats and restraint systems, handrails, etc. In this way, they can originate higher fatigue solicitations under service loads or zones with high stress concentrations under exceptional loads (higher longitudinal, transverse and vertical accelerations), thus reducing its useful life. Therefore, to verify all the mechanical and functional requirements of the flooring systems, many physical prototypes would be created during the design phase, with all of the high costs associated with it. Nowadays, the use of virtual prototyping methods by computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) softwares allow validating a product before committing to making physical test prototypes. The scope of this work was to current computer tools and integrate the processes of innovation, development, and manufacturing to reduce the time from design to finished product and optimise the development of the product for higher levels of performance and reliability. In this case, the mechanical response of several sandwich panels with different cores, polystyrene foams, and composite corks, were assessed, to optimise the weight and the mechanical performance of a flooring solution for railways. Sandwich panels with aluminum face sheets were tested to characterise its mechanical performance and determine the polystyrene foam and cork properties when used as inner cores. Then, a railway flooring solution was fully modelled (including the elastomer pads to provide the required vibration isolation from the car body) and perform structural simulations using FEM analysis to comply all the technical product specifications for the supply of a flooring system. Zones with high stress concentrations are studied and tested. The influence of vibration modes on the comfort level and stability is discussed. The information obtained with the computer tools was then completed with several mechanical tests performed on some solutions, and on specific components. The results of the numerical simulations and experimental campaign carried out are presented in this paper. This research work was performed as part of the POCI-01-0247-FEDER-003474 (coMMUTe) Project funded by Portugal 2020 through COMPETE 2020.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1772
83191
Experimental Characterisation of Composite Panels for Railway Flooring
Abstract:
Railway transportation is considered the most economical and sustainable way to travel. However, future mobility brings important challenges to railway operators. The main target is to develop solutions that stimulate sustainable mobility. The research and innovation goals for this domain are efficient solutions, ensuring an increased level of safety and reliability, improved resource efficiency, high availability of the means (train), and satisfied passengers with the travel comfort level. These requirements are in line with the European Strategic Agenda for the 2020 rail sector, promoted by the European Rail Research Advisory Council (ERRAC). All these aspects involve redesigning current equipment and, in particular, the interior of the carriages. Recent studies have shown that two of the most important requirements for passengers are reasonable ticket prices and comfortable interiors. Passengers tend to use their travel time to rest or to work, so train interiors and their systems need to incorporate features that meet these requirements. Among the various systems that integrate train interiors, the flooring system is one of the systems with the greatest impact on passenger safety and comfort. It is also one of the systems that takes more time to install on the train, and which contributes seriously to the weight (mass) of all interior systems. Additionally, it presents a strong impact on manufacturing costs. The design of railway floor, in the development phase, is usually made relying on a design software that allows to draw and calculate several solutions in a short period of time. After obtaining the best solution, considering the goals previously defined, experimental data is always necessary and required. This experimental phase has such great significance, that its outcome can provoke the revision of the designed solution. This paper presents the methodology and some of the results of an experimental characterisation of composite panels for railway application. The mechanical tests were made for unaged specimens and for specimens that suffered some type of aging, i.e. heat, cold and humidity cycles or freezing/thawing cycles. These conditionings aim to simulate not only the time effect, but also the impact of severe environmental conditions. Both full solutions and separated components/materials were tested. For the full solution, (panel) these were: four-point bending tests, tensile shear strength, tensile strength perpendicular to the plane, determination of the spreading of water, and impact tests. For individual characterisation of the components, more specifically for the covering, the following tests were made: determination of the tensile stress-strain properties, determination of flexibility, determination of tear strength, peel test, tensile shear strength test, adhesion resistance test and dimensional stability. The main conclusions were that experimental characterisation brings a huge contribution to understand the behaviour of the materials both individually and assembled. This knowledge contributes to the increase the quality and improvements of premium solutions. This research work was framed within the POCI-01-0247-FEDER-003474 (coMMUTe) Project funded by Portugal 2020 through the COMPETE 2020.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1771
83042
Power and Wear Reduction Using Composite Links of Crank-Rocker Mechanism with Optimum Transmission Angle
Abstract:
Reducing energy consumption became the major concern for all countries of the world during the recent decades. In general, power saving is currently the nominal goal of most industrial countries. It is well known that fossil fuels are the main pillar of development of world countries. Unfortunately, the increased rate of fossil fuel consumption will lead to serious problems caused by an expected depletion of fuels. Moreover, dangerous gases and vapors emission lead to severe environmental problems during fuel burning. Consequently, most engineering sectors especially the mechanical sectors are looking for improving any machine accompanied by reducing its energy consumption. Crank-Rocker planar mechanism is the most applied in mechanical systems. Besides, it is one of the most significant parts of the machines for obtaining the oscillatory motion. The transmission angle of this mechanism can be considered as an optimum value when its extreme values are equally varied around 90°. In addition, the transmission angle plays an important role in decreasing the required driving power and improving the dynamic properties of the mechanism. Hence, appropriate selection of mechanism links lengthens, which assures optimum transmission angle leads to decreasing the driving power. Moreover, mechanism's links manufactured from composite materials afford link's lightweight, which decreases the required driving torque. Furthermore, wear and corrosion problems can be treated through using composite links instead of using metal ones. This paper is dealing with improving the performance of crank-rocker mechanism using composite links due to their flexural elastic modulus values and stiffness in addition to high damping of composite materials.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1770
82999
Reasons for the Slow Uptake of Embodied Carbon Estimation in the Sri Lankan Building Sector
Abstract:
Global carbon reduction is not merely a responsibility of environmentally advanced developed countries, but also a responsibility of developing countries regardless of their less impact on global carbon emissions. In recognition of that, Sri Lanka as a developing country has initiated promoting green building construction as one reduction strategy. However, notwithstanding the increasing attention on Embodied Carbon (EC) reduction in the global building sector, they still mostly focus on Operational Carbon (OC) reduction (through improving operational energy). An adequate attention has not yet been given on EC estimation and reduction. Therefore, this study aims to identify the reasons for the slow uptake of EC estimation in the Sri Lankan building sector. To achieve this aim, 16 numbers of global barriers to estimate EC were identified through existing literature. They were then subjected to a pilot survey to identify the significant reasons for the slow uptake of EC estimation in the Sri Lankan building sector. A questionnaire with a three-point Likert scale was used to this end. The collected data were analysed using descriptive statistics. The findings revealed that 11 out of 16 challenges/ barriers are highly relevant as reasons for the slow uptake in estimating EC in buildings in Sri Lanka while the other five challenges/ barriers remain as moderately relevant reasons. Further, the findings revealed that there are no low relevant reasons. Eventually, the paper concluded that all the known reasons are significant to the Sri Lankan building sector and it is necessary to address them in order to upturn the attention on EC reduction.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1769
82869
Thermodynamic Phase Equilibria and Formation Kinetics of Cyclopentane, Cyclopentanone and Cyclopentanol Hydrates in the Presence of Gaseous Guest Molecules including Methane and Carbon Dioxide
Abstract:
Gas hydrate is an inclusion compound in which a low-molecular-weight gas or organic molecule is trapped inside a three-dimensional lattice structure created by water-molecule via intermolecular hydrogen bonding. It is generally formed at low temperature and high pressure, and exists as crystal structures of cubic systems − structure I, structure II, and hexagonal system − structure H. Many efforts have been made to apply them to various energy and environmental fields such as gas transportation and storage, CO₂ capture and separation, and desalination of seawater. Particularly, studies on the behavior of gas hydrates by new organic materials for CO₂ storage and various applications are underway. In this study, thermodynamic and spectroscopic analyses of the gas hydrate system were performed focusing on cyclopentanol, an organic molecule that forms gas hydrate at relatively low pressure. The thermodynamic equilibria of CH₄ and CO₂ hydrate systems including cyclopentanol were measured and spectroscopic analyses of XRD and Raman were performed. The differences in thermodynamic systems and formation kinetics of CO₂ added cyclopentane, cyclopentanol and cyclopentanone hydrate systems were compared. From the thermodynamic point of view, cyclopentanol was found to be a hydrate promotor. Spectroscopic analyses showed that cyclopentanol formed a hydrate crystal structure of cubic structure II in the presence of CH₄ and CO₂. It was found that the differences in the functional groups among the organic guest molecules significantly affected the rate of hydrate formation and the total amounts of CO₂ stored in the hydrate systems. The total amount of CO₂ stored in the cyclopentanone hydrate was found to be twice that of the amount of CO₂ stored in the cyclopentane and the cyclopentanol hydrates. The findings are expected to open up new opportunity to develop the gas hydrate based wastewater desalination technology.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1768
82684
A Study of the Replacement of Natural Coarse Aggregate by Spherically-Shaped and Crushed Waste Cathode Ray Tube Glass in Concrete
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to conduct an experimental investigation on the influence of complete replacement of natural coarse aggregate with spherically-shape and crushed waste cathode ray tube (CRT) glass to the aspect of workability, density, and compressive strength of the concrete. After characterizing the glass, a group of concrete mixes was prepared to contain a 40% spherical CRT glass and 60% crushed CRT glass as a complete (100%) replacement of natural coarse aggregates. From a total of 16 types of concrete mixes, the optimum proportion was selected based on its best performance. The test results showed that the use of spherical and crushed glass that possesses a smooth surface, rounded, irregular and elongated shape, and low water absorption affects the workability of concrete. Due to a higher specific gravity of crushed glass, concrete mixes containing CRT glass had a higher density compared to ordinary concrete. Despite the spherical and crushed CRT glass being stronger than gravel, the results revealed a reduction in compressive strength of the concrete. However, using a lower water to binder (w/b) ratio and a higher superplasticizer (SP) dosage, it is found to enhance the compressive strength of 60.97 MPa at 28 days that is lower by 13% than the control specimen. These findings indicate that waste CRT glass in the form of spherical and crushed could be used as an alternative of coarse aggregate that may pave the way for the disposal of hazardous e-waste.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):