Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 53187

Civil and Environmental Engineering

1817
94792
The Role of Knowledge and Institutional Challenges to the Adoption of Sustainable Urban Drainage in Saudi Arabia: Implications for Sustainable Environmental Development
Authors:
Abstract:
Saudi Arabia is facing increasing challenges in managing urban drainage, due to a combination of factors including climate change and urban expansion. Traditional drainage systems are unable to cope with demand, resulting in flooding and damage to property. Consequently, new ways of dealing with this issue need to be found and Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) appear to be a possible solution. This paper suggests that knowledge is a central issue in the adoption of Sustainable Urban Drainage approaches, as revealed through qualitative research with representative officials and professionals from key government departments and organisations in Riyadh. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-six participants. The interviews explored the challenges of adopting sustainable drainage approaches, and grounded theory analysis was used to examine the role of knowledge. However, a number of barriers have been identified with regard to the adoption of sustainable drainage approaches, such as the marginal status of sustainability in drainage decisions; lack of technical standards for other unconventional drainage solutions, and lack of consideration by decision makers of contributions from environmental and geographical studies. Due to centralisation, decision-making processes are complex and time-consuming, resulting in the discouragement of the adoption of new knowledge and approaches. Stakeholders with knowledge of sustainable approaches are often excluded from the hierarchical system of urban planning and drainage management. In addition, the multiplicity of actors involved in the implementation of the drainage system, as well as the different technical standards involved, often causes problems around coordination and cooperation. Although those with procedural and explicit knowledge have revealed a range of opportunities, such as a significant increase in government support for rainwater drainage in urban areas, they also identified a number of obstacles. These are mainly related to the lack of specialists in sustainable approaches, and a reluctance to involve external experts. Therefore, recommendations for overcoming some of these challenges are presented, which include enhancing the decision-making process through applying decentralisation and promoting awareness of sustainability through establishing educational and outreach programmes. This may serve to increase knowledge and facilitate the adoption of sustainable drainage approaches to promote sustainable development in the context of Saudi Arabia.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1816
94533
Mechanical Properties of Ordinary Portland Cement Modified Cold Bitumen Emulsion Mixture
Abstract:
Cold bitumen emulsion mixture (CBEM) offers a series benefits as compared with hot mix asphalt (HMA); these include environmental factors, energy saving, the resolution of logistical challenges that can characterize hot mix, and the potential to reserve funds. However, this mixture has some problems similar to any bituminous mixtures as it has low early strength, long curing time that needed to obtain the maximum performance, high air voids and considered inferior to HMA. Thus, CBEM has been used in limited applications such as lightly trafficked roads, footways, and reinstatements. This laboratory study describes the development of CBEM using ordinary Portland cement (OPC) instead of the traditional mineral filler. Stiffness modulus, moisture damage, and temperature sensitivity tests were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the produced mixtures. The study concluded that there is a substantial improvement in the mechanical properties and moisture damage resistance of CBEMs containing OPC. Also, the produced cement modified CBEM shows a considerably lower thermal sensitivity than the conventional CBEM.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1815
94516
Development of Groundwater Management Model Using Groundwater Sustainability Index
Abstract:
Development of a groundwater management model is an important step in the exploitation and management of any groundwater aquifer as it assists in the long-term sustainable planning of the resource. The current study was conducted in Central Limpopo province of South Africa with the overall objective of determining how much water can be withdrawn from the aquifer without producing nonreversible impacts on the groundwater quantity, hence developing a model which can sustainably protect the aquifer. The development was done through the computation of Groundwater Sustainability Index (GSI). Values of GSI close to unity and above indicated overexploitation. In this study, an index of 0.8 was considered as overexploitation. The results indicated that there is potential for higher abstraction rates compared to the current abstraction rates. GSI approach can be used in the management of groundwater aquifer to sustainably develop the resource and also provides water managers and policy makers with fundamental information on where future water developments can be carried out.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1814
93161
The Use of Plant-Based Natural Fibers in Reinforced Cement Composites
Abstract:
Plant-based natural fibres are used more increasingly in construction materials. This is in order to reduce the pressure on the built environment which has been increased dramatically due to the increase in the world population and their needs. Plant-based natural fibres are abundant in many countries. Despite the low-cost of such environmental friendly renewable material, it has the ability to enhance the mechanical properties of construction materials. This paper presents an extensive discussion on the use of plant-based natural fibres as reinforcement for cement-based composites, with a particular emphasis upon fibre types; fibre characteristics and fibre-cement composites performance. It also covers a thorough overview of the main factors affecting the properties of plant-based natural fibre cement composite in it fresh and hardened state. The feasibility of using plant-based natural fibres in producing various construction materials such as mud bricks and blocks are investigated. In addition, other applications of using such fibres as internal curing agents as well as durability enhancer are also discussed. Finally, recommendation for possible future work in this area is presented.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1813
93076
Artificial Intelligence Approach to Water Treatment Processes: Case Study of Daspoort Treatment Plant, South Africa
Abstract:
Artificial neural network (ANN) has broken the bounds of the convention programming, which is actually a function of garbage in garbage out by its ability to mimic the human brain. Its ability to adopt, adapt, adjust, evaluate, learn and recognize the relationship, behavior, and pattern of a series of data set administered to it, is tailored after the human reasoning and learning mechanism. Thus, the study aimed at modeling wastewater treatment process in order to accurately diagnose water control problems for effective treatment. For this study, a stage ANN model development and evaluation methodology were employed. The source data analysis stage involved a statistical analysis of the data used in modeling in the model development stage, candidate ANN architecture development and then evaluated using a historical data set. The model was developed using historical data obtained from Daspoort Wastewater Treatment plant South Africa. The resultant designed dimensions and model for wastewater treatment plant provided good results. Parameters considered were temperature, pH value, colour, turbidity, amount of solids and acidity. Others are total hardness, Ca hardness, Mg hardness, and chloride. This enables the ANN to handle and represent more complex problems that conventional programming is incapable of performing.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1812
93061
Accurate Energy Assessment Technique for Mine-Water District Heat Network
Abstract:
UK buildings and energy infrastructures are heavily dependent on natural gas, a large proportion of which is used for domestic space heating. However, approximately half of the gas consumed in the UK is imported. Improving energy security and reducing carbon emissions are major government drivers for reducing gas dependency. In order to do so there needs to be a wholesale shift in the energy provision to householders without impacting on thermal comfort levels, convenience or cost of supply to the end user. Heat pumps are seen as a potential alternative in modern well insulated homes, however, can the same be said of older homes? A large proportion of housing stock in Britain was built prior to 1919. The age of the buildings bears testimony to the quality of construction; however, their thermal performance falls far below the minimum currently set by UK building standards. In recent years significant sums of money have been invested to improve energy efficiency and combat fuel poverty in some of the most deprived areas of Wales. Increasing energy efficiency of older properties remains a significant challenge, which cannot be achieved through insulation and air-tightness interventions alone, particularly when alterations to historically important architectural features of the building are not permitted. This paper investigates the energy demand of pre-1919 dwellings in a former Welsh mining village, the feasibility of meeting that demand using water from the disused mine workings to supply a district heat network and potential barriers to success of the scheme. The use of renewable solar energy generation and storage technologies, both thermal and electrical, to reduce the load and offset increased electricity demand, are considered. A wholistic surveying approach to provide a more accurate assessment of total household heat demand is proposed. Several surveying techniques, including condition surveys, air permeability, heat loss calculations, and thermography were employed to provide a clear picture of energy demand. Additional insulation can bring unforeseen consequences which are detrimental to the fabric of the building, potentially leading to accelerated dilapidation of the asset being ‘protected’. Increasing ventilation should be considered in parallel, to compensate for the associated reduction in uncontrolled infiltration. The effectiveness of thermal performance improvements are demonstrated and the detrimental effects of incorrect material choice and poor installation are highlighted. The findings show estimated heat demand to be in close correlation to household energy bills. Major areas of heat loss were identified such that improvements to building thermal performance could be targeted. The findings demonstrate that the use of heat pumps in older buildings is viable, provided sufficient improvement to thermal performance is possible. Addition of passive solar thermal and photovoltaic generation can help reduce the load and running cost for the householder. The results were used to predict future heat demand following energy efficiency improvements, thereby informing the size of heat pumps required.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1811
92781
Determination of Failure Modes of Screwed Connections in Cold-Formed Steel Structures
Abstract:
Steel, which is one of the base materials we prefer in the building construction, is the material with the highest ratio to weight of carrying capacity. Due to the carrying capacity, lighter and better quality steel in smaller sections and sizes has recently been used as a frame system in cold-formed steel structures. While light steel elements used as secondary frame elements during the past, they have nowadays started to be preferred as the main frame in low/middle story buildings and detached houses with advantages such as quick and easy installation, time-saving, and small amount of scrap. It is also economically ideal because the weight of structure is lighter than other steel profiles. Structural performances and failure modes of cold-formed structures are different from conventional ones due to their thin-walled structures. One of the most important elements of light steel structures to ensure stability is the connection. The screwed connections, which have self-drilling properties with special drilling tools, are widely used in the installation of cold-formed profiles. The length of the screw is selected according to the total thickness of the elements after the screw thickness is determined according to the elements of connections. The thickness of the material depends on the length of the drilling portion at the end of the screw. The shear tests of plates connected with self-drilling screws are carried out depending on the screw length, and their failure modes were evaluated in this study.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1810
92742
Composite 'C' Springs for Anti-Seismic Building Suspension: Positioning 'Virtual Center of Pendulation above Gravity Center'
Abstract:
Now that weight saving is mandatory, to author best knowledge composite springs, that we have invented, are best choice for automotive suspensions, against steel. So, we have created a Joint Ventures called S.ARA, in order to mass produce composite coils springs. Start of Production of composite coils springs was in 2014 for AUDI. As we have demonstrated, on the road, that composite springs are not a sweet dream. The present paper describes all the benefits of ‘C’ springs and ‘S’ springs for high performance vehicles suspension, for rocket stage separation, and for satellite injection into orbit. Developing rocket stage separation, we have developed for CNES (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales) the following concept. If we call ‘line of action’ a line going from one end of a spring to the other. Our concept is to use for instance two springs inclined. In such a way that their line of action cross together and create at this crossing point a virtual center well above the springs. This virtual center, is pulling from above the top stage and is offering a guidance, perfectly stable and straight. About buildings, our solution is to transfer this rocket technology, creating a ‘virtual center’ of pendulation positioned above the building center of gravity. This is achieved by using tilted composite springs benches oriented in such a way that their line of action converges creating the ‘virtual center’. Thanks to the ‘virtual center’ position, the building behaves as a pendulum, hanged from above. When earthquake happen then the building will oscillate around its ‘virtual center’ and will go back safely to equilibrium after the tremor. ‘C’ springs, offering anti-rust, anti-settlement, fail-safe suspension, plus virtual center solution is the must for long-lasting, perfect protection of buildings against earthquakes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1809
92736
Reduction of Cooling Demands in a Subtropical Humid Climate Zone: A Study on Roofs of Existing Residential Building Using Passive
Abstract:
In sub-tropical humid climates, it is estimated most of the urban peak load of energy consumption is used to satisfy air-conditioning or air-coolers cooling demand in summer time. As the urbanization rate in developing nation – like the case in India is rising rapidly, the pressure placed on energy resources to satisfy inhabitants’ indoor comfort requirements is consequently increasing too. This paper introduces passive cooling through roof as a means of reducing energy cooling loads for satisfying human comfort requirements in a sub-tropical climate. Experiments were performed by applying different insulators which are locally available solar reflective materials to insulate the roofs of five rooms of 4 case buildings; three rooms having RCC (Reinforced Cement Concrete) roof and two having Asbestos sheet roof of existing buildings. The results are verified by computer simulation using Computational Fluid Dynamics tools with FLUENT software. The result of using solar reflective paint with high albedo coating shows a fall of 4.8⁰C in peak hours and saves 303 kWh considering energy load with air conditioner during the summer season in comparison to non insulated flat roof energy load of residential buildings in Bhopal. An optimum solution of insulator for both types of roofs is presented. It is recommended that the selected cool roof solution be combined with insulation on other elements of envelope, to increase the indoor thermal comfort. The application is intended for low cost residential buildings in composite and warm climate like Bhopal.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1808
92435
Historical Geotechnical Study and Evaluation of Project Progress for the Tafila City Center Development Project
Authors:
Abstract:
The geotechnical study can be employed successfully to assess and follow the expected development or delay in the project construction. The development project of city center or downtown was taken as a case study for the investigation of the project conditions that might support progress or cause delay. The project was proposed to build 7447 m2 by reinforced concrete mainly to serve and support the services provided to people in Tafila. The project construction had faced challenges and obstacles such as soil collapse because of excavation of the weak soil that found in the project site. In addition, the topography of the project area showed a high slope from South-West to North. The slope through the project footprint reached to 83.3% which is considered very high slope. One year and a half proposed to finish the project construction since the 1st of March 2013 and it was planned to be finished by the 31th of August 2014, but the project needs more than one year and a half as extension according to the consultant engineer. The collecting of data was conducted through the interviews with the engineers and officials, and by analyzing the soil reports and samples taken during design and excavation. The major findings came out to weak and fractured soil and construction waste that were found at project site. Also, soil was considered very fine according to the plasticity index (PI) values, in addition to the high depths required for foundation that contribute to the collapse of soil and the increase of project cost. The current project aims to present how the unseen conditions can delay the project construction and increase the cost of the project that rises to JD8.305 Million.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1807
92338
Fiber-Based 3D Cellular Reinforcing Structures for Mineral-Bonded Composites with Enhanced Structural Impact Tolerance
Abstract:
The development of solutions to improve the resistance of buildings to short-term dynamic loads, particularly impact load, is driven by the urgent demand worldwide on securing human life and critical infrastructures. The research training group GRK 2250/1 aims to develop novel mineral-bonded composites that allow the fabrication of thin-layered strengthening layers providing available concrete members with enhanced impact resistance. This paper presents the development of 3D woven wire cellular structures that can be used as innovative reinforcement for targeted composites. 3D woven wire cellular structures are truss-like architectures that can be fabricated in an automatized process with a great customization possibility. The specific architecture allows this kind of structures to have good load bearing capability and forming behavior, which is of great potential to give strength against impact loading. An appropriate combination of topology and material enables an optimal use of thin-layered reinforcement in concrete constructions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1806
91802
Maximum Deformation Estimation for Reinforced Concrete Buildings Using Equivalent Linearization Method
Abstract:
In the displacement-based seismic design and evaluation, equivalent linearization method is one of the approximation methods to estimate the maximum inelastic displacement response of a system. In this study, the accuracy of two equivalent linearization methods are investigated. The investigation consists of three soil condition in Taiwan (Taipei Basin 1, 2, and 3) and five different heights of building (H_r= 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 m). The first method is the Taiwan equivalent linearization method (TELM) which was proposed based on Japanese equivalent linear method considering the modification factor, α_T= 0.85. On the basis of Lin and Miranda study, the second method is proposed with some modification considering Taiwan soil conditions. From this study, it is shown that Taiwanese equivalent linearization method gives better estimation compared to the modified Lin and Miranda method (MLM). The error index for the Taiwanese equivalent linearization method are 16%, 13%, and 12% for Taipei Basin 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Furthermore, a ductility demand spectrum of single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system is presented in this study as a guide for engineers to estimate the ductility demand of a structure.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1805
91702
Integrated Mass Rapid Transit System for Smart City Project in Western India
Abstract:
This paper is an attempt to develop an Integrated Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) for a smart city project in Western India. Integrated transportation is one of the enablers of smart transportation for providing a seamless intercity as well as regional level transportation experience. The success of a smart city project at the city level for transportation is providing proper integration to different mass rapid transit modes by way of integrating information, physical, network of routes fares, etc. The methodology adopted for this study was primary data research through questionnaire survey. The respondents of the questionnaire survey have responded on the issues about their perceptions on the ways and means to improve public transport services in urban cities. The respondents were also required to identify the factors and attributes which might motivate more people to shift towards the public mode. Also, the respondents were questioned about the factors which they feel might restrain the integration of various modes of MRTS. Furthermore, this study also focuses on developing a utility equation for respondents with the help of multiple linear regression analysis and its probability to shift to public transport for certain factors listed in the questionnaire. It has been observed that for shifting to public transport, the most important factors that need to be considered were travel time saving and comfort rating. Also, an Integrated MRTS can be obtained by combining metro rail with BRTS, metro rail with monorail, monorail with BRTS and metro rail with Indian railways. Providing a common smart card to transport users for accessing all the different available modes would be a pragmatic solution towards integration of the available modes of MRTS.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1804
91563
Analytical Modelling of the Moment-Rotation Behavior of Top and Seat Angle Connection with Stiffeners
Abstract:
The earthquake-resistant steel structure design is required taking into account the behavior of beam-column connections besides the basic properties of the structure such as material and geometry. Beam-column connections play an important role in the behavior of frame systems. Taking into account the behaviour of connection in analysis and design of steel frames is important due to presenting the actual behavior of frames. So, the behavior of the connections should be well known. The most important force which transmitted by connections in the structural system is the moment. The rotational deformation is customarily expressed as a function of the moment in the connection. So, the moment-rotation curves are the best expression of behaviour of the beam-to-column connections. The designed connections form various moment-rotation curves according to the elements of connection and the shape of placement. The only way to achieve this curve is with real-scale experiments. The experiments of some connections have been carried out partially and are formed in the databank. It has been formed the models using this databank to express the behavior of connection. In this study, theoretical studies have been carried out to model a real behavior of the top and seat angles connections with angles. Two stiffeners in the top and seat angle to increase the stiffness of the connection, and two stiffeners in the beam web to prevent local buckling are used in this beam-to-column connection. Mathematical models have been performed using the database of the beam-to-column connection experiments previously by authors. Using the data of the tests, it has been aimed that analytical expressions have been developed to obtain the moment-rotation curve for the connection details whose test data are not available. The connection has been dimensioned in various shapes and the effect of the dimensions of the connection elements on the behavior has been examined.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1803
91471
Microstructural Characterization of Creep Damage Evolution in Welded Inconel 600 Superalloy
Abstract:
Superalloys are used in components that operate at high temperatures such as pressure vessels and heat exchanger tubing. Design standards for these components must consider creep resistance among other criteria. Fusion welding processes are commonly used in the industry to join such components. Fusion processes commonly generate three distinctive zones, i.e. heat affected zone (HAZ), namely weld metal (WM) and base metal (BM). In nickel-based superalloy, the microstructure developed during fusion welding dictates the mechanical response of the welded component and it is very important to establish these effects in the mechanical response of the component. In this work, two plates of Inconel 600 superalloy were Gas Metal Arc Welded (GMAW). Creep samples were cut and milled to specifications and creep tested at a temperature (650 °C) using stress level of 350, 300, 275, 250 and 200 MPa. Microstructural analysis results showed a progressive creep damage evolution that depends on the stress levels with a preferential accumulation of creep damage at the heat affected zone where the creep rupture preferentially occurs owing to an austenitic matrix with grain boundary precipitated of the type Cr23C6. The fractured surfaces showed dimple patterns of cavity and voids. Results indicated that the damage mechanism is due to cavity growth by the combined effect of the power law and diffusion creep.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1802
91463
Centrifuge Modelling Approach on Sysmic Loading Analysis of Clay: A Geotechnical Study
Abstract:
Models for geotechnical centrifuge testing are usually made from re-formed soil, allowing for comparisons with naturally occurring soil deposits. However, there is a fundamental omission in this process because the natural soil is deposited in layers creating a unique structure. Nonlinear dynamics of clay material deposit is an essential part of changing the attributes of ground movements when subjected to solid seismic loading, particularly when diverse intensification conduct of speeding up and relocation are considered. The paper portrays a review of axis shaking table tests and numerical recreations to explore the offshore clay deposits subjected to seismic loadings. These perceptions are accurately reenacted by DEEPSOIL with appropriate soil models and parameters reviewed from noteworthy centrifuge modeling researches. At that point, precise 1-D site reaction investigations are performed on both time and recurrence spaces. The outcomes uncover that for profound delicate clay is subjected to expansive quakes, noteworthy increasing speed lessening may happen close to the highest point of store because of soil nonlinearity and even neighborhood shear disappointment; nonetheless, huge enhancement of removal at low frequencies are normal in any case the forces of base movements, which proposes that for dislodging touchy seaward establishments and structures, such intensified low-recurrence relocation reaction will assume an essential part in seismic outline. This research shows centrifuge as a tool for creating a layered sample important for modelling true soil behaviour (such as permeability) which is not identical in all directions. Currently, there are limited methods for creating layered soil samples.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1801
91332
Hybrid Seismic Energy Dissipation Devices Made of Viscoelastic Pad and Steel Plate
Abstract:
This study develops a hybrid seismic energy dissipation device composed of a viscoelastic damper and a steel slit damper connected in parallel. A cyclic loading test is conducted on a test specimen to validate the seismic performance of the hybrid damper. Then a moment-framed model structure is designed without seismic load so that it is retrofitted with the hybrid dampers. The model structure is transformed into an equivalent simplified system to find out optimum story-wise damper distribution pattern using genetic algorithm. The effectiveness of the hybrid damper is investigated by fragility analysis and the life cycle cost evaluation of the structure with and without the dampers. The analysis results show that the model structure has reduced probability of reaching damage states, especially the complete damage state, after seismic retrofit. The expected damage cost and consequently the life cycle cost of the retrofitted structure turn out to be significantly small compared with those of the original structure. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) and Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology (KIAT) through the International Cooperative R & D program (N043100016).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1800
91326
The Simultaneous Effect of Horizontal and Vertical Earthquake Components on the Seismic Response of Buckling-Restrained Braced Frame
Abstract:
Over the past years, much research has been conducted on the vulnerability of structures to earthquakes, which only horizontal components of the earthquake were considered in their seismic analysis and vertical earthquake acceleration especially in near-fault area was less considered. The investigation of the mappings shows that vertical earthquake acceleration can be significantly closer to the maximum horizontal earthquake acceleration, and even exceeds it in some cases. This study has compared the behavior of different members of three steel moment frame with a buckling-restrained brace (BRB), one time only by considering the horizontal component and again by considering simultaneously the horizontal and vertical components under the three mappings of the near-fault area and the effect of vertical acceleration on structural responses is investigated. Finally, according to the results, the vertical component of the earthquake has a greater effect on the axial force of the columns and the vertical displacement of the middle of the beams of the different classes and less on the lateral displacement of the classes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1799
91279
Experimental Study on Post-Fire Mechanical Properties of S235 Steel
Abstract:
In order to evaluate the residual strength of S235 (St37) steel structures after the fire, an experimental program was undertaken to investigate the post-fire mechanical properties. Tensile coupons taken from S235 sheets were exposed to varying temperatures as 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, and 800 °C. The samples were then allowed to cool down to ambient temperature before they were tested to failure. To obtain the mechanical properties of steels; tensile tests are performed, and the post-fire stress-strain curves are evaluated. The microstructures of the heat-treated specimens were examined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It is seen that morphology and size of the precipitates in the specimens change, as the heat increases. The modulus of elasticity decreases, and deformation increases with temperature. Energy dissipation decreases due to lower stress according to the stress-strain curves of the specimens. Especially, the mechanical properties were decreased compared with the pre-fire ones. As a result of the post-fire and pre-fire behavior of S235, a set of equations is evaluated to predict the mechanical properties after the fire. These types of equations may allow the structural and/or fire engineers to predict accurately the post-fire behavior of the buildings constructed with S235 type steel.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1798
91257
South Atlantic Architects Validation of the Construction Decision Making Inventory
Abstract:
Architects are an integral part of the construction industry and are continuously incorporating decisions that influence projects during their life cycle. These decisions aim at selecting best alternative from the ones available. Unfortunately, this decision making process is mainly unexplored in the construction industry. No instrument to measure construction decision, based on knowledgebase of decision-makers, has existed. Additionally, limited literature is available on the topic. Recently, an instrument to gain an understanding of the construction decision-making process was developed by Dr. Tulio Sulbaran from the University of Texas, San Antonio. The instrument’s name is 'Construction Decision Making Inventory (CDMI)'. The CDMI is an innovative idea to measure the 'What? When? How? Moreover, Who?' of the construction decision-making process. As an innovative idea, its statistical validity (accuracy of the assessment) is yet to be assessed. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a case study with architects in the south-east of the United States aimed to determine the CDMI validity. The results of the case study are important because they assess the validity of the tool. Furthermore, as the architects evaluated each question within the measurements, this study is also guiding the enhancement of the CDMI.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1797
90837
Reliability Estimation of Bridge Structures with Updated Finite Element Models
Authors:
Abstract:
Assessment of structural reliability is essential for efficient use of civil infrastructure which is subjected hazardous events. Dynamic analysis of finite element models is a commonly used tool to simulate structural behavior and estimate its performance accordingly. However, theoretical models purely based on preliminary assumptions and design drawings may deviate from the actual behavior of the structure. This study proposes up-to-date reliability estimation procedures which engages actual bridge vibration data modifying finite element models for finite element model updating and performing reliability estimation, accordingly. The proposed method utilizes vibration response measurements of bridge structures to identify modal parameters, then uses these parameters to calibrate finite element models which are originally based on design drawings. The proposed method does not only show that reliability estimation based on updated models differs from the original models, but also infer that non-updated models may overestimate the structural capacity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1796
90827
Gas Metal Arc Welding of Clad Plates API 5L X-60/316L Applying External Magnetic Fields during Welding
Abstract:
Clad pipes in comparison to plain carbon steel pipes offer the oil and gas industry high corrosion resistance, reduction in economic losses due to pipeline failures and maintenance, lower labor risk, prevent pollution and environmental damage due to hydrocarbons spills caused by deteriorated pipelines. In this context, it is paramount to establish reliable welding procedures to join bimetallic plates or pipes. Thus, the aim of this work is to study the microstructure and mechanical behavior of clad plates welded by the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. A clad of 316L stainless steel was deposited onto API 5L X-60 plates by overlay welding with the GMAW process. Welding parameters were, 22.5 V, 271 A, heat input 1,25 kJ/mm, shielding gas 98% Ar + 2% O₂, reverse polarity, torch displacement speed 3.6 mm/s, feed rate 120 mm/s, electrode diameter 1.2 mm and application of an electromagnetic field of 3.5 mT. The overlay welds were subjected to macro-structural and microstructural characterization. After manufacturing the clad plates, a single V groove joint was machined with a 60° bevel and 1 mm root face. GMA welding of the bimetallic plates was performed in four passes with ER316L-Si filler for the root pass and an ER70s-6 electrode for the subsequent welding passes. For joining the clad plates, an electromagnetic field was applied with 2 purposes; to improve the microstructural characteristics and to assist the stability of the electric arc during welding in order to avoid magnetic arc blow. The welds were macro and microstructurally characterized and the mechanical properties were also evaluated. Vickers microhardness (100 g load for 10 s) measurements were made across the welded joints at three levels. The first profile, at the 316L stainless steel cladding, was quite even with a value of approximately 230 HV. The second microhardness profile showed high values in the weld metal, ~400 HV, this was due to the formation of a martensitic microstructure by dilution of the first welding pass with the second. The third profile crossed the third and fourth welding passes and an average value of 240 HV was measured. In the tensile tests, yield strength was between 400 to 450 MPa with a tensile strength of ~512 MPa. In the Charpy impact tests, the results were 86 and 96 J for specimens with the notch in the face and in the root of the weld bead, respectively. The results of the mechanical properties were in the range of the API 5L X-60 base material. The overlap welding process used for cladding is not suitable for large components, however, it guarantees a metallurgical bond, unlike the most commonly used processes such as thermal expansion. For welding bimetallic plates, control of the temperature gradients is key to avoid distortions. Besides, the dissimilar nature of the bimetallic plates gives rise to the formation of a martensitic microstructure during welding.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1795
90714
Investigation of Physical Properties of Asphalt Binder Modified by Recycled Polyethylene and Ground Tire Rubber
Abstract:
Modification of asphalt is a fundamental method around the world mainly on the purpose of providing more durable pavements which lead to diminish repairing cost during the lifetime of highways. Various polymers such as styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) make up the greater parts of the all-over asphalt modifiers generally providing better physical properties of asphalt by decreasing temperature dependency which eventually diminishes permanent deformation on highways such as rutting. However, some waste and low-cost materials such as recycled plastics and ground rubber tire have been attempted to utilize in asphalt as modifier instead of manufactured polymer modifiers due to decreasing the eventual highway cost. On the other hand, the usage of recycled plastics has become a worldwide requirement and awareness in order to decrease the pollution made by waste plastics. Hence, finding an area in which recycling plastics could be utilized has been targeted by many research teams so as to reduce polymer manufacturing and plastic pollution. To this end, in this paper, thermoplastic dynamic vulcanizate (TDV) obtained from recycled post-consumer polyethylene and ground tire rubber (GTR) were used to provide an efficient modifier for asphalt which decreases the production cost as well and finally might provide an ecological solution by decreasing polymer disposal problems. TDV was synthesized by the chemists in the research group by means of the abovementioned components that are considered as compatible physical characteristic of asphalt materials. TDV modified asphalt samples having different rate of proportions of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 wt.% TDV modifier were prepared. Conventional tests, such as penetration, softening point and roll thin film oven (RTFO) tests were performed to obtain fundamental physical and aging properties of the base and modified binders. The high temperature performance grade (PG) of binders was determined by Superpave tests conducted on original and aged binders. The multiple stress creep and recovery (MSCR) test which is relatively up-to-date method for classifying asphalts taking account of their elasticity abilities was carried out to evaluate PG plus grades of binders. The results obtained from performance grading, and MSCR tests were also evaluated together so as to make a comparison between the methods both aiming to determine rheological parameters of asphalt. The test results revealed that TDV modification leads to a decrease in penetration, an increase in softening point, which proves an increasing stiffness of asphalt. DSR results indicate an improvement in PG for modified binders compared to base asphalt. On the other hand, MSCR results that are compatible with DSR results also indicate an enhancement on rheological properties of asphalt. However, according to the results, the improvement is not as distinct as observed in DSR results since elastic properties are fundamental in MSCR. At the end of the testing program, it can be concluded that TDV can be used as modifier which provides better rheological properties for asphalt and might diminish plastic waste pollution since the material is 100% recycled.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1794
90702
Performance Study of Geopolymer Concrete by Partial Replacement of Fly Ash with Cement and Full Replacement of River Sand by Crushed Sand
Abstract:
Recent infrastructure growth all around the world lead to increase in demand for concrete day by day. Cement being binding material for concrete the usage of cement also gone up significantly. Cement manufacturing utilizes abundant natural resources and causes environment pollution by releasing a huge quantity of CO₂ into the atmosphere. So, it is high time to look for alternates to reduce the cement consumption in concrete. Geopolymer concrete is one such material which utilizes the industrial waste such as fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag and low-cost alkaline liquids such as sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate to produce the concrete. On the other side, river sand is becoming very expensive due to its large-scale depletion at source and the high cost of transportation. In this view, river sand is replaced by crushed sand in this study. In this work, an attempt has been made to understand the durability parameters of geopolymer concrete by partially replacing fly ash with cement. Fly ash is replaced by cement at various levels e.g., from 0 to 50%. Concrete cubes of 100x100x100mm were used for investigating different durability parameters. The various parameters studied includes compressive strength, split tensile strength, drying shrinkage, sodium sulphate attack resistance, sulphuric acid attack resistance and chloride permeability. Highest compressive strength & highest split tensile strength is observed in 30% replacement level. Least drying is observed with 30% replacement level. Very good resistance for sulphuric acid & sodium sulphate is found with 30% replacement. However, it was not possible to find out the chloride permeability due to the high conductivity of geopolymer samples of all replacement levels.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1793
90604
Contractors Perspective on Causes of Delays in Power Transmission Projects
Abstract:
At the very heart of the power system, power transmission (PT) acts as an essential link between power generation and distribution. Timely completion of PT infrastructures is therefore crucial to support the development of power system as a whole. Yet despite the importance, studies on PT infrastructure development projects are embryonic and, hence, PT projects undergoing widespread delays worldwide. These delay factors are idiosyncratic and identifying the critical delay factors is essential if the PT industry professionals are to complete their projects efficiently and within the expected timeframes. This study identifies and categorizes 46 causes of PT project delay under ten major groups using six sector expert’s recommendations studied by a preliminary questionnaire survey. Based on the experts’ strong recommendations, two new groups are introduced in the final questionnaire survey: sector specific factors (SSF) and general factors (GF). SSF pertain to delay factors applicable only to the PT projects, while GF represents less biased samples with shared responsibilities of all project parties involved in a project. The study then uses 112 data samples from the contractors to rank the delay factors using relative importance index (RII). The results reveal that SSF, GF and external factors are the most critical groups, while the highest ranked delay factors include the right of way (RoW) problems of transmission lines (TL), delay in payments, frequent changes in TL routes, poor communication and coordination among the project parties and accessibility to TL tower locations. Finally, recommendations are made to minimize the identified delay. The findings are expected to be of substantial benefit to professionals in minimizing time overrun in PT projects implementation, as well as power generation, power distribution, and non-power linear construction projects worldwide.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1792
90577
Study on Practice of Improving Water Quality in Urban Rivers by Diverting Clean Water
Abstract:
With rapid development of industrialization and urbanization, water environmental deterioration is widespread in majority of urban rivers, which seriously affects city image and life satisfaction of residents. As an emergency measure to improve water quality, clean water diversion is introduced for water environmental management. Lubao River and Southwest River, two urban rivers in typical plain tidal river network, are identified as technically and economically feasible for the application of clean water diversion. One-dimensional hydrodynamic-water quality model is developed to simulate temporal and spatial variations of water level and water quality, with satisfactory accuracy. The calibrated mathematical model is applied to investigating hydrodynamic and water quality responses to several scenario cases and the optimum operation scheme is determined. Assessment system is developed for evaluation of positive and negative effects of water diversion, demonstrating the effectiveness of clean water diversion and the necessity of pollution reduction.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1791
90365
Phenol Degradation via Photocatalytic Oxidation Using Fe Doped TiO₂
Authors:
Abstract:
Degradation of phenol-contaminated wastewater using Photocatalytic oxidation process was investigated in batch experiments using Fe doped TiO₂. Moreover, the effect of oxygen aeration on the performance of photocatalytic oxidation process by iron (Fe⁺²) doped titanium dioxide (TiO₂) was assessed. Photocatalytic oxidation using Fe doped TiO₂ effectively reduce the phenol concentration in wastewater with optimum condition of light intensity, pH, catalyst-dosing and initial concentration of phenol were 50 W/m2, 5.3, 600 mg/l and 10 mg/l respectively. The results obtained that removal efficiency of phenol was 88% after 180 min in case of N₂ addition. However, aeration by oxygen resulted in a 99% removal efficiency in 120 min. The results of photo-catalysis oxidation experiments fitted the pseudo-first-order kinetic equation with high correlation. Costs estimation of 30 m3/d full-scale photo-catalysis oxidation plant was assessed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1790
90119
Flexural Strengthening of Steel Beams Using Fiber Reinforced Polymers
Abstract:
Fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) is one of the most environmentally method for strengthening and retrofitting steel structure buildings. The behaviour of flexural strengthened steel I-beams using FRP was investigated. The finite element (FE) models were developed using ANSYS® as verification cases to simulate the experimental behaviour of using FRP strips to flexure strengthen steel I-beam. Two experimental studies were selected for verification; first examined the effect of different thicknesses and modulus of elasticity while the second studied the effect of applying different carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) bond lengths. The proposed FE models were in good agreement with the experimental results in terms of failure modes, load bearing capacities and strain distribution on CFRP strips. The verified FE models can be utilized to conduct a parametric study where various widths (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 mm), thickness (1.2, 2 and 4 mm) and lengths (1500, 1700 and 1800 mm) of CFRP were analyzed. The results presented clearly revealed that the load bearing capacity was significantly increased (+7%) when the width and thickness were increased. However, load bearing capacity was slightly affected using longer CFRP strips. Moreover, applying another glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) of 1500 mm in length, 50 mm in width and thicknesses of 1.2, 2 and 4 mm were investigated. Load bearing capacity of strengthened I-beams using GFRP is less than CFRP by average 8%. Statistical analysis has been conducted using Minitab®.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1789
90098
Structural Analysis and Strengthening of the National Youth Foundation Building in Igoumenitsa, Greece
Abstract:
The current paper presents a structural assessment and proposals for retrofit of the National Youth Foundation Building, an existing reinforced concrete (RC) building in the city of Igoumenitsa, Greece. The building is scheduled to be renovated in order to create a Municipal Cultural Center. The bearing capacity and structural integrity have been investigated in relation to the provisions and requirements of the Greek Retrofitting Code (KAN.EPE.) and European Standards (Eurocodes). The capacity of the existing concrete structure that makes up the two central buildings in the complex (buildings II and IV) has been evaluated both in its present form and after including several proposed architectural interventions. The structural system consists of spatial frames of columns and beams that have been simulated using beam elements. Some RC elements of the buildings have been strengthened in the past by means of concrete jacketing and have had cracks sealed with epoxy injections. Static-nonlinear analysis (Pushover) has been used to assess the seismic performance of the two structures with regard to performance level B1 from KAN.EPE. Retrofitting scenarios are proposed for the two buildings, including type Λ steel bracings and placement of concrete shear walls in the transverse direction in order to achieve the design-specification deformation in each applicable situation, improve the seismic performance, and reduce the number of interventions required.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1788
90071
A Numerical Description of a Fibre Reinforced Concrete Using a Genetic Algorithm
Abstract:
This work reports about an approach for an automatic adaptation of concrete formulations based on genetic algorithms (GA) to optimize a wide range of different fit-functions. In order to achieve the goal, a method was developed which provides a numerical description of a fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) mixture regarding the production technology and the property spectrum of the concrete. In a first step, the FRC mixture with seven fixed components was characterized by varying amounts of the components. For that purpose, ten concrete mixtures were prepared and tested. The testing procedure comprised flow spread, compressive and bending tensile strength. The analysis and approximation of the determined data was carried out by GAs. The aim was to obtain a closed mathematical expression which best describes the given seven-point cloud of FRC by applying a Gene Expression Programming with Free Coefficients (GEP-FC) strategy. The seven-parametric FRC-mixtures model which is generated according to this method correlated well with the measured data. The developed procedure can be used for concrete mixtures finding closed mathematical expressions, which are based on the measured data.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):