Properties and Microstructure of Scaled-Up MgO Concrete Blocks Incorporating Fly Ash or Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag
MgO cements have the potential to sequester CO2 in construction products, and can be partial or complete replacement of PC in concrete. Construction block is a promising application for reactive MgO cements. Main advantages of blocks are: (i) suitability for sequestering CO2 due to their initially porous structure; (ii) lack of need for in-situ treatment as carbonation can take place during fabrication; and (iii) high potential for commercialization. Both strength gain and carbon sequestration of MgO cements depend on carbonation process. Fly ash and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) are pozzolanic material and are proved to improve many of the performance characteristics of the concrete, such as strength, workability, permeability, durability and corrosion resistance. A very limited amount of work has been reported on the production of MgO blocks on a large scale so far. A much more extensive study, wherein blocks with different mix design is needed to verify the feasibility of commercial production. The changes in the performance of the samples were evaluated by compressive strength testing. The properties of the carbonation products were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/ field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and the degree of carbonation was obtained by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), XRD and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The results of this study enabled the understanding the relationship between lab-scale samples and scale-up blocks based on their mechanical performance and microstructure. Results indicate that for both scaled-up and lab-scale samples, MgO samples always had the highest strength results, followed by MgO-fly ash samples and MgO-GGBS had relatively lowest strength. The lower strength of MgO with fly ash/GGBS samples at early stage is related to the relatively slow hydration process of pozzolanic materials. Lab-scale cubic samples were observed to have higher strength results than scaled-up samples. The large size of the scaled-up samples made it more difficult to let CO2 to reach inner part of the samples and less carbonation products formed. XRD, TGA and FESEM/EDX results indicate the existence of brucite and HMCs in MgO samples, M-S-H, hydrotalcite in the MgO-fly ash samples and C-S-H, hydrotalcite in the MgO-GGBS samples. Formation of hydration products (M-S-H, C-S-H, hydrotalcite) and carbonation products (Hydromagnesite, dypingite) increased with curing duration, which is the reason of increasing strength. This study verifies the advantage of large-scale MgO blocks over common PC blocks and the feasibility of commercial production of MgO blocks.
Non-Destructive Inspection for Tunnel Lining Concrete with Small Void by Using Ultrasonic
Many tunnels which have been constructed since more than 50 years were existing in Japan. Lining concrete in these tunnels have many problems such as crack, flacking and void. Inner void between lining concrete and rock was very hard to find by outside visual check and hammering test. In this paper, non-destructive inspection by using ultrasonic was applied to investigate inner void. A model concrete with inner void was used as specimen and ultrasonic inspection was applied to specify the location and the size of void. As a result, ultrasonic inspection could accurately find the inner void.
Prediction of Time to Crack Reinforced Concrete by Chloride Induced Corrosion
In this paper, a review of different mathematical models which can be used as prediction tools to assess the time to crack reinforced concrete (RC) due to corrosion is investigated. This investigation leads to an experimental study to validate a selected prediction model. Most of these mathematical models depend upon the mechanical behaviors, chemical behaviors, electrochemical behaviors or geometric aspects of the RC members during a corrosion process. The experimental program is designed to verify the accuracy of a well-selected mathematical model from a rigorous literature study. Fundamentally, the experimental program exemplifies both 1- dimensional chloride diffusion using RC squared slab elements of 500 mm by 500 mm and 2- dimensional chloride diffusion using RC squared column elements of 225 mm by 225 mm by 500 mm. Each set consists of three water-to-cement ratios (w/c); 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 and two cover depths; 25 mm and 50 mm. 12 mm bars are used for column elements and 16 mm bars are used for slab elements. All the samples are subjected to accelerated chloride corrosion in a chloride bath of 5% (w/w) sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. Based on a pre-screening of different models, it is clear that the well-selected mathematical model had included mechanical properties, chemical and electrochemical properties, nature of corrosion whether it is accelerated or natural, and the amount of porous area that rust products can accommodate before exerting expansive pressure on the surrounding concrete. The experimental results have shown that the selected model for both 1- dimensional and 2- dimensional chloride diffusion had ±20% and ±10% respective accuracies compared to the experimental output. The half-cell potential readings are also used to see the corrosion probability, and experimental results have shown the mass loss is proportional to the negative half-cell potential readings that are obtained. Additionally, a statistical analysis is carried out in order to determine the most influential factor that affects the time to corrode the reinforcement in the concrete due to chloride diffusion. The factors considered for this analysis are w/c, bar diameter, and cover depth. The analysis is accomplished by using Minitab statistical software, and it showed that cover depth is the significant effect on the time to crack the concrete from chloride induced corrosion than other factors considered. Thus, the time predictions can be illustrated through the selected mathematical model as it covers a wide range of factors affecting the corrosion process, and it can be used to predetermine the durability concern of RC structures that are vulnerable to chloride exposure. And eventually, it is further concluded that cover thickness plays a vital role in durability in terms of chloride diffusion.
Investigation of Steel Infill Panels under Blast Impulsive Loading
If an infill panel does not have enough ductility against the loading, it breaks and gets damaged before depreciation and load transfer. As steel infill panel has appropriate ductility before fracture, it can be used as an alternative to typical infill panels under blast loading. Concerning enough ductility of out-of-plane behavior the infill panel, the impact force enters the horizontal diaphragm and is distributed among the lateral elements which can be made from steel infill panels. This article investigates the behavior of steel infill panels with different thickness and stiffeners using finite element analysis with geometric and material nonlinearities for optimization of the steel plate thickness and stiffeners arrangement to obtain more efficient design for its out-of-plane behavior.
Flexural Strength of Alkali Resistant Glass Textile Reinforced Concrete Beam with Prestressing
Due to the aging of bridges, increasing of maintenance costs and decreasing of structural safety is occurred. The steel corrosion of reinforced concrete bridge is the most common problem, and this phenomenon is accelerating due to abnormal weather and increasing CO₂ concentration due to climate change. To solve these problems, new composite members using textile have been studied. However, most of the previous studies have been applied to exterior module, soundproof walls, etc. and the verification as structural members is insufficient. Therefore, in this study, textile reinforced concrete beam was made and performed flexural text. Also, the change of flexural strength according to the prestressing was conducted. Experimental results show that the textile composite members which was introduced prestressing exhibit high flexural strength.
An Investigation of Surface Texturing by Ultrasonic Impingement of Micro-Particles
Surface topography plays a major role in the functional performance of engineered parts. It is important to have control and understanding on the surface details of such components before applying in advanced fields like microelectronics, microfluidics, optics, tribology, etc., in order to get the desired performance. Hence, in the current research contribution, a non-contact micro-texturing technique has been explored. The proposed technique involves ultrasonic excitation of a tool as a prime source of surface texturing for aluminum alloy workpieces. The specimen surface is well polished first and is then immersed in a liquid bath containing 10 percent weight concentration of metallic spherical powders. A submerged slurry jet is used to recirculate and concentrate the spherical powders under the ultrasonic horn which excites at an ultrasonic frequency of 40 kHz with excitation amplitude of 70 µm. The distance between the horn and workpiece surface were remained fixed at 200 µm using a precision control stage. Texturing effects were investigated for different process timings such as 1 sec, 3 secs, and 5 secs. After the processing, the specimens were subjected to ultrasonic cleaning for 5 mins in order to remove all the debris on the surface. The developed surfaces are characterized by optical and confocal surface profiler. The optical microscopic images show a texture of circular spots on the workpiece surface indented by titanium spherical balls. 3D surface topography obtained from confocal microscope supports the texturing effect produced from the proposed technique. Furthermore, water droplet tests were performed to show the efficacy of the proposed technique to develop hydrophobic surfaces and to quantify the texturing effect produced. Variation in the droplet angle shows and supports the texturing produced using this technique.
Effect of Pulverised Burnt Clay Waste Fineness on the Compressive Strength of Concrete
The use of supplementary cementitious materials as partial replacement for cement is steadily increasing in the construction industry. Concrete produced with these materials has shown significant improvement in durability compared to conventional concrete. However, blended cement concretes produced using these supplementary materials typically gain compressive strength at later ages beyond the 28-day, and this does not favour its use when early age strength is required. Improving the fineness of the supplementary materials could be a way to improving the strength performance of its blended cement concrete. In this paper, the effect of pulverised burnt clay waste fineness on the compressive strength of concrete has been investigated. Two different fineness of pulverised burnt clay waste classified as coarse and fine portions were obtained by sieving the original pulverised burnt clay waste portion through sieve sizes No. 100 (150 µm) and No. 200 (75 µm), respectively. Pulverised burnt clay waste dosages of 0% (control), 10% and 20% by weight of binder were used in producing the concrete mixtures. It is found that the compressive strength of the concrete depends on the fineness and proportion of pulverised burnt clay waste. The result shows improvement in compressive strength at all curing ages with the fine portion pulverised burnt clay waste having the highest strength and improved early age compressive strength.
Bulk Electrical Resistivity of Geopolymer Mortars: The Effect of Binder Composition and Alkali Concentration
One of the main hurdles for commercial adaptation of geopolymer concrete (GPC) as a low-embodied-carbon alternative for Portland cement concrete (PCC) is the durability aspects and its long-term performance in aggressive/corrosive environments. GPC is comparatively a new engineering material and in the absence of a track record of successful durability performance, proper experimental studies to investigate different durability-related characteristics of GPC seem inevitable. In this context, this paper aims to study the bulk electrical resistivity of geopolymer mortars fabricated of blends of low-calcium fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS). Bulk electrical resistivity is recognized as one of the most important parameters influencing the rate of corrosion of reinforcing bars during the propagation phase of corrosion. To investigate the effect of alkali concentration on the resistivity of the samples, 100x200 mm mortar cylinders were cast at different alkali concentration levels, whereas the modulus ratio (the molar ratio of SiO2/Na2O) was fixed for the mixes, and the bulk electrical resistivity was then measured. Also, the effect of the binder composition was assessed with respect to the ratio of FA to GGBS used. Results show a superior performance of samples with higher GGBS content. Lower concentration of the solution has increased the resistivity by reducing the amount of mobile alkali ions in the pore solution. Moreover, GGBS-based samples showed a much sharper increase in the electrical resistivity with decreasing the moisture content.
Oil Water Treatment by Nutshell and Dates Pits
The water accompanying oil in the oil production process is increasing and due to its increasing rates a problem with handling it occurred. Current solutions like discharging into the environment, dumping water in evaporation pits, usage in the industry and reinjection in oil reservoirs to enhance oil production are used worldwide. The water injection method has been introduced to the oil industry with a process that either immediately injects water to the reservoir or goes to the filtration process before injection all depending on the porosity of the soil. Reinjection of unfiltered effluent water with high Total Suspended Solid (TSS) and Oil in Water (O/W) into soils with low porosity cause a blockage of pores, whereas soils with high porosity do not need high water quality. Our study mainly talks about the filtration and adsorption of the water using organic media as the adsorbent. An adsorbent is a substance that has the ability to physically hold another substance in its surface. Studies were done on nutshell and date pits with different surface areas and flow rates by using a 10inch filter connected with three tanks to perform as one system for the filtration process. Our approach in the filtration process using different types of medias went as follow: starting first with crushed nutshell, second with ground nutshell, and third using carbonized date pits with medium flow rate then high flow rate to compare different results. The result came out nearly as expected from our study where both O/W and TSS were reduced from our oily water sample by using this organic material. The effect of specific area was noticed when using nutshell as the filter media, where the crushed nutshell gave us better results than ground nutshell. The effect of flow rate was noticed when using carbonized date pits as the filter media whereas the treated water became more acceptable when the flow rate was on the medium level.
Effects of Supplementary Cementitious Materials on Early Age Thermal Properties of Cement Paste
Cement hydration is an exothermic chemical reaction generally leading to a rise in concrete’s temperature. This internal heating of concrete may, in turn, lead to a temperature difference between the hotter interior and the cooler exterior of concrete and thus differential thermal stresses in early ages which could be particularly significant in mass concrete. Such differential thermal stresses result in early age thermal cracking of concrete when exceeding the concrete’s tensile strength. The extent of temperature rise and thus early age differential thermal stresses is generally a function of hydration heat intensity, thermal properties of concrete and size of the concrete element. Both hydration heat intensity and thermal properties of concrete may vary considerably with variations in the type cementitious materials and other constituents. With this in mind, partial replacement of cement with supplementary cementitious materials including fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag has been investigated widely as an effective strategy to moderate the heat generation rate and thus reduce the risk of early age thermal cracking of concrete. However, there is currently a lack of adequate literature on effect of partial replacement of cement with fly ash and/or ground granulated blast furnace slag on the thermal properties of concrete. This paper presents the results of an experimental conducted to evaluate the effect of addition of varying percentages of fly ash (up to 60%) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (up to 50%) on the heat capacity and thermal conductivity of early age cement paste. The water to cementitious materials ratio is kept 0.45 for all the paste samples. The results of the experimental studies were used in a numerical analysis performed using Comsol Multiphysics to highlight the effects of variations in the thermal properties of concrete, due to variations in the type of aggregate and content of supplemenraty cementitious materials, on the risk of early age cracking of a concrete raft.
Behavioral Study of reinforced concrete Beams Designed For Shear Using Compressive Force Path and ACI Code Models
Compressive Force Path (CFP) concept is a proposed shear design method to explain shear behavior in reinforced concrete (RC) beams. This concept identifies 04 behaviors based on the shear span to beam depth (a/d) ratio and provides detailed shear design and transverse reinforcement detailing procedure for each behavior. Therefore, author of this paper intended to use this concept as a practical tool for the designing of RC beams particularly for Type II (2 ≤ a/d < 5) and Type III (1 < a/d < 2) behaviors to validate the concept. Total 08 beams of 100×200×1800 mm size beams were cast; out of which, 04 beams were designed according to ACI Code approach while, rest were designed and detailed using CFP concept strategy. The beam sizes in this study are identical and all parameters are constant except shear span ‘a’. The two point loading test results of RC beams showed that the shear resistance of concrete (Vc) is better estimated by the CFP concept with a good prediction of cracks pattern, load carrying capacity and actual behavior of the beams in shear as compare to the beams designed according to ACI Code approach. However, most of the beams, particularly a/d ratio less than 4.44 were observed to be deficient in serviceability and failed in shear in spite of attaining theoretical predicted loads.
Early Age Microstructural Analysis of Cement-Polymer Composite Paste Cured at High Temperature
As a preliminary investigation on the control of microcracking in composite cement pastes, this study explores and compares the compatibility of Tetraethyl Orthosilicate (TEOS), Ethylene Glycol (EG) and Silicone Resin (SIL) in cement pastes cured at high temperature. Pastes were prepared by incorporating ordinary Portland cement (OPC) into an additive solution, using a solution/cement ratio of 0.45. Specimens were molded for 24h at 21 ± 2°C, then cured in deionized water for another 24h at 74 ± 1°C. TEOS and EG influence on fresh paste properties were similar to the reference OPC paste yet disintegration was observed in EG and SIL specimens after the first 12h of curing. X-Ray Diffraction analysis (XRD) coupled with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG) verified that SIL addition impedes portlandite formation significantly. Backscatter Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were therefore performed on selected areas of each sample to investigate the morphology of the hydration products detected. Various morphologies of portlandite crystals were observed in pastes with EG and TEOS addition, as well as dense morphologies of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel and fibers, and ettringite needles. However, the formation of portlandite aggregate and clusters of C-S-H was highly favored by TEOS addition. Furthermore, the microstructural details of composite pastes were clearly visible at low magnifications i.e. 500x, as compared to the OPC paste. The results demonstrate accelerated hydration within composite pastes, a uniform distribution of hydration products, as well as an adhesive interaction with the products and polymer additive. Overall, TEOS demonstrated the most favorable influence, which indicates the potential of TEOS as a compatible polymer additive within the cement system at high temperature.
Influence of Recycled Concrete Aggregate Content on the Rebar/Concrete Bond Properties through Pull-Out Tests and Acoustic Emission Measurements
Substituting natural aggregate with recycled aggregate coming from concrete demolition represents a promising alternative to face the issues of both the depletion of natural resources and the congestion of waste storage facilities. However, the crushing process of concrete demolition waste, currently in use to produce recycled concrete aggregate, does not allow the complete separation of natural aggregate from a variable amount of adhered mortar. Given the physico-chemical characteristics of the latter, the introduction of recycled concrete aggregate into a concrete mix modifies, to a certain extent, both fresh and hardened concrete properties. Previous studies dealing with the mechanical response of recycled reinforced concrete beams highlighted that key parameters, such as deflection or flexural crack distribution, are affected by the substitution of natural aggregate with recycled concrete aggregate. Beyond the mechanical properties of concrete, and as a result of the composite character of reinforced concrete, the bond characteristics at the rebar/concrete interface have to be taken into account in an attempt to explain the aforementioned observations. Hence, a comparative experimental campaign, including sixteen pull-out tests, was carried out. Four concrete mixes with different recycled concrete aggregate content were tested. The main mechanical properties (compressive strength, tensile strength, Young modulus) of each concrete mix were measured through standard procedures. A single fourteen-millimeter-diameter ribbed rebar, representative of the diameters commonly used in the domain of Civil Engineering, was embedded into a two-hundred-millimeter-side concrete cube. The resulting concrete cover is intended to ensure a pull-out type failure (i.e. exceedance of the rebar/concrete interface shear strength). A pull-out test carried out on the 100% recycled concrete specimen was enriched with exploratory acoustic emission measurements. Acoustic event location was performed by means of eight piezoelectric transducers distributed over the whole surface of the specimen. The resulting map was compared to existing data related to natural aggregate concrete. Damage distribution around the reinforcement and main features of the characteristic bond stress/free-end slip curve appeared to be similar to previous results obtained through comparable studies carried out on natural aggregate concrete. This seems to show that the usual bond mechanism sequence (‘chemical adhesion’, mechanical interlocking and friction) remains unchanged despite the addition of recycled concrete aggregate. However, the results also suggest that bond efficiency seems somewhat improved through the use of recycled concrete aggregate. This observation appears counter-intuitive with regard to the diminution of the main concrete mechanical properties with the recycled concrete aggregate content. As a consequence, the impact of recycled concrete aggregate content on bond characteristics seemingly represents an important factor which should be taken into account and likely to be further explored in order to determine flexural parameters such as deflection or crack distribution.
Building Information Modelling for Construction Delay Management
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is not an exception in relying on the growth of its construction industry to support rapid population growth. However, it’s need for infrastructure development is constrained by low productivity levels and cost overruns which are caused by factors such as delays to project completion. Delays in delivering a construction project are a global issue and while theories such as Optimism Bias have been used to explain such delays, in KSA, client-related causes of delays are significant. The objective of this paper is to develop a new framework-based approach to explore how the country’s construction industry can manage and reduce delays in construction projects through building information modelling (BIM), in order to mitigate the cost consequences of such delays. It comprehensively reviewed the global literature on the subject and identified gaps, critical delay factors and the specific benefits that BIM can deliver for the delay management. Data was collected from pilot case studies on several public-sector projects done for the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Education. The case study data suggested that there is a co-relation between additional time and additional costs; as well as the following documented causes of delays: errors in design; change order and delay in its approval; delay in progress payment; slowness in decision making by the client and poor communication between clients and other stakeholders. These findings have been exploited in mapping the causes of delay to the potentials of BIM in the process of designing the conceptual framework for managing delays. Further validation via key stakeholder interviews is planned.
Tactical Urbanism and Sustainability: Tactical Experiences in the Promotion of Active Transportation
The overvaluation of the use of automobile has detrimentally affected the importance of pedestrians within the city and consequently its public spaces. As a way of treating contemporary urban paradigms, Tactical Urbanism aims to recover and activate spaces through fast and easily-applied actions that demonstrate the possibility of large-scale and long-term changes in cities. Tactical interventions have represented an important practice of redefining public spaces and urban mobility. The concept of Active Transportation coheres with the idea of sustainable urban mobility, characterizing the means of transportation through human propulsion, such as walking and cycling. This paper aims to debate the potential of Tactical Urbanism in promoting Active Transportation by revealing opportunities of transformation in the urban space of contemporary cities through initiatives that promote the protection and valorization of the presence of pedestrians and cyclists in cities, and that subvert the importance of motorized vehicles. In this paper, we present the character of these actions in two different ways: when they are used as tests for permanent interventions and when they have pre-defined start and end periods. Using recent initiatives to illustrate, we aim to discuss the role of small-scale actions in promoting and incentivizing a more active, healthy, sustainable and responsive urban way of life, presenting how some of them have developed through public policies. For that, we will present some examples of tactical actions that illustrate the encouragement of Active Transportation and trials to balance the urban opportunities for pedestrians and cyclists. These include temporary closure of streets, the creation of new alternatives and more comfortable areas for walking and cycling, and the subversion of uses in public spaces where the usage of cars are predominant.
Potential of Support Vector Regression for Assessing Sediment Transport in Open Channels at the Limit of Deposition
The lack of minimum velocity to transport sediment transport in open channels results in sedimentation which causes changes in the shear stress and velocity distribution. The goal of this study is to investigate sediment transport in open channels at the limit of deposition using a soft computing scheme, Support Vector Regression (SVR) to predict require minimum velocity to prevent sedimentation. In this study, the polynomial and radial basis functions (RBF) are applied as the SVR kernel functions to estimate the densimetric Froude number (Fr) at the limit of deposition. The performance of the proposed estimators is confirmed with the simulation results. The SVR-RBF results are then compared with the SVR-polynomial. According to the results, a greater improvement in estimation accuracy can be achieved through the SVR with radial basis function compared to the SVR-polynomial. The SVR coefficient of determination R² with the radial function is higher than with R² of the SVR polynomial basis function.
Feasibility Study of Tidal Current of the Bay of Bengal to Generate Electricity as a Renewable Energy
Electricity is the pinnacle of human civilization. At present, the growing concerns over significant climate change have intensified the importance of the use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation. The interest is primarily due to better energy security, smaller environmental impact and providing a sustainable alternative compared to the conventional energy sources. Solar power, wind, biomass, tidal power, and wave power are some of the most reliable sources of renewable energy. Ocean approximately holds 2×10³ TW of energy and has the largest renewable energy resource on the planet. Ocean energy has many forms namely, encompassing tides, ocean circulation, surface waves, salinity and thermal gradients. Ocean tide in particular, associates both potential and kinetic energy. The study is focused on the latter concept that deals with tidal current energy conversion technologies. Tidal streams or marine currents generate kinetic energy that can be extracted by marine current energy devices and converted into transmittable energy form. The principle of technology development is very comparable to that of wind turbines. Conversion of marine tidal resources into substantial electrical power offers immense opportunities to countries endowed with such resources and this work is aimed at addressing such prospects of Bangladesh. The study analyzed the extracted current velocities from numerical model works at several locations in the Bay of Bengal. Based on current magnitudes, directions and available technologies the most fitted locations were adopted and possible annual generation capacity was estimated. The paper also examines the future prospects of tidal current energy along the Bay of Bengal and establishes a constructive approach that could be adopted in future project developments.
Scour Depth Prediction around Bridge Piers Using Neuro Fuzzy and Neural Network Approaches
The prediction of scour depth around bridge piers is frequently considered in river engineering. One of the key aspects in efficient and optimum bridge structure design is considered to be scour depth estimation around bridge piers. In this study, scour depth around bridge piers is estimated using two methods, namely the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Therefore, the effective parameters in scour depth prediction are determined using the ANN and ANFIS methods via dimensional analysis, and subsequently, the parameters are predicted. In the current study, the proposed methods’ performance is compared with the nonlinear regression (NLR) method. The results show that both methods presented in this study outperform existing methods. Moreover, using the ratio of pier length to flow depth, ratio of median diameter of particles to flow depth, ratio of pier width to flow depth, the Froude number and standard deviation of bed grain size parameters leads to optimal performance in scour depth estimation.
Production of Cement-Free Construction Materials via Fly Ash Carbonation
The production of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is a CO₂ intensive process. Specifically, cement clinkering reactions require not only substantial energy in the form of heat, but also result in the release of CO₂, from limestone decarbonation and the combustion of fuel. To overcome this CO₂ intensive process, clinkering-free cementation is demonstrated by the carbonation of fly ash; i.e., a by-product of coal combustion. It is shown that in moist environments and at sub-boiling temperatures, calcium-rich fly ashes readily react with gas-phase CO₂ to provide cementation. After seven days of CO₂ exposure at 75°C, such formulations achieve a compressive strength on the order of 35 MPa and take-up 9% CO₂ (by mass of the solid). On the other hand, calcium-deficient fly ashes, due to their lack of alkalinity (i.e., abundance of mobile Ca or Mg), show little if any potential for CO₂ uptake and strength gain. The role of the CO₂ concentration and processing temperature are discussed and linked to the progress of reactions, and the development of microstructure. The outcomes demonstrate a means for enabling clinkering-free cementation while enabling beneficial utilization of CO₂ and fly ash; i.e., two abundant but underutilized industrial by-products.
Numerical Modeling of Various Support Systems to Stabilize Deep Excavations
Urban development requires deep excavations near buildings and other structures. Deep excavation has become more a necessity for better utilization of space as the population of the world has dramatically increased. In Lebanon, some urban areas are very crowded and lack spaces for new buildings and underground projects which makes the usage of underground space indispensable. In this paper, we perform a numerical modeling using the finite element method to study the interaction deep excavation-diaphragm wall soil-structure in the case of nonlinear soil behavior. We focus our study on a comparison of the results obtained using different support systems. Furthermore, we perform a parametric study according to the initial loading and the remoteness of the structure.
Forecasting of Scaffolding Work Comfort Parameters Based on Data from Meteorological Stations
Work at height, such as construction work on scaffoldings, is always associated with a considerable level of risk. Scaffolding workers are usually exposed to changing weather conditions what can additionally increase the risk of dangerous situations. Therefore, it is very important to foresee the risk of adverse conditions for which the worker may be exposed to. Measurements data from meteorological stations may be used to assess this risk. However, the dependency between weather conditions on a scaffolding and in the vicinity of meteorological station, should be determined. The article presents an analysis of two selected environmental parameters which have the influence on the behavior of workers – air temperature and wind velocity. The measurements of this parameters were made between April and November 2016 on ten scaffoldings located in different parts of Poland. Then they were compared to the results taken from the meteorological station located closest to studied scaffolding. The results gathered from the construction sites, and meteorological stations were not the same, but statistical analysis has shown that they were correlated. It means that the distribution of the temperature and the wind speed on the scaffolding can be predicted basing on the data from a weather station.
Review on the Role of Sustainability Techniques in Development of Green Building
Environmentally sustainable building construction has experienced significant growth during the past 10 years at international level. This paper shows that the conceptual framework adopts sustainability techniques in construction to develop environment friendly building called green building. Waste occurs during the different construction phases which causes the environmental problems like, deposition of waste on ground surface creates major problems such as bad smell. It also gives birth to different health diseases and produces toxic waste agent which is specifically responsible for making soil infertile. Old recycled building material is used in the construction of new building. Sustainable construction is economical and saves energy sources. Sustainable construction is the major responsibility of designer and project manager. The designer has to fulfil the client demands while keeping the design environment friendly. Project manager has to deliver and execute sustainable construction according to sustainable design. Steel is the most appropriate sustainable construction material. It is more durable and easily recyclable. Steel occupies less area and has more tensile and compressive strength than concrete, making it a better option for sustainable construction as compared to other building materials. New technology like green roof has made the environment pleasant, and has reduced the construction cost. It minimizes economic, social and environmental issues. This paper presents an overview of research related to the material use of green building and by using this research recommendation are made which can be followed in the construction industry. In this paper, we go through detailed analysis on construction material. By making suitable adjustments to project management practices it is shown that a green building improves the cost efficiency of the project, makes it environmental friendly and also meets future generation demands.
Analysis of Building Response from Vertical Ground Motions
The building structures are subjected to both horizontal and vertical ground motions during earthquakes, but only the horizontal ground motion has been extensively studied and considered. Most of the prevailing seismic codes assume the vertical component of the ground motion to be 1/2 to 2/3 of the horizontal component. However, it was found that the vertical ground motion may equal or even significantly exceed the horizontal ground motion in recent earthquakes. In such situations, most existing code specifications must be considered un-conservative. In order to understand the building responses from vertical ground motions, many earthquakes records are studied in this paper. System identification methods (ARX Model) are used to analyze the strong motions and to find out the characteristics of the vertical amplification factors and the natural frequencies of buildings. The results show that the vertical amplification factors for high-rise buildings and low-rise building are 1.78 and 2.52 respectively, and the average vertical amplification factor of all buildings is about 2. The result points to an important message, the taller the building is, the greater the effect of vertical vibration on the building will be.
Experimental Study of the Effect of Strain Rate on the Behaviour of Expanded Polystyrene under Monotonic Loading
Geofoams perform functions that traditional geosynthetic products cannot. In addition, geofoams can be used to complement or enhance the function of other geosynthetics. This paper investigates the effectiveness of strain rate on the behaviour of cylindrical Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) block under monotonic loading, using uniaxial tests. A series of uniaxial tests were performed on one specific density of EPS with ratio of height to diameter (h/D) =1 up to approximate 90% strain. The results show that in spite of EPS density, by increasing the loading rate, elastic deformation of EPS block increased.
Quasi-Static Analysis of End Plate Beam-To-Column Connections
This paper presents a method for modelling and analysing end plate beam-to-column connections to obtain the quasi-static behaviour using non-linear dynamic explicit integration. In addition to its importance to study the static behaviour of a structural member, quasi-static behaviour is largely needed to be compared with the dynamic behaviour of such members in order to investigate the dynamic effect by proposing dynamic increase factors (DIFs). The beam-to-column bolted connections contain various contact surfaces at which the implicit procedure may have difficulties converging resulting in a large number of iterations. On the contrary, explicit procedure could deal effectively with complex contacts without converging problems. Hence, finite element modelling using ABAQUS/Explicit is used in this study to address the dynamic effect may be produced using explicit procedure. Also, the effect of loading rate and mass scaling are discussed to investigate their effect on the time of analysis. The results show that the explicit procedure is valuable to model the end plate beam-to-column connections in terms of failure mode, load-displacement relationships. Also, it is concluded that loading rate and mass scaling should be carefully selected to avoid the dynamic effect in the solution.
A Ground Structure Method to Minimize the Total Installed Cost of Steel Frame Structures
This paper presents a new ground structure method to optimize the topology and discrete member sizing of steel frame structures in order to minimize total installed cost, including material, fabrication and erection components. The proposed method improves upon existing cost-based ground structure methods by incorporating constructability considerations well as satisfying both strength and serviceability constraints. The architecture for the method is a bi-level Individual Discipline Feasible (IDF) architecture in which the discrete member sizing optimization is nested within the topology optimization process. For each structural topology generated, the sizing optimization process seek to find a set of discrete member sizes that result in the lowest total installed cost while satisfying strength (member utilization) and serviceability (node deflection and story drift) criteria. To accurately assess cost, the connection details for the structure are generated automatically using accurate site-specific cost information obtained directly from fabricators and erectors. Member continuity rules are also applied to each node in the structure to improve constructability. The proposed optimization method is benchmarked against conventional weight-based ground structure optimization methods resulting in an average cost savings of up to 30% with comparable computational efficiency.
Critical Success Factors for Sustainable Smart City Project in India
Development of a Smart City would depend upon the development of its infrastructure in a smart way. Primarily based on the ideology of the fourth industrial revolution a Smart City project should have Smart governance, smart health care, smart building, smart transportation, smart mobility, smart energy, smart technology and smart citizen. Considering the Indian scenario of current state of cities in India, it has become very essential to decide the specific parameters which would govern the development of a Smart City project. It has been observed that there are significant parameters beyond Information and Communication Technology (ICT), which govern the development of a Smart City project. This paper is an attempt to identify the Critical Success Factors (CSF) which are significantly responsible for the development of a Smart City project in Western India. Responses to questionnaire survey were analyzed on basis of Likert scale. They were further critically evaluated with help of Factor Comparison Method (FCM) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The project authorities need to incorporate Building Information Modeling (BIM) to make the smart city project more collaborative. To make the project more sustainable, use of flyash in the concrete used, reduced usage of cement and steel, use of alternate fuels like biodiesel is recommended.
Pull-Out Behavior of Mechanical Anchor Bolts by Cyclic Loading
In this study, the pull-out properties of various mechanical anchor bolts embedded in concrete were investigated. Five kinds of mechanical anchor bolts were selected which were ordinarily used for concrete anchoring. Tensile tests for mechanical anchor bolts embedded in φ300mm x 100mm size concrete were conducted to measure the load - load displacement curves. The loading conditions were a monotonous loading and a repeating loading. The fracture energy for each mechanical anchor bolts was estimated by the analysis of consumed energy calculated by the load - load displacement curve. The effect of the types of mechanical anchor bolts on the pull-out properties of concrete subjected in monotonous loading and a repeating loading was cleared.
Analyzing the Performance Properties of Stress Absorbing Membrane Interlayer Modified with Recycled Crumb Rubber
Asphalt overlay is the most commonly used technique of pavement rehabilitation. However, the reflective cracks occur on the overlay surface after a short period of time are the most important distresses threatening the durability of new overlays. Stress Absorbing Membrane Interlayers (SAMI) are used to postpone the reflective cracking in the overlays. Sand asphalt mixtures, in unmodified or crumb rubber modified (CRM) conditions can be used as a SAMI material. In this research, the performance properties of different SAMI applications were evaluated in the laboratory using an Indirect Tensile (IDT) fracture energy. The IDT fracture energy of sand asphalt samples were also evaluated and then compared to that of the regular dense graded asphalt used as an overlay. Texas boiling water and modified Lottman tests were also conducted to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of sand asphalt mixtures. The test results showed that sand asphalt mixtures can stand higher levels of energy before cracking and this is even more pronounced for the CRM sand mix. Sand asphalt mixture using crumb rubber modified binder was also shown to be more resistance to moisture induced distresses.
Reduction Shrinkage of Concrete without Using Reinforcement
Concrete’s volumetric changes are natural process caused by silicate minerals’ hydration. These changes can lead to cracking and subsequent destruction of cementitious material’s matrix. In most cases, cracks can be assessed as a negative effect of hydration, and in all cases, they lead to an acceleration of degradation processes. Preventing the formation of these cracks is, therefore, the main effort. Once of the possibility how to eliminate this natural concrete shrinkage process is by using different types of dispersed reinforcement. For this application of concrete shrinking, steel and polymer reinforcement are preferably used. Despite ordinarily used reinforcement in concrete to eliminate shrinkage it is possible to look at this specific problematic from the beginning by itself concrete mix composition. There are many secondary raw materials, which are helpful in reduction of hydration heat and also with shrinkage of concrete during curing. The new science shows the possibilities of shrinkage reduction also by the controlled formation of hydration products, which could act by itself morphology as a traditionally used dispersed reinforcement. This contribution deals with the possibility of controlled formation of mono- and tri-sulfate which are considered like degradation minerals. Mono- and tri- sulfate's controlled formation in a cementitious composite can be classified as a self-healing ability. Its crystal’s growth acts directly against the shrinking tension – this reduces the risk of cracks development. Controlled formation means that these crystals start to grow in the fresh state of the material (e.g. concrete) but stop right before it could cause any damage to the hardened material. Waste materials with the suitable chemical composition are very attractive precursors because of their added value in the form of landscape pollution’s reduction and, of course, low cost. In this experiment, the possibilities of using the fly ash from fluidized bed combustion as a mono- and tri-sulphate formation additive were investigated. The experiment itself was conducted on cement paste and concrete and specimens were subjected to a thorough analysis of physicomechanical properties as well as microstructure from the moment of mixing up to 180 days. In cement composites, were monitored the process of hydration and shrinkage. In a mixture with the used admixture of fluidized bed combustion fly ash, possible failures were specified by electronic microscopy and dynamic modulus of elasticity. The results of experiments show the possibility of shrinkage concrete reduction without using traditionally dispersed reinforcement.