Investigating the Body Paragraphs of English as a Second Language Students' English Academic Essays: Genre Analysis and Needs Analysis
The present study has two objectives. Firstly, it investigates the rhetorical strategies employed in the body paragraphs of ESL (English as a Second Language) undergraduate students’ English academic essays. Peacock’s (2002) model of the discussion section was used as the starting points in this study to investigate the rhetorical moves employed in the data. Secondly, it investigates the writing problems as perceived by these ESL students through an interview. Interview responses serve as accompanying data to the move analysis. Apart from this, students’ English academic writing problems are diagnosed. The findings have pedagogical implications in an EAP (English for Academic Purposes) classroom.
Studying Second Language Learners' Language Behavior from Conversation Analysis Perspective
This paper on second language teaching and learning uses conversation analysis (CA) approach and focuses on how second language learners of Chinese do repair when making clarification requests. In order to demonstrate their behavior in interaction, a comparison was made to study the differences between native speakers of Chinese with non-native speakers of Chinese. The significance of the research is to make second language teachers and learners aware of repair and how to seek clarification. Utilizing the methodology of CA, the research involved two sets of naturally occurring recordings, one of native speaker students and the other of non-native speaker students. Both sets of recording were telephone talks between students and teachers. There were 50 native speaker students and 50 non-native speaker students. From multiple listening to the recordings, the parts with repairs for clarification were selected for analysis which included the moments in the talk when students had problems in understanding or hearing the speaker and had to seek clarification. For example, ‘Sorry, I do not understand ‘and ‘Can you repeat the question? ‘were the parts as repair to make clarification requests. In the data, there were 43 such cases from native speaker students and 88 cases from non-native speaker students. The non-native speaker students were more likely to use repair to seek clarification. Analysis on how the students make clarification requests during their conversation was carried out by investigating how the students initiated problems and how the teachers repaired the problems. In CA term, it is called other-initiated self-repair (OISR), which refers to student-initiated teacher-repair in this research. The findings show that, in initiating repair, native speaker students pay more attention to mutual understanding (inter-subjectivity) while non-native speaker students, due to their lack of language proficiency, pay more attention to their status of knowledge (epistemic) switch. There are three major differences: 1, native Chinese students more often initiate closed-class OISR (seeking specific information in the request) such as repeating a word or phrases from the previous turn while non-native students more frequently initiate open-class OISR (not specifying clarification) such as ‘sorry, I don’t understand ‘. 2, native speakers’ clarification requests are treated by the teacher as understanding of the content while non-native learners’ clarification requests are treated by teacher as language proficiency problem. 3, native speakers don’t see repair as knowledge issue and there is no third position in the repair sequences to close repair while non-native learners take repair sequence as a time to adjust their knowledge. There is clear closing third position token such as ‘oh ‘ to close repair sequence so that the topic can go back. In conclusion, this paper uses conversation analysis approach to compare differences between native Chinese speakers and non-native Chinese learners in their ways of conducting repair when making clarification requests. The findings are useful in future Chinese language teaching and learning, especially in teaching pragmatics such as requests.
The Impact of Teaching Critical Reading Strategies on Students' Performance in English and Communication Skills in College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State Nigeria
The study focused on the impact of teaching critical reading strategies on students’ performance in English and communication skills at the college of education Azare Bauchi state, Nigeria. It adopted a pre-test, post-test experimental group design. A sample of two hundred and forty (240) students was randomly selected from four departments within the school. The students were randomized into two groups: experimental and control groups. The experimental group was taught critical reading strategies as a form of treatment, while the control group involved in normal reading comprehension exercises. The findings of the study showed a significant difference in the performance of students who were taught critical reading strategies at the post- test level. Recommendations based on the findings of the study were proffered such as placing more emphasis on teaching critical reading strategies in order to improve students’ creative thinking skills and also encouraging students to read articles in science and humanities to improve their reading skills among others.
The Analysis of Indian Culture through the Lexicographical Discourse of Hindi-French Dictionary
A dictionary is often considered as a list of words, arranged in alphabetical orders, providing information on a language or languages and it informs us about the spelling, the pronunciation, the origin, the gender and the grammatical functions of new and unknown words. In other words, it is first and foremost a linguistic tool. But, the research across the world in the field of linguistic and lexicography proved that a dictionary is not only a linguistic tool but also a cultural product through which a lexicographer transmits the culture of a country or a linguistic community from his or her ideology. It means, a dictionary does not present only language and its metalinguistic functions but also its culture. Every language consists of some words and expressions which depict the culture of its language. In this way, it is impossible to disassociate language from its culture. There is always an ideology that plays an important role in the depiction of any culture. Using the orientalism theory of Edward Said to represent the east, the objective of the present research is to study the representation of Indian culture through the lexicographical discourse of Hindi-French Dictionary of Federica Boschetti, a French lexicographer. The results show that the Indian culture is stereotypical and monolithic. It also shows India as male oriented country where women are exploited by male-dominated society. The study is focused on Hindi-French dictionary, but its line of argument can be compared to dictionaries produced in other languages.
Language Politics and Identity in Translation: From a Monolingual Text to Multilingual Text in Chinese Translation
This paper focuses on how the government-led language policies and the political changes in Taiwan manipulate the languages choice in translations and what translation strategies are employed by the translator to show his or her language ideology behind the power struggles and decision-making. Therefore, framed by Lefevere’s theoretical concept of translating as rewriting, and carried out a diachronic and chronological study, this paper specifically sets out to investigate the language ideology and translator’s idiolect of Chinese language translations of Anglo-American novels. The examples drawn to explore these issues were taken from different versions of Chinese renditions of Mark Twain’s English-language novel The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in which there are several different dialogues originally written in the colloquial language and dialect used in the American state of Mississippi and reproduced in Mark Twain’s works. Also, adapted corpus methodology, many examples are extracted as instances from the translated texts and source text, to illuminate how the translators in Taiwan deal with the dialectal features encoded in Twain’s works, and how different versions of Chinese translations are employed by Taiwanese translators to confirm the language polices and to express their language identity textually in different periods of the past five decades, from the 1960s onward. The finding of this study suggests that the use of Taiwanese dialect and language patterns in translations does relate to the movement of the mother-tongue language and language ideology of the translator as well as to the issue of language identity raised in the island of Taiwan. Furthermore, this study confirms that the change of political power in Taiwan does bring significantly impact in language policy-- assimilationism, pluralism, multiculturalism, which also makes Taiwan from a monolingual to multilingual society, where the language ideology and identity can be revealed not only in people’s daily communication but also in written translations.
Production of Oral Vowels by Chinese Learners of Portuguese: Problems and Didactic Implications
The increasing number of learners of Portuguese as Foreign Language in China justifies the need to define the phonetic profile of these learners and to design didactic materials that are adjusted to their specific problems in pronunciation. Different aspects of this topic have been studied, but the production of oral vowels still needs to be investigated. This study aims: (i) to identify the problems the Chinese learners of Portuguese experience in the pronunciation of oral vowels; (ii) to discuss the didactic implications drawn from those problems. The participants were eight native speakers of Mandarin Chinese that had been learning Portuguese in College for almost a year. They named pictured objects and their oral productions were recorded and phonetically transcribed. The selection of the objects to name took into account some linguistic variables (e.g. stress pattern, syllable structure, presence of the Portuguese oral vowels in different word positions according to stress location). The results are analysed in two ways: the impact of linguistic variables on the success rate in the vowels' production; the replacement strategies used in the non-target productions. Both analyses show that the Chinese learners of Portuguese (i) have significantly more difficulties with the mid vowels as well as the high central vowel and (ii) do not master the vowel height feature. These findings contribute to define the phonetic profile of these learners in terms of oral vowel production. Besides, they have important didactic implications for the pronunciation teaching to these specific learners. Those implications are discussed and exemplified.
Research on Detection of Web Page Visual Salience Region Based on Eye Tracker and Spectral Residual Model
Web page has been one of the most important way of knowing the world. Humans catch a lot of information from it everyday. Thus, understanding where human looks when they surfing the web pages is rather important. In normal scenes, the down-top features and top-down tasks significantly affect humans’ eye movement. In this paper, we investigated if the conventional visual salience algorithm can properly predict humans’ visual attractive region when they viewing the web pages. First, we obtained the eye movement data when the participants viewing the web pages using an eye tracker. By the analysis of eye movement data, we studied the influence of visual saliency and thinking way on eye-movement pattern. The analysis result showed that thinking way affect human’ eye-movement pattern much more than visual saliency. Second, we compared the results of web page visual salience region extracted by Itti model and Spectral Residual (SR) model. The results showed that Spectral Residual (SR) model performs superior than Itti model by comparison with the heat map from eye movements. Considering the influence of mind habit on humans’ visual region of interest, we introduced one of the most important cue in mind habit-fixation position to improved the SR model. The result showed that the improved SR model can better predict the human visual region of interest in web pages.
The Effect of Visual Fluency and Cognitive Fluency on Access Rates of Web Pages
Access rates is a key indicator of reflecting the popularity of web pages. Having high access rates are very important for web pages, especially for news web pages, online shopping sites and searching engines. In this paper, we analyzed the influences of visual fluency and cognitive fluency on access rates of Chinese web pages. Firstly, we conducted an experiment of scoring the web pages. Twenty-five subjects were invited to view top 50 web pages of China, and they were asked to give a score in a 5-point Likert-scale from four aspects, including complexity, comfortability, familiarity and usability. Secondly, the obtained results was analyzed by correlation analysis and factor analysis in R. By factor analysis; we analyzed the contributions of visual fluency and cognitive fluency to the access rates. The results showed that both visual fluency and cognitive fluency affect the access rate of web pages. Compared to cognitive fluency, visual fluency play a more important role in user’s accessing of web pages.
Mapping the Frontal Assessment Battery Using Event Related Potentials
Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) have dementia as one of their symptoms; a test such as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is effective only when there is mild cognitive impairment. However the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) is a test that evaluates frontal lobe functions/executive functions that can be used as an early indicator of dementia due to AD. The aim of the present study was to (a) automate the administration of the FAB, (b) verify if the subtests in the FAB result in distinctive frontal lobe event related potentials, and (c) interpret the contributions of different frequencies (delta, theta, alpha, and beta). The software PsychoPy was used to conduct the FAB by building a flow, which contains the six questions in a particular order, using fixation segments, instructions, and trials. The FAB comprises six subtests, which assess conceptual ability, mental flexibility, motor skills, sensitivity to interference, inhibitory control, and environmental autonomy of a subject. The questions and the order of sub trials were randomized. PsychoPy eliminates the need for manual intervention or monitoring, which additionally stores the response and response time for each question. Time-locked EEG activities, i.e., event-related potential (ERP) were obtained from 4 subjects continuously using a 32-channel geodesics EGI system with sponge based geodesic sensor net. The net was aligned with respect to three anatomical landmarks; two preauricular points and the naison, with Cz as reference. ERP was useful to capture neural activity related to cognitive processes with respect to temporal resolution. The collected data was processed using the EEGLAB plugin in MATLAB to determine regions of maximum activity during different times of the experiment. The spectral entropies were calculated, along with the Pearson correlation coefficient to understand the synchronization with respect to the electroencephalographic signals that take place during the assessment; the delta waves were inversely correlated as compared to the theta, alpha and beta, which were positively correlated. In conclusion, 80% of the FAB was automated on the online platform, and we were able to correlate the event and neuroelectrophysiological signals.
Algerian Case Study of Age Effect and Cross Linguistic Influence in Third Language Phonology Acquisition
Learning foreign languages is sine qua non in the era of globalization, mobility, and communications, which grants access and connectedness to the world. This urgent need is highlighted in monolingual settings, however, in multilingual contexts the case is, to some extent, complicated. In effect, research on bilingualism and multilingualism lead to the issue of Cross Linguistic Influence (CLI) which seeks to explain how and under which conditions prior linguistic knowledge of first language (L1) and / or second language (L2) influences the production, comprehension and development of a third language (L3) or additional language (Ln). Moreover, the issue of age is also one of the persistent topics in the field of language acquisition. This paper aims to scrutinize the effect of age and two previously known languages: Arabic (L1) and French (L2) in acquiring English (L3) phonology in Algerian context. The study consisted of 20 participants of different age range who were presented with recorded samples of English (L3). The findings confirm the results of some previous studies on the issue of Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH) and demonstrate a tendency for the L2 phonological transfer in L3 production at the initial stages of acquisition within young and later learners that for some circumstances diminished as L3 proficiency develop.
Phonological Variation in the Speech of Grade 1 Teachers in Select Public Elementary Schools in the Philippines
The study attempted to uncover the most and least frequent phonological variation evident in the speech patterns of grade 1 teachers in select public elementary schools in the Philippines. It also determined the lectal description of the participants based on Tayao’s consonant charts for American and Philippine English. Descriptive method was utilized. A total of 24 grade 1 teachers participated in the study. The instrument used was word list. Each column in the word list is represented by words with the target consonant phonemes: labiodental fricatives f/ and /v/ and lingua-alveolar fricative /z/. These phonemes were in the initial, medial, and final positions, respectively. Findings of the study revealed that the most frequent variation happened when the participants read words with /z/ in the final position while the least frequent variation happened when the participants read words with /z/ in the initial position. The study likewise proved that the grade 1 teachers exhibited the segmental features of both the mesolect and basilect. Based on these results, it is suggested that teachers of English in the Philippines must aspire to manifest the features of the mesolect, if not, the acrolect since it is expected of the academicians not to be displaying the phonological features of the acrolects since this variety is only used by the 'uneducated.' This is especially so with grade 1 teachers who are often mimicked by their students who classify their speech as the 'standard.'
A Syntactic Approach to Applied and Socio-Linguistics in Arabic Language in Modern Communications
This research is an attempt that creates a conducive atmosphere of a phonological and morphological compendium of Arabic language in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) for modern day communications. The research is carried out with the chief aim of grammatical analysis of the two broad fields of Arabic linguistics namely: Applied and Socio-Linguistics. It draws a pictorial record of Applied and Socio-Linguistics in Arabic phonology and morphology. Thematically, it postulates and contemplates to a large degree, the theory of concord in contemporary modern Arabic language acquisition. It utilizes an analytical method while it portrays Arabic as a Semitic language that promotes linguistics and syntax among the scholars of the fields.
Move Analysis of Death Row Statements: An Explanatory Study Applied to Death Row Statements in Texas Department of Criminal Justice Website
Linguists have analyzed the rhetorical structure of various forensic genres, but only a few have investigated the complete structure of death row statements. Unlike other forensic text types, such as suicide or ransom notes, the focus of death row statement analysis is not the authenticity or falsity of the text, but its intended meaning and its communicative purpose. As it constitutes their last statement before their execution, there are probably many things that inmates would like to express. This study mainly examines the rhetorical moves of 200 death row statements from the Texas Department of Criminal Justice website using rhetorical move analysis. The rhetorical moves identified in the statements will be classified based on their communicative purpose, and they will be grouped into moves and steps. A move structure will finally be suggested from the most common or characteristic moves and steps, as well as some sub-moves. However, because of some statements’ atypicality, some moves may appear in different parts of the texts or not at all.
Teaching Method for a Classroom of Students at Different Language Proficiency Levels: Content and Language Integrated Learning in a Japanese Culture Classroom
As a language learning methodology, Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has become increasingly prevalent in Japan. Most CLIL classroom practice and its research are conducted in EFL fields. However, much less research has been done in the Japanese language learning setting. Therefore, there are still many issues to work out using CLIL in the Japanese language teaching (JLT) setting. it is expected that more research will be conducted on both authentically and academically. Under such circumstances, this is one of the few classroom-based CLIL researches experiments in JLT and aims to find an effective course design for a class with students at different proficiency levels. The class was called ‘Japanese culture A’. This class was offered as one of the elective classes for International exchange students at a Japanese university. The Japanese proficiency level of the class was above the Japanese Language Proficiency Test Level N3. Since the CLIL approach places importance on ‘authenticity’, the class was designed with materials and activities; such as books, magazines, a film and TV show and a field trip to Kyoto. On the field trip, students experienced making traditional Japanese desserts, by receiving guidance directly from a Japanese artisan. Through the course, designated task sheets were used so the teacher could get feedback from each student to grasp what the class proficiency gap was. After reading an article on Japanese culture, students were asked to write down the words they did not understand and what they thought they needed to learn. It helped both students and teachers to set learning goals and work together for it. Using questionnaires and interviews with students, this research examined whether the attempt was effective or not. Essays they wrote in class were also analyzed. The results from the students were positive. They were motivated by learning authentic, natural Japanese, and they thrived setting their own personal goals. Some students were motivated to learn Japanese by studying the language and others were motivated by studying the cultural context. Most of them said they learned better this way; by setting their own Japanese language and culture goals. These results will provide teachers with new insight towards designing class materials and activities that support students in a multilevel CLIL class.
The Power of Words: A Corpus Analysis of Campaign Speeches of President Donald J. Trump
Words are powerful when these are used wisely and strategically. In this study, twelve (12) campaign speeches of President Donald J. Trump were analyzed as to frequently used words and ethos, pathos and logos being employed. The speeches were read thoroughly, analyzed and interpreted. With the use of Word Counter Tool and Text Analyzer software accessible online, it was found out that the word ‘will’ has the highest frequency of 121, followed by Hillary (58), American (38), going (35), plan and Clinton (32), illegal (30), government (28), corruption (26) and criminal (24). When the speeches were analyzed as to ethos, pathos and logos, on the other hand, it revealed that these were all employed in his speeches. The statements under these pointed out against Hillary or in his favor. The unique strategy of President Donald J. Trump as to frequently used words and ethos, pathos and logos in persuading people perhaps lead the way to his victory.
Efficacy of Phonological Awareness Intervention for People with Language Impairment
This study investigated the form and characteristic of speech sound produced by three Balinese subjects who have recovered from aphasia as well as intervened their language impairment on side of linguistic and neuronal aspects of views. The failure of judging the speech sound was caused by impairment of motor cortex that indicated there were lesions in left hemispheric language zone. Sound articulation phenomena were in the forms of phonemes deletion, replacement or assimilation in individual words and meaning building for anomic aphasia. Therefore, the Balinese sound patterns were stimulated by showing pictures to the subjects and recorded to recognize what individual consonants or vowels they unclearly produced and to find out how the sound disorder occurred. The physiology of sound production by subject’s speech organs could not only show the accuracy of articulation but also any level of severity the lesion they suffered from. The subjects’ speech sounds were investigated, classified and analyzed to know how poor the lingual units were and observed to clarify weaknesses of sound characters occurred either for place or manner of articulation. Many fricative and stopped consonants were replaced by glottal or palatal sounds because the cranial nerve, such as facial, trigeminal, and hypoglossal underwent impairment after the stroke. The phonological intervention was applied through a technique called phonemic articulation drill and the examination was conducted to know any change has been obtained. The finding informed that some weak articulation turned into clearer sound and simple meaning of language has been conveyed. The hierarchy of functional parts of brain played important role of language formulation and processing. From this finding, it can be clearly emphasized that this study supports the role of right hemisphere in recovery from aphasia is associated with functional brain reorganization.
Minority Language Policy and Planning in Manchester, Britain
Manchester, Britain has become the destination of immigrants from different parts of the world. As a result, it is currently home to over 150 different ethnic languages. The present study investigates minority language policy and planning at the micro-level of the city. In order to get an in-depth investigation of such a policy, it was decided to cover it from two angles: the first is the policy making process. This was aimed at getting insights on how decisions regarding the provision of government services in minority languages are taken and what criteria are employed. The second angle is the service provider; i.e. the different departments in Manchester City Council (MCC), the NHS, the courts, and police, etc., to obtain information on the actual provisions of services. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with different personnel representing different departments in MCC, solicitors, interpreters, etc.; through the internet, e.g. the websites of MCC, NHS, courts, and police, etc.; and via personal observation of provisions of community languages in government services. The results show that Manchester’s language policy is formulated around two concepts that work simultaneously: one is concerned with providing services in community languages in order to help minorities manage their life until they acquire English, and the other with helping the integration of minorities through encouraging them to learn English. In this regard, different government services are provided in community languages, though to varying degrees, depending on the numerical strength of each individual language. Thus, it is concluded that there is awareness in MCC and other government agencies working in Manchester of the linguistic diversity of the city and there are serious attempts to meet this diversity in their services. It is worth mentioning here that providing such services in minority languages are not meant to support linguistic diversity, but rather to maintain the legal right to equal opportunities among the residents of Manchester and to avoid any misunderstanding that may result due to the language barrier, especially in such areas as hospitals, courts, and police. There is actually no explicitly-mentioned language policy regarding minorities in Manchester; rather, there is an implied or covert policy resulting from factors that are not explicitly documented. That is, there are guidelines from the central government, which emphasize the principle of equal opportunities; then the implementation of such guidelines requires providing services in the different ethnic languages.
The Colombian Linguistic Landscape: A Study of Commercial Signs
This study documents and demonstrates the profound impact of the high status of American English and culture in Colombian commercial landscape due to the globalization and commodification of English. It also documents and describes how Colombian advertisers make use of various language and visual mechanisms in the commercial linguistic landscape to convey messages, create an image with which the target audience can identify, and build a relationship with that target audience. The data (in the form of pictures) were collected in different cities in Colombia and were classified and organized into different categories for the reliability and validity of the analysis. The research questions were: do the ubiquity and high status of American English and culture play a major role in the Colombian commercial linguistic landscape? If so, how?, what roles do national and local culture and language (Spanish) play in the commercial linguistic landscape?, and what different linguistic and visual strategies do Colombian advertisers employ to reach their target audience? Based on data analysis and results, American and local culture and icons play a major role when Colombian advertisers create and design their commercial logos and ads to get consumers’ attention and establish a rapport with them in a successful way. In order to achieve their objectives, Colombian advertisers rely on creative linguistic and visual techniques in their ads, such as puns, humor, irony, comparisons, metaphors, mocking, exaggeration, parody, personification, sarcasm, satire, allusion, onomatopoeias, and imitation (copycat or cloning).
Patterns of Rhetorical Organization in the Jakarta Post Opinion Articles
Opinion articles are part of a professional discourse genre that can be found in newspapers. These articles are separated from news pages and written for the public, so they contain a variety of cultural background. By investigating the pattern of rhetorical organization in the opinion articles, this study aims to reveal the overall rhetorical patterns, the occurence of thesis statement, and to examine whether there is a difference in terms of the placement of thesis statement between native and non-native writers. This study investigated 151 opinion articles published in The Jakarta Post, March 2016 edition. Shi and Kubota’s (2007) four pattern of rhetorical organization was adapted as the theoretical framework for the present study. The results of this study showed that the overall rhetorical patterns of The Jakarta Post opinion articles are a three-part structure of introduction, body and conclusion paragraphs. In term of the placing of thesis statement, there were 47% of non-native writers and 38% of native writers put the thesis statement in the introduction part with single sentence paragraph or two short single-sentence paragraphs (pattern 1), and 38% of non-native writers and 40% of native writers write the introduction part with two or more multi-sentence paragraphs, and put the thesis statement at the end of it. Only 8% of non-native writers and 5% of native writers put the thesis statement in the body part, while there were 7% of non-native writers and 17% of native writers wrote the thesis statement in the conclusion part. There was a slight difference between native and non-native writers in terms of the placement of thesis statement, where the non-native writers tend to use a single sentence paragraph as the thesis statement as well as to begin the essays while native writers prefer to use two or more multi-sentences paragraphs. This study proves that professional writings such as newspaper opinion articles follow the English rhetorical conventions; deductive, logical, and direct style as represented in the three-part structure.
Psycholinguistic Analysis on Stuttering Treatment through Systemic Functional Grammar in Tom Hooper’s The King’s Speech
The movie titled The King’s Speech is based on a true story telling an English king suffers from stuttering and how he gets the treatment from the therapist, so that he can reduce the high frequency on stuttering. The treatment uses the unique approach implying the linguistic principles. This study shows how the language works significantly in order to treat the stuttering sufferer using psychological approach. Therefore, the linguistic study is done to analyze the treatment activity. Halliday’s Systemic Functional Grammar is used as the main approach in this study along with qualitative descriptive method. The study finds that the therapist though using the orthodox approach applies the psycholinguistic method to overcome the king’s stuttering.
English Learning Motivation in Communicative Competence
The aim of communicative language teaching is to enable learners to communicate in the target language. Each learner is required to perform the micro and macro components in each utterance produced. Utterances produced must be in line with the understanding of competence and performance of each speaker. These are inter-depended. Competence and performance are obliged to be appeared proportionally in creating the utterances. The representative of competence and performance reflects the linguistics identity of a speaker in providing sentences in each certain language community. Each lexicon spoken may lead that interlocutor in comprehending the intentions utterances given. However proportional performance of both components in an utterance needed to be further elaborated. Finding appropriate gap between competence and performance components in a communicative competence must be supported positive response given by the learners.The learners’ inability to keep communicative competence proportionally is caused by inside and outside factors. The inside factors are certain lacks such as lack of self-confidence and lack of motivation which could make students feel ashamed to produce utterances, scared to make mistakes, and have no enough confidence. Knowing learner’s English learning motivation is an urgent variable to be considered in creating conducive atmosphere classroom which will raise the learners to do more toward the achievement of communicative competence. Meanwhile, the outside factor is related with the teacher. The teacher should be able to recognize the students’ problem in creating conducive atmosphere in the classroom that will raise the students’ ability to be an English speaker qualified. Moreover, the aim of this research is to know and describe the English learning motivation affecting students’ communicative competence of 48 students of XI grade of science program at catholic senior of Saint Ignasius Loyola Labuan Bajo, West Flores, Indonesia. Correlation design with purposive procedure applied in this research. Data were collected through questionnaire, interview, and students’ speaking achievement document. Result shows the description of motivation significantly affecting students’ communicative competence.
Visual Speech Perception of Arabic Emphatics
Speech perception has been recognized as a bi-sensory process involving the auditory and visual channels. Compared to the auditory modality, the contribution of the visual signal to speech perception is not very well understood. Studying how the visual modality affects speech recognition can have pedagogical implications in second language learning, as well as clinical application in speech therapy. The current investigation explores the potential effect of speech visual cues on the perception of Arabic emphatics (AEs). The corpus consists of 36 minimal pairs each containing two contrasting consonants, an AE versus a non-emphatic (NE). Movies of four Lebanese speakers were edited to allow perceivers to have partial view of facial regions: lips only, lips-cheeks, lips-chin, lips-cheeks-chin, lips-cheeks-chin-neck. In the absence of any auditory information and relying solely on visual speech, perceivers were above chance at correctly identifying AEs or NEs across vowel contexts; moreover, the models were able to predict the probability of perceivers’ accuracy in identifying some of the COIs produced by certain speakers; additionally, results showed an overlap between the measurements selected by the computer and those selected by human perceivers. The lack of significant face effect on the perception of AEs seems to point to the lips, present in all of the videos, as the most important and often sufficient facial feature for emphasis recognition. Future investigations will aim at refining the analyses of visual cues used by perceivers by using Principal Component Analysis and including time evolution of facial feature measurements.
Corpus-Driven Approach for Vocabulary Variation and Sentence Complexity in Medicine Journal Articles
Language register shows how language varies in different situations depending on purposes and target audience. Thus, studies in language register have examined specific language use in various situations. One of the common findings about the register variation is that a wider range of vocabulary and longer sentences are found in academic prose compared to conversation. However, few studies were conducted to explore different language use among academic disciplines. The language variation could occur not only between academic prose and conversation, but also among different academic sub-categories. Therefore, this study examined the vocabulary variation and sentence complexity in medicine journal articles in order to find a specific pattern of language in the medicine academic text. For this study, three steps were implemented. First, a corpus was created based on 200 refereed journal articles in medicine. Second, vocabulary variation was examined by TagAnt and ANTCONC. Each word in the 200 texts was lemmatized and tagged by TagAnt in order to indicate lemma and part-of-speech (POS) information. In addition, ANTCONC was implemented to show types of words in the medicine journal articles. Third, the sentence complexity was investigated by manual analyses. The numbers of words were counted in each sentence in a text to explore sentence length. Moreover, the numbers of complex sentences and compound sentences were calculated from the medicine journal article corpus. As a result, two major findings were discovered, which describes the features of the medicine journal articles. The first finding was that 38,251 types were found from 2,634,504 tokens. This range of vocabulary is less wide compared to that of 200 sociology journal articles consisting of 61,805 types among 1,583,304 tokens. The result shows that the vocabulary variation varies between the medicine journal articles and the sociology journal articles although both are parts of academic prose. Thus, it implies that further research is required in order to understand the difference of language use in various academic disciplines. The second finding also supports this necessity of the further studies. The average length of a sentence was 18.5 words in the medicine corpus whereas the average sentence length was 33.4 words in the sociology corpus. However, both complex and compound sentences were widely used regardless of disciplines. In conclusion, the language variation in different register should be more analyzed and specified in order to understand the appropriate language use in writing among different academic disciplines.
Language Maintenance and Literacy of Madurese in Probolinggo City
Madurese is known as Malayo-Sumbawan Austronesian language which is used by Madurese people in Madura Island, Indonesia. However, there was a massive migration of Madurese people due to Dutch colonization. The Madurese people were brought by force for cultivation system to the eastern salient north coast or called as Tapal Kuda that spread in region covers the regencies of Probolinggo, Lumajang, Jember, Situbondo, Bondowoso, and Banyuwangi, the eastern part of the Pasuruan Regency, as well as the city of Probolinggo. The city of Probolinggo has unique characteristic regarding the ethnic and language variation. Several ethnics can be found in this city, such as Madurese, Javanese, Tengger, Arabic, Mandhalungan, Osing, and Chinese. Hence, the hybrid culture happens in Probolinggo, they called the culture as Pendhalungan which is the combination of culture among Madurese and Javanese. Among those ethnics, Madurese is the strongest ethnic that still maintains their identity, such as their ethnic language. The massive growth of Madurese in Probolinggo city, East Java is interesting to be analyzed. The object of this study is to discover language ideology and literacy of Madurese to maintain their ethnic language in Probolinggo city, East Java. The researchers used the theory of language maintenance practice based on three types of practices social language, social literacy, and peripheral ritualized practices. The approach of this study was qualitative research with ethnography method. In order to collect the data, researchers used observation and interview techniques. The amount of informants were 20 families which consist of mother, father and children in 5 sub-districts in Probolinggo city and they were interviewed regarding language ideology and literacy of Madurese. In supporting the data, researchers employed the Madurese speakers outside family scope like in school, office, and market. The result of the study revealed that Madurese has been preserved heritably to young generations by ethnics of Madura in Probolinggo city. Primarily the language is being taught in the earlier age of their children as L1 and used as ethnic identity. The parents teach them with simple sentences that grammatically correct. This language literacy is applied to maintain ethnic language as their ethnicity marker since they inhabit in Javanese ethnic area. In fact, it is not the only ideology of Madurese ethnic but also the influence of economic situation like in trading communication. The usage of Madurese in the trading scope is very beneficial since people can bargain the goods cheaper and easier because most of the traders are from Madurese ethnic. In this situation, linguistic phenomena such as code mixing and code switching between Madurese and Javanese are emerged as the trading communication. From the result, it can be concluded that solidarity exists among Madurese people in many scopes.
Annexation (Al-Iḍāfah) in Thariq bin Ziyad’s Speech
Annexation is a typical construction that commonly used in Arabic language. The use of the construction appears in Arabic speech such as the speech of Thariq bin Ziyad. The speech as one of the most famous speeches in the history of Islam uses many annexations. This qualitative research paper uses the secondary data by library method. Based on the data, this paper concludes that the speech has two basic structures with some variations and has some grammatical relationship. Different from the other researches that identify the speech in sociology field, the speech in this paper will be analyzed in linguistic field to take a look at the structure of its annexation as well as the grammatical relationship.
Students' Perspectives about Humor and the Process of Learning Spanish as a Foreign Language
In the last decades, the studies about humor have been increasing significantly in all areas. In the field of education and, specially, in the second language teaching, most research has concentrated on the beneficial effects that the introduction of humor in the process of teaching and learning a foreign language, as well as its impact on teachers and students. In the following research, we will try to know the learners’ perspectives about humor and its use in the Spanish as a Foreign Language classes. In order to do this, a different range of students from the Spanish courses at the University of Cape Town will participate in a survey that will reveal their beliefs about the frequency of humor in their daily lives and their Spanish lessons, their reactions to humorous situations, and the main advantages or disadvantages, from their point of view, to the introduction of humor in the teaching of Spanish as a Foreign Language.
Identification and Evaluation of Environmental Concepts in Paulo Coelho's the Alchemist
Ecocriticism is the study of relationship between human and environment which has been represented in literature since the very beginning in pastoral tradition. However, the analysis of such representation is new as compared to the other critical evaluations like Psychoanalysis, Marxism, Post-colonialism, Modernism and many others. Ecocritics seek to find information like anthropocentrism, ecocentrism, ecofeminism, eco-Marxism, representation of environment and environmental concept and several other topics. In the current study the representation of environmental concepts, were ecocritically analyzed in Paulo Coelho’s The Alchemist, one of the most read novels throughout the world, having been translated into many languages. Analysis of the text revealed, the representations of environmental ideas like landscapes and tourism, biodiversity, land-sea displacement, environmental disasters and warfare, desert winds and sand dunes. 'This desert was once a sea' throws light on different theories of land-sea displacement, one being the plate-tectonic theory which proposes Earth’s lithosphere to be divided into different large and small plates, continuously moving toward, away from or parallel to each other, resulting in land-sea displacement. Another theory is the continental drift theory which holds onto the belief that one large landmass—Pangea, broke down into smaller pieces of land that moved relative to each other and formed continents of the present time. The cause of desertification may, however, be natural i.e. climate change or artificial i.e. by human activities. Imagery of the environmental concepts, at some instances in the novel, is detailed and at other instances, is not as striking, but still is capable of arousing readers’ imagination. The study suggests that ecocritical justifications of environmental concepts in the text will increase the interactions between literature and environment which should be encouraged in order to induce environmental awareness among the readers.
A Queer Approach to the National Irish Identity during 'The Troubles' in Belfast in Paul Mcveigh's 'The Good Son'
This paper focuses on how Mickey – the 10-year-old main character and narrator in Paul McVeigh’s novel The Good Son (2015) – becomes aware of his own queerness and its implications in a conflicting place and time such as Belfast during ‘The Troubles’ in the 1980s. Queer theory allows a comparative reading of identity issues such as national and gender discourses. As opposed to some other excluding social constructs that classify identities in an Us-Others binomial, queer has become a sort of umbrella term where there is room for more identities other than LGTBQ. Therefore, it offers some relevant tools to read this highly awarded novel by focusing on the intersectional construction of Mickey’s identity in progress within the social and familiar realms. The aim of this paper is to offer a queer reading of the The Good Son, which was awarded with the Polari First Book Prize in 2016, by showing the key role of Mickey’s conflictive realization of his own queerness in the polarized society of Northern Ireland in the 1980s, where there is no shade of grey. Within such a polarized context, Mickey’s perception of his own internal and external identity conflicts he is exposed to will show how necessary a certain touch of pink is as a potential escape to those conflicts.
Critical Pedagogy and Ecoliteracy in the Teaching of Foreign Languages
Today we live in a crucial time of ecological crisis, of environmental catastrophes worldwide, and this scenario is, arrogantly, overlooked by powerful economic forces and their politics. Thus, a critical pedagogy that leads to action and that fosters ecoliteracy, environment education, is now inevitable, and it must become an integral part of the school curriculum across the disciplines, including the social sciences and the humanities. One of the most important contemporary and emerging movement of today is ecopedagogy, a movement that blends theory and ethics towards a curriculum that focus on an environmental education that will promote ecological justice, respect, and care by educating students to become planetary citizens. This paper aims, first, to emphasize the need for discussions and investigations regarding ecoliteracy within our field of teaching foreign languages, which will consider, among others, the of role language in stimulating sustainability, and the role of second language proficiency in fostering positive transnational dialogues conducive to fighting our current planetary crisis. Second, this paper suggests and discusses some critical ecopedagogical practices -- in the form of project-based learning, service-learning and environmental-oriented study abroad programs – apropos to ecoliteracy. These interdisciplinary projects can and should bring students in contact with communities speaking the target language, and such encounter would facilitate cultural exchanges and promote positive language proficiency whilst it would also give students the opportunity to work with finding ideas/projects to fight our current ecological catastrophe.
A Semiotic Analysis of 'a Mural' (2000) Poem by Mahmud Darwich: From Conventional to Modernly Established Meanings
Poetry, as opposed to prose, does not always make a direct link with its audience when it comes to meaning transmission. It often uses indirect expressions that are hardly understood by the reader as they carry an implicit meaning. So, the literary communication between the poet and the reader is done through symbols which are difficult to interpret. If readers, ever, try to figure out what the poet is indicating, expressing and willing to achieve through certain ambiguous words, they need to be a semiotics’ aware audience. In order to better understand poetry, the semiotics theory can be the sought-after resort. This theory is the pile upon which this study is constructed with the aim of making poetry a better platform for literature apprehension. Accordingly, the present study sheds light upon a semiotic analysis of a poem, ‘A Mural’ (2000) by Mahmud Darwich, which is full of poetic symbols that are literally built on significations of conventional meanings. By using a semiotic approach and relying on a descriptive-qualitative analysis, the researcher will try to find different meanings for the poem’s symbols. By doing so, a multi-meaning of symbols will be developed through the use of semiotics. Consequently, the research finds that the symbols that have been used by the poet refer to another meaning that is different from the one attributed to them. The symbols go beyond their traditional meaning allowing the poem to be open to a variety of interpretations.