Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 53896

Cognitive and Language Sciences

961
97868
Teaching Turn-Taking Rules and Pragmatic Principles to Empower EFL Students and Enhance Their Learning in Speaking Modules
Abstract:
Teaching and learning EFL speaking modules is one of the most challenging for both instructors and learners. In a student-centered interactive communicative language teaching approach, learners and instructors should be aware of the fact that the target language must be taught as/for communication. The student must be empowered by tools that will work on more than one level of their communicative competence. Communicative learning will need teaching and learning methodology that will address the goal. Teaching turn-taking rules, pragmatic principles and speech acts will enhance students' sociolinguistic competence, strategic competence together with discourse competence. Sociolinguistic competence entails mastering of speech act conventions and illocutionary acts of refusing, agreeing/disagreeing; emotive acts like, thanking, apologizing, inviting, offering; directives like, ordering, requesting, advising, and hinting, among others. Strategic competence includes enlightening students consciousness of the various particular turn-taking systemic rules of organizing techniques of opening and closing conversation, adjacency pairs, interrupting, back-channeling, asking for/giving opinion, agreeing/disagreeing, using natural fillers for pauses, gaps, speaker select, self-select, and silence among others. Students will have the tools to manage a conversation. Students are engaged in opportunities of experiencing the natural language not as a mere extra student talking time but rather an empowerment of knowing and using the strategies. They will have the component items they need to use as well as the opportunity to communicate in the target language using topics of their interest and choice. This enhances students' communicative abilities. Available websites and textbooks now use one or more of these tools of turn-taking or pragmatics. These will be students' support in self-study in their independent learning study hours. This will be their reinforcement practice on eLearning interactive activities. Students' target is to be able to communicate the intended meaning to an addressee that is in turn able to infer that intended meaning. The combination of these tools will be assertive and encouraging to the student to beat the struggle with what to say, how to say it, and when to say it. Teaching the rules, principles and techniques is an act of awareness raising method engaging students in activities that will lead to their pragmatic discourse competence.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
960
96944
Using Synonymy in Translation of Hemingway’s 'A Farewell to Arms' from English into Albanian
Abstract:
The English word-stock is extremely rich in synonyms which can be largely accounted for by the abundant borrowing. Translation problems encountered by translators in general are usually ‘transfer problems’. They face more difficulties in the interpretation of meaning from the source language text than lexical differences between languages. The aim of the study is to inspect the various strategies used in translating from English into Albanian specific words in the ‘A Farwell to arms’ novel. For this purpose, examples translated from English into Albanian were examined. The Albanian equivalents have shown that various strategies were used in order to overcome the problem of rendering words and expressions into the target language. Employed strategies were synonymy, modulation, transposition, calque and word for word translation. In addition, this paper shows that the strategy of translating using synonymy is mostly used. In this paper, an attempt is made to examine the nature of contextual synonymy in order to investigate its problematic nature regarding translation. Types of synonymy are analyzed and then examples from English and Albanian versions are provided to examine the overlap between them.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
959
95596
Challenges in Learning Legal English from the Students’ Perspective at Hanoi Law University
Abstract:
Legal English, also known as Language of the Law (Mellinkoff, David. 2004), is an indispensable factor contributing to the development of legal field. At Hanoi Law University, legal English is a compulsory subject in the syllabus of legal English major; International Trade law and Fast-track law training program. The question that what obstacles students face with when dealing with legal English, however, has not been answered at that institution. Therefore, this present research, which makes use of survey questionnaires as the main method, aims to study the challenges of learning legal English from the students’ perspective, from which some useful solutions are drawn up to overcome these difficulties and improve the effectiveness of learning legal English. The results indicate notable difficulties arising from the level of general English skills, the characteristics of legal English and legal background knowledge. These findings lay a scientific foundation for suggesting some solutions for practical applications in teaching as well as learning legal English among both teachers and students.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
958
95553
Building in Language Support in a Hong Kong Chemistry Classroom with English as a Medium of Instruction: An Exploratory Study
Abstract:
Science writing has played a crucial part in science assessments. This paper reports a study in an area that has received little research attention – how Language across the Curriculum (LAC, i.e. science language and literacy) learning activities in science lessons can increase the science knowledge development of English as a foreign language (EFL) students in Hong Kong. The data comes from a school-based interventional study in chemistry classrooms, with written data from questionnaires, assessments and teachers’ logs and verbal data from interviews and classroom observations. The effectiveness of the LAC teaching and learning activities in various chemistry classrooms were compared and evaluated, with discussion of some implications. Students in the treatment group with lower achieving students received LAC learning and teaching activities while students in the control group with higher achieving students received conventional learning and teaching activities. After the study, they performed better in control group in formative assessments. Moreover, they had a better attitude to learning chemistry content with a richer language support. The paper concludes that LAC teaching and learning activities yielded positive learning outcomes among chemistry learners with low English ability.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
957
95106
Measuring Text-Based Semantics Relatedness Using WordNet
Abstract:
Measuring semantic similarity between texts is calculating semantic relatedness between texts using various techniques. Our web application (Measuring Relatedness of Concepts-MRC) allows the user to input two text corpuses and get Semantic similarity percentage between both using Wordnet. Our application goes through five stages for the computation of semantic relatedness. Those stages are: Preprocessing (extracts keywords from content), Feature Extraction (classification of words into Parts-of-Speech), Synonyms Extraction (retrieves synonyms against each keyword), Measuring Similarity (using keywords and synonyms similarity is measured) and last stage is Visualization (graphical representation of similarity measure). Hence the user can measure similarity on basis of features as well. The end result is a percentage score and the word(s) which form the basis of similarity between both texts with use of different tools on the same platform. In future work, we expect a Web as a live corpus application that provides a simpler and user-friendly tool to compare documents and extract useful information.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
956
95082
Corpus-Based Analysis on the Translatability of Conceptual Vagueness in Traditional Chinese Medicine Classics Huang Di Nei Jing
Authors:
Abstract:
Huang Di Nei Jing (HDNJ) is one of the significant traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) classics which lays the foundation of TCM theory and practice. It is an important work for the world to study the ancient civilizations and medical history of China. Language in HDNJ is highly concise and vague, and notably challenging to translate. This paper investigates the translatability of one particular vagueness in HDNJ: the conceptual vagueness which carries the Chinese philosophical and cultural connotations. The corpora tool Sketch Engine is used to provide potential online contexts and word behaviors. Selected two English translations of HDNJ by TCM practitioner and non-practitioner are used to examine frequency and distribution of linguistic features of the translation. It was found the hypothesis about the universals of translated language (explicitation, normalisation) is true in one translation, but it is on the sacrifice of some original contextual connotations. Transliteration is purposefully used in the second translation to retain the original flavor, which is argued as a violation of the principle of relevance in communication because it yields little contextual effects and demands more processing effort of the reader. The translatability of conceptual vagueness in HDNJ is constrained by source language context and the reader’s cognitive environment.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
955
94804
Overview of Resources and Tools to Bridge Language Barriers Provided by the European Union
Abstract:
A common, well understood language is crucial in critical situations like landing a plane. For e-Government solutions, a clear and common language is needed to allow users to successfully complete transactions online. Misunderstandings here may not risk a safe landing but can cause delays, resubmissions and drive costs. This holds also true for higher education, where misunderstandings can also arise due to inconsistent use of terminology. Thus, language barriers are a societal challenge that needs to be tackled. The major means to bridge language barriers is translation. However, achieving high-quality translation and making texts understandable and accessible require certain framework conditions. Therefore, the EU and individual projects take (strategic) actions. These actions include the identification, collection, processing, re-use and development of language resources. These language resources may be used for the development of machine translation systems and the provision of (public) services including higher education. This paper outlines some of the existing resources and indicate directions for further development to increase the quality and usage of these resources.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
954
93714
English Language Teaching Graduate Students' Use of Discussion Moves in Research Articles
Abstract:
Genre and discipline-specific knowledge of academic discourse in writing has long been acknowledged as being a core skill to achieve formidable tasks that are expected of graduate students in academic settings. Genre analysis approaches can be adopted to unveil the challenges encountered in these tasks to be able to take instructional actions addressing the aspects of graduate writing that need improvement. In an attempt to find genre-specific academic writing needs of Turkish students enrolled in a graduate program in ELT, this study examines the rhetorical structure of discussion sections of research articles written during the course load stage of their graduate studies. The 35.437-word specialized corpus of graduate papers compiled for the purpose of the study includes discussions of 58 unpublished reports of empirical studies, 31 written in MA courses and 27 in Ph.D. courses by a total of 44 graduate students. The study does sentence-based move structure analysis using the framework developed by Eveyik-Aydın, Karabacak and Akyel in a corpus-based study that analyzed the discussion moves of expert writers in published articles in ELT journals indexed by Social Sciences Citation. The coding of 1577 sentences by three graders using this framework revealed that while the graduate papers included the same moves used in published articles, the rhetorical structure of MA and Ph.D. papers showed considerable differences in terms of the frequency of occurrence of main discussion moves, including interpretation of the results and drawing implications. The implications of these findings will be discussed with respect to the needs of graduate writers and the expectations of discourse community.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
953
93539
An Ontological Approach to Existentialist Theatre and Theatre of the Absurd in the Works of Jean-Paul Sartre and Samuel Beckett
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to analyse the works of playwrights within the framework of existential philosophy. It is to observe the ontological existence in the plays of No Exit and Endgame. One of existentialism’s claims is that existence precedes essence. It is eligible to observe this claim in both plays, one is from the existentialist theatre and the other one is from the theatre of the absurd. Literary works will be discussed separately in each section of this study. The despair of post-war generation of Europe problematized the ‘human condition’ in every field of literature which is the very product of social upheaval. With this concern in his mind, Sartre’s creative works portrayed man as a lonely being, burdened with the terrifying freedom to choose and create his own meaning in an apparently meaningless world. The traces of the existential thought are to be found throughout the history of philosophy and literature. On the other hand, the theatre of the absurd is a form of drama showing the absurdity of the human condition and it is heavily influenced by the existential philosophy. Beckett is the most influential playwright of the theatre of the absurd. The themes and thoughts in his plays share many tenets of the existential philosophy. The existential philosophy posits the meaninglessness of existence and it regards man as being thrown into the universe and into desolate isolation. To overcome loneliness and isolation, the human ego needs recognition from the other people. Sartre calls this need for recognition as the need for ‘the Look’ (Le regard) from the Other. In the proposed paper, existentialist philosophy and existentialist angst will be elaborated and then the works of existentialist theatre and theatre of absurd will be discussed within the framework of existential philosophy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
952
93316
The Feminine Speech and the Ritual of Death in Albania
Authors:
Abstract:
Death is an inevitable phenomenon in our life, in the same way, are also the ritual of death accompanied by the dirge and the keening performed by men. Keening is a phenomenon common among all peoples, the instances in which the ritual of death and keening coincide, as a special phenomenon of its, are numerous given the fact that keening is an outcome of an extremely special emotional state. However, even during the ritual of death, every people try to display through words its qualities, a multitude of characteristics preserved and transmitted with fanaticism from one generation to the other. The ritual of death constitutes an important element of our tradition and at the same time a material always interesting to be studied in minute details. In this study, we have tried to limit ourselves to the feminine speech, since keening, in general in Albania has been carried out by women. Differences and similarities among keening on the national scale, from the diachronic and synchronic point of view, can be seen clearly if we compare the Albanian creations in different regions. The similarities and differences within the Albanian culture serve as a typical paradigm to study how the ancient elements of outlook that the Albanians have had on death, history, and the social organization in these regions have been preserved and transmitted and above all, in what way these feelings have been clothed from the linguistic point of view, the typologies of keening and of all of the ritual of death, which clearly shows archaic forms as well as new developments. These data have been gathered not only by conducting various surveys but also by observing closely the linguistic behavior of women in Albania during the ritual of death. The study has encompassed the popular lyric poetry as well as new entries, whereas from the geographic point of view we focus mainly in the Southern regions, although examples from other regions where Albanian speaking people live are also present. The main results of the study show that women use much more than men dialect form, peripheral language elements and descriptive elements during their speech in the ritual of death.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
951
93099
Exploring Smartphone Applications for Enhancing Second Language Vocabulary Learning
Abstract:
Learning a foreign language with the assistant of technological tools has become an interest of learners and educators. Increased use of smartphones among undergraduate students has made them popular for not only social communication but also for entertainment and educational purposes. Smartphones have provided remarkable advantages in language learning process. Learning vocabulary is an important part of learning a language. The use of smartphone applications for English vocabulary learning provides an opportunity for learners to improve vocabulary knowledge beyond the classroom wall anytime anywhere. Recently, various smartphone applications were created specifically for vocabulary learning. This paper aims to explore the use of smartphone application Memrise designed for vocabulary learning to enhance academic vocabulary among undergraduate students. It examines whether the use of a Memrise smartphone application designed course enhances the academic vocabulary learning among ESL learners. The research paradigm used in this paper followed a mixed research model combining quantitative and qualitative research. The study included two hundred undergraduate students randomly assigned to the experimental and controlled group during the first academic year at the Faculty of English Language, Imam University. The research instruments included an attitudinal questionnaire and an English vocabulary pre-test administered to students at the beginning of the semester whereas post-test and semi-structured interviews administered at the end of the semester. The findings of the attitudinal questionnaire revealed a positive attitude towards using smartphones in learning vocabulary. The post-test scores showed a significant difference in the experimental group performance. The results from the semi-structure interviews showed that there were positive attitudes towards Memrise smartphone application. The students found the application enjoyable, convenient and efficient learning tool. From the study, the use of the Memrise application is seen to have long-term and motivational benefits to students. For this reason, there is a need for further research to identify the long-term optimal effects of learning a language using smartphone applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
950
92857
An Analysis of the Oral Communication Strategies Used by Omani Senior American Literature Students at the Tertiary Level: A Case Study at a Public University in Muscat, Oman
Abstract:
During the past decade, an increasing number of higher education institutions in Oman have sought accreditation in an attempt to assure the quality of their programs. Sultan Qaboos University (SQU), the only public university in the country, has also been seeking accreditation. Hence, the university administration has been encouraging departments to evaluate their programs for development purposes. The Department of English, where 100% of the students are learners of English as a foreign language, already produced a self-study report that outlined the strength and weaknesses of the current program. The department came to the realization that due to a changing local and regional job market, transferrable communication skills are high in demand among stakeholders in the public and private sectors. Failure to equip English literature students, for example, with excellent verbal communicative skills in English may have detrimental effects for undergraduate job-seekers who have to compete for jobs in employment sectors with a predominantly English-speaking workforce. Ongoing extensive discussions about restructuring the current literature program by means of partially replacing literature courses with skills courses, hoping to produce higher quality graduates who are equipped with effective communication skills for local and regional markets, have sparked the idea for this research. The researcher, who is an American Literature specialist at SQU, has set out to investigate to what extent senior American literature students have been able to apply transferable communication skills in an advanced literature course. The study also attempts to unearth performance inhibitors and causes for communication breakdown. The primary data source for the study were audio-recordings of 6 in-class peer-group discussions in an advanced contemporary American literature course during the academic year 2016/2017. The significance of this research lies in the rarity of studies focusing on verbal communication skills in Omani higher education literature classrooms at a time when English programs are in the process of being re-visited and revamped both for accreditation purposes and for meeting job-market demands. The results showed a considerable variation in Omani students' verbal communicative abilities and English proficiency levels. The study also raises crucial questions and provides important recommendations for administrators and teachers alike who are in the process of restructuring English programs in the region and in non-English speaking countries worldwide.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
949
92618
Replicating Brain’s Resting State Functional Connectivity Network Using a Multi-Factor Hub-Based Model
Abstract:
The brain’s functional connectivity while temporally non-stationary does express consistency at a macro spatial level. The study of stable resting state connectivity patterns hence provides opportunities for identification of diseases if such stability is severely perturbed. A mathematical model replicating the brain’s spatial connections will be useful for understanding brain’s representative geometry and complements the empirical model where it falls short. Empirical computations tend to involve large matrices and become infeasible with fine parcellation. However, the proposed analytical model has no such computational problems. To improve replicability, 92 subject data are obtained from two open sources. The proposed methodology, inspired by financial theory, uses multivariate regression to find relationships of every cortical region of interest (ROI) with some pre-identified hubs. These hubs acted as representatives for the entire cortical surface. A variance-covariance framework of all ROIs is then built based on these relationships to link up all the ROIs. The result is a high level of match between model and empirical correlations in the range of 0.59 to 0.66 after adjusting for sample size; an increase of almost forty percent. More significantly, the model framework provides an intuitive way to delineate between systemic drivers and idiosyncratic noise while reducing dimensions by more than 30 folds, hence, providing a way to conduct attribution analysis. Due to its analytical nature and simple structure, the model is useful as a standalone toolkit for network dependency analysis or as a module for other mathematical models.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
948
92582
Attrition of Igbo Indigenous Wives' Given Pet Names: Implications for the Igbo Language Endangerment
Abstract:
Language attrition describes the non-pathological decrease in language that had previously been acquired by an individual. It can affect some aspects of a language use or all aspects of a language use. The Igbo language, (despite its status as one of the major Nigerian languages) based on recent studies is fast losing its population of first generation speakers and therefore, increasingly becoming endangered and may be heading to extinction as warned by UNESCO if there are no conscious efforts to reverse the situation. The present paper, which contributes to the Igbo endangerment studies, examines the attrition of an aspect of the Igbo language use and practice: the indigenous Igbo wives’ pet names. It surveys the level of attrition of indigenous Igbo wives’ pet names; names which Igbo married men christen their wives upon marriage. The wives’ pet names under investigation here are specifically those which a husband traditionally christens his wife to reflect the intimate marital bond between them and also to extol his wife as an integral part of him. These pet names morphologically, are always suffixed with the compound morpheme diya which is translated as 'her husband' as in enyidiya 'her husband’s friend', obidiya 'her husband’s heart', ahudiya 'her husband’s body', ugwudiya 'her husband’s honour’, etc. The data for the study were collected through questionnaire, and oral interview from 300 male and 100 female respondents of different age groups who are married, indigenous Igbo speakers and are resident in the study areas (two Local Government Areas from two different Senatorial Zones in Abia and Imo States, south-eastern, Nigeria). Findings from the study show almost a total attrition of the Igbo indigenous wives’ pet names under study across the different age groups. For the respondents within the age group of 25-54 years, there is no more christening and bearing of the indigenous Igbo wives’ pet names by men and women respectively. This age group gives and bears pet names which the group members feel are contemporary and in line with modernity. This is a piece of evidence that the Igbo indigenous pet names’ use and practice are no longer part of the lifestyle of this group of respondents and therefore, they cannot transmit such names to their own children. For the respondents within the age group of 55-74 years, the indigenous Igbo wives’ pet names are also fading fast with less than 20% retention within the age group of 65-74 years with very few traces within the group of 55-64 years. These findings are further evidence that this aspect of Igbo language use and culture is severely threatened and may be on the verge of being lost. The loss of this aspect of the Igbo language or any aspect of the language has huge implications for the gradual and steady endangerment of the language as predicted by UNESCO.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
947
91896
Gender and Advertisements: A Content Analysis of Pakistani Prime Time Advertisements
Abstract:
Advertisements carry a great potential to influence our lives because they are crafted to meet particular ends. Advertisements which stereotypes gender can form unconscious attitudes about any gender and its abilities in society. This study focuses on gender representation in Pakistani prime time advertisements. For this purpose, thirteen advertisements were selected from three different categories of foods and beverages, cosmetics, cell phones and cellular networks from the prime time slots of one of the leading Pakistani entertainment channel, ‘Urdu 1’. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses are carried out for range of variables like gender, age, roles, activities, setting, appearance and voice overs. The results revealed that gender representation in advertisements is stereotypical. Moreover, in few instances, the portrayal of women is not only culturally inappropriate but is demeaning to the image of women as well. Their bodily charm is used to promote products; moreover, in foods and beverages, cosmetic commercials female are represented in traditional domestic roles. Comparing different entertainment channels for their prime time advertisements and broadening the scope of this research will yield greater implications for the researchers who want to carry out the similar research. It is hoped that the current study would help in the promotion of media literacy among the viewers and media authorities in Pakistan.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
946
91846
Analysis of Speaking Skills in Turkish Language Acquisition as a Foreign Language
Abstract:
This study aims to analyze the skills of speaking in the acquisition of Turkish as a foreign language. One of the most important things for the individual who learns a foreign language is to be successful in the oral communication (speaking) skills and to interact in an understandable way. Speech skill requires much more time and effort than other language skills. In this direction, it is necessary to make an analysis of these oral communication skills, which is important in Turkish language acquisition as a foreign language and to draw out a road map according to the result. The aim of this study is to determine the competence and attitudes of speaking competence according to the individuals who learn Turkish as a foreign language and to be considered as speaking skill elements; Grammar, emphasis, intonation, body language, speed, ranking, accuracy, fluency, pronunciation, etc. and the results and suggestions based on these determinations. A mixed method has been chosen for data collection and analysis. A Likert scale (for competence and attitude) was applied to 190 individuals who were interviewed face-to-face (for speech skills) with a semi-structured interview form about 22 participants randomly selected. In addition, the observation form related to the 22 participants interviewed were completed by the researcher during the interview, and after the completion of the collection of all the voice recordings, analyses of voice recordings with the speech skills evaluation scale was made. The results of the research revealed that the speech skills of the individuals who learned Turkish as a foreign language have various perspectives. According to the results, the most inadequate aspects of the participants' ability to speak in Turkish include vocabulary, using humorous elements while speaking Turkish, being able to include items such as idioms and proverbs while speaking Turkish, Turkish fluency respectively. In addition, the participants were found not to feel comfortable while speaking Turkish, to feel ridiculous and to be nervous while speaking in formal settings. There are conclusions and suggestions for the situations that arise after the have been analyses made.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
945
91815
Error Analysis of the Pronunciation of English Consonants and Arabic Consonants by Egyptian Learners
Abstract:
This is an empirical study that provides an investigation of the most significant errors of Egyptian learners in producing English consonants and Arabic consonants, and advice on how these can be remedied. The study adopts a descriptive approach and the analysis is based on audio recordings of two groups of people. The first group includes six volunteers of Egyptian learners belonging to the English Department at Faculty of Women who learn English as a foreign language. The other group includes six Egyptian learners who are studying Tajweed (how to recite Quran correctly). The audio recordings were examined, and sounds were analyzed in an attempt to highlight the most common error done by the learners while reading English or reading (or reciting) Quran. Results show that the two groups of learners have problems with certain phonemic contrasts. Both groups share common errors although both languages are different and not related (e.g. pre-aspiration of fortis stops, incorrect articulation of consonants and velarization of certain sounds).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
944
91742
Characteristic Sentence Stems in Academic English Texts: Definition, Identification, and Extraction
Abstract:
Phraseological units in academic English texts have been a central focus in recent corpus linguistic research. A wide variety of phraseological units have been explored, including collocations, chunks, lexical bundles, patterns, semantic sequences, etc. This paper describes a special category of clause-level phraseological units, namely, Characteristic Sentence Stems (CSSs), with a view to describing their defining criteria and extraction method. CSSs are contiguous lexico-grammatical sequences which contain a subject-predicate structure and which are frame expressions characteristic of academic writing. The extraction of CSSs consists of six steps: Part-of-speech tagging, n-gram segmentation, structure identification, significance of occurrence calculation, text range calculation, and overlapping sequence reduction. Significance of occurrence calculation is the crux of this study. It includes the computing of both the internal association and the boundary independence of a CSS and tests the occurring significance of the CSS from both inside and outside perspectives. A new normalization algorithm is also introduced into the calculation of LocalMaxs for reducing overlapping sequences. It is argued that many sentence stems are so recurrent in academic texts that the most typical of them have become the habitual ways of making meaning in academic writing. Therefore, studies of CSSs could have potential implications and reference value for academic discourse analysis, English for Academic Purposes (EAP) teaching and writing.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
943
91686
Brazilian Sign Language: A Synthesis of the Research in the Period from 2000 to 2017
Abstract:
This article reports a synthesis of the research in Brazilian Sign Language conducted from 2000 to 2017. The objective of the synthesis was to identify the most researched areas and the most used methodologies. Articles published in three Brazilian journals of Translation Studies, unpublished dissertations and theses were included in the analysis. Abstracts and the method sections of the papers were scrutinized. Sixty studies were analyzed, and overall results indicate that the research in Brazilian Sign Language has been fragmented in several areas such as linguistic aspects, facial expressions, subtitling, identity issues, bilingualism, and interpretation strategies. Concerning research methods, the synthesis reveals that most research is qualitative in nature. Moreover, results show that the cognitive aspects of Brazilian Sign Language seem to be poorly explored. Implications for a future research agenda are also discussed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
942
91644
The Impact of Teacher's Emotional Intelligence on Students' Motivation to Learn
Abstract:
The purpose of this qualitative study is to showcase graduated high school students’ to voice on the impact past teachers had on their motivation to learn, and if this impact has affected their post-high-school lives. Through a focus group strategy, 21 graduated high school alumni participated in three separate focus groups. Participants discussed their former teacher’s emotional intelligence skills, which influenced their motivation to learn or not. A focused review of the literature revealed that teachers are a major factor in a student’s motivation to learn. This research was guided by Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory of Motivation and constructs related to learning and motivation from Carl Rogers’ Humanistic Views of Personality, and from Brain-Based Learning perspectives with a major focus on the area of Emotional Intelligence. Findings revealed that the majority of participants identified teachers who most motivated them to learn and demonstrated skills associated with emotional intelligence. An important and disturbing finding relates to the saliency of negative experiences. Further work is recommended to expand this line of study in Higher Education, perform a long-term study to better gain insight into long-term benefits attributable to experiencing positive teachers, study the negative impact teachers have on students’ motivation to learn, specifically focusing on student anxiety and acquired helplessness.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
941
91534
A Cross-Linguistic Comparison on Compliment Responses in Turkish-English Bilinguals
Abstract:
Compliment response strategies in cross-linguistic contexts have received a considerable amount of interest in sociolinguistic research in various language settings. In this respect, a common finding of these studies indicates that speakers of different languages employ different patterns in strategies to respond to compliments. This has triggered varying theoretical approaches to compliment responses within theories of politeness and the universality of speech acts. In the light of previous studies, the present study investigates compliment response strategies that Turkish-English bilingual university students use in English and Turkish response conditions through a cross-linguistic discourse completion task and interviews. Data were analyzed using Holmes’ (1988) taxonomy and the results indicate a similar pattern to what has been observed in Turkish compliments responses in previous research. Turkish-English comparisons also display noticeable similarities in macro-level strategies, while subtle differences in micro-level strategies were also observed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
940
91337
Promoting 21st Century Skills through Telecollaborative Learning
Authors:
Abstract:
Technology has become an integral part of our lives, aiding individuals in accessing higher order competencies, such as global awareness, creativity, collaborative problem solving, and self-directed learning. Students need to acquire these competencies, often referred to as 21st century skills, in order to adapt to a fast changing world. Today, an ever-increasing number of schools are exploring how engagement through telecollaboration can support language learning and promote 21st century skill development in classrooms. However, little is known regarding how telecollaboration may influence the way students acquire 21st century skills. In this paper, we aim to shed light to the potential implications of telecollaborative practices in acquisition of 21st century skills. In our context, telecollaboration, which might be carried out in a variety of settings both synchronously or asynchronously, is considered as the process of communicating and working together with other people or groups from different locations through online digital tools or offline activities to co-produce a desired work output. The study presented here will describe and analyse the implementation of a telecollaborative project between two high school classes, one in Spain and the other in Sweden. The students in these classes were asked to carry out some joint activities, including creating an online platform, aimed at raising awareness of the situation of the Syrian refugees. We conduct a qualitative study in order to explore how language, culture, communication, and technology merge into the co-construction of knowledge, as well as supporting the attainment of the 21st century skills needed for network-mediated communication. To this end, we collected a significant amount of audio-visual data, including video recordings of classroom interaction and external Skype meetings. By analysing this data, we verify whether the initial pedagogical design and intended objectives of the telecollaborative project coincide with what emerges from the actual implementation of the tasks. Our findings indicate that, as well as planned activities, unplanned classroom interactions may lead to acquisition of certain 21st century skills, such as collaborative problem solving and self-directed learning. This work is part of a wider project (KONECT, EDU2013-43932-P; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Finance), which aims to explore innovative, cross-competency based teaching that can address the current gaps between today’s educational practices and the needs of informed citizens in tomorrow’s interconnected, globalised world.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
939
91178
An Analytical and Inductive Study of the Aspect and Impact of the Prophetic Traditions in Understating Quran and Its Interpretation
Abstract:
In present day we see in our surroundings and in different societies of the world an uprising approach of understanding Quran without the help of Hadith and Sunnah. As they believe that ‘Quran is sufficient for our guidance’. They do not give any preference to Prophetic traditions (Hadith and Sunnah), to understand or realize the actual meaning and purpose of the reveling of Quranic verses. Based on the afore mentioned idea we are going to pin point an analytical and inductive study of tafsir Ahkâm-ul Qu’ran by: Ibn-ul Arabi al-Mâliki. In this study we are trying to show the importance of Hadith and Sunnah in interpretation and understanding of Quran by presenting various examples from tafsir Ahkâm-ul Quran. This book is for being an important source in the relative filed of Ahkam-ul Quran we are going to highlight the method of Ibn-ul Arabi in dealing with Quranic verses in the light of Hadith. Furthermore, the impact of quoting different types of hadith in Tefsir is also taken into account. Besides, while citing these Prophetic traditions it is also inevitable to kept in view the sciences of hadith and its application on the context in order to orientate the proper meaning. The study also includes the scrutiny of these narrations by their chain of narrators and text to ensure the perfection of these prophetic traditions. So that, a person can have accesses to the righteous understanding and interpretation of the Holy Quran.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
938
91140
Corpus Stylistics and Multidimensional Analysis for English for Specific Purposes Teaching and Assessment
Abstract:
Academic English has become lingua franca for international scientific community which stimulates universities to introduce English for Specific Purposes (EAP) courses into curriculum. Teaching L2 EAP students might be fulfilled with corpus technologies and digital stylistics. A special software developed to reach the manifold task of teaching, assessing and researching academic writing of L2 students on basis of digital stylistics and multidimensional analysis was created. A set of annotations (style markers) – grammar, lexical and syntactic features most significant of academic writing was built. Contrastive comparison of two corpora “model corpus”, subject domain limited papers published by competent writers in leading academic journals, and “students’ corpus”, subject domain limited papers written by last year students allows to receive data about the features of academic writing underused or overused by L2 EAP student. Both corpora are tagged with a special software created in GATE Developer. Style markers within the framework of research might be replaced depending on the relevance and validity of the result which is achieved from research corpora. Thus, selecting relevant (high frequency) style markers and excluding less relevant, i.e. less frequent annotations, high validity of the model is achieved. Software allows to compare the data received from processing model corpus to students’ corpus and get reports which can be used in teaching and assessment. The less deviation from the model corpus students demonstrates in their writing the higher is academic writing skill acquisition. The research showed that several style markers (hedging devices) were underused by L2 EAP students whereas lexical linking devices were used excessively. A special software implemented into teaching of EAP courses serves as a successful visual aid, makes assessment more valid; it is indicative of the degree of writing skill acquisition, and provides data for further research.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
937
91000
Method of Complex Estimation of Text Perusal and Indicators of Reading Quality in Different Types of Commercials
Abstract:
Modern commercials presented on billboards, TV and on the Internet contain a lot of information about the product or service in text form. However, this information cannot always be perceived and understood by consumers. Typical sociological focus group studies often cannot reveal important features of the interpretation and understanding information that has been read in text messages. In addition, there is no reliable method to determine the degree of understanding of the information contained in a text. Only the fact of viewing a text does not mean that consumer has perceived and understood the meaning of this text. At the same time, the tools based on marketing analysis allow only to indirectly estimate the process of reading and understanding a text. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a valid method of recording objective indicators in real time for assessing the fact of reading and the degree of text comprehension. Psychophysiological parameters recorded during text reading can form the basis for this objective method. We studied the relationship between multimodal psychophysiological parameters and the process of text comprehension during reading using the method of correlation analysis. We used eye-tracking technology to record eye movements parameters to estimate visual attention, electroencephalography (EEG) to assess cognitive load and polygraphic indicators (skin-galvanic reaction, SGR) that reflect the emotional state of the respondent during text reading. We revealed reliable interrelations between perceiving the information and the dynamics of psychophysiological parameters during reading the text in commercials. Eye movement parameters reflected the difficulties arising in respondents during perceiving ambiguous parts of text. EEG dynamics in rate of alpha band were related with cumulative effect of cognitive load. SGR dynamics were related with emotional state of the respondent and with the meaning of text and type of commercial. EEG and polygraph parameters together also reflected the mental difficulties of respondents in understanding text and showed significant differences in cases of low and high text comprehension. We also revealed differences in psychophysiological parameters for different type of commercials (static vs. video, financial vs. cinema vs. pharmaceutics vs. mobile communication, etc.). Conclusions: Our methodology allows to perform multimodal evaluation of text perusal and the quality of text reading in commercials. In general, our results indicate the possibility of designing an integral model to estimate the comprehension of reading the commercial text in percent scale based on all noticed markers.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
936
90929
Influence of Spelling Errors on English Language Performance among Learners with Dysgraphia in Public Primary Schools in Embu County, Kenya
Abstract:
This study dealt with the influence of spelling errors on English language performance among learners with dysgraphia in public primary schools in West Embu, Embu County, Kenya. The study purposed to investigate the influence of spelling errors on the English language performance among the class three pupils with dysgraphia in public primary schools. The objectives of the study were to identify the spelling errors that learners with dysgraphia make when writing English words and classify the spelling errors they make. Further, the study will establish how the spelling errors affect the performance of the language among the study participants, and suggest the remediation strategies that teachers could use to address the errors. The study could provide the stakeholders with relevant information in writing skills that could help in developing a responsive curriculum to accommodate the teaching and learning needs of learners with dysgraphia, and probably ensure training of teachers in teacher training colleges is tailored within the writing needs of the pupils with dysgraphia. The study was carried out in Embu county because the researcher did not find any study in related literature review concerning the influence of spelling errors on English language performance among learners with dysgraphia in public primary schools done in the area. Moreover, besides being relatively populated enough for a sample population of the study, the area was fairly cosmopolitan to allow a generalization of the study findings. The study assumed the sampled schools will had class three pupils with dysgraphia who exhibited written spelling errors. The study was guided by two spelling approaches: the connectionist stimulation of spelling process and orthographic autonomy hypothesis with a view to explain how participants with learning disabilities spell written words. Data were collected through interviews, pupils’ exercise books, and progress records, and a spelling test made by the researcher based on the spelling scope set for class three pupils by the ministry of education in the primary education syllabus. The study relied on random sampling techniques in identifying general and specific participants. Since the study used children in schools as participants, voluntary consent was sought from themselves, their teachers and the school head teachers who were their caretakers in a school setting.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
935
90502
Use of iPads for Autonomous and Collaborative EFL Learning Tasks: A Multimodal Analysis on EFL Learning Triggers
Abstract:
There is an increasing interest in the applications and uses of technology in the classroom resulting from the increasingly technology-enriched society and learning environments, in particular through easily portable and very affordable devices. Consequently, research in the field of education is showing more interest in seeing how such technology can be embedded in meaningful learning, not only as a tool per se but as a means for students to attain key 21st century skills. Along these lines, this study is interested in preschoolers’ use of iPads in a lesson of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) during autonomous and collaborative tasks. The research aims to identify language learning triggers that occur during iPad supported collaborative language learning tasks. The research follows an action research design implemented in two mixed-gender groups of preschoolers. The data corpora of the study consists of 22 hours of video recordings. The preschoolers’ task was to create a digital book containing a given set of 25 letters. The book had to include a picture of an object for each letter so that it corresponded with the phonetic sound of the assigned letters. The final version of the digital book included audio, digital drawings and stickers of sounds and letters (phonics) vocabulary in English and was created by the students themselves, using the iPad as a tool. Based on a multimodal, social semiotics analysis framework this study focuses on the preschoolers as they engage in the learning process through their interaction with peers and technology, in particular in the ways in which they co-construct their understanding. In this sense learning is understood as a transformative engagement and the preschoolers are agents of that process. The analysis methodology employed is a micro-analysis of modes in interaction including gaze, movement and speech. Relevant video extracts of preschoolers’ interaction are analyzed to identify language learning signs and triggers that occur during the iPad supported task. The analysis suggests that in collaborative task designs in which one iPad is shared by the group and used collaboratively language learning signs and triggers are often found and visible. The nature of collaborative-iPad-use triggers multiparty interaction and such interaction is often the interaction in which language learning triggers are most found. It is concluded that although, there are not-visible language learning that cannot be identified or accounted for given its internal process nature, visible language learning triggers tend to arouse more often in multiparty interaction in the data collection analyzed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
934
90346
Golden Brain Theory (GBT) for Language Learning
Abstract:
Centuries ago, we came to know about ‘Golden Ratio’ also known as Golden Angle. The idea of this research is based on this theme. Researcher perceives ‘The Golden Ratio’ in terms of harmony, meaning that every single item in the universe follows a harmonic behavior. In case of human being, brain responses easily and quickly to this harmony to help memorization. In this theory, harmony means a link. This study has been carried out on a segment of school students and a segment of common people for a period of three years from 2003 to 2006. The research in this respect intended to determine the impact of harmony in the brain of these people. It has been found that students and common people can increase their memorization capacity as much as 70 times more by applying this method. This method works faster and better between age of 8 and 30 years. This result was achieved through tests to assess memorizing capacity by using tools like words, rhymes, texts, math and drawings. The research concludes that this harmonic method can be applied for improving the capacity of learning languages, for the better quality of lifestyle, or any other terms of life as well as in professional activity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
933
90237
A Problem-Based Learning Approach in a Writing Classroom: Tutors’ Experiences and Perceptions
Abstract:
This study investigated tutors’ experiences and perceptions of a problem-based learning approach (PBL) in a writing classroom. The study involved two Nigerian lecturers who facilitated an intact class of second-year students in an English composition course for the period of 12 weeks. Semi-structured interviews were employed to collect data of the study. The lecturers were interviewed before and after the implementation of the PBL process. The overall findings of the study show that the lecturers had positive perceptions of the use of PBL in a writing classroom. Specifically, the findings reveal the lecturers’ positive experiences and perception of the group activities. Finally, the paper gives some pedagogical implications which would give insight for better implementation of the PBL approach.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
932
90213
An Investigation of the Mystic Term on 'The Conference of the Birds' of Attar on the Basis of Van Doorslaer's Map
Authors:
Abstract:
This research follows some objectives to consider the mystic terms as one of the main issues in translation of poems. Firstly, it is an attempt to find out what strategies have been used to find equivalents for source text mystic. Second, it is hoped that this study of the translations of the mystic terms in Attar’s poems will further address and explore the problems in translating mystic texts, proposed by other Persian poets and suggest instructional points from Davis work for translation education. In order to deal with such a breadth of work, a new conceptual tool was developed, as explained by Van Doorslaer (2007). This study shows that according to Van Doorslaer’s map, the mystic terms can be transferred to the target language (TL) with their exact content of the source language (SL) if the translator has a good choice for any term.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):