Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 39602

Cognitive and Language Sciences

Using Music: An Effective Medium of Teaching Vocabulary in ESL Classroom
Music can be used in ESL classroom to create a learning environment. As literature abounds with positive statements, music can be used as a vehicle for second language acquisition. Music can be applied as an instrument to help second language learners to acquire vocabulary, grammar, spelling and other four skills and to expand cultural knowledge. Vocabulary learning is perceived boring by learners. As listening to music and singing songs are enjoyable to students, it can be used effectively to acquire vocabulary in second language. This paper reports a study to find out how music exhilarates vocabulary acquisition as the learners stay relaxed and thus learning becomes more enjoyable. For conducting my research two groups of fifty students- music and non-music group were formed. Data were collected through class observation, test, questionnaires, and interview. The finding shows that music group acquired much amount of vocabulary than the non-music group. They enjoyed vocabulary learning activities based on listening songs.
Psychology of Learning English and Motivation in EFL Students
Lack of motivation among students in learning English can be considered as one of the main obstacles faced by parents, teachers and college/school administrators in Gulf countries and Iran. The question is why this problem still exists among EFL students’ despite of various new methodologies that colleges are implementing by native and non-native instructors. In the paper, it has been explained that why many students fail to know the basic knowledge and conversations of English language even after completing academic levels of colleges. In this study, the answers of all questions have been covered by introducing the concept of the psychology of learning and the importance of motivation which are the main discussions of this study. Additionally, the paper has illustrated that how psychology is the key of success in learning English and how it develops motivation and confidence dramatically among students especially on speaking skill. The study shows that psychology is 70% of success and 30% are the methods and materials that we implement to teach in the classroom. Therefore, this is the role of teachers to develop 70% of positive motivation and psychology among students. The approach of study is descriptive, and the focus will be on speaking skill.
Metaphors in Egyptian News Headlines in Relation to the Egyptian Political Situation 2012-2013
This paper examines the use of metaphors in Arabic political news discourse, focusing particularly on the headlines of the news articles relating to the Egyptian political situation in the period from June 2012 to October 2013. Metaphors are skilfully manipulated in the headlines to influence the public stance towards several events and entities including Egypt, Muslim Brotherhood (MB), Morsi, the June 30th uprising, Al-Sisi and the Armed Forces. The findings reveal that Arabic political news discourse shares basic features with its English counterpart, namely the use of metaphors as persuasive strategies and the presence of certain target domains. Insights gained from this study feed back into the conceptual metaphor theory by providing further evidence to the universality of metaphors.
Exploring the Vocabulary and Grammar Advantage of US American over British English Speakers at Age 2;0
The research aims to compare vocabulary size and grammatical development between US American English- and British English-speaking children at age 2;0. As there is evidence that precocious children with large vocabularies develop grammar skills earlier than their typically developing peers, it was investigated if this also holds true across varieties of English. Thus, if US American children start to produce words earlier than their British counterparts, this could mean that US children are also at an advantage in the early developmental stages of acquiring grammar. This research employs a British English adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates CDI Words and Sentences (Lincoln Toddler CDI) to compare vocabulary and also grammar scores with the updated US Toddler CDI norms. At first, the Lincoln TCDI was assessed for its concurrent validity with the Preschool Language Scale (PLS-5 UK). This showed high correlations for the vocabulary and grammar subscales between the tests. In addition, the frequency of the Toddler CDI’s words was also compared using American and British English corpora of adult spoken and written language. A paired-samples t-test found a significant difference in word frequency between the British and the American CDI demonstrating that the TCDI’s words were indeed of higher frequency in British English. We then compared language and grammar scores between US (N = 135) and British children (N = 96). A two-way between groups ANOVA examined if the two samples differed in terms of SES (i.e. maternal education) by investigating the impact of SES and country on vocabulary and sentence complexity. The two samples did not differ in terms of maternal education as the interaction effects between SES and country were not significant. In most cases, scores were not significantly different between US and British children, for example, for overall word production and most grammatical subscales (i.e. use of words, over- regularizations, complex sentences, word combinations). However, in-depth analysis showed that US children were significantly better than British children at using some noun categories (i.e. people, objects, places) and several categories marking early grammatical development (i.e. pronouns, prepositions, quantifiers, helping words). However, the effect sizes were small. Significant differences for grammar were found for irregular word forms and progressive tense suffixes. US children were more advanced in their use of these grammatical categories, but the effect sizes were small. In sum, while differences exist in terms of vocabulary and grammar ability, favouring US children, effect sizes were small. It can be concluded that most British children are ‘catching up’ with their US American peers at age 2;0. Implications of this research will be discussed.
Parental Bonding and Cognitive Emotion Regulation
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of parental bonding on adult’s cognitive emotion regulation and also to investigate gender differences in parental bonding and cognitive emotion regulation. Data were collected by using convenience sampling technique from 100 adult students (50 males and 50 females) of different universities of Dhaka city, ages between 20 to 25 years, using Bengali version of Parental Bonding Inventory and Bengali version of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. The obtained data were analyzed by using multiple regression analysis and independent samples t-test. The results revealed that fathers care (β =0.317, p < 0.05) was only significantly positively associated with adult’s cognitive emotion regulation. Adjusted R² indicated that the model explained 30% of the variance in adult’s adaptive cognitive emotion regulation. No significant association was found between parental bonding and less adaptive cognitive emotion regulations. Results from independent samples t-test also revealed that there was no significant gender difference in both parental bonding and cognitive emotion regulations.
Adverse Drug Extraction in Twitter Data Using Convolutional Neural Network and Word2vec
Study of health-related topics on social media is an important and growing research area. It can be a useful tool for early detection of different side effects of medications. In particular, it concerns medication related to the treatment of mental diseases. In the paper, we propose to use convolutional neural networks (CNN) with word2vec presentation for binary classification of adverse drug reactions (ADR). The classifier is adjusted on a Twitter dataset collected by DiegoLab and it demonstrates essentially better results on this data then the experiments described in the literature. It became possible with the use of additional dataset from Semeval for constructing word embeddings. With this, we can recommend our tool for solution of the classification problem related to ADR.
Extraction of Compound Words in Malay Sentences Using Linguistic and Statistical Approaches
Malay noun compound are phrases that consist of two or more nouns. The key characteristic behind noun compounds lies on its frequent occurrences within the text. Therefore, extracting these noun compounds is essential for several domains of research such as Information Retrieval, Sentiment Analysis and Question Answering. Many research efforts have been proposed in terms of extracting Malay noun compounds using linguistic and statistical approaches. Most of the existing methods have concentrated on the extraction of bi-gram noun+noun compound. However, extracting noun+verb, noun+adjective and noun+prepositional is challenging due to the difficulty of selecting an appropriate method with effective results. Thus, there is still room for improvement in terms of enhancing the effectiveness of compound word extraction. Therefore, this study proposed a combination of linguistic approach and statistical measures in order to enhance the extraction of compound words. Several preprocessing steps are involved including normalization, tokenization, and stemming. The linguistic approach that has been used in this study is Part-of-Speech (POS) tagging. In addition, a new linguistic pattern for named entities has been utilized using a list of Malays named entities in order to enhance the linguistic approach in terms of noun compound recognition. The proposed statistical measures consists of NC-value, NTC-value and NLC value.
Rural School English Teacher Motivational Practice on Facilitating Student Motivation
It is generally believed that the teacher’s use of motivational strategies can enhance student motivation, especially in a place like Taiwan where teacher usually dominates student EFL learning. However, only little empirical studies support this claim. This study examined the connection between teachers’ use of motivational teaching practice and observed student motivated behavior in rural junior high schools in Taiwan. The use of motivational strategies by 12 teachers in five recognized rural junior high schools was investigated observed using a classroom observation instrument, the Motivation Orientation of Language Teaching. Meanwhile, post-lesson teacher evaluations accomplished by both the researcher and the teacher were functioning as part of the measure of teacher motivational practice. The data collected through observation scheme follows the real-time coding principle to examine observable teacher motivational practice and learner motivated behaviors. The results support the previous research findings that teachers’ use of motivational strategies is associated with the student motivated behaviors as well as the students’ level of motivation regarding English learning.
Pragmatic Development of Chinese Sentence Final Particles via Computer-Mediated Communication
This study investigated in which condition computer-mediated communication (CMC) could promote pragmatic development. The focal feature included four Chinese sentence final particles (SFPs), a, ya, ba, and ne. They occur frequently in Chinese, and function as mitigators to soften the tone of speech. However, L2 acquisition of SFPs is difficult, suggesting the necessity of additional exposure to or explicit instruction on Chinese SFPs. This study follows this line and aims to explore two research questions: (1) Is CMC combined with data-driven instruction more effective than CMC alone in promoting L2 Chinese learners’ SFP use? (2) How does L2 Chinese learners’ SFP use change over time, as compared to the production of native Chinese speakers? The study involved 19 intermediate-level learners of Chinese enrolled at a private American university. They were randomly assigned to two groups: (1) the control group (N = 10), which was exposed to SFPs through CMC alone, (2) the treatment group (N = 9), which was exposed to SFPs via CMC and data-driven instruction. Learners interacted with native speakers on given topics through text-based CMC over Skype. Both groups went through six 30-minute CMC sessions on a weekly basis, with a one-week interval after the first two CMC sessions and a two-week interval after the second two CMC sessions (nine weeks in total). The treatment group additionally received a data-driven instruction after the first two sessions. Data analysis focused on three indices: token frequency, type frequency, and acceptability of SFP use. Token frequency was operationalized as the raw occurrence of SFPs per clause. Type frequency was the range of SFPs. Acceptability was rated by two native speakers using a rating rubric. The results showed that the treatment group made noticeable progress over time on the three indices. The production of SFPs approximated the native-like level. In contrast, the control group only slightly improved on token frequency. Only certain SFPs (a and ya) reached the native-like use. Potential explanations for the group differences were discussed in two aspects: the property of Chinese SFPs and the role of CMC and data-driven instruction. Though CMC provided the learners with opportunities to notice and observe SFP use, as a feature with low saliency, SFPs were not easily noticed in input. Data-driven instruction in the treatment group directed the learners’ attention to these particles, which facilitated the development.
Investigating the Pronunciation of '-S' and '-Ed' Suffixes in Yemeni English
The present paper seeks to explicate the pronunciation of the ‘-s’ and ‘-ed’ suffixes when applied in their relative places in word endings. It attempts to investigate the problems faced by Yemenis in the pronunciation of these suffixes in all occurrences and realizations. It discusses the realization of ‘s’ in the four areas of plural, 3rd person singular and genitive markers, and contraction of ‘has’ and ‘is’ as in he’s, it’s ..,etc. and shows how they are differently represented by three different sounds /s/, /z/ and /z/ based on the phonological structure of the words in which they occur. Similarly, it explains the realization of the ‘-ed’ suffix of the past and past participle marker and how it is realized differently by three sounds governed by the phonological structure of these words. Besides, it tries to shed some light on the English morphophonemic and phonological rules that govern the pronunciation of such troublesome endings. It is hypothesized that the absence of such phenomenon in the mother tongue pronunciation of these suffixes.
Circadian Clock and Subjective Time Perception
Subjective time perception implies the connection to cognitive functions, attention, memory, and awareness, but a little is known about connections with homeostatic states of the body coordinated by the circadian clock. In this paper, we present results from an experimental study of subjective time perception in volunteers performing physical activity on a treadmill in various phases of their circadian rhythms. Subjects were exposed to several time illusions simulated by programmed timing systems. This study brings better understanding for further improvement of human work in isolated areas, shift work, and astronaut work in space.
Active Learning: Increase Learning through Engagement
This poster focuses on the significance of active learning strategies and their usage in the ESL classroom. Active learning is a big shift from traditional lecturing to active student engagement which can enhance and enrich student learning; therefore, engaging students is the core of this approach. Students learn more when they participate in the process of learning such as discussions, debates, analysis, synthesis, or any form of activity that requires student involvement. In order to achieve active learning, teachers can use different instructional strategies that are conducive to learning and the selection of these strategies depends on student learning outcomes. Active learning techniques must be carefully designed and integrated into the classroom to increase critical thinking and student participation. This poster provides a concise definition of active learning and its importance, instructional strategies, active learning techniques and their impact on student engagement. Also, it demonstrates the differences between passive and active learners.
An Online Corpus-Based Bilingual Collocations Dictionary for Second/Foreign Language Learners
Collocations are conventionalized, recurrent and arbitrary lexical combinations. Due to the fact that they are highly specific for a particular language and may be contextually restricted, collocations pose a problem to EFL/ESL learners with regard to production or encoding. Taking that into account, the compilation of monolingual and bilingual collocations dictionaries for the referred audience is highly crucial and significant. Thus, the aim of this paper is to discuss the importance of the compilation of an Online Corpus-based Bilingual Collocations Dictionary, in the English-Portuguese and Portuguese-English directions. On a first phase, with the use of WordSmith Tools, the collocations were extracted from a Translation Learner Corpus (TLC), a parallel corpus made up of university students’ translations in the Portuguese-English direction, with approximately 100,000 words. In a second stage, based on the keywords analyzed from the TLC, more collocational patterns were extracted using the Sketch Engine. In order to include more collocations as well as to ensure dictionary users will have access to more frequent and recurrent collocations, we also use the frequency list from The Corpus of Contemporary American English, with the purpose of extracting more patterns. The dictionary focuses on all types of collocations (verbal, noun, adjectival and adverbial collocations), in order to help the referred audience use them more accurately and productively – so far the dictionary has more than 330 entries, and more than 3,500 collocations extracted. The idea of having the proposed dictionary in online format may allow to incorporate more qualitatively and quantitatively collocational information. Besides, more examples may be included, different from conventional printed collocations dictionaries. Being the first bilingual collocations dictionary in the aforementioned directions, it is hoped to achieve the challenge of meeting learners’ collocational needs as the collocations have been selected according to learners’ difficulties regarding the use of collocations.
Teaching Translation in Brazilian Universities: A Study about the Possible Impacts of What Translators Say on the Cyberspace about Translator Education
The objective of this presentation is to discuss relevant points about teaching translation in Brazilian universities and the possible impacts of blogs and social networks to translator education today. It is intended to analyze the curricula of Brazilian translation courses, contrasting them to information obtained from two social networking groups of great visibility in the area concerning essential characteristics to become a successful professional. Therefore, research has as its main corpus a few undergraduate translation programs syllabuses, as well as a few postings on social networks groups that specifically share professional opinions regarding the necessity for a translator to obtain a degree in translation to practice the profession. To a certain extent, such comments and their corresponding responses lead to the propagation of discourses which influence the ideas that aspiring translators and recent graduates end up having towards themselves and their undergraduate courses. The postings also show that many professionals do not have a clear position regarding the translator education; while refuting it, they also encourage 'free' courses. It is thus observed that cyberspace constitutes, on the one hand, a place of mobilization of people in defense of similar ideas. However, on the other hand, it embodies a place of tension and conflict, in view of the fact that there are many participants and, as in any other situation of interlocution, disagreements may arise. From the postings, aspects related to professionalism were analyzed (including discussions about regulation), as well as questions about the classic dichotomies: theory/practice; art/technique; self-education/ academic training. As partial result, it could be mention the common interest regarding the valorization of the profession, although there is no consensus on the essential characteristics to be a good translator. It was also possible to observe that the set of socially constructed representations in the group reflects characteristics of the world situation of the translation courses (especially in some European countries and in the United States), which, in the first instance, does not accurately reflect the Brazilian idiosyncrasies of the area.
Tradition and Modernity in Translation Studies: The Case of Undergraduate and Graduate Programs at Unicamp, Brazil
In Brazil, considering the (little) age of translation studies, it can be argued that the University of Campinas is traditionally an important place for graduate studies in translation. The story is told from the accreditation for the Masters, in 1987, and the Doctoral program, in 1993, within the Graduate Program in Applied Linguistics. Since the beginning, the program boasted cutting-edge research, with theoretical reflections on various aspects, and with different methodological trends. However, on the one hand, the graduate studies development was continuously growing, but on the other, it is not what was observed in the undergraduate degree program. Currently, there are only a few disciplines of Translation Theory and Practice, which does not seem to respond to student aspirations. The objective of this paper is to present the characteristics of the university’s graduate program as something profitable, considering the concern in relating the research to the historical moment in which we are living, with research conducted in a socially compromised environment and committed to the impact that it will cause ethically and socially, as well as to question the undergraduate program paths. The objective is also to discuss and propose changes, considering the limited scope currently achieved. In light of the information age, in which we have an avalanche of information, we believe that the training of translators in the undergraduate degree should be reviewed, with the goal of retracing current paths and following others that are consistent with our historical period, marked by virtual and real, by the shuffling of borders and languages, the need for new language policies, greater inclusion, and more acceptance of others. We conclude that we need new proposals for the development of the translator in an undergraduate program, and also present suggestions to be implemented in the graduate program.
The Phenomena of False Cognates and Deceptive Cognates: Issues to Foreign Language Learning and Teaching Methodology Based on Set Theory
The aim of this study is to establish differences between the terms ‘false cognates’, ‘false friends’ and ‘deceptive cognates’, usually considered to be synonyms. It will be shown they are not synonyms, since they do not designate the same linguistic process or phenomenon. Despite their differences in meaning, many pairs of formally similar words in two (or more) different languages are true cognates, although they are usually known as ‘false’ cognates – such as, for instance, the English and Italian lexical items ‘assist x assistere’; ‘attend x attendere’; ‘argument x argomento’; ‘apology x apologia’; ‘camera x camera’; ‘cucumber x cocomero’; ‘fabric x fabbrica’; ‘factory x fattoria’; ‘firm x firma’; ‘journal x giornale’; ‘library x libreria’; ‘magazine x magazzino’; ‘parent x parente’; ‘preservative x preservativo’; ‘pretend x pretendere’; ‘vacancy x vacanza’, to name but a few examples. Thus, one of the theoretical objectives of this paper is firstly to elaborate definitions establishing a distinction between the words that are definitely ‘false cognates’ (derived from different etyma) and those that are just ‘deceptive cognates’ (derived from the same etymon). Secondly, based on Set Theory and on the concepts of equal sets, subsets, intersection of sets and disjoint sets, this study is intended to elaborate some theoretical and practical questions that will be useful in identifying more precisely similarities and differences between cognate words of different languages, and according to graphic interpretation of sets it will be possible to classify them and provide discernment about the processes of semantic changes. Therefore, these issues might be helpful not only to the Learning of Second and Foreign Languages, but they could also give insights into Foreign and Second Language Teaching Methodology.
A Comparative Analysis of Body Idioms in Two Romance Languages and in English Aiming at Vocabulary Teaching and Learning
Before the advent of Cognitive Linguistics, metaphor was considered a stylistic issue, but now it is viewed as a critical component of everyday language and a fundamental mechanism of human conceptualizations of the world. It means that human beings' conceptual system (the way we think and act) is metaphorical in nature. Another interesting hypothesis in Cognitive Linguistics is that cognition is embodied, that is, our cognition is influenced by our experiences in the physical world: the mind is connected to the body and the body influences the mind. In this sense, it is believed that many conceptual metaphors appear to be potentially universal or near-universal, because people across the world share certain bodily experiences. In these terms, many metaphors may be identical or very similar in several languages. Thus, in this study we analyzed some somatic (also called body) idioms of Italian and Portuguese languages, in order to investigate the proportion in which their metaphors are the same, similar or different in both languages. It was selected hundreds of Italian idioms in dictionaries and indicated their corresponding idioms in Portuguese. The analysis allowed to conclude that much of the studied expressions are really structurally, semantically and metaphorically identical or similar in both languages. We also contrasted some Portuguese and Italian somatic expressions to their corresponding English idioms to have a multilingual perspective of the issue and it also led to the conclusion that the most common idioms based on metaphors are probably those that have to do with the human body. Although this is mere speculation and needs more study, the results found incite relevant discussions on issues that matter Foreign and Second Language Teaching and Learning, including the retention of vocabulary. The teaching of the metaphorically different body idioms also plays an important role in language learning and teaching as it will be shown in this paper.
Self-Interest Instruction Modulated Proposers' Behavior in Ultimatum Game
Ultimatum game (UG) is an experimental paradigm to study human decision making. There are two players, a proposer and a responder, to divide a fixed sum of money. The proposer suggests how to split the money. If the responder accepts the offer, the money would be divided as proposed. If the responder rejects, both players would receive no money. According to the prediction of self-interest theory, proposer should offer the lowest amount of money (the selfish offer) to responder to maximize his own outcomes. In the current study, we aimed to manipulate the self-interest instruction to examine the effect of self- interest strategy in a binary choice UG task, in which participants chose between a fair and a selfish offer, or between a fair and an altruistic offer. Also, we manipulated stake size ($100, 1000, and 10000) and share size (selfish offer: the 40%, 30%, 20%, 10% of the sum; altruistic offer: the 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% of the sum). We hypothesized that proposers under this instruction would make more self-interest decisions. Twenty students were recruited from National Chengchi University (gender: 2 males and 18 females; age M = 21.6, SD = 3.362). Ten of them were randomly assigned to the self-interest instruction group (SII), and the other 10 to the no instruction group (NI) as control. There was no difference in age (both M of age = 21.6, p = .476). The results showed that while choosing the fair or the selfish offers, there was a significant interaction between groups and share sizes on the choosing rates and the reaction time, F(1, 18) = 3.601 and 5.235, ps = .074 and .034, respectively. In choosing rates, the SII proposers chose more selfish offers (61.787%) than the NI proposers (34,463%), p = .073. In RT, although there was no difference in choosing selfish offers between SII and NI proposers, we found that NI proposers spent more time (1590.485ms) on choosing fair offers than the SII proposers did (1239.365ms), p = .059. While choosing the fair or the altruistic offers, neither the significant main effect for groups, nor the interaction between groups and share sizes was found. However, we found the main effect for offers on choosing rates and RT, F(1, 18) = 148.499 and 37.776, ps < .001. In choosing rates, proposers chose more fair offers (89.904%) than altruistic ones (8.567%). Furthermore, they chose fair offers with longer RT (1587.950ms) than choosing the altruistic ones (756.853ms). To sum up, the self-interest instruction modulated the proposers’ offers. The longer RT for NI proposers to choose fair offers might reflect their fear of rejections. Besides, the self-interest instruction did not modulate proposers’ altruistic behaviors. Instead, we only found the effect of offers. All participants chose more fair offers with longer RT. The mechanism of fair-offer-choosing and altruistic decision making remained to be examined in the future.
A Study on the Acquisition of Chinese Classifiers by Vietnamese Learners
In the field of language study, classifier is an interesting research feature. In the world’s languages, some languages have classifier system, some do not. Mandarin Chinese and Vietnamese languages are a rich classifier system, however, because of the language system, the cognitive, cultural differences, so that the syntactic structure of classifier of them also dissimilar. When using Mandarin Chinese classifiers must collocate with nouns or verbs, in the lexical category it is not like nouns or verbs, belong to the open class. But some scholars believe that Mandarin Chinese measure words are similar to English and other Indo European languages. The word hanging on the structure and word formation (suffix), is a closed class. Compared to other languages, such as Chinese, Vietnamese, Thai and other Asian languages are still belonging to the classifier language’s second type, this type of language is classifier, it is in the majority of quantity must exist, and following deictic, anaphoric or quantity appearing together, not separation between its modified noun, also known as numeral classifier language. Main syntactic structure of Chinese classifiers are as follows: ‘quantity+measure+noun’, ‘pronoun+measure+noun’, ‘pronoun+quantity+measure+noun’, ‘prefix+quantity+measure +noun’, ‘quantity +adjective + measure +noun’, ‘ quantity (above 10 whole number), + duo (多)measure +noun’, ‘ quantity (around 10) + measure + duo (多) +noun’. Main syntactic structure of Vietnamese classifiers are: ‘quantity+measure+noun’, ‘ measure+noun+pronoun’, ‘quantity+measure+noun+pronoun’, ‘measure+noun+prefix+ quantity’, ‘quantity+measure+noun+adjective', ‘duo (多) +quanlity+measure+noun’, ‘quantity+measure+adjective+pronoun (quantity word could not be 1)’, ‘measure+adjective+pronoun’, ‘measure+pronoun’. In daily life, classifiers are commonly used, if Chinese learners failed to standardize this using catergory, because the negative impact might occur on their verbal communication. The richness of the Chinese classifier system contributes to the complexity in the study of the system by foreign learners, especially in the inter language of Vietnamese learners. As above mentioned, Vietnamese language also has a rich system of classifiers, however, the basic structure order of two languages are similar but both still have differences. These similarities and dissimilarities between Chinese and Vietnamese classifier systems contribute significantly to the common errors made by Vietnamese students while they acquire Chinese, which are distinct from the errors made by students from the other language background. This article from a comparative perspective of language, has an orientation towards Chinese and Vietnamese languages commonly used in classifiers semantics and structural form two aspects. This comparative study aims to identity Vietnamese students while learning Chinese classifiers may face some negative transference of mother language, beside that through the analysis of the classifiers questionnaire, find out the causes and patterns of the errors they made. As the preliminary analysis shows, Vietnamese students while learning Chinese classifiers made some errors such as: overuse classifier ‘ge’(个); misuse the other classifiers ‘*yi zhang ri ji’(yi pian ri ji), ‘*yi zuo fang zi’(yi jian fang zi), ‘*si zhang jin pai’(si mei jin pai); homonym words ‘dui, shuang, fu, tao’ (对、双、副、套), ‘ke, li’ (颗、粒).
A Study from Language and Culture Perspective of Human Needs in Chinese and Vietnamese Euphemism Languages
Human beings are motivated to satisfy the physiological needs and psychological needs. In the fundamental needs, bodily excretion is the most basic one, while physiological excretion refers to the final products produced in the process of discharging the body. This physiological process is a common human phenomenon. For instance, bodily secretion is totally natural, but people of various nationalities through the times avoid saying it directly. Terms like ‘shit’ are often negatively regarded as dirty, smelly and vulgar; it will lead people to negative thinking. In fact, it is in the psychology of human beings to avoid such unsightly terms. Especially in social situations where you have to take care of your image, and you have to release. The best way to solve this is to approach the use of euphemism. People prefer to say it as ‘answering nature's call’ or ‘to pass a motion’ instead. Chinese and Vietnamese nations are referring to use euphemisms to replace bodily secretions, so this research will take this phenomenon as the object aims to explore the similarities and dissimilarities between two languages euphemism. The basic of the niche of this paper is human physiological phenomenon excretion. As the preliminary results show, in expressing bodily secretions the deeply impacting factor is language and cultural factors. On language factor terms, two languages are using assonance to replace human nature discharge, whilst the dissimilarities are metonymy, loan word and personification. On culture factor terms, the convergences are metonymy and application of the semantically-contrary-word-euphemism, whilst the difference is Chinese euphemism using allusion but Vietnamese euphemism does not.
Translating Discourse Organization Structures Used in Chinese and English Scientific and Engineering Writings
This study compares the different organization structures of Chinese and English writing discourses in the engineering and scientific fields, and recommends approaches for translators to convert the organization structures properly. Based on existing intercultural communication literature, English authors tend to deductively give their main points at the beginning, following with detailed explanations or arguments afterwards while the Chinese authors tend to place their main points inductively towards the end. In this study, this hypothesis has been verified by the authors’ Chinese-to-English translation experiences in the fields of science and engineering (e.g. journal papers, conference papers and monographs). The basic methodology used is the comparison of writings by Chinese authors with writings of the same or similar topic written by English authors in terms of organization structures. Translators should be aware of this nuance, so that instead of limiting themselves to translating the contents of an article in its original structure, they can convert the structures to fill the cross-culture gap. This approach can be controversial because if a translator changes the structure organization of a paragraph (e.g. from a 'because-therefore' inductive structure by a Chinese author to a deductive structure in English), this change of sentence order could be questioned by the original authors. For this reason, translators need to properly inform the original authors on the intercultural differences of English and Chinese writing (e.g. inductive structure versus deductive structure), and work with the original authors to maintain accuracy while converting from one structure used in a source language to another structure in the target language. The authors have incorporated these methodologies into their translation practices and work closely with the authors on the inter-cultural organization structure mapping. Translating discourse organization structure should become a standard practice in the translation process.
Linguistic Analysis of Holy Scriptures: A Comparative Study of Islamic Jurisprudence and the Western Hermeneutical Tradition
The tradition of linguistic analysis in Islam and Christianity has developed independently of each other in lieu of the social developments specific to their historical context. However, recently increasing number of Muslim academics educated in the West have tried to apply the Western tradition of linguistic interpretation to the Qur’anic text while completely disregarding the Islamic linguistic tradition used and developed by the traditional scholars over the centuries. The aim of the paper is to outline the linguistic tools and methods used by the traditional Islamic scholars for the purpose of interpretating the Holy Qur’an and shed light on how they contribute towards a better understanding of the text compared to their Western counterparts. This paper carries out a descriptive-comparative study of the linguistic tools developed and perfected by the traditional scholars in Islam for the purpose of textual analysis of the Qur’an as they have been described in the authentic works of Usul Al Fiqh (Jurisprudence) and the principles of textual analysis employed by the Western hermeneutical tradition for the study of the Bible. First, it briefly outlines the independent historical development of the two traditions emphasizing the final normative shape that they have taken. Then it draws a comparison of the two traditions highlighting the similarities and the differences existing between them. In the end, the paper demonstrates the level of academic excellence achieved by the traditional linguistic scholars in their efforts to develop appropriate tools of textual interpretation and how these tools are more suitable for interpreting the Qur’an compared to the Western principles. Since the aim of interpreters of both the traditions is to try and attain an objective understanding of the Scriptures, the emphasis of the paper shall be to highlight how well the Islamic method of linguistic interpretation contributes to an objective understanding of the Qur’anic text. The paper concludes with the following findings: The Western hermeneutical tradition of linguistic analysis developed within the Western historical context. However, the Islamic method of linguistic analysis is much more highly developed and complex and serves better the purpose of objective understanding of the Holy text.
Multilingual Living in the Early Medieval Celtic Scriptoria: A Comparative Historical Linguistic Analysis of Ad-Hoc-Borrowings in the Celtic Glosses on Priscian and Bede
The Early Medieval period (AD 600–900) in the ‘Irish Sea Province’ (encompassing Ireland, Britain, and Brittany) is a period of constant interchange and multicultural relationships. This means that the speakers of the two branches of the Insular Celtic languages, i.e. Irish and British Celtic, languages which had split at a not precisely determinable point before the beginning of the first millennium AD, stayed in close cultural and linguistic contact. The latter is especially apparent in the ‘Celtic glossing tradition’, which forms the focal point of the present paper. The corpora of glosses in the Celtic languages, especially the ones on the computistic works of Bede and on the Latin grammar of Priscian, show the multilingual character of the scriptoria in which these texts were studied. They feature many instances of Latin loanwords and also intra-Celtic loanwords. A specific feature of them are ad-hoc-borrowings, which are almost exclusively hapax legomena. Their phonological shapes show that they were adapted to the phonological system of the receiving language. They seem, however, to have never left the learned environment of the scriptoria. The main approach of the paper is the comparative historical linguistic method, i.e. phonological, morphological and semantic comparison and analysis. The analysis of the borrowings shows that the medieval scribes were not only familiar with their L1 and the Latin of the manuscripts they copied, but also with the other branch of the Insular Celtic languages spoken by their fellow scribes. Through their shared day-to-day routine and their close collaborations with speakers of different languages they turned the Celtic scriptoria into early medieval centers of multilingual living.
Peace through Language Policy as a Solution to the Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka, which is officially called the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is an island nation situated near India. It is a multi-lingual, multi- religious and multi – ethnic country, where Sinhalese form the majority and the Tamils form the largest ethnic minority. The composition of the population (ethnic basis) in Sri Lanka is as follows: Sinhalese: 74.5%, Tamil (Sri Lankan): 12.6%, Muslim: 7.5 %, Tamil (Indian): 5.5%, Malay: 0.3%, Burgher: 0.3 %, other: 0.2 %. The Tamil people use the Tamil language as their mother tongue and the Sinhala people use the Sinhala language as their mother tongue. A very few people in both communities use English as their mother tongue and however, a large number of people use English as a second language. The Sinhala Language was declared the only official language in Sri Lanka in 1959. However, it was not acceptable to Tamil politicians as well as to the common Tamil people and it was the beginning of long standing ethnic crisis which later became a military war where a lot of blood was shed. As a solution to the above ethnic crisis the thirteenth amendment to the constitution of Sri Lanka was introduced in 1987 and according to it both Sinhala and Tamil were declared official languages and English as the link language in Sri Lanka. Thus, a new programme namely, second language teaching programme under which Sinhala was taught to Tamil students and Tamil was taught to Sinhala students, was introduced at government schools. Language teaching includes knowledge of the culture of the target language. As all cultures are mixed and have common features students have reduced their enmity about the other community and learned to respect the other culture. On the other hand as all languages are mixed, students came to the understanding that there are no pure languages. Thus, they learned to respect the other language. In the case of Sri Lanka the Sinhala language is mixed with the Tamil language and vice versa. Thus, the development of second language teaching is the prominent way to solve the above ethnic problem and this study clearly shows it. However, the above programme suffers with lack of trained second language teachers, infrastructure facilities and insufficient funds and, they can be considered as the main obstacles to develop the second language teaching programme. Yet, there are no satisfactory answers to those problems. The data were collected from relevant books, articles and other documents based on research and forty five recordings, each with one hour duration, of natural conversations covering all factions of the Sinhala community.
Child-Friendly Digital Storytelling to Promote Young Learners' Critical Thinking in English Learning
Integrating critical thinking and digital based learning is one of demands in teaching English in 21st century. Child-friendly digital storytelling (CFDS) is an innovative learning model to promote young learners’ critical thinking. Therefore, this study aims to (1) investigate how child-friendly digital storytelling is implemented to promote young learners’ critical thinking in speaking English; (2) find out the benefits gained by the students in their learning based on CFDS. Classroom Action Research (CAR) took place in two cycles in which each of the cycle covered four phases namely: Planning, Acting, Observing, and Evaluating. Three classes of seventh graders were selected as the subjects of this study. Data were collected through observation, interview with some selected students as respondents, and document analysis in the form individual recorded storytelling. Sentences, phrases, words found in the transcribed data were identified and categorized based on Bloom taxonomy. The findings from the first cycle showed that the students seemed to speak critically that can be seen from the way they understood the story and related the story to their real life. Meanwhile, the result investigated from the second cycle likely indicated their higher level of critical thinking since the students spoke in English critically through comparing, questioning, analyzing, and evaluating the story by giving arguments, opinions, and comments. Such higher levels of critical thinking were also found in the students’ final project of individual recorded digital story. It is elaborated from the students’ statements in the interview who claimed CFDS offered opportunity to the students to promote their critical thinking because they comprehended the story deeply as they experienced in their real life. This learning model created good learning atmosphere and engaged the students directly so that they looked confident to retell the story in various perspectives. In term of the benefits of child-friendly digital storytelling, the students found it beneficial for some enjoyable classroom activities through watching beautiful and colorful pictures, listening to clear and good sounds, appealing moving motion and emotionally they were involved in that story. In the interview, the students also stated that child-friendly digital storytelling eased them to understand the meaning of the story as they were motivated and enthusiastic to speak in English critically.
The Sociocultural and Critical Theories under the Empiricism of a Study Abroad Program
This paper presents the sociocultural and critical theories used in the creation of a study abroad program in Brazil, as well as the successful results obtained in the fourteen years of experience provided by the program in distinct regions of Brazil. This program maximizes students’ acquisition of the Portuguese language, and affords them an in-depth intercultural and intracultural competence by on site studies in cosmopolitan Rio de Janeiro, afro-heritage Salvador da Bahia, and Amazonian Belém do Pará. The program provides the means to acknowledge the presence, influence, similarities, and differences of Portuguese-speaking Brazil in Latin America.
Sociocultural and Critical Approach for Summer Study Abroad Program in Higher Education
This paper presents the empirical and the theoretical principles associated with the Duke in Brazil Summer Program. Using a sociocultural model and critical theory, this study abroad maximizes students’ ability to enrich language competence, intercultural skills, and critical thinking. The fourteen-year implementation of this project demonstrates the global importance of foreign language teaching as the program unfolds into real life scenarios within the cultures of distinct regions of Brazil; Cosmopolitan Rio, in the southeast, and rural Belém, northern Amazon region.
Validating the Arabic Communicative Development Inventory for Assessing the Development of Language in Arabic-Speaking Children
Assessing children’s language is fundamental for changing their developmental outcome as it gives a chance for a quick and early intervention with the suitable planning and monitoring program. The importance of language assessment lies in helping to find the right test fit for purpose, in addition to achievement and proficiency. This study examines the validity of a new Arabic assessment tool, the Arabic Communicative Development Inventory ‘Arabic CDI’. It assesses the development of language in Arabic children in different Arabic countries, allowing to detect children with language delay. A concurrent validity is set to compare the Arabic CDI to the Arabic Language test. Twenty-three typically developing Egyptian healthy children and their mothers participated in this study. Their age is 24 months (+ or -) two weeks. The sample included 13 males and 10 females. Mothers completed the Arabic CDI either before or after the Arabic Language Test was conducted with the child. The score for comprehension in the Arabic CDI (M= 52.7, SD= 9.7) and words understood in the Arabic Language Test (M= 59.6, SD= 12.5) were strongly and positively correlated (r= .62, p= .002). At the same time, the scores for production in the Arabic CDI (M= 38.4, SD= 14.8) and words expressed in the Arabic Language Test (M= 52.1, SD= 16.3) were also strongly and positively correlated (r= .82, p= .000). The new Arabic CDI is an adequate tool for assessing the development of comprehension and production at Arabic children. In addition, it could be used for detecting children with language impairment. Standardization of the Arabic CDI across 18 different Arabic dialects in children aged 8 to 30 months is underway.
Aspects of Semantics of Standard British English and Nigerian English: A Contrastive Study
The concept of meaning is a complex one in language study when cultural features are added. This is mandatory because language cannot be completely separated from the culture in which case language and culture complement each other. When there are two varieties of a language in a society, i.e. two varieties functioning side by side in a speech community, there is a tendency to view one of the varieties with each other. There is, therefore, the need to make a linguistic comparative study of varieties of such languages. In this paper, a semantic contrastive study is made between Standard British English (SBE) and Nigerian English (NB). The semantic study is limited to aspects of semantics: semantic extension (Kinship terms, metaphors), semantic shift (lexical items considered are ‘drop’ ‘befriend’ ‘dowry’ and escort) acronyms (NEPA, JAMB, NTA) linguistic borrowing or loan words (Seriki, Agbada, Eba, Dodo, Iroko) coinages (long leg, bush meat; bottom power and juju). In the study of these aspects of semantics of SBE and NE lexical terms, conservative statements are made, problems areas and hierarchy of difficulties are highlighted with a view to bringing out areas of differences are highlighted in this paper are concerned. The study will also serve as a guide in further contrastive studies in some other area of languages.
A Detailed Study of Sexism in Mizo Language
Mizo is a language spoken by the natives of Mizoram in North-East India. The Mizo society is a patriarchal society and hence is encumbered with trails of sexism in its language. Sexist language expresses discrimination on the basis of gender. While women are primarily affected, it is not however limited to just the female gender. This paper focuses on the sexist language that reflects the discrimination of women in the male-dominated, male-centered society of the Mizo. The main purpose of this paper is to emphasize with details, sexism that can be found in three aspects of language: in the naming of animate and inanimate objects or words in general, in the idioms and phrases and proverbs. This study will also take into account the gender neutral terms that are in use in the language.