Interlingual Translation of Manipuri Folktales with the Ideas of André Lefevere's Translation
This paper is an attempt to analyze the problems of translating Manipuri folktales into English and the strategies deployed. In Manipuri, folktales are known as Fungawari/Phungawari, which is similar to a western bed time story. The work is with the special reference to folktales of Meetei community. Meetei are the majority ethnic group of Manipur, India. For this paper’s purpose, two folktales Shandrembi Cheisra and Pebet will be chosen for analysis and discussion. The translation of folktales can contribute to intercultural communication and bridge the gap between the generations. Translating Manipuri Folktales is problematic on both cultural and linguistic levels. Therefore, the aim of this analysis is to understand, how the idea of André Lefevere (1992) translation could be implicated in translating Manipuri folktales.
Cultural Aspect Representation: An Analysis of EFL Textbook Grade 10 Years 2017 in Indonesia
The discourse of language and culture relation is an interesting issue to be researched. The debate is not about what comes first, language or culture, but it strongly argues that learning foreign language also means learning the culture of the language. The more interesting issue found once constructing an EFL textbook dealing with proportional representation among source culture, target culture and international culture. This study investigates cultural content representation in EFL textbook grade 10 year 2017 in Indonesia. Cortazzi and Jin’s theoretical framework is employed to analyse the reading texts, conversations, and images. The finding shows that national character as the main agenda of Indonesian government is revealed in this textbook since the textbook more frequently highlights the source culture (Indonesian culture) compared to target and international culture. This is aligned with the aim of Indonesian government to strengthen the national identity and promoting local culture awareness through education. To conclude, the study is expected to be significant in providing the idea for government to consider cultural balances representation in constructing textbook. Furthermore, teachers and students should be aware of cultural content revealed in the EFL textbook and be able to enhance intercultural communication not only in the classroom but also in a wider society.
Sfard's Commognitive Framework as a Method of Discourse Analysis in Mathematics
This paper discusses Sfard’s commognitive approach and provides an empirical study as an example to illustrate the theory as a method. Traditionally, research in mathematics education focused on the acquisition of mathematical knowledge and the didactic process of knowledge transfer. Through attending to a distinctive form of language in mathematics, as well as mathematics as a discursive subject, alternative views of making meaning in mathematics have emerged; these views are, therefore 'critical,' as in critical discourse analysis. The commognitive discourse analysis method has the potential to bring more clarity to our understanding of students’ mathematical thinking and the process through which students are socialized into school mathematics.
Original and the Translated: A Comparative Evaluation of Native and Non-Native English Translation of Faiz
The present study is an attempt to compare the translations of Faiz’s poetry made by native and non-native translators, to determine the role of the translator in terms of preserving the cultural ethos of the original text. Peter Newmark and Katharine Reiss’s approaches to translation criticism have been used to provide a theoretical framework for the study. This study also emphasizes those cultural and semantic aspects of the original which are translated more convincingly by a native translator, and contrasting those features which the non-natives can tackle more able. The research also highlights the linguistic sockets, ignored by the interpreters in the translation process. The analysis showed that both native and non-native translators have made an admirable effort to stay as close to the original as possible. The natives with their advantage of belonging to the same culture have excelled in preserving the original subject matter, whereas the non-native renderings have been presented in a much rhythmic and poetic manner with an excellent choice of words. Though none of the four translators has been successfully able to recreate Faiz’s magic, however V. G. Kiernan and Sarvat Rahman’s translations can be regarded as the closest to the original. Whereas V. G. Kiernan with his outstanding command over English mesmerizes the readers, Sarvat Rahman’s profound understanding of cultural ties helps establish her translations as a brilliant example of faithful re-renderings.
The Effect of Unconscious Exposure to Religious Concepts on Mutual Stereotypes of Jews and Muslims in Israel
This research examined the impact of subliminal exposure to religious content on the mutual attitudes of majority group members (Jews) and minority group members (Muslims). Participants were subliminally exposed to religious concepts (e.g., Mezuzah, yarmulke or veil) and then they filled questionnaires assessing their stereotypes towards the out-group members. Each participant was primed with either in-group religious concepts, out-group concepts or neutral ones. The findings show that the Muslim participants were not influenced by the religious content to which they were exposed while the Jewish participants perceived the Muslims as less 'hostile' when subliminally exposed to religious concepts, regardless of concept type (out-group/in-group). This research highlights the influence of evoked religious content on out-group attitudes even when the perceiver is unaware of prime content. The power that exposure to content in a non-native language has in activating attitudes towards the out-group is also discussed.
Understanding the Top Questions Asked about Hong Kong by Travellers Worldwide through a Corpus-Based Discourse Analytic Approach
As one of the most important service-oriented industries in contemporary society, tourism has increasingly seen the influence of the Internet on all aspects of travelling. Travellers nowadays habitually research online before making travel-related decisions. One platform on which such research is conducted is destination forums. The emergence of such online destination forums in the last decade has allowed tourists to share their travel experiences quickly and easily with a large number of online users around the world. As such, these destination forums also provide invaluable data for tourism bodies to better understand travellers’ views on their destinations. Collecting posts from the Hong Kong travel forum on the world’s largest travel website TripAdvisor®, the present study identifies the top questions asked by TripAdvisor users about Hong Kong through a corpus-based discourse analytic approach. Based on questions posted on the forum and their associated meta-data gathered in a one-year period, the study examines the top questions asked by travellers around the world to identify the key geographical locations in which users have shown the greatest interest in the city. Questions raised by travellers from different geographical locations are also compared to see if traveller communities by location vary in terms of their areas of interest. This analysis involves the study of key words and concordance of frequently-occurring items and a close reading of representative examples in context. Findings from the present study show that travellers who asked the most questions about Hong Kong are from North America and Asia, and that travellers from different locations have different concerns and interests, which are clearly reflected in the language of the questions asked on the travel forum. These findings can therefore provide tourism organisations with useful information about the key markets that should be targeted for promotional purposes, and can also allow such organisations to design advertising campaigns which better address the specific needs of such markets. The present study thus demonstrates the value of applying linguistic knowledge and methodologies to the domain of tourism to address practical issues.
Use of Ing-Formed and Derived Verbal Nominalization in American English: A Survey Applied to Native American English Speakers
Research on nominalizations in English can be traced back to at least the 1960s and even centered in the field nowadays. At the very beginning, the discussion was about the relationship between verbs and nouns, but then it moved to the distinct senses embodied in different forms of nominals, namely, various types of nominalizations. This paper tries to address the issue that how speakers perceive different forms of verbal nouns, and what might influence their perceptions. The data are collected through a self-designed questionnaire targeted at native speakers of American English, and the employment of the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA). The results show that semantic differences between different forms of nominals do play a role in people’s preference to certain form than another. But it still awaits more explorations to see how the frequency of usage is interrelates to this issue.
Bilingualism: A Case Study of Assamese and Bodo Classifiers
This is an empirical study of classifiers in Assamese and Bodo, two genetically unrelated languages of India. The objective of the paper is to address the language contact between Assamese and Bodo as reflected in classifiers. The data has been collected through fieldwork in Bodo recording narratives and folk tales and eliciting specific data from the speakers. The data for Assamese is self-produced as native speaker of the language. Assamese is the easternmost New-Indo-Aryan (henceforth NIA) language mainly spoken in the Brahmaputra valley of Assam and some other north-eastern states of India. It is the lingua franca of Assam and is creolised in the neighbouring state of Nagaland. Bodo, on the other hand, is a Tibeto-Burman (henceforth TB) language of the Bodo-Garo group. It has the highest number of speakers among the TB languages of Assam. However, compared to Assamese, it is still a lesser documented language and due to the prestige of Assamese, all the Bodo speakers are fluent bi-lingual in Assamese, though the opposite isn’t the case. With this context, classifiers, a characteristic phenomenon of TB languages, but not so much of NIA languages, presents an interesting case study on language contact caused by bilingualism. Assamese, as a result of its language contact with the TB languages which are rich in classifiers; has developed the richest classifier system among the IA languages in India. Yet, as a part of rampant borrowing of Assamese words and patterns into Bodo; Bodo is seen to borrow even Assamese classifiers into its system. This paper analyses the borrowed classifiers of Bodo and finds the route of this borrowing phenomenon in the number system of the languages. As the Bodo speakers start replacing the higher numbers from five with Assamese ones, they also choose the Assamese classifiers to attach to these numbers. Thus, the partial loss of number in Bodo as a result of language contact and bilingualism in Assamese is found to be the reason behind the borrowing of classifiers in Bodo. The significance of the study lies in exploring an interesting aspect of language contact in Assam. It is hoped that this will attract further research on bilingualism and classifiers in Assam.
Shaping Lexical Concept of 'Mage' through Image Schemas in Dragon Age 'Origins'
Language shapes the human mind and its concept toward things. Using image schemas, in nowadays technology, even AI (artificial intelligence) can concept things in response to their creator negativity or positivity. This is reflected inside one of the most selling game around the world in 2012 called Dragon Age Origins. The AI in form of NPC (Non-Playable Character) inside the game reflects on the creator of the game on negativity or positivity toward the lexical concept of mage. Through image schemas, shaping the lexical concept of mage deemed possible and proved the negativity or positivity creator of the game toward mage. This research analyses the cognitive-semantic process of image schema and shaping the concept of ‘mage’ by describing kinds of image schemas exist in the Dragon Age Origin Game. This research is also aimed to analyse kinds of image schemas and describing the image schemas which shaping the concept of ‘mage’ itself. The methodology used in this research is qualitative where participative observation is employed with five stages and documentation. The results shows that there are four image schemas exist in the game and those image schemas shaping the lexical concept of ‘mage’.
Testing the Impact of Formal Interpreting Training on Working Memory Capacity: Evidence from Turkish-English Student-Interpreters
The research presents two studies examining the impact of formal interpreting training (FIT) on Working Memory Capacity (WMC) of student-interpreters. In Study 1, the storage and processing capacities of the working memory (WM) of last-year student-interpreters were compared with those of last-year Foreign Language Education (FLE) students. In Study 2, the impact of FIT on the WMC of student-interpreters was examined via comparing their results on WM tasks at the beginning and the end of their FIT. In both studies, Digit Span Task (DST) and Reading Span Task (RST) were utilized for testing storage and processing capacities of WM. The results of Study 1 revealed that the last-year student-interpreters outperformed the control groups on the RST but not on the DST. The findings of Study 2 were consistent with Study 1 showing that after FIT, the student-interpreters performed better on the RST but not on the DST. Our findings can be considered as evidence supporting the view that FIT has a beneficial effect not only on the interpreting skills of student-interpreters but also on the central executive and processing capacity of their WM.
ESL Students’ Engagement with Written Corrective Feedback
Although a large number of studies have examined the effectiveness of written corrective feedback (WCF) in L2 writing, very few studies have investigated students’ attitudes towards the feedback and their perspectives regarding the usefulness of different types of feedback. Using prompted stimulated recall interviews, this study investigated ESL students’ perceptions and attitudes towards the CF they received as well as their preferences and reactions to the corrections. 24 ESL students first received direct (e.g., providing target forms after crossing out erroneous forms) and indirect (e.g., underlining and underline+metalinguistic) CF on four written tasks and then participated in an interview with the researcher. The analysis revealed that both direct and indirect CF were judged to be useful strategies for correction but in different ways. Underline only CF helped them think about the nature and type of the errors they made while metalinguistic CF was useful as it provided clues about the nature and type of the errors. Most participants indicated that indirect correction needed sufficient prior knowledge of the form to be effective. The majority of the students found the combination of underlining with metalinguistic information as the most effective method of providing feedback. Detailed findings will be presented, and pedagogical implications of the study will be discussed.
Oedipus as Victim of Fate and Human Psychology: The Fatal Curiosity
Oedipus in Oedipus Rex is necessarily a victim of fate and his own psychology. His curiosity brings about his downfall. Ancient Greek plays weren't just portrayals of some obscure tale but were insights into human nature. Oedipus, although a victim of circumstances, digs his own grave by curiously unravelling his past. Jocasta foresees his doom and begs him to stop, but to no avail. The curiosity of Oedipus forces him, almost like a drug, to explore the mystery regarding his birth. This curiosity is not something extraordinary in Oedipus - it is an intrinsic attribute of human nature. Knowledge is not always desired - whether it is Adam or Oedipus, their curiosity caused their eventual downfall. Oedipus was ill-fated since birth. He did not know that Laius was his biological father and therefore killed him. He arrived at Thebes, solved the riddle of the Sphinx, and married Jocasta without knowing that she, in fact, was his biological mother. He begot children and was living happily with his family when a sudden calamity struck Thebes. The calamity, though at first seemed public in nature, but later proved to be very personal for Oedipus. It drives home the fundamental truth about uncertainty of human life. That Laius was slayed by his own son, even after many precautions, proves the helplessness of humans in front of the designs of fate. Oedipus's mutilation of his eyes is also fated. It was committed by him in the heat of the moment and was certainly not a rational decision. It is evident to any modern reader that Oedipus does not have justice. Destiny treats him unfairly. Oedipus, in fact, defends his actions in Oedipus Rex in its sequel Oedipus At Colonus. The research paper discusses the unhappy fate of Oedipus and the role of destiny and his own curiosity in achieving it.
Contextual Senses of Ambiguous Words Based on Cognitive Semantics
All linguistic units are context-dependent. They occur in particular settings, from which they derive much of their import, and are recognized by speakers as distinct entities only through a process of abstraction. Most of the words have several concepts associated with them and convey a number of meanings in different contexts in any language. For instance, there are different uses of the word good as an adjective from English. The adjective good expresses many senses like (1) ‘high quality of someone or something’ (2) ‘efficient’ (3) ‘virtuous’ (4) ‘reliable’ etc. These senses will be analyzed by using cognitive semantics framework. The context has the power to insulate one meaning from all the other meanings in communication. This paper will provide a cognitive semantic analysis. The basic tenet of cognitive semantics is the sense of a word is the way we conceptualize it. Our conceptualization is based on the physical experience we go through. Cognitive semantics tries to capture this conceptualization in terms of some categories like schema, frame, and domain. Cognitive semantics is a subfield of cognitive linguistics. Cognitive linguistics studies the language creation, learning, and usage by the reference to human cognition. The semantic structure is conceptual structure which is related to the concepts which are the elements of reason and constitute the meanings of words and linguistic expressions. Cognitive semantics studies how our mind works for the meaning of any word and how it perceives meaning from the environment through senses and works to map with the knowledge which already exists in our mind through experience. In the present paper, the senses are further classified into some categories.
Analysis of Comprehension Skills According to Revised Bloom's Taxonomy
The aim of this research is to determine how the secondary school age children understand the texts they read according to Revised Bloom's Taxonomy. As a result of the literature search made before the application, it is determined that there are very few studies in which reading comprehension skills of the secondary school children are examined and evaluated according to the cognitive processes in Turkey. Thus, this research is needed. An achievement test was developed in order to obtain the findings in the study. This achievement test developed was completed as a result of the expert opinions and evaluations. In the first section of the achievement test, a personal information form was included to determine the actors which are predicted to affect the comprehension skill. After the necessary permissions for the application are received, first the Personal Information Form was given and then Reading Comprehension Achievement Test According to Revised Bloom's Taxonomy was applied to the children. The data obtained in the research was examined with SPSS 15 (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) program. Descriptive statistical methods were utilized in the data evaluation; the answers given to the questions were tabulated in frequency and percentage.
EFL Vocabulary Learning Strategiesamong Students in Greece, Their preferences and Internet Technology
Vocabulary learning has attracted a lot of attention in recent years, contrary to the neglected part of the past. Along with the interest in finding successful vocabulary teaching strategies many scholars focused in locating learning strategies used by language learners. As a result, more and more studies in the area of language pedagogy have been investigating the use of strategies in vocabulary learning by different types of learners. A common instrument in this field is the questionnaire, a tool of work that was enriched by questions involving current technology, and it was further implemented to a sample of 300 Greek students whose age varied from 9 and 17 years. Strategies located were grouped into the three categories of memory, cognitive, and compensatory type and associations between these dependent variables were investigated. In addition, relations between dependent and independent variables (such as age, sex, type of school, cultural background and grade in English) were pursued to investigate impact on strategy selection. Finally, results were compared to findings of other studies in the same field to contribute to a hypothesis of ethnic differences in strategy selection. Results initially discuss preferred strategies of all participants and further indicate that: a) technology affects strategy selection while b) differences between ethnic groups are not statistically significant. A number of successful strategies is presented, resulting from correlations of strategy selection and final school grade in English.
Phrases, Agreement and Reference in Students' Writing
Students usually make a lot of mistakes when they write their composition. The common mistake occurs when they write their own sentences. They perhaps can use certain verb and verb phrases properly, but on another occasion, they may choose wrong verb phrases. This paper illustrates ill-formed phrases, improper agreement between subject and verb and referent and reference in the students’ writings. The objectives of this research are to show possible variety of ill-formed phrases, to show frequent mistakes in S-V Agreement, and to show wrong reference in students’ writing. The methodology of this research is descriptive qualitative research. Some general linguistic theories and semantics are used in this paper. The results of this research concern to the number and the forms of possible ill-formed phrases, the types of Subject-Verb Agreement which are often applied incorrectly in a sentence and types of reference which are often used incorrectly.
Canadian French as an Additional Language Teacher Candidates' Proficiency and Confidence Pre- and Post-Francophone Home-Stay: Practicum Experience as Revealed through Questionnaire and Interviews
This study investigated the Canadian French as an additional language teacher candidates’ confidence and language maintenance strategies by means of questionnaires and interviews pre- and post- a Francophone home-stay practicum experience. Teacher French language proficiency is one of the components of teacher knowledge that can influence students’ French as an additional language acquisition. Although advantageous, seeking opportunities to use French in a French milieu comes with challenges. Teachers, for example, have been found to be hesitant to speak French with native speakers for fear of judgment. Another identified challenge to spending time in a French milieu is finances; while teachers have recognized the value of such an experience, cost is prohibitive. In recognition of the potential barriers and the need to maintain/improve the French proficiency of 'French as an additional language' teachers, this study provided a two-week home stay in a Francophone environment for teacher candidates of French as an additional language with financial subsidies for their participation. Through the post-experience interviews, the French as an additional language teacher candidates revealed an improvement in French proficiency. Similarly, the teacher candidates cited an increase in confidence in the interviews and through the questionnaire. They linked this increase in proficiency and confidence to their experiences with their host families and other Francophone members of the community. This study highlights the provision of immersion experiences as means to support teachers’ language confidence and proficiency.
A Case Study Comparing the Effect of Computer Assisted Task-Based Language Teaching and Computer-Assisted Form Focused Language Instruction on Language Production of Students Learning Arabic as a Foreign Language
Task-based language teaching (TBLT) and focus on form instruction (FFI) methods were proven to improve quality and quantity of immediate language production. However, studies that compare between the effectiveness of the language production when using TBLT versus FFI are very little with results that are not consistent. Moreover, teaching Arabic using TBLT is a new field with few research that has investigated its application inside classrooms. Furthermore, to the best knowledge of the researcher, there are no prior studies that compared teaching Arabic as a foreign language in a classroom setting using computer-assisted task-based language teaching (CATBLT) with computer-assisted form focused language instruction (CAFFI). Accordingly, the focus of this presentation is to display CATBLT and CAFFI tools when teaching Arabic as a foreign language as well as demonstrate an experimental study that aims to identify whether or not CATBLT is a more effective instruction method. The effectiveness will be determined through comparing CATBLT and CAFFI in terms of accuracy, lexical complexity, and fluency of language produced by students. The participants of the study are 20 students enrolled in two intermediate-level Arabic as a foreign language classes. The experiment will take place over the course of 7 days. Based on a study conducted by Abdurrahman Arslanyilmaz for teaching Turkish as a second language, an in-house computer assisted tool for the TBLT and another one for FFI will be designed for the experiment. The experimental group will be instructed using the in-house CATBLT tool and the control group will be taught through the in-house CAFFI tool. The data that will be analyzed are the dialogues produced by students in both the experimental and control groups when completing a task or communicating in conversational activities. The dialogues of both groups will be analyzed to understand the effect of the type of instruction (CATBLT or CAFFI) on accuracy, lexical complexity, and fluency. Thus, the study aims to demonstrate whether or not there is an instruction method that positively affects the language produced by students learning Arabic as a foreign language more than the other.
A Multimodal Discourse Analysis of Gender Representation on Health and Fitness Magazine Cover Pages
In visual cultures, namely that of the United States, media representations are such influential and pervasive reflections of societal norms and expectations to the extent that they impact the manner in which both genders view themselves. Health and fitness magazines fall within the realm of visual culture. Since the main goal of communication is to ensure proper dissemination of information in order for the target audience to grasp the intended messages, it becomes imperative that magazine publishers, editors, advertisers and image producers use different modes of communication within their reach to convey messages to their readers and viewers. A rapid waxing flow of multimodality floods popular discourse, particularly health and fitness magazine cover pages. The use of well-crafted cover lines and visual images is imbued with agendas, consumerist ideologies and properties capable of effectively conveying implicit and explicit meaning to potential readers and viewers. In essence, the primary goal of this thesis is to interrogate the multi-semiotic operations and manifestations of hegemonic masculinity and femininity in male and female body culture, particularly on the cover pages of the twin American magazines Men's Health and Women's Health using corpora that spanned from 2011 to the mid of 2016. The researcher explores the semiotic resources that contribute to shaping and legitimizing a new form of postmodern, consumerist, gendered discourse that positions the reader-viewer ideologically. Methodologically, the researcher carries out analysis on the macro and micro levels. On the macro level, the researcher takes on a critical stance to illuminate the ideological nature of the multimodal ensemble of the cover pages, and, on the micro level, seeks to put forward new theoretical and methodological routes through which the semiotic choices well invested on the media texts can be more objectively scrutinized. On the macro level, a 'themes' analysis is initially conducted to isolate the overarching themes that dominate the fitness discourse on the cover pages under study. It is argued that variation in terms of frequencies of such themes is indicative, broadly speaking, of which facets of hegemonic masculinity and femininity are infused in the fitness discourse on the cover pages. On the micro level, this research work encompasses three sub-levels of analysis. The researcher follows an SF-MMDA approach, drawing on a trio of analytical frameworks: Halliday's SFG for the verbal analysis; Kress & van Leeuween's VG for the visual analysis; and CMT in relation to Sperber & Wilson's RT for the pragma-cognitive analysis of multimodal metaphors and metonymies. The data is presented in terms of detailed descriptions in conjunction with frequency tables, ANOVA with alpha=0.05 and MANOVA in the multiple phases of analysis. Insights and findings from this multi-faceted, social-semiotic analysis are interpreted in light of Cultivation Theory, Self-objectification Theory and the literature to date. Implications for future research include the implementation of a multi-dimensional approach whereby linguistic and visual analytical models are deployed with special regards to cultural variation.
Explaining Listening Comprehension among L2 Learners of English: The Contribution of Vocabulary Knowledge and Working Memory Capacity
Listening comprehension constitutes a considerable challenge for the second language (L2) learners, but a little is known about the explanatory power of different variables in explaining variance in listening comprehension. Since research in this area, to the researcher's knowledge, is relatively small in comparison to that focusing on the relationship between reading comprehension and factors such as vocabulary and working memory, there is a need for studies that are seeking to fill the gap in our knowledge about the specific contribution of working memory capacity (WMC), aural vocabulary knowledge and written vocabulary knowledge to explaining listening comprehension. Among 130 English as foreign language learners, the present study examines what proportion of the variance in listening comprehension is explained by aural vocabulary knowledge, written vocabulary knowledge, and WMC. Four measures were used to collect the required data for the study: (1) A-Lex, a measure of aural vocabulary knowledge; (2) XK-Lex, a measure of written vocabulary knowledge; (3) Listening Span Task, a measure of WMC and; (4) IELTS Listening Test, a measure of listening comprehension. The results show that aural vocabulary knowledge is the strongest predictor of listening comprehension, followed by WMC, while written vocabulary knowledge is the weakest predictor. The study discusses implications for the explanatory power of aural vocabulary knowledge and WMC to listening comprehension and pedagogical practice in L2 classrooms.
An Experimental Study on the Variability of Nonnative and Native Inference of Word Meanings in Timed and Untimed Conditions
Reading research suggests that online contextual vocabulary comprehension while reading is an interactive and integrative process. One’s success in it depends on a variety of factors including the amount and the nature of available linguistic and nonlinguistic cues, his/her analytical and integrative skills, schema memory (content familiarity), and processing speed characterized along the continuum of controlled to automatic processing. The experiment reported here, conducted with 30 native speakers as one group and 30 nonnative speakers as another group (all graduate students), hypothesized that while working on (24) tasks which required them to comprehend an unfamiliar word in real time without backtracking, due to the differences in the nature of their respective reading processes, the nonnative subjects would be less able to construct the meanings of the unknown words by integrating the multiple but sufficient contextual cues provided in the text but the native subjects would be able to. The results indicated that there were significant inter-group as well as intra-group differences in terms of the quality of definitions given. However, when given additional time, while the nonnative speakers could significantly improve the quality of their definitions, the native speakers in general would not, suggesting that all things being equal, time is a significant factor for success in nonnative vocabulary and reading comprehension processes and that accuracy precedes automaticity in the development of nonnative reading processes also.
The Effect of Dissociation in Bipolar Disorder: An EEG Power Analysis
Understanding the biological mechanisms of dissociation in patients with bipolar disorder is important for developing new treatment approaches for the disorder as well as using the appropriate treatment strategies. In this study, we compared EEG power and coherence values for alpha, theta and beta frequency bands between patients having bipolar disorder with dissociation as compared to the bipolar patients without dissociation. Accordingly, we did not find any statistically significant difference in either the absolute or the relative power between the groups. Coherence values were not found to be statistically different, as well. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the existence of dissociation did not influence electrophysiological correlates in bipolar disorder.
Ideological Stance in Political Discourse: A Transitivity Analysis of Nawaz Sharif's Address at 71st UN Assembly
The present study uses Halliday’s transitivity model to analyze and interpret ideological stance in PM Nawaz Sharif’s political discourse. His famous speech at the 71st UN assembly was analyzed qualitatively using clausal analysis approach to investigate the communicative functions of the linguistic choices made in the address. The study discovers that among the six process types under the transitivity model, material, relational and mental processes appear most frequently in the speech, making up almost 86% of the whole. Verbal processes rank 4th, whereas existential and behavioral are the least occurring processes covering only 2 and 1 percent respectively. The dominant use of material processes suggests that Nawaz Sharif and his government are the main actors working on several concrete projects to produce a sense of developmental progression and continuity. Using relational and mental processes the PM, along with establishing proximity with masses and especially Kashmiri, gives guarantees and promises. The linguistic analysis concludes Kashmir dispute as being the central theme of the address, since it covers more than half of the discourse. The address calls for a strong action instead of formal assurances and wishful thoughts. The study establishes that language structures can yield certain connotations and ideologies which are not overt for readers. This is in affirmation to the supposition that language form performs a communicative function and is not merely fortuitous.
An Investigation of Construct Validity of GAT as a High-Stake Test Used for MS/MPhil English Admissions in Pakistan
The study attempts to investigate the ‘construct validity’ of GAT general test; a high-stake test (any assessment whose outcome has life-changing implications for the test taker, used by most of the government and private sector universities in Pakistan as an admission requirement). Participants need at least 50 marks to qualify the test which consists of verbal, quantitative and analytical sections. 10 participants from English department of International Islamic University Islamabad were conveniently selected and asked to attempt a sample of GAT test in a limited time. Afterwards, they were requested to fill a brief questionnaire and were further asked a few questions regarding the relevance and significance of GAT test. The study revealed some insights about the construct validity of GAT tests from the test takers’ perspectives. It has been unanimously reported that the mathematics queries in the quantitative part had little or nothing to do with the concept of English proficiency and were, therefore, unnecessary. The participants also reported facing issues while attempting the analytical part of the test for a couple of reasons; mainly because the questions needed more time to be solved and were scarcely relevant to the language proficiency being more of intelligence questions. In a nutshell, the study concluded that GAT tests suffer from both construct under-representation and construct-irrelevant problems. Consequently, it has been suggested that GAT tests (with the present format) should not continue to be a requirement for MS/MPhil admissions and more relevant alternatives should be developed.
Enquiry Based Approaches to Teaching Grammar and Differentiation in the Senior Japanese Classroom
This presentation will look at the approaches to teaching grammar taken over two years with students studying Japanese in the last two years of high school. The main focus is an enquiry based approach to grammar introduction and a three tier system using videos and online support material to allow for differentiation and personalised learning in the classroom. The aim is to create space for motivated students to do some higher order activities using the target pattern to solve problems and create scenarios. Less motivated students have time to complete basic exercises and struggling students have some time with the teacher in smaller groups.
Translation and Transculturality in Contemporary Chinese Art: A Case Study of 'Gu Wenda’s Forest of Stone Steles and United Nations: Temple of Heaven'
Translation has been elevated to one of the key notions in contemporary cultural discourse for a wide range of fields. It focuses not only on communication or transmission of meaning between different languages, but also on ways in which the very act of translation can be understood as a metaphor for cultural process. In recent years, the notion of translation is employed by some contemporary Chinese artists in a conceptual way, whose works contribute to constructing/deconstructing global/local cultural discourse and their own cultural identities. This study examines two artworks by contemporary Chinese artist Gu Wenda from a translational perspective, namely Forest of Stone Steles - Retranslation & Rewriting of Tang Poetry and United Nations - China Monument: Temple of Heaven, aiming to broaden the scope of Translation Studies to investigate visual culture and enrich methodological approach to contemporary Chinese art. Focusing on the relationship between translation, visuality and materiality in these two works, this study explores the nature of translation as part of the production of cultural discourse in the age of globalization as well as a way of establishing cultural identity. Gu Wenda, one of the most prestigious artists in contemporary China, is considered a pioneer in ‘85 Art Movement of China, and thereafter he went abroad for his artistic pursuits. His transnational experience enriches his cultural identity and the underlying discourse constructed/deconstructed in many of his works. In the two works already mentioned, the concept of translation is deployed by Gu Wenda on both linguistic level and metaphorical level for artistic expression. These two works produce discourses in which the artist’s perception of cultural identity in a transnational context is articulated by the tension between source text and target text. Based on the conceptual framework of cultural identity proposed by Stuart Hall, analyses of Gu Wenda’s cultural identity revealed through translation in these two works are centred on two axes, i.e., the axis of similarity and continuity with Chinese intellectual culture and the axis of difference and rupture with it, and the dialogic relationship between these two vectors. It argues that besides serving as a means of constructing visuality in the two works, translation metaphorizes Gu Wenda’s journey from overcoming his cultural identity anxiety to re-establishing a transcultural identity embedded in the underlying discourse.
The Effects of English Contractions on the Application of Syntactic Theories
A formal structure of the English clause is composed of at least two elements – subject and verb, in structural grammar and at least one element – predicate, in systemic (functional) and generative grammars. Each of the elements can be represented by a word or group (of words). In modern English structure, very often speakers merge two words as one with the use of an apostrophe. Each of the two words can come from different elements or belong to the same element. In either case, result of the merger is called contraction. Although contractions constitute a part of modern English structure, they are considered informal in nature (more frequently used in spoken than written English) that is why they were initially viewed as constituting an evidence of language deterioration. To our knowledge, no formal syntactic theory yet has been particular on the contractions because of its deviation from the formal rules of syntax that seek to identify the elements that form a clause in English. The inconsistency between the formal rules and a contraction is established when two words representing two elements in a non-contraction are merged as one element to form a contraction. Thus the paper presents the various syntactic issues as effects arising from converting non-contracted to contracted forms. It categorizes English contractions and describes each category according to its syntactic relations (position and relationship) and morphological formation (form and content) as integral part of modern structure of English. This is a position paper as such the methodology is observational, descriptive and explanatory/analytical based on existing related literature. The inventory of English contractions contained in books on syntax forms the data from where specific examples are drawn. It is noted as conclusion that the existing syntactic theories were not originally established to account for English contractions. The paper, when published, will further expose the inadequacies of the existing syntactic theories by giving more reasons for the establishment of a more comprehensive syntactic theory for analyzing English clause/sentence structure involving contractions. The method used reveals the extent of the inadequacies in applying the three major syntactic theories: structural, systemic (functional) and generative, on the English contractions. Although no theory is without scope, shying away from the three major theories from recognizing the English contractions need to be broken because of the increasing popularity of its use in modern English structure. The paper, therefore, recommends that as use of contraction gains more popular even in formal speeches today, there is need to establish a syntactic theory to handle its patterns of syntactic relations and morphological formation.
Pragmatics of Socio-Linguistic Influence on Neurologist-Patient Interaction in Selected Hospitals in Nigeria
This study examines how social and linguistic variables influenced communication between neurologists and patients in selected university teaching hospitals (UTHs) in southwestern Nigeria. Jacob Mey’s Pragmatic Acts, complemented by Emanuel and Emanuel’s model of doctor-patient relationship, served as the theoretical framework. Data comprising 22 audio-recorded neurologist-patient interactions were collected from two UTHs in the southwestern region of Nigeria. Data revealed that educational attainment of patients has insignificant influence on the interaction where the linguistic prowess of the patient has been impaired for consultative communication. However, the status influenced the degree of attention paid to patients by neurologists and determines the amount of time 'trying to help patients to communicate'. Patients with lower educational status and who could not communicate in English spent more time narrating their ailment to neurologists. Patients with higher educational status and could communicate in English saves consultation time as they express themselves briefly unlike those who were of little or no education in the clinics. Through this, diagnoses and therapeutic processes took eight to 12 minutes. 20 minutes was the longest duration recorded. Neurologist-patient interaction in the observed hospitals is shaped by neurologists’ experience, patients’ social variables and language.
Rendering Religious References in English: Naguib Mahfouz in the Arabic as a Foreign Language Classroom
The transition from the advanced to the superior level of Arabic proficiency is widely known to pose considerable challenges for English speaking students of Arabic as a Foreign Language (AFL). Apart from the increasing complexity of the grammar at this juncture, together with the sprawling vocabulary, to name but two of those challenges, there is also the somewhat less studied hurdle along the way to superior level proficiency, namely, the seeming opacity of many aspects of Arab/ic culture to such learners. This presentation tackles one specific dimension of such issues: religious references in literary texts. It illustrates how carefully constructed translation activities may be used to expand and deepen students’ understanding and use of them. This is shown to be vital for making the leap to the desired competency, given that such elements, as reflected in customs, traditions, institutions, worldviews, and formulaic expressions lie at the very core of Arabic culture and, as such, pervade all modes and levels of Arabic discourse. A short story from the collection “Stories from Our Alley”, by preeminent novelist Naguib Mahfouz is selected for use in this context, being particularly replete with such religious references, of which religious expressions will form the focus of the presentation. As a miniature literary work, it provides an organic whole, so to speak, within which to explore with the class the most precise denotation, as well as the subtlest connotation of each expression in an effort to reach the ‘best’ English rendering. The term ‘best’ refers to approximating the meaning in its full complexity from the source text, in this case Arabic, to the target text, English, according to the concept of equivalence in translation theory. The presentation will show how such a process generates the sort of thorough discussion and close text analysis which allows students to gain valuable insight into this central idiom of Arabic. A variety of translation methods will be highlighted, gleaned from the presenter’s extensive work with advanced/superior students in the Center for Arabic Study Abroad (CASA) program at the American University in Cairo. These begin with the literal rendering of expressions, with the purpose of reinforcing vocabulary learning and practicing the rules of derivational morphology as they form each word, since the larger context remains that of an AFL class, as opposed to a translation skills program. However, departures from the literal approach are subsequently explored by degrees, moving along the spectrum of functional and pragmatic freer translations in order to transmit the ‘real’ meaning in readable English to the target audience- no matter how culture/religion specific the expression- while remaining faithful to the original. Samples from students’ work pre and post discussion will be shared, demonstrating how class consensus is formed as to the final English rendering, proposed as the closest match to the Arabic, and shown to be the result of the above activities. Finally, a few examples of translation work which students have gone on to publish will be shared to corroborate the effectiveness of this teaching practice.
From Victim to Ethical Agent:Oscar Wilde's The Ballad of Reading Gaol as Post-Traumatic Writing
Faced with a sudden, unexpected, and overwhelming event, the individual's normal cognitive processing may cease to function, trapping the psyche in 'speechless terror,' while images, feelings, and sensations are experienced with emotional intensity. Unable to master such situation, the individual becomes a trauma victim who will be susceptible to traumatic recollections like intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, and repetitive re-living of the primal event in a way that blurs the distinction between past and present, and forecloses the future. Trauma is timeless, repetitious, and contagious; a trauma observer could fall prey to 'secondary victimhood.' Central to the process of healing the psychic wounds in the aftermath of trauma is verbalizing the traumatic experience (i.e., putting it into words) – an act which provides a chance for assimilation, testimony, and reevaluation. In light of this paradigm, this paper proposes a reading of Oscar Wilde's The Ballad of Reading Gaol, written shortly after his release from prison, as a post-traumatic text which traces the disruptive effects of the traumatic experience of Wilde's imprisonment for homosexual offences and the ensuing reversal of fortune he endured. Post-traumatic writing demonstrates the process of 'working through' a trauma which may lead to the possibility of ethical agency in the form of a 'survivor mission'. This paper draws on fundamental concepts and key insights in literary trauma theory which is characterized by interdisciplinarity, combining the perspectives of different fields like critical theory, psychology, psychiatry, psychoanalysis, history, and social studies. Of particular relevance to this paper are the concepts of 'vicarious traumatization' and 'survivor mission', as The Ballad of Reading Gaol was written in response to Wilde's own prison trauma and the indirect traumatization he experienced as a result of witnessing the execution of a fellow prisoner whose story forms the narrative base of the poem. The Ballad displays Wilde's sense of mission which leads him to recognize the social as well as ethical implications of personal tragedy. Through a close textual analysis of The Ballad of Reading Gaol within the framework of literary trauma theory, the paper aims to: (a) demonstrate how the poem's thematic concerns, structure, and rhetorical figures reflect the structure of trauma; (b) highlight Wilde's attempts to come to terms with the effects of the cataclysmic experience which transformed him into a social outcast; and (c) show how Wilde manages to transcend the victim status and assumes the role of ethical agent to voice a critique of the Victorian penal system and the standards of morality underlying the cruelties practiced against wrong doers and to solicit social action.