Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 50723

Cognitive and Language Sciences

889
88207
Exploring the Neural Mechanisms of Communication and Cooperation in Children and Adults
Abstract:
This study was designed to examine how humans are able to teach and learn semantic information as well as cooperate in order to jointly achieve sophisticated goals. Specifically, we are measuring individual differences in how these abilities develop from foundational building blocks in early childhood. The current study adopts a paradigm for novel noun learning developed by Samuelson, Smith, Perry, and Spencer (2011) to a hyperscanning paradigm [Cui, Bryant and Reiss, 2012]. This project measures coordinated brain activity between a parent and child using simultaneous functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in pairs of 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5-year-old children and their parents. We are also separately testing pairs of adult friends. Children and parents, or adult friends, are seated across from one another at a table. The parent (in the developmental study) then teaches their child the names of novel toys. An experimenter then tests the child by presenting the objects in pairs and asking the child to retrieve one object by name. Children are asked to choose from both pairs of familiar objects and pairs of novel objects. In order to explore individual differences in cooperation with the same participants, each dyad plays a cooperative game of Jenga, in which their joint score is based on how many blocks they can remove from the tower as a team. A preliminary analysis of the noun-learning task showed that, when presented with 6 word-object mappings, children learned an average of 3 new words (50%) and that the number of objects learned by each child ranged from 2-4. Adults initially learned all of the new words but were variable in their later retention of the mappings, which ranged from 50-100%. We are currently examining differences in cooperative behavior during the Jenga playing game, including time spent discussing each move before it is made. Ongoing analyses are examining the social dynamics that might underlie the differences between words that were successfully learned and unlearned words for each dyad, as well as the developmental differences observed in the study. Additionally, the Jenga game is being used to better understand individual and developmental differences in social coordination during a cooperative task. At a behavioral level, the analysis maps periods of joint visual attention between participants during the word learning and the Jenga game, using head-mounted eye trackers to assess each participant’s first-person viewpoint during the session. We are also analyzing the coherence in brain activity between participants during novel word-learning and Jenga playing. The first hypothesis is that visual joint attention during the session will be positively correlated with both the number of words learned and with the number of blocks moved during Jenga before the tower falls. The next hypothesis is that successful communication of new words and success in the game will each be positively correlated with synchronized brain activity between the parent and child/the adult friends in cortical regions underlying social cognition, semantic processing, and visual processing. This study probes both the neural and behavioral mechanisms of learning and cooperation in a naturalistic, interactive and developmental context.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
888
86023
Developing Communicative Skills in Foreign Languages by Video Tasks
Abstract:
The developing potential of a video task in teaching foreign languages involves the opportunities to improve four aspects of speech production process: listening, reading, speaking and writing. A video represents the sequence of actions, realized in the pictures logically connected and verbalized speech flow that simplifies and stimulates the process of perception. In this connection listening skills of students are developed effectively as well as their intellectual properties such as synthesizing, analyzing and generalizing the information. In terms of teaching capacity, a video task, in our opinion, is more stimulating than a traditional listening, since it involves the student into the plot of the communicative situation, emotional background and potentially makes them react to the gist in the cognitive and communicative ways. To be an effective method of teaching the video task should be structured in the way of psycho-linguistic characteristics of speech production process, in other words, should include three phases: before-watching, while-watching and after-watching. The system of tasks provided to each phase might involve the situations on reflecting to the video content in the forms of filling-the-gap tasks, multiple choice, True-or-False tasks (reading skills), exercises on expressing the opinion, project fulfilling (writing and speaking skills). In the before-watching phase we offer the students to adjust their perception mechanism to the topic and the problem of the chosen video by such task as “what do you know about such a problem?”, “is it new for you?”, “have you ever faced the situation of…?”. Then we proceed with the lexical and grammatical analysis of language units that form the body of a speech sample to lessen the perception and develop the student’s lexicon. The goal of while-watching phase is to build the student’s awareness about the problem presented in the video and challenge their inner attitude towards what they have seen by identifying the mistakes in the statements about the video content or making the summary, justifying their understanding. Finally, we move on to development of their speech skills within the communicative situation they observed and learnt by stimulating them to search the similar ideas in their backgrounds and represent them orally or in the written form or express their own opinion on the problem. It is compulsory to highlight, that a video task should contain the urgent, valid and interesting event related to the future profession of the student, since it will help to activate cognitive, emotional, verbal and ethic capacity of students. Also, logically structured video tasks are easily integrated into the system of e-learning and can provide the opportunity for the students to work with the foreign language on their own.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
887
86022
The Contemporary Format of E-Learning in Teaching Foreign Languages
Abstract:
Nowadays in the system of Russian higher medical education there have been undertaken initiatives that resulted in focusing on the resources of e-learning in teaching foreign languages. Obviously, the face-to-face communication in foreign languages bears much more advantages in terms of effectiveness in comparison with the potential of e-learning. Thus, we’ve faced the necessity of strengthening the capacity of e-learning via integration of active methods into the process of teaching foreign languages, such as project activity of students. Successful project activity of students should involve the following components: monitoring, control, methods of organizing the student’s activity in foreign languages, stimulating their interest in the chosen project, approaches to self-assessment and methods of raising their self-esteem. The contemporary methodology assumes the project as a specific method, which activates potential of a student’s cognitive function, emotional reaction, ability to work in the team, commitment, skills of cooperation and, consequently, their readiness to verbalize ideas, thoughts and attitudes. Verbal activity in the foreign language is a complex conception that consolidates both cognitive (involving speech) capacity and individual traits and attitudes such as initiative, empathy, devotion, responsibility etc. Once we organize the project activity by the means of e-learning within the ‘Foreign language’ discipline we have to take into consideration all mentioned above characteristics and work out an effective way to implement it into the teaching practice to boost its educational potential. We have integrated into the e-platform Moodle the module of project activity consisting of the following blocks of tasks that lead students to research, cooperate, strive to leadership, chase the goal and finally verbalize their intentions. Firstly, we introduce the project through activating self-activity of students by the tasks of the phase ‘Preparation of the project’: choose the topic and justify it; find out the problematic situation and its components; set the goals; create your team, choose the leader, distribute the roles in your team; make a written report on grounding the validity of your choices. Secondly, in the ‘Planning the project’ phase we ask students to represent the analysis of the problem in terms of reasons, ways and methods of solution and define the structure of their project (here students may choose oral or written presentation by drawing up the claim in the e-platform about their wish, whereas the teacher decides what form of presentation to prefer). Thirdly, the students have to design the visual aids, speech samples (functional phrases, introductory words, keywords, synonyms, opposites, attributive constructions) and then after checking, discussing and correcting with a teacher via the means of Moodle present it in front of the audience. And finally, we introduce the phase of self-reflection that aims to awake the inner desire of students to improve their verbal activity in a foreign language. As a result, by implementing the project activity into the e-platform and project activity, we try to widen the frameworks of a traditional lesson of foreign languages through tapping the potential of personal traits and attitudes of students.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
886
85958
Presuppositions and Implicatures in Four Selected Speeches of Osama Bin Laden's Legitimisation of 'Jihad'
Abstract:
This paper investigates certain linguistics properties of four selected speeches by Al-Qaeda’s former leader Osama bin Laden who legitimated the use of jihad by Muslims in various countries when he was alive. The researchers adopt van Dijk’s (2009; 1998) Socio-Cognitive approach and Ideological Square theory respectively. Socio-Cognitive approach revolves around various cognitive, socio-political, and discursive aspects that can be found in political discourse as in Osama bin Laden’s one. The political discourse can be defined in terms of textual properties and contextual models. Pertaining to the ideological square, it refers to positive self-presentation and negative other-presentation which help to enhance the textual and contextual analyses. Therefore, among the most significant properties in Osama bin Laden’s discourse are the use of presuppositions and implicatures which are based on background knowledge and contextual models as well. Thus, the paper concludes that Osama bin Laden used a number of manipulative strategies which augmented and embellished the use of ‘jihad’ in order to develop a more effective discourse for his audience. In addition, the findings have revealed that bin Laden used different implicit and embedded interpretations of different topics which have been accepted as taken-for-granted truths for him to legitimate Jihad against his enemies. There are many presuppositions in the speeches analysed that result in particular common-sense assumptions and a world-view about the selected speeches. More importantly, the assumptions in the analysed speeches help consolidate the ideological analysis in terms of in-group and out-group members.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
885
85833
The Effect of Information vs. Reasoning Gap Tasks on the Frequency of Conversational Strategies and Accuracy in Speaking among Iranian Intermediate English as Foreign Language Learners
Abstract:
Speaking skills merit meticulous attention both on the side of the learners and the teachers. In Particular, accuracy is a critical component to guarantee the messages to be conveyed through conversation because a wrongful change may adversely alter the content and purpose of the talk. Different types of tasks have served teachers to meet numerous educational objectives. Besides, negotiation of meaning and the use of different strategies have been areas of concern in socio-cultural theories of SLA. Negotiation of meaning is among the conversational processes which have a crucial role in facilitating the understanding and expression of meaning in a given second language. Conversational strategies are used during interaction when there is a breakdown in communication that leads to the interlocutor attempting to remedy the gap through talk. Therefore, this study was an attempt to investigate if there was any significant difference between the effect of reasoning gap tasks and information gap tasks on the frequency of conversational strategies used in negotiation of meaning in classrooms on one hand, and on the accuracy in speaking of Iranian intermediate EFL learners on the other. After a pilot study to check the practicality of the treatments, at the outset of the main study, the Preliminary English Test was administered to ensure the homogeneity of 87 out of 107 participants who attended the intact classes of a 15 session term in one control and two experimental groups. Also, speaking sections of PET were used as pretest and posttest to examine their speaking accuracy. The tests were recorded and transcribed to estimate the percentage of the number of the clauses with no grammatical errors in the total produced clauses to measure the speaking accuracy. In all groups, the grammatical points of accuracy were instructed and the use of conversational strategies was practiced. Then, different kinds of reasoning gap tasks (matchmaking, deciding on the course of action, and working out a time table) and information gap tasks (restoring an incomplete chart, spot the differences, arranging sentences into stories, and guessing game) were manipulated in experimental groups during treatment sessions, and the students were required to practice conversational strategies when doing speaking tasks. The conversations throughout the terms were recorded and transcribed to count the frequency of the conversational strategies used in all groups. The results of statistical analysis demonstrated that applying both the reasoning gap tasks and information gap tasks significantly affected the frequency of conversational strategies through negotiation. In the face of the improvements, the reasoning gap tasks had a more significant impact on encouraging the negotiation of meaning and increasing the number of conversational frequencies every session. The findings also indicated both task types could help learners significantly improve their speaking accuracy. Here, applying the reasoning gap tasks was more effective than the information gap tasks in improving the level of learners’ speaking accuracy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
884
85832
Using the Textbook to Promote Thinking Skills in Intermediate School EFL Classrooms in Saudi Arabia: An Analysis of the Tasks and an Exploration of Teachers' and Perceptions
Abstract:
An aim of TS in EFL is to help learners to understand how they learn, which could help them in using the target language with other learners in language classrooms, and in their social life. The early researchers have criticised the system of teaching methods in EFL applied in Saudi schools, as they claim that it does not produce students who are highly proficient in English. Some of them suggested that enhancing learners’ TS would help to improve the learners’ proficiency of using the EFL. The textbook in Saudi schools is the central material for teachers to follow in the EFL classroom. Thus, this study is investigating the main issues that could promote TS in Saudi EFL: the textbook and the teachers. The purposes of the study are: to find out the extent to which the tasks in the textbook have the potential to support teachers in promoting TS; to discover insights into the nature of classroom activities that teachers use to encourage TS from the textbook and to explore the teachers’ views on the role of the textbook in promoting TS in the English language. These aims will improve understanding of the connection between the potential of the textbook content and the participants’ theoretical knowledge and their teaching practice. The investigation employed research techniques including the following: (1) analysis of the textbook; (2) questionnaire for EFL teachers; (3) observation for EFL classroom; (4) interviews with EFL teachers. Analysis of the third intermediate grade textbook has been undertaken, and six EFL teachers from five intermediate schools were involved in the study. Data analysis revealed that 36.71 % of the tasks in the textbook could have the potential to promote TS, and 63.29 % of the tasks in the textbook could not have the potential to promote TS. Therefore, the result of the textbook analysis showed that the majority of the tasks do not have the potential to help teachers to promote TS. Although not all teachers of the observed lessons displayed behaviour helpful to promote TS, teachers, who presented potential TS tasks in their lesson encouraged learners’ interaction and students’ engagement more than teachers who presented tasks that did not have the potential to promote TS. Therefore, the result of the teachers’ data showed that having a textbook that has the potential to promote TS is not enough to develop teaching TS in Saudi EFL since teachers’ behaviour could make the task more or less productive.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
883
85734
Approaching the Words Denoting Cognitive Activity in Vietnamese Language in Comparison with English Language
Abstract:
Being a basic and unique to human beings, cognitive activity possesses spiritualistic characteristics and is conveyed through languages. Words that represent rational cognition or processes related to rationality as follow: know, think, understand, doubt, be afraid, remember, forget, think (that), realize (that), find (that), etc. can reflect the process by which human beings have transformed cognitive activities into diversified and delicate manners through linguistic tasks. In this research article, applying the descriptive method and comparative method, we would like to utilize the application of the theoretical system of linguistic characteristics of cognitive verbs in Vietnamese language in comparison with English language. These achievements of this article will meaningfully contribute to highlight characteristics of Vietnamese language and identify the similarities and differences in the linguistic processes of Vietnamese and English people as well as supply more knowledge for social requirements such as foreign language learning, dictionary editing, language teaching in schools.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
882
85461
Crossing the Interdisciplinary Border: A Multidimensional Linguistics Analysis of a Legislative Discourse
Abstract:
There is a crucial mismatch between classroom written language tasks and real world written language requirements. Realizing the importance of reducing the gap between the professional needs of the legal practitioners and the higher learning institutions that offer the legislative education in Malaysia, it is deemed necessary to develop a framework that integrates real-life written communication with the teaching of content-based legislative discourse to future legal practitioners. By highlighting the actual needs of the legal practitioners in the country, the present teaching practices will be enhanced and aligned with the actual needs of the learners thus realizing the vision and aspirations of the Malaysian Education Blueprint 2013-2025 and Legal Profession Qualifying Board. The need to focus future education according to the actual needs of the learners can be realized by developing a teaching framework which is designed within the prospective requirements of its real-life context. This paper presents the steps taken to develop a specific teaching framework that fulfills the fundamental real-life context of the prospective legal practitioners. The teaching framework was developed based on real-life written communication from the legal profession in Malaysia, using the specific genre analysis approach which integrates a corpus-based approach and a structural linguistics analysis. This approach was adopted due to its fundamental nature of intensive exploration of the real-life written communication according to the established strategies used. The findings showed the use of specific moves and parts-of-speech by the legal practitioners, in order to prepare the selected genre. The teaching framework is hoped to enhance the teachings of content-based law courses offered at present in the higher learning institutions in Malaysia.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
881
85103
Evidence of the Effect of the Structure of Social Representations on Group Identification
Abstract:
The present contribution focuses on the effect of the structure of social representations on group identification. A social representation (SR) is defined as an organized and structured set of cognitions, produced and shared by members of a same group about a same social object. Within this framework, the central core theory establishes a structural distinction between central cognitions – or 'core' – and peripheral ones: the former are theoretically considered as more connected than the later to group members’ social identity and may play a greater role in SRs’ ability to allow group identification by means of a common vision of the object of representation. Indeed, the central core provides a reference point for the in-group as it constitutes a consensual vision that gives meaning to a social object particularly important to individuals and to the group. However, while numerous contributions clearly refer to the underlying role of SRs in group identification, there are only few empirical evidences of this aspect. Thus, we hypothesize an effect of the structure of SRs on group identification. More precisely, central cognitions (vs. peripheral ones) will lead to a stronger group identification. In addition, we hypothesize that the refutation of a cognition will lead to a stronger group identification than its activation. The SR mobilized here is that of 'studying' among a population of first-year undergraduate psychology students. Thus, a pretest (N = 82), using an Attribute-Challenge Technique, was designed in order to identify the central and the peripheral cognitions to use in the primings of our main study. The results of this pretest are in line with previous studies. Then, the main study (online; N = 184), using a social priming methodology, was based on a 2 (Structural status of the cognitions belonging to the prime: central vs. peripheral) x 2 (Type of prime: activation vs. refutation) experimental design in order to test our hypotheses. Results revealed, as expected, the main effect of the structure of the SR on group identification. Indeed, central cognitions trigger a higher level of identification than the peripheral ones. However, we observe neither effect of the type of prime, nor interaction effect. These results experimentally demonstrate for the first time the effect of the structure of SRs on group identification and indicate that central cognitions are more connected than peripheral ones to group members’ social identity. These results will be discussed considering the importance of understanding identity as a function of SRs and on their ability to potentially solve the lack of consideration of the definition of the group in Social Representations Theory.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
880
84544
Manifestation of Hybridity in Marie Jones’s "Stones in His Pockets"
Abstract:
This paper explores Marie Jones’s Stones in His Pockets in the light of the postcolonial notion of hybridity. The play is a tragicomedy about a small village in Ireland where many of the locales are extras in a Hollywood film. The actions of the play revolve around a local teenager named Sean who has been vilipended by a famous film star. The Sean character commits suicide by drowning himself with stones in his pockets. This paper explored how the attempts to gain cultural identity is manifested in Marie Jones’s play and how authority causes a change in the culture and destiny of people. Apparently, the play demonstrates that the political, economic and social realities directly affect people’s destiny and identity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
879
84420
Towards a Deconstructive Text: Beyond Language and the Politics of Absences in Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot
Authors:
Abstract:
The writing of Samuel Beckett is associated with meaning in the meaninglessness and the production of what he calls ‘literature of unword’. The casual escape from the world of words in the form of silences and pauses, in his play Waiting for Godot, urges to ask question of their existence and ultimately leads to investigate the theory behind their use in the play. This paper proposes that these absences (silence and pause) in Beckett’s play force to think ‘beyond’ language. This paper asks how silence and pause in Beckett’s text speak for the emergence of poststructuralist text. It aims to identify the significant features of the philosophy of deconstruction in the play of Beckett to demystify the hostile complicity between literature and philosophy. With the interpretive paradigm of poststructuralism this research focuses on the text as a research data. It attempts to delineate the relationship between poststructuralist theoretical concerns and text of Beckett. Keeping in view the theoretical concerns of Poststructuralist theorist Jacques Derrida, the main concern of the discussion is directed towards the notion of ‘beyond’ language into the absences that are aimed at silencing the existing discourse with the ‘radical irony’ of this anti-formal art that contains its own denial and thus represents the idea of ceaseless questioning and radical contradiction in art and any text. This article asks how text of Beckett vibrates with loud silence and has disrupted language to demonstrate the emptiness of words and thus exploring the limitless void of absences. Beckett’s text resonates with silence and pause that is neither negation nor affirmation rather a poststructuralist’s suspension of reality that is ever changing with the undecidablity of all meanings. Within the theoretical notion of Derrida’s Différance this study interprets silence and pause in Beckett’s art. The silence and pause behave like Derrida’s Différance and have questioned their own existence in the text to deconstruct any definiteness and finality of reality to extend an undecidable threshold of poststructuralists that aims to evade the ‘labyrinth of language’.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
878
84279
Use Cloud-Based Watson Deep Learning Platform to Train Models Faster and More Accurate
Authors:
Abstract:
Machine Learning workloads have traditionally been run in high-performance computing (HPC) environments, where users log in to dedicated machines and utilize the attached GPUs to run training jobs on huge datasets. Training of large neural network models is very resource intensive, and even after exploiting parallelism and accelerators such as GPUs, a single training job can still take days. Consequently, the cost of hardware is a barrier to entry. Even when upfront cost is not a concern, the lead time to set up such an HPC environment takes months from acquiring hardware to set up the hardware with the right set of firmware, software installed and configured. Furthermore, scalability is hard to achieve in a rigid traditional lab environment. Therefore, it is slow to react to the dynamic change in the artificial intelligent industry. Watson Deep Learning as a service, a cloud-based deep learning platform that mitigates the long lead time and high upfront investment in hardware. It enables robust and scalable sharing of resources among the teams in an organization. It is designed for on-demand cloud environments. Providing a similar user experience in a multi-tenant cloud environment comes with its own unique challenges regarding fault tolerance, performance, and security. Watson Deep Learning as a service tackles these challenges and present a deep learning stack for the cloud environments in a secure, scalable and fault-tolerant manner. It supports a wide range of deep-learning frameworks such as Tensorflow, PyTorch, Caffe, Torch, Theano, and MXNet etc. These frameworks reduce the effort and skillset required to design, train, and use deep learning models. Deep Learning as a service is used at IBM by AI researchers in areas including machine translation, computer vision, and healthcare. 
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
877
84213
Investigating Medical Students' Perspectives toward University Teachers' Talking Features in an English as a Foreign Language Context in Urmia, Iran
Abstract:
This study aimed to investigate medical students’ attitudes toward some teachers’ talking features regarding their gender in Iranian context. To do so, 60 male and 60 female medical students of Urmia University of Medical Sciences (UMSU) participated in the research. A researcher made Likert-type questionnaire which was initially piloted was used to gather the data. Comparing the four different factors regarding the features of teacher talk, it was revealed that visual and extra-linguistic information factor, lexical and syntactic familiarity, speed of speech, and the use of Persian language had the highest to the lowest mean score respectively. It was also indicated that female students rather than male students were significantly more in favor of speed of speech and lexical and syntactic familiarity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
876
83928
A Comparison of the First Language Vocabulary Used by Indonesian Year 4 Students and the Vocabulary Taught to Them in English Language Textbooks
Abstract:
This study concerns on the process of making corpus obtained from Indonesian year 4 students’ free writing compared to the vocabulary taught in English language textbooks. 369 students’ sample writings from 19 public elementary schools in Malang, East Java, Indonesia and 5 selected English textbooks were analyzed through corpus in linguistics method using AdTAT -the Adelaide Text Analysis Tool- program. The findings produced wordlists of the top 100 words most frequently used by students and the top 100 words given in English textbooks. There was a 45% match between the two lists. Furthermore, the classifications of the top 100 most frequent words from the two corpora based on part of speech found that both the Indonesian and English languages employed a similar use of nouns, verbs, adjectives, and prepositions. Moreover, to see the contextualizing the vocabulary of learning materials towards the students’ need, a depth-analysis dealing with the content and the cultural views from the vocabulary taught in the textbooks was discussed through the criteria developed from the checklist. Lastly, further suggestions are addressed to language teachers to understand the students’ background such as recognizing the basic words students acquire before teaching them new vocabulary in order to achieve successful learning of the target language.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
875
83869
The EFL Mental Lexicon: Connectivity and the Acquisition of Lexical Knowledge Depth
Authors:
Abstract:
The study at hand has attempted to describe the acquisition of three EFL lexical knowledge aspects - meaning, synonymy and collocation – across three academic levels: Baccalaureate, second year and fourth year university levels in Morocco. The research also compares the development of the three lexical knowledge aspects between knowledge (reception) and use (production) and attempts to trace their order of acquisition. This has led to the use of three main data collection tasks: translation, acceptability judgment and multiple choices. The study has revealed the following findings. First, L1 and EFL mental lexicons are connected at the lexical knowledge depth. Second, such connection is active whether in language reception or use. Third, the connectivity between L1 and EFL mental lexicons tends to relatively decrease as the academic level of the learners increases. Finally, the research has revealed a significant 'order' of acquisition between the three lexical aspects, though not a very strong one.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
874
83416
Anti-Fables and Their Linguo Cultural Characteristics
Abstract:
In our era of globalization, the unhindered intercultural communication represents an essential element of development. To be proficient in a language one needs to get acquainted with cultural and national peculiarities of the language of native speakers. Cultural peculiarities are explicitly reflected in the nation’s cultural heritage, monuments, literary works, tales, even in clothes. A specific role in the evaluation of cultural performances, establishment, broadcasting, and preservation of behavior norms belongs to the folk texts, among which the fables occupy one of the most important places. A fable, as a genre has existed since ancient times. Fables are universal because they are absolutely appropriate for any century and for any society. Even in the era of the internet, fables turned out to be actual. Internet offers a wide range of re-made fables. Generally, they are new interpretations of Aesop’s fables, but in some cases they are original. These fables became the subject of our research because they contain some modern slangs and jargons and their language is not that much literary. But, besides the changes in the language, there are some changes in the fields of their occupation, everyday activities and the ways of moneymaking. Because of the numerous changes, these new fables can be called 'anti-fables.' Anti-fables are the very new kinds of fables, that can be absolutely suitable for internet generation and perfectly reflects modern reality. All these changes are the reflections of thoughts and actions of new generation and these anti-fables can become a new internet literary genre.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
873
83330
Selective Attention as a Search for the Deceased during the Mourning Process
Abstract:
Objective: This study aims to investigate selective attention in the process of mourning, as a normal reaction to loss. Method: In order to develop this research, we used a systematic bibliographic review, following the process of investigation, cataloging, careful evaluation and synthesis of the documentation, associated with the method of thanatological hemenutics proposed by Elisabeth Kübler-Ross. Conclusion: After a significant loss, especially the death of a loved one or family member, it is normal for the mourner, motivated by absence, to have a false perception of the presence of the deceased. This phenomenon happens whenever the mourner is in the middle of the crowd, because his selective attention causes him to perceive physical characteristics, tone of voice, or feel fragrance of the perfume that the deceased possessed. Details characterizing the dead are perceived by the mourner because he seeks the presence in the absence.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
872
83302
Students’ Attitudes towards Self-Directed Learning out of Classroom: Indonesian Context
Abstract:
There is an issue about Asian students including Indonesian students that tend to behave passively in the classroom and depend on the teachers’ instruction. Regarding this statement, this study attempts to address the Indonesian high school students’ attitudes on whether they have initiative and be responsible for their learning out of the classroom and if so, why. Therefore, 30 high school students were asked to fill out the questionnaires and interviewed in order to figure out their attitudes towards self-directed learning. The descriptive qualitative research analysis adapted Knowles’s theory (1975) about Self-directed learning (SDL) to analyze the data. The findings show that the students have a potential to possess self-directed learning through ICT, but they have difficulties in choosing appropriate learning strategy, doing self-assessment and conducting self-reflection. Therefore, this study supports the teacher to promote self-directed learning instruction for successful learning by assisting students in dealing with those aforementioned problems. Furthermore, it is expected to be a beneficial reference which gives new insights on the self-directed learning practice in specific context.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
871
83018
The Representation of Anies Baswedan about the Issue of the Word 'Pribumi' in His DKI Jakarta Governor Inauguration Speech in Indonesian Media
Authors:
Abstract:
The term 'pribumi' or indigenous people was originally coined in the colonisation era to differentiate between Dutch colonials and native Indonesian people. The term was also used to trigger nationalism among Indonesian people to liberate their country from any kind of colonialism which had seized their freedom for ages. However, after the war was over and the colonials had fled from the country, the usage began to be altered. It changed from nationalist propaganda term to somewhat racist term. Immigrants and half-blooded people were massively victimized. Then, in 1998 the government forbade the use of this term for public use. Apparently, this racial issue happens again. On 16th October 2017, Anies Baswedan as the new government of DKI Jakarta province mentioned this term in his inauguration speech. This indeed raises controversy among Indonesian people. Using critical discourse analysis, this paper examines how Indonesian media portray the figure of Anies Baswedan regarding the issue. The findings reveal that Indonesian media depict Anies Baswedan differently. Some view him guilty as he mentioned the controversial and forbidden term in public. While, the other media consider him as innocent as he used the term in different contexts. This various media point of view and framing is presumably emerged from their different ideologies.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
870
82743
Comparing the Contribution of General Vocabulary Knowledge and Academic Vocabulary Knowledge to Learners' Academic Achievement
Abstract:
Coxhead’s (2000) Academic Word List (AWL) believed to be essential for students pursuing higher education and helps differentiate English for Academic Purposes (EAP) from General English as a course of study, and it is thought to be important for comprehending English academic texts. It has been described that AWL is an infrequent, discrete set of vocabulary items unreachable from general language. On the other hand, it has been known for a period of time that general vocabulary knowledge is a good predictor of academic achievement. This study, however, is an attempt to measure and compare the contribution of academic knowledge and general vocabulary knowledge to learners’ GPA and examine what knowledge is a better predictor of academic achievement and investigate whether AWL as a specialised list of infrequent words relates to the frequency effect. The participants were comprised of 44 international postgraduate students in Swansea University, all from the School of Management, following the taught MSc (Master of Science). The study employed the Academic Vocabulary Size Test (AVST) and the XK_Lex vocabulary size test. The findings indicate that AWL is a list based on word frequency rather than a discrete and unique word list and that the AWL performs the same function as general vocabulary, with tests of each found to measure largely the same quality of knowledge. The findings also suggest that the contribution that AWL knowledge provides for academic success is not sufficient and that general vocabulary knowledge is better in predicting academic achievement. Furthermore, the contribution that academic knowledge added above the contribution of general vocabulary knowledge when combined is really small and noteworthy. This study’s results are in line with the argument and suggest that it is the development of general vocabulary size is an essential quality for academic success and acquiring the words of the AWL will form part of this process. The AWL by itself does not provide sufficient coverage, and is probably not specialised enough, for knowledge of this list to influence this general process. It can be concluded that AWL as an academic word list epitomizes only a fraction of words that are actually needed for academic success in English and that knowledge of academic vocabulary combined with general vocabulary knowledge above the most frequent 3000 words is what matters most to ultimate academic success.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
869
82699
The Impact of Dialectal Differences on the Perception of Japanese Gemination: A Case Study of Cantonese Learners
Abstract:
Many of the perceptual studies on Japanese gemination are using length of closure duration as the main criterion. This study investigates the perceptual features of Japanese obstruent geminates among Chinese learners of Japanese, focusing on the dialectal effect of the checked-tone, a syllable that ends in a stop consonant or a glottal stop, which is similar to Japanese obstruent germinates phonetically. In this study, 41 native speakers of Cantonese are divided into two groups based on their proficiency as well as learning period of Japanese. All stimuli employed in this study are made into C[p,k,s]+V[a,e,i] structure such as /apa/,/eke/,/isi/. Both original sounds and synthesized sounds are used in three different parts of this study. The results of the present study show that the checked-tone does have the positive effect on the perception of Japanese gemination. Furthermore, the proportion of closure duration in the entire word would be a more reliable and appropriate criterion in testing this kind of task.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
868
82524
An Appraisal of Blended Learning Approach for English Language Teaching in Saudi Arabia
Abstract:
Blended learning, an ideal amalgamation of online learning and face to face traditional approach is a new approach that may result in outstanding outcomes in the realm of teaching and learning. The dexterity and effectiveness offered by e-learning experience cannot be guaranteed in a traditional classroom, whereas one-to-one interaction the essential element of learning that can only be found in a traditional classroom. In recent years, a spectacular expansion in the incorporation of technology in language teaching and learning is observed in many universities of Saudi Arabia. Some universities recognize the importance of blending face-to-face with online instruction in language pedagogy, Qassim University is one of the many universities adopting Blackboard Learning Management system (LMS). The university has adopted this new mode of teaching/learning in year 2015. Although the experience is immature; however great pedagogical transformations are anticipated in the university through this new approach. This paper examines the role of blended language learning with particular reference to the influence of Blackboard Learning Management System on the development of English language learning for EFL learners registered in Bachelors of English language program. This paper aims at exploring three main areas: (i) the present status of Blended learning in the educational process in Saudi Arabia especially in Qassim University by providing a survey report on the number of training courses on Blackboard LMS conducted for the male and female teachers at various colleges of Qassim University, (ii) a survey on teachers perception about the utility, application and the outcome of using blended Learning approach in teaching English language skills courses, (iii) the students’ views on the efficiency of Blended learning approach in learning English language skills courses. Besides, analysis of students’ limitations and challenges related to the experience of blended learning via Blackboard, the suggestion and recommendations offered by the language learners have also been thought-out. The study is empirical in nature. In order to gather data on the afore mentioned areas survey questionnaire method has been used: in order to study students’ perception, a 5 point Likert-scale questionnaire has been distributed to 200 students of English department registered in Bachelors in English program (level 5 through level 8). Teachers’ views have been surveyed with the help of interviewing 25 EFL teachers skilled in using Blackboard LMS in their lectures. In order to ensure the validity and reliability of questionnaire, the inter-rater approach and Cronbach’s Alpha analysis have been used respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been used to analyze the students’ perception about the productivity of the Blended approach in learning English language skills. The analysis of feedback by Saudi teachers and students about the usefulness, ingenuity, and productivity of Blended Learning via Blackboard LMS highlights the need of encouraging and expanding the implementation of this new approach into the field of English language teaching in Saudi Arabia, in order to augment congenial learning aura. Furthermore, it is hoped that the propositions and practical suggestions offered by the study will be functional for other similar learning environments.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
867
82152
Understanding the Multilingualism of the Mauritian Multilingual Primary School Learner and Translanguaging: A Linguistic Ethnographic Study
Abstract:
The Mauritian landscape is well-known for its multilingualism with the daily interaction of the number of languages that are used in the island; namely Kreol Morisien, the European languages (English and French) and the Oriental/Asian languages (Hindi, Arabic/Urdu, Tamil, Telegu, Marathi, Mandarin, etc.). However, within Mauritius’ multilingual educational system, English is the official medium of instruction while French is taught as compulsory subject till upper secondary and oriental languages are offered as optional languages at primary level. Usually, Mauritians choose one oriental language based on their ethnic/religious identity, when they start their primary schooling as an additional language to learn. In January 2012, Kreol Morisien, which is the considered the language of daily interaction of the majority of Mauritians, was introduced as an optional subject at primary level, taught at the same time as the oriental languages. The introduction of Kreol Morisien has spurred linguistic debates about the issue of multilingualism within the curriculum. Taking this into account, researchers have started pondering on the multilingual educational system of the country and questioning whether the current language curriculum caters for the complex everyday linguistic reality of the multilingual Mauritian learner, given most learners are embedded within an environment where the different languages interact with each other daily. This paper, therefore, proposes translanguaging as being a more befitting theoretical lens through which the multilingualism and the linguistic repertoire of Mauritian learners’ can best be understood.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
866
81222
Reading Strategies of Generation X and Y: A Survey on Learners' Skills and Preferences
Abstract:
Mixed generation classroom is a phenomenon that current higher education establishments are faced with daily trying to meet the needs of modern labor market with its emphasis on lifelong learning and retraining. Representatives of mainly X and Y generations in one classroom acquiring higher education is a challenge to lecturers considering all the characteristics that differ one generation from another. The importance of outlining different strategies and considering the needs of the students lies in the necessity for everyone to acquire the maximum of the provided knowledge as well as to understand each other to study together in one classroom and successfully cooperate in future workplaces. In addition to different generations, there are also learners with different native languages which have an impact on reading and understanding texts in third languages, including possible translation. Current research aims to investigate, describe and compare reading strategies among the representatives of generation X and Y. Hypotheses were formulated - representatives of generation X and Y use different reading strategies which is also different among first and third year students of the before mentioned generations. Current study is an empirical, qualitative study. To achieve the aim of the research, relevant literature was analyzed and a semi-structured questionnaire conducted among the first and third year students of Tallinn Health Care College. Questionnaire consisted of 25 statements on the text reading strategies, 3 multiple choice questions on preferences considering the design and medium of the text, and three open questions on the translation process when working with a text in student’s third language. The results of the questionnaire were categorized, analyzed and compared. Both, generation X and Y described their reading strategies to be 'scanning' and 'surfing'. Compared to generation X, first year generation Y learners valued interactivity and nonlinear texts. Students frequently used strategies of skimming, scanning, translating and highlighting together with relevant-thinking and assistance-seeking. Meanwhile, the third-year generation Y students no longer frequently used translating, resourcing and highlighting while Generation X learners still incorporated these strategies. Knowing about different needs of the generations currently inside the classrooms and on the labor market enables us with tools to provide sustainable education and grants the society a work force that is more flexible and able to move between professions. Future research should be conducted in order to investigate the amount of learning and strategy- adoption between generations. As for reading, main suggestions arising from the research are as follows: make a variety of materials available to students; allow them to select what they want to read and try to make those materials visually attractive, relevant, and appropriately challenging for learners considering the differences of generations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
865
80787
Linguistic Misinterpretation and the Dialogue of Civilizations
Abstract:
Globalization and migrations have made cross-cultural contacts more frequent and intensive. Sometimes, these contacts may lead to misunderstanding between partners of communication and misinterpretations of the verbal messages that some researchers tend to consider as the 'clash of civilizations'. In most cases, reasons for that may be found in cultural and linguistic differences and hence misinterpretations of intentions and behavior. The current research examines factors of verbal and non-verbal communication that should be taken into consideration in verbal and non-verbal contacts. Language is one of the most important manifestations of the cultural code, and it is often considered as one of the special features of a civilization. The Arabic language, in particular, is commonly associated with Islam and the language and the Arab-Muslim civilization. It is one of the most important markers of self-identification for more than 200 million of native speakers. Arabic is the language of the Quran and hence the symbol of religious affiliation for more than one billion Muslims around the globe. Adequate interpretation of Arabic texts requires profound knowledge of its grammar, semantics of its vocabulary. Communicating sides who belong to different cultural groups are guided by different models of behavior and hierarchy of values, besides that the vocabulary each of them uses in the dialogue may convey different semantic realities and vary in connotations. In this context direct, literal translation in most cases cannot adequately convey the original meaning of the original message. Besides that peculiarities and diversities of the extralinguistic information, such as the body language, communicative etiquette, cultural background and religious affiliations may make the dialogue even more difficult. It is very likely that the so called 'clash of civilizations' in most cases is due to misinterpretation of counterpart's means of discourse such as language, cultural codes, and models of behavior rather than lies in basic contradictions between partners of communication. In the process of communication, one has to rely on universal values rather than focus on cultural or religious peculiarities, to take into account current linguistic and extralinguistic context.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
864
80760
Current Trends in the Arabic Linguistics Development: Between National Tradition and Global Tendencies
Abstract:
Globalization is a process of worldwide economic, political and cultural integration. Obviously, this phenomenon has both positive and negative issues. This article analyzes the impact of the modern process of globalization on the national traditions of language teaching and research. In this context, the problem of the ratio of local to global can be viewed from several sides. Firstly, since English is the language of over 80 percent of scientific and technical research worldwide, what should be the language of science in certain region? Secondly, language 'globality' is not always associated with English, because intercultural communications may have their regional peculiarities. For example, in the Arab world, Modern Standard Arabic can also be regarded as 'global' phenomenon, since the mother-tongue languages of the population are local Arabic dialects. In addition, the correlation 'local' versus 'global' is manifested not only in the linguistic sphere but also in the methodology used in language acquisition and research. Thus, the major principles of the Arabic philological tradition, which goes back to the 7th century, are still spread in the modern Arab world. At the same time, the terminology and methods of language research that are peculiar to this tradition are quite far from the issues of general linguistics that underlies the description of all the languages of the world. The present research relies on a comparative analysis of sources in Arabic linguistics, including original works in Arabic dating back to the 12th-13th centuries. As a case study, interaction of local and global is also considered on the example of the Arabic teaching and research in Russia. Speaking about the correlation between local and global it is possible to forecast development of two parallel tendencies: the spread of the phenomena of globalization on one hand, and local implementation of a language policy aimed at preserving native languages, including Arabic, on the other.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
863
80743
Corpora in Secondary Schools Training Courses for English as a Foreign Language Teachers
Abstract:
This paper describes a proposal for a teachers’ training course, focused on the introduction of corpora in the EFL didactics (English as a foreign language) of some Italian secondary schools. The training course is conceived as a part of a TEDD participant’s five months internship. TEDD (Technologies for Education: diversity and devices) is an advanced course held by the Department of Engineering and Information Technology at the University of Trento, Italy. Its main aim is to train a selected, heterogeneous group of graduates to engage with the complex interdependence between education and technology in modern society. The educational approach draws on a plural coexistence of various theories as well as socio-constructivism, constructionism, project-based learning and connectivism. TEDD educational model stands as the main reference source to the design of a formative course for EFL teachers, drawing on the digitalization of didactics and creation of learning interactive materials for L2 intermediate students. The training course lasts ten hours, organized into five sessions. In the first part (first and second session) a series of guided and semi-guided activities drive participants to familiarize with corpora through the use of a digital tools kit. Then, during the second part, participants are specifically involved in the realization of a ML (Mistakes Laboratory) where they create, develop and share digital activities according to their teaching goals with the use of corpora, supported by the digital facilitator. The training course takes place into an ICT laboratory where the teachers work either individually or in pairs, with a computer connected to a wi-fi connection, while the digital facilitator shares inputs, materials and digital assistance simultaneously on a whiteboard and on a digital platform where participants interact and work together both synchronically and diachronically. The adoption of good ICT practices is a fundamental step to promote the introduction and use of Corpus Linguistics in EFL teaching and learning processes, in fact dealing with corpora not only promotes L2 learners’ critical thinking and orienteering versus wild browsing when they are looking for ready-made translations or language usage samples, but it also entails becoming confident with digital tools and activities. The paper will explain reasons, limits and resources of the pedagogical approach adopted to engage EFL teachers with the use of corpora in their didactics through the promotion of digital practices.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
862
80685
An Analysis of Machine Translation: Instagram Translation vs Human Translation on the Perspective Translation Quality
Authors:
Abstract:
This aims to seek which part of the linguistics with the common mistakes occurred between Instagram translation and human translation. Instagram is a social media account that is widely used by people in the world. Everyone with the Instagram account can consume the captions and pictures that are shared by their friends, celebrity, and public figures across countries. Instagram provides the machine translation under its caption space that will assist users to understand the language of their non-native. The researcher takes samples from an Indonesian public figure whereas the account is followed by many followers. The public figure tries to help her followers from other countries understand her posts by putting up the English version after the Indonesian version. However, the research on Instagram account has not been done yet even though the account is widely used by the worldwide society. There are 20 samples that will be analysed on the perspective of translation quality and linguistics tools. As the MT, Instagram tends to give a literal translation without regarding the topic meant. On the other hand, the human translation tends to exaggerate the translation which leads a different meaning in English. This is an interesting study to discuss when the human nature and robotic-system influence the translation result.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
861
80664
Frequency of the English Phrasal Verbs Used by Iranian Learners as a Reference to the Style of Writing Adopted by the Learners
Abstract:
The present study initially focused on the frequency of phrasal verbs used by Iranian learners of English. The results then needed to be compared to the findings from native speaker corpora. After the extraction of phrasal verbs from learner and native-speaker corpora the findings were analysed. The results showed that Iranian learners avoided using phrasal verbs in many cases. Some of the findings proved to be significant. It was also found that the learners used the single-word counterparts of the avoided phrasal verbs to compensate for their lack of knowledge in many cases. Semantic complexity and Lack of L1 counterpart may have been the main reasons for avoidance, but despite the avoidance phenomenon, the learners displayed a tendency to use many other phrasal verbs which may have been due to the increase in the number of multi-word verbs in Persian. The overall scores confirmed the fact that the language produced by the learners illustrates signs of more formal style in comparison with the native speakers of English by using less phrasal verbs and more formal single word verbs instead.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
860
80655
Women’s Language and Gender Positioning in the Discourse of Indonesian Instagram Videos
Abstract:
The way women and men use language is an interesting topic to discuss. Nowadays, Instagram shows many videos which illustrate the difference of women’s and men’s language. Furthermore, the videos show how different genders behave in daily communication. This research aims to (1) investigate conversational characteristics of women represented in Indonesian Instagram videos, and (2) investigate how different genders behave in daily communication. To analyze the two research problems, this research employs Tannen’s theory of language and gender (1996). This is a descriptive qualitative research which describes phenomena of language and gender shown in Indonesian Instagram videos. The data were collected through observation. The collected data were then analyzed by employing ethnography and textual analysis. The research results show that in Indonesian Instagram videos, women dominate the conversation than men. Women’s are portrayed as a figure who are talkative, never wrong, and sensitive. Women’s dominating men proves that women always want to be understood, produce more words than men, and are more creative in producing verbal communication. Meanwhile, men are portrayed as calm, gentle, and patient creature who listen to women’s talk. Furthermore, men are portrayed to prefer being silent for avoiding conflict.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):