Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 48970

Computer and Information Engineering

2268
82212
A Study of General Attacks on Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem over Prime Field and Binary Field
Abstract:
This paper begins by describing basic properties of finite field and elliptic curve cryptography over prime field and binary field. Then we discuss the discrete logarithm problem for elliptic curves and its properties. We study the general common attacks on elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem such as the Baby Step, Giant Step method, Pollard’s rho method and Pohlig-Hellman method, and describe in detail experiments of these attacks over prime field and binary field. The paper finishes by describing expected running time of the attacks and suggesting strong elliptic curves that are not susceptible to these attacks.c
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2267
81957
Input Data Balancing in a Neural Network PM-10 Forecasting System
Abstract:
Recently PM-10 has become a social and global issue. It is one of major air pollutants which affect human health. Therefore, it needs to be forecasted rapidly and precisely. However, PM-10 comes from various emission sources, and its level of concentration is largely dependent on meteorological and geographical factors of local and global region, so the forecasting of PM-10 concentration is very difficult. Neural network model can be used in the case. But, there are few cases of high concentration PM-10. It makes the learning of the neural network model difficult. In this paper, we suggest a simple input balancing method when the data distribution is uneven. It is based on the probability of appearance of the data. Experimental results show that the input balancing makes the neural networks’ learning easy and improves the forecasting rates.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2266
81856
Hardware Implementation on Field Programmable Gate Array of Two-Stage Algorithm for Rough Set Reduct Generation
Abstract:
The rough sets theory developed by Prof. Z. Pawlak is one of the tools that can be used in the intelligent systems for data analysis and processing. Banking, medicine, image recognition and security are among the possible fields of utilization. In all these fields, the amount of the collected data is increasing quickly, but with the increase of the data, the computation speed becomes the critical factor. Data reduction is one of the solutions to this problem. Removing the redundancy in the rough sets can be achieved with the reduct. A lot of algorithms of generating the reduct were developed, but most of them are only software implementations, therefore have many limitations. Microprocessor uses the fixed word length, consumes a lot of time for either fetching as well as processing of the instruction and data; consequently, the software based implementations are relatively slow. Hardware systems don’t have these limitations and can process the data faster than a software. Reduct is the subset of the decision attributes that provides the discernibility of the objects. For the given decision table there can be more than one reduct. Core is the set of all indispensable condition attributes. None of its elements can be removed without affecting the classification power of all condition attributes. Moreover, every reduct consists of all the attributes from the core. In this paper, the hardware implementation of the two-stage greedy algorithm to find the one reduct is presented. The decision table is used as an input. Output of the algorithm is the superreduct which is the reduct with some additional removable attributes. First stage of the algorithm is calculating the core using the discernibility matrix. Second stage is generating the superreduct by enriching the core with the most common attributes, i.e., attributes that are more frequent in the decision table. Described above algorithm has two disadvantages: i) generating the superreduct instead of reduct, ii) additional first stage may be unnecessary if the core is empty. But for the systems focused on the fast computation of the reduct the first disadvantage is not the key problem. The core calculation can be achieved with a combinational logic block, and thus add respectively little time to the whole process. Algorithm presented in this paper was implemented in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) as a digital device consisting of blocks that process the data in a single step. Calculating the core is done by the comparators connected to the block called 'singleton detector', which detects if the input word contains only single 'one'. Calculating the number of occurrences of the attribute is performed in the combinational block made up of the cascade of the adders. The superreduct generation process is iterative and thus needs the sequential circuit for controlling the calculations. For the research purpose, the algorithm was also implemented in C language and run on a PC. The times of execution of the reduct calculation in a hardware and software were considered. Results show increase in the speed of data processing.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2265
81538
High Performance Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Stochastic Low-Density Parity-Check Decoder Design for IEEE 802.3an Standard
Abstract:
This paper introduces high-performance architecture for fully parallel stochastic Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) field programmable gate array (FPGA) based LDPC decoder. The new approach is designed to decrease the decoding latency and to reduce the FPGA logic utilisation. To accomplish the target logic utilisation reduction, the routing of the proposed sub-variable node (VN) internal memory is designed to utilize one slice distributed RAM. Furthermore, a VN initialization, using the channel input probability, is achieved to enhance the decoder convergence, without extra resources and without integrating the output saturated-counters. The Xilinx FPGA implementation, of IEEE 802.3an standard LDPC code, shows that the proposed decoding approach attain high performance along with reduction of FPGA logic utilisation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2264
81306
Impact of Population Size on Symmetric Travelling Salesman Problem Efficiency
Abstract:
Genetic algorithm (GA) is a powerful evolutionary searching technique that is used successfully to solve and optimize problems in different research areas. Genetic Algorithm (GA) considered as one of optimization methods used to solve Travel salesman Problem (TSP). The feasibility of GA in finding a TSP solution is dependent on GA operators; encoding method, population size, termination criteria, in general. In specific, crossover and its probability play a significant role in finding possible solutions for Symmetric TSP (STSP). In addition, the crossover should be determined and enhanced in term reaching optimal or at least near optimal. In this paper, we spot the light on using a modified crossover method called modified sequential constructive crossover and its impact on reaching optimal solution. To justify the relevance of a parameter value in solving the TSP, a set comparative analysis conducted on different crossover methods values.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2263
81257
Energy Efficient Firefly Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Network
Abstract:
Wireless sensor network (WSN) is comprised of a huge number of small and cheap devices known as sensor nodes. Usually, these sensor nodes are massively and deployed randomly as in Ad-hoc over hostile and harsh environment to sense, collect and transmit data to the needed locations (i.e., base station). One of the main advantages of WSN is that the ability to work in unattended and scattered environments regardless the presence of humans such as remote active volcanoes environments or earthquakes. In WSN expanding network, lifetime is a major concern. Clustering technique is more important to maximize network lifetime. Nature-inspired algorithms are developed and optimized to find optimized solutions for various optimization problems. We proposed Energy Efficient Firefly Algorithm to improve network lifetime as long as possible.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2262
81174
Smart Unmanned Parking System Based on Radio Frequency Identification Technology
Authors:
Abstract:
In order to tackle the ever-growing problem of the lack of parking space, this paper presents the design and implementation of a smart unmanned parking system that is based on RFID (radio frequency identification) technology and Wireless communication technology. This system uses RFID technology to achieve the identification function (transmitted by 2.4 G wireless module) and is equipped with an STM32L053 micro controller as the main control chip of the smart vehicle. This chip can accomplish automatic parking (in/out), charging and other functions. On this basis, it can also help users easily query the information that is stored in the database through the Internet. Experimental tests have shown that the system has the features of low power consumption and stable operation, among others. It can effectively improve the level of automation control of the parking lot management system and has enormous application prospects.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2261
81173
Quantum Inspired Security on a Mobile Phone
Abstract:
The widespread use of mobile electronic devices increases the complexities of mobile security. This thesis aims to provide a secure communication environment for smartphone users. Some research proves that the one-time pad is one of the securest encryption methods, and that the key distribution problem can be solved by using the QKD (quantum key distribution). The objective of this project is to design an Android APP (application) to exchange several random keys between mobile phones. Inspired by QKD, the developed APP uses the quick response (QR) code as a carrier to dispatch large amounts of one-time keys. After evaluating the performance of APP, it allows the mobile phone to capture and decode 1800 bytes of random data in 600ms. The continuous scanning mode of APP is designed to improve the overall transmission performance and user experience, and the maximum transmission rate of this mode is around 2200 bytes/s. The omnidirectional readability and error correction capability of QR code gives it a better real-life application, and the features of adequate storage capacity and quick response optimize overall transmission efficiency. The security of this APP is guaranteed since QR code is exchanged face-to-face, eliminating the risk of being eavesdropped. Also, the id of QR code is the only message that would be transmitted through the whole communication. The experimental results show this project can achieve superior transmission performance, and the correlation between the transmission rate of the system and several parameters, such as the QR code size, has been analyzed. In addition, some existing technologies and the main findings in the context of the project are summarized and critically compared in detail.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2260
81035
System and Method for Providing Web-Based Remote Application Service
Abstract:
With the development of virtualization technologies, a new type of service named cloud computing service is produced. Cloud users usually encounter the problem of how to use the virtualized platform easily over the web without requiring the plug-in or installation of special software. The object of this paper is to develop a system and a method enabling process interfacing within an automation scenario for accessing remote application by using the web browser. To meet this challenge, we have devised a web-based interface that system has allowed to shift the GUI application from the traditional local environment to the cloud platform, which is stored on a remote virtual machine rather than locally. We designed the sketch of web interface following the cloud virtualization concept that sought to enable communication and collaboration among users. We describe the design requirements of remote application technology and present implementation details of the web application and its associated components. We conclude that this proposed effort has the potential to provide an elastic and resilience environment for several application services. Users no longer have to burden the system maintenances and reduce the overall cost of software licenses and hardware. Moreover, this remote application service represents the next step to the mobile workplace, and it lets user to use the remote application virtually from anywhere.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2259
80774
Land Cover Remote Sensing Classification Advanced Neural Networks Supervised Learning
Authors:
Abstract:
This study aims to evaluate the impact of classifying labelled remote sensing images conventional neural network (CNN) architecture, i.e., AlexNet on different land cover scenarios based on two remotely sensed datasets from different point of views such as the computational time and performance. Thus, a set of experiments were conducted to specify the effectiveness of the selected convolutional neural network using two implementing approaches, named fully trained and fine-tuned. For validation purposes, two remote sensing datasets, AID, and RSSCN7 which are publicly available and have different land covers features were used in the experiments. These datasets have a wide diversity of input data, number of classes, amount of labelled data, and texture patterns. A specifically designed interactive deep learning GPU training platform for image classification (Nvidia Digit) was employed in the experiments. It has shown efficiency in training, validation, and testing. As a result, the fully trained approach has achieved a trivial result for both of the two data sets, AID and RSSCN7 by 73.346% and 71.857% within 24 min, 1 sec and 8 min, 3 sec respectively. However, dramatic improvement of the classification performance using the fine-tuning approach has been recorded by 92.5% and 91% respectively within 24min, 44 secs and 8 min 41 sec respectively. The represented conclusion opens the opportunities for a better classification performance in various applications such as agriculture and crops remote sensing.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2258
80590
Pythagorean-Platonic Lattice Method for Finding all Co-Prime Right Angle Triangles
Abstract:
This paper presents a method for determining all of the co-prime right angle triangles in the Euclidean field by looking at the intersection of the Pythagorean and Platonic right angle triangles and the corresponding lattice that this produces. The co-prime properties of each lattice point representing a unique right angle triangle are then considered. This paper proposes a conjunction between these two ancient disparaging theorists. This work has wide applications in information security where cryptography involves improved ways of finding tuples of prime numbers for secure communication systems. In particular, this paper has direct impact in enhancing the encryption and decryption algorithms in cryptography.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2257
80553
Investigation of New Gait Representations for Improving Gait Recognition
Abstract:
This study presents new gait representations for improving gait recognition accuracy on cross gait appearances, such as normal walking, wearing a coat and carrying a bag. Based on the Gait Energy Image (GEI), two ideas are implemented to generate new gait representations. One is to append lower knee regions to the original GEI, and the other is to apply convolutional operations to the GEI and its variants. A set of new gait representations are created and used for training multi-class Support Vector Machines (SVMs). Tests are conducted on the CASIA dataset B. Various combinations of the gait representations with different convolutional kernel size and different numbers of kernels used in the convolutional processes are examined. Both the entire images as features and reduced dimensional features by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) are tested in gait recognition. Interestingly, both new techniques, appending the lower knee regions to the original GEI and convolutional GEI, can significantly contribute to the performance improvement in the gait recognition. The experimental results have shown that the average recognition rate can be improved from 75.65% to 87.50%.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2256
80503
A Parallel Implementation of k-Means in MATLAB
Abstract:
The aim of this work is the parallel implementation of k-means in MATLAB, in order to reduce the execution time. Specifically, a new function in MATLAB for serial k-means algorithm is developed, which meets all the requirements for the conversion to a function in MATLAB with parallel computations. Additionally, two different variants for the definition of initial values are presented. In the sequel, the parallel approach is presented. Finally, the performance tests for the computation times respect to the numbers of features and classes are illustrated.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2255
79985
Speech Enhancement Using Wavelet Coefficients Masking with Local Binary Patterns
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a wavelet coefficients masking based on Local Binary Patterns (WLBP) approach to enhance the temporal spectra of the wavelet coefficients for speech enhancement. This technique exploits the wavelet denoising scheme, which splits the degraded speech into pyramidal subband components and extracts frequency information without losing temporal information. Speech enhancement in each high-frequency subband is performed by binary labels through the local binary pattern masking that encodes the ratio between the original value of each coefficient and the values of the neighbour coefficients. This approach enhances the high-frequency spectra of the wavelet transform instead of eliminating them through a threshold. A comparative analysis is carried out with conventional speech enhancement algorithms, demonstrating that the proposed technique achieves significant improvements in terms of PESQ, an international recommendation of objective measure for estimating subjective speech quality. Informal listening tests also show that the proposed method in an acoustic context improves the quality of speech, avoiding the annoying musical noise present in other speech enhancement techniques. Experimental results obtained with a DNN based speech recognizer in noisy environments corroborate the superiority of the proposed scheme in the robust speech recognition scenario.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2254
79824
An Improved C-Means Model for MRI Segmentation
Abstract:
Medical images are important to help identifying different diseases, for example, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to investigate the brain, spinal cord, bones, joints, breasts, blood vessels, and heart. Image segmentation, in medical image analysis, is usually the first step to find out some characteristics with similar color, intensity or texture so that the diagnosis could be further carried out based on these features. This paper introduces an improved C-means model to segment the MRI images. The model is based on information entropy to evaluate the segmentation results by achieving global optimization. Several contributions are significant. Firstly, Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used for achieving global optimization in this model where fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm (FCMA) is not capable of doing that. Secondly, the information entropy after segmentation is used for measuring the effectiveness of MRI image processing. Experimental results show the outperformance of the proposed model by comparing with traditional approaches.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2253
79667
Network Functions Virtualization-Based Virtual Routing Function Deployment under Network Delay Constraints
Abstract:
NFV-based network implements a variety of network functions with software on general-purpose servers, and this allows the network operator to select any capabilities and locations of network functions without any physical constraints. In this paper, we evaluate the influence of the maximum tolerable network delay on the virtual routing function deployment guidelines which the authors proposed previously. Our evaluation results have revealed the following: (1) the more the maximum tolerable network delay condition becomes severe, the more the number of areas where the route selection function is installed increases and the total network cost increases, (2) the higher the routing function cost relative to the circuit bandwidth cost, the increase ratio of total network cost becomes larger according to the maximum tolerable network delay condition.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2252
79634
Framework for Automatic Selection of Kernels Based on Convolutional Neural Networks and CkMeans Clustering Algorithm
Abstract:
Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) can learn deep feature representation for hyperspectral imagery (HIS) interpretation and attain excellent accuracy of classification if we have many training samples. Due to its superiority in feature representation, several works focus on it, among which a reliable classification approach based on CNN, used filters generated from cluster framework, like kMeans algorithm, yielded good results. However, the number of kernels to be manually assigned. To solve this problem, an HSI classification framework based on CNN, where the convolutional filters to be automatically learned from the data, by grouping without knowing the cluster number, has recently proposed. This framework, based on the two algorithms CNN and kMeans, showed high accuracy results. So, in the same context, we propose an architecture based on the depth Convolutional Neural Networks principle, where kernels are automatically learned, using CkMeans network, to generate filters without knowing the number of clusters, for hyperspectral classification. With adaptive kernels, the proposed framework Automatic Kernels Selection by CkMeans algorithm (AKSCCk) achieves a better classification accuracy compared to the previous frameworks. The experimental results show the effectiveness and feasibility of AKSCCk approach.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2251
79408
Chaos Cryptography in Cloud Architectures with Lower Latency
Abstract:
With the rapid evolution of the internet applications, cloud computing becomes one of today’s hottest research areas due to its ability to reduce costs associated with computing. Cloud is, therefore, increasing flexibility and scalability for computing services in the internet. Cloud computing is Internet based computing due to shared resources and information which are dynamically delivered to consumers. As cloud computing share resources via the open network, hence cloud outsourcing is vulnerable to attack. Therefore, this paper will explore data security of cloud computing by implementing chaotic cryptography. The proposal scenario develops a problem transformation technique that enables customers to secretly transform their information. This work proposes the chaotic cryptographic algorithms have been applied to enhance the security of the cloud computing accessibility. However, the proposed scenario is secure, easy and straightforward process. The chaotic encryption and digital signature systems ensure the security of the proposed scenario. Though, the choice of the key size becomes crucial to prevent a brute force attack.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2250
79103
An Efficient Fundamental Matrix Estimation for Moving Object Detection
Abstract:
In this paper, an improved method for estimating fundamental matrix is proposed. The method is applied effectively to monocular camera based moving object detection. The method consists of corner points detection, moving object’s motion estimation and fundamental matrix calculation. The corner points are obtained by using Harris corner detector, motions of moving objects is calculated from pyramidal Lucas-Kanade optical flow algorithm. Through epipolar geometry analysis using RANSAC, the fundamental matrix is calculated. In this method, we have improved the performances of moving object detection by using two threshold values that determine inlier or outlier. Through the simulations, we compare the performances with varying the two threshold values.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2249
79042
Image Encryption Using Eureqa to Generate an Automated Mathematical Key
Abstract:
Applying traditional symmetric cryptography algorithms while computing encryption and decryption provides immunity to secret keys against different attacks. One of the popular techniques generating automated secret keys is evolutionary computing by using Eureqa API tool, which got attention in 2013. In this paper, we are generating automated secret keys for image encryption and decryption using Eureqa API (tool which is used in evolutionary computing technique). Eureqa API models pseudo-random input data obtained from a suitable source to generate secret keys. The validation of generated secret keys is investigated by performing various statistical tests (histogram, chi-square, correlation of two adjacent pixels, correlation between original and encrypted images, entropy and key sensitivity). Experimental results obtained from methods including histogram analysis, correlation coefficient, entropy and key sensitivity, show that the proposed image encryption algorithms are secure and reliable, with the potential to be adapted for secure image communication applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2248
78971
Implementation of Chlorine Monitoring and Supply System for Drinking Water Tanks
Abstract:
Healthy and clean water should not contain disease-causing micro-organisms and toxic chemicals and must contain the necessary minerals in a balanced manner. Today, water resources have a limited and strategic importance, necessitating the management of water reserves. Water tanks meet the water needs of people and should be regularly chlorinated to prevent waterborne diseases. For this purpose, automatic chlorination systems placed in water tanks for killing bacteria. However, the regular operation of automatic chlorination systems depends on refilling the chlorine tank when it is empty. For this reason, there is a need for a stock control system, in which chlorine levels are regularly monitored and supplied. It has become imperative to take urgent measures against epidemics caused by the fact that most of our country is not aware of the end of chlorine. The aim of this work is to rehabilitate existing water tanks and to provide a method for a modern water storage system in which chlorination is digitally monitored by turning the newly established water tanks into a closed system. A sensor network structure using GSM/GPRS communication infrastructure has been developed in the study. The system consists of two basic units: hardware and software. The hardware includes a chlorine level sensor, an RFID interlock system for authorized personnel entry into water tank, a motion sensor for animals and other elements, and a camera system to ensure process safety. It transmits the data from the hardware sensors to the host server software via the TCP/IP protocol. The main server software processes the incoming data through the security algorithm and informs the relevant unit responsible (Security forces, Chlorine supply unit, Public health, Local Administrator) by e-mail and SMS. Since the software is developed base on the web, authorized personnel are also able to monitor drinking water tank and report data on the internet. When the findings and user feedback obtained as a result of the study are evaluated, it is shown that closed drinking water tanks are built with GRP type material, and continuous monitoring in digital environment is vital for sustainable health water supply for people.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2247
78846
Investigation of Clustering Algorithms Used in Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:
Wireless sensor networks are networks in which more than one sensor node is organized among themselves. The working principle is based on the transfer of the sensed data over the other nodes in the network to the central station. Wireless sensor networks concentrate on routing algorithms, energy efficiency and clustering algorithms. In the clustering method, the nodes in the network are divided into clusters using different parameters and the most suitable cluster head is selected from among them. The data to be sent to the center is sent per cluster, and the cluster head is transmitted to the center. With this method, the network traffic is reduced and the energy efficiency of the nodes is increased. In this study, clustering algorithms were examined in terms of clustering performances and cluster head selection characteristics to try to identify weak and strong sides. This work is supported by the Project 17.Kariyer.123 of Afyon Kocatepe University BAP Commission.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2246
78806
Convolutional Neural Network Based on Random Kernels for Analyzing Visual Imagery
Abstract:
The machine learning techniques based on a convolutional neural network (CNN) have been actively developed and successfully applied to a variety of image analysis tasks including reconstruction, noise reduction, resolution enhancement, segmentation, motion estimation, object recognition. The classical visual information processing that ranges from low level tasks to high level ones has been widely developed in the deep learning framework. It is generally considered as a challenging problem to derive visual interpretation from high dimensional imagery data. A CNN is a class of feed-forward artificial neural network that usually consists of deep layers the connections of which are established by a series of non-linear operations. The CNN architecture is known to be shift invariant due to its shared weights and translation invariance characteristics. However, it is often computationally intractable to optimize the network in particular with a large number of convolution layers due to a large number of unknowns to be optimized with respect to the training set that is generally required to be large enough to effectively generalize the model under consideration. It is also necessary to limit the size of convolution kernels due to the computational expense despite of the recent development of effective parallel processing machinery, which leads to the use of the constantly small size of the convolution kernels throughout the deep CNN architecture. However, it is often desired to consider different scales in the analysis of visual features at different layers in the network. Thus, we propose a CNN model where different sizes of the convolution kernels are applied at each layer based on the random projection. We apply random filters with varying sizes and associate the filter responses with scalar weights that correspond to the standard deviation of the random filters. We are allowed to use large number of random filters with the cost of one scalar unknown for each filter. The computational cost in the back-propagation procedure does not increase with the larger size of the filters even though the additional computational cost is required in the computation of convolution in the feed-forward procedure. The use of random kernels with varying sizes allows to effectively analyze image features at multiple scales leading to a better generalization. The robustness and effectiveness of the proposed CNN based on random kernels are demonstrated by numerical experiments where the quantitative comparison of the well-known CNN architectures and our models that simply replace the convolution kernels with the random filters is performed. The experimental results indicate that our model achieves better performance with less number of unknown weights. The proposed algorithm has a high potential in the application of a variety of visual tasks based on the CNN framework. Acknowledgement—This work was supported by the MISP (Ministry of Science and ICT), Korea, under the National Program for Excellence in SW (20170001000011001) supervised by IITP, and NRF-2014R1A2A1A11051941, NRF2017R1A2B4006023.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2245
78585
Virtual Reality Based 3D Video Games and Speech-Lip Synchronization Superseding Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction
Abstract:
In 3D video games, the dominance of production is unceasingly growing with a protruding level of affordability in terms of budget. Afterward, the automation of speech-lip synchronization technique is customarily onerous and has advanced a critical research subject in virtual reality based 3D video games. This paper presents one of these automatic tools, precisely riveted on the synchronization of the speech and the lip movement of the game characters. A robust and precise speech recognition segment that systematized with Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction method is developed which unconventionally delivers lip sync results. The Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction algorithm is constructed on that used in code-excited linear prediction, but Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction codebooks have an explicit algebraic structure levied upon them. This affords a quicker substitute to the software enactments of lip sync algorithms and thus advances the superiority of service factors abridged production cost.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2244
78499
Tensor Deep Stacking Neural Networks and Bilinear Mapping Based Speech Emotion Classification Using Facial Electromyography
Abstract:
Speech emotion classification is a dominant research field in finding a sturdy and profligate classifier appropriate for different real-life applications. This effort accentuates on classifying different emotions from speech signal quarried from the features related to pitch, formants, energy contours, jitter, shimmer, spectral, perceptual and temporal features. Tensor deep stacking neural networks were supported to examine the factors that influence the classification success rate. Facial electromyography signals were composed of several forms of focuses in a controlled atmosphere by means of audio-visual stimuli. Proficient facial electromyography signals were pre-processed using moving average filter, and a set of arithmetical features were excavated. Extracted features were mapped into consistent emotions using bilinear mapping. With facial electromyography signals, a database comprising diverse emotions will be exposed with a suitable fine-tuning of features and training data. A success rate of 92% can be attained deprived of increasing the system connivance and the computation time for sorting diverse emotional states.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2243
78382
The Capacity of Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients for Speech Recognition
Abstract:
Speech recognition is of an important contribution in promoting new technologies in human computer interaction. Today, there is a growing need to employ speech technology in daily life and business activities. However, speech recognition is a challenging task that requires different stages before obtaining the desired output. Among automatic speech recognition (ASR) components is the feature extraction process, which parameterizes the speech signal to produce the corresponding feature vectors. Feature extraction process aims at approximating the linguistic content that is conveyed by the input speech signal. In speech processing field, there are several methods to extract speech features, however, Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) is the popular technique. It has been long observed that the MFCC is dominantly used in the well-known recognizers such as the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Sphinx and the Markov Model Toolkit (HTK). Hence, this paper focuses on the MFCC method as the standard choice to identify the different speech segments in order to obtain the language phonemes for further training and decoding steps. Due to MFCC good performance, the previous studies show that the MFCC dominates the Arabic ASR research. In this paper, we demonstrate MFCC as well as the intermediate steps that are performed to get these coefficients using the HTK toolkit.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2242
78153
Enabling Cloud Adoption Based Secured Mobile Banking through Backend as a Service
Abstract:
With the increase of prevailing non-traditional rivalry, mobile banking experiences an ever changing commercial backdrop. Substantial customer demands have established to be more intricate as customers request more expediency and superintend over their banking services. To enterprise advance and modernization in mobile banking applications, it is gradually obligatory to deeply leapfrog the scuffle using business model transformation. The dramaturgical vicissitudes taking place in mobile banking entail advanced traditions to exploit security. By reforming and transforming older back office into integrated mobile banking applications, banks can engender a supple and nimble banking environment that can rapidly respond to new business requirements over cloud computing. Cloud computing is transfiguring ecosystems in numerous industries, and mobile banking is no exemption providing services innovation, greater flexibility to respond to improved security and enhanced business intelligence with less cost. Cloud technology offer secure deployment possibilities that can provision banks in developing new customer experiences, empower operative relationship and advance speed to efficient banking transaction. Cloud adoption is escalating quickly since it can be made secured for commercial mobile banking transaction through backend as a service in scrutinizing the security strategies of the cloud service provider along with the antiquity of transaction details and their security related practices.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2241
78029
Research on Fuzzy Test Framework Based on Concolic Execution
Abstract:
Vulnerability discovery technology is a significant field of the current. In this paper, a fuzzy framework based on concolic execution has been proposed. Fuzzy test and symbolic execution are widely used in the field of vulnerability discovery technology. But each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. During the path generation stage, path traversal algorithm based on generation is used to get more accurate path. During the constraint solving stage, dynamic concolic execution is used to avoid the path explosion. If there is external call, the concolic based on function summary is used. Experiments show that the framework can effectively improve the ability of triggering vulnerabilities and code coverage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2240
77725
Neural Network Based Decision Trees Using Machine Learning for Alzheimer's Diagnosis
Abstract:
Alzheimer’s disease is one of the prevalent kind of ailment, expected for impudent reconciliation or an effectual therapy is to be accredited hitherto. Probable detonation of patients in the upcoming years, and consequently an enormous deal of apprehension in early discovery of the disorder, this will conceivably chaperon to enhanced healing outcomes. Complex impetuosity of the brain is an observant symbolic of the disease and a unique recognition of genetic sign of the disease. Machine learning alongside deep learning and decision tree reinforces the aptitude to absorb characteristics from multi-dimensional data’s and thus simplifies automatic classification of Alzheimer’s disease. Susceptible testing was prophesied and realized in training the prospect of Alzheimer’s disease classification built on machine learning advances. It was shrewd that the decision trees trained with deep neural network fashioned the excellent results parallel to related pattern classification.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2239
77278
Myanmar Character Recognition Using Eight Direction Chain Code Frequency Features
Abstract:
Character recognition is the process of converting a text image file into editable and searchable text file. Feature extraction is the heart of any character recognition system. The character recognition rate may be low or high depending on the extracted features. In the proposed paper, 25 features for one character are used in character recognition. Basically, there are three steps of character recognition such as character segmentation, feature extraction, and classification. In segmentation step, horizontal cropping method is used for line segmentation and vertical cropping method is used for character segmentation. In the feature extraction step, features are extracted in two ways. The first way is that the 8 features are extracted from the entire input character using eight direction chain code frequency extraction. The second way is that the input character is divided into 16 blocks. For each block, although 8 feature values are obtained through eight-direction chain code frequency extraction method, we define the sum of these 8 feature values as a feature for one block. Therefore, 16 features are extracted from that 16 blocks in a second way. We use the number of holes feature to cluster the similar characters. We can recognize the almost Myanmar common characters with various font sizes by using these features. All these 25 features are used in both training part and testing part. In the classification step, the characters are classified by matching the all features of input character with already trained features of characters.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):