Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 50722

Computer and Information Engineering

2354
88490
Breast Cancer Risk Factors: A Big Data Analysis of Black and White Women in the USA
Abstract:
With breast cancer becoming a global pandemic, it is very important to assess a woman’s risk profile accurately in a timely manner. Providing an estimate of the risk of developing breast cancer to a woman gives her an opportunity to consider options to decrease this risk. Women at low risk may be suggested yearly screenings whereas women with a high risk of developing breast cancer would be candidates for aggressive surveillance. Fortunately, there is a set of risk factors that are used to predict the probability of a woman being diagnosed with breast cancer in the future. Studying risk factors and understanding how they correlate to cancer is important for early diagnosis, prevention and reducing mortality rates. The effect of crucial risk factors among black and white women was compared in this study. The various risk factors analyzed include breast density, age, cancer in a first-degree relative, menopausal status, body mass index (BMI) and prior breast cancer diagnosis, etc. Breast density, age at first full-term birth and BMI were utilized in this study as important risk factors for the comparison of incidence rates between women of black and white races in the USA. Understanding the differences could lead to the development of solutions to reduce disparity in mortality rates among black women by improving overall access to care.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2353
88425
Enhancement of Pulsed Eddy Current Response Based on Power Spectral Density after Continuous Wavelet Transform Decomposition
Abstract:
The main objective of this work is to enhance the Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) response from the aluminum structure using signal processing. Cracks and metal loss in different structures cause changes in PEC response measurements. In this paper, time-frequency analysis is used to represent PEC response, which generates a large quantity of data and reduce the noise due to measurement. Power Spectral Density (PSD) after Wavelet Decomposition (PSD-WD) is proposed for defect detection. The experimental results demonstrate that the cracks in the surface can be extracted satisfactorily by the proposed methods. The validity of the proposed method is discussed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2352
88331
Improved Performance in Content-Based Image Retrieval Using Machine Learning Approach
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel approach which improves the high-level semantics of images based on machine learning approach. The contemporary approaches for image retrieval and object recognition includes Fourier transforms, Wavelets, SIFT and HoG. Though these descriptors helpful in a wide range of applications, they exploit zero order statistics, and this lacks high descriptiveness of image features. These descriptors usually take benefit of primitive visual features such as shape, color, texture and spatial locations to describe images. These features do not adequate to describe high-level semantics of the images. This leads to a gap in semantic content caused to unacceptable performance in image retrieval system. A novel method has been proposed referred as discriminative learning which is derived from machine learning approach that efficiently discriminates image features. The analysis and results of proposed approach were validated thoroughly on WANG and Caltech-101 Databases. The results proved that this approach is very competitive in content-based image retrieval.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2351
87638
Deep Learning Based Road Crack Detection on an Embedded Platform
Abstract:
It is important that highways are in good condition for traffic safety. Road crashes (road cracks, erosion of lane markings, etc.) can cause accidents by affecting driving. Image processing based methods for detecting road cracks are available in the literature. In this paper, a deep learning based road crack detection approach is proposed. YOLO (You Look Only Once) is adopted as core component of the road crack detection approach presented. The YOLO network structure, which is developed for object detection, is trained with road crack images as a new class that is not previously used in YOLO. The performance of the proposed method is compared using different training methods: using randomly generated weights and training their own pre-trained weights (transfer learning). A similar training approach is applied to the simplified version of the YOLO network model (tiny yolo) and the results of the performance are examined. The developed system is able to process 8 fps on NVIDIA Jetson TX1 development kit.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2350
87380
Application of ANN for Estimation of Power Demand of Villages in Sulaymaniyah Governorate
Authors:
Abstract:
Before designing an electrical system, the estimation of load is necessary for unit sizing and demand-generation balancing. The system could be a stand-alone system for a village or grid connected or integrated renewable energy to grid connection, especially as there are non–electrified villages in developing countries. In the classical model, the energy demand was found by estimating the household appliances multiplied with the amount of their rating and the duration of their operation, but in this paper, information exists for electrified villages could be used to predict the demand, as villages almost have the same life style. This paper describes a method used to predict the average energy consumed in each two months for every consumer living in a village by Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The input data are collected using a regional survey for samples of consumers representing typical types of different living, household appliances and energy consumption by a list of information, and the output data are collected from administration office of Piramagrun for each corresponding consumer. The result of this study shows that the average demand for different consumers from four villages in different months throughout the year is approximately 12 kWh/day, this model estimates the average demand/day for every consumer with a mean absolute percent error of 11.8%, and MathWorks software package MATLAB version 7.6.0 that contains and facilitate Neural Network Toolbox was used.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2349
87359
Attempt to Reuse Used-PCs as Distributed Storage
Abstract:
Storage for storing data is indispensable. If a storage capacity becomes insufficient, we can increase its capacity by adding new disks. It is, however, difficult to add a new disk when a budget is not enough. On the other hand, there are many unused idle resources such as used personal computers despite those use value. In order to solve those problems, used personal computers can be reused as storage. In this paper, we attempt to reuse used-PCs as a distributed storage. First, we list up the characteristics of used- PCs and design a storage system that utilizes its characteristics. Next, we experimentally implement an auto-construction system that automatically constructs a distributed storage environment in used-PCs.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2348
87238
A Design for Application of Mobile Agent Technology to MicroService Architecture
Abstract:
A monolithic service is based on the N-tier architecture in many cases. In order to divide a monolithic service into microservices, it is necessary to redefine a model as a new microservice by extracting and merging existing models across layers. Refactoring a monolithic service into microservices requires advanced technical capabilities, and it is a difficult way. This paper proposes a design and concept to ease the migration of a monolithic service to microservices using the mobile agent technology. Our proposed approach, mobile agents-based design and concept, enables to ease dividing and merging services.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2347
87200
Signal Integrity Performance Analysis in Capacitive and Inductively Coupled Very Large Scale Integration Interconnect Models
Abstract:
The rapid advances in Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology has resulted in the reduction of minimum feature size to sub-quarter microns and switching time in tens of picoseconds or even less. As a result, the degradation of high-speed digital circuits due to signal integrity issues such as coupling effects, clock feedthrough, crosstalk noise and delay uncertainty noise. Crosstalk noise in VLSI interconnects is a major concern and reduction in VLSI interconnect has become more important for high-speed digital circuits. It is the most effectively considered in Deep Sub Micron (DSM) and Ultra Deep Sub Micron (UDSM) technology. Increasing spacing in-between aggressor and victim line is one of the technique to reduce the crosstalk. Guard trace or shield insertion in-between aggressor and victim is also one of the prominent options for the minimization of crosstalk. In this paper, far end crosstalk noise is estimated with mutual inductance and capacitance RLC interconnect model. Also investigated the extent of crosstalk in capacitive and inductively coupled interconnects to minimizes the same through shield insertion technique.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2346
86655
Stock Price Prediction with 'Earnings' Conference Call Sentiment
Abstract:
Major public corporations worldwide use conference calls to report their quarterly earnings. These 'earnings' conference calls allow for questions from stock analysts. We investigated if it is possible to identify sentiment from the call script and use it to predict stock price movement. We analyzed call scripts from six companies, two each from Korea, China and Indonesia during six years 2011Q1 – 2017Q2. Random forest with Frequency-based sentiment scores using Loughran MacDonald Dictionary did better than control model with only financial indicators. When the stock prices went up 20 days from earnings release, our model predicted correctly 77% of time. When the model predicted 'up,' actual stock prices went up 65% of time. This preliminary result encourages us to investigate advanced sentiment scoring methodologies such as topic modeling, auto-encoder, and word2vec variants.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2345
86309
Factors Affecting the Adoption of Cloud Business Intelligence among Healthcare Sector: A Case Study of Saudi Arabia
Abstract:
This study investigates the factors that influence the decision by players in the healthcare sector to embrace Cloud Business Intelligence Technology with a focus on healthcare organizations in Saudi Arabia. To bring this matter into perspective, this study primarily considers the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework and the Human Organization-Technology (HOT) fit model. A survey was hypothetically designed based on literature review and was carried out online. Quantitative data obtained was processed from descriptive and one-way frequency statistics to inferential and regression analysis. Data were analysed to establish factors that influence the decision to adopt Cloud Business intelligence technology in the healthcare sector. The implication of the identified factors was measured, and all assumptions were tested. 66.70% of participants in healthcare organization backed the intention to adopt cloud business intelligence system. 99.4% of these participants considered security concerns and privacy risk have been the most significant factors in the adoption of cloud Business Intelligence (CBI) system. Through regression analysis hypothesis testing point that usefulness, service quality, relative advantage, IT infrastructure preparedness, organization structure; vendor support, perceived technical competence, government support, and top management support positively and significantly influence the adoption of (CBI) system. The paper presents quantitative phase that is a part of an on-going project. The project will be based on the consequences learned from this study.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2344
86046
A Fast Calculation Approach for Position Identification in a Distance Space
Abstract:
The market of localization based service (LBS) is expanding. The acquisition of physical location is the fundamental basis for LBS. GPS, the de facto standard for outdoor localization, does not work well in indoor environment due to the blocking of signals by walls and ceiling. To acquire high accurate localization in an indoor environment, many techniques have been developed. Triangulation approach is often used for identifying the location, but a heavy and complex computation is necessary to calculate the location of the distances between the object and several source points. This computation is also time and power consumption, and not favorable to a mobile device that needs a long action life with battery. To provide a low power consumption approach for a mobile device, this paper presents a fast calculation approach to identify the location of the object without online solving solutions to simultaneous quadratic equations. In our approach, we divide the location identification into two parts, one is offline, and other is online. In offline mode, we make a mapping process that maps the location area to distance space and find a simple formula that can be used to identify the location of the object online with very light computation. The characteristic of the approach is a good tradeoff between the accuracy and computational amount. Therefore, this approach can be used in smartphone and other mobile devices that need a long work time. To show the performance, some simulation experimental results are provided also in the paper.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2343
85992
3D Design of Orthotic Braces and Casts in Medical Applications Using Microsoft Kinect Sensor
Abstract:
Orthotics is the branch of medicine that deals with the provision and use of artificial casts or braces to alter the biomechanical structure of the limb and provide support for the limb. Custom-made orthoses provide more comfort and can correct issues better than those available over-the-counter. However, they are expensive and require intricate modelling of the limb. Traditional methods of modelling involve creating a plaster of Paris mould of the limb. Lately, CAD/CAM and 3D printing processes have improved the accuracy and reduced the production time. Ordinarily, digital cameras are used to capture the features of the limb from different views to create a 3D model. We propose a system to model the limb using Microsoft Kinect2 sensor. The Kinect can capture RGB and depth frames simultaneously up to 30 fps with sufficient accuracy. The region of interest is captured from three views, each shifted by 90 degrees. The RGB and depth data are fused into a single RGB-D frame. The resolution of the RGB frame is 1920px x 1080px while the resolution of the Depth frame is 512px x 424px. As the resolution of the frames is not equal, RGB pixels are mapped onto the Depth pixels to make sure data is not lost even if the resolution is lower. The resulting RGB-D frames are collected and using the depth coordinates, a three dimensional point cloud is generated for each view of the Kinect sensor. A common reference system was developed to merge the individual point clouds from the Kinect sensors. The reference system consisted of 8 coloured cubes, connected by rods to form a skeleton-cube with the coloured cubes at the corners. For each Kinect, the region of interest is the square formed by the centres of the four cubes facing the Kinect. The point clouds are merged by considering one of the cubes as the origin of a reference system. Depending on the relative distance from each cube, the three dimensional coordinate points from each point cloud is aligned to the reference frame to give a complete point cloud. The RGB data is used to correct for any errors in depth data for the point cloud. A triangular mesh is generated from the point cloud by applying Delaunay triangulation which generates the rough surface of the limb. This technique forms an approximation of the surface of the limb. The mesh is smoothened to obtain a smooth outer layer to give an accurate model of the limb. The model of the limb is used as a base for designing the custom orthotic brace or cast. It is transferred to a CAD/CAM design file to design of the brace above the surface of the limb. The proposed system would be more cost effective than current systems that use MRI or CT scans for generating 3D models and would be quicker than using traditional plaster of Paris cast modelling and the overall setup time is also low. Preliminary results indicate that the accuracy of the Kinect2 is satisfactory to perform modelling.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2342
85965
Semi-Automatic Segmentation of Mitochondria on Transmission Electron Microscopy Images Using Live-Wire and Surface Dragging Methods
Abstract:
Mitochondria are cytoplasmic organelles of the cell, which have a significant role in the variety of cellular metabolic functions. Mitochondria act as the power plants of the cell and are surrounded by two membranes. Significant morphological alterations are often due to changes in mitochondrial functions. A powerful technique in order to study the three-dimensional (3D) structure of mitochondria and its alterations in disease states is Electron microscope tomography. Detection of mitochondria in electron microscopy images due to the presence of various subcellular structures and imaging artifacts is a challenging problem. Another challenge is that each image typically contains more than one mitochondrion. Hand segmentation of mitochondria is tedious and time-consuming and also special knowledge about the mitochondria is needed. Fully automatic segmentation methods lead to over-segmentation and mitochondria are not segmented properly. Therefore, semi-automatic segmentation methods with minimum manual effort are required to edit the results of fully automatic segmentation methods. Here two editing tools were implemented by applying spline surface dragging and interactive live-wire segmentation tools. These editing tools were applied separately to the results of fully automatic segmentation. 3D extension of these tools was also studied and tested. Dice coefficients of 2D and 3D for surface dragging using splines were 0.93 and 0.92. This metric for 2D and 3D for live-wire method were 0.94 and 0.91 respectively. The root mean square symmetric surface distance values of 2D and 3D for surface dragging was measured as 0.69, 0.93. The same metrics for live-wire tool were 0.60 and 2.11. Comparing the results of these editing tools with the results of automatic segmentation method, it shows that these editing tools, led to better results and these results were more similar to ground truth image but the required time was higher than hand-segmentation time
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2341
85788
Training a Neural Network to Segment, Detect and Recognize Numbers
Authors:
Abstract:
This study had three neural networks, one for number segmentation, one for number detection and one for number recognition all of which are coupled to one another. All networks were trained on the MNIST dataset and were convolutional. It was assumed that the images had lighter background and darker foreground. The segmentation network took 28x28 images as input and had sixteen outputs. Segmentation training starts when a dark pixel is encountered. Taking a window(7x7) over that pixel as focus, the eight neighborhood of the focus was checked for further dark pixels. The segmentation network was then trained to move in those directions which had dark pixels. To this end the segmentation network had 16 outputs. They were arranged as “go east”, ”don’t go east ”, “go south east”, “don’t go south east”, “go south”, “don’t go south” and so on w.r.t focus window. The focus window was resized into a 28x28 image and the network was trained to consider those neighborhoods which had dark pixels. The neighborhoods which had dark pixels were pushed into a queue in a particular order. The neighborhoods were then popped one at a time stitched to the existing partial image of the number one at a time and trained on which neighborhoods to consider when the new partial image was presented. The above process was repeated until the image was fully covered by the 7x7 neighborhoods and there were no more uncovered black pixels. During testing the network scans and looks for the first dark pixel. From here on the network predicts which neighborhoods to consider and segments the image. After this step the group of neighborhoods are passed into the detection network. The detection network took 28x28 images as input and had two outputs denoting whether a number was detected or not. Since the ground truth of the bounds of a number was known during training the detection network outputted in favor of number not found until the bounds were not met and vice versa. The recognition network was a standard CNN that also took 28x28 images and had 10 outputs for recognition of numbers from 0 to 9. This network was activated only when the detection network votes in favor of number detected. The above methodology could segment connected and overlapping numbers. Additionally the recognition unit was only invoked when a number was detected which minimized false positives. It also eliminated the need for rules of thumb as segmentation is learned. The strategy can also be extended to other characters as well.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2340
85765
A Gradient Orientation Based Efficient Linear Interpolation Method
Abstract:
This paper proposes a low-complexity image interpolation method. Image interpolation is used to convert a low dimension video/image to high dimension video/image. The objective of a good interpolation method is to upscale an image in such a way that it provides better edge preservation at the cost of very low complexity so that real-time processing of video frames can be made possible. However, low complexity methods tend to provide real-time interpolation at the cost of blurring, jagging and other artifacts due to errors in slope calculation. Non-linear methods, on the other hand, provide better edge preservation, but at the cost of high complexity and hence they can be considered very far from having real-time interpolation. The proposed method is a linear method that uses gradient orientation for slope calculation, unlike conventional linear methods that uses the contrast of nearby pixels. Prewitt edge detection is applied to separate uniform regions and edges. Simple line averaging is applied to unknown uniform regions, whereas unknown edge pixels are interpolated after calculation of slopes using gradient orientations of neighboring known edge pixels. As a post-processing step, bilateral filter is applied to interpolated edge regions in order to enhance the interpolated edges.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2339
85747
Face Sketch Recognition in Forensic Application Using Scale Invariant Feature Transform and Multiscale Local Binary Patterns Fusion
Abstract:
Facial sketches are used as a crucial clue by criminal investigators for identification of suspects when the description of eyewitness or victims are only available as evidence. A forensic artist develops a sketch as per the verbal description is given by an eyewitness that shows the facial look of the culprit. In this paper, the fusion of Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and multiscale local binary patterns (MLBP) are proposed as a feature to recognize a forensic face sketch images from a gallery of mugshot photos. This work focuses on comparative analysis of proposed scheme with existing algorithms in different challenges like illumination change and rotation condition. Experimental results show that proposed scheme can lead to better performance for the defined problem.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2338
85690
Hybrid Approach for Software Defect Prediction Using Machine Learning with Optimization Technique
Abstract:
Technology is growing rapidly which lead to the industrial growth of various manufacturing and software industries. Now-a-days, demand and use of software based application has attracted users and adopted widely for daily routine or business work purposes. For any software industry, development of a reliable software is becoming a challenging task because a faulty software module may be harmful to industry’s growth. Hence there is a need to develop a technique which can be used for early prediction of software bugs. Due to complexities in manual testing, automated software defect prediction techniques have been introduced which are based on the pattern learning from the previous version and find the bugs in current software module. These techniques have attracted researchers due to its significant impact on industrial growth by identifying the bugs in software. Based on this, several researches have been carried out but achieving desirable bug prediction performance is still a challenging task. To address this issue, here we present a machine learning based technique for software defect prediction. First of all, genetic algorithm is presented where an improved fitness function is presented for better optimization. Later, these features are processed through decision tree classification model. Finally, an experimental study is presented where proposed approach is compared with the state-of-art decision tree classification technique which shows that proposed hybrid approach genetic algorithm with decision tree achieves better classification accuracy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2337
85552
A Polynomial Time Clustering Algorithm for Solving the Assignment Problem in the Vehicle Routing Problem
Abstract:
The vehicle routing problem (VRP) consists of a group of customers that needs to be served. Each customer has a certain demand of goods. A central depot having a fleet of vehicles is responsible for supplying the customers with their demands. The problem is composed of two subproblems: The first subproblem is an assignment problem where the number of vehicles that will be used as well as the customers assigned to each vehicle are determined. The second subproblem is the routing problem in which for each vehicle having a number of customers assigned to it, the order of visits of the customers is determined. Optimal number of vehicles, as well as optimal total distance, should be achieved. In this paper, an approach for solving the first subproblem (the assignment problem) is presented. In the approach, a clustering algorithm is proposed for finding the optimal number of vehicles by grouping the customers into clusters where each cluster is visited by one vehicle. Finding the optimal number of clusters is NP-hard. This work presents a polynomial time clustering algorithm for finding the optimal number of clusters and solving the assignment problem.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2336
85389
Makhraj Recognition Using Convolutional Neural Network
Abstract:
This paper focuses on a machine learning that learn the correct pronunciation of Makhraj Huroofs. Usually, people need to find an expert to pronounce the Huroof accurately. In this study, the researchers have developed a system that is able to learn the selected Huroofs which are ha, tsa, zho, and dza using the Convolutional Neural Network. The researchers present the chosen type of the CNN architecture to make the system that is able to learn the data (Huroofs) as quick as possible and produces high accuracy during the prediction. The researchers have experimented the system to measure the accuracy and the cross entropy in the training process.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2335
85328
Decision Tree Model for the Recommendation of Digital and Alternate Payment Methods for SMEs
Abstract:
Companies make erroneous decisions by not evaluating the inherent difficulties of entering electronic commerce without a prior review of current digital and alternate means of payment. For this reason, it is very important for businesses to have reliable, complete and integrated information on the means of current digital and alternate payments that allow decisions to be made about which of these to use. However, there is no such consolidated information or criteria that companies use to make decisions about the means of payment according to their needs. In this paper, we propose a decision tree model based on a taxonomy that presents us with a categorization of digital and alternative means of payment, as well as the visualization of the flow of information at a high level from the company to obtain a recommendation. This will allow the company to make the most appropriate decision about the implementation of the digital means of payment or alternative ideal for their needs, which allows a reduction in costs and complexity of the payment process. Likewise, the efficiency of the proposed model was evaluated through a satisfaction survey presented to company personnel, confirming the satisfactory quality level of the recommendations obtained by the model.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2334
85325
Reference Model for the Implementation of an E-Commerce Solution in Peruvian SMEs in the Retail Sector
Abstract:
E-commerce is a business model that allows companies to optimize the processes of buying, selling, transferring goods and exchanging services through computer networks or the Internet. In Peru, only 15% of SMEs in the retail sector use electronic commerce, although there is a steady growth in the sector. This situation is due, in part to the fact that there is no model that allows companies to implement an e-commerce solution, which means that most SMEs do not have adequate knowledge to adapt to electronic commerce. In this work, a reference model is proposed for the implementation of an e-commerce solution in Peruvian SMEs in the retail sector. It consists of five phases: Business Analysis, Business Modeling, Implementation, Post Implementation, and Results. The present model was validated in an SME of the Peruvian retail sector through the implementation of an electronic commerce platform, through which the company increased its sales through the delivery channel by 10% in the first month of deployment. This result showed that the model is easy to implement, is economical and agile. In addition, it allowed the company to increase its business offer, adapt to e-commerce and improve customers loyalty.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2333
85319
Implementation of an Open Source ERP for SMEs in the Automotive Sector in Peru: A Case Study
Abstract:
The Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (ERP) allows the integration of all the business processes of the functional areas of the companies, in order to automate and standardize the processes, obtain accurate information and improve decision making in time real. In Peru, 79% of medium and small companies (SMEs) do not use any management software, this is because it is believed that ERPs are expensive, complex and difficult to implement. However, for more than 20 years there have been Open Source ERPs, which are more accessible and have the same benefit as proprietary ERPs, but there is little information on the implementation process. In this work is made a case of study, in order to show the implementation process of an Open Source ERP, Odoo, based on the ASAP methodology (Accelerated SAP) and applied to a company of corrective and preventive maintenance services of vehicles. The ERP allowed the SME to standardize its business processes, increase its productivity, reducing up to 40% certain processes. The study of this case shows that it is feasible and profitable to implement an Open Source ERP in SMEs in the Automotive Sector of Peru. In addition, it is shown that the ASAP methodology is adequate to carry out Open Source ERPs implementation projects.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2332
85280
Improved Processing Speed for Text Watermarking Algorithm in Color Images
Abstract:
Copyright protection and ownership proof of digital multimedia are achieved nowadays by digital watermarking techniques. A text watermarking algorithm for protecting the property rights and ownership judgment of color images is proposed in this paper. Embedding is achieved by inserting texts elements randomly into the color image as noise. The YIQ image processing model is found to be faster than other image processing methods, and hence, it is adopted for the embedding process. An optional choice of encrypting the text watermark before embedding is also suggested (in case required by some applications), where, the text can is encrypted using any enciphering technique adding more difficulty to hackers. Experiments resulted in embedding speed improvement of more than double the speed of other considered systems (such as least significant bit method, and separate color code methods), and a fairly acceptable level of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) with low mean square error values for watermarking purposes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2331
85126
Visualization of Taiwan's Religious Social Networking Sites
Abstract:
Purpose of this research aims to improve understanding of the nature of online religion by examining the religious social websites. What motivates individual users to use the online religious social websites, and which factors affect those motivations. We survey various online religious social websites provided by different religions, especially the Taiwanese folk religion. Based on the theory of the Content Analysis and Social Network Analysis, religious social websites and religious web activities are examined. This research examined the folk religion websites’ presentation and contents that promote the religious use of the Internet in Taiwan. The difference among different religions and religious websites also be compared. First, this study used keywords to examine what types of messages gained the most clicks of “Like”, “Share” and comments on Facebook. Dividing the messages into four media types, namely, text, link, video, and photo, reveal which category receive more likes and comments than the others. Meanwhile, this study analyzed the five dialogic principles of religious websites accessed from mobile phones and also assessed their mobile readiness. Using the five principles of dialogic theory as a basis, do a general survey on the websites with elements of online religion. Second, the project analyzed the characteristics of Taiwanese participants for online religious activities. Grounded by social network analysis and text mining, this study comparatively explores the network structure, interaction pattern, and geographic distribution of users involved in communication networks of the folk religion in social websites and mobile sites. We studied the linkage preference of different religious groups. The difference among different religions and religious websites also be compared. We examined the reasons for the success of these websites, as well as reasons why young users accept new religious media. The outcome of the research will be useful for online religious service providers and non-profit organizations to manage social websites and internet marketing.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2330
85083
Exploring the Applications of Neural Networks in the Adaptive Learning Environment
Abstract:
Computer Adaptive Tests (CATs) is one of the most efficient ways for testing the cognitive abilities of students. CATs are based on Item Response Theory (IRT) which is based on item selection and ability estimation using statistical methods of maximum information selection/selection from posterior and maximum-likelihood (ML)/maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimators respectively. This study aims at combining both classical and Bayesian approaches to IRT to create a dataset which is then fed to a neural network which automates the process of ability estimation and then comparing it to traditional CAT models designed using IRT. This study uses python as the base coding language, pymc for statistical modelling of the IRT and scikit-learn for neural network implementations. On creation of the model and on comparison, it is found that the Neural Network based model performs 7-10% worse than the IRT model for score estimations. Although performing poorly, compared to the IRT model, the neural network model can be beneficially used in back-ends for reducing time complexity as the IRT model would have to re-calculate the ability every-time it gets a request whereas the prediction from a neural network could be done in a single step for an existing trained Regressor. This study also proposes a new kind of framework whereby the neural network model could be used to incorporate feature sets, other than the normal IRT feature set and use a neural network’s capacity of learning unknown functions to give rise to better CAT models. Categorical features like test type, etc. could be learnt and incorporated in IRT functions with the help of techniques like logistic regression and can be used to learn functions and expressed as models which may not be trivial to be expressed via equations. This kind of a framework, when implemented would be highly advantageous in psychometrics and cognitive assessments. This study gives a brief overview as to how neural networks can be used in adaptive testing, not only by reducing time-complexity but also by being able to incorporate newer and better datasets which would eventually lead to higher quality testing.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2329
85030
Marker-Controlled Level-Set for Segmenting Breast Tumor from Thermal Images
Abstract:
Contactless, painless and radiation-free thermal imaging technology is one of the preferred screening modalities for detection of breast cancer. However, poor signal to noise ratio and the inexorable need to preserve edges defining cancer cells and normal cells, make the segmentation process difficult and hence unsuitable for computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer. This paper presents key findings from a research conducted on the appraisal of two promising techniques, for the detection of breast cancer: (I) marker-controlled, Level-set segmentation of anisotropic diffusion filtered preprocessed image versus (II) Segmentation using marker-controlled level-set on a Gaussian-filtered image. Gaussian-filtering processes the image uniformly, whereas anisotropic filtering processes only in specific areas of a thermographic image. The pre-processed (Gaussian-filtered and anisotropic-filtered) images of breast samples were then applied for segmentation. The segmentation of breast starts with initial level-set function. In this study, marker refers to the position of the image to which initial level-set function is applied. The markers are generally placed on the left and right side of the breast, which may vary with the breast size. The proposed method was carried out on images from an online database with samples collected from women of varying breast characteristics. It was observed that the breast was able to be segmented out from the background by adjustment of the markers. From the results, it was observed that as a pre-processing technique, anisotropic filtering with level-set segmentation, preserved the edges more effectively than Gaussian filtering. Segmented image, by application of anisotropic filtering was found to be more suitable for feature extraction, enabling automated computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2328
85003
Empirical Orthogonal Functions Analysis of Hydrophysical Characteristics in the Shira Lake in Southern Siberia
Abstract:
The method of empirical orthogonal functions is the method of data analysis with a complex spatial-temporal structure. This method allows us to decompose the data into a finite number of modes determined by empirically finding the eigenfunctions of data correlation matrix. The modes have different scales and can be associated with various physical processes. The empirical orthogonal function method has been widely used for the analysis of hydrophysical characteristics, for example, the analysis of sea surface temperatures in the Western North Atlantic, ocean surface currents in the North Carolina, the study of tropical wave disturbances etc. The method used in this study has been applied to the analysis of temperature and velocity measurements in saline Lake Shira (Southern Siberia, Russia). Shira is a shallow lake with the maximum depth of 25 m. The lake Shira can be considered as a closed water site because of it has one small river providing inflow and but it has no outflows. The main factor that causes the motion of fluid is variable wind flows. In summer the lake is strongly stratified by temperature and saline. Long-term measurements of the temperatures and currents were conducted at several points during summer 2014-2015. The temperature has been measured with an accuracy of 0.1 ºC. The data were analyzed using the empirical orthogonal function method in the real version. The first empirical eigenmode accounts for 70-80 % of the energy and can be interpreted as temperature distribution with a thermocline. A thermocline is a thermal layer where the temperature decreases rapidly from the mixed upper layer of the lake to much colder deep water. The higher order modes can be interpreted as oscillations induced by internal waves. The currents measurements were recorded using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers 600 kHz and 1200 kHz. The data were analyzed using the empirical orthogonal function method in the complex version. The first empirical eigenmode accounts for about 40 % of the energy and corresponds to the Ekman spiral occurring in the case of a stationary homogeneous fluid. Other modes describe the effects associated with the stratification of fluids. The second and next empirical eigenmodes were associated with dynamical modes. These modes were obtained for a simplified model of inhomogeneous three-level fluid at a water site with a flat bottom.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2327
84747
Prediction on Housing Price Based on Deep Learning
Abstract:
In order to study the impact of various factors on the housing price, we propose to build different prediction models based on deep learning to determine the existing data of the real estate in order to more accurately predict the housing price or its changing trend in the future. Considering that the factors which affect the housing price vary widely, the proposed prediction models include two categories. The first one is based on multiple characteristic factors of the real estate. We built Convolution Neural Network (CNN) prediction model and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) neural network prediction model based on deep learning, and logical regression model was implemented to make a comparison between these three models. Another prediction model is time series model. Based on deep learning, we proposed an LSTM-1 model purely regard to time series, then implementing and comparing the LSTM model and the Auto-Regressive and Moving Average (ARMA) model. In this paper, comprehensive study of the second-hand housing price in Beijing has been conducted from three aspects: crawling and analyzing, housing price predicting, and the result comparing. Ultimately the best model program was produced, which is of great significance to evaluation and prediction of the housing price in the real estate industry.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2326
84442
A Study on Automotive Attack Database and Data Flow Diagram for Concretization of HEAVENS: A Car Security Model
Abstract:
In recent years, with the advent of smart cars and the expansion of the market, the announcement of 'Adventures in Automotive Networks and Control Units' at the DEFCON21 conference in 2013 revealed that cars are not safe from hacking. As a result, the HEAVENS model considering not only the functional safety of the vehicle but also the security has been suggested. However, the HEAVENS model only presents a simple process, and there are no detailed procedures and activities for each process, making it difficult to apply it to the actual vehicle security vulnerability check. In this paper, we propose an automated attack database that systematically summarizes attack vectors, attack types, and vulnerable vehicle models to prepare for various car hacking attacks, and data flow diagrams that can detect various vulnerabilities and suggest a way to materialize the HEAVENS model.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2325
84414
A Centralized Architecture for Cooperative Air-Sea Vehicles Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles-Unmanned Surface Vehicles
Abstract:
This paper deals with the problem of monitoring and cleaning dirty zones of oceans using unmanned vehicles. We present a centralized cooperative architecture for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to monitor ocean regions and clean dirty zones with the help of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs). Due to the rapid deployment of these unmanned vehicles, it is convenient to use them in oceanic regions where the water pollution zones are generally unknown. In order to optimize this process, our solution aims to detect and reduce the pollution level of the ocean zones while taking into account the problem of fault tolerance related to these vehicles.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):