Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 48505

Computer and Systems Engineering

143
83545
Seawater Changes' Estimation at Tidal Flat in Korean Peninsula Using Drone Stereo Images
Abstract:
Tidal flat in Korean peninsula is one of the largest biodiversity tidal flats in the world. Therefore, digital elevation models (DEM) is continuously demanded to monitor of the tidal flat. In this study, DEM of tidal flat, according to different times, was produced by means of the Drone and commercial software in order to measure seawater change during high tide at water-channel in tidal flat. To correct the produced DEMs of the tidal flat where is inaccessible to collect control points, the DEM matching method was applied by using the reference DEM instead of the survey. After the ortho-image was made from the corrected DEM, the land cover classified image was produced. The changes of seawater amount according to the times were analyzed by using the classified images and DEMs. As a result, it was confirmed that the amount of water rapidly increased as the time passed during high tide.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
142
83453
The Design Process of an Interactive Seat for Improving Workplace Productivity
Abstract:
Creative industries’ workers are becoming more prominent as countries move towards intellectual-based economies. Consequently, the nature and essence of the workplace needs to be reconfigured so that creativity and productivity can be better promoted at these spaces. Using a multidisciplinary approach and a user-centered methodology, combining product design, electronic engineering, software and human-computer interaction, we have designed and developed a new seat that uses embedded sensors and actuators to increase the overall well-being of its users, their productivity and their creativity. Our contribution focuses on the parameters that most affect the user’s work on these kinds of spaces, which are, according to our study, noise and temperature. We describe the design process for a new interactive seat targeted at improving workspace productivity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
141
82946
Short-Term Operation Planning for Energy Management of Exhibition Hall
Abstract:
This paper deals with the establishment of a short-term operational plan for an air conditioner for efficient energy management of exhibition hall. The short-term operational plan is composed of a time series of operational schedules, which we have searched using genetic algorithms. Establishing operational schedule should be considered the future trends of the variables affecting the exhibition hall environment. To reflect continuously changing factors such as external temperature and occupant, short-term operational plans should be updated in real time. But it takes too much time to evaluate a short-term operational plan using EnergyPlus, a building emulation tool. For that reason, it is difficult to update the operational plan in real time. To evaluate the short-term operational plan, we designed prediction models based on machine learning with fast evaluation speed. This model, which was created by learning the past operational data, is accurate and fast. The collection of operational data and the verification of operational plans were made using EnergyPlus. Experimental results show that the proposed method can save energy compared to the reactive control method.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
140
82893
Implementation of an IoT Sensor Data Collection and Analysis Library
Abstract:
Due to the development of information technology and wireless Internet technology, various data are being generated in various fields. These data are advantageous in that they provide real-time information to the users themselves. However, when the data is accumulated and analyzed, more various information can be extracted. In addition, development and dissemination of boards such as Arduino and Raspberry Pie have made it possible to easily test various sensors, and it is possible to collect sensor data directly by using database application tools such as MySQL. These directly collected data can be used for various research and can be useful as data for data mining. However, there are many difficulties in using the board to collect data, and there are many difficulties in using it when the user is not a computer programmer, or when using it for the first time. Even if data is collected, lack of expert knowledge or experience may cause difficulties in data analysis and visualization. In this paper, we aim to construct a library for sensor data collection and analysis to overcome these problems.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
139
82653
A POX Controller Module to Prepare a List of Flow Header Information Extracted from Software Defined Networking Traffic
Abstract:
Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a new paradigm designed to facilitate the way of controlling the network dynamically and with more agility. Network traffic is a set of flows, each of which contains a set of packets. In SDN, a matching process is performed on every packet coming to the network in the SDN switch. Only the headers of the new packets will be forwarded to the SDN controller. In terminology, the flow header fields are called tuples. Basically, these tuples are 5-tuple: the source and destination IP addresses, source and destination ports, and protocol number. This flow information is used to provide an overview of the network traffic. Our module is meant to extract this 5-tuples and show them as a list. The list contents, totally or partly, besides the number of packets and flows, can be used as a first step in the way of detecting the DDoS attack. Thus, this module can be considered as the beginning stage of any flow-based DDoS detection method.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
138
82638
Modelling the Impact of Installation of Heat Cost Allocators in District Heating Systems Using Machine Learning
Abstract:
Following the regulation of EU Directive on Energy Efficiency, specifically Article 9, individual metering in district heating systems has to be introduced by the end of 2016. These directions have been implemented in member state’s legal framework, Croatia is one of these states. The directive allows installation of both heat metering devices and heat cost allocators. Mainly due to bad communication and PR, the general public false image was created that the heat cost allocators are devices that save energy. Although this notion is wrong, the aim of this work is to develop a model that would precisely express the influence of installation heat cost allocators on potential energy savings in each unit within multifamily buildings. At the same time, in recent years, a science of machine learning has gain larger application in various fields, as it is proven to give good results in cases where large amounts of data are to be processed with an aim to recognize a pattern and correlation of each of the relevant parameter as well as in the cases where the problem is too complex for a human intelligence to solve. A special method of machine learning, decision tree method, has proven an accuracy of over 92% in prediction general building consumption. In this paper, a machine learning algorithms will be used to isolate the sole impact of installation of heat cost allocators on a single building in multifamily houses connected to district heating systems. Special emphasises will be given regression analysis, logistic regression, support vector machines, decision trees and random forest method.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
137
82341
Automated Java Testing: JUnit versus AspectJ
Abstract:
Growing dependency of mankind on software technology increases the need for thorough testing of the software applications and automated testing techniques that support testing activities. We have outlined our testing strategy for performing various types of automated testing of Java applications using AspectJ which has become the de-facto standard for Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP). Likewise JUnit, a unit testing framework is the most popular Java testing tool. In this paper, we have evaluated our proposed AOP approach for automated testing and JUnit on various parameters. First we have provided the similarity between the two approaches and then we have done a detailed comparison of the two testing techniques on factors like lines of testing code, learning curve, testing of private members etc. We established that our AOP testing approach using AspectJ has got several advantages and is thus particularly more effective than JUnit.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
136
82133
Optimal Team Formation to Improve Process Instance Execution
Abstract:
Team formation aims to find a team of actors to perform a set of tasks. In business process context, a team of high quality has positive effect on the execution efficiency of a process instance, which is concerned with the individual expertise of each actor and the cooperation between current executor and its precursor. In this paper, two metrics called Specialty and Handover are proposed to measure the cost of individual expertise of actors and cooperation between actors executing successive tasks. A correlational study on BPIC dataset is conducted for the purpose of verifying the validity of metrics. Based on the metrics, we propose a dynamic programming algorithm to solve team formation problem. Experiment on BPIC dataset shows the result of our algorithms achieve a significant decrease in case duration, compared with historic cases.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
135
81960
Developing Co-Creation Monitoring Technique for Civic Tech
Abstract:
The main task of the paper is to offer a scientific evidence-based Co-creation Monitoring Technique for Civic Tech (civic technologies platforms) as a tool to evaluate, effectively manage and standardize digital supported co-creation processes, and multiply successful models of collective decision making and transparent management in other sectors. The co-creation concept fundamentally differs from traditional public engagement approach, while it focuses on the collective influence and responsibility of all stakeholders by creating the public good. While traditional approaches to public engagement and governmental reforms remain relevant, this paper focuses towards the growing potential of networked society to solve their social problems. It expands co-creation field to the citizens co-initiated, heavily technology supported, and systems oriented co-creation approaches. Around the world, the civic organizations, individual citizens, and even businesses experiment with the ICT tools and available open resources to collaborate with each other and with the government to find innovative solutions for societal problems. To support this, the international scientific society publishes the research results about the creative power of networked systems and their potential to grow 'collective intelligence.' The current research project relates co-creation and collective intelligence concepts and supplements the knowledge in the field of collective intelligence with the new aspects. The co-creation is defined as the new form of collective intelligence, which influences an internal and external motivation of the platforms' users to act for the public good. The both mentioned concepts were strongly influenced by technological progress but were developed in science parallel. The Civic Tech was investigated as collective intelligence systems, which integrate all criteria inherent for such kind of systems (openness, dynamism, decentralisation, critical mass for 'swarm effect', etc.). The challenging task for the proposed methodology was to correlate different factors and to find realizable possibilities for the system performance in these causal relationships. The Co-Creation Monitoring Technique evaluates the basic characteristics, functionality, and technological design of civic tech using a set of integral socio-technological indicators.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
134
81920
Point-of-Interest Recommender Systems for Location-Based Social Network Services
Abstract:
Location Based Social Network services (LBSNs) is a new term that combines location based service and social network service (SNS). Unlike traditional SNS, LBSNs emphasizes empirical elements in the user's actual physical location. Point-of-Interest (POI) is the most important factor to implement LBSNs recommendation system. POI information is the most popular spot in the area. In this study, we would like to recommend POI to users in a specific area through recommendation system using collaborative filtering. The process is as follows: first, we will use different data sets based on Seoul and New York to find interesting results on human behavior. Secondly, based on the location-based activity information obtained from the personalized LBSNs, we have devised a new rating that defines the user's preference for the area. Finally, we have developed an automated rating algorithm from massive raw data using distributed systems to reduce advertising costs of LBSNs.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
133
81797
Evaluating and Selecting Software Packages: A Case Study in Oil and Gas Industry
Abstract:
The evaluation and selection of appropriate software solutions to meet with an organisation’s inherent business requirements can be a problematic software engineering process that if done incorrectly can have a significant, costly and adverse effect on the business and its processes. The aim of this paper is to show the process and evaluation criteria followed to select the right engineering solution for the identified business requirement. The research adopted an action research method within an organisation in the oil and gas industry, which required a solution suitable for conducting stress analysis for soil-pipeline interaction analysis (SPIA). Through the use of the presented software selection and evaluation approach, to capture and measure key requirements, it was possible to determine a suitable software for the organisation. This paper investigates methodologies for selecting software packages, software evaluation techniques, and software evaluation criteria in evaluating software packages before providing an explanation of the developed methodology adopted. The key findings of the study are: (1) that there is a need to create a framework for software selection methodologies, (2) there are no universal selection criteria in the engineering industry, and (3) there is a need to validate the findings by creating an application based on the evaluation technique and evaluation criteria for selecting software packages for the engineering industry. The findings of the study are offered to support organisations in the oil and gas sector improve software selection methodologies for SPIA.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
132
81112
Biologically-Inspired Algebraic Topology for Machine Learning
Abstract:
The majority of neural encoding research uses expert-designed statistical or spectral features to convert neural signals to meaningful information. This empirical technique generalizes poorly between sensory domains, and is time-intensive to implement. Machine learning techniques may be used to similar effect, but they are not inherently suited to sparse sequences of events such as action potentials recorded by multi-electrode arrays. As array channel counts increase towards the millions, the high dimensionality and volume of data will make scaling either of these methods difficult. The research presented here applies algebraic topology, in a biologically-inspired way, to the complex temporal interactions found in populations of spiking neurons (both simulated and measured). The use of algebraic topology (a field concerned with the geometry of high-dimensional data) exposes meaningful interactions not detected by traditional statistical analysis or other machine learning techniques. These interactions, captured by topological features or invariants, may then be used for discrimination tasks in both artificial and natural spiking neural networks. The presented results describe the use of such invariants to classify signals in artificial spiking neural networks. As the fundamental principles by which living systems encode sensory stimuli are not yet analytically described, this research utilizes an animal model for architectural inspiration. European Starlings must separate birdsong from complex auditory backgrounds, identify relevance of the song, parse syllables and meaning, and generate appropriate responses to each call. Prior research has shown that topological invariants measured in Starling auditory cortex have high discriminative power for song-related tasks. Using multi-electrode array recordings obtained in behaving Starlings, algebraic topology can be employed to create simplicial complexes from n-wise temporal correlations of neuronal activity. The simplicial complexes capture ensemble spiking behaviors and the temporal dynamics of complex neural groups. Features such as persistent homology act as discriminators for neural activity caused by heterogeneous inputs. Topological features identified in biological recordings can be used to train artificial spiking neural networks, which are then tested against fully artificial inputs from non-sensory sources (specifically, digitally modulated radio-frequency transmissions). The performance of these algorithms are then compared and contrasted with standard artificial networks and with songbird behavior on related discrimination tasks. These results characterize the importance of topological invariants in spike timing dynamics to both natural and artificial sensory perception. By extracting meaning directly from spike traces, a common contradiction in much of the computational neuroscience literature is bypassed: living sensory systems cannot map from external ground truth to neural responses. As all information entering the central nervous system at all stages of development arrives as spikes, the central nervous system must learn the shape of the world from spikes. This research will establish a fundamental method for the unsupervised selection of features directly from spike encodings, and will have broad implications in both machine learning and computational neuroscience.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
131
81078
Semi-Supervised Learning for Spanish Speech Recognition Using Deep Neural Networks
Abstract:
Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) is a machine-based process of decoding and transcribing oral speech. A typical ASR system receives acoustic input from a speaker or an audio file, analyzes it using algorithms, and produces an output in the form of a text. Some speech recognition systems use Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to deal with the temporal variability of speech and Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs) to determine how well each state of each HMM fits a short window of frames of coefficients that represents the acoustic input. Another way to evaluate the fit is to use a feed-forward neural network that takes several frames of coefficients as input and produces posterior probabilities over HMM states as output. Deep neural networks (DNNs) that have many hidden layers and are trained using new methods have been shown to outperform GMMs on a variety of speech recognition systems. Acoustic models for state-of-the-art ASR systems are usually training on massive amounts of data. However, audio files with their corresponding transcriptions can be difficult to obtain, especially in the Spanish language. Hence, in the case of these low-resource scenarios, building an ASR model is considered as a complex task due to the lack of labeled data, resulting in an under-trained system. Semi-supervised learning approaches arise as necessary tasks given the high cost of transcribing audio data. The main goal of this proposal is to develop a procedure based on acoustic semi-supervised learning for Spanish ASR systems by using DNNs. This semi-supervised learning approach consists of: (a) Training a seed ASR model with a DNN using a set of audios and their respective transcriptions. A DNN with a one-hidden-layer network was initialized; increasing the number of hidden layers in training, to a five. A refinement, which consisted of the weight matrix plus bias term and a Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) training were also performed. The objective function was the cross-entropy criterion. (b) Decoding/testing a set of unlabeled data with the obtained seed model. (c) Selecting a suitable subset of the validated data to retrain the seed model, thereby improving its performance on the target test set. To choose the most precise transcriptions, three confidence scores or metrics, regarding the lattice concept (based on the graph cost, the acoustic cost and a combination of both), was performed as selection technique. The performance of the ASR system will be calculated by means of the Word Error Rate (WER). The test dataset was renewed in order to extract the new transcriptions added to the training dataset. Some experiments were carried out in order to select the best ASR results. A comparison between a GMM-based model without retraining and the DNN proposed system was also made under the same conditions. Results showed that the semi-supervised ASR-model based on DNNs outperformed the GMM-model, in terms of WER, in all tested cases. The best result obtained an improvement of 6% relative WER. Hence, these promising results suggest that the proposed technique could be suitable for building ASR models in low-resource environments.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
130
80276
Topographic Mapping of Farmland by Integration of Multiple Sensors on Board Low-Altitude Unmanned Aerial System
Abstract:
This paper introduced a topographic mapping system with time-saving and simplicity advantages based on integration of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and Post Processing Kinematic Global Positioning System (PPK GPS) data. This topographic mapping system used a low-altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) as a platform to conduct land survey in a low-cost, efficient, and totally autonomous manner. An experiment in a small-scale sugarcane farmland was conducted in Queensland, Australia. Subsequently, we synchronized LiDAR distance measurements that were corrected by using attitude information from gyroscope with PPK GPS coordinates for generation of precision topographic maps, which could be further utilized for such applications like precise land leveling and drainage management. The results indicated that LiDAR distance measurements and PPK GPS altitude reached good accuracy of less than 0.015 m.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
129
80166
Impact of Extended Enterprise Resource Planning in the Context of Cloud Computing on Industries and Organizations
Abstract:
The Extended Enterprise Resource Planning (ERPII) system usually requires massive amounts of storage space, powerful servers, and large upfront and ongoing investments to purchase and manage the software and the related hardware which are not affordable for organizations. In recent decades, organizations prefer to adapt their business structures with new technologies for remaining in the world economy competitive. Therefore, cloud computing (which is one of the tools of information technology (IT)) is a modern system that reveals the next-generation application architecture. Also, cloud computing has been some advantages that reduce costs in many ways such as: avoids upfront costs for all computing infrastructure and lower cost of maintaining and supporting. On the other hand, traditional ERPII is not responding for huge amounts of data and relations between the organizations. In this study, based on a literature study, ERPII has investigated in the context of cloud computing which the organizations operate more efficiently. Also, ERPII conditions p has a response to needs of organizations in large amounts of data and relations between the organizations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
128
80157
From E-Government to Cloud-Government Challenges of Jordanian Citizens' Acceptance for Public Services
Abstract:
On the inception of the third millennium, there is much evidence that cloud technologies have become the strategic trend for many governments not only developed countries (e.g., UK, Japan, and USA), but also developing countries (e.g. Malaysia and the Middle East region), who have launched cloud computing movements for enhanced standardization of IT resources, cost reduction, and more efficient public services. Therefore, cloud-based e-government services considered as one of the high priorities for government agencies in Jordan. Although of their phenomenal evolution, government cloud-services still suffering from the adoption challenges of e-government initiatives (e.g. technological, human-aspects, social, and financial) which need to be considered carefully by governments contemplating its implementation. This paper presents a pilot study to investigate the citizens' perception of the extent in which these challenges affect the acceptance and use of cloud computing in Jordanian public sector. Based on the data analysis collected using online survey some important challenges were identified. The results can help to guide successful acceptance of cloud-based e-government services in Jordan.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
127
78014
Multilayer Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic Based Software Quality Prediction
Abstract:
In the software development lifecycle, the quality prediction techniques hold a prime importance in order to minimize future design errors and expensive maintenance. There are many techniques proposed by various researchers, but with the increasing complexity of the software lifecycle model, it is crucial to develop a flexible system which can cater for the factors which in result have an impact on the quality of the end product. These factors include properties of the software development process and the product along with its operation conditions. In this paper, a neural network (perceptron) based software quality prediction technique is proposed. Using this technique, the stakeholders can predict the quality of the resulting software during the early phases of the lifecycle saving time and resources on future elimination of design errors and costly maintenance. This technique can be brought into practical use using successful training.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
126
76977
Cyber Supply Chain Resilient: Enhancing Security through Leadership to Protect National Security
Authors:
Abstract:
Cyber criminals are constantly on the lookout for new opportunities to exploit organisation and cause destruction. This could lead to significant cause of economic loss for organisations in the form of destruction in finances, reputation and even the overall survival of the organization. Additionally, this leads to serious consequences on national security. The threat of possible cyber attacks places further pressure on organisations to ensure they are secure, at a time where international scale cyber attacks have occurred in a range of sectors. Stakeholders are wanting confidence that their data is protected. This is only achievable if a business fosters a resilient supply chain strategy which is implemented throughout its supply chain by having a strong cyber leadership culture. This paper will discuss the essential role and need for organisations to adopt a cyber leadership culture and direction to learn about own internal processes to ensure mitigating systemic vulnerability of its supply chains. This paper outlines that to protect national security there is an urgent need for cyber awareness culture change. This is required in all organisations, regardless of their sector or size, to implementation throughout the whole supplier chain to support and protect economic prosperity to make the UK more resilient to cyber-attacks. Through businesses understanding the supply chain and risk management cycle of their own operates has to be the starting point to ensure effective cyber migration strategies.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
125
76761
Sensor And Sensor System Design, Selection and Data Fusion Using Non-Deterministic Multi-Attribute Tradespace Exploration
Abstract:
The conceptualization and design phases of a system lifecycle consume a significant amount of the lifecycle budget in the form of direct tasking and capital, as well as the implicit costs associated with unforeseeable design errors that are only realized during downstream phases. Ad hoc or iterative approaches to generating system requirements oftentimes fail to consider the full array of feasible systems or product designs for a variety of reasons, including, but not limited to: initial conceptualization that oftentimes incorporates a priori or legacy features; the inability to capture, communicate and accommodate stakeholder preferences; inadequate technical designs and/or feasibility studies; and locally-, but not globally-, optimized subsystems and components. These design pitfalls can beget unanticipated developmental or system alterations with added costs, risks and support activities, heightening the risk for suboptimal system performance, premature obsolescence or forgone development. Supported by rapid advances in learning algorithms and hardware technology, sensors and sensor systems have become commonplace in both commercial and industrial products. The evolving array of hardware components (i.e. sensors, CPUs, modular / auxiliary access, etc…) as well as recognition, data fusion and communication protocols have all become increasingly complex and critical for design engineers during both concpetualization and implementation. This work seeks to develop and utilize a non-deterministic approach for sensor system design within the multi-attribute tradespace exploration (MATE) paradigm, a technique that incorporates decision theory into model-based techniques in order to explore complex design environments and discover better system designs. Developed to address the inherent design constraints in complex aerospace systems, MATE techniques enable project engineers to examine all viable system designs, assess attribute utility and system performance, and better align with stakeholder requirements. Whereas such previous work has been focused on aerospace systems and conducted in a deterministic fashion, this study addresses a wider array of system design elements by incorporating both traditional tradespace elements (e.g. hardware components) as well as popular multi-sensor data fusion models and techniques. Furthermore, statistical performance features to this model-based MATE approach will enable non-deterministic techniques for various commercial systems that range in application, complexity and system behavior, demonstrating a significant utility within the realm of formal systems decision-making.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
124
76514
Generation of Knowlege with Self-Learning Methods for Ophthalmic Data
Abstract:
Problem and Purpose: Intelligent systems are available and helpful to support the human being decision process, especially when complex surgical eye interventions are necessary and must be performed. Normally, such a decision support system consists of a knowledge-based module, which is responsible for the real assistance power, given by an explanation and logical reasoning processes. The interview based acquisition and generation of the complex knowledge itself is very crucial, because there are different correlations between the complex parameters. So, in this project (semi)automated self-learning methods are researched and developed for an enhancement of the quality of such a decision support system. Methods: For ophthalmic data sets of real patients in a hospital, advanced data mining procedures seem to be very helpful. Especially subgroup analysis methods are developed, extended and used to analyze and find out the correlations and conditional dependencies between the structured patient data. After finding causal dependencies, a ranking must be performed for the generation of rule-based representations. For this, anonymous patient data are transformed into a special machine language format. The imported data are used as input for algorithms of conditioned probability methods to calculate the parameter distributions concerning a special given goal parameter. Results: In the field of knowledge discovery advanced methods and applications could be performed to produce operation and patient related correlations. So, new knowledge was generated by finding causal relations between the operational equipment, the medical instances and patient specific history by a dependency ranking process. After transformation in association rules logically based representations were available for the clinical experts to evaluate the new knowledge. The structured data sets take account of about 80 parameters as special characteristic features per patient. For different extended patient groups (100, 300, 500), as well one target value as well multi-target values were set for the subgroup analysis. So the newly generated hypotheses could be interpreted regarding the dependency or independency of patient number. Conclusions: The aim and the advantage of such a semi-automatically self-learning process are the extensions of the knowledge base by finding new parameter correlations. The discovered knowledge is transformed into association rules and serves as rule-based representation of the knowledge in the knowledge base. Even more, than one goal parameter of interest can be considered by the semi-automated learning process. With ranking procedures, the most strong premises and also conjunctive associated conditions can be found to conclude the interested goal parameter. So the knowledge, hidden in structured tables or lists can be extracted as rule-based representation. This is a real assistance power for the communication with the clinical experts.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
123
75889
D-Care: Diabetes Care Application to Enhance Diabetic Awareness to Diabetes in Indonesia
Abstract:
Diabetes is a common disease in Indonesia. One of the risk factors of diabetes is an unhealthy diet which is consuming food that contains too much glucose, one of glucose sources presents in food containing carbohydrate. The purpose of this study is to identify the amount of glucose level in the consumed food. The authors use literature studies for this research method. For the results of this study, the authors expect diabetics to be more aware of diabetes by applying daily dietary regulation through D-Care. D-Care is an application that can enhance people awareness to diabetes in Indonesia. D-Care provides two menus; there are nutrition calculation and healthy food. Nutrition calculation menu is used for knowing estimated glucose intake level by calculating food that consumed each day. Whereas healthy food menu, it provides a combination of healthy food menu for diabetic. The conclusion is D-Care is useful to be used for reducing diabetes prevalence in Indonesia.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
122
75514
Water End-Use Classification with Contemporaneous Water-Energy Data and Deep Learning Network
Abstract:
Water-related energy is energy use which is directly or indirectly influenced by changes to water use. Informatics applying a range of mathematical, statistical and rule-based approaches can be used to reveal important information on demand from the available data provided at second, minute or hourly intervals. This study aims to combine these two concepts to improve the current water end use disaggregation problem through applying a wide range of most advanced pattern recognition techniques to analyse the concurrent high-resolution water-energy consumption data. The obtained results have shown that recognition accuracies of all end-uses have significantly increased, especially for mechanised categories, including clothes washer, dishwasher and evaporative air cooler where over 95% of events were correctly classified.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
121
74866
Gradient Boosted Trees on Spark Platform for Supervised Learning in Health Care Big Data
Abstract:
Health care is one of the prominent industries that generate voluminous data thereby finding the need of machine learning techniques with big data solutions for efficient processing and prediction. Missing data, incomplete data, real time streaming data, sensitive data, privacy, heterogeneity are few of the common challenges to be addressed for efficient processing and mining of health care data. In comparison with other applications, accuracy and fast processing are of higher importance for health care applications as they are related to the human life directly. Though there are many machine learning techniques and big data solutions used for efficient processing and prediction in health care data, different techniques and different frameworks are proved to be effective for different applications largely depending on the characteristics of the datasets. In this paper, we present a framework that uses ensemble machine learning technique gradient boosted trees for data classification in health care big data. The framework is built on Spark platform which is fast in comparison with other traditional frameworks. Unlike other works that focus on a single technique, our work presents a comparison of six different machine learning techniques along with gradient boosted trees on datasets of different characteristics. Five benchmark health care datasets are considered for experimentation, and the results of different machine learning techniques are discussed in comparison with gradient boosted trees. The metric chosen for comparison is misclassification error rate and the run time of the algorithms. The goal of this paper is to i) Compare the performance of gradient boosted trees with other machine learning techniques in Spark platform specifically for health care big data and ii) Discuss the results from the experiments conducted on datasets of different characteristics thereby drawing inference and conclusion. The experimental results show that the accuracy is largely dependent on the characteristics of the datasets for other machine learning techniques whereas gradient boosting trees yields reasonably stable results in terms of accuracy without largely depending on the dataset characteristics.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
120
74464
Programming without Code: An Approach and Environment to Conditions-On-Data Programming
Abstract:
This paper presents the concept of an object-based programming language where tests (if... then... else) and control structures (while, repeat, for...) disappear and are replaced by conditions on data. According to the object paradigm, by using this concept, data are still embedded inside objects, as variable-value couples, but object methods are expressed into the form of logical propositions (‘conditions on data’ or COD).For instance : variable1 = value1 AND variable2 > value2 => variable3 = value3. Implementing this approach, a central inference engine turns and examines objects one after another, collecting all CODs of each object. CODs are considered as rules in a rule-based system: the left part of each proposition (left side of the ‘=>‘ sign) is the premise and the right part is the conclusion. So, premises are evaluated and conclusions are fired. Conclusions modify the variable-value couples of the object and the engine goes to examine the next object. The paper develops the principles of writing CODs instead of complex algorithms. Through samples, the paper also presents several hints for implementing a simple mechanism able to process this ‘COD language’. The proposed approach can be used within the context of simulation, process control, industrial systems validation, etc. By writing simple and rigorous conditions on data, instead of using classical and long-to-learn languages, engineers and specialists can easily simulate and validate the functioning of complex systems.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
119
74462
Generic Early Warning Signals for Program Student Withdrawals: A Complexity Perspective Based on Critical Transitions and Fractals
Authors:
Abstract:
Complex systems exhibit universal characteristics as they near a tipping point. Among them are common generic early warning signals which precede critical transitions. These signals include: critical slowing down in which the rate of recovery from perturbations decreases over time; an increase in the variance of the state variable; an increase in the skewness of the state variable; an increase in the autocorrelations of the state variable; flickering between different states; and an increase in spatial correlations over time. The presence of the signals has management implications, as the identification of the signals near the tipping point could allow management to identify intervention points. Despite the applications of the generic early warning signals in various scientific fields, such as fisheries, ecology and finance, a review of literature did not identify any applications that address the program student withdrawal problem at the undergraduate distance universities. This area could benefit from the application of generic early warning signals as the program withdrawal rate amongst distance students is higher than the program withdrawal rate at face-to-face conventional universities. This research specifically assessed the generic early warning signals through an intensive case study of undergraduate program student withdrawal at a Canadian distance university. The university is non-cohort based due to its system of continuous course enrollment where students can enroll in a course at the beginning of every month. The assessment of the signals was achieved through the comparison of the incidences of generic early warning signals among students who withdrew or simply became inactive in their undergraduate program of study, the true positives, to the incidences of the generic early warning signals among graduates, the false positives. This was achieved through significance testing. Research findings showed support for the signal pertaining to the rise in flickering which is represented in the increase in the student’s non-pass rates prior to withdrawing from a program; moderate support for the signals of critical slowing down as reflected in the increase in the time a student spends in a course; and moderate support for the signals on increase in autocorrelation and increase in variance in the grade variable. The findings did not support the signal on the increase in skewness of the grade variable. The research also proposes a new signal based on the fractal-like characteristic of student behavior. The research also sought to extend knowledge by investigating whether the emergence of a program withdrawal status is self-similar or fractal-like at multiple levels of observation, specifically the program level and the course level. In other words, whether the act of withdrawal at the program level is also present at the course level. The findings moderately supported self-similarity as a potential signal. Overall, the assessment of the signals suggests that the signals, with the exception with the increase of skewness, could be utilized as a predictive management tool and potentially add one more tool, the fractal-like characteristic of withdrawal, as an additional signal in addressing the student program withdrawal problem.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
118
73667
Foslip Loaded and CEA-Affimer Functionalised Silica Nanoparticles for Fluorescent Imaging of Colorectal Cancer Cells
Abstract:
Introduction: There is a need for real-time imaging of colorectal cancer (CRC) to allow tailored surgery to the disease stage. Fluorescence guided laparoscopic imaging of primary colorectal cancer and the draining lymphatics would potentially bring stratified surgery into clinical practice and realign future CRC management to the needs of patients. Fluorescent nanoparticles can offer many advantages in terms of intra-operative imaging and therapy (theranostic) in comparison with traditional soluble reagents. Nanoparticles can be functionalised with diverse reagents and then targeted to the correct tissue using an antibody or Affimer (artificial binding protein). We aimed to develop and test fluorescent silica nanoparticles and targeted against CRC using an anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) Affimer (Aff). Methods: Anti-CEA and control Myoglobin Affimer binders were subcloned into the expressing vector pET11 followed by transformation into BL21 Star™ (DE3) E.coli. The expression of Affimer binders was induced using 0.1 mM isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Cells were harvested, lysed and purified using nickle chelating affinity chromatography. The photosensitiser Foslip (soluble analogue of 5,10,15,20-Tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl) chlorin) was incorporated into the core of silica nanoparticles using water-in-oil microemulsion technique. Anti-CEA or control Affs were conjugated to silica nanoparticles surface using sulfosuccinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl) cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (sulfo SMCC) chemical linker. Binding of CEA-Aff or control nanoparticles to colorectal cancer cells (LoVo, LS174T and HC116) was quantified in vitro using confocal microscopy. Results: The molecular weights of the obtained band of Affimers were ~12.5KDa while the diameter of functionalised silica nanoparticles was ~80nm. CEA-Affimer targeted nanoparticles demonstrated 9.4, 5.8 and 2.5 fold greater fluorescence than control in, LoVo, LS174T and HCT116 cells respectively (p < 0.002) for the single slice analysis. A similar pattern of successful CEA-targeted fluorescence was observed in the maximum image projection analysis, with CEA-targeted nanoparticles demonstrating 4.1, 2.9 and 2.4 fold greater fluorescence than control particles in LoVo, LS174T, and HCT116 cells respectively (p < 0.0002). There was no significant difference in fluorescence for CEA-Affimer vs. CEA-Antibody targeted nanoparticles. Conclusion: We are the first to demonstrate that Foslip-doped silica nanoparticles conjugated to anti-CEA Affimers via SMCC allowed tumour cell-specific fluorescent targeting in vitro, and had shown sufficient promise to justify testing in an animal model of colorectal cancer. CEA-Affimer appears to be a suitable targeting molecule to replace CEA-Antibody. Targeted silica nanoparticles loaded with Foslip photosensitiser is now being optimised to drive photodynamic killing, via reactive oxygen generation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
117
73588
Clustering Categorical Data Using the K-Means Algorithm and the Attribute’s Relative Frequency
Abstract:
Clustering is a well known data mining technique used in pattern recognition and information retrieval. The initial dataset to be clustered can either contain categorical or numeric data. Each type of data has its own specific clustering algorithm. In this context, two algorithms are proposed: the k-means for clustering numeric datasets and the k-modes for categorical datasets. The main encountered problem in data mining applications is clustering categorical dataset so relevant in the datasets. One main issue to achieve the clustering process on categorical values is to transform the categorical attributes into numeric measures and directly apply the k-means algorithm instead the k-modes. In this paper, it is proposed to experiment an approach based on the previous issue by transforming the categorical values into numeric ones using the relative frequency of each modality in the attributes. The proposed approach is compared with a previously method based on transforming the categorical datasets into binary values. The scalability and accuracy of the two methods are experimented. The obtained results show that our proposed method outperforms the binary method in all cases.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
116
72645
Assembly Training: An Augmented Reality Approach Using Design Science Research
Abstract:
Augmented Reality (AR) is a strong growing research topic. This innovative technology is interesting for several training domains like education, medicine, military, sports and industrial use cases like assembly and maintenance tasks. AR can help to improve the efficiency, quality and transfer of training tasks. Due to these reasons, AR becomes more interesting for big companies and researchers because the industrial domain is still an unexplored field. This paper presents the research proposal of a PhD thesis which is done in cooperation with the BMW Group, aiming to explore head-mounted display (HMD) based training in industrial environments. We give a short introduction, describing the motivation, the underlying problems as well as the five formulated research questions we want to clarify along this thesis. We give a brief overview of the current assembly training in industrial environments and present some AR-based training approaches, including their research deficits. We use the Design Science Research (DSR) framework for this thesis and describe how we want to realize the seven guidelines, mandatory from the DSR. Furthermore, we describe each methodology which we use within that framework and present our approach in a comprehensive figure, representing the entire thesis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
115
72016
A Computational Cost-Effective Clustering Algorithm in Multidimensional Space Using the Manhattan Metric: Application to the Global Terrorism Database
Abstract:
The increasing amount of collected data has limited the performance of the current analyzing algorithms. Thus, developing new cost-effective algorithms in terms of complexity, scalability, and accuracy raised significant interests. In this paper, a modified effective k-means based algorithm is developed and experimented. The new algorithm aims to reduce the computational load without significantly affecting the quality of the clusterings. The algorithm uses the City Block distance and a new stop criterion to guarantee the convergence. Conducted experiments on a real data set show its high performance when compared with the original k-means version.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
114
71998
Extraction of Forest Plantation Resources in Selected Forest of San Manuel, Pangasinan, Philippines Using LiDAR Data for Forest Status Assessment
Abstract:
Forest inventories are essential to assess the composition, structure and distribution of forest vegetation that can be used as baseline information for management decisions. Classical forest inventory is labor intensive and time-consuming and sometimes even dangerous. The use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) in forest inventory would improve and overcome these restrictions. This study was conducted to determine the possibility of using LiDAR derived data in extracting high accuracy forest biophysical parameters and as a non-destructive method for forest status analysis of San Manual, Pangasinan. Forest resources extraction was carried out using LAS tools, GIS, Envi and .bat scripts with the available LiDAR data. The process includes the generation of derivatives such as Digital Terrain Model (DTM), Canopy Height Model (CHM) and Canopy Cover Model (CCM) in .bat scripts followed by the generation of 17 composite bands to be used in the extraction of forest classification covers using ENVI 4.8 and GIS software. The Diameter in Breast Height (DBH), Above Ground Biomass (AGB) and Carbon Stock (CS) were estimated for each classified forest cover and Tree Count Extraction was carried out using GIS. Subsequently, field validation was conducted for accuracy assessment. Results showed that the forest of San Manuel has 73% Forest Cover, which is relatively much higher as compared to the 10% canopy cover requirement. On the extracted canopy height, 80% of the tree&rsquo;s height ranges from 12 m to 17 m. CS of the three forest covers based on the AGB were: 20819.59 kg/20x20 m for closed broadleaf, 8609.82 kg/20x20 m for broadleaf plantation and 15545.57 kg/20x20m for open broadleaf. Average tree counts for the tree forest plantation was 413 trees/ha. As such, the forest of San Manuel has high percent forest cover and high CS.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):