The International Fight against the Financing of Terrorism: Analysis of the Anti-Money Laundering and Combating Financing of Terrorism Regime
Financing is important for all terrorists – from the largest organizations in control of territories, to the smallest groups – not only for spreading fear through attacks, but also to finance the expansion of terrorist dogmas. These organizations pose serious threats to the international community. The disruption of terrorist financing aims to create a hostile environment for the growth of terrorism and to limit considerably the terrorist groups capacities. The World Bank (WB), together with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), decided to include in their scope the Fight against the money laundering and the financing of terrorism, in order to assist Member States in protecting their internal financial system from terrorism use and abuse and reinforcing their legal system. To do so, they have adopted the Anti-Money Laundering /Combating Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) standards that have been set up by the Financial Action Task Force. This set of standards, recognized as the international standards for anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism, has to be implemented by States Members in order to strengthen their judicial system and relevant national institutions. However, we noted that, to date, some States Members still have significant AML/CFT deficiencies, which can constitute serious threats not only to the country’s economic stability but also for the global financial system. In addition, studies stressed out that repressive measures are more implemented by countries than preventive measures, which could be an important weakness in a state security system. Furthermore, we noticed that the AML/CFT standards evolve slowly, while techniques used by terrorist networks keep developing. The goal of the study is to show how to enhance the AML/CFT global compliance through the work of the IMF and the WB, to help member states to consolidate their financial system. To encourage and ensure the effectiveness of these standards, a methodology for assessing the compliance with the AML/CFT standards has been created to follow up the concrete implementation of these standards and to provide accurate technical assistance to countries in need. A risk-based approach has also been adopted as a key component of the implementation of the AML/CFT Standards, with the aim of strengthening the efficiency of the standards. Instead, we noted that the assessment is not efficient in the process of enhancing AML/CFT measures because it seems to lack of adaptation to the country situation. In other words, internal and external factors are not enough taken into account in a country assessment program. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the AML/CFT regime in the fight against the financing of terrorism and to find lasting solutions to achieve the global AML/CFT compliance. The work of all the organizations involved in this combat is imperative to protect the financial network and to lead to the disintegration of terrorist groups in the future.
Providing Support On-Time: Need to Establish De-Radicalization Hotlines
Peacekeeping is a collective responsibility of governments, law enforcement agencies, communities, families, and individuals. Moreover, the complex nature of peacekeeping activities requires a holistic and collaborative approach where various community sectors work together to form collective strategies that are likely to be more effective than strategies designed and delivered in isolation. Similarly, it is important to learn from past programs to evaluate the initiatives that have worked well and the areas that need further improvement. Review of recent peacekeeping initiatives suggests that there have been tremendous efforts and resources put in place to deal with the emerging threat of terrorism, radicalization and violent extremism through number of de-radicalization programs. Despite various attempts in designing and delivering successful programs for deradicalization, the threat of people being radicalized is growing more than ever before. This research reviews the prominent de-radicalization programs to draw an understanding of their strengths and weaknesses. Some of the weaknesses in the existing programs include. Inaccessibility: Limited resources, geographical location of potential participants (for offline programs), inaccessibility or inability to use various technologies (for online programs) makes it difficult for people to participate in de-radicalization programs. Timeliness: People might need to wait for a program on a set date/time to get the required information and to get their questions answered. This is particularly true for offline programs. Lack of trust: The privacy issues and lack of trust between participants and program organizers are another hurdle in the success of de-radicalization programs. The fear of sharing participants information with organizations (such as law enforcement agencies) without their consent led them not to participate in these programs. Generalizability: Majority of these programs are very generic in nature and do not cater the specific needs of an individual. Participants in these programs may feel that the contents are irrelevant to their individual situations and hence feel disconnected with purpose of the programs. To address the above-mentioned weaknesses, this research developed a framework that recommends some improvements in de-radicalization programs. One of the recommendations is to offer 24/7, secure, private and online hotline (also referred as helpline) for the people who have any question, concern or situation to discuss with someone who is qualified (a counsellor) to deal with people who are vulnerable to be radicalized. To make these hotline services viable and sustainable, the existing organizations offering support for depression, anxiety or suicidal ideation could additionally host these services. These helplines should be available via phone, the internet, social media and in-person. Since these services will be embedded within existing and well-known services, they would likely to get more visibility and promotion. The anonymous and secure conversation between a person and a counsellor would ensure that a person can discuss the issues without being afraid of information sharing with any third party – without his/her consent. The next stage of this project would include the operationalization of the framework by collaborating with other organizations to host de-radicalization hotlines and would assess the effectiveness of such initiatives.
Literature and the Extremism: Case Study of the Impact of Literature on Extremism in Afghanistan
In conducting a case study to analyze the impact of literature on extremism and fundamentalism in Afghanistan, the author of this paper uses qualitative research method. For this purpose the author of the paper has a glance at the history of extremism and fundamentalism in Afghanistan, as well the major causes and predisposing factors of it; then analyzes the impact of literature on extremism and fundamentalism using qualitative method. This study relies on the moral engagement theory to reveal how some extreme-Islamists quit the ideological interpretation of Islam and return to normal life by reading certain literary works. The goal of this case study is to help fighting extremism and fundamentalism by using literature. The research showed that literary works are useful in this regard and there are several evidences of its effectiveness.
Human Identification and Detection of Suspicious Incidents Based on Outfit Colors: Image Processing Approach in CCTV Videos
CCTV (Closed-Circuit-Television) Surveillance System is being used in public places over decades and a large variety of data is being produced every moment. However, most of the CCTV data is stored in isolation without having integrity. As a result, identification of the behavior of suspicious people along with their location has become strenuous. This research was conducted to acquire more accurate and reliable timely information from the CCTV video records. The implemented system can identify human objects in public places based on outfit colors. Inter-process communication technologies were used to implement the CCTV camera network to track people in the premises. The research was conducted in three stages and in the first stage human objects were filtered from other movable objects available in public places. In the second stage people were uniquely identified based on their outfit colors and in the third stage an individual was continuously tracked in the CCTV network. A face detection algorithm was implemented using cascade classifier based on the training model to detect human objects. HAAR feature based two-dimensional convolution operator was introduced to identify features of the human face such as region of eyes, region of nose and bridge of the nose based on darkness and lightness of facial area. In the second stage outfit colors of human objects were analyzed by dividing the area into upper left, upper right, lower left, lower right of the body. Mean color, mod color and standard deviation of each area were extracted as crucial factors to uniquely identify human object using histogram based approach. Color based measurements were written in to XML files and separate directories were maintained to store XML files related to each camera according to time stamp. As the third stage of the approach, inter-process communication techniques were used to implement an acknowledgement based CCTV camera network to continuously track individuals in a network of cameras. Real time analysis of XML files generated in each camera can determine the path of individual to monitor full activity sequence. Higher efficiency was achieved by sending and receiving acknowledgments only among adjacent cameras. Suspicious incidents such as a person staying in a sensitive area for a longer period or a person disappeared from the camera coverage can be detected in this approach. The system was tested for 150 people with the accuracy level of 82%. However, this approach was unable to produce expected results in the presence of group of people wearing similar type of outfits. This approach can be applied to any existing camera network without changing the physical arrangement of CCTV cameras. The study of human identification and suspicious incident detection using outfit color analysis can achieve higher level of accuracy and the project will be continued by integrating motion and gait feature analysis techniques to derive more information from CCTV videos.
Growing Acts of Terrorism in Local Conflicts: A Dire Need for International Attention
Highlighting the imperatives of local conflicts considering the dangerous dimensions of terrorism they are assuming in Africa has not attracted serious academic and political attention. The discourse about conflict in Africa was discussed within five identified conflict zones in the continent. The threats from these local conflicts are diverse and complex and the acts of terrorism in these local conflicts are driven by certain attitudes and behaviours linked to the African leadership. The paper examined and noted that the current conflict resolution model of the African Union (AU) was robust with requisite institutions to address the trends in local conflicts. However, it was observed that the AU peace and security framework lacked the requisite structural and technical capabilities to proactively address the drivers of local conflicts in Africa. It was found that the persistence of local conflicts in the African region may deny her the opportunities of achievement of the targets envisioned in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Consequently, the paper called on the international community to support Africa through provision of capacity. It urged the African leaders themselves to develop the political will to ensure that all issues concerning peace and security in the continent were guided by the provisions of the AU Constitutive Act. The need to strengthen the APRM in the light of the current trends in local conflicts was also highlighted.
Estimation of Foliar Nitrogen in Selected Vegetation Communities of Uttrakhand Himalayas Using Hyperspectral Satellite Remote Sensing
The study estimates the nitrogen concentration in selected vegetation community’s i.e. chir pine (pinusroxburghii) by using hyperspectral satellite data and also identified the appropriate spectral bands and nitrogen indices. The Short Wave InfraRed reflectance spectrum at 1790 nm and 1680 nm shows the maximum possible absorption by nitrogen in selected species. Among the nitrogen indices, log normalized nitrogen index performed positively and negatively too. The strong positive correlation is taken out from 1510 nm and 760 nm for the pinusroxburghii for leaf nitrogen concentration and leaf nitrogen mass while using NDNI. The regression value of R² developed by using linear equation achieved maximum at 0.7525 for the analysis of satellite image data and R² is maximum at 0.547 for ground truth data for pinusroxburghii respectively.
Multisignature Schemes for Reinforcing Trust in Cloud Software-As-A-Service Services
Software-as-a-service (SaaS) is emerging as a dominant approach to delivering software. It encompasses a range of business, technical opportunities, issue, and challenges. Trustiness in the cloud services regarding the security and the privacy of the delivered data is the most critical issue with the SaaS model. In this paper, we survey the security concerns related to the SaaS model, and we propose the design of a trusted SaaS model that gives users more confidence into SaaS services by leveraging a trust in a neutral source code certifying authority. The proposed design is based on the use of the multisignature mechanism for signing the source code of the application service. In our model, the cloud provider acts as a root of trust by ensuring the integrity of the application service when it was running on its platform. The proposed design prevents insider attacks from tampering with application service before and after it was launched in a cloud provider platform.
The Fight against Terrorist Radicalization: A French Perspective
After France became the target of an increasing number of terrorist attacks committed by people who have been declared ‘radicalized’, the issue of radicalization has become the main component of the national Action Plan for the Prevention of terrorism, thus stressing the need to address the roots causes of this peril. Therefore, the aim of this research paper is to provide a preliminary review of Frances’s strategy in the fight against terrorist radicalization in order to point out the challenges posed by this phenomenon while also highlighting its contemporary version and the understanding the results. In this regard, it should not be forgotten that the process of radicalization does not always lead to a terrorist act. To this end, the French legal framework that applies to radicalization coupled with the judicial response provided by the National Court will be analyzed in the light of the need for a balance between the concern for security and the protection of fundamental freedoms.
Revival of Old Silk Route and New Maritime Route: An Opportunity for India or Hidden Geopolitics of China
There are always provincial variations which deserve more detailed treatment. Before the arrival of modern era, geography and cultural homogeneity were determining factors of human habitat and migration. Boundaries as if we see them, did not exist earlier. The connectivity of the world was also different as of now. The reinforcement of the old silk route will improve economic cooperation and connectivity between Asian, European and African countries, but obviously, it is designed to improve China’s geopolitical and geostrategic position in the world. The paper is based on the secondary sources of data. Analytical and historical approach has been used to clarify the ties between the old silk routes and new One-Belt-One-Road initiative China. The paper begins with an explanation of the historical background of the old Silk Route, its origin and development, trailed by an analysis of latest declarations by the Chinese leaders to revive it. It also discusses the impacts of this initiative on India’s economy and cultural exchange between associated regions. Lastly, the paper sums up the findings and suggestions for keeping a balance between the security and economic relationship between the countries. It concludes that the silk route is an effort in commencing a ‘grand strategy’ for global trade and cooperation with hidden objectives of China to increase the investment of China in other continents as well. The revival of silk route may prove to be a very helpful in reinforcing cooperation and raising it to a new level of economic establishments. However, China has yet to promote the much-needed political and strategic trust.
The Role of Social Media in the Rise of Islamic State in India: An Analytical Overview
The evolution of Islamic State (acronym IS) has an ultimate goal of restoring the caliphate. IS threat to the global security is main concern of international community but has also raised a factual concern for India about the regular radicalization of IS ideology among Indian youth. The incident of joining Arif Ejaz Majeed, an Indian as ‘jihadist’ in IS has set strident alarm in law & enforcement agencies. On 07.03.2017, many people were injured in an Improvised Explosive Device (IED) blast on-board of Bhopal Ujjain Express. One perpetrator of this incident was killed in encounter with police. But, the biggest shock is that the conspiracy was pre-planned and the assailants who carried out the blast were influenced by the ideology perpetrated by the Islamic State. This is the first time name of IS has cropped up in a terror attack in India. It is a red indicator of violent presence of IS in India, which is spreading through social media. The IS have the capacity to influence the younger Muslim generation in India through its brutal and aggressive propaganda videos, social media apps and hatred speeches. It is a well known fact that India is on the radar of IS, as well on its ‘Caliphate Map’. IS uses Twitter, Facebook and other social media platforms constantly. Islamic State has used enticing videos, graphics, and articles on social media and try to influence persons from India & globally that their jihad is worthy. According to arrested perpetrator of IS in different cases in India, the most of Indian youths are victims to the daydreams which are fondly shown by IS. The dreams that the Muslim empire as it was before 1920 can come back with all its power and also that the Caliph and its caliphate can be re-established are shown by the IS. Indian Muslim Youth gets attracted towards these euphemistic ideologies. Islamic State has used social media for disseminating its poisonous ideology, recruitment, operational activities and for future direction of attacks. IS through social media inspired its recruits & lone wolfs to continue to rely on local networks to identify targets and access weaponry and explosives. Recently, a pro-IS media group on its Telegram platform shows Taj Mahal as the target and suggested mode of attack as a Vehicle Born Improvised Explosive Attack (VBIED). Islamic State definitely has the potential to destroy the Indian national security & peace, if timely steps are not taken. No doubt, IS has used social media as a critical mechanism for recruitment, planning and executing of terror attacks. This paper will therefore examine the specific characteristics of social media that have made it such a successful weapon for Islamic State. The rise of IS in India should be viewed as a national crisis and handled at the central level with efficient use of modern technology.
Deradicalization for Former Terrorists through Entrepreneurship Program
Indonesia is one of the countries targeted terrorist threat the world. It can be evidenced by the presence of numerous bomb attacks and assassinations of terrorists in various areas in Indonesia, so it becomes a serious problem. Much effort is made to tackle terrorism with imprisoned or even executed terrorist. However, these methods are less successful in tackling terrorism in Indonesia. In fact, the bombing raids carried out by former prisoners of terrorism, for that, the deradicalization efforts should be made to former prisoners of terrorism. The previous deradicalization program requires former prisoners change their radical ideology. It is impossible to change their ideology. This study offers a model of deradicalization through entrepreneurship program. This approach is needed because the terrorists generally are poor people. Entrepreneurship program is not intended to remove their radical ideology. This program aims to 'occupy' the former prisoners of terrorism on business activities, so they will not have time anymore to actualize their ideology in radical action.
Exploring the Determinants of Boko Haram Terrorism in Nigerian Security Systems and Economy
Terrorism has been a major challenge and is so dare to the Nigerian government in recent times. The actions and activities of the Islamic sect known as Boko Haram had led to enormous loss of lives and properties in the country, mostly the Northern part of Nigeria. Some of these activities entails bombings, suicide attacks, intimidations, sporadic gunfire of the unarmed, blameless and innocent Nigerians, burning of police stations and churches, kidnappings, raping of school girls and women. Nigeria has also been included amongst one of the terrorist countries of the world. This has serious implications for the development of Nigerian economy. Although, Nigeria had made several worried hard work to deal with these challenges masqueraded by terrorism and insecurity in the country but the rate of insurgency and insecurity is still worrisome. The study looks at exploring the determinants of Boko Haram terrorism in Nigerian security systems and economy. Data used for the study work was from questionnaire administered, using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method to analyse the data. The result shows that Ideology and funding are significant basic factors that propelled the Boko Haram group in Nigeria. The Boko Haram disaster poses a significant threat to Nigeria’s economy and the military is the best option and solution in tackling the Boko Haram menace in Nigeria. The work x-rayed the following recommendations; government should declare war on terrorism and as well seek support and cooperation from international communities who in time or the other might have faced with this kind ugly experience and challenge and were able to tackle it. Nigerian Military needs to be more empowered with high dangerous weapons to combat the insurgency as well as beef up security across the Country to curb the threats.
A Method and System for Secure Authentication Using One Time QR Code
User authentication is an important security measure for protecting confidential data and systems. However, the vulnerability while authenticating into a system has significantly increased. Thus, necessary mechanisms must be deployed during the process of authenticating a user to safeguard him/her from the vulnerable attacks. The proposed solution implements a novel authentication mechanism to counter various forms of security breach attacks including phishing, Trojan horse, replay, key logging, Asterisk logging, shoulder surfing, brute force search and others. QR code (Quick Response Code) is a type of matrix barcode or two-dimensional barcode that can be used for storing URLs, text, images and other information. In the proposed solution, during each new authentication request, a QR code is dynamically generated and presented to the user. A piece of generic information is mapped to plurality of elements and stored within the QR code. The mapping of generic information with plurality of elements, randomizes in each new login, and thus the QR code generated for each new authentication request is for one-time use only. In order to authenticate into the system, the user needs to decode the QR code using any QR code decoding software. The QR code decoding software needs to be installed on handheld mobile devices such as smartphones, personal digital assistant (PDA), etc. On decoding the QR code, the user will be presented a mapping between the generic piece of information and plurality of elements using which the user needs to derive cipher secret information corresponding to his/her actual password. Now, in place of the actual password, the user will use this cipher secret information to authenticate into the system. The authentication terminal will receive the cipher secret information and use a validation engine that will decipher the cipher secret information. If the entered secret information is correct, the user will be provided access to the system. Usability study has been carried out on the proposed solution, and the new authentication mechanism was found to be easy to learn and adapt. Mathematical analysis of the time taken to carry out brute force attack on the proposed solution has been carried out. The result of mathematical analysis showed that the solution is almost completely resistant to brute force attack. Today’s standard methods for authentication are subject to a wide variety of software, hardware, and human attacks. The proposed scheme can be very useful in controlling the various types of authentication related attacks especially in a networked computer environment where the use of username and password for authentication is common.
Illegal Migration and Refugee Crisis as a Threat to National Security, Economic and Social System: The Bulgarian Case
Unlike all conventional forms of migration, migration crisis and migratory processes provide pressure to governments and are being expressed as different phenomenon in relation to nature and forms.
The objective of this paper is to present the migration and refugee crisis as revealing numerous challenges faced by authorities responsible for the social and economic stability in Bulgaria as well as those providing conditions for reinforcement of the high level of national security in Bulgaria.
The analysis is focused on exploring the multiple origins of factors influencing migration processes in Europe, in the light of the measures provided by the Bulgarian state authorities.
The main results show that the society itself is facing the challenge of integrating refugees and migrants, so to be able to comply with the principles and values associated with tolerance to social, religious and cultural differences, and not allowing migrants to become marginalized community.
Migration pressure creates a number of risks and threats to the Bulgarian national security. Our country has the capacity and resources to meet these potential threats, as a main factor for minimizing the risks to national security is the improvement of coordination and coherence of actions between various actors serving to the security sector.
Human Rights and Counter-Terrorism in Nigeria: A Systematic Review
Over the years, the hemorrhagic acts of Boko Haram have led to the adoption of counter-terrorism measures which mostly takes the form of military repressive measures. These measures have wrought flagrant violation of human rights worthy of concern. Hence, the need to examine the efficacy of the counter-terrorism measures adopted by the Nigeria government in combatting terrorism. This article addresses this issue by relying on a systematic literature review which examines the impact of Nigeria counter-terrorism measures from 2009 to 2016 in combating terrorism. The review of literature includes 42 article. Of the 42 articles, 14 met the peer-reviewed requirement which finds that most of Nigeria’s counter-terrorism policies are geared toward the use of state repressive military approach which violates the human right. Thus, the study concludes that to effectively address the terrorist uprising; Nigeria should adopt a non-aggressive counter-terrorism approach which incorporates religious clerics, and community active engagement strategy in combatting terrorism as opposed to military retaliation which violates human right and so far proved ineffective.
Classifying and Analysis 8-Bit to 8-Bit S-Boxes Characteristic Using S-Box Evaluation Characteristic
S-Boxes is one of the linear parts of the cryptographic algorithm. The existence of S-Box in the cryptographic algorithm is needed to maintain non-linearity of the algorithm. Nowadays, modern cryptographic algorithms use an S-Box as a part of algorithm process. Despite the fact that several cryptographic algorithms today reuse theoretically secure and carefully constructed S-Boxes, there is an evaluation characteristic that can measure security properties of S-Boxes and hence the corresponding primitives. Analysis of an S-Box usually is done using manual mathematics calculation. Several S-Boxes are presented as a Truth Table without any mathematical background algorithm. Then, it’s rather difficult to determine the strength of Truth Table S-Box without a mathematical algorithm. A comprehensive analysis should be applied to the Truth Table S-Box to determine the characteristic. Several important characteristics should be owned by the S-Boxes, they are Nonlinearity, Balancedness, Algebraic degree, LAT, DAT, differential delta uniformity, correlation immunity and global avalanche criterion. Then, a comprehensive tool will be present to automatically calculate the characteristics of S-Boxes and determine the strength of S-Box. Comprehensive analysis is done on a deterministic process to produce a sequence of S-Boxes characteristic and give advice for a better S-Box construction.
Design and Implementation of Pseudorandom Number Generator Using Android Sensors
A smartphone or tablet require a strong randomness to establish secure encrypted communication, encrypt files, etc. Therefore, random number generation is one of the main keys to provide secrecy. Android devices are equipped with hardware-based sensors, such as accelerometer, gyroscope, etc. Each of these sensors provides a stochastic process which has a potential to be used as an extra randomness source, in addition to /dev/random and /dev/urandom pseudorandom number generators. Android sensors can provide randomness automatically. To obtain randomness from Android sensors, each one of Android sensors shall be used to construct an entropy source. After all entropy sources are constructed, output from these entropy sources are combined to provide more entropy. Then, a deterministic process is used to produces a sequence of random bits from the combined output. All of these processes are done in accordance with NIST SP 800-22 and the series of NIST SP 800-90. The operation conditions are done 1) on Android user-space, and 2) the Android device is placed motionless on a desk.
Energy in the Nexus of Defense and Border Security: Securing Energy Deposits in the Natuna Islands of Indonesia
Hydrocarbon energy is still pivotal to today’s economy, but its existence is continually declining. Thus, preserving future energy supply has become the national interest of many countries, which they cater in various way, from importing to expansion and occupation. Underwater of Natuna islands in Indonesia deposits great amount of natural gas reserved, numbered to 46 TCF (trillion cubic feet), which is highly potential to meet Indonesia future energy demand. On the other hand, there could be a possibility that others also seek this natural resources. Natuna is located in the borderline of Indonesia, directly adjacent to the South China Sea, an area which is prolonged to conflict. It is a challenge for Indonesia government to preserve their energy deposit in Natuna islands and to response accordingly if the tension in South China Sea rises. This paper examines that nowadays defense and border security is not only a matter of guarding a country from foreign invasion, but also securing its resources accumulated on the borderline. Countries with great amount of energy deposits on their borderline need to build up their defense capacity continually, to ensure their territory along with their energy deposits is free from any interferences.
Bauhaus Exhibition 1922: New Weapon of Anti-Colonial Resistance in India
The development of the original Bauhaus occurred at a time in the beginning of the 20th century when the industrialization of Germany had reached a climax. The cities were a reflection of the new living conditions of an industrialized society. The Bauhaus can be interpreted as an ambitious attempt to find appropriate answers to the challenges by using architecture-urban development and design. The core elements of the conviction of the day were the belief in the necessary crossing of boundaries between the various disciplines and courage to experiment for a better solution. Even after 100 years, the situation in our cities is shaped by similar complexity. The urban consequences of developments are difficult to estimate and to predict. The paper critically reflected on the central aspects of the history of the Bauhaus and its role in bringing the modernism in India by comparative studies of the methodology adopted by the artists and designer in both the countries. The paper talked in detail about how the Bauhaus Exhibition in 1922 offered Indian artists a new weapon of anti-colonial resistance. The original Bauhaus fought its aesthetic and political battles in the context of economic instability and the rise of German fascism. The Indians had access to dominant global languages and in a particular English. The availability of print media and a vibrant indigenous intellectual culture provided Indian people a tool to accept technology while denying both its dominant role in culture and the inevitability of only one form of modernism. The indigenous was thus less an engagement with their culture as in the West than a tool of anti-colonial struggle. We have shown how the Indian people used Bauhaus as a critique of colonialism itself through an undermining of its typical modes of representation and as a means of incorporating the Indian desire for spirituality into art and as providing the cultural basis for a non-materialistic and anti-industrial form of what we might now term development. The paper reflected how through painting the Bauhaus entered the artistic consciousness of the sub-continent not only for its stylistic and technical innovations but as a tool for a critical and even utopian modernism that could challenge both the hegemony of academic and orientalist art and as the bearer of a transnational avant-garde as much political as it was artistic, and as such the basis of a non-Eurocentric but genuinely cosmopolitan alternative to the hierarchies of oppression and domination that had long bound India and were at that moment rising once again to a tragic crescendo in Europe. We have talked about how the Bauhaus of today can offer an innovative orientation towards discourse around architecture and design.
The Role and Significance of Mobile Gerdarmarie Battalions in the Canakkale Battles
One of the unknown aspects of Çanakkale Battles is that the importance and contributions of Mobile Gendarmarie Battalion have not been fully understood. It was because the battles of the troops which were deployed more in interior parts of Gallipoli Peninsula, and the contributions of battle on level tactical troops were not considered as much as the studies on strategical or operative level troops. When the operation field and battle plans are examined, instead of deploying along the coast to put the forces with a power at zero level landing on the coast out of action, the main battle components are seen to have deployed as strong reserves in the more inner areas. The negative effect of the field on the great trop operation reveals the need for time in order to use the intervention forces. ‘Time’ emerged as the main factor in victory as a result of giving intervention opportunity to the troops. While ordering his soldiers in Conkbayırı to die rather than fight, Liutenant Colonel Mustafa Kemal, the Commander of the 19th division, also emphasized the significance of time. In this respect, the contribution of Mobile Gendarmarie Battalion which saved time for the troops to intervene can be clearly seen. During the study, the memoirs and the works written by military institutions based on the record sources under the light of the notes taken during the trips to the region were used. By preventing the enemies from capturing the area, Mobile Gendarmerie Battalions had an important role in Battles of Kerevizdere, Kireçtepe and Alçıtepe which were of great importance among the battles. The success of these battalions was expressed with compliment by both Turkish and foreign commanders that participated in the war. During the battles the losses of armed forces commissioned to keep the security and order brought about the formation of the regions deficient in state authority.
Cyber Operational Design and Military Decision Making Process
Due to the complex nature of cyber attacks and their effects ranging from personal to governmental level, it becomes one of the priority tasks for operation planners to take into account the risks, influences and effects of cyber attacks. However it can also be embedded or integrated technically with electronic warfare planning, cyber operation planning is needed to have a sole and broadened perspective. This perspective embodies itself firstly in operational design and then military decision making process. In order to find out the ill-structured problems, understand or visualize the operational environment and frame the problem, operational design can help support cyber operation planners and commanders. After having a broadened and conceptual startup with cyber operational design, military decision making process will follow the principles of design into more concrete elements like reaching results after risk management and center of gravity analysis of our and the enemy. In this paper we tried to emphasize the importance of cyber operational design, cyber operation planning and its integration to military decision making problem. In this foggy, uncertain and unaccountable cyber security environment, it is inevitable to stay away from cyber attacks. Therefore, a cyber operational design should be formed with line of operations, decisive points and end states in cyber then a tactical military decision making process should be followed with cyber security focus in order to support the whole operation.
Industrial Revolution: Army Production
Additive manufacturing (AM) or generally known as three dimensional (3D) printing provides great opportunities for both civilian and military applications by which 3D has become the biggest nominee of breakthrough of 21th century. When properly used, it has a wide spectrum of applications that make production easier and more profitable. Considering the advantages of AM, every firm has an intention of catching up with this new trend. As well as reducing costs and thus increasing benefits, 3D printing provides opportunities for national armies by reducing maintenance and repair time and increasing operational readiness.