Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 42820

Defense and Security Engineering

13
74689
Multisignature Schemes for Reinforcing Trust in Cloud Software-As-A-Service Services
Abstract:
Software-as-a-service (SaaS) is emerging as a dominant approach to delivering software. It encompasses a range of business, technical opportunities, issue, and challenges. Trustiness in the cloud services regarding the security and the privacy of the delivered data is the most critical issue with the SaaS model. In this paper, we survey the security concerns related to the SaaS model, and we propose the design of a trusted SaaS model that gives users more confidence into SaaS services by leveraging a trust in a neutral source code certifying authority. The proposed design is based on the use of the multisignature mechanism for signing the source code of the application service. In our model, the cloud provider acts as a root of trust by ensuring the integrity of the application service when it was running on its platform. The proposed design prevents insider attacks from tampering with application service before and after it was launched in a cloud provider platform.
12
74451
The Fight against Terrorist Radicalization- A French Perspective
Abstract:
After France became the target of an increasing number of terrorist attacks committed by people who have been declared “radicalized,” the issue of radicalization has become the main component of the National Action Plan for the Prevention of terrorism, thus stressing the need to address the roots causes of this phenomenon. Therefore, the aim of this research paper is to provide a preliminary review of Frances’s strategy in the fight against terrorist radicalization in order to point out the challenges posed by this phenomenon while also highlighting its contemporary version and the understanding that results. In this regard, it should not be forgotten that the process of radicalization does not always lead to a terrorist act. To this end, the French legal framework that applies to radicalization coupled with the judicial response provided by the National Court will be analyzed in the light of the need for a balance between the concern for security and the protection of fundamental freedoms.
11
73504
Revival of Old Silk Route and New Maritime Route: An Opportunity for India or Hidden Geopolitics of China
Abstract:
There are always provincial variations which deserve more detailed treatment. Before the arrival of modern era, geography and cultural homogeneity were determining factors of human habitat and migration. Boundaries as if we see them, did not exist earlier. The connectivity of the world was also different as of now. The reinforcement of the old silk route will improve economic cooperation and connectivity between Asian, European and African countries, but obviously, it is designed to improve China’s geopolitical and geostrategic position in the world. The paper is based on the secondary sources of data. Analytical and historical approach has been used to clarify the ties between the old silk routes and new One-Belt-One-Road initiative China. The paper begins with an explanation of the historical background of the old Silk Route, its origin and development, trailed by an analysis of latest declarations by the Chinese leaders to revive it. It also discusses the impacts of this initiative on India’s economy and cultural exchange between associated regions. Lastly, the paper sums up the findings and suggestions for keeping a balance between the security and economic relationship between the countries. It concludes that the silk route is an effort in commencing a ‘grand strategy’ for global trade and cooperation with hidden objectives of China to increase the investment of China in other continents as well. The revival of silk route may prove to be a very helpful in reinforcing cooperation and raising it to a new level of economic establishments. However, China has yet to promote the much-needed political and strategic trust.
10
73459
The Role of Social Media in the Rise of Islamic State in India: An Analytical Overview
Abstract:
The evolution of Islamic State (acronym IS) has an ultimate goal of restoring the caliphate. IS threat to the global security is main concern of international community but has also raised a factual concern for India about the regular radicalization of IS ideology among Indian youth. The incident of joining Arif Ejaz Majeed, an Indian as ‘jihadist’ in IS has set strident alarm in law & enforcement agencies. On 07.03.2017, many people were injured in an Improvised Explosive Device (IED) blast on-board of Bhopal Ujjain Express. One perpetrator of this incident was killed in encounter with police. But, the biggest shock is that the conspiracy was pre-planned and the assailants who carried out the blast were influenced by the ideology perpetrated by the Islamic State. This is the first time name of IS has cropped up in a terror attack in India. It is a red indicator of violent presence of IS in India, which is spreading through social media. The IS have the capacity to influence the younger Muslim generation in India through its brutal and aggressive propaganda videos, social media apps and hatred speeches. It is a well known fact that India is on the radar of IS, as well on its ‘Caliphate Map’. IS uses Twitter, Facebook and other social media platforms constantly. Islamic State has used enticing videos, graphics, and articles on social media and try to influence persons from India & globally that their jihad is worthy. According to arrested perpetrator of IS in different cases in India, the most of Indian youths are victims to the daydreams which are fondly shown by IS. The dreams that the Muslim empire as it was before 1920 can come back with all its power and also that the Caliph and its caliphate can be re-established are shown by the IS. Indian Muslim Youth gets attracted towards these euphemistic ideologies. Islamic State has used social media for disseminating its poisonous ideology, recruitment, operational activities and for future direction of attacks. IS through social media inspired its recruits & lone wolfs to continue to rely on local networks to identify targets and access weaponry and explosives. Recently, a pro-IS media group on its Telegram platform shows Taj Mahal as the target and suggested mode of attack as a Vehicle Born Improvised Explosive Attack (VBIED). Islamic State definitely has the potential to destroy the Indian national security & peace, if timely steps are not taken. No doubt, IS has used social media as a critical mechanism for recruitment, planning and executing of terror attacks. This paper will therefore examine the specific characteristics of social media that have made it such a successful weapon for Islamic State. The rise of IS in India should be viewed as a national crisis and handled at the central level with efficient use of modern technology.
9
72652
Deradicalization for Former Terrorists through Entrepreneurship Program
Abstract:
Terrorism has become a real threat to the world, including Indonesia. Bomb attacks in several areas in Indonesia are the proof that Indonesia has a serious problem of terrorism. Various attempts have been made to overcome terrorism by imprisoning or even executing the terrorists. However, this method has not succeeded in overcoming terrorism in Indonesia. In fact, the bomb attacks were done by former prisoners of terrorism. Therefore, de-radicalization efforts should be made for former prisoners of terrorism. The previous deradicalization program requires former prisoners change their radical ideology. It is impossible to change their ideology. This study offers a model of deradicalization through entrepreneurship program. This approach is needed because the terrorists generally are poor people. Entrepreneurship program is not intended to remove their radical ideology. This program aims to 'occupy' the former prisoners of terrorism on business activities, so they will not have time anymore to actualize their ideology in radical action.
8
71878
Exploring the Determinants of Boko Haram Terrorism in Nigerian Security Systems and Economy
Abstract:
Terrorism has been a major challenge and is so dare to the Nigerian government in recent times. The actions and activities of the Islamic sect known as Boko Haram had led to enormous loss of lives and properties in the country, mostly the Northern part of Nigeria. Some of these activities entails bombings, suicide attacks, intimidations, sporadic gunfire of the unarmed, blameless and innocent Nigerians, burning of police stations and churches, kidnappings, raping of school girls and women. Nigeria has also been included amongst one of the terrorist countries of the world. This has serious implications for the development of Nigerian economy. Although, Nigeria had made several worried hard work to deal with these challenges masqueraded by terrorism and insecurity in the country but the rate of insurgency and insecurity is still worrisome. The study looks at exploring the determinants of Boko Haram terrorism in Nigerian security systems and economy. Data used for the study work was from questionnaire administered, using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method to analyse the data. The result shows that Ideology and funding are significant basic factors that propelled the Boko Haram group in Nigeria. The Boko Haram disaster poses a significant threat to Nigeria’s economy and the military is the best option and solution in tackling the Boko Haram menace in Nigeria. The work x-rayed the following recommendations; government should declare war on terrorism and as well seek support and cooperation from international communities who in time or the other might have faced with this kind ugly experience and challenge and were able to tackle it. Nigerian Military needs to be more empowered with high dangerous weapons to combat the insurgency as well as beef up security across the Country to curb the threats.
7
71171
A Method and System for Secure Authentication Using One Time QR Code
Abstract:
User authentication is an important security measure for protecting confidential data and systems. However, the vulnerability while authenticating into a system has significantly increased. Thus, necessary mechanisms must be deployed during the process of authenticating a user to safeguard him/her from the vulnerable attacks. The proposed solution implements a novel authentication mechanism to counter various forms of security breach attacks including phishing, Trojan horse, replay, key logging, Asterisk logging, shoulder surfing, brute force search and others. QR code (Quick Response Code) is a type of matrix barcode or two-dimensional barcode that can be used for storing URLs, text, images and other information. In the proposed solution, during each new authentication request, a QR code is dynamically generated and presented to the user. A piece of generic information is mapped to plurality of elements and stored within the QR code. The mapping of generic information with plurality of elements, randomizes in each new login, and thus the QR code generated for each new authentication request is for one-time use only. In order to authenticate into the system, the user needs to decode the QR code using any QR code decoding software. The QR code decoding software needs to be installed on handheld mobile devices such as smartphones, personal digital assistant (PDA), etc. On decoding the QR code, the user will be presented a mapping between the generic piece of information and plurality of elements using which the user needs to derive cipher secret information corresponding to his/her actual password. Now, in place of the actual password, the user will use this cipher secret information to authenticate into the system. The authentication terminal will receive the cipher secret information and use a validation engine that will decipher the cipher secret information. If the entered secret information is correct, the user will be provided access to the system. Usability study has been carried out on the proposed solution, and the new authentication mechanism was found to be easy to learn and adapt. Mathematical analysis of the time taken to carry out brute force attack on the proposed solution has been carried out. The result of mathematical analysis showed that the solution is almost completely resistant to brute force attack. Today’s standard methods for authentication are subject to a wide variety of software, hardware, and human attacks. The proposed scheme can be very useful in controlling the various types of authentication related attacks especially in a networked computer environment where the use of username and password for authentication is common.
6
68192
Illegal Migration and Refugee Crisis as a Threat to National Security, Economic and Social System: The Bulgarian Case
Abstract:
Unlike all conventional forms of migration, migration crisis and migratory processes provide pressure to governments and are being expressed as different phenomenon in relation to nature and forms. The objective of this paper is to present the migration and refugee crisis as revealing numerous challenges faced by authorities responsible for the social and economic stability in Bulgaria as well as those providing conditions for reinforcement of the high level of national security in Bulgaria. The analysis is focused on exploring the multiple origins of factors influencing migration processes in Europe, in the light of the measures provided by the Bulgarian state authorities. The main results show that the society itself is facing the challenge of integrating refugees and migrants, so to be able to comply with the principles and values associated with tolerance to social, religious and cultural differences, and not allowing migrants to become marginalized community. Migration pressure creates a number of risks and threats to the Bulgarian national security. Our country has the capacity and resources to meet these potential threats, as a main factor for minimizing the risks to national security is the improvement of coordination and coherence of actions between various actors serving to the security sector.
5
66375
Human Rights and Counter-Terrorism in Nigeria: A Systematic Review
Authors:
Abstract:
Over the years, the hemorrhagic acts of Boko Haram have led to the adoption of counter-terrorism measures which mostly takes the form of military repressive measures. These measures have wrought flagrant violation of human rights worthy of concern. Hence, the need to examine the efficacy of the counter-terrorism measures adopted by the Nigeria government in combatting terrorism. This article addresses this issue by relying on a systematic literature review which examines the impact of Nigeria counter-terrorism measures from 2009 to 2016 in combating terrorism. The review of literature includes 42 article. Of the 42 articles, 14 met the peer-reviewed requirement which finds that most of Nigeria’s counter-terrorism policies are geared toward the use of state repressive military approach which violates the human right. Thus, the study concludes that to effectively address the terrorist uprising; Nigeria should adopt a non-aggressive counter-terrorism approach which incorporates religious clerics, and community active engagement strategy in combatting terrorism as opposed to military retaliation which violates human right and so far proved ineffective.
4
65017
Classifying and Analysis 8-Bit to 8-Bit S-Boxes Characteristic Using S-Box Evaluation Characteristic
Abstract:
S-Boxes is one of the linear parts of the cryptographic algorithm. The existence of S-Box in the cryptographic algorithm is needed to maintain non-linearity of the algorithm. Nowadays, modern cryptographic algorithms use an S-Box as a part of algorithm process. Despite the fact that several cryptographic algorithms today reuse theoretically secure and carefully constructed S-Boxes, there is an evaluation characteristic that can measure security properties of S-Boxes and hence the corresponding primitives. Analysis of an S-Box usually is done using manual mathematics calculation. Several S-Boxes are presented as a Truth Table without any mathematical background algorithm. Then, it’s rather difficult to determine the strength of Truth Table S-Box without a mathematical algorithm. A comprehensive analysis should be applied to the Truth Table S-Box to determine the characteristic. Several important characteristics should be owned by the S-Boxes, they are Nonlinearity, Balancedness, Algebraic degree, LAT, DAT, differential delta uniformity, correlation immunity and global avalanche criterion. Then, a comprehensive tool will be present to automatically calculate the characteristics of S-Boxes and determine the strength of S-Box. Comprehensive analysis is done on a deterministic process to produce a sequence of S-Boxes characteristic and give advice for a better S-Box construction.
3
64995
Design and Implementation of Pseudorandom Number Generator Using Android Sensors
Abstract:
A smartphone or tablet require a strong randomness to establish secure encrypted communication, encrypt files, etc. Therefore, random number generation is one of the main keys to provide secrecy. Android devices are equipped with hardware-based sensors, such as accelerometer, gyroscope, etc. Each of these sensors provides a stochastic process which has a potential to be used as an extra randomness source, in addition to /dev/random and /dev/urandom pseudorandom number generators. Android sensors can provide randomness automatically. To obtain randomness from Android sensors, each one of Android sensors shall be used to construct an entropy source. After all entropy sources are constructed, output from these entropy sources are combined to provide more entropy. Then, a deterministic process is used to produces a sequence of random bits from the combined output. All of these processes are done in accordance with NIST SP 800-22 and the series of NIST SP 800-90. The operation conditions are done 1) on Android user-space, and 2) the Android device is placed motionless on a desk.
2
61497
Energy in the Nexus of Defense and Border Security: Securing Energy Deposits in the Natuna Islands of Indonesia
Abstract:
Hydrocarbon energy is still pivotal to today’s economy, but its existence is continually declining. Thus, preserving future energy supply has become the national interest of many countries, which they cater in various way, from importing to expansion and occupation. Underwater of Natuna islands in Indonesia deposits great amount of natural gas reserved, numbered to 46 TCF (trillion cubic feet), which is highly potential to meet Indonesia future energy demand. On the other hand, there could be a possibility that others also seek this natural resources. Natuna is located in the borderline of Indonesia, directly adjacent to the South China Sea, an area which is prolonged to conflict. It is a challenge for Indonesia government to preserve their energy deposit in Natuna islands and to response accordingly if the tension in South China Sea rises. This paper examines that nowadays defense and border security is not only a matter of guarding a country from foreign invasion, but also securing its resources accumulated on the borderline. Countries with great amount of energy deposits on their borderline need to build up their defense capacity continually, to ensure their territory along with their energy deposits is free from any interferences.
1
50760
Bauhaus Exhibition 1922: New Weapon of Anti-Colonial Resistance in India
Authors:
Abstract:
The development of the original Bauhaus occurred at a time in the beginning of the 20th century when the industrialization of Germany had reached a climax. The cities were a reflection of the new living conditions of an industrialized society. The Bauhaus can be interpreted as an ambitious attempt to find appropriate answers to the challenges by using architecture-urban development and design. The core elements of the conviction of the day were the belief in the necessary crossing of boundaries between the various disciplines and courage to experiment for a better solution. Even after 100 years, the situation in our cities is shaped by similar complexity. The urban consequences of developments are difficult to estimate and to predict. The paper critically reflected on the central aspects of the history of the Bauhaus and its role in bringing the modernism in India by comparative studies of the methodology adopted by the artists and designer in both the countries. The paper talked in detail about how the Bauhaus Exhibition in 1922 offered Indian artists a new weapon of anti-colonial resistance. The original Bauhaus fought its aesthetic and political battles in the context of economic instability and the rise of German fascism. The Indians had access to dominant global languages and in a particular English. The availability of print media and a vibrant indigenous intellectual culture provided Indian people a tool to accept technology while denying both its dominant role in culture and the inevitability of only one form of modernism. The indigenous was thus less an engagement with their culture as in the West than a tool of anti-colonial struggle. We have shown how the Indian people used Bauhaus as a critique of colonialism itself through an undermining of its typical modes of representation and as a means of incorporating the Indian desire for spirituality into art and as providing the cultural basis for a non-materialistic and anti-industrial form of what we might now term development. The paper reflected how through painting the Bauhaus entered the artistic consciousness of the sub-continent not only for its stylistic and technical innovations but as a tool for a critical and even utopian modernism that could challenge both the hegemony of academic and orientalist art and as the bearer of a transnational avant-garde as much political as it was artistic, and as such the basis of a non-Eurocentric but genuinely cosmopolitan alternative to the hierarchies of oppression and domination that had long bound India and were at that moment rising once again to a tragic crescendo in Europe. We have talked about how the Bauhaus of today can offer an innovative orientation towards discourse around architecture and design.