Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 54355

Economics and Management Engineering

2829
97861
UEFA Super Cup: Economic Effects on Georgian Economy
Abstract:
Tourism is the most viable and sustainable economic development option for Georgia and one of the main sources of foreign exchange earnings. Events are considered as one of the most effective ways to attract foreign visitors to the country and recently the government of Georgia has begun investing in this sector very actively. This article stresses the necessity of research-based economic policy in the tourism sector. In this regard, it is of paramount importance to measure the economic effects of the events which are subsidized by taxpayers’ money. The economic effect of events can be analyzed from two perspectives financial perspective of the government and perspective of the economic effects of the tourism administration. The article emphasizes more realistic and all-inclusive focus of the economic effect analysis of the tourism administration as it concentrates on the income of residents and local businesses, part of which generate tax revenues for the government. The public would like to know how the returns on the investment to the economy. In this article, the methodology used to describe the economic effects of UEFA Super Cup held in Tbilisi, will help to answer this question. The methodology is based on three main principles and covers three stages. Using the suggested methodology article estimates the direct economic effect of UEFA Super cup on Georgian economy. Although the attempt to make an economic effect analysis of the event was successful in Georgia some obstacles and insufficiencies were identified during the survey. The article offers several recommendations that will help to refine the methodology and improve the accuracy of the data. Furthermore, It is very important to receive the correct standard of measurement of events in Georgia. In this case, non-ethical acts of measurement which are widely utilized by different research companies will not trigger others to show overestimated effects. It is worth mentioning that to author’s best knowledge this is the first attempt to measure the economic effect of an event held in Georgia.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2828
97728
Establishment of Thuja Label: Development Prospects for the Marketing Practices of the Handicraft of Essaouira's Marquetry
Abstract:
The woodwork of thuja in Essaouira is one of the main crafts in Morocco. Certainly, marquetry reflects both cultural and artistic identity of the city, considering the talent and ancestral knowledge of craftsman working in marquetry. Yet, the production units encounter a considerable number of difficulties among which insufficiencies within marketing practices. Consequently, it is obvious that major improvements are needed, and supportive solutions must be provided in order to improve the Essaouira’s marquetry, as a symbol of the entire province. Thus, the establishment of Thuja Label is a necessary measure that would be the key to ensuring sustainability of this vital craft. The main purpose of this paper is to study marketing practices’ current state of the production units in the marquetry of Essaouira, therefore to recommend remedial actions likely to raise them up to the required functional level.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2827
97719
Bi-Objective Optimization for Sustainable Supply Chain Network Design in Omnichannel
Abstract:
The evolution of omnichannel has revolutionized the supply chain of the organizations by enhancing customer shopping experience. For these organizations need to develop well-integrated multiple distribution channels to leverage the benefits of omnichannel. To adopt an omnichannel system in the supply chain has resulted in structuring and reconfiguring the practices of the traditional supply chain distribution network. In this paper a multiple distribution supply chain network (MDSCN) have been proposed which integrates online giants with a local retailers distribution network in uncertain environment followed by sustainability. To incorporate sustainability, an additional objective function is added to reduce the carbon content through minimizing the travel distance of the product. Through this proposed model, customers are free to access product and services as per their choice of channels which increases their convenience, reach and satisfaction. Further, a numerical illustration is being shown along with interpretation of results to validate the proposed model.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2826
97606
Incentive-Based Motivation to Network with Coworkers: Strengthening Professional Networks via Online Social Networks
Authors:
Abstract:
The last decade has witnessed more people than ever before using social media and broadening their social circles. Social media users connect not only with their friends but also with professional acquaintances, primarily coworkers, and clients; personal and professional social circles are mixed within the same social media platform. Considering the positive aspect of social media in facilitating communication and mutual understanding between individuals, we infer that social media interactions with co-workers could indeed benefit one’s professional life. However, given privacy issues, sharing all personal details with one’s co-workers is not necessarily the best practice. Should one connect with coworkers via social media? Will social media connections with coworkers eventually benefit one’s long-term career? Will the benefit differ across cultures? To answer, this study examines how social media can contribute to organizational communication by tracing the foundation of user motivation based on social capital theory, leader-member exchange (LMX) theory and expectancy theory of motivation. Although social media was originally designed for personal communication, users have shown intentions to extend social media use for professional communication, especially when the proper incentive is expected. To articulate the user motivation and the mechanism of the incentive expectation scheme, this study applies those three theories and identify six antecedents and three moderators of social media use motivation including social network flaunt, shared interest, perceived social inclusion. It also hypothesizes that the moderating effects of those constructs would significantly differ based on the relationship hierarchy among the workers. To validate, this study conducted a survey of 329 active social media users with acceptable levels of job experiences. The analysis result confirms the specific roles of the three moderators in social media adoption for organizational communication. The present study contributes to the literature by developing a theoretical modeling of ambivalent employee perceptions about establishing social media connections with co-workers. This framework shows not only how both positive and negative expectations of social media connections with co-workers are formed based on expectancy theory of motivation, but also how such expectations lead to behavioral intentions using career success model. It also enhances understanding of how various relationships among employees can be influenced through social media use and such usage can potentially affect both performance and careers. Finally, it shows how cultural factors induced by social media use can influence relations among the coworkers.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2825
96986
Application of Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchical Process in Evaluation Supply Chain Performance Measurement
Abstract:
In modern trends of market, organizations face high-pressure environment which is characterized by globalization, high competition, and customer orientation, so it is very crucial to control and know the weak and strong points of the supply chain in order to improve their performance. So the performance measurements presented as an important tool of supply chain management because it's enabled the organizations to control, understand, and improve their efficiency. This paper aims to identify supply chain performance measurement (SCPM) by using Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchical Process (FAHP). In our real application, the performance of organizations estimated based on four parameters these are cost parameter indicator of cost (CPI), inventory turnover parameter indicator of (INPI), raw material parameter (RMPI), and safety stock level parameter indicator (SSPI), these indicators vary in impact on performance depending upon policies and strategies of organization. In this research (FAHP) technique has been used to identify the importance of such parameters, and then first fuzzy inference (FIR1) is applied to identify performance indicator of each factor depending on the importance of the factor and its value. Then, the second fuzzy inference (FIR2) also applied to integrate the effect of these indicators and identify (SCPM) which represent the required output. The developed approach provides an effective tool for evaluation of supply chain performance measurement.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2824
96923
Effect of Human Resources Accounting on Financial Performance of Banks in Nigeria
Abstract:
Human Resource Accounting is the process of identifying and measuring data about human resources and communicating this information to interested parties in order to meaningful investment decisions. In recent time, firms focus has shifted to human resource accounting so as to ensure efficiency and effectiveness in their operations. This study focused on the effect of human resource accounting on the financial performance of Banks in Nigerian. The problem that led to the study revolves around the current trend whereby Nigeria banks do not efficiently account for the input of human resource in their annual statement, thereby instead of capitalizing human resources in their statement of financial position; they expend it in their income statement thereby reducing their profit after tax. The broad objective of this study is to determine the extent to which human resource accounting affects the financial performance and value of Nigerian Banks. This study is therefore considered significant because, there are still universally, grey areas to be sorted out on the subject matter of human resources accounting. In the bid to achieve the study objectives, the researcher gathered data from sixteen commercial banks. Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources using an ex-post facto research design. The data collected were then tabulated and analyzed using the multiple regression analysis. The result of hypothesis one revealed that there is a significant relationship between Capitalized Human Resource Cost and post capitalization Profit before tax of banks in Nigeria. The finding of hypothesis two revealed that the association between Capitalized Human Resource Cost and post capitalization Net worth of banks in Nigeria is significant. The finding in Hypothesis three reveals that there is a significant difference between pre and post capitalization profit before tax of banks in Nigeria. The study concludes that human resources accounting positively influenced financial performance of banks in Nigeria within the period under study. It is recommended that standards should be set for human resources identification and measurement in the banking sector and also the management of commercial banks in Nigeria should have a proper appreciation of human resource accounting. This will enable managers to take right decision regarding investment in human resource. Also, the study recommends that policies on enhancing the post capitalization profit before tax of banks in Nigeria should pay great attention to capitalized human resources cost, net worth and total asset as the variables significantly influenced post capitalization profit before tax of the studied banks in Nigeria. The limitation of the study centers on the limited number of years and companies that was adopted for the study.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2823
96655
Understanding Resilience in Vulnerable Business Settings: Systematic Literature Review in Small and Medium Enterprises
Abstract:
Unfolding chaos and persistent disruptions pose threats to companies’ performance especially in vulnerable settings of SME’s particularly in developing countries. Attention for resilience research in the academic world has increased considerably during the last decade looking at the number of papers published. As we are interested in adding to the understanding of the foundation and development of the concept of resilience, we focus especially on structuring the literature of business resilience in those vulnerable settings. A well-structured systematic search & review procedure was deployed. First, we defined key search terms and applied these to multiple databases (Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Emerald, and Science Direct). To make our literature search more encompassing, we augmented with co-citation, reference checking including hand searching techniques. The paper offers (1) an overview of SMEs resilience literature from 2000 up to March 2017 comprising 88 articles, and (2) special attention, within that overview, to developing countries. This review concludes that resilience literature is very much diverse in definitions and its measurements, and is inconclusive about its influencing factors. Furthermore, resilience literature is based predominantly on research in the developed world. On the bases of how the concept resilience emerges from the literature we describe distinct features of resilience, give options to extend the theoretical bases of research into resilience and describe concrete ideas for further research.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2822
96637
Consumer Trust and Online Payment Options: Determinants of E-Commerce in the Least Developed Countries
Abstract:
Selling through the Internet is changing the norms of doing business globally. Today, selling and buying from the Internet is not only an option but the dominant form of shopping. But, this phenomenon is not thriving in the developing countries, mainly in Africa. Therefore, although previous studies focused on the e-retailers’ side, this study investigates the effect of consumer trust and online payment options on the awareness and perception of e-commerce in Africa. We developed a five-construct model and empirically tested the model by targeting professionals and college students who reside in Somalia. We employed structural equation modeling (SEM) technique for path analysis to probe answers for the variables under study. The main findings of the study show that there is significant evidence that online payment option impacts both the awareness level and perception of e-commerce in Somalia. Consumer trust was also found to determine both the awareness and perception of online shopping in the country. Moreover, the current global payment options available ignore local technologies popular in Africa. For example, the inclusion of a mobile payment option alone would make a big difference in Africa. The paper also determined that consumer trust toward online retailers is very low and this can be solved if consumers are given assurances for their financial transactions. The paper concludes that increased online payment options are needed in Somalia and, in Africa, in general. Limitations and further research suggestions are also included at the end of this paper.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2821
96609
Impact of Brand Origin on Brand Loyalty: A Case of Personal Care Products in Pakistan
Abstract:
As the world is progressing, the needs and demands of the consumer market are also changing. Nowadays the trends of consumer purchase decisions are dependent upon multiple factors. This study aims to identify the influential impact of country of origin over the perception and devotion towards daily personal care products specifically in reference to the knowledge and awareness regarding that particular brand in Pakistan. To corroborate this study, a 30-item brand origin questionnaire has been used with 300 purchase decision makers belonging to different age groups. To illustrate this study, a model has been developed based on brand origin, brand awareness and brand loyalty. Correlation and regression analysis have been used to find out the results which conclude the findings on the perspective of Pakistan’s consumer market as that brand origin has a direct relationship with brand loyalty provided that the consumer has a positive brand awareness. Support for the fact that brand origin impacts brand loyalty through brand awareness has been presented in this study.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2820
95982
The Effectiveness of National Fiscal Rules in the Asia-Pacific Countries
Abstract:
This study utilizes the International Monetary Fund (IMF) Fiscal Rules Dataset focusing on four specific fiscal rules such as expenditure rule, revenue rule, budget balance rule, and debt rule and five main characteristics of each fiscal rule those are monitoring, enforcement, coverage, legal basis, and escape clause to construct the Fiscal Rule Index for nine countries in the Asia-Pacific region from 1996 to 2015. After constructing the fiscal rule index for each country, we utilize the Panel Generalized Method of Moments (Panel GMM) by using the constructed fiscal rule index to examine the effectiveness of fiscal rules in reducing procyclicality. Empirical results show that national fiscal rules have a significantly negative impact on procyclicality of government expenditure. Additionally, stricter fiscal rules combined with high government effectiveness are effective in reducing procyclicality of government expenditure. Results of this study indicate that for nine Asia-Pacific countries, policymakers’ use of fiscal rules and government effectiveness to reducing procyclicality of fiscal policy is effective.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2819
95974
Consumers' Awareness, Knowledge, and Perception towards Goods and Services Tax in India
Abstract:
GST was implemented by government with the expectation to reform the taxation system of India. So this study basically seeks to understand the consumers’ awareness, knowledge and perception about the implementation of GST. To conduct this study, 100 respondents of all demographic profile were randomly selected from the Punjab region of India. To investigate the relationship between demographic profile and level of awareness and knowledge about GST, one way ANOVA test was used and it is found that there is a significant relationship between gender, age and qualification and level of awareness and knowledge. Furthermore, due to the lack of information on GST, the respondents had a high negative perception. The study also reveals that the implementation of GST has resulted in higher prices for goods and services and thus this tax may cause burden to people. Also after implementation of GST financial issues such as inflation, rising cost of living, economic instability have impacted many Indian consumers in terms of their spending. But at the same time it is also perceived that GST is designed to remove the burden of many indirect taxes and aims to develop the more efficient tax system which increases the revenue of country.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2818
95764
A Comparative Study on South-East Asian Leading Container Ports: Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust, Chennai, Singapore, Dubai, and Colombo Ports
Abstract:
In today’s globalized world international business is a very key area for the country's growth. Some of the strategic areas for holding up a country’s international business to grow are in the areas of connecting Ports, Road Network, and Rail Network. India’s International Business is booming both in Exports as well as Imports. Ports play a very central part in the growth of international trade and ensuring competitive ports is of critical importance. India has a long coastline which is a big asset for the country as it has given the opportunity for development of a large number of major and minor ports which will contribute to the maritime trades’ development. The National Economic Development of India requires a well-functioning seaport system. To know the comparative strength of Indian ports over South-east Asian similar ports, the study is considering the objectives of (I) to identify the key parameters of an international mega container port, (II) to compare the five selected container ports (JNPT, Chennai, Singapore, Dubai, and Colombo Ports) according to user of the ports and iii) to measure the growth of selected five container ports’ throughput over time and their comparison. The study is based on both primary and secondary databases. The linear time trend analysis is done to show the trend in quantum of exports, imports and total goods/services handled by individual ports over the years. The comparative trend analysis is done for the selected five ports of cargo traffic handled in terms of Tonnage (weight) and number of containers (TEU’s). The comparative trend analysis is done between containerized and non-containerized cargo traffic in the five selected five ports. The primary data analysis is done comprising of comparative analysis of factor ratings through bar diagrams, statistical inference of factor ratings for the selected five ports, consolidated comparative line charts of factor rating for the selected five ports, consolidated comparative bar charts of factor ratings of the selected five ports and the distribution of ratings (frequency terms). The linear regression model is used to forecast the container capacities required for JNPT Port and Chennai Port by the year 2030. Multiple regression analysis is carried out to measure the impact of selected 34 explanatory variables on the ‘Overall Performance of the Port’ for each of the selected five ports. The research outcome is of high significance to the stakeholders of Indian container handling ports. Indian container port of JNPT and Chennai are benchmarked against international ports such as Singapore, Dubai, and Colombo Ports which are the competing ports in the neighbouring region. The study has analysed the feedback ratings for the selected 35 factors regarding physical infrastructure and services rendered to the port users. This feedback would provide valuable data for carrying out improvements in the facilities provided to the port users. These installations would help the ports’ users to carry out their work in more efficient manner.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2817
95578
Female Entrepreneurship and Cultural Influence in Emerging Economy: The Case of Bangladesh
Abstract:
There has been a dramatic rise in the percentage of female entrepreneurship in both developed and developing countries as it is now considering as an important source of economic growth. Therefore, there has been a growing research interest in female entrepreneurship as they represent an unrecognized engine for economic growth especially in transition economy. This study will determine the role of cultural influence on female entrepreneurship in the growth of economic development which will add new dimensions to the field of female entrepreneurial studies in informal sector of Bangladesh. A systematic literature review has been conducted on female entrepreneurship and cultural studies in both developed and developing country in this research study. There is lack of research on this field as most of the cultural studies on female entrepreneurship have been conducted globally and most of them are either comparative or based on single developed country. This study addresses this gap by using North’s institutional theory to investigate the influence of socio cultural factors on the development of businesses run by female entrepreneurs in Bangladesh. The study, therefore, has practical implications for policy makers and enhancing micro business performance by female entrepreneurs and contributes to the on-going theoretical understanding of cultural influence in female entrepreneurship in an Asian context.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2816
95527
Multiple-Material Flow Control in Construction Supply Chain with External Storage Site
Abstract:
Managing and controlling the construction supply chain (CSC) are very important components of effective construction project execution. The goals of managing the CSC are to reduce uncertainty and optimize the performance of a construction project by improving efficiency and reducing project costs. The heart of much SC activity is addressing risk, and the CSC is no different. The delivery and consumption of construction materials is highly variable due to the complexity of construction operations, rapidly changing demand for certain components, lead time variability from suppliers, transportation time variability, and disruptions at the job site. Current notions of managing and controlling CSC, involve focusing on one project at a time with a push-based material ordering system based on the initial construction schedule and, then, holding a tremendous amount of inventory. A two-stage methodology was proposed to coordinate the feed-forward control of advanced order placement with a supplier to a feedback local control in the form of adding the ability to transship materials between projects to improve efficiency and reduce costs. It focused on the single supplier integrated production and transshipment problem with multiple products. The methodology is used as a design tool for the CSC because it includes an external storage site not associated with one of the projects. The idea is to add this feature to a highly constrained environment to explore its effectiveness in buffering the impact of variability and maintaining project schedule at low cost. The methodology uses deterministic optimization models with objectives that minimizing the total cost of the CSC. To illustrate how this methodology can be used in practice and the types of information that can be gleaned, it is tested on a number of cases based on the real example of multiple construction projects in Kuwait.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2815
95411
An Empirical Review of the Waqf Horizon through Fintech: The Industry 4.0 Wave
Abstract:
Fund collections for Waqf projects in some Muslim countries received some boost because of the resuscitation of the cash waqf concept This study envisages that such development can improve the economic empowerment of the poor in contemporary Muslim communities given appropriate collections and effective management of the Waqf institution. Recent developments in the Financial Technology (FINTECH) space portend valuable relevance in the conduct and delivery of social charitable causes such as Waqf around the world. Particularly, emerging areas in FINTECH such as Islamic Crowdfunding (ICF) and blockchain have brought about greater efficiency and effectiveness through cost reduction, faster transactions, wider access, transparency and prompt disclosure of adequate information to relevant stakeholders. These FINTECH options of ICF and blockchain provide veritable opportunities to resuscitate, re-align, synergize and magnify the Islamic Social Finance (ISF) ecosystem of Waqf, Zakat and Sodaqah to generate positive and sustainable impact to the community, environment and the economy at large, with a view to projecting the Maqasid Shari’ah (Objective of the Law Giver). To document the effect of FINTECH on Waqf, this study examined the activities of six banks in Malaysia that signed a pact to utilize FINTECH for waqf collection towards improving the economy. Semi-structured Face to Face interviews were conducted with officers in charge of Waqf in the six banks, founder of the Islamic Crowdfunding platform and senior officers in Waqaf Selangor. Content analysis was used to analyze their responses, and the emergent themes were reported verbatim. Based on the derived themes, survey questionnaires were also administered to 300 customers with respect to the Waqf’s FINTECH functionalities of the identified banks.to further confirm and strengthen the results of the interviews. Simple descriptive analysis was performed on the result of the survey questionnaire to provide clear information on the questions raised. The findings showed a disproportionate level of readiness among the banks, where few of the banks have put structure in place to increase their Waqf collections, others are at their elementary stage. However, the commitment is high across the six banks to achieve their set goals.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2814
95392
Personality as a Predictor of Knowledge Hiding Behavior: Case Study of Alpha Electronics
Abstract:
Employees’ knowledge hiding behaviors can be detrimental to employees’ interpersonal relationships and individual and organizational learning and creativity. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, the literature on the contingencies, antecedents and outcomes of employees’ knowledge hiding behaviors is still in its infancy. On the other hand, not everyone who hides knowledge hides it the same way, as individuals are different, so do their behaviors. This study explores the links between employees’ personality traits and their knowledge hiding behaviors. By using a single case study as a research methodology and collecting data through 28 semi-structured interviews from employees working in Alpha Electronics (the pseudo name of the company to ascertain anonymity) operating in Pakistan, we foreground the patterns of relationships between employees’ personality traits and knowledge hiding behaviors – rationalized hiding, evasive hiding and playing dumb. Our findings suggest that employees high on extraversion involve in evasive knowledge hiding; while employees low on extraversion (introverts) demonstrate rationalized hiding. Moreover, both extrovert and introvert employees involve in playing dumb in situations that involve risk for their jobs and careers. For instance, when knowledge is requested from their managers, both extrovert and introvert employees tend to play dumb, as in such cases, evasive and rationalized hiding can be harmful to their job and career-related interests and motives. Other than theoretical contributions, the study offers important implications for organizations faced with the challenges of shortage of skills and knowledge.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2813
95372
Analyzing Business Model Choices and Sustainable Value Capturing: A Multiple Case Study of Sharing Economy Business Models
Abstract:
This study investigates the sharing economy business models as examples of the sustainable business models. The aim is to contribute to the limited literature on sharing economy in connection with sustainable business models by explaining sharing economy business models value capturing. Specifically, this research answers the following question: How business model choices affect captured sustainable value? A multiple case study approach is applied in this study. Twenty different successful sharing economy business models focusing on consumer business and covering four main areas, accommodation, mobility, food, and consumer goods, are selected for analysis. The secondary data available on companies’ websites, previous research, reports, and other public documents are used. All twenty cases are analyzed through the sharing economy business model framework and sustainable value analysis framework using qualitative data analysis. This study represents general sharing economy business model value attributes and their specifications, i.e. sustainable value propositions for different stakeholders, and further explains the sustainability impacts of different sharing economy business models through captured and uncaptured value. In conclusion, this study represents how business model choices affect sustainable value capturing through eight business model attributes identified in this study. This paper contributes to the research on sustainable business models and sharing economy by examining how business model choices affect captured sustainable value. This study highlights the importance of careful business model and sustainability impacts analyses including the triple bottom line, multiple stakeholders and value captured and uncaptured perspectives as well as sustainability trade-offs. It is not self-evident that sharing economy business models advance sustainability, and business model choices does matter.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2812
95312
The Effect of Behavioral and Risk Factors of Investment Growth on Stock Returns
Abstract:
In this study, the relationship between investment growth and stock returns of companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange and whether their relationship -behavioral or risk factors- are discussed. Generally, there are two perspectives; risk-based approach and behavioral approach. According to the risk-based approach due to increase investment, systemic risk and consequently the stock returns are reduced. But due to the second approach, an excessive optimism or pessimism leads to assuming stock price with high investment growth in the past, higher than its intrinsic value and the price of stocks with lower investment growth, less than its intrinsic value. The investigation period is eight years from 2007 to 2014. The sample consisted of all companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange. The method is a portfolio test, and the analysis is based on the t-student test (t-test). The results indicate that there is a negative relationship between investment growth and stock returns of companies and this negative correlation is stronger for firms with higher cash flow. Also, the negative relationship between asset growth and stock returns is due to behavioral factors.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2811
95310
Measuring Audit Quality Using Text Analysis: An Empirical Study of Indian Companies
Abstract:
Better audit quality signifies the financial statements of the auditee firm reflect true and fair view of their actual state of affairs, which reduces information asymmetry between management and shareholders, as a result, helps protect interests of shareholders. This study examines the impact of joint audit on audit quality. It is motivated by the ongoing debate where The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI), the regulatory body governing auditors, has advocated the finance ministry and the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) for the mandatory use of joint audit in private banks to enhance the quality of audit. Earlier, the Government of India had rejected the plea by ICAI for mandatory joint audits in large companies stating it is not a viable option for promoting domestic firms. We introduce a new measure of audit quality. Drawing from the domain of text analytics, we use relevant phrases in audit reports to gauge audit quality and demonstrate that joint audit improves audit quality. We also, for robustness, use prevalent proxy for audit quality (Big N Auditor, ratio of audit fees to total fees) and find negative effect of joint audit on audit quality. We, therefore highlight that different proxy for audit quality show opposite effect of joint audit.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2810
95172
A Process of Forming a Single Competitive Factor in the Digital Camera Industry
Abstract:
This paper considers a forming process of a single competitive factor in the digital camera industry from the viewpoint of product platform. To make product development easier for companies and to increase product introduction ratios, development efforts concentrate on improving and strengthening certain product attributes, and it is born in the process that the product platform is formed continuously. It is pointed out that the formation of this product platform raises product development efficiency of individual companies, but on the other hand, it has a trade-off relationship of causing unification of competitive factors in the whole industry. This research tries to analyze product specification data which were collected from the web page of digital camera companies. Specifically, this research collected all product specification data released in Japan from 1995 to 2003 and analyzed the composition of image sensor and optical lens; and it identified product platforms shared by multiple products and discussed their application. As a result, this research found that the product platformation was born in the development of the standard product for major market segmentation. Product platforms were increasingly used every year, the ratio of product platforms gradually rising. Every major company has made product platforms of image sensors and optical lenses, and as a result, this research found that the competitive factors were unified in the entire industry throughout product platformation. In other words, this product platformation brought product development efficiency of individual firms, however, it also caused industrial competition factors to be unified in the industry.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2809
94790
A Comparison of Income and Fuzzy Index of Multidimensional Poverty in Fourteen Sub-Saharan African Countries
Authors:
Abstract:
Over the last decades, dissatisfaction with global indicators of economic performance, such as GDP (Gross Domestic Product) per capita, has shifted the attention to what is now referred to as multidimensional poverty. In this framework, poverty goes beyond income to incorporate aspects of well-being not captured by income measures alone. This paper applies the totally fuzzy approach to estimate the fuzzy index of poverty (FIP) in fourteen Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data and explores whether pictures created by the standard headcount ratio at $1.90 a day and the fuzzy index of poverty tell a similar story. The results suggest that there is indeed considerable mismatch between poverty headcount and the fuzzy index of multidimensional poverty, meaning that the majority of the most deprived people (as identified by the fuzzy index of multidimensional poverty) would not be identified by the poverty headcount ratio. Moreover, we find that poverty is distributed differently by colonial heritage (language). In particular, the most deprived countries in SSA are French-speaking.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2808
94786
Brand Equity and Brand Image in Wine Tourism Regions: A Multigroup Analysis Comparing Visitors and Managers
Abstract:
The concept of brand equity in the wine tourism area is an interesting topic to explore the factors that determine it. The aim of this study is to address this gap by investigating wine tourism destinations brand equity, and understanding the impact that the denomination of origin (DO) brand image and the destination image have on brand equity. Managing and monitoring the branding of wine tourism destinations is crucial to attract tourist arrivals. The multiplicity of stakeholders involved in the branding process calls for research that, unlike previous studies, adopts a broader perspective and incorporates an internal and an external perspective. Therefore, this gap by comparing managers’ and visitors’ approaches to wine tourism destination brand equity has been addressed. A survey questionnaire for data collection purposes was used. The hypotheses were tested using winery managers and winery visitors, each leading a different position relative to the wine tourism destination brand equity. All the interviews were conducted face-to-face. The survey instrument included several scales related to: DO brand image, destination image, and wine tourism destination brand equity. All items were measured on seven-point Likert scales. Partial least squares were used to analyze the accuracy of scales, the structural model, and multi-group analysis to identify the differences in the path coefficients and to test the hypotheses. The results show that the positive influence of DO brand image on wine tourism destination brand equity is stronger for wineries than for visitors, but there are no significant differences between the two groups. However, there are significant differences in the positive effect of destination brand image on both wine tourism destination brand equity and DO brand image. The results of this study are important for consultants, practitioners, and policymakers. The gap between managers and visitors calls for the development of a number of campaigns to enhance the image that visitors hold and thus, increase tourist arrivals. Events such as wine gatherings and gastronomic symposiums held at universities and culinary schools, and participation in business meetings can enhance the perceptions and in turn, the added value, brand equity of the wine tourism destinations. The images of destinations and DOs can help strengthen the brand equity of the wine tourism destinations, especially for visitors. Thus, the development and reinforcement of favorable, strong, and unique destination associations and DO associations are important to increase that value. Joint campaigns are advisable to enhance the images of destinations and DOs and, as a consequence, the value of the wine tourism destination brand.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2807
94759
Evaluation of Reliability, Availability and Maintainability for Automotive Manufacturing Process
Abstract:
Toward continuous innovation and high complexity of technological systems, the automotive manufacturing industry is also under pressure to implement adequate management strategies regarding availability and productivity. In this context, evaluation of system’s performance by considering reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) methodologies can constitute for resilient operation, identifying the bottlenecks of manufacturing process and optimization of maintenance actions. In this paper, RAM parameters are evaluated for improving the operational performance of the fluid filling process. To evaluate the RAM factors through the behavior of states defined for such process, a systematic decision framework was developed. The results of RAM analysis revealed that that the improving reliability and maintainability of main bottlenecks for each filling workstation need to be considered as a priority. The results could be useful to improve operational performance and sustainability of production process.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2806
94304
The Importance of Absorptive Capacities in the Foreign Direct Investment-Growth Nexus: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa
Abstract:
The merits associated with Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows to host countries in Sub-Saharan Africa cannot be overemphasized. Against this background, countries have sought to design and implement strategic policies geared towards enhacing FDI and promoting economic growth. In this study, we used the Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares technique and a panel data for Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries spanning from 1998 to 2016. We hypothesize that FDI’s effect on economic growth is contingent on some absorptive capacities (e.g., financial market development and economic freedom) of the host country. We used financial market data that accounts for market fragility as a measure of financial market development and economic freedom data which uses the overall score of all the freedom indicators as a measure of economic freedom. Our results suggest that FDI has a statistically positive effect on economic growth when we account for host country’s absorptive capacities. However, a negative relationship will ensue if these absorptive capacities are not accounted for. We recommend that a developing continent like SSA should focus on identifying and building the relevant absorptive capacities that can translate the effect of FDI into a positive growth. This is because an economy with sound absorptive capacities reduces business risk and spur economic growth.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2805
94272
Overcoming Open Innovation Challenges with Technology Intelligence: Case of Medium-Sized Enterprises
Abstract:
The prior research largely discussed open innovation practices both in large and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Open Innovation compels firms to observe and analyze the external environment in order to tap new opportunities for inbound and/or outbound flows of knowledge, ideas, work in progress innovations. As SMEs are different from their larger counterparts, they face several limitations in utilizing open innovation activities, such as resource scarcity, unstructured innovation processes and underdeveloped innovation capabilities. Technology intelligence – the process of systematic acquisition, assessment and communication of information about technological trends, opportunities and threats can mitigate this limitation by enabling SMEs to identify technological and market opportunities in timely manner and undertake sound decisions, as well as to realize a ‘first mover advantage’. Several studies highlighted firm-level barriers to successful implementation of open innovation practices in SMEs, namely challenges in partner selection, intellectual property rights and trust, absorptive capacity. This paper aims to investigate the question how technology intelligence can be useful for SMEs to overcome the barriers to effective open innovation. For this, we conduct a case study in four Estonian life-sciences SMEs. Our findings revealed that technology intelligence can support SMEs not only in inbound open innovation (taking into account inclination of most firms toward technology exploration aspects of open innovation) but also outbound open innovation. Furthermore, the results of this study state that, although SMEs conduct technology intelligence in unsystematic and uncoordinated manner, it helped them to increase their innovative performance.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2804
94204
Assessing the Impact of Social Media on Tourism Industry: Setting Proposition for State Government of India
Abstract:
The development of social media has brought about a tremendous change in the marketing scenario for every industry. It has become a new hybrid element of the promotional mix in the marketing segment. This paper tries to show some light on the fact that in today’s scenario social media is a platform that everyone should take in consideration for any type of marketing campaign. In this paper, we have formulated a questionnaire, and through it, we have tried to gather information from the respondents that how social media is influencing their decision when they choose their travel destinations for tourism purpose, does it help in creating any awareness about places which they don’t have an idea? As a result, guiding the state government and providing them with a marketing strategy that how they can use social media in a better manner so that they could help increase their revenue and can make people aware about the places of the state which the target audience can plan to go for their next vacation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2803
94170
A Study on the Relationship between Nonverbal Communication, Perceived Expertise, Service Quality, and Trust: Focusing on Cosmetic Stores in Korea
Abstract:
This study aims to analyze the relationship between nonverbal communication, perceived expertise, service quality, and trust. The study was conducted with clients using cosmetic stores in the Daegu area of Korea. Based on the prior study, the measurement questions are correctly amended and organized in this study. The exploration factor analysis was performed using SPSS 22 for the configured measurement questions. And PLS 2.0 was used to perform a confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis. As a result of the analysis, nonverbal communication has been categorized as physical appearance, kinesics, vocal behavior and proxemics. It has been shown that all of the factors in nonverbal communication have a (+) significant effect on perceived expertise. The degree of impact has been analyzed to influence the perceived expertise in the order in which physical appearance, vocal behavior, kinesics and proxemics. The perceived expertise was analyzed to have a (+) significant effect on the service quality. It has been shown that the service quality has a (+) significant effect on trust.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2802
94150
Effective Supply Chain Coordination with Hybrid Demand Forecasting Techniques
Authors:
Abstract:
Effective supply chain is the main priority of every organization which is the outcome of strategic corporate investments with deliberate management action. Value-driven supply chain is defined through development, procurement and by configuring the appropriate resources, metrics and processes. However, responsiveness of the supply chain can be improved by proper coordination. So the Bullwhip effect (BWE) and Net stock amplification (NSAmp) values were anticipated and used for the control of inventory in organizations by both discrete wavelet transform-Artificial neural network (DWT-ANN) and Adaptive Network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). This work presents a comparative methodology of forecasting for the customers demand which is non linear in nature for a multilevel supply chain structure using hybrid techniques such as Artificial intelligence techniques including Artificial neural networks (ANN) and Adaptive Network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and Discrete wavelet theory (DWT). The productiveness of these forecasting models are shown by computing the data from real world problems for Bullwhip effect and Net stock amplification. The results showed that these parameters were comparatively less in case of discrete wavelet transform-Artificial neural network (DWT-ANN) model and using Adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2801
94100
Effects of Non-Diagnostic Haptic Information on Consumers' Product Judgments and Decisions
Abstract:
A physical touch of a product can provide ample diagnostic information about the product attributes and quality. However, consumers’ product judgments and purchases can be erroneously influenced by non-diagnostic haptic information. For example, consumers’ evaluations of the coffee they drink could be affected by the heaviness of a cup that is used for just serving the coffee. This important issue has received little attention in prior research. The present research contributes to the literature by identifying when and how non-diagnostic haptic information can have an influence and why such influence occurs. Specifically, five studies experimentally varied the content of non-diagnostic haptic information, such as the weight of a cup (heavy vs. light) and the texture of a cup holder (smooth vs. rough), and then assessed the impact of the manipulation on product judgments and decisions. Results show that non-diagnostic haptic information has a biasing impact on consumer judgments. For example, the heavy (vs. light) cup increases consumers’ perception of the richness of coffee in it, and the rough (vs. smooth) texture of a cup holder increases the perception of the healthfulness of fruit juice in it, which in turn increases consumers’ purchase intentions of the product. When consumers are cognitively distracted during the touch experience, the impact of the content of haptic information is no longer evident, but the valence (positive vs. negative) of the haptic experience influences product judgments. However, consumers are able to avoid the impact of non-diagnostic haptic information, if and only if they are both knowledgeable about the product category and undistracted from processing the touch experience. In sum, the nature of the influence by non-diagnostic haptic information (i.e., assimilation effect vs. contrast effect vs. null effect) is determined by the content and valence of haptic information, the relative impact of which depends on whether consumers can identify the content and source of the haptic information. Theoretically, to our best knowledge, this research is the first to document the empirical evidence of the interplay between cognitive and affective processes that determines the impact of non-diagnostic haptic information. Managerial implications are discussed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2800
94093
The Effects of Labeling Cues on Sensory and Affective Responses of Consumers to Categories of Functional Food Carriers: A Mixed Factorial ANOVA Design
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the labeling cues traceability (T), health claim (HC), and verification of health claim (VHC) on consumer affective response and sensory appeal toward a wide array of functional food carriers (FFC). Predominantly, research in the food area has tended to examine the effects of these information cues independently on cognitive responses to food product offerings. Investigations and findings of potential interaction effects among these factors on effective response and sensory appeal are therefore scant. Moreover, previous studies have typically emphasized single or limited sets of functional food products and categories. In turn, this study considers five food product categories enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, namely: meat products, eggs, cereal products, dairy products and processed fruits and vegetables. It is, therefore, exhaustive in scope rather than exclusive. An investigation of the potential simultaneous effects of these information cues on the affective responses and sensory appeal of consumers should give rise to important insights to both functional food manufacturers and policymakers. A mixed (2 x 3) x (2 x 5) between-within subjects factorial ANOVA design was implemented in this study. T (two levels: completely traceable or non-traceable) and HC (three levels: functional health claim, or disease risk reduction health claim, or disease prevention health claim) were treated as between-subjects factors whereas VHC (two levels: by a government agency and by a non-government agency) and FFC (five food categories) were modeled as within-subjects factors. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the six between-subjects conditions. A total of 463 questionnaires were obtained from a convenience sample of undergraduate students at various universities in the Montreal and Ottawa areas (in Canada). Consumer affective response and sensory appeal were respectively measured via the following statements assessed on seven-point semantic differential scales: ‘Your evaluation of [food product category] enriched with omega-3 fatty acids is Unlikeable (1) / Likeable (7)’ and ‘Your evaluation of [food product category] enriched with omega-3 fatty acids is Unappetizing (1) / Appetizing (7).’ Results revealed a significant interaction effect between HC and VHC on consumer affective response as well as on sensory appeal toward foods enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. On the other hand, the three-way interaction effect between T, HC, and VHC on either of the two dependent variables was not significant. However, the triple interaction effect among T, VHC, and FFC was significant on consumer effective response and the interaction effect among T, HC, and FFC was significant on consumer sensory appeal. Findings of this study should serve as impetus for functional food manufacturers to closely cooperate with policymakers in order to improve on and legitimize the use of health claims in their marketing efforts through credible verification practices and protocols put in place by trusted government agencies. Finally, both functional food manufacturers and retailers may benefit from the socially-responsible image which is conveyed by product offerings whose ingredients remain traceable from farm to kitchen table.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):