The Nature and the Structure of Scientific and Innovative Collaboration Networks
The objective of this work is to investigate the development and the role of collaboration networks in the creation of knowledge and innovations in the US and Canada, with a special focus on Quebec. In order to create scientific networks, the data on journal articles were extracted from SCOPUS, and the networks were built based on the co-authorship of the journal papers. For innovation networks, the USPTO database was used, and the networks were built on the patent co-inventorship. Various indicators characterizing the evolution of the network structure and the positions of the researchers and inventors in the networks were calculated. The comparison between the United States, Canada, and Quebec was then carried out. The preliminary results show that the nature of scientific collaboration networks differs from the one seen in innovation networks. Scientists work in bigger teams and are mostly interconnected within one giant network component, whereas the innovation network is much more clustered and fragmented, the inventors work more repetitively with the same partners, often in smaller isolated groups. In both Canada and the US, an increasing tendency towards collaboration was observed, and it was found that networks are getting bigger and more centralized with time. Moreover, a declining share of knowledge transfers per scientist was detected, suggesting an increasing specialization of science. The US collaboration networks tend to be more centralized than the Canadian ones. Quebec shares a lot of features with the Canadian network, but some differences were observed, for example, Quebec inventors rely more on the knowledge transmission through intermediaries.
Socio-Demographic Determinants of Employee Communication: Evidence from Studies in Poland
Organizational communications refer to communications and interactions among employees or members of an organization. In this paper, three types of communication patterns were recognized, defined and described – traditional, opportune and networking. The purpose of this study is to diagnose the dominant internal communication pattern and establish the relationship between the socio-demographic characteristics of employees and the communication patterns within organizations. The subject of the analysis is the correlation between the communication pattern and the socio-demographic characteristics, like age, gender, job position, and seniority. The research method used was the survey (CATI and CAWI). The study was conducted on a representative sample of Polish enterprises employing more than 50 employees. The sample was chosen randomly, based on the criterion of employment size and type of industry (trade, production, and services). The 2274 employees out of 289 companies answered the research questions. The results show that the opportune communication pattern is the dominant one (then traditional, mixed and finally networking). Socio-demographic characteristics are directly linked with the type of employee organization communication.
Critical Evaluation of the Effects of Conditionalities and Structural Adjustments on the Poor and Developing Countries
Conditionality refers to a precondition for getting external funds from IMF or WB by giving consent for implementation of the program of economic or political reforms especially relating to open economies. These are put forth under the label of structural adjustment. It is a kind of challenge on the part of borrowing government to exercise balance between the domestic obligations and the expectations of external funding agencies. Countries have to take loans under certain criteria and regulations because better loans are often not readily available. Therefore taking loans and renewing them to pay the same with new interest rates and conditions makes the governments entangled in the circle of debt. They are forced to compete with well-established multinational companies. If their access to industrialized countries' markets is impaired through protectionism, the developed world will be condemning the indebted nations to perpetual financial crisis. On the other hand, the ability to sell their goods free in the world market is reduced through the introduction of Structural Adjustment Programmes. Although there are examples of positive effects on certain economies like India, some Third World, and poor countries have experienced the ire of these remedies. This paper tries to find out the effects of SAPs on some borrowing countries.
Review for Identifying Online Opinion Leaders
Nowadays, the Internet enables its users to share the information online and to interact with others. Facing with numerous information, these Internet users are confused and begin to rely on the opinion leaders’ recommendations. The online opinion leaders are the individuals who have professional knowledge, who utilize the online channels to spread word-of-mouth information and who can affect the attitudes or even the behavior of their followers to some degree. Because utilizing the online opinion leaders is seen as an important approach to affect the potential consumers, how to identify them has become one of the hottest topics in the related field. Hence, in this article, the concepts and characteristics are introduced, and the research related to identifying opinion leaders are collected and divided into three categories. Finally, the implications for future studies are provided.
In and Out-Of-Sample Performance of Non Simmetric Models in International Price Differential Forecasting in a Commodity Country Framework
This paper presents an analysis of a group of commodity exporting countries' nominal exchange rate movements in relationship to the US dollar. Using a series of Unrestricted Self-exciting Threshold Autoregressive models (SETAR), we model and evaluate sixteen national CPI price differentials relative to the US dollar CPI. Out-of-sample forecast accuracy is evaluated through calculation of mean absolute error measures on the basis of two-hundred and fifty-three months rolling window forecasts and extended to three additional models, namely a logistic smooth transition regression (LSTAR), an additive non linear autoregressive model (AAR) and a simple linear Neural Network model (NNET). Our preliminary results confirm presence of some form of TAR non linearity in the majority of the countries analyzed, with a relatively higher goodness of fit, with respect to the linear AR(1) benchmark, in five countries out of sixteen considered. Although no model appears to statistically prevail over the other, our final out-of-sample forecast exercise shows that SETAR models tend to have quite poor relative forecasting performance, especially when compared to alternative non-linear specifications. Finally, by analyzing the implied half-lives of the > coefficients, our results confirms the presence, in the spirit of arbitrage band adjustment, of band convergence with an inner unit root behaviour in five of the sixteen countries analyzed.
The Effects of Governmental Regulation on Technological Innovation in Korean Firms
This study examines the effects of regulatory policies on corporate R&D activities and innovation and suggests regulatory directions for the enhancement of corporate performance. This study employs a regression model with R&D activities as dependent variables and the regulatory index as an independent variable. The results of this study are as follows: i)The regulation is negatively associated with the input and output of R&D activities. ii)The regulation encourages small and medium-sized firms to invest in R&D. iii)The regulation has a positive effect on patent applications for small and medium-sized firms.
The Sensitivity of Credit Defaults Swaps Premium to Global Risk Factor: Evidence from Emerging Markets
Changes in the global risk appetite cause co-movement in emerging market risk premiums. However, the sensitivity of the changes in risk premium to the global risk appetite may vary across emerging markets. In this study, how the global risk appetite affects Credit Default Swap (CDS) premiums in emerging markets are analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and rolling regressions. The PCA results indicate that the first common component derived by the PCA accounts for almost 76 percent of the common variation in CDS premiums. Additionally, the explanatory power of the first factor seems to be high over the sample period. However, the sensitivity to the global risk factor tends to change over time and across countries. In this regard, fixed effects panel regressions are used to identify the macroeconomic factors driving the heterogeneity across emerging markets. The panel regression results point to the significance of government debt to GDP and international reserves to GDP in explaining sensitivity. Accordingly, countries with lower government debt and higher reserves tend to be less subject to the variations in the global risk appetite.
Exchange Rate Forecasting by Econometric Models
The objective of the study is to forecast the US Dollar and Pak Rupee exchange rate by using time series models. For this purpose, daily exchange rates of US and Pakistan for the period of January 01, 2007 - June 2, 2017, are employed. The data set is divided into in sample and out of sample data set where in-sample data are used to estimate as well as forecast the models, whereas out-of-sample data set is exercised to forecast the exchange rate. The ADF test and PP test are used to make the time series stationary. To forecast the exchange rate ARIMA model and GARCH model are applied. Among the different Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models best model is selected on the basis of selection criteria. Due to the volatility clustering and ARCH effect the GARCH (1, 1) is also applied. Results of analysis showed that ARIMA (0, 1, 1 ) and GARCH (1, 1) are the most suitable models to forecast the future exchange rate. Further the GARCH (1,1) model provided the volatility with non-constant conditional variance in the exchange rate with good forecasting performance. This study is very useful for researchers, policymakers, and businesses for making decisions through accurate and timely forecasting of the exchange rate and helps them in devising their policies.
Application of Stochastic Models on the Portuguese Population and Distortion to Workers Compensation Pensioners Experience
This research was motivated by a project requested by AXA on the topic of pensions payable under the workers compensation (WC) line of business. There are two types of pensions: the compulsorily recoverable and the not compulsorily recoverable. A pension is compulsorily recoverable for a victim when there is less than 30% of disability and the pension amount per year is less than six times the minimal national salary. The law defines that the mathematical provisions for compulsory recoverable pensions must be calculated by applying the following bases: mortality table TD88/90 and rate of interest 5.25% (maybe with rate of management). To manage pensions which are not compulsorily recoverable is a more complex task because technical bases are not defined by law and much more complex computations are required. In particular, companies have to predict the amount of payments discounted reflecting the mortality effect for all pensioners (this task is monitored monthly in AXA). The purpose of this research was thus to develop a stochastic model for the future mortality of the worker’s compensation pensioners of both the Portuguese market workers and AXA portfolio. Not only is past mortality modeled, also projections about future mortality are made for the general population of Portugal as well as for the two portfolios mentioned earlier. The global model was split in two parts: a stochastic model for population mortality which allows for forecasts, combined with a point estimate from a portfolio mortality model obtained through three different relational models (Cox Proportional, Brass Linear and Workgroup PLT). The one-year death probabilities for ages 0-110 for the period 2013-2113 are obtained for the general population and the portfolios. These probabilities are used to compute different life table functions as well as the not compulsorily recoverable reserves for each of the models required for the pensioners, their spouses and children under 21. The results obtained are compared with the not compulsory recoverable reserves computed using the static mortality table (TD 73/77) that is currently being used by AXA, to see the impact on this reserve if AXA adopted the dynamic tables.
Design and Thermal Simulation Analysis of the Chinese Accelerator Driven Sub-Critical System Injector-I Cryomodule
, Rui Ge
, Shao-Peng Li
, Lin Bian
, Liang-Rui Sun
, Min-Jing Sang
, Rui Ye
, Ya-Ping Liu
, Xiang-Zhen Zhang
, Jie-Hao Zhang
, Zhuo Zhang
, Jian-Qing Zhang
, Miao-Fu Xu
The Chinese Accelerator Driven Sub-critical system (C-ADS) uses a high-energy proton beam to bombard the metal target and generate neutrons to deal with the nuclear waste. The Chinese ADS proton linear has two 0~10 MeV injectors and one 10~1500 MeV superconducting linac. Injector-I is studied by the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) under construction in the Beijing, China. The linear accelerator consists of two accelerating cryomodules operating at the temperature of 2 Kelvin. This paper describes the structure and thermal performances analysis of the cryomodule. The analysis takes into account all the main contributors (support posts, multilayer insulation, current leads, power couplers, and cavities) to the static and dynamic heat load at various cryogenic temperature levels. The thermal simulation analysis of the cryomodule is important theory foundation of optimization and commissioning.
Analyzing Industry-University Collaboration Using Complex Networks and Game Theory
Due to the novelty of the nanotechnology science, its highly knowledge intensive content, and its invaluable application in almost all technological fields, the close interaction between university and industry is essential. A possible gap between academic strengths to generate good nanotechnology ideas and industrial capacity to receive them can thus have far-reaching consequences. In order to be able to enhance the collaboration between the two parties, a better understanding of knowledge transfer within the university-industry relationship is needed. The objective of this research is to investigate the research collaboration between academia and industry in Canadian nanotechnology and to propose the best cooperative strategy to maximize the quality of the produced knowledge. First, a network of all Canadian academic and industrial nanotechnology inventors is constructed using the patent data from the USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office), and it is analyzed with social network analysis software. The actual level of university-industry collaboration in Canadian nanotechnology is determined and the significance of each group of actors in the network (academic vs. industrial inventors) is assessed. Second, a novel methodology is proposed, in which the network of nanotechnology inventors is assessed from a game theoretic perspective. It involves studying a cooperative game with n players each having at most n-1 decisions to choose from. The equilibrium leads to a strategy for all the players to choose their co-worker in the next period in order to maximize the correlated payoff of the game. The payoffs of the game represent the quality of the produced knowledge based on the citations of the patents. The best suggestion for the next collaborative relationship is provided for each actor from a game theoretic point of view in order to maximize the quality of the produced knowledge. One of the major contributions of this work is the novel approach which combines game theory and social network analysis for the case of large networks. This approach can serve as a powerful tool in the analysis of the strategic interactions of the network actors within the innovation systems and other large scale networks.
Marketing Social Innovation: Finding Competitive Advantage in Social Enterprise Methodology
Marketing approaches in practice and academic literature usually foreground the importance of product and brand awareness in strategy. Decisions emphasize justifications and promotions of existing projects, which has the unintended consequence of pushing marketing, public relations, and other communications to secondary strategies and tactics rather than as inherent pieces of organizational development. In other words, marketers implement what others have already decided. This is a challenge not only for the communications field, but also for the organizations themselves, since integrated communications employees are often the primary, if not the only, touchpoints for client/customer/user research and interaction. Organizations thus become increasingly out of touch, raising the risk of public or human resources crisis and decreasing the focus on opportunities for development and growth. This paper will discuss the potential for social entrepreneurship to refocus marketing and communications professionals on primary strategy, and suggest best practices for developing initiatives not only to impact marketing efforts themselves, but also the guiding organizational approaches to project management, human resources, corporate social responsibility, and research. It will provide a comparative analysis of social media marketing efforts conducted by food security non-governmental organizations from several countries, pointing out both flaws and areas of opportunity for integration with for-profit organizational strategy, and discuss the implications of descriptive, proactive, and interactive messaging.
Challenges and Prospects of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Somolu Local Government Area
The economic development of a country depends greatly on internally built revenue. Small and Medium-scale Enterprise (SMEs) contributes to the economic buoyancy as it provides employment for the teeming population, encourages job creation by youths who believes in themselves and also by others who have gathered finance enough to invest in growable investment. SMEs is faced with several challenges. The study investigates the role and challenges of SMEs Somolu Local Government Area. Simple random sampling techniques were used to select entrepreneurs (SMEs owners and managers). One hundred and fifty (150) registered SMEs were selected across the LGA data collection with the use of well-structured questionnaire. The data collected were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21. The result of the analysis indicated that marketing, finance, social facilities and indiscriminate taxes among other high level of fund available significantly (p < 0 .05) increase firm capacity while marketing showed a significant (p < 0.05) relationship with profit level.
A Dual Generalized Long Memory Modeling for Forecasting Electricity Spot Price: Neural Network and Wavelet Estimate
In this paper, a dual generalized long memory modeling has been proposed to predict the electricity spot price. First, we focus on the modeling of the conditional mean of the series so we adopt a generalized fractional model with k factor of Gegenbauer (k-factor GARMA). Secondly, the residual from the k-factor GARMA model has been used as a proxy for the conditional variance; these residuals were predicted using two different approaches. In the first approach, a local linear wavelet neural network model (LLWNN) has been developed to predict the conditional variance using two different learning algorithms, so we estimate the hybrid k- factor GARMA-LLWNN based Back Propagation (BP) algorithm and based Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. In the second approach, the Gegenbauer generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity process (G-GARCH) has been adopted, and the parameters of GARMA-G-GARCH model estimated using the wavelet methodology based on the discrete wavelet packet transform (DWPT). To illustrate the usefulness of our methodology, we carry out an empirical application using the hourly returns of electricity price from the Nord Pool market. The empirical results showed that the k-factor GARMA-G-GARCH model has the best prediction accuracy in terms of forecasting criteria, and find that this is more appropriate for forecasts.
Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Behavior and Performance of Youth Entrepreneurs in Malaysia
This study aimed and focused on the behavior of youth entrepreneurs’ especially entrepreneurial self-efficacy and the performance in micro SMEs in Malaysia. Entrepreneurship development calls for support from various quarters, and mostly the need exists to initiate a youth entrepreneurship culture and drive amongst the youth in the society. Although backed up by the government and non-government organizations, micro-entrepreneurs are still facing challenges which greatly delay their progress, growth and consequently their input towards economic advancement. Micro-entrepreneurs are confronted with unique difficulties such as uncertainty, innovation, and evolution. Reviews on the development of entrepreneurial characteristics such as need for achievement, internal locus of control, risk-taking and innovation and have been recognized as highly associated with entrepreneurial behavior. The data in this study was obtained from the Department of Statistics, Malaysia. A random sampling of 830 respondents was distributed to 14 states that involve of micro-entrepreneurs. The study adopted a quantitative approach whereby a set of questionnaire was used to gather data. Multiple regression analysis was chosen as a method of analysis testing. The result of this study is expected to provide insight into the factor affecting entrepreneurial behavior and performance of youth entrepreneurs in micro SMEs. The finding showed that the Malaysian youth entrepreneurs do not have the entrepreneurial self-efficacy within themselves in order to accomplish greater success in their business venture. The establishment of entrepreneurial schools to allow our youth to be exposed to entrepreneurship from an early age and the development of special training focuses on the creation of business network so that the continuous entrepreneurial culture is crafted.
Impact of Reverse Technology Transfer on Innovation Capabilities: An Econometric Analysis for Mexican Transnational Corporations
ransnational corporations (TNCs) as units in which it is possible technology and knowledge transfer across borders and the potential for generating innovation and contributing in economic development both in home and host countries have been widely acknowledged in the foreign direct investment (FDI) literature. Particularly, the accelerated expansion of emerging countries TNCs in the last decades has guided an uprising research stream that measure the presence of reverse technology transfer, defined as the extent to which emerging countries’ TNCs use outward FDI in a host country through certain mechanisms to absorb and transfer knowledge thus improving its technological capabilities in the home country. The objective of this paper is to test empirically the presence of reverse technology transfer and its impact on the innovation capabilities in Mexican transnational corporations (MXTNCs) as a part of the emerging countries TNCs that have successfully entered to industrialized markets. Using a panel dataset of 22 MXTNCs over the period 1994-2015, the results of the econometric model demonstrate that the amount of Mexican outward FDI and the research and development (R&D) expenditure in host developed countries had a positive impact on the innovation capabilities at the firm and industry level. There is also evidence that management of acquired brands and the organizational structure of Mexican subsidiaries improved these capabilities. Implications for internationalization strategies of emerging countries corporations and future research guidelines are discussed.
Shanghai Carbon Trading Risk Factors Analysis
First of all, the carbon trading price and trading volume in Shanghai are transformed by Fourier transform, and the frequency response diagram is obtained. Then the frequency response diagram is analyzed, and the Blackman filter is designed. The Blackman filter is used to filter, and the carbon trading time domain and frequency response diagram are obtained. After wavelet analysis, the carbon trading data were processed, respectively we got the average value for each 5 day, 10 day, 20 day, 30 day, and 60 day. Finally, these data are used as input of Back Propagation Neural Network model for prediction.
A Framework on Data and Remote Sensing for Humanitarian Logistics
Effective humanitarian logistics operations are a cornerstone in the success of disaster relief operations. However, for effectiveness, they need to be demand driven and supported by adequate data for prioritization. Without this data operations are carried out in an ad hoc manner and eventually become chaotic. The current availability of geospatial data helps in creating models for predictive damage and vulnerability assessment, which can be of great advantage to logisticians to gain an understanding on the nature and extent of the disaster damage. This translates into actionable information on the demand for relief goods, the state of the transport infrastructure and subsequently the priority areas for relief delivery. However, due to the unpredictable nature of disasters, the accuracy in the models need improvement which can be done using remote sensing data from UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) or satellite imagery, which again come with certain limitations. This research addresses the need for a framework to combine data from different sources to support humanitarian logistic operations and prediction models. The focus is on developing a workflow to combine data from satellites and UAVs post a disaster strike. A three-step approach is followed: first, the data requirements for logistics activities are made explicit, which is done by carrying out semi-structured interviews with on field logistics workers. Second, the limitations in current data collection tools are analyzed to develop workaround solutions by following a systems design approach. Third, the data requirements and the developed workaround solutions are fit together towards a coherent workflow. The outcome of this research will provide a new method for logisticians to have immediately accurate and reliable data to support data-driven decision making.
The Return of the Rejected Kings: A Comparative Study of Governance and Procedures of Standards Development Organizations under the Theory of Private Ordering
Standardization has been in the limelight of numerous academic studies. Typically described as ‘any set of technical specifications that either provides or is intended to provide a common design for a product or process’, standards do not only set quality benchmarks for products and services, but also spur competition and innovation, resulting in advantages for manufacturers and consumers. Their contribution to globalization and technology advancement is especially crucial in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and telecommunications sector, which is also characterized by a weaker state-regulation and expert-based rule-making. Most of the standards developed in that area are interoperability standards, which allow technological devices to establish ‘invisible communications’ and to ensure their compatibility and proper functioning. This type of standard supports a large share of our daily activities, ranging from traffic coordination by traffic lights to the connection to Wi-Fi networks, transmission of data via Bluetooth or USB and building the network architecture for the Internet of Things (IoT). A large share of ICT standards is developed in the specialized voluntary platforms, commonly referred to as Standards Development Organizations (SDOs), which gather experts from various industry sectors, private enterprises, governmental agencies and academia. The institutional architecture of these bodies can vary from semi-public bodies, such as European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), to industry-driven consortia, such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). The past decades witnessed a significant shift of standard setting to those institutions: while operating independently from the states regulation, they offer a rather informal setting, which enables fast-paced standardization and places technical supremacy and flexibility of standards above other considerations. Although technical norms and specifications developed by such nongovernmental platforms are not binding, they appear to create significant regulatory impact. In the United States (US), private voluntary standards can be used by regulators to achieve their policy objectives; in the European Union (EU), compliance with harmonized standards developed by voluntary European Standards Organizations (ESOs) can grant a product a free-movement pass. Moreover, standards can de facto manage the functioning of the market when other regulative alternatives are not available. Hence, by establishing (potentially) mandatory norms, SDOs assume regulatory functions commonly exercised by States and shape their own legal order. The purpose of this paper is threefold: First, it attempts to shed some light on SDOs’ institutional architecture, focusing on private, industry-driven platforms and comparing their regulatory frameworks with those of formal organizations. Drawing upon the relevant scholarship, the paper then discusses the extent to which the formulation of technological standards within SDOs constitutes a private legal order, operating in the shadow of governmental regulation. Ultimately, this contribution seeks to advise whether a state-intervention in industry-driven standard setting is desirable, and whether the increasing regulatory importance of SDOs should be addressed in legislation on standardization.
Case Study of the Roma Tomato Distribution Chain: A Dynamic Interface for an Agricultural Enterprise in Mexico
From August to December of 2016, a diagnostic and strategic planning study was carried out on the supply chain of the company Agropecuaria GABO S.A. de C.V. The final product of the study was the development of the strategic plan and a project portfolio to meet the demands of the three links in the supply chain of the Roma tomato exported annually to the United States of America. In this project, the strategic objective of ensuring the proper handling of the product was selected, and one of the goals associated with this was the employment of quantitative methods to support decision making. Considering the antecedents, the objective of this case study was to develop a model to analyze the behavioral dynamics in the distribution chain —from the logistics of storage and shipment of Roma tomato in 81-case pallets (11.5 kg per case) to the two pre-cooling rooms and eventual loading onto transports— seeking to reduce the bottleneck and the associated costs by means of a dynamic interface. The methodology used was that of system dynamics, considering four phases that were adapted to the purpose of the study: 1) the conceptualization phase; 2) the formulation phase; 3) the evaluation phase; and 4) the communication phase. The main practical conclusions lead to the possibility of reducing both the bottlenecks in the cooling rooms and the costs by simulating scenarios and modifying certain policies. Furthermore, the creation of the dynamic interface between the model and the stakeholders was achieved by generating interaction with buttons and simple instructions that allow making modifications and observing diverse behaviors.
Brand Preferences in Saudi Arabia: Explorative Study in Jeddah
There is significant debate on the evolution of retail marketing as an economy matures. In penetrating new markets, global brands are efficient in establishing a presence and replacing less effective competitors by engaging in superior advertising, pricing and sometimes quality. However, national brands adapt over time and may either partner with global brands in distribution and services or directly compete more efficiently in the new, open market. This explorative study investigates brand preferences in Saudi Arabia. As a conservative society, which is nevertheless highly commercialised, Saudi Arabia markets could be fragmenting with consumer preferences and rejections based on country of origin, globalisation, or perhaps regionalisation. To investigate this, an online survey was distributed to Saudis in Jeddah to gather data on their preferences for travel, technology, clothes and accessories, eating out, vehicles, and influential brands. The results from 710 valid responses were that there are distinct regional and national brand preferences among the young Saudi men who contributed to the survey. Apart from a preference for Saudi food providers, airline preferences were the United Emirates, holiday preferences were Europe, study and work preferences were the United States, hotel preferences were United States-based, car preferences were Japanese, and clothing preferences were United States-based. The results were broadly in line with international research findings; however, the study participants varied from Arab research findings by describing themselves as innovative in their purchase selections, rarely loyal (exception of Apple products) and continually seeking new brand experiences. This survey contributes to an understanding of evolving Saudi consumer preferences.
Panel Application for Determining Impact of Real Exchange Rate and Security on Tourism Revenues: Countries with Middle and High Level Tourism Income
The purpose of the study is to examine impacts on tourism revenues of the exchange rate and country overall security level. There are numerous studies that examine the bidirectional relation between macroeconomic factors and tourism revenues and tourism demand. Most of the studies support the existence of impact of tourism revenues on growth rate but not vice versa. Few studies examine the impact of factors like real exchange rate or purchasing power parity on the tourism revenues. In this context, firstly impact of real exchange rate on tourism revenues examination is aimed. Because exchange rate is one of the main determinants of international tourism services price in guests currency unit. Another determinant of tourism demand for a country is country’s overall security level. This issue can be handled in the context of the relationship between tourism revenues and overall security including turmoil, terrorism, border problem, political violence. In this study, factors are handled for several countries which have tourism revenues on a certain level. With this structure, it is a panel data, and it is evaluated with panel data analysis techniques. Panel data have at least two dimensions, and one of them is time dimensions. The panel data analysis techniques are applied to data gathered from Worldbank data web page. In this study, it is expected to find impacts of real exchange rate and security factors on tourism revenues for the countries that have noteworthy tourism revenues.
Beggar-Thy-Neighbor's Beach: Pricing Adaptation to Sea-Level Rise
With the accelerated sea-level rise (SLR) increasingly becoming a concern, demand for coastal management and protection is expected to grow. Among the coastal management and protection methods, building seawalls are among the most controversial due to the negative externalities they impose on beachgoers and neighboring properties. This paper provides estimates of the external cost associated with building seawalls on the island of Oahu in Hawaii. Using hedonic pricing approach on real properties sold between 1980-2010 and aerial photographs of seawalls in 1995, the paper finds that (1) while seawalls do increase the value of protected properties, the share of armored properties appear to be negatively correlated with property sale prices, suggesting that the positive effect of seawalls tend to decline as more and more rely on this coastal management method; and (2) the value of beachfront properties tend to decline as they get approach seawalls. Results suggest that policymakers should devise a policy that would internalize the externalities associated with private-sector adaptation to climate change.
Personnel Selection Based on Step-Wise Weight Assessment Ratio Analysis and Multi-Objective Optimization on the Basis of Ratio Analysis Methods
Personnel selection process is considered as one of the most important and most difficult issues in human resources management. At the stage of personnel selection, the applicants are handled according to certain criteria, the candidates are dealt with, and efforts are made to select the most appropriate candidate. However, this process can be more complicated in terms of the managers who will carry out the staff selection process. Candidates are needed to evaluate with respect to different criteria such as work experience, education, foreign language level. It is crucial that a rational selection process is carried out by considering all the criteria in an integrated structure. In this study, the problem of choosing the front office manager of a five-star accommodation enterprise operating in Antalya is addressed by using multi- criteria decision-making methods. In this context, SWARA (Step-wise weight assessment ratio analysis) and MOORA (Multi-Objective Optimization on the basis of ratio analysis) methods, which have relatively few applications when compared with other methods, has been used together. Firstly, SWARA method was used to calculate the weights of the criterion and subcriteria that were determined by the business. In terms of the business in which the problem is addressed within a total of 15 criteria, the criteria are listed in order of importance. After the weights of the criteria were obtained, the MOORA method was used to rank the candidates using the ratio analysis method and the reference point approach. Recruitment processes differ from sector to sector, from operation to operation. There are a number of criteria that must be taken into consideration by businesses in accordance with the structure of each sector. It is of utmost importance that all candidates are evaluated objectively in the framework of these criteria after these criteria have been carefully selected in the selection of suitable candidates for employment. In the study, staff selection process was handled by using SWARA and MOORA methods together.
Effects of Organizational Culture on Innovation in the IT Sector: A Case Study from the United Arab Emirates
Innovation is considered to be one of the key factors that influence long-term success of any company. The problem of many organizations in developing countries is trying to implement innovation without a strong basis within the organizational culture to support it. The objective of this study is to assess the effects of organizational culture on innovation in one of the biggest information technology organizations in UAE, Injazat Data System. First, an Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) was used as a survey and Competing Value Framework as a model to analyze the existing culture within the organization and determine its characteristics. Following that, a modified version of the Community Innovation Survey (CIS) was used to determine innovation types introduced by the organization. Then multiple linear regression analysis was used to find out the effects of existing organizational culture on innovation. Results show that existing organizational culture is composed of a combination of Hierarchy (29.4%), Clan (25.8%), Market (24.9%) and Adhocracy (19.9%). Results of the second survey show that the organization focuses on organizational innovation (26.8%) followed by market and product innovations (25.6%) and finally process innovation (22.0%). Regression analysis results reveal that for each innovation type there is a recommended combination of the four culture types. For product innovation, the combination is 47.4% Clan, 17.9% Adhocracy, 1.0% Market and 33.3% Hierarchy; for process innovation it is 19.7% Clan, 45.2% Adhocracy, 32.0% Market and 3.1% Hierarchy; for organizational innovation the combination is 5.4% Clan, 32.7% Adhocracy, 6.0% Market and 55.9% Hierarchy; and for market innovation it is 25.5% Clan, 42.6% Adhocracy, 32.6% Market and 8.4% Hierarchy. Based on these recommended combinations, this study suggests two ways to enhance the innovation culture in the organization. First, if the management decides on the innovation type to be enhanced, a comparison between the existing culture and the recommended combination of selected innovation types will lead to difference in percentages of each culture type. Then further analysis should show how to modify the existing culture to match the recommended combination. Second, if the innovation type is not selected, but the management wants to enhance innovation culture in the organization, the difference in percentages of each culture type will lead to finding out the recommended combination of culture types that gives the narrowest gap between existing culture and recommended combination.
The Bright Side of Organizational Politics as a Driver of Firm Competitiveness: The Mediating Role of Corporate Entrepreneurship
This study seeks to contribute to the literature on firm competitiveness by advancing the perspective of organizational politics that views this process as a driver which creates identifiable differences in firm performance. The testing hypothesized relationships were used data from 355 Polish medium and large-sized enterprises. The main result of the analyses conducted is proving the coexistence, known in the literature, of corporate entrepreneurship and firm performance. The research findings obtained made it possible to add organizational politics to a wide range of elements determining corporate entrepreneurship, followed by competitive advantage, in addition to antecedents such as strategic leadership, corporate culture, opportunity-oriented resource-based management, etc. Also, the empirical results suggest that four dimensions of organizational politics (dominant coalition, influence exertion, making organizational changes, and information openness) are positively related to firm competitiveness. In addition, these findings seem to underline a supposition that corporate entrepreneurship is an important mediator which strengthens the competitive effects of organizational politics.
In-Farm Wood Gasification Energy Micro-Generation System in Brazil: A Monte Carlo Viability Simulation
The penetration of renewable energy into the electricity supply in Brazil is high, one of the highest in the World. Centralized hydroelectric generation is the main source of energy, followed by biomass and wind. Surprisingly, mini and micro-generation are negligible, with less than 2,000 connections to the national grid. In 2015, a new regulatory framework was put in place to change this situation. In the agricultural sector, the framework was complemented by the offer of low interest rate loans to in-farm renewable generation. Brazil proposed to more than double its area of planted forests as part of its INDC- Intended Nationally Determined Contributions to the UNFCCC-U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This is an ambitious target which will be achieved only if forests are attractive to farmers. Therefore, this paper analyses whether planting forests for in-farm energy generation with a with a woodchip gasifier is economically viable for microgeneration under the new framework and at if they could be an economic driver for forest plantation. At first, a static case was analyzed with data from Eucalyptus plantations in five farms. Then, a broader analysis developed with the use of Monte Carlo technique. Planting short rotation forests to generate energy could be a viable alternative and the low interest loans contribute to that. There are some barriers to such systems such as the inexistence of a mature market for small scale equipment and of a reference network of good practices and examples.
Innovation Management: A Comparative Analysis among Organizations from United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Brazil and China
Innovation audit is defined as a tool that can be used to reflect on how the innovation is managed in an organization. The aim of this study is to audit innovation in the second top Engineering Firms in the world, and one of the Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) companies that are working in United Arab Emirates (UAE). The obtained results are then compared with four international companies from China and Brazil. The Diamond model has been used for auditing innovation in the two companies in UAE to evaluate their innovation management and to identify each company’s strengths and weaknesses from an innovation perspective. The results of the comparison between the two companies (Jacobs and Hyper General Contracting) revealed that Jacobs has support for innovation, its innovation processes are well managed, the company is committed to the development of its employees worldwide and the innovation system is flexible. Jacobs was doing best in all innovation management dimensions: strategy, process, organization, linkages and learning, while Hyper General Contracting did not score as Jacobs in any of the innovation dimensions. Furthermore, the audit results of both companies were compared with international companies to examine how well the two construction companies in UAE manage innovation relative to SABIC (Saudi company), Poly Easy and Arnious (Brazilian companies), Huagong tools and Guizohou Yibai (Chinese companies). The results revealed that Jacobs is doing best in learning and organization dimensions, while PolyEasy and Jacobs are equal in the linkage dimension. Huagong Tools scored the highest score in process dimension among all the compared companies. However, the highest score of strategy dimension was given to PolyEasy. On the other hand, Hyper General Contracting scored the lowest in all of the innovation management dimensions. It needs to improve its management of all the innovation management dimensions with special attention to be given to strategy, process, and linkage as they got scores below 4 out of 7 comparing with other dimensions. Jacobs scored the highest in three innovation management dimensions related to the six companies. However, the strategy dimension is considered low, and special attention is needed in this dimension.
Modern Agriculture and Industrialization Nexus in the Nigerian Context
Modern agriculture involves the use of improved tools and equipment (instead of crude and ineffective tools) like tractors, hand operated planters, hand operated fertilizer drills and combined harvesters - which increase agricultural productivity. Farmers in Nigeria still have huge potentials to enhance their productivity. The study argues that the increase in agricultural output due to increased productivity, orchestrated by modern agriculture will promote forward linkages and opportunities in the processing sub-sector; both the manufacturing of machines and the processing of raw materials. Depending on existing incentives, foreign investment could be attracted to augment local investment in the sector. The availability of raw materials in large quantity – which prices are competitive – will attract investment in other industries. In addition, potentials for backward linkages will also be created. In a nutshell, adopting the unbalanced growth theory in favour of the agricultural sector could engender industrialization in a country with untapped potentials. The paper highlights the numerous potentials of modern agriculture that are yet to be tapped in Nigeria and also provides a theoretical analysis of how the realization of such potentials could promote industrialization in the country. The study adopts the Lewis’ theory of structural–change model and Hirschman’s theory of unbalanced growth in the design of the analytical framework. The framework will be useful in empirical studies that will guide policy formulation.
Modern Agriculture and Employment Generation in Nigeria: A Recursive Model Approach
Several policies and programs initiated to address the challenge of unemployment in Nigeria seem to be inadequate. The desired structural transformation which is expected to absorb the excess labour in the economy is yet to be achieved. The agricultural sector accounts for almost half of the labour force with very low productivity. This could partly explain why the much anticipated structural transformation has not been achieved. A major reason for the low productivity is the fact that the production process is predominantly based on the use of traditional tools. In view of the underdeveloped nature of the agricultural sector, Nigeria still has huge potentials for productivity enhancement through modern technology. Aside from productivity enhancement, modern agriculture also stimulates both backward and forward linkages that promote investment and thus generate employment. Contrary to the apprehension usually expressed by many stake-holders about the adoption of modern technology by labour-abundant less-developed countries, this study showed that though there will be job loss initially, the reverse will be the case in the long-run. The outcome of this study will enhance the understanding of all stakeholders in the sector and also encourage them to adopt modern techniques of farming. It will also aid policy formulation at both sectoral and national levels. The recursive model and analysis adopted in the study is useful because it exhibits a unilateral cause-and-effect relationship which most simultaneous equation models do not. It enables the structural equations to be ordered in such a way that the first equation includes only predetermined variables on the right-hand side, while the solution for the final endogenous variable is completely determined by all equations of the system. The study examines the transmission channels and effect of modern agriculture on agricultural productivity and employment growth in Nigeria, via its forward and backward linkages. Using time series data spanning 1980 to 2014, the result of the analyses shows that: (i) a significant and positive relationship between agricultural productivity growth and modern agriculture; (ii) a significant and negative relationship between export price index and agricultural productivity growth; (iii) a significant and positive relationship between export and investment; and (iv) a significant and positive relationship between investment and employment growth. The unbalanced growth theory will be a good strategy to adopt by developing countries such as Nigeria.