Evaluate the Effect of Teaching Small Scale Bussiness and Entrepreneurship on Graduates Unemployment in Nigeria: A Case Study of Anambra and Enugu State, South East Nigeria
Graduates unemployment has risen astronomically in spite of the emphasis on teaching of small scale business and Entrepreneurship in schools. This study sets out to evaluate the effect of teaching small scale business and Entrepreneurship on graduates’ unemployment in Nigeria. This study adopted the survey research design. Thus the nature of data for this study is primary, sourced by the use of a questionnaire administered to a sample of two thousand and sixty-five (2065) respondents drawn from groups of graduates who are employed, unemployed and self-employed in South East Nigeria. Simple percentages, Chi-square and regression analysis were used to derive useful and meaningful information and test the hypotheses respectively. Findings from the study suggest that Nigeria graduates are ill prepared to embark on small-scale business and entrepreneurship after graduation, and that teaching of small scale business and entrepreneurship in Nigeria tertiary institutions is ineffective on graduate unemployment reduction. Findings also suggest that while a lot of graduates agreed that they have taken a class(s) on small scale or entrepreneurship, they received more theoretical teachings than practical, more so while teachings on small scale business or entrepreneurship motivated graduates to think of self-employment, most of them cannot do a good business plan and hence could not benefit from some kind of Government assisted program for small-scale business and bank loan for the sake of small scale business. Thus, so many graduates are not interested in small scale business or entrepreneurship development as a result of lack of startup capital. The study thus recommends that course content and teaching method of entrepreneurship education needs to be reviewed and re-structured to constitute more practical teachings than theoretical teachings. Also, graduates should be exposed to seminar /workshop for self-employment at least once every semester. There should be practical teaching and practice of developing a business plan that will be viable to attract government or private sponsorship as well for it to be viable to attract financing from financing institutions. Government should provide a fund such as venture capital financing arrangement to empower business startups in Nigeria by graduates’.
Consumer Perceptions of Deals and Merchandise Offered in the Form of Tensile Price Claims
Tensile price claims are frequently adopted by retailers in offering merchandise at different price discounts. Such claims use vague wording with regard to the amount of the discount. They can be classified into three basic forms: the maximum-discount claim, minimum-discount claim, and range claim. A maximum-discount claim indicates a maximum discount, with an unspecified minimum discount (e.g., 'Save up to __%'). A minimum-discount claim indicates a minimum discount with an unspecified maximum discount (e.g., 'Save __% or more'). A range claim indicates both maximum and minimum discounts (e.g., 'Save __% to __%'). Effects of tensile price claims on consumer perceptions have been analyzed previously; however, there are some unresolved issues that need to be investigated. In particular, a research opportunity is that effects of the three forms of tensile price claims have not been compared between large and small discounts. Another opportunity is that few studies have examined the effects on consumer perceptions of deals and the merchandise offered. This study focuses on such issues. A controlled experimental method was adopted with a three (three forms of tensile price claims) by two (discount size: large vs. small) between-subjects design. These two factors were manipulated in print advertisements. For the advertiser, we selected a retail store selling fashionable clothing for both men and women. On the basis of the data analysis results, we can create two summary conclusions. First, the effectiveness of the minimum-discount claim varies depending on the amount of the discount. This claim has been found less effective than the maximum-discount claim and range claim. However, we found its evaluations can be high and very similar to the other two tensile claims when it presents a large discount and is attractive enough. We note that this phenomenon was observed in the case where the maximum discount was 30% higher than the minimum discount. Conversely, when the minimum-discount claim presents a small discount, its evaluation was the lowest, consistent with the existing findings. This implies that the minimum-discount claim has a different role depending on the discount amount presented in the claim. Another conclusion is that tensile price claims influence consumer perceptions of merchandise. All three tensile price claims lead consumers to think that maximum or large discounts are offered on products that the retailers wish to get rid of as soon as possible, such as dead-stock products and low-quality products. However, these evaluations may be improved when the minimum-discount claim was used compared to when the maximum-discount claim or range claim was used.
The Impact of Project Management Approaches in Enhancing Entrepreneurial Growth: A Study Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour as a Lens to Understand
Entrepreneurship and project management are widely associated and seen as a vehicle for economic growth, but are studied separately. A few authors have considered the interconnectivity existing between these two fields, but relatively little empirical data currently exist in the literature. The purpose of the present empirical study is to explore whether successful entrepreneurs utilise project management approaches in enhancing enterprise growth by understanding the working practices and experiences of the entrepreneurs’ using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) as a lens. In order to understand those experiences, ten successful entrepreneurs in various business sectors in the North West of England were interviewed through a face-to-face semi-structured interview method. The collected audio tape-recorded data was transcribed and analysed using the deductive thematic technique (qualitative approach). The themes were viewed through the lens of Theory of Planned Behaviour to identify the three intentional antecedents (attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control) and to understand how they relate to the project management approaches (Planning, execution, and monitoring). The findings are twofold, the first evidence of the three intentional antecedents, which make up Theory of Planned Behaviour was present. Secondly, the analysis of project management approaches themes (planning, execution, and monitoring) using the lens of the theory of planned behaviour shows evidence of the three intentional antecedents. There were more than one intentional antecedents found in a particular project management theme, which indicates that the entrepreneur does utilise these approaches without categorising them into definite themes. However, the entrepreneur utilised these intentional antecedents as processes to enhanced business growth. In conclusion, the work presented here showed a way of understanding the interconnectivity between entrepreneurship and project management towards enhancing enterprise growth by examining the working practices and experiences of the successful entrepreneurs in the North-West England.
Bank Competition: On the Relationship with Revenue Diversification and Funding Strategy from Selected ASEAN Countries
Association of Southeast Asian Countries Nations (ASEAN) is moving forward to the next level of regional integration by the initiation of ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) which is already started in 2015, 8 years after its declaration for the creation of AEC in 2007. This commitment imposes financial integration in the region is one of the main agenda which will be achieved until 2025. Therefore, the commitment to financial integration including banking integration will bring new landscape in the competition and business model in this region. This study investigates the effect of competition on bank business model using a sample of 324 banks from seven members of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries (Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam). We use market power approach and Boone indicator as competition measures, while income diversification and bank funding strategies are employed as bank business model representation. Moreover, we also evaluate bank business model based by grouping the banks based on the main banking characteristics. We use unbalanced bank-specific annual panel data over the period of 2003 – 2015. Our empirical analysis shows that the banking industries in ASEAN countries adapt their business model by increasing non-interest income proportion due to the level of competition increase in the sector.
Institutional Preferences of Elites and Society: Paradoxes of Economic Development in Georgia
Article aims to discuss the controversial character of the institutional preferences of elites and society in modern Georgia. Desktop research method is used to formulate the findings and analyze the outcomes. It is accepted that transformation process in Post-Soviet Georgia went with the prevalence of elites’ institutional preferences over the needs of the society that induced voluntarism in the process of formation of institutions. Hypothesis of 'quasi-inclusion trap' is put forward in the article as an effect of authoritarian modernization that is proved by instable paces of wealth and economic growth in the post-authoritarian period. On the one hand, monopolization of institutional choice by the elites, blocking formation of inclusive political and economic institutions for fear of losing status-quo worsen perspectives for achieving free availability regime. On the other hand, consciousness of the society is dominated by informal institutions, judicial nihilism and orientation on 'self-survival values.' This hinders its consolidation as a 'collective principal' against 'institutional utilitarianism,' result of which is hindered economic development.
Processing Big Data: An Approach Using Feature Selection
Big data is one of the emerging technology, which collects the data from various sensors and those data will be used in many fields. Data retrieval is one of the major issues where there is a need to extract the exact data as per the need. In this paper, large amount of data set is processed by using the feature selection. Feature selection helps to choose the data which are actually needed to process and execute the task. The key value is the one which helps to point out exact data available in the storage space. Here the available data is streamed and R-Center is proposed to achieve this task.
Technological Innovations as a Potential Vehicle for Supply Chain Integration on Basic Metal Industries
This study investigated the roles of technological innovation on basic metal industries and then developed technological innovation framework for enhancing sustainable competitive advantage in the basic metal industries. The previous research work indicates that technological innovation has critical impact in promoting local industries to improve their performance and achieve sustainable competitive environments. The filed observation, questioner and expert interview result from basic metal industries indicate that the technological capability of local industries to invention, adoption, modification, improving and use a given innovative technology is very poor. As the result, this poor technological innovation was occurred due to improper innovation and technology transfer framework, non-collaborative operating environment between foreign and local industries, very weak national technology policies, problems research and innovation centers, the common miss points on basic metal industry innovation systems were investigated in this study. One of the conclusions of the article is that, through using the developed technological innovation framework in this study, basic metal industries improve innovation process and support an innovative culture for sector capabilities and achieve sustainable competitive advantage.
Research Review: The Mediating Role of Innovation Capability from Year 2010-2016
Innovation capability is believed to give an important impact on organization’s sustainability and high performance. For instance, innovation capability able to transform technology into a specific organization’s operation, managerial, and transaction which increase organizational performance and economic growth of a country. In fact, research on high level of various antecedents has also shown positive impact on innovation capability. However, there are lacking studies explored on various kinds of antecedents which relate innovation capability’s role as mediator in the relationship. Thus, the purpose of this study is to specifically exhibit the mediation role of innovation capability between variety of antecedents and with different outcomes of an organization across industries. This study reviewed previous literature that has identified 'innovation capability' as mediator between the period of 2010 – 2016 and carries out a literature-based analysis of the findings in each article. From our review, innovation capability has been seen as a key role to mediate the relationship between independent variable and dependent variable in various industry. As the role of innovation capability as mediator is significant, new researchers should focus on varieties of independent variables. The review of this study will be useful for practitioners and researchers to understand and apply innovation capability as mediator to increase organizational success and innovativeness.
Challenges of Business Incubators: A Case in Malaysia
Business incubators as a worldwide phenomenon have been recognized as a tool to provide business assistance to start-up firms. As the number of incubators grows, the challenges, too increase both in develop and developing countries. Therefore, this study discussed the incubation model applied by Malaysia and followed by overview of challenges faced by the incubators in Malaysia using secondary data from literature and reports of SME Corp. In line with this, the study adopts a qualitative approach which interviewed the incubator managers to identify the contemporary challenges. The results of the study were classified into four sectors namely agricultural, craft, manufacturing, and services. These results indicate that lack of skilled incubator manager and staffs, unstructured incubator concept and process, limited strategic alliances with universities-industries, and low of research and development activities were identified to be among the challenges lay ahead that need to get attention in Malaysia.
Survival and Growth Factors of Korean Start-Ups: Focusing on the Industrial Characteristics
Since the beginning of the 2010s, ‘start-up boom’ has continued with the creation of many new enterprises in Korea. Such tendency was led by various changes in society such as emergence and diffusion of smartphones. Especially, the Korean government has been interested in start-ups and entrepreneurship as an alternative engine for Korea's economic growth. With strong support from the government, as a result, many new enterprises have been established for recent years and the Korean government seems to have achieved its goal: expanding the basis of start-ups. However, it is unclear which factors affect the survival and growth of these new enterprises after their creation. Therefore, this study aims to identify which start-ups from early 2010s survived and which factors influenced their survival and growth. The study will strongly focus on which industries the new enterprises were in, as environmental elements are expected to be critical factors for business of start-ups in Korean context. For this purpose, 105 companies which were introduced as high potential start-ups from 2010 to 2012 were considered in the analysis. According to their current status, dead or alive, the start-ups were categorized by their industries and service area. Through this analysis, it was observed that many start-ups that are still in business are in internet or mobile platform businesses and four major sectors. In each group, a representative case has been studied to reveal its survival and growth factors. The results point to the importance of industrial characteristics for the survival and success of Korean startups and offer political implications in which sector and business more potentials for start-ups in Korea lie in.
Impact Assessment of Innovation Tax Incentives in Brazil: The Case of Law 11,196/05
This paper evaluates the effects of tax incentives for technological innovation in Brazil established by the Law 11,196/05 (the ‘Goodness Law’), to test whether they have increased resources for business innovation projects and had any significant impact on their results. The average treatment effect on the treated is estimated using microdata and applying a propensity score matching with difference-in-differences. Results suggest a causal impact of the policy on R&D expenditure and number of research staff. Mean impact on spending, nevertheless, falls short of the average tax break per firm. The policy also increased average chances of firms to start investing in innovative activities and R&D, and also their average chances to innovate. Beneficiary firms grew more in terms of personnel size. The study provides empirical support in favor of tax incentives as part of a government strategy to boost entrepreneurial innovation in the country.
A History of Knowledge Management: A Chronological Account from the 1970s to 2017
Knowledge management (KM) has become an imperative to modern business growth, competitive edge, and sustainability. Though there has been extensive research in the field, this literature overview showcases massive gaps that exist on the coverage of the field’s rich and fascinating history. Particularly, accounts of the history of KM are inconsistent and fragmentary in breadth and depth. This paper presents new insights into the history of KM from the early 70s when the actual coinage ‘knowledge management’ entered the literature. It reveals how knowledge over the years was shrouded in secrecy and subsumed by technology. It makes a clear distinction between the histories of the debate around knowledge and that of KM. The paper also finds a history of KM filled with skepticisms and engulfed by an ‘intellectual paradox’.
Repeatable Scalable Business Models: Can Innovation Drive an Entrepreneurs Un-Validated Business Model?
Can the level of innovation use drive un-validated business models across regions? To what extent does industrial sector attractiveness drive firm’s success across regions at the time of start-up? This study examines the role of innovation on start-up success in six regions of the world (namely Sub Saharan Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Latin America, South East Asia Pacific, the European Union and the United States representing North America) using macroeconomic variables. While there have been studies using firm level data, results from such studies are not suitable for national policy decisions. The need to drive a regional innovation policy also begs for an answer, therefore providing room for this study. Results using dynamic panel estimation show that innovation counts in the early infancy stage of new business life cycle. The results are robust even after controlling for time fixed effects and the study present variance-covariance estimation robust standard errors.
Innovation in Information Technology Services: Framework to Improve the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Information Technology Service Management Processes, Projects and Decision Support Management
In a dynamic market of Information Technology (IT) Service and with high quality demands and high performance requirements in decreasing costs, it is imperative that Information Technology companies invest organizational effort in order to increase the effectiveness of their Information Technology Service Management (ITMS) processes through the improvement of ITSM project management and through a solid support to the strategic decision-making process of IT directors. In this article, the author presents an analysis of common issues of IT companies around world, with strategic needs of information unmet that provoke their ITSM processes and projects management do not achieve the effectiveness and efficiency expected of theirs results. In response to the issues raised, the author proposes a framework consisting of an innovative theoretical framework model of ITSM management and a technological solution aligned to the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) good practices guidance and ISO/IEC 20000-1 requirements. The article describes a research that proves the proposed framework is able to integrate, manage and coordinate in a holistic way, measurable and auditable all ITSM process and projects of IT organization and utilize the effectiveness assessment achieved for their strategic decision-making process increasing the process maturity level and improving the capacity of an efficient management.
Green Marketing and Sustainable Development: Challenges and Opportunities
In the cutting edge period of globalization, it has turned into a test to keep the clients and also shoppers in overlay and even keep our regular habitat safe and that is the greatest need of the time. Purchasers are likewise mindful of the ecological issues like a dangerous atmospheric deviation and the effect of natural contamination. Green showcasing is a marvel which has created specific critical in the present day advertise and has risen as an imperative idea in India, as in different parts of the creating and created world and is viewed as an essential procedure of encouraging practical improvement. In this exploration paper, primary accentuation has been made of idea, need, and significance of green promoting. It investigates the principle issues in reception of green showcasing hones. The paper portrays the present situation of Indian market and investigates the difficulties and openings organizations have with green advertising, why organizations are receiving it and eventual fate of green promoting and presumes that green showcasing is something that will consistently develop in both practice and request.
The Determinants of Behavioral Intention to Use toward T-Cash Services Provider in Jakarta and Surburban Area
Technology is created to simplify human’s life. One of current technology which being called as the second wave internet generation is the internet of things. Internet of things lets thousands of devices connected each other. In today's marketing world, IOT has brought customer into the next level which helping the customer to shorten every transaction they are conducting from traditional approach to sophisticated approach. However, the implementation of technology has always obstacles. The objective of this paper is to explore the determinants of customer to accepts such technology like the internet of things within their transaction. According to TAM (Technology Acceptance Model), researcher constructs the acceptance of internet of things based on perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and trust and social factor and the two customer characteristics: perceived enjoyment and perceived behavioral control. This research uses exploratory research design which being facilitated by spreading questionnaire to 145 T-cash users in Jakarta and in its suburban region. At least, 190 samples were observed and questioned accordingly. All the collected data will be analyzed using Lisrel.
Constraints to Partnership Based Financing in Islamic Banks: A Systematic Review of Literature
Partnership has been understood as the essence of Islamic banking. However, in practice, the non-partnership paradigm dominates the operations of Islamic banks. Islamic banks adopt partnership contracts for the scheme of deposits, especially for term deposit accounts. However, they do not adopt partnership contracts (i.e., Musharakah and Mudarabah) as the main financing scheme. In practice, non-partnership contracts including Murabahah and Ijara are widely used for financing.
Many authors have provided different explanations for the less utilization of the partnership contracts as a scheme of financing. However, the typology of constraints remains missing. The extant literature remains scattered, with diverse studies focused on different dimensions of the issue. Therefore, there is no unified understanding of the constraints in the application of the partnership contracts. This paper aims to highlight the major factors hindering the application of partnership contracts, and produce a coherent view by synthesizing different explanations provided in several studies conducted around the globe. The present study employs insights form the extant literature using a systematic review and provides academia, practitioners, and policy makers with a holistic framework to name and make sense of what is making partnership contracts a less attractive option for Islamic banks. A total of 84 relevant publications including 11 books, 14 chapters of edited books, 48 journal articles, 8 conference papers and 3 IMF working papers were selected using a systematic procedure. Analysis of these selected publications followed three steps: i) In the first step of analysis the constraints explicitly appearing in the literature set of 84 articles were extracted, ii) In the second step 27 factors hindering the application of partnership contracts were identified from the constraints extracted in the first step with the overlapping items either eliminated or combined, iii) In the last step the factors identified in the second step were classified into three distinct categories. Our intention was to develop the typology of constraints by connecting the rather abstract concepts into the broader sets of constraints for better conceptualization and policy implications. Our framework highlights that there are mainly three facets of lower preference for partnership contracts of financing. First, there are several factors in the contemporary business settings, prevailing social setting, and the bank’s internal environment that underpin uncertainty in the success of partnership contracts of financing. Second, partnership contracts have lower demand i.e., entrepreneurs prefer to use non-partnership contracts for financing their ventures due to the inherent restraining characteristics of the partnership contracts. Finally, there are certain factors in the regulatory framework that restraint the extensive utilization of partnership contracts of financing by Islamic banks. The present study contributes to the Islamic banking literature in many ways. It provides clarification to the heavily criticized operations of Islamic banks, integrates the scattered literature, and provides a holistic framework for better conceptualization of the key constraints in the application of the partnership contracts and policy implications. Moreover, it demonstrates an application of systematic review in Islamic banking research.
Socio-Cultural Factors to Support Knowledge Management and Organizational Innovation: A Study of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Latvia
Knowledge management and innovation is key to competitive advantage and sustainable business development in advanced economies. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have lower capacity and more constrained resources for long-term and high-uncertainty research and development investments. At the same time, SMEs can implement organizational innovation to improve their performance and further foster other types of innovation. The purpose of this study is to analyze, how socio-cultural factors such as shared values, organizational behaviors, work organization and decision making processes can influence knowledge management and help to develop organizational innovation via an empirical study. Surveying 600 SMEs in Latvia, the author explores the contribution of different socio-cultural factors to organizational innovation and the role of knowledge management and organizational learning in this process. A conceptual model, explaining the impact of organizational team, development, result-orientation and structure is created. The study also proposes insights that contribute to theoretical and practical discussions on fostering innovation of small businesses in small economies.
The Study on How Outward Direct Investment of Chinese MNEs to European Union Area Affect the Domestic Industrial Structure
From 2008, Chinese Foreign Direct Investment flows to the European Union continued its rapid rise. Currently, the industrial structure adjustment in developing countries has also been placed on the international movement of factors of production. Now China economy is in an important period of transformation on industrial structure adjustment. Under the international transfer of industry background, the adjustment of industrial structure upgrading and sophistication are the key elements of a successful economic transformation. In order to achieve a virtuous cycle of foreign investment patterns and optimize the industrial structure of foreign direct investment as well, the research on the positive the role of the EU direct investment and how it impact China’s industrial structure optimization and upgrading is of great significance. In this paper, the author explained how the EU as an investment destination is different with the United States and ASEAN. Then, based on the theory of FDI and industrial structure and combining the four kinds of motives of China’s ODI in EU, this paper explained the impact mechanism which has influenced China domestic industrial structure primarily through the Transfer effect, Correlation effect and Competitive effect. On the premise that FDI activities do affect the home country’s domestic industrial structure, this paper made empirical analysis with industrial panel data. With the help of Gray Correlation Method and Limited Distributed Lags, this paper found that China/s ODI in the EU impacted the tertiary industry strongly and had a significant positive impact, particularly the manufacturing industry and the financial industry. This paper also pointed out that Chinese MNEs should realize several issues, such as pay more attention to high-tech industries so that they can make the best use of reverse technology spillover. When Chinese enterprises ‘go out,' they ought to keep in mind that domestic research and development capital contribution can make greater economic growth. Finally, based on theoretical and empirical analysis results, this paper presents the industry choice recommendations in the future of the EU direct investment, particularly through the development of the proper rational industrial policy and industrial development strategic to guide the industrial restructuring and upgrading.
An Evaluation of the Trends in Land Values around Institutions of Higher Learning in North Central Nigeria
The need to study trends in land values around institutions of higher learning cannot be overemphasized. Numerous studies in Nigeria have investigated the economic, and social influence of the sitting of institutions of higher learning at the micro, meso and macro levels. However, very few studies have evaluated the temporal extent at which such institution influences local land values. Since institutions greatly influence both the physical and environmental aspects of their immediate vicinity, attention must be taken to understand the influence of such changes on land values. This study examines the trend in land values using the Mann-Kendall analysis in order to determine if, between its beginning and end, a monotonic increase, decrease or stability exist in the land values across six institutions of higher learning for the period between 2004 and 2014. Specifically, The analysis was applied to the time series of the price(or value) of the land .The results of this study revealed that land values has either been increasing or remained stabled across all the institution sampled. The study finally recommends measures that can be put in place as counter magnets for land values estimation across institutions of higher learning.
Searching Knowledge for Engagement in a Worker Cooperative Society: A Proposal for Rethinking Premises
While delving into the heart of any organization, the structural pre-requisites which form the framework of its system, allures and sometimes invokes great interest. In an attempt to understand the ecosystem of Knowledge that existed in organizations with diverse ownership and legal blueprints, Cooperative Societies, which form a crucial part of the neo-liberal movement in India, was studied. The exploration surprisingly led to the re-designing of at least a set of premises of the researcher on the drivers of engagement in an otherwise structured trade environment. The liberal organizational structure of Cooperative Societies has been empowered with certain terminologies: Voluntary, Democratic, Equality and Distributive Justice. To condense in Hubert Calvert’ words, ‘Co-operation is a form of organization wherein persons voluntarily associated together as human beings on the basis of equality for the promotion of the economic interest of themselves.’ In India, largely the institutions which work under this principle is registered under Cooperative Societies Act of the Central or State laws. A Worker Cooperative Society which originated as a movement in the state of Kerala and spread its wings across the country - Indian Coffee House was chosen as the enterprise for further inquiry for it being a living example and a highly successful working model in the designated space. The exploratory study reached out to employees and key stakeholders of Indian Coffee House to understand the nuances of the structure and the scope it provides for engagement. The key questions which formed shape in the mind of researcher while engaging in the inquiry were: How has the organization sustained despite its principle of accepting employees with no skills into employment and later training and empowering them? How can a system which has pre-independence and post-independence (independence here means the colonial independence from Great Britain) existence seek to engage employees within the premise of equality? How was the value of socialism ingrained in a commercial enterprise which has a turnover of several hundreds of Crores each year? How did the vision of a flat structure, way back in the 1940’s find its way into the organizational structure and has continued to remain as the way of life? These questions were addressed by the Case study research that ensued and placing Knowledge as the key premise, the possibilities of engagement of the organization man was pictured. Understanding that although the macro or holistic unit of analysis is the organization, it is pivotal to understand the structures and processes which best reflect on the actors. The embedded design which was adopted in this study delivered insights from the different stakeholder actors from diverse departments. While moving through variables which define and sometimes defy bounds in rationality, the study brought to light the inherent features of the organization structure and how it influences the actors who form a crucial part of the scheme of things. The research brought forth the key enablers for engagement and specifically explored the standpoint of knowledge in the larger structure of the Cooperative Society.
Absorptive Capabilities in the Development of Biopharmaceutical Industry: The Case of Bioprocess Development and Research Unit, National Polytechnic Institute
The ability of an organization to identify and get useful information from external sources, assimilate it, transform and apply to generate products or services with added value is called absorptive capacity. Absorptive capabilities contribute to have market opportunities to firms and get a leader position with respect to others competitors. The Bioprocess Development and Research Unit (UDIBI) is a Research and Development (R&D) laboratory that belongs to the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN), which is a higher education institute in Mexico. The UDIBI was created with the purpose of carrying out R and D activities for the Transferon®, a biopharmaceutical product developed and patented by IPN. The evolution of competence and scientific and technological platform made UDIBI expand its scope by providing technological services (preclínical studies and bio-compatibility evaluation) to the national pharmaceutical industry and biopharmaceutical industry. The relevance of this study is that those industries are classified as high scientific and technological intensity, and yet, after a review of the state of the art, there is only one study of absorption capabilities in biopharmaceutical industry with a similar scope to this research; in the case of Mexico, there is none. In addition to this, UDIBI belongs to a public university and its operation does not depend on the federal budget, but on the income generated by its external technological services. This fact represents a highly remarkable case in Mexico's public higher education context. This current doctoral research (2015-2019) is contextualized within a case study, its main objective is to identify and analyze the absorptive capabilities that characterise the UDIBI that allows it had become in a one of two third authorized laboratory by the sanitary authority in Mexico for developed bio-comparability studies to bio-pharmaceutical products. The development of this work in the field is divided into two phases. In a first phase, 15 interviews were conducted with the UDIBI personnel, covering management levels, heads of services, project leaders and laboratory personnel. These interviews were structured under a questionnaire, which was designed to integrate open questions and to a lesser extent, others, whose answers would be answered on a Likert-type rating scale. From the information obtained in this phase, a scientific article was made (in review and a proposal of presentation was submitted in different academic forums. A second stage will be made from the conduct of an ethnographic study within this organization under study that will last about 3 months. On the other hand, it is intended to carry out interviews with external actors around the UDIBI (suppliers, advisors, IPN officials, including contact with an academic specialized in absorption capacities to express their comments on this thesis. The inicial findings had shown two lines: i) exist institutional, technological and organizational management elements that encourage and/or limit the creation of absorption capacities in this scientific and technological laboratory and, ii) UDIBI has had created a set of multiple transfer technology of knowledge mechanisms which have had permitted to build a huge base of prior knowledge.
Family Firms and Investment–Cash Flow Sensitivity: Empirical Evidence from Canada
Family firm is the most common form of business organization in the world. Many family businesses rely heavily on their own capital to finance their expansion. This dependence on internal funds for their investment may be deliberate to maintain the family dominant position or involuntary as family firms have limited access to external funds. Our understanding of family firm’s choice to fund their own growth using existing capital is somewhat limited. The aim of this paper is to study whether the presence of a controlling family in the company either mitigates or exacerbates external financing constraints. The impact of family ownership on investment–cash flow sensitivity is ultimately an empirical question. We use a sample of 406 Canadian firms listed in Toronto Stock exchange (TSX) over the period 2005–2014 in order to explore this relationship. We distinguish between three elements in the definition of family firms, specifically ownership, control and management, to explore the issue whether family firms are more efficient organisational form. Our research contributes to the extant literature on family ownership in several ways. First, as our understanding of family firm’s investment cash flow sensitivity is somewhat limited in recession times, we explore the effect of family firms on the relation between investment and cash flow during the recent 2007-2009 financial crisis. We also analyse this relationship difference between family firms and non family firms before and during financial crisis. Finally, our paper addresses the endogeneity problem of family ownership and investment-cash flow sensitivity.
Using the Structural Equation Model to Explain the Effect of Supervisory Practices on Regulatory Density
In the economic system, the financial sector plays a crucial role as an intermediary between market participants, other financial institutions, and customers. Financial institutions such as banks have to make decisions to satisfy the demands of all the participants by keeping abreast of regulatory change. In recent years, progress has been made regarding frameworks, development of rules, standards, and processes to manage risks in the banking sector. The increasing focus of regulators and policymakers placed on risk management, corporate governance, and the organization’s culture is of special interest as it requires a well-resourced risk controlling function, compliance function, and internal audit function. In the past years, the relevance of these functions that make up the so-called Three Lines of Defense has moved from the backroom to the boardroom. The approach of the model can vary based on the various organizational characteristics. Due to the intense regulatory requirements, organizations operating in the financial sector have more mature models. In less regulated industries there is more cloudiness about what tasks are allocated where. All parties strive to achieve their objectives through the effective management of risks and serve the identical stakeholders. Today, the Three Lines of Defense model is used throughout the world.
The research looks at trends and emerging issues in the professions of the Three Lines of Defense within the banking sector. The answers are believed to helping to explain the increasing regulatory requirements for the banking sector. While the number of supervisory practices increases the risk management requirements intensify and demand more regulatory compliance at the same time. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is applied by making use of conducted surveys in the research field. It aims to describe (i) the theoretical model regarding the applicable linearity relationships, (ii) the causal relationship between multiple predictors (exogenous) and multiple dependent variables (endogenous), (iii) taking into consideration the unobservable variables and (iv) the measurement errors. The surveys conducted on the research field suggest that the observable variables are caused by various latent variables. The SEM consists of the 1) measurement model and the 2) structural model. There is a detectable correlation regarding the cause-effect relationship among the performed supervisory practices and the increasing scope of regulation. Supervisory practices reinforce the regulatory density. In the past, controls were placed after supervisory practices were conducted or incidents occurred. In further research, it is of interest to examine, whether risk management is proactive, reactive to incidents and supervisory practices or can be both at the same time.
An Assessment of the Impact of Safe Motherhood Initiative on Maternal Health of Women in Gumel Local Government Area of Jigawa State, Nigeria
The paper assesses the impact of safe motherhood initiative on maternal health of women in Gumel Local Government Area of Jigawa State. The work will specifically concentrate on the background on safe motherhood scheme and maternal health of women. The objective of this paper is to assess the level of safe motherhood scheme in Gumel local government area, to find out the level of maternal health in Gumel local government as well as to determine the impact of safe motherhood scheme on maternal health on women in Gumel Local Government Area Jigawa State. Various literature on the topic are reviewed, the paper adopts survey design and use questionnaire to collect data from the respondent. The study comprises 350 women selected from six rural communities in Gumel using random sampling techniques, and the data was analysed by simple frequency and percentage. The research concluded that safe motherhood initiative has a significant impact on the maternal health of women in Gumel Local Government Area of Jigawa State. Finally, suitable recommendations were given on how to improve the scheme to ensure better maternal health in the region.
Examining the Antecedents and Consequences of Work-Family Enrichment
This paper discusses work-family enrichment and its relationship with certain antecedents and outcomes while considering effect of mindfulness and organizational pride as moderators. The work-family enrichment has been the topic of interest for researchers as well as practitioners for decades now. It focusses on the positive side of work family interaction rather that the scarcity or balance principle. Research shows that work family enrichment is linked to multiple work place outcomes like job satisfaction, organization citizenship behavior and turnover intention. Enrichment is also linked to life outcomes like life satisfaction, wellbeing. Thus not only the individuals but the organizations too want to engage in the activities resulting in the positive spillover between work and non-work domains. One of the recent focus areas in organization behavior literature has been Mindfulness. Mindfulness is defined as a trait or state in which the mind focuses on the present. It is the conscious attention and awareness of the present thought. The research in the area of mindfulness at work suggests that the same is related to work family balance and job satisfaction. This paper discusses the possibility of mindfulness having effect on the relationship between antecedents of enrichment and enrichment. On the outcome side job embeddedness and job ambivalence are the newest additions to the retention literature. Job ambivalence talks about having strong positive as well as negative feelings about the job. Job ambivalence is the work outcome which is linked to turnover intention. This paper talks about the relationship between enrichment and job ambivalence. Another measure for work place outcomes which is discussed in recent research is job embeddedness. This term talks about the advantages of continuing with the job rather than quitting it. It is described as like a net or a web in which an individual can become stuck and is focused on why people stay rather than on how they leave. The research has have found that establishing or increasing job embeddedness is likely to increase retention, attendance, citizenship and job performance. This paper studies the relationship between enrichment and embeddedness. Lastly this paper studies whether organizational pride has an an effect on the relationship between enrichment and its outcomes. This paper concludes with the direction for future research.
Valerie Alexander, Amanda Gutierrez, Veronica Campbell, Dara Schwartz, B. Charles Tatum
Hotels use different channels in order to sell their products, i.e. through their own web sites, traditional tour operators or online travel sites, the weights of which may vary from hotel to hotel. It is of critical importance to achieve the right balance of it, especially in time of crisis. The aim of this study is to search whether a general crisis, such as economic or political crisis, has different impacts on the hotels which have varying weights in their marketing channels. The study was applied to the 112 upscale hotels in Antalya which is one of the most popular tourism destinations of Mediterranean. Various crises occurred in Turkey in 2015 and 2016 which had great negative impacts on Turkish tourism and led enormous occupancy rate and selling price reductions. This study revealed that as the rate of international tour operators increases in the portfolio of marketing channels of hotels, the rate of decline in selling price of such hotels increases. On the contrary, it was also found that as the rate of using hotel’s own web based reservation system increases, the rate of decline in selling price decreases. Similarly, working more with national tour operators and travel agencies has also less negative impact on hotels in terms of selling prices in time of crisis. To sum, being highly dependent on the international tour operators force the hotels to decrease their selling price more in time of crisis whereas using the hotel web sites for reservation and/or working with national tour operators and travel agencies have less damaging impacts on selling prices of the hotels in these times.
Shari'ah Supervisory Board's Performance: The Influence to Quality of Disclosure in Islamic Banks
In several decades, Islamic Banks (IBs) has proliferated internationally. To ensure IBs’ accountability to all stakeholders, a governance system is established. Similar to conventional banks (CBs), IBs create corporate governance system. In addition, IBs have Shari’ah Supervisory Board (SSB) as part of Shari’ah governance formed purposively to ensure IBs innovative operations comply to the Shari’ah. Thus, all boards in IBs must actively participate in good corporate as well as Shari’ah governance. The research will analyze SSB’s performance and quality of disclosure by observing 10 IBs annual report from 2011 to 2015 in Gulf countries. The content analysis will be done to see the relationship between SSB’s performance and quality of disclosure in the annual report. The analysis found that event all aspects of disclosure have been meet, financial disclosure still dominates the annual report. This can indicate that the SSB’s focus is on the interest of capital providers.
Real Estate Rigidities: The Effect of Cash Transactions and the Impact of Demonetisation on Them
We study here the impact of the black component referred to as X component in the text on Real estate transactions. The X component involved not only acts as friction in transaction but also leads to dysfunctionality in the capital market of real estate. The effect of the component is presented by using a model of economy which seeks resemblance with that of India involving property deals. The rigidities which hinder smooth transactions in property or land deals are depicted and their impact on the economy as a whole has been modelled. The effect of subprime crisis (2007) on Indian housing capital market and the role which the X component played during it, is also included in one of the sections. In the entire text, we have utilised 4 Quadrant graphs to study supply and demand causalities involved in commercial real estate. At the end we have included the impact of demonetisation as a move to counter the problem of overvaluation in the property assets arising due to the X component. The case of Demonetisation which has been the latest move by the Indian Government to control huge amount of black money in circulation has been included along with its impact on the housing and rent as well as the capital market.
Globalization as Instrument for Multi-National Corporation in Transforming Asian’s Perspective towards Clean Water Consumption
It is inevitable that globalization has succeeded in transforming the world today. The influence of globalization has emerged in almost every aspect of life nowadays, especially in shaping the perception of the people. It can be seen on how easy for people are affected by the information surrounding them. Due to globalization, the flow of information has become more rapid along with the development of technology. People tend to believe in information that they actually get by themselves, if there is information where most of the people believe it is true, then this information could be categorized as factual and relevant. Therefore if people gain information on what is best for them in terms of daily consumption, then this information could transform their perspective, and it becomes a consideration in selecting their needs for daily consumption. By looking at this trend, the author sees that globalization could be used by Multi-National Corporation (MNC) to enhance the promotion of their products. This is applied by shaping the perspectives of the world regarding what is the best for them. Multi-National Corporation which has better technology in terms of the development of their external promotion could utilize this opportunity to affect people’s perspectives into what they want. In this paper, the author would like to elaborate how globalization is applied by MNC to shape people’s perspective regarding what is the best for them. The author would utilize a case study to analyze on how MNC could transform the perspectives of Asian people regarding the necessary of having a better quality drinking water, which in this case, MNC has shaped the perspective of Asian people in choosing their product by promoting the bottled water as the best choice for them. In the end of this paper, author would come to a conclusion that MNCs are able to shape the world’s perspective regarding the needs of their products which is supported by the globalization that is happening now.