Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 46707

Educational and Pedagogical Sciences

Impact of Economic Crisis on Secondary Education in Anambra State
This study investigated the impact of economic crisis on education in Anambra state. The population of the study comprised of all principals and teachers in Anambra state numbering 5,887 (253 principles and 5,634 teachers). To guide the study, three research questions and one hypothesis were formulated correlational design was adopted. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 200 principals and 300 teachers as respondents for the study. A researcher-developed instrument tagged Impact of Economic Crisis on Education questionnaire (IECEQ) was used to collect data needed for the study. The instrument was validated by experts in measurement and evaluation. The reliability of the instrument was established using randomly selected members of the population who did not take part in the study. The data obtained was analyzed using Cronbach alpha technique and reliability co-efficient of .801 and .803 was obtained. The data were analyzed using simple and Multiple Regression Analysis. The formulated hypothesis was tested at .05 level of significance. Findings revealed that: there is a significant relationship between economic crisis and realization of goals of secondary education. The result also shows that economic crisis affect students' academic performance, teachers' morale and productivity and principals' administrative capability. This study therefore concludes that certain strategies must be devised to minimize the impact of economic crisis on secondary education. It is recommended that all stakeholders to education should be more resourceful and self-sufficient in order to cushion the effects of economic crisis currently gripping most world economies Nigeria inclusive.
[Keynote Talk]: Study of Cooperative Career Education between Universities and Companies
Where there is collaboration between universities and companies in the educational context, companies seek ‘knowledge’ from universities and provide a ‘place of practice’ to them. Several universities have introduced activities aimed at the mutual enlightenment of a diversity of people in career education. However, several programs emphasize on delivering results, and on practicing the prepared materials as planned. Few programs focus on unexpected failures and setbacks. This way of learning is important in career education so that classmates can help each other, overcome difficulties, draw out each other’s strengths, and learn from them. Seijo University in Tokyo offered Tokyo Tourism, a Project-Based Learning course, as a first-year career education course until 2016. In cooperation with a travel agency, students participate in planning actual tourism products for foreigners visiting Japan, undertake tours serving as guides. This paper aims to study the 'learning platform' created by a series of processes such as the fieldwork, planning tours, the presentation, selling the tourism products, and guiding the tourists. We conducted a questionnaire to measure the development of work-related skills in class. From the results of the questionnaire, we can see, in the example of this class, that students demonstrated an increased desire to be pro-active and an improved motivation to learn. Students have not, however, acquired policy or business skills. This is appropriate for first-year careers education, but we need to consider how this can be incorporated into future courses. In the questionnaire filled out by the students after the class, the following results were found. Planning and implementing travel products while learning from each other, and helping the teams has led to improvements in the student workforce. This course is a collaborative project between Japanese universities and the 2020 Tokyo Olympics and Paralympic Games committee.
Impact of School Environment on Socio-Affective Development: A Quasi-Experimental Longitudinal Study of Gifted and Talented Programs
This study used two psychological scales to examine the level of social and emotional intelligence and moral judgment of over 500 gifted and talented high school students in various academic and creative arts programs in a large metropolitan area in the southeastern United States. For decades, numerous models and programs purporting to encourage socio-affective characteristics of adolescent development have been explored in curriculum development. Socio-affective merges the social, emotional, and moral domains. It encompasses interpersonal relation and social behaviors; development and regulation of emotions; personal and gender identity construction; empathy development; moral development, thinking, and judgment. Examining development in these socio-affective domains can provide insight into why some gifted and talented adolescents are not always successful in adulthood despite advanced IQ scores. Particularly whether nonintellectual characteristics of gifted and talented individuals, such as emotional, social and moral capabilities, are as advanced as their intellectual abilities and how these are related to each other. Unique characteristics distinguish gifted and talented individuals; these may appear as strengths, but there is the potential for problems to accompany them. Although many thrive in their school environments, some struggle rather than flourish. In the socio-affective domain, these adolescents face special intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental problems. Gifted individuals’ cognitive, psychological, emotional, and physical development occurs asynchronously, in multidimensional layers at different rates and unevenly across ability levels. Therefore, it is important to examine the long-term effects of participation in various gifted and talented programs on the socio-affective development of gifted and talented adolescents. This quasi-experimental longitudinal study examined students in several gifted and talented education programs (creative arts school, urban charter schools, and suburban public schools) for (1) socio-affective development level and (2) whether a particular gifted and talented program encourages developmental growth. Major findings include…. (Results and conclusions will be added after final data collection December 2017. Results and conclusions will be updated before final paper submission).
Exploring the Difficulties of Acceleration Concept from the Perspective of Historical Textual Analysis
Kinematics is the beginning to learn mechanics in physics course. The concept of acceleration plays an important role in learning kinematics. Teachers usually instruct the conception through the formulas and graphs of kinematics and the well-known law F = ma. However, over the past few decades, a lot of researchers reveal numerous students’ difficulties in learning acceleration. One of these difficulties is that students frequently confuse acceleration with velocity and force. Why is the concept of acceleration so difficult to learn? The aim of this study is to understand the conceptual evolution of acceleration through the historical textual analysis. Text analysis and one-to-one interviews with high school students and teachers are used in this study. This study finds the history of science constructed from textbooks is usually quite different from the real evolution of history. For example, most teachers and students believe that the best-known law F = ma was written down by Newton. The expression of the second law is not F = ma in Newton’s best-known book Principia in 1687. Even after more than one hundred years, a famous Cambridge textbook titled An Elementary Treatise on Mechanics by Whewell of Trinity College did not express this law as F = ma. At that time of Whewell, the early mid-nineteenth century Britain, the concept of acceleration was not only ambiguous but also confused with the concept of force. The process of learning the concept of acceleration is analogous to its conceptual development in history. The study from the perspective of historical textual analysis will promote the understanding of the concept learning difficulties, the development of professional physics teaching, and the improvement of the context of physics textbooks.
Improving Access to Employment Opportunities for Persons with Hearing Impairment through Collaboration of Stakeholders in Oyo State, Nigeria
It is generally believed that individuals with hearing impairment are not productive as their counterparts with normal hearing. This study examined access to employment opportunities by individuals with hearing impairment through stakeholders’ collaboration. Descriptive survey research design was adopted to carry out the study. Purposive sampling technique was used for the selection of 87 co-workers and government officials (stakeholders) in Oyo State, Nigeria. Three research questions were answered. A self-designed questionnaire - Access to Employment Questionnaire (AEQ) was used to collect data. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency count and percentage. The study revealed that the level of awareness of stakeholders about disability and employment was very low, the attitude of stakeholders’ attitude towards employees with hearing impairment was negative and there was no collaboration of stakeholders about the employment of employees with hearing impairment. There should be increased in the level of awareness of stakeholders about disability and employment, their attitude towards employees with hearing impairment should be positive and there should be collaboration among stakeholders concerning the employment of employees with hearing impairment. These will improve access to employment b individuals with hearing impairment.
Interdisciplinary Maths for Gifted Students
Interdisciplinary activities are ways for differentiating tasks and provide valuable applications for gifted students in regular classrooms. In this study, gifted students’ views and actions were investigated to see how interdisciplinary learning integrated into mathematics education affect their relational understanding and motivation to mathematics. From this point of view, in three 6th grade classrooms in Marmaris, Turkey, interdisciplinary activities and projects were conducted. In these classrooms, there were 60 students and 11 of them were identified as gifted students by using standardized tests. During 2016-2017 Educational year, activities integrating science & math, social sciences & math, math & English, math & Turkish, math & art, math & Music were applied with all students in classroom. Moreover, as term project, interdisciplinary project option was also provided to students. During the implementations, classroom observations and semi structured interviews were conducted with students. Qualitative data obtained from gifted students in classrooms were analyzed with the help of constant-comparative analysis method. As findings of the study, it was seen that gifted students were more keen on disciplinary activities and they were prone to discover the relationships between lessons. It was seen that students could see the application of math in other fields and this helped gifted students to find answers for their related questions. Also, almost all gifted students voluntarily chose interdisciplinary projects as terms paper; creatively and successfully accomplished their tasks in project. All these data reflected that interdisciplinary approach in mathematics education allowed gifted students relate mathematics to real life and other disciplines in life. Moreover, it also helped to increase their motivation to the lesson made them more curious about mathematical concepts. To conclude, this study demonstrated that interdisciplinary activities could be a beneficial way to differentiate or accommodate lesson for gifted students’ specialized needs in educational environments.
A Qualitative Study: Teaching Fractions with Augmented Reality for 5th Grade Students in Turkey
Usage of augmented reality in education helps students to make sense of the three-dimensional world of mathematics. In this study, it was aimed to develop activities about fractions for 5th-grade students by augmented reality and also aimed to assess these activities in terms of students’ understanding and views. Data obtained from 60 students in a private school in Marmaris, Turkey was obtained through classroom observations, students’ worksheets and semi-structured interviews during two weeks. Data analysis was conducted by using constant-comparative analysis which leads to meaningful categories of findings. Findings of this study indicated that usage of augmented reality is a facilitator to make concretize and provide real-life application for fractions. Moreover, students’ opinions about its usage were lead to categories as benefit for learning, enjoyment and creating awareness of usage of augmented reality in mathematics education. In general, this study could be a bridge to show the contributions of augmented reality applications to mathematics education and also highlights that augmented reality could be used with subjects like fractions rather than subjects only in geometry learning domain.
Initiatives and Outcomes of Institutions Developing Excellence in Academic Leadership-National
Case Western Reserve University’s (CWRU’s) NSF ADVANCE PLAN IHE award, Institutions Developing Excellence in Academic Leadership-National (IDEAL-N), is transforming institutional cultures and improving women’s participation and advancement in STEM fields at 10 research universities in Ohio and Pennsylvania (Bowling Green State University, Cleveland State University, CWRU, Kent State University, University of Akron, University of Toledo, Carnegie Mellon University, Duquesne University, Indiana University of Pennsylvania and University of Pittsburgh). In this poster we will describe the cumulative goals, activities, and outcomes fostered by the inter-university learning community at the project’s two-year mark. Specifically we will highlight the customized gender equity change initiatives undertaken at each university and the emerging outcomes. Change team leaders, consisting of a Provost’s Office representative, an S&E dean or department chair, and a social science faculty member participate in a leadership enhancement program and lead the change efforts at each university. These change efforts include development of a gender equity index, coaching and mentoring programs, work-family policy changes, climate surveys, women faculty forums, new women faculty welcome receptions, cross IDEAL-N team gatherings, bias buster training, leadership retreats, and child care matching online programs.
E-Learning Challenges and Instructors' Demographic Profiles in a Public University in Yemen
E-Learning systems have become widely spread in most colleges and universities all over the world during the last ten years. The developers of e-learning environment are frequently insisted by researchers to consider demographic differences. Thus, this research aims to examine the pattern between the demographic profiles of the instructors and the challenges of implementing e-learning. The demographic variables that were selected to investigate in this study were gender, age, ICT experience, and teaching and e-learning experience. A quantitative approach was used in this study to examine the instructors' views about the challenges that they are facing in implementing e-learning Hodiedah University in Yemen. Survey research method based a questionnaire was used for the data collection. A total of 107 respondents completed the survey-based the questionnaire. The paper discussed the results of the pattern between the challenges of implementing e-learning with demographic variables and it was found that the demographic variables play a direct and indirect role with the challenges of implementing e-learning in the university. The study investigated the impacts of demographic data and reported the critical points for the decision makers to consider when planning and implementing e-learning in universities. The obtained data, from such study, can provide information about what academic institutions can do before implementing e-learning to reduce and overcome the obstacles in implementing e-learning in any public university. Administrators should consider the needs of instructors when implementing e-learning in any university. For instance, they will need training programs on computers and e-learning platforms. Moreover, instructors need to have a technical support whereas they interact in the e-learning environment. Furthermore, decision makers have to support the implementation of e-learning by inviting all the universities to come together, collaborate and apply collective understanding of the challenges that face the implementation of e-learning. Otherwise, e-learning cannot be implemented successfully.
Mealtime Talk as a Context of Learning: A Multiple Case Study of Australian Chinese Parents' Interaction with Their Preschool Aged Children at Dinner Table
Research identifies that mealtime talk can be a significant learning context that provides children with rich experiences to foster their language and cognitive development. Middle-classed parents create an extended learning discourse for their children through sophisticated vocabulary, narrative and explanation genres at dinner table. However, mealtime opportunities vary with some parents having little interaction with their children and some parents focusing on directive of children’s behaviors. This study investigated five Chinese families’ parent-child interaction during mealtime that was rarely reported in the literature. The five families differ in terms of their living styles. Three families are from professional background where both mothers the fathers work in Australian companies and both of them present at dinner time. The other two families own business. The mothers are housemakers and the fathers are always absent at dinner time due to their busy business life. Employing case study method, the five Chinese families’ parent-child interactions at dinner table were recorded using a video camera. More than 3000 clauses were analyzed with the framework of 'systems of clause complexing' from systemic functional linguistic theory. The finding shows that mothers played a critical role in the interaction with their children by initiating most conversations. The three mothers from professional background tended to use more language in extending and expanding pattern that is beneficial for children’s language development and high level of thinking (e.g., logical thinking). The two house making mothers’ language focused more on the directive of their children’s social manners and dietary behaviors. The fathers though seemed to be less active, contributing to the richness of the conversation through their occasional props such as asking open questions or initiating a new topic. In general, the families from professional background were more advantaged in providing learning opportunities for their children at dinner table than the families running business were. The home experiences of Chinese children is an important topic in research due to the rapidly increasing number of Chinese children in Australia and other English speaking countries. Such research assist educators in the education of Chinese children with more awareness of Chinese children experiences at home that could be very unlike the settings in English schools. This study contributes to the research in this area through the analysis of language in parent-child interaction during mealtime, which is very different from previous research that mainly investigated Chinese families through survey and interview. The finding of different manners in language use between the professional families and business families has implication for the understanding of the variation of Chinese children’s home experiences that is influenced not only by parents’ socioeconomic status but their lifestyles.
Interactive Integrated Tutorial for Active Self-Learning: An Effective Method to Teach Medical Subjects to Dental Undergraduates in India
Approach of undergraduate students’ towards learning in medical and dental courses is usually exam centered. Therefore, the shelf life of knowledge gained in pre and para-clinical subjects is short. It is also observed that some of the dental students in our setting take less interest in medical subjects. Moreover, due to lack of opportunities for active self-learning, students do not develop skills of integrating knowledge from different preclinical and para-clinical medical subjects. Hence, application of knowledge to the practical life situations suffers. Various methods of active self-learning are focus of research interest currently and being tried to generate interest among students. An innovative approach of interactive integrated tutorial was used to assess its feasibility in teaching medical subjects to dental undergraduates. The aim was to promote active self-learning and develop skills of integrating knowledge to learn about a disease condition among undergraduate dental students. The objectives were to 1) introduce the integrated interactive learning method through two departments, 2) get feedback of the students and faculty on feasibility and effectiveness of this method in learning reasoning skills and gain better and deeper understanding of the disease condition in an enjoyable way. It was a cross-sectional observational study. Second Year students in Bachelor of Dental Surgery course were divided into two groups. Each group was asked to study Physiology and Pathology of a common and important condition (anemia and hypertension) in a week’s time. During the tutorial, students asked questions on physiology and pathology of that condition from each other in the presence of teachers of both physiology and pathology departments. The teachers acted only as facilitator. Three sessions were conducted for three batches of students in consecutive years. After each session, the feedback of students and faculty on their satisfaction and learning experience of this alternative learning strategy was obtained. Results: Majority (80%) students felt that this method of learning is enjoyable and helped to develop reasoning skills and ability to correlate and integrate the knowledge from two related fields. 72% felt that this kind of learning leads to better understanding of the topic and motivated them towards deep learning. Teachers observed that the study promoted interdepartmental cross discipline collaboration and better students’ linkages. Challenges faced: Students had to spare extra time to read and prepare two subjects. Some of them could not frame questions appropriately to ask from their peers during the tutorial. Teachers had to intervene and rephrase the improperly framed questions. The teachers had to play an effective role in conflict management and promote respectful relationship by maintaining discipline and controlling teams, and explain answers. Lack of cooperation from other departments is feared and therefore teachers need to break interdepartmental barriers to conduct such sessions. Conclusion: Interactive Integrated tutorials are effective in motivating dental students for better and deep learning of medical subjects. Recommendation: Impact on long term retention and practical application of knowledge should be tested in a prospective study with follow up.
Teachers' Beliefs about Emotion Dysregulation Prevention Measures at Primary School
Primary school teachers are often confronted with children’s disruptional impulsive behavior, which reflects the disability to adequately regulate emotions. Consequently, teaching frequently is not further possible. That is why there are numerous cognitive-behavioral intervention programs (CBI) that are constituted in primary schools in order to improve emotion regulation abilities or to prevent emotion dysregulation behavior of primary school children. However, some empirical studies have been able to outline that the effects of these prevention programs like Tools for Getting Along (TFGA) do not last for a long time, they rather have negative effects on emotion regulation. Because of that, sustainability of CBI programs is questioned. Accordingly, new ways should be found to improve emotion regulation, and further to prevent emotion dysregulation in primary school children. Therefore, teachers’ beliefs, conceptions, and perceptions about any emotion dysregulation prevention measures at primary school are focused in this study. For this purpose, guideline-based, structured interviews with 30 primary school teachers have been analyzed in three steps on the basis of content analysis by Mayring: paraphrasing, generalisation and reduction with categorization. First results show two main categories concerning precautionary measures in order to prevent emotion dysregulation at primary school: (1) Classroom-intern prevention measures, and (2) School-wide prevention measures. Classroom-intern prevention measures notably include special individual behaviors of teachers, actional as well as reactional. However, teachers mentioned three subcategories regarding school-wide prevention measures: (i) External prevention programs such as established CBI, like Peaceful Cooperation in Conflict Situations (PCCS), (ii) Internal preventions, such as 'Time-out corner', or 'Stop, I do not want that!', and (iii) Social workers. In sum, the primary school teachers believe that there are helpful aspects of some established programs to prevent emotion dysregulation in classroom: By that, it seems most important, to talk about the perception of emotions and to learn how to change perspective. Likewise, the 'Time-out corner' was mentioned to be a very effective intervention to handle with emotion dysregulation and to prevent escalation of disruptional behavior. Consisting prevention programs should be modulated on the bases of these findings to improve sustainability.
Promoting Independent Reading: An Industry Partnership
Independent reading is a critical factor in on-going literacy development. It is a key element as students shift from ‘learning to read’ to ‘reading to learn’, where early reading skill levels do not automatically translate to engaged adolescent readers. This paper reports on a collaborative enterprise between Melbourne Football Club (MFC) and Monash University, which targets students from 9-12 years of age. The Read Like a Demon (RLAD) project is industry leading and is designed to present AFL footballers as reading role models, to promote reading as a valuable life skill to children and facilitate children to experience success in reading and writing. The project does not seek to explicitly ‘teach’ reading skills through curriculum-based work but aims specifically at levels of engagement and enjoyment. Research into the project is framed as a case study with data collected from both teachers and students. Researchers will draw on survey and interview data to provide insights into the impact of the project on teacher practice and student engagement. Findings suggest that access to resources that are ‘promoted’ by the footballers can lead to greater independent engagement. Students identified as at-risk readers can be re-engaged with traditional and digital texts, both in the classroom and beyond. Teacher practice was enhanced through professional learning and use of the resources presented as part of the project. The extended industry partnership demonstrates how literacy development can be addressed as a broader community concern.
Embedding Employability in the Curriculum: Experiences from New Zealand
The global and national employability agenda is changing the higher education landscape as academic staff are faced with the responsibility of developing employability capabilities and attributes in addition to delivering discipline specific content and skills. They realise that the shift towards teaching sustainable capabilities means a shift in the way they teach. But what that shift should be or how they should bring it about is unclear. As part of a national funded project, representatives from several New Zealand (NZ) higher education institutions and the NZ Association of Graduate Employers partnered to discover, trial and disseminate means of embedding employability in the curriculum. Findings from four focus groups (n=~75) and individual interviews (n=20) with staff from several NZ higher education institutions identified factors that enable or hinder embedded employability development within their respective institutions. Participants believed that higher education institutions have a key role in developing graduates for successful lives and careers however this requires a significant shift in culture within their respective institutions. Participants cited three main barriers: lack of strategic direction, support and guidance; lack of understanding and awareness of employability; and lack of resourcing and staff capability. Without adequate understanding and awareness of employability, participants believed it is difficult to understand what employability is let alone how it can be embedded in the curriculum. This presentation will describe some of the impacts that the employability agenda has on staff as they try to move from traditional to contemporary forms of teaching to develop employability attributes of students. Changes at the institutional level are required to support contemporary forms of teaching, however this is often beyond the sphere of influence at the teaching staff level. The study identified that small changes to teaching practices were necessary and a simple model to facilitate change from traditional to contemporary forms of teaching was developed. The model provides a framework to identify small but impactful teaching practices and exemplar teaching practices were identified. These practices were evaluated for transferability into other contexts to encourage small but impactful changes to embed employability in the curriculum.
Fostering Students’ Cultural Intelligence: A Social Media Experiential Project
Business contexts have become globalised and digitalised, which requires that managers develop a strong sense of cross-cultural intelligence while working in geographically distant teams by means of digital technologies. How to better equip future managers on these kinds of skills has been put forward as a critical issue in Business Schools. In pursuing these goals, higher education is shifting from a passive lecture approach, to more active and experiential learning approaches that are more suitable to learn skills. For example, through the use of case studies, proposing plausible business problem to be solved by students (or teams of students), these institutions have focused for long in fostering learning by doing. Though, case studies are no longer enough as a tool to promote active teamwork and experiential learning. Moreover, digital advancements applied to educational settings have enabled augmented classrooms, expanding the learning experience beyond the class, which increase students’ engagement and experiential learning. Different authors have highlighted the benefits of digital engagement in order to achieve a deeper and longer-lasting learning and comprehension of core marketing concepts. Clickers, computer-based simulations and business games have become fairly popular between instructors, but still are limited by the fact that are fictional experiences. Further exploration of real digital platforms to implement real, live projects in the classroom seem relevant for marketing and business education. Building on this, this paper describes the development of an experiential learning activity in class, in which students developed a communication campaign in teams using the BuzzFeed platform, and subsequently implementing the campaign by using other social media platforms (e.g. Facebook, Instagram, Twitter…). The article details the procedure of using the project for a marketing module in a Bachelor program with students located in France, Italy and Spain campuses working on multi-campus groups. Further, this paper describes the project outcomes in terms of students’ engagement and analytics (i.e. visits achieved). the project included a survey in order to analyze and identify main aspects related to how the learning experience is influenced by the cultural competence developed through working in geographically distant and culturally diverse teamwork. Finally, some recommendations to use project-based social media tools while working with virtual teamwork in the classroom are provided.
The Use of Mobile Learning an iTunes U App for the Development of Metacognition Skills as Delivered in the Enrichment Program Offered to Gifted Students at the Secondary Level in Jeddah
This research aimed to measure the impact of use of mobile learning an iTunes u app For the development of metacognition skills as delivered in the enrichment Program offered to gifted students at the secondary level in Jeddah. To achieve the purpose of the researcher followed the semi-experimental design with one group measured. The research sample consisted of (38) gifted female students secondary level in Jeddah. The scale of metacognition skills was used to measure the performance of students in the Enrichment Program, Satisfaction scale for the use of the technique used and the final product form after completion of the program. Appropriate statistical treatment is used, including Paired Samples T-Test and Cronbach alpha formula and square ETA to measure the effect size. It was concluded in the results of several of the most important of which is the existence of a difference statistically significant at the level of significance(α≤0,05) between the average measure the performance of students in the skills of metacognition as a whole before using (iTunes) and in favor of the dimensional application. In light of the outcome of the results was presented a number of recommendations and suggestions, the most important benefit of learning applications mobile to improve access and provide enrichment programs for students gifted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and conducting more research on learning mobile and gifted teaching.
Understanding the Communication Practices of Special Educators with Parents of High School Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
High school students’ with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) are one of the most underserved populations in today's schools. Using a multiple case study methodology, interviews were conducted to examine current practices and perceptions of the communication practices of teachers working with high school students with EBD. These interviews involved questions about general communication instances which occurred each week, communication strategies used each week, and how progress was being made on forming relationships with parents. Results confirm previous researchers’ hypotheses regarding methods, purposes, and regularity of positive communication incidences. Communication that met the positive goals of nurturing and maintaining relationships was open and frequent, reciprocal, and informal. Limitations are discussed as well as issues of trustworthiness. The case study concludes with a discussion and suggestions for high school special educators of students with EBD.
Challenges and Lessons of Mentoring Processes for Novice Principals: An Exploratory Case Study of Induction Programs in Chile
Research has shown that school leadership has a significant indirect effect on students’ achievements. In Chile, evidence has also revealed that this impact is stronger in vulnerable schools. With the aim of strengthening school leadership, public policy has taken up the challenge of enhancing capabilities of novice principals through the implementation of induction programs, which include a mentoring component, entrusting the task of delivering these programs to universities. The importance of using mentoring or coaching models in the preparation of novice school leaders has been emphasized in the international literature. Thus, it can be affirmed that building leadership capacity through partnership is crucial to facilitate cognitive and affective support required in the initial phase of the principal career, gain role clarification and socialization in context, stimulate reflective leadership practice, among others. In Chile, mentoring is a recent phenomenon in the field of school leadership and it is even more new in the preparation of new principals who work in public schools. This study, funded by the Chilean Ministry of Education, sought to explore the challenges and lessons arising from the design and implementation of mentoring processes which are part of the induction programs, according to the perception of the different actors involved: ministerial agents, university coordinators, mentors and novice principals. The investigation used a qualitative design, based on a study of three cases (three induction programs). The sources of information were 46 semi-structured interviews, applied in two moments (at the beginning and end of mentoring). Content analysis technique was employed. Data focused on the uniqueness of each case and the commonalities within the cases. Five main challenges and lessons emerged in the design and implementation of mentoring within the induction programs for new principals from Chilean public schools. They comprised the need of (i) developing a shared conceptual framework on mentoring among the institutions and actors involved, which helps align the expectations for the mentoring component within the induction programs, along with assisting in establishing a theory of action of mentoring that is relevant to the public school context; (ii) recognizing trough actions and decisions at different levels that the role of a mentor differs from the role of a principal, which challenge the idea that an effective principal will always be an effective mentor; iii) improving mentors’ selection and preparation processes trough the definition of common guiding criteria to ensure that a mentor takes responsibility for developing critical judgment of novice principals, which implies not limiting the mentor’s actions to assist in the compliance of prescriptive practices and standards; (iv) generating common evaluative models with goals, instruments and indicators consistent with the characteristics of mentoring processes, which helps to assess expected results and impact; and (v) including the design of a mentoring structure as an outcome of the induction programs, which helps sustain mentoring within schools as a collective professional development practice. Results showcased interwoven elements that entail continuous negotiations at different levels. Taking action will contribute to policy efforts aimed at professionalizing the leadership role in public schools.
Going beyond Elementary Algebraic Identities: The Expectation of a Gifted Child, an Indian Scenario
A gifted child is one who gives evidence of creativity, good memory, rapid learning. In mathematics, a teacher often comes across some gifted children and they exhibit the following characteristics: unusual alertness, enjoying solving problems, getting bored on repetitions, self-taught, going beyond what teacher taught, ask probing questions, connecting unconnected concepts, vivid imagination, readiness for research work, perseverance of a topic. There are two main areas of research carried out on them: 1)identifying gifted children, 2) interacting and channelizing them. A lack of appropriate recognition will lead the gifted child demotivated. One of the main findings is if proper attention and nourishment are not given then it leads a gifted child to become depressed, underachieving, fail to reach their full potential and sometimes develop negative attitude towards school and study. After identifying them, a mathematics teacher has to develop them into a fall fledged achiever. The responsibility of the teacher is enormous. The teacher has to be resourceful and patient. But interacting with them one finds a lot of surprises and awesomeness. The elementary algebraic identities like (a+b)(a-b)=a²-b², expansion of like (a+b)²(a-b)² and others are taught to students, of age group 13-15 in India. An average child will be satisfied with a single proof and immediate application of these identities. But a gifted child expects more from the teacher and at one stage after a little training will surpass the teacher also. In this short paper, the author shares his experience regarding teaching algebraic identities to gifted children. The following problem was given to a set of 10 gifted children of the specified age group: If a natural number ‘n’ to expressed as the sum of the two squares, will 2n also be expressed as the sum of two squares? An investigation has been done on what multiples of n satisfying the criterion. The attempts of the gifted children were consolidated and conclusion was drawn. A second problem was given to them as: can two natural numbers be found such that the difference of their square is 3? After a successful solution, more situations were analysed. As a third question, the finding of the sign of an algebraic expression in three variables was analysed. As an example: if a,b,c are real and unequal what will be sign of a²+4b²+9c²-4ab-12bc-6ca? Apart from an expression as a perfect square what other methods can be employed to prove an algebraic expression as positive negative or non negative has been analysed. Expressions like 4x²+2y²+13y²-2xy-4yz-6zx were given, and the children were asked to find the sign of the expression for all real values of x,y and z. In all investigations, only basic algebraic identities were used. As a next probe, a divisibility problem was initiated. When a,b,c are natural numbers such that a+b+c is at least 6, and if a+b+c is divisible by 6 then will 6 divide a³+b³+c³. The gifted children solved it in two different ways.
Strategic Fit between Higher Education Funding and the National Development Goals in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan is the eight largest country on the globe, in terms of the territory, it is rich in natural resources and is developing dynamically. Kazakhstan strives to become one of the top 30 global economies by 2050. This goal preconditions intensive reforms in all sectors of economy, including higher education. This paper focuses on the higher education funding reforms that take place in Kazakhstan and their alignment with the strategic goals of national development. Currently, the government funds higher education costs for only a limited number of students while the majority of students pay full cost covering tuition fees. Only students with high examination scores at the end of the secondary education are eligible to be admitted to publically funded study places in higher education. While this merit-based higher education funding model is overall well-received in the country, there is also a discourse calling to change the existing approach of higher education funding. This paper draws on interviews with national policy makers and leadership at institutions of higher education in Kazakhstan collected during 2016. It seeks to answer a question about how well the current higher education funding mechanism is aligned with the strategic development goals in higher education. The paper discusses how stakeholders see the fit between the current higher education funding mechanism and the ability of higher education institutions to achieve the aims of national strategic development.
Differences in Preschool Educators' and Parents' Interactive Behavior during a Cooperative Task with Children
Introduction: In everyday life experiences, children are solicited to cooperate with others. Often they perform cooperative tasks with their parents (e.g., setting the table for dinner) or in school. These tasks are very significant since children may learn to turn taking in interactions, to participate as well to accept others participation, to trust, to respect, to negotiate, to self-regulate their emotions, etc. Indeed, cooperative tasks contribute to children social, motor, cognitive and linguistic development. Therefore, it is important to study what learning, social and affective experiences are provided to children during these tasks. In this study, we included parents and preschool educators. Parents and educators are both significant: educative, interactive and affective figures. Rarely parents and educators behavior have been compared in studies about cooperative tasks. Parents and educators have different but complementary styles of interaction and communication. Aims: Therefore, this study aims to compare parents and educators' (of both genders) interactive behavior (cooperativity, empathy, ability to challenge the child, reciprocity, elaboration) during a play/individualized situation involving a cooperative task. Moreover, to compare parents and educators' behavior with girls and boys. Method: A quasi-experimental study with 45 dyads educators-children and 45 dyads with parents and their children. In this study, participated children between 3 and 5 years old and with age appropriate development. Adults and children were videotaped using a variety of materials (e.g., pencils, wood, wool) and tools (e.g., scissors, hammer) to produce together something of their choice during 20-minutes. Each dyad (one adult and one child) was observed and videotaped independently. Adults and children agreed and consented to participate. Experimental conditions were suitable, pleasant and age appropriated. Results: Findings indicate that parents and teachers offer different learning experiences. Teachers were more likely to challenged children to explore new concepts and to accept children ideas. In turn, parents gave more support to children actions and were more likely to use their own example to teach children. Multiple regression analysis indicates that parent versus educator status predicts their behavior. Gender of both children and adults affected the results. Adults acted differently with girls and boys (e.g., adults worked more cooperatively with girls than boys). Male participants supported more girls participation rather than boys while female adults allowed boys to make more decisions than girls. Discussion: Taking our results and past studies, we learn that different qualitative interactions and learning experiences are offered by parents, educators according to parents and children gender. Thus, the same child needs to learn different cooperative strategies according to their interactive patterns and specific context. Yet, cooperative play and individualized activities with children generate learning opportunities and benefits children participation and involvement.
Play Based Practices in Early Childhood Curriculum: The Contribution of High Scope, Modern School Movement and Pedagogy of Participation
The power of play for learning and development in early childhood education is beyond question. The main goal of this study is to analyse how three contemporary early childhood pedagogical approaches, the High Scope, the Modern School Movement (MEM) and the Pedagogy of Participation integrate play in their curriculum development. From this main goal the following objectives emerged: (i) to characterize how play is integrated in the daily routine of the pedagogical approaches under study; (ii) to analyse the teachers’ role during children’s playing situations; (iii) to identify the types of play that children are more often involved. The methodology used is the qualitative approach and is situated under the interpretative paradigm. Data is collected through semi-structured interviews to 30 preschool teachers and through observations of typical daily routines. The participants are 30 Portuguese preschool classrooms attending children from 3 to 6 years and working with the High Scope curriculum (10 classrooms), the MEM (10 classrooms) and the Pedagogy of Participation (10 classrooms). The qualitative method of content analysis was used to analyse the data. To ensure confidentiality, no information is disclosed without participants' consent, and the interviews were transcribed and sent to the participants for a final revision. The results show that there are differences how play is integrated and promoted in the three pedagogical approaches. The teachers’ role when children are at play varies according the pedagogical approach adopted, and also according to the teachers’ understanding about the meaning of play. The study highlights the key role that early childhood curriculum models have to promote opportunities for children to play, and therefore to be involved in meaningful learning.
A Co-Constructed Picture of Chinese Teachers' Conceptions of Learning at Play
This qualitative study investigated Chinese teachers’ perspectives on learning at play. Six kindergarten teachers were interviewed to obtain their understanding of learning at play. Exemplary play episodes from their classrooms were selected with the assistance of the participating teachers. Four three-minute videos containing the largest amount of learning elements based on the teachers’ views were selected for analysis. Applying video-stimulated interviews, the selected video clips were shown to eight teachers in two focus groups to elicit their perspectives on learning at play. The findings revealed that Chinese teachers have a very structured representation of learning at play, which should contribute to the development of professional practices and curricular policies.
Adding 21st Century Computer Technology to the Training of Early Childhood Teachers: A Study of Second-Year Education Students Challenged with Building a Kindergarten Website
This research is the continuation of a process that began in 2010 with the goal of redesigning the training program for future early childhood teachers at the Ohalo College, to integrate technology and provide 21st-century skills. The article focuses on a study of the processes involved in developing a special educational unit which challenged students with the task of designing, planning and building an internet site for kindergartens. This project was part of their second-year studies in the early childhood track of an interdisciplinary course entitled 'Educating for the Future.' The goal: enabling students to gain experience in developing an internet site specifically for kindergartens, and gain familiarity with Google platforms, the acquisition and use of innovative skills and the integration of technology in pedagogy. Research questions examined how students handled the task of building an internet site. The study explored whether the guided process of building a site helped them develop proficiency in creativity, teamwork, evaluation and learning appropriate to the 21st century. The research tool was a questionnaire constructed by the researchers and distributed online to the students. Answers were collected from 50 course participants. Analysis of the participants’ responses showed that, along with the significant experience and benefits that students gained from building a website for kindergarten, ambivalence was shown toward the use of new, unfamiliar and complex technology. This attitude was characterized by unease and initial emotional distress triggered by the departure from routine training to an island of uncertainty. Gradual change took place toward the adoption of innovation with the help of empathy, training, and guidance from the instructors, leading to the students’ success in carrying out the task. Initial success led to further successes, resulting in a quality product and a feeling of personal competency among the students. A clear and extreme emotional shift was observed on the spectrum from a sense of difficulty and dissatisfaction to feelings of satisfaction, joy, competency and cognitive understanding of the importance of facing a challenge and succeeding. The findings of this study can contribute to increased understanding of the complex training process of future kindergarten teachers, coping with a changing world, and pedagogy that is supported by technology.
Consequences of Inadequate Funding in Nigerian Educational System
This paper discussed the consequences of inadequate funding in Nigerian education system. It briefly explained the meaning of education in relation to the context and identified various ways education in Nigeria can be funded. It highlighted some of the consequences of inadequate funding education system to include: Inadequate facilitates for teaching and learning, western brain drain, unemployment, crises of poverty, low staff morale it. Finally, some recommendations were put forward, the government should improve the annual budget allocation to education, in order to achieve educational objective, also government should monitor the utilization of allocated funds to minimize embezzlement.
Online Faculty Professional Development: An Approach to the Design Process
Faculty development is critical for any institution as it impacts students’ learning experiences and faculty performance with regards to course delivery. With that in mind, The Chang School at Ryerson University embarked on an initiative to develop a comprehensive, relevant faculty development program for online faculty and instructors. Teaching Adult Learners Online (TALO) is a professional development program designed to build capacity among online teaching faculty to enhance communication/facilitation skills for online instruction and establish a Community of Practice to allow for opportunities for online faculty to network and exchange ideas and experiences. TALO is comprised of four online modules and each module provides three hours of learning materials. The topics focus on online teaching and learning experience, principles and practices, opportunities and challenges in online assessments as well as course design and development. TALO offers a unique experience for online instructors who are placed in the role of a student and an instructor through interactivities involving discussions, hands-on assignments, peer mentoring while experimenting with technological tools available for their online teaching. Through exchanges and informal peer mentoring, a small interdisciplinary community of practice has started to take shape. Successful participants have to meet four requirements for completion: i) participate actively in online discussions and activities, ii) develop a communication plan for the course they are teaching, iii) design one learning activity/or media component, iv) design one online learning module. This study adopted a mixed methods exploratory sequential design. For the qualitative phase of this study, a thorough literature review was conducted on what constitutes effective faculty development programs. Based on that review, the design team identified desired competencies for online teaching/facilitation and course design. Once the competencies were identified, a focus group interview with The Chang School teaching community was conducted as a needs assessment and to validate the competencies. In the quantitative phase, questionnaires were distributed to instructors and faculty after the program was launched to continue ongoing evaluation and revisions, in hopes of further improving the program to meet the teaching community’s needs. Four faculty members participated in a one-hour focus group interview. Major findings from the focus group interview revealed that for the training program, faculty wanted i) to better engage students online, ii) to enhance their online teaching with specific strategies, iii) to explore different ways to assess students online. 91 faculty members completed the questionnaire in which findings indicated that: i) the majority of faculty stated that they gained the necessary skills to demonstrate instructor presence through communication and use of technological tools provided, ii) increased faculty confidence with course management strategies, iii) learning from peers is most effective – the Community of Practice is strengthened and valued even more as program alumni become facilitators. Although this professional development program is not mandatory for online instructors, since its launch in Fall 2014, over 152 online instructors have successfully completed the program. A Community of Practice emerged as a result of the program and participants continue to exchange thoughts and ideas about online teaching and learning.
Informed Decision-Making in Classrooms among High School Students regarding Nuclear Power Use in India
The economic development of any country is based on the policies adopted by the government from time to time. If these policies are framed by the opinion of the people of the country, there is need for having strong knowledge base, right from the school level. There should be emphasis to provide in education, an ability to take informed decisions regarding socio-scientific issues. It would be better to adopt this practice in high school classrooms to build capacity among future citizens. This study is an attempt to provide a different approach of teaching and learning in classrooms at the high school level in Indian schools for providing opportunity for informed decision making regarding nuclear power use. A unit of work based on the 5E instructional model about the use of nuclear energy is used to build knowledge base and find out the effectiveness in terms of its influence for taking decisions as a future citizen. A sample of 120 students from three high schools using different curricula and teaching and learning methods were chosen for this study. This research used a design based research method. A pre and post questionnaire based on the theory of reasoned action, structured observations, focus group interviews and opportunity for decision making were used during the intervention. The data analysed qualitatively and quantitatively, and the qualitative data were coded into categories based on responses. The results of the study show that students were able to make informed decisions and could give reasons for their decisions. They were enthusiastic in formulating policy making based on their knowledge base and have strong held views and reasoning for their choice.
Upgrading Engineering Education in Häme University of Applied Sciences: Towards Teacher Teams, Flexible Processes and Versatile Company Collaboration
In this acceleratingly developing world, it will be crucial for our students to not only to adapt to continuous change, but to be the driving force of it. This raises the question of how can the educational processes motivate and encourage the students to learn the perhaps most important skill there for their further work career: the ability to learn and absorb more by themselves. In engineering education, the learning contents and methods have traditionally been very substance oriented and teacher-centered. In Häme University of Applied Sciences (HAMK), the pedagogical model has been completely renewed during the past few years. Terms like phenomenon or skills-based learning and collaborative teaching are things which have not very often been related to engineering education, but are now the foundation of HAMK’s pedagogical model in all disciplines, even in engineering studies. In this paper, a new flexible way of executing engineering studies will be introduced. The paper will summarize three years’ experiences and observations of a process where traditional teacher-centric mechanical engineering teaching was converted into a model where teachers work collaboratively in teams supporting the students’ learning processes.
The Specificity of Mother's Attitude to a Preschool Child Having Complex Disorders: The Key to Adaptive Functioning
The family of a child with disabilities is an important mechanism of socialization. The relationship of mother and child with developmental difficulties is a significant predictor of the emergence, development and interiorization of various forms of mental activity. Complex impairments of the child form nonconstructive maternal attitude and destructive behavior strategies that complicate the dyadic relationship ‘mother-child’. The study of psychological characteristics of mother's personality was conducted within four years, and adaptive abilities of a child with a complex disorder were evaluated as well. 25 diads (25 mothers and 25 preschool children aged between 4-7 years with complex developmental disorders) took part in the study. Typological features of mothers rearing deafblind preschoolers are described. Constructive and non-constructive types of mothers’ attitude to a pre-school child with complex disorders are specified. The research shows that mothers of deafblind children are more depressed, they are engaged in children’s rearing more, and at the same time they experience difficulties to control negative emotions towards children or demonstrate impulsive behavior with a high level of anxiety. The correlation analysis of relationships between Vineland scales and the dominant type of mothers’ attitude to a child shows the presence of both general and specific links. Adaptive profile analysis of a child with complex disabilities allows to plan specific ways to increase their adaptation by developing a dyadic constructive relationship system. Techniques to develop constructive parental attitudes toward the child are proposed.
Psychological Factors of Readiness of Defectologists to Professional Development: On the Example of Choosing an Educational Environment
The study pays special attention to the definition of the psychological potential of a specialist-defectologist, which determines his desire to increase the level of his or her professional competence. The group included participants of the educational environment – an additional professional program 'Technologies of psychological and pedagogical assistance for children with complex developmental disabilities' implemented by the department of defectology and clinical psychology of the KFU jointly with the Support Fund for the Deafblind people 'Co-Unity'. The purpose of our study was to identify the psychological aspects of the readiness of the specialist-defectologist to his or her professional development. The study assessed the indicators of psychological preparedness, and its four components were taken into account: motivational, cognitive, emotional and volitional. We used valid and standardized tests during the study. As a result of the factor analysis of data received (from Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis, Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization, Rotation converged in 12 iterations), there were identified three factors with maximum factor load from 24 indices, and their correlation coefficients with other indicators were taken into account at the level of reliability p ≤ 0.001 and p ≤ 0.01. Thus the system making factor was determined – it’s a 'motivation to achieve success'; it formed a correlation galaxy with two other factors: 'general internality' and 'internality in the field of achievements', as well as with such psychological indicators as 'internality in the field of family relations', 'internality in the field of interpersonal relations 'and 'low self-control-high self-control' (the names of the scales used is the same as names in the analysis methods. In conclusion of the article, we present some proposals to take into account the psychological model of readiness of specialists-defectologists for their professional development, to stimulate the growth of their professional competence. The study has practical value for all providers of special education and organizations that have their own specialists-defectologists, teachers-defectologists, teachers for correctional and ergotherapeutic activities, specialists working in the field of correctional-pedagogical activity (speech therapists) to people with special needs who need true professional support.