Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 55180

Educational and Pedagogical Sciences

1784
98445
KUCERIA: A Media to Increase Students’ Reading Interest and Nutrition Knowledge
Abstract:
The preferred habit nowadays is to watch television or listen to the radio rather than reading a newspaper or magazine. The low interest in reading is the reason to the Indonesian government passed a regulation to foster interest in reading early in schoolchildren through literacy programs. Literacy programs are held for the first 10 - 15 minutes before classes begin and children are asked to read books other than textbooks such as storybooks or magazines. In addition, elementary school children have a tendency to buy less healthy snacks around the school and do not know the nutrition fact from the food purchased. Whereas snacks contribute greatly in the fulfillment of energy and nutrients of children every day. The purpose of this study was to increase reading interest as well as knowledge of nutrition and health for elementary school students. This study used quantitative method with experimental study design for four months with twice intervention per week and deepened by qualitative method in the form of interview. The participants were 130 students consisting of 3rd and 4th graders in selected elementary school in Depok City. The Interventions given using KUCERIA (Child Storybook) which were storybooks with pictures consisting of 12 series about nutrition and health given at school literacy hours. There were five questions given by using the crossword method to find out the students' understanding of the story content in each series. To maximize the understanding and absorption of information, two students were asked to retell the story in front of the class and one student to fill the crossword on the board for each series. In addition, interviews were conducted by asking questions about students' interest in reading books. Intervention involved not only students but also teachers and parents in order to optimize students' reading habits. Analysis showed > 80% of student could answer 3 of 5 questions correctly in each series, which showed they had an interest in what they read. Research data on nutrition and health knowledge were analyzed using Wilcoxon and Chi-Square Test to see the relationship. However, only 46% of students completed 12 series and the rest lost to follow up due to school schedule incompatibility with the program. The results showed that there was a significant increase of knowledge (p = 0.000) between before intervention with 66,53 score and after intervention with 81,47 score. Retention of knowledge was conducted one month after the last intervention was administered and the analysis result showed no significant decrease of knowledge (p = 0,000) from 79,17 score to 75,48 score. There is also no relationship between sex and class with knowledge. Hence, an increased interest in reading of elementary school students and nutritional knowledge interventions using KUCERIA was proved successful. These interventions may be replicated in other schools or learning communities.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1783
98228
Designing a Learning Table and Game Cards for Preschoolers for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) on Earthquake
Abstract:
Children are among the most vulnerable at the occurrence of natural disasters such as earthquakes. Most of the management and measures which are considered for both before and during an earthquake are neither suitable nor efficient for this age group and cannot be applied. On the other hand, due to their age, it is hard to educate and train children to learn and understand the concept of earthquake risk mitigation as matters like earthquake prevention and safe places during an earthquake are not easily perceived. To our knowledge, children’s awareness of such concepts via their own world with the help of games is the best training method in this case. In this article, the researcher has tried to consider the child an active element before and during the earthquake. With training, provided by adults before the incidence of an earthquake, the child has the ability to learn disaster risk reduction (DRR). The focus of this research is on learning risk reduction behavior and regarding children as an individual element. The information of this article has been gathered from library resources, observations and the drawings of 10 children aged 5 whose subject was their conceptual definition of an earthquake who were asked to illustrate their conceptual definition of an earthquake; the results of 20 questionnaires filled in by preschoolers along with information gathered by interviewing them. The design of the suitable educational game, appropriate for the needs of this age group, has been made based on the theory of design with help of the user and the priority of children’s learning needs. The final result is a package of a game which is comprised of a learning table and matching cards showing sign marks for safe and unsafe places which introduce the safe behaviors and safe locations before and during the earthquake. These educational games can be used both in group contexts in kindergartens and on an individual basis at home, and they help in earthquake risk reduction.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1782
97944
Critical Reading Achievement of Rural Migrant Children in China: The Roles of Educational Expectation
Abstract:
Rural migrant children have become a fast-growing population in China as a consequence of the large-scale population flow from rural to urban areas in the context of urbanization. In China, the socioeconomic status of migrant children is relatively low in comparison to non-migrant children. Parents of migrant children often work in occupations with long working hours, high labor intensity, and low pay due to their poor academic qualifications. Most migrant children's parents have not received higher education and have no time to read with their children. The family of migrant children usually does not have a good collection of books either, which leads to these children’s insufficient reading and low reading levels. Moreover, migrant children frequently relocate with their parents, and their needs for knowledge and reading are often neglected by schools, which puts migrant children at risk of academic failure in China. Therefore, the academic achievement of rural migrant children has become a focus of education in China. This study explores the relationship between the educational expectation of rural migrant children and their critical reading competence in general and the moderating effect of the difference between parental educational expectation to their children and the children’s own educational expectation. The responses to a survey from 5113 seventh-grade children in a district of the capital city in China revealed that children who moved to cities in grades 4-6 of primary school performed the best in critical reading, and children who moved to cities after middle school showed the worst performance in critical reading. In addition, parents’ educational expectations of their children and their own educational expectations were both significant predictors of rural migrant children’s reading competence. The higher a child's expectations of a degree and the smaller the gap between parents' expectations of a child's education and the child's own education expectations, the better the child's performance in critical reading.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1781
97652
Curriculum Transformation: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on ‘Decolonisation’ and ‘Africanisation’ of the Curriculum in South Africa’s Higher Education
Authors:
Abstract:
The years of 2015-2017 witnessed a huge campaign, and in some instances, violent protests in South Africa by students and some groups of academics advocating the decolonisation of the curriculum of universities. These protests have forced through high expectations for universities to teach a curriculum relevant to the country, and the continent as well as enabled South Africa to participate in the globalised world. To realise this purpose, most universities are currently undertaking steps to transform and decolonise their curriculum. However, the transformation process is challenged and delayed by lack of a collective understanding of the concepts ‘decolonisation’ and ‘africanisation’ that should guide its application. Even more challenging is lack of a contextual understanding of these concepts across different university disciplines. Against this background, and underpinned in a qualitative research paradigm, the perspectives of these concepts as applied by different university disciplines were examined in order to understand and establish their implementation in the curriculum transformation agenda. Data were collected by reviewing the teaching and learning plans of 8 faculties of an institution of higher learning in South Africa and analysed through content and textual analysis. The findings revealed varied understanding and use of these concepts in the transformation of the curriculum across faculties. Decolonisation, according to the faculties of Law and Humanities, is perceived as the eradication of the Eurocentric positioning in curriculum content and the constitutive rules and norms that control thinking. This is not done by ignoring other knowledge traditions but does call for an affirmation and validation of African views of the world and systems of thought, mixing it with current knowledge. For the Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, decolonisation is seen as making the content of the curriculum relevant to students, fulfilling the needs of industry and equipping students for job opportunities. This means the use of teaching strategies and methods that are inclusive of students from diverse cultures, and to structure the learning experience in ways that are not alien to the cultures of the students. For the Health Sciences, decolonisation of the curriculum refers to the need for a shift in Western thinking towards being more sensitive to all cultural beliefs and thoughts. Collectively, decolonisation of education thus entails that a nation must become independent with regard to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Based on the findings, for universities to successfully transform their curriculum and integrate the concepts of decolonisation and Africanisation, there is a need to contextually determine the meaning of the concepts generally and narrow them down to what they should mean to specific disciplines. Universities should refrain from considering an umbrella approach to these concepts. Decolonisation should be seen as a means and not an end. A decolonised curriculum should equally be developed based on the finest knowledge skills, values, beliefs and habits around the world and not limited to one country or continent.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1780
96825
A Conversation about Inclusive Education: Revelations from Namibian Primary School Teachers
Abstract:
Inclusive education stems from a philosophy and vision, which argues that all children should learn together at school. It is not only about treating all pupils in the same way. It is also about allowing all children to attend school without any restrictions. Ten primary school teachers in a circuit in Namibia volunteered to participate in face-to-face interviews about inclusive education. The teachers responded to three questions about their (i) understanding of inclusive education; (ii) whether inclusive education was implemented in primary schools; and (iii) whether they were able to work with learners with special needs. Findings indicated that teachers understood what inclusive education entailed; felt that inclusive education was not implemented in their primary schools, and they were unable to work with learners with special needs in their classrooms. Further, the teachers identified training and resources as important components of inclusive education. It is recommended that education authorities should perhaps verify the findings reported here as well as ensure that the concerns raised by the teachers are addressed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1779
96375
Exploratory Study of Contemporary Models of Leadership
Abstract:
Leadership is acknowledged internationally as fundamental to school efficiency and school enhancement nevertheless there are various understandings of what leadership is and how it is realised in practice. There are a number of educational leadership models that are considered important. However, the present study uses a systematic review method to examine and compare five models of the most well-known contemporary models of leadership as well as introduces the dimension of each model. Our results reveal that recently the distributed leadership has grown in popularity within the field of education. The study concludes by suggesting future directions in leadership development and education research.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1778
96323
Developing Pedagogy for Argumentation and Teacher Agency: An Educational Design Study in the UK
Authors:
Abstract:
Argumentation and the production of scientific arguments are essential components that are necessary for helping students become scientifically literate through engaging them in constructing and critiquing ideas. Incorporating argumentation into science classrooms is challenging and can be a long-term process for both students and teachers. Students have difficulty in engaging tasks that require them to craft arguments, evaluate them to seek weaknesses, and revise them. Teachers also struggle with facilitating argumentation when they have underdeveloped science practices, underdeveloped pedagogical knowledge for argumentation science teaching, or underdeveloped teaching practice with argumentation (or a combination of all three). Thus, there is a need to support teachers in developing pedagogy for science teaching as argumentation, planning and implementing teaching practice for facilitating argumentation and also in becoming more agentic in this regards. Looking specifically at the experience of agency within education, it is arguable that agency is necessary for teachers’ renegotiation of professional purposes and practices in the light of changing educational practices. This study investigated how science teachers develop pedagogy for argumentation both individually and with their colleagues and also how teachers become more agentic (or not) through the active engagement of their contexts-for-action that refer to this as an ecological understanding of agency in order to positively influence or change their practice and their students' engagement with argumentation over two academic years. Through educational design study, this study conducted with three secondary science teachers (key stage 3-year 7 students aged 11-12) in the UK to find out if similar or different patterns of developing pedagogy for argumentation and of becoming more agentic emerge as they engage in planning and implementing a cycle of activities during the practice of teaching science with argumentation. Data from video and audio-recording of classroom practice and open-ended interviews with the science teachers were analysed using content analysis. The findings indicated that all the science teachers perceived strong agency in their opportunities to develop and apply pedagogical practices within the classroom. The teachers were pro-actively shaping their practices and classroom contexts in ways that were over and above the amendments to their pedagogy. They demonstrated some outcomes in developing pedagogy for argumentation and becoming more agentic in their teaching in this regards as a result of the collaboration with their colleagues and researcher; some appeared more agentic than others. The role of the collaboration between their colleagues was seen crucial for the teachers’ practice in the schools: close collaboration and support from other teachers in planning and implementing new educational innovations were seen as crucial for the development of pedagogy and becoming more agentic in practice. They needed to understand the importance of scientific argumentation but also understand how it can be planned and integrated into classroom practice. They also perceived constraint emerged from their lack of competence and knowledge in posing appropriate questions to help the students engage in argumentation, providing support for the students' construction of oral and written arguments.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1777
96269
The Imperative for Disability Studies as an Independent Area of Enquiry in Indian Academia
Authors:
Abstract:
The present paper explores the imperative to establish disability studies as an independent area of academic inquiry in India through the establishment of specific programmes in disability studies. The case study of the efforts made by the Ambedkar University, Delhi, to develop such programs and courses shall be used to substantiate this imperative as well as to explore some of the challenges entailed. The paper shall explore the certain extent aspects of relevant scholarship in the area of disability studies in India today and critically reflect on the perspectives of disability in this scholarship. The study of disability in India has hitherto been the prerogative of special education, rehabilitation psychology, and social work departments. While instances of these departments adopting critical approaches to disability can be identified, their empirical focus has perpetuated the production of disability as the site of suffering and oppression. The complex cultural, phenomenological, historical and economic discourses within which disability is embedded can be better captured within distinctive programmes that have disability sui generis as their focus. Such programs would foreground disability as an epistemology, which universalizes the study of disability from disabled people alone to an analysis of various other groups who have been historically marginalized. It will also play an important role in recuperating disability from a state of alterity. The interdisciplinary nature of disability studies offers an opportunity to integrate perspectives from the humanities and the social sciences in the proposed programs. Some of the challenges or rather aspects of reflection that emerge in the course of developing these programs are the criteria for determining the suitability of faculty to teach these programs and the challenges in identifying faculty and in addressing any apprehensions about career prospects that prospective students might have. The manner in which these concerns are being addressed through the collaboration of expertise as well as through the interdisciplinary and flexible nature of the program shall be addressed in the course of the paper. In conclusion, the paper shall foreground the need for disability studies programs in India, the re-appropriation of existing scholarship in the process of formulation these programs, emerging concerns and the manner in which these concerns will be addressed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1776
96226
Effective Health Promotion Interventions Help Young Children to Maximize Their Future Well-Being by Early Childhood Development
Abstract:
Early childhood development is important to the emotional, social, and physical development of young children and it has a direct effect on their overall development and on the adult they become. Play is so important to optimal child developments including skill development, social development, imagination, creativity and it fulfills a baby’s inborn need to learn. So, health promotion approach empowers people about the development of early childhood. Play area is a new concept and this study focus how this play areas helps to the development of early childhood of children in rural villages in Sri Lanka. This study was conducted with a children society in a rural village called Welankulama in Sri Lanka. Survey was conducted with children society about emotional, social and physical development of young children (Under age eight) in this village using questionnaires. It described most children under eight years age have poor level of emotional, social and physical development in this village. Then children society wanted to find determinants for this problem and among them they prioritized determinants like parental interactions, learning environment and social interaction and address them using an innovative concept called play area. In this village there is a common place as play area under a big tamarind tree. It consists of a playhouse, innovative playing toys, mobile library, etc. Twice a week children, parents, grandparents gather to this nice place. Collective feeding takes place in this area once a week and it was conducted by several mothers groups in this village. Mostly grandparents taught about handicrafts and this is a very nice place to share their experiences with all. Healthy competitions were conducted in this place through playing to motivate the children. Happy calendar (mood of the children) was marked by children before and after coming to the play area. In terms of results qualitative changes got significant place in this study. By learning about colors and counting through playing the thinking and reasoning skills got developed among children. Children were widening their imagination by means of storytelling. We observed there were good developments of fine and gross motor skills of two differently abled children in this village. Children learn to empathize with other people, sharing, collaboration, team work and following of rules. And also children gain knowledge about fairness, through role playing, obtained insight on the right ways of displaying emotions such as stress, fear, anger, frustration, and develops knowledge of how they can manage their feelings. The reading and writing ability of the children got improved by 83% because of the mobile library. The weight of children got increased by 81% in the village. Happiness was increased by 76% among children in the society. Playing is very important for learning during early childhood period of a person. Health promotion interventions play a major role to the development of early childhood and it help children to adjust to the school setting and even to enhance children’s learning readiness, learning behaviors and problem solving skills.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1775
95944
A Cognitive Training Program in Learning Disability: A Program Evaluation and Follow-Up Study
Abstract:
To author’s best knowledge we are in absence of studies on cognitive program evaluation and we are certainly short of programs that prove to have high effect sizes with strong retention results. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of a comprehensive cognitive training program, namely BrainRx. This cognitive rehabilitation program target and remediate seven core cognitive skills and related systems of sub-skills through repeated engagement in game-like mental procedures delivered one-on-one by a clinician, supplemented by digital training. A larger sample of children with learning disability were given pretest and post-test cognitive assessments. The experimental group completed a twenty-week cognitive training program in a BrainRx center. A matched control group received another twenty-week intervention with Feuerstein’s Instrumental Enrichment programs. A second matched control group did not receive training. As for pre- and post-test, we used a general intelligence test to assess IQ and a computer-based test battery for assessing cognition across the lifespan. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the experimental BrainRx treatment group had statistically significant higher outcomes in attention, working memory, processing speed, logic and reasoning, auditory processing, visual processing and long-term memory compared to the non-treatment control group with very large effect sizes. With the exception of logic and reasoning, the BrainRx treatment group realized significantly greater gains in six of the above given seven cognitive measures compared to the Feuerstein control group. Our one-year retention measures showed that all the cognitive training gains were above ninety percent with the greatest retention skills in visual processing, auditory processing, logic, and reasoning. The BrainRx program may be an effective tool to establish long-term cognitive changes in case of students with learning disabilities. Recommendations are made for treatment centers and special education institutions on the cognitive training of students with special needs. The importance of our study is that targeted, systematic, progressively loaded and intensive brain training approach may significantly change learning disabilities.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1774
95937
Measuring Learning Independence and Transition through the First Year in Architecture
Abstract:
Students in higher education are expected to learn actively and independently. Whilst quite work has been done to understand the perceptions of students’ learning transition regarding independent learning, to author’s best knowledge, it seems relatively few published research on independent learning in studio-based subjects such as architecture. Another major issue in independent learning research concerned the inconsistency in terminology; there appears to be a paucity of research on its definition, challenges, and tools within the UK university sector. It is not always clear how independent learning works in practice, or what are the challenges that face students toward being independent learners. Accordingly, this paper seeks to highlight these problems by analyzing previous and current literature of independent learning, in addition, to measure students’ independence at the very begging of their first academic year and compare it with their level of learning independence at the end of the same year. Eighty-seven student enrolled in 2017/2018 at Cardiff University completed the Autonomous Learning Questionnaire in order to measure their level of learning independence. Students’ initial responses were very positive and showed high level of learning independence. Interestingly, these responses significantly decreased at the end of the year. Time management was the most obvious challenge facing students transition into higher education, and contrary to expectations, we found no effect of student maturity on their level of independence. Moreover, we found no significant differences among students’ gender, but we did find differences among nationalities.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1773
95687
Effective and Innovative Health Promotion Interventions for Promoting Life-Long Opportunities through Better Health and Nutrition Beginning from Early Childhood
Abstract:
Introduction: Nutrition is fundamental for good health and development during the early years of life. This study describes how rural community does interventions for improving the nutrition and health of children less than 5 year ages using health promotion approach and this study was conducted with children society and mothers groups in a rural village called Welankulama in Sri Lanka. Methodology: The details got from Public Health Midwife in this village showed there were malnourished children under 5 years age. So, we discussed this problem with the children society, mothers groups and identified the determinants with them. Then they wanted to address some of the determinants that they prioritized from their discussions. ‘Evening school’ was a new place to this village to do collective feeding for small children. ‘Mobile library’ was another new concept in this village and nutrition books, evidence collection were there to read for villagers. Mothers marked the foods given to their kids in a book called ‘Nutrition book’. And also mothers tend to mark the level of eating foods to motivate their children in a ‘Hapana calendar’. Results: In terms of results, malnourished children under 5 years age got reduced and the number of children having illnesses got reduced. Marking nutrition book and ‘Hapana calendar’ were become as trend among mothers. Apart from the above, there was good improvement of physical, social and emotional wellbeing of children. Children who received early stimulation with nutrition supplements had better outcomes than children who only received nutrition supplements, thereby amplifying the impact of nutrition. Conclusion: Health promotion interventions are helped to change nutritional behaviors of early childhood in rural community and it makes children healthier and better able to learn.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1772
95602
Unveiling the Mystery of Innovation in Higher Education Institutions
Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to ascertain whether students at HEIs cultivate distributed leadership and higher-level skills to inspire knowledge creation. Critical reflection of extant literature illustrates the need for a culture of innovation in organizational sustainability. New age leadership behaviors harmonize innovation. The leadership self-efficacy construct supports organizational learning. This exploratory study applies the pragmatic paradigm methodology using the survey research method for primary data collection. A questionnaire was distributed to a sample of university students based in the Southern Anatolian region of Turkey, from both under and postgraduate Business degree programs. An analysis of the findings reveals a greater connection in influencing behavior relying more on the task-centered perspective rather than with the people perspective. These results reveal the need for HEIs to instill a humanistic perspective in curricula enabling graduates to be capable leaders with the awareness soft skills to energize creativity and innovation. A limitation of this research is that one university makes it difficult to generalize to a broader population. This study is of added value for scholars and organizations in the current knowledge and innovation economy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1771
95449
Using Technology to Deliver and Scale Early Childhood Development Services in Resource Constrained Environments: Case Studies from South Africa
Abstract:
South African based Innovation Edge is experimenting with technology to drive positive behavior change, enable data-driven decision making, and scale quality early years services. This paper uses five case studies to illustrate how technology can be used in resource-constrained environments to first, encourage parenting practices that build early language development (using a stage-based mobile messaging pilot, ChildConnect), secondly, to improve the quality of ECD programs (using a mobile application, CareUp), thirdly, how to affordably scale services for the early detection of visual and hearing impairments (using a mobile tool, HearX), fourthly, how to build a transparent and accountable system for the registration and funding of ECD (using a blockchain enabled platform, Amply), and finally enable rapid data collection and feedback to facilitate quality enhancement of programs at scale (the Early Learning Outcomes Measure). ChildConnect and CareUp were both developed using a design based iterative research approach. The usage and uptake of ChildConnect and CareUp was evaluated with qualitative and quantitative methods. Actual child outcomes were not measured in the initial pilots. Although parents who used and engaged on either platform felt more supported and informed, parent engagement and usage remains a challenge. This is contrast to ECD practitioners whose usage and knowledge with CareUp showed both sustained engagement and knowledge improvement. HearX is an easy-to-use tool to identify hearing loss and visual impairment. The tool was tested with 10000 children in an informal settlement. The feasibility of cost-effectively decentralising screening services was demonstrated. Practical and financial barriers remain with respect to parental consent and for successful referrals. Amply uses mobile and blockchain technology to increase impact and accountability of public services. In the pilot project, Amply is being used to replace an existing paper-based system to register children for a government-funded pre-school subsidy in South Africa. Early Learning Outcomes Measure defines what it means for a child to be developmentally ‘on track’ at aged 50-69 months. ELOM administration is enabled via a tablet which allows for easy and accurate data collection, transfer, analysis, and feedback. ELOM is being used extensively to drive quality enhancement of ECD programs across multiple modalities. The nature of ECD services in South Africa is that they are in large part provided by disconnected private individuals or Non-Governmental Organizations (in contrast to basic education which is publicly provided by the government). It is a disparate sector which means that scaling successful interventions is that much harder. All five interventions show the potential of technology to support and enhance a range of ECD services, but pathways to scale are still being tested.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1770
95349
The Impact of Selected Personality Skills on Intercultural Interaction and Communication of Students of Social Pedagogy in the Czech Republic
Abstract:
This paper focuses on the issue of intercultural competencies of university students who are preparing to work in assisting professions. In recent years, the Czech Republic has become a major destination for many people from different cultural environments, and there is a growing need for workers in assisting professions to be able to respond flexibly and adequately to the changing living conditions of multicultural coexistence. The main objective of this study is to analyse the preparedness of students in assisting professions in relation to intercultural competencies. Intercultural competences include several essential skills for working successfully with diversity. Taking into account the main objective of this research, a pilot study was conducted among students of Social Pedagogy at the Faculty of Humanities at Tomas Bata University in Zlin in the academic year 2017/2018. The research sample consisted of 116 students. To obtain the data, we used the Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory (CCAI) by Kelley and Meyers. The inventory maps strengths and weaknesses in 4 skill areas: Emotional Resilience, Flexibility/Openness, Perceptual Acuity and Personal Autonomy. This inventory also examines individual ability to succeed in intercultural interaction and communication. The results obtained from the survey were statistically processed and analysed using the relevant statistical methods. The results of the survey point to the fact that students of social pedagogy achieve average to below average results in individual skill areas. At the same time, significant differences have been detected among the students with work experience in multicultural environment and those with no experience.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1769
95233
Strengthening the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in the Gulf Cooperation Council: Shafallah Foundation as a Model
Authors:
Abstract:
Over the past two decades, the global interest in the rights of persons with disabilities (PWDs) has increased that resulted in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPWDs). In this regard, the Gulf States have witnessed remarkable efforts towards strengthening the rights of persons with disabilities, including enactment of laws and establishment of specialized government councils for the Persons with Disabilities. This study aims to highlight the efforts of Shafallah Foundation in strengthening the rights of persons with disabilities as a model for the Gulf States. The researcher will conduct interviews with officials at Shafallah Foundation, some persons with disabilities who have benefited from the Foundation's programmes, officials from government agencies related to Persons with disabilities. The study is expected to reveal the role of Shafallah Foundation in implementing the UNCRPWDs through its programmes and activities as well as an overview of the situation of the rights of PWDs in the Gulf States. The study is important for stakeholders, decision-makers, policy-makers, academics, and the disability’s organizations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1768
95079
Developing an Instrument to Measure Teachers’ Self-Efficacy of Teaching Innovation Skills
Abstract:
There is a growing consensus that adoption of teachers’ self-efficacy measurement tools help to assess teachers’ abilities in specific areas in order to improve their skills. As a result, different instruments to assess teachers’ ability were developed by academics and practitioners. However, many of these instruments focused either on general teaching skills, or on the other hand, were very specific to one subject. As such, these instruments do not offer a tool to measure the ability of teachers in teaching 21st century skills such as innovation skills. Teaching innovation skills helps to prepare students for lives and careers in the 21st century. The purpose of this study is to develop an instrument measuring teachers’ self-efficacy of teaching innovation skills related to the classroom context and evaluating the teachers’ beliefs regarding their ability in teaching innovation skills. To reach this goal, the 16-item instrument measures four dimensions of innovation skills: creativity, critical thinking, communication, and collaboration. 211 secondary-school teachers filled out the survey to quantitatively analyze the quality of the instrument. The instrument’s reliability and item analysis were measured by using jMetrik. The results concluded that the mean of self-efficacy ranged from 3 to 3.6 without extreme high or low self-efficacy scores. The discrimination analysis revealed that one item recorded a negative correlation with the total, and three items recorded low correlation with the total. The reliabilities of items ranged from 0.64 to 0.69 and the instrument needed a couple of revisions before practical use. The study concluded the need to discard one item and revise five items to increase the quality of the instrument for future work.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1767
95002
Analysis of Computer Science Papers Conducted by Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education at Secondary Level
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to analyze the papers of computer science conducted by Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education with reference to Bloom’s taxonomy. The present study has two parts. First, the analysis is done on the papers conducted by Board of Intermediate of Secondary Education on the basis of basic rules of item construction especially Bloom’s (1956). And the item analysis is done to improve the psychometric properties of a test. The sample included the question papers of computer science of higher secondary classes (XI-XII) for the years 2011 and 2012. For item analysis, the data was collected from 60 students through convenient sampling. Findings of the study revealed that in the papers by Board of intermediate and secondary education the maximum focus was on knowledge and understanding level and very less focus was on the application, analysis, and synthesis. Furthermore, the item analysis on the question paper reveals that item difficulty of most of the questions did not show a balanced paper, the items were either very difficult while most of the items were too easy (measuring knowledge and understanding abilities). Likewise, most of the items were not truly discriminating the high and low achievers; four items were even negatively discriminating. The researchers also analyzed the items of the paper through software Conquest. These results show that the papers conducted by Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education were not well constructed. It was recommended that paper setters should be trained in developing the question papers that can measure various cognitive abilities of students so that a good paper in computer science should assess all cognitive abilities of students.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1766
94924
The Flipped Education Case Study on Teacher Professional Learning Community in Technology and Media Implementation
Abstract:
The paper examines teacher professional learning community theory and implementation by using technology and media tools in Taiwan. After literature review, the researcher concluded in five elements of teacher professional learning community theory. They are ‘sharing the vision and value', ‘collaborative cooperation’, ‘ to support the situation', ‘to share practice' and 'Pay Attention to Student Learning Effectiveness' five levels by using technology and media in flipped education. Teacher professional learning community is one kind of models for teacher professional development in flipped education. Due to Taiwan education culture, there is no summative evaluation for teachers. So, there are multiple kinds of ways and education practice in teacher professional learning community nowadays. This study used literature review and quality analysis to analyze the connection theory and practice and discussed the official and non‐official strategies on teacher professional learning community by using technology and media in flipped education. The tablet is used as a camera tool for classroom students to solve problems. The students can instantly see and enable other students to watch the whole class discussion by operating the tablet. This would allow teachers and students to focus on discussing the connotation of subjects, especially bottom‐up and non‐official cases from teachers become an important influence in Taiwan.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1765
94878
The Effect of Using the Active Learning on Achievement and Attitudes toward Studying the Human Rights Course for the Bahrain Teachers College Students
Abstract:
The study aimed at determining the effect of using the active learning on achievement and attitudes toward studying the human rights course for the Bahrain Teachers College students and the extent to which any differences of statistical significance according to gender and section can exist. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher developed and implemented research tools such as academic achievement test and the scale of attitudes towards the study of the Human Rights Course. The scale of attitudes towards Human Rights was constructed of 40 items investigating four dimensions; the cognitive dimension, the behavioral dimension, the affective dimension, and course quality dimension. The researcher then applied some of the active learning strategies in teaching this course to all students of the first year of the Bahrain Teachers College (102 male and female students) after excluding two students who did not complete the course requirements. Students were divided into five groups. These strategies included interactive lecturing, presentations, role playing, group projects, simulation, brainstorming, concept maps and mind maps, reflection and think-pair-share. The course was introduced to students during the second semester of the academic year 2016-2017. The study findings revealed that the use of active learning strategies affected the achievement of students of Bahrain Teachers College in the Human Rights course. The results of the T-test showed statistically significant differences on the pre-test and post-test in favor of the post-test. No statistically significant differences in the achievement of students according to the section and gender were found. The results also indicated that the use of active learning strategies had a positive effect on students' attitudes towards the study of the Human Rights Course on all the scale’s items. The general average reached (4.26) and the percentage reached (85.19%). Regarding the effect of using active learning strategies on students’ attitudes towards all the four dimensions of the scale, the study concluded that the behavioral dimension came first; the quality of the course came second, the cognitive dimension came third and in the fourth place came the affective dimension. No statistically significant differences in the attitude towards studying the Human Rights Course for the students according to their sections or gender were found. Based on the findings of the study, the researchers suggested some recommendations that can contribute to the development of teaching Human Rights Course at the University of Bahrain.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1764
94743
Prevention of Student Radicalism in School through Civic Education
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Abstract:
Radicalism poses a real threat to Indonesia's future. The target of radicalism is the youth of Indonesia. This is proven by the majority of terrorists are young people. Radicalization is not only a repressive act but also requires educational action. One of the educational efforts is civic education. This study discusses the prevention of radicalism for students through civic education and its constraints. This is qualitative research. Data were collected through literature studies, observations and in-depth interviews. Data were validated by triangulation. The sample of this research is 30 high school students in Surakarta. Data were analyzed by the interactive model of analysis from Miles & Huberman. The results show that (1) civic education can be a way of preventing student radicalism in schools in the form of cultivating the values of education through learning in the classroom and outside the classroom; (2) The obstacles encountered include the lack of learning facilities, the limited ability of teachers and the low attention of students to the civic education.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1763
94702
Impact of Information and Communication Technology on Achievement of Technical Students and Perspective Teachers: A Study of Haryana State
Abstract:
This review paper is focused on achievement ability analysis of perspective teachers and students of technical education of Haryana. It is well known that women have higher verbal achievement, while men have higher achievement in non-verbal and scientific achievement. Chi-square analyses were performed to evaluate the effect of information and communication technology tools on the scientific, verbal and non-verbal achievement of the controlled and uncontrolled group of 204 students of Haryana. The computed value of expected count, which is more than 5, shows that there is a significant improvement in achievement ability of students of the controlled group when compared to the uncontrolled group. The research analyzes that the Information and communication technology tools play an important role in enhancing student’s achievement.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1762
94553
Policy and Practice of Later-Life Learning in China: A Critical Document Discourse Analysis
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Since the 1980s, a series of policies and practices have been implemented in China in response to the unprecedented rate of ageing population. The paper provides a detailed narrative of what later-life learning policy discourses have been advocated and gives a description on relevant practical issues during the past three decades. The research process based on the discourse approach with a systematic review of the government-issued documents. It finds that the main practices taken by central government at various levels were making University of the Aged (UA) available in all urban and rural regions to consolidate the newly student enrollments; focusing social-recreational, leisure and cultural activities on 55-75 age group; and utilizing various methods including voluntary works and tourism to improve older adults’ physical and mental wellness. Although there were greater achievements with 30 years of development, many problems still exist. Finding reveals that the curriculum should be modified to meet the needs of the local development, to promote older adults’ contact and contribution to the community, and to enhance technical competences of those in rural areas involving in agricultural production. Central government should also integrate resources from all sectors of the society for further developing later-life learning in China. The result of this paper highlights the value to promote community-based later-life learning for building a society for active ageing and ageing in place.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1761
94543
A Quantitative Study on the Effects of School Development on Character Development
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Abstract:
One of the aims of education is to educate individuals who have embraced universal moral principles and transform universal moral principles into moral values. Character education aims to educate behaviors of individuals in their mental activities to transform moral principles into moral values in their lives. As the result of this education, individuals are expected to develop positive character traits and become morally indifferent individuals. What are the characteristics of the factors that influence character education at this stage? How should character education help individuals develop positive character traits? Which methods are more effective? These questions come to mind when studying character education. Our research was developed within the framework of these questions. The aim of our study is to provide the most effective use of the education factor that affects character. In this context, we tried to explain character definition, character development, character education and the factors affecting character education using qualitative research methods. At this stage, character education programs applied in various countries were examined and a character education program consisting of Islamic values was prepared and implemented in an International Imam Hatip High School in Istanbul. Our application was carried out with the collaboration of school and families. Various seminars were organized in the school and participation of families was ensured. In the last phase of our study, we worked with the students and their families on the effectiveness of the events held during the program. In this study, it was found that activities such as storytelling and theater in character education programs were effective in recognizing wrong behaviors in individuals. It was determined that our program had a positive effect on the quality of education. It was seen that applications of this educational program affected the behavior of the employees in the educational institution.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1760
94408
Influences on Female Gender Identity and Role in Pre-School, Saudi Arabian: Analyzing Children's Perspectives through Narratives and Teachers' Pedagogies
Abstract:
Microworld theories can help to define the many influences on female development. In this research, theories together with narratives have been used to discover the reality of children’s gender perceptions in Saudi Arabia. Today, Saudi Arabia is considered a ‘closed and conserved’ society due to tribal, cultural and religious factors. This study focuses on how young girls in Saudi Arabia learn about what is expected of them as females. Cultural beliefs and experiences contribute to children’s notions of identity. Moreover, significant others such as more experienced peers, teachers, parents, and other members of a society can influence a child’s development of knowledge through interactions within their social world. There are dominant influences from the Saudi State. These influences have very strong devices and perceptions of what or how a female should act and be. However, children may have other viewpoints, as it also needs to be considered that the Internet and other media sources could have an influence. Consequently, difficulties could exist for these young children to feel an authentic sense of belonging. The study gathered data using a multi-method approach that elicited the perspectives of the children using ‘multiple modes of expression’ such as observations, story-telling, picture prompt cards, group interviews, drawings and annotations. For this study, prompts and a book was devised, specifically, for use in a Saudi setting. It was found that Saudi young girls in preschool were heteronomous, mainly influenced by culture and society, in their perceptions of female gender and role.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1759
94393
Enriched Education: The Classroom as a Learning Network through Video Game Narrative Development
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Abstract:
This study is rooted in a pedagogical approach that emphasizes student engagement as fundamental to meaningful learning in the classroom. This approach creates a paradigmatic shift, from a teaching practice that reinforces the teacher’s central authority to a practice that disperses that authority among the students in the classroom through networks that they themselves develop. The methodology of this study about creating optimal conditions for learning in the classroom includes providing a conceptual framework within which the students work, as well as providing clearly stated expectations for work standards, content quality, group methodology, and learning outcomes. These learning conditions are nurtured in a variety of ways. First, nearly every class includes a lecture from the professor with key concepts that students need in order to complete their work successfully. Secondly, students build on this scholarly material by forming their own networks, where students face each other and engage with each other in order to collaborate their way to solving a particular problem relating to the course content. Thirdly, students are given short, medium, and long-term goals. Short term goals relate to the week’s topic and involve workshopping particular issues relating to that stage of the course. The medium-term goals involve students submitting term assignments that are evaluated according to a well-defined rubric. And finally, long-term goals are achieved by creating a capstone project, which is celebrated and shared with classmates and interested friends on the final day of the course. The essential conclusions of the study are drawn from courses that focus on video game narrative. Enthusiastic student engagement is created not only with the dynamic energy and expertise of the instructor, but also with the inter-dependence of the students on each other to build knowledge, acquire skills, and achieve successful results.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1758
94380
Exploring Thai Early Childhood Teachers’ Experience and Concerns regarding Teaching Children with Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms
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In view of the Thailand government policy creating increasing awareness of opportunity for children with special needs, the number of children with disabilities enrolled in kindergartens in Thailand has increased. This study explores early childhood teachers’ experiences and concerns of teaching children with disabilities in inclusive classrooms. The population of the study was private early childhood teachers who teach in inclusive classrooms in Thailand. Quantitative data obtained through a questionnaire were supplemented by early childhood teachers’ interviews to identify key experiences and concerns of the teachers when teaching children with and without disabilities in the same classrooms. The results of this study indicated that many teachers face challenges including lack of professional development opportunities, difficulty identifying the needs of all children and how to use effective strategies to support inclusive practices in their classrooms. Teachers also expressed concern about parents’ lack of willingness to accept children without disabilities studying together with those with disabilities in the same classrooms. Findings from this study can inform program support for parents and professional support needs of teachers in the provision of high-quality inclusive programs for all students.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1757
94344
Learning to Teach in Large Classrooms: Training Faculty Members from Milano Bicocca University, from Didactic Transposition to Communication Skills
Abstract:
Relating to the recent researches in the field of faculty development, this paper aims to present a pilot training programme realized at the University of Milano-Bicocca to improve teaching skills of faculty members. A total of 57 professors (both full professors and associate professors) were trained during the pilot programme in three editions of the workshop, focused on promoting skills for teaching large classes. The study takes into account: 1) the theoretical framework of the programme which combines the recent tradition about professional development and the research on in-service training of school teachers; 2) the structure and the content of the training programme, organized in a 12 hours-full immersion workshop and in individual consultations; 3) the educational specificity of the training programme which is based on the relation between 'general didactic' (active learning metholodies; didactic communication) and 'disciplinary didactics' (didactic transposition and reconstruction); 4) results about the impact of the training programme, both related to the workshop and the individual consultations. This study aims to provide insights mainly on two levels of the training program’s impact ('behaviour change' and 'transfer') and for this reason learning outcomes are evaluated by different instruments: a questionnaire filled out by all 57 participants; 12 in-depth interviews; 3 focus groups; conversation transcriptions of workshop activities. Data analysis is based on a descriptive qualitative approach and it is conducted through thematic analysis of the transcripts using analytical categories derived principally from the didactic transposition theory. The results show that the training programme developed effectively three major skills regarding different stages of the 'didactic transposition' process: a) the content selection; a more accurated selection and reduction of the 'scholarly knowledge', conforming to the first stage of the didactic transposition process; b) the consideration of students’ prior knowledge and misconceptions within the lesson design, in order to connect effectively the 'scholarly knowledge' to the 'knowledge to be taught' (second stage of the didactic transposition process); c) the way of asking questions and managing discussion in large classrooms, in line with the transformation of the 'knowledge to be taught' in 'taught knowledge' (third stage of the didactic transposition process).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1756
94311
Self-Regulation in Socially Rejected Pupils
Abstract:
This paper is a report on self-regulation in socially rejected pupils. A certain form of social rejection can be found in almost every class within the school environment. Research shows that due to social rejection mechanisms supporting the individual´s effort of reintegration into the group are not triggered. Paradoxically the opposite tendency arises, i.e., an increase in selfish and defeating behaviour. The link between peer exposure and self-regulation is likely to vary as a function of a type and quality of peer interaction (e.g., rejection or acceptance). The paper aims to clarify the level of self-regulation related to interpersonal cognitive problem-solving within the process of social rejection in a school class. The research was done on a sample of 1,133 upper-primary school pupils using the Means-Ends Problem Solving technique (MEPS) and peer sociometric nomination. The results showed that the level of self-regulated skills is related to the status of social rejection. Socially rejected pupils achieve lower levels of self-regulation than other classmates. We found deficiency in the regulation of behaviour, emotions and the regulation of will in the peer rejected pupils with the exception of cognitive regulation in which no differences were detected between socially rejected pupils and other classmates. The results have implications for early prevention and intervention efforts to foster adaptive self-regulation and reduce the risk of later social rejection.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1755
94300
Embedded Hybrid Intuition: A Deep Learning and Fuzzy Logic Approach to Collective Creation and Computational Assisted Narratives
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The current work shows the methodology developed to create narrative lighting spaces for the multimedia performance piece 'cluster: the vanished paradise.' This empirical research is focused on exploring unconventional roles for machines in subjective creative processes, by delving into the semantics of data and machine intelligence algorithms in hybrid technological, creative contexts to expand epistemic domains trough human-machine cooperation. The creative process in scenic and performing arts is guided mostly by intuition; from that idea, we developed an approach to embed collective intuition in computational creative systems, by joining the properties of Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN’s) and Fuzzy Clustering based on a semi-supervised data creation and analysis pipeline. The model makes use of GAN’s to learn from phenomenological data (data generated from experience with lighting scenography) and algorithmic design data (augmented data by procedural design methods), fuzzy logic clustering is then applied to artificially created data from GAN’s to define narrative transitions built on membership index; this process allowed for the creation of simple and complex spaces with expressive capabilities based on position and light intensity as the parameters to guide the narrative. Hybridization comes not only from the human-machine symbiosis but also on the integration of different techniques for the implementation of the aided design system. Machine intelligence tools as proposed in this work are well suited to redefine collaborative creation by learning to express and expand a conglomerate of ideas and a wide range of opinions for the creation of sensory experiences. We found in GAN’s and Fuzzy Logic an ideal tool to develop new computational models based on interaction, learning, emotion and imagination to expand the traditional algorithmic model of computation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):