Types and Depths of Educational Technology Students’ Group Chats on Social Media
This paper seeks to investigate different types of utilization of social media by a group of educational technology students. Even though their initial purpose of the establishment of social media group was for serving their educational needs, such as informing each other about tasks given by their lecturers, however, it has developed to serve other social purposes as well. This paper will classify the utilization and the depth of its utilization. It will also be explored why some topics can be talked about more deeply while the others cannot, and how they related their utilization with what they have learned as educational technology students. This paper will use content analysis of social media conversation and interviews with the students.
Investigating the Transparency and Influenceability of Altmetrics Using the Example of the RG Score and the ResearchGate Platform
The present paper investigates the transparency and influenceability of the RG score. This altmetric specially developed by the best-known academic, social network ResearchGate is intended to indicate a researcher’s academic impact in one single figure. We conducted a self-experiment to demonstrate that the indications of the RG score are difficult for the user to understand and are not transparent. They, therefore, do not fulfill the requirements of the Leiden Manifesto for research metrics. The results of our investigation show that activity in social networks appears to have a great impact on the RG score and can strategically and selectively influence this result. Furthermore, we succeeded in entering publications by other authors as our own, thus dramatically improving our RG score. On the whole, with a little effort and without any academic publications of our own we were able to achieve an RG score which was higher than almost half the scores of all ResearchGate users. This self-experiment should be interpreted as a pilot study and can be implemented in an expanded form in future.
Impact of Instructional Designing in Digital Game-Based Learning for Enhancing Students' Motivation
The primary reason for dropping out of school is associated with students’ lack of motivation in class, especially in mathematics. Digital game-based learning is an approach that is being actively explored; there are very few learning games based on proven instructional design models or frameworks due to which the effectiveness of the learning games suffers. The purpose of this research was twofold: first, developing an appropriate instructional design model and second, evaluating the impact of the instructional design model on students’ motivation. This research contributes significantly to the existing literature in terms of student motivation and the impact of instructional design model in digital game-based learning. The sample size for this study consists of two hundred out-of-school students between the age of 6 and 12 years. The research methodology used for this research was a quasi-experimental approach and data was analyzed by using the instructional material motivational survey questionnaire which is adapted from the Keller Arcs model. Control and experimental groups consisting of two hundred students were analyzed by utilizing instructional material motivational survey (IMMS), and comparison of result from both groups showed the difference in the level of motivation of the students. The result of the research showed that the motivational level of student in the experimental group who were taught by the game was higher than the student in control group (taught by conventional methodology). The mean score of the experimental group against all subscales (attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction) of IMMS survey was higher; however, no statistical significance was found between the motivational scores of control and experimental group. The positive impact of game-based learning on students’ level of motivation, as measured in this study, strengthens the case for the use of pedagogically sound instructional design models in the design of interactive learning applications. In addition, the present study suggests learning from interactive, immersive applications as an alternative solution for children, especially in Third World countries, who, for various reasons, do not attend school. The mean score of experimental group against all subscales of IMMS survey was higher; however, no statistical significance was found between motivational scores of control and experimental group.
Human Resource Development in Sri Lankan Universities: An Analysis of the Staff Development Programme at the University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka
Staff development both formal and informal, structured and unstructured is universally accepted as fundamental to the growth of individuals and institutions. This study is based on feedback summaries collected from 2014 to 2017 from 240 participants of the staff development programme for probationary lecturers at the University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. It also contains data from interviews conducted with the resource persons in the programme. The study further includes observations from experts involved in staff training in higher education institutions in Sri Lanka The data reveals that though the programme has many aspects that can be improved, the selected topics in the curriculum and new topics that were incorporated had positive impacts to enhance continuing professional development of staff in Sri Lankan universities. The participants also believe that the programme has an impact on professional development, teaching, and management of classroom and curricula and research skills. Based on the findings, the study recommends the addition of new topics to the curriculum such as continuing professional development, code of conduct in universities, gender awareness and the green concept. The study further recommends programmes for senior academic staff in universities to assist them to reach higher levels in their career by focusing on areas such as teaching, research, and administrative skills.
Content Management for E-Learning
In the last years, different solutions have been shown to fulfil a content management strategy for e-Learning in educational context. These solutions should make the life cycle of digital contents more comfortable and flexible so that it is possible to improve and automate processes. But, the concept of content in an educational context is very different from the one in other fields such as publishing (e.g. newspapers, documentations and so on) and all implementers used traditional approaches as mentioned. From textbooks to exercises, from software to data, we must rethink how we use our educational content and should implement our own meaning of Content Management.
There is a gap between the strategy and the real world: We do not have integrated tools to build a process chain or an integrated (content and software) toolchain. Integrative E-Learning (IEP) is changing this: The goal of the project is the development and testing of an integrative teaching format for the assembly of imported, tried and tested (classic) teaching elements (e.g. wallboard and flipchart, screen walls and other visualization aids, Projector, manuscripts, and workbooks, etc.), with contemporary, innovative elements 'new media'. The solution to be developed in this project involves comprehensive, interrelated elements in an integrative holistic approach. The elements of the solution do not lie in isolation next to each other, but are tuned to one another and are used per target, using and integrating results of LEARNING FACTORY a predecessor project. The intention is the 'integrative e-Learning environment' of the presence theory.
We include Content Creation, Content Management, Content Versioning and integration of different input and output formats. The process chain is so flexible that many combinations of input to output are possible: Input from Microsoft PowerPoint, Outline for Slides, free text between slides could be processed to PDF or an iOS Content application. The toolchain is totally based on standard software (e.g. Microsoft Office) and standard technologies (e.g. Web technologies, PDF, XML). The target group is every lecturer and every student.
Civil Discourse in the Digital Age: Perceptions of Age as a Barrier to Civic Engagement
Young people are at a critical stage in their lives, developing from young participants to adult participants in democratic society. At this time, civic engagement is crucial for young people’s sense of belonging and future participation in their communities. In adolescence, individuals form their own identities and associations with others and may accomplish this with the help of technology and social media. In the Digital Age, young people and adults use technology as a platform to discuss political issues, including human rights and social justice but do not always engage in civil discourse. There is an urgent need to investigate this complex interplay of social media, identity formation, and civil discourse as it relates to how teenagers become participants in democratic society and how they engage in civil discourse. This qualitative study draws on theories of identity formation in adolescence and is situated within the literature surrounding teen civic engagement and technology use. Through in-depth interviews with participants ages 14 through 17, this study investigates the ways in which teens conceptualize their civic identities and engagement, presence online, and civil discourse. The context in which the young people in this study have grown up has the potential to impact and inform these processes. Early results of this study illustrate what it means to be a young person in today’s world, and how perceptions of others’ opinions may influence young people’s engagement in their communities and online. Participants in this study often indicated concerns of their age as a constraint on participation in their communities and in society, and a self-imposed restriction around the people with whom they engage in conversation about political and social issues. While the participants shared common concerns and experiences, each participant’s unique perspectives and beliefs are viewed with equal importance. The results from this research will help students, teachers, and community groups learn about the reasons for engagement and disengagement among this age group, and how technology has influenced teens’ dialogue about political issues. With this knowledge, academics and school leaders can devise new ways to best teach citizenship skills and civil discourse to students in the Digital Age.
Development Programmes Requirements for Managing and Supporting the Ever-Dynamic Job Roles of Middle Managers in Higher Education Institutions: The Espousal Demanded from Human Resources Department; Case Studies of a New University in United Kingdom
Background: The fast-paced changing landscape of UK Higher Education Institution (HEIs) is poised by changes and challenges affecting Middle Managers (MM) in their job roles. MM contribute to the success of HEIs by balancing the equilibrium and pass organization strategies from senior staff towards operationalization directives to junior staff. However, this study showcased from the data analyzed during the semi-structured interviews, middle management job role is getting more complex due to the changes and challenges that are exerting colossal pressures and workloads in MM day-to-day working functions. Current development programmes provisions by Human Resources (HR) departments in such HEIs are not feasible, applicable, and matching the true essence and requirements of MM who suggest that programmes offered by HR are too generic to suit their precise needs and require tailor made espousal to work effectively in their pertinent job roles. Methodologies: This study aims to capture demands of MM Development Needs (DN) by means of a conceptual model as a conclusive part of the research that is divided into 2 phases. Phase 1 initiated by carrying out 2 pilot interviews with a retired Emeritus status professor and HR programmes development coordinator. Key themes from the pilot and literature review subsidized into formulation of 22 set of questions (Kvale and Brinkmann) in form of a questionnaire instrument for data collection relating to the qualitative part of the study. Data strategy and collection consisted of purposeful sampling of 12 semi structured interviews (n=12) lasting approximately an hour for all participants. The MM interviewed were at faculty and departmental levels who included; deans (n=2), head of departments (n=4), subject leaders (n=2), and lastly programme leaders (n=4). Participants recruitment was carried out via emails and snowballing technique. The interviews data was transcribed (verbatim) and managed using Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQDAS) using Nvivo ver.11 software. Data was meticulously analyzed using Miles and Huberman inductive approach of positivistic style grounded theory, whereby key themes and categories emerged from the rich data collected. The data was precisely coded and classified into case studies (Robert Yin); with a main case study (New University), sub cases (4 classes of MM) and embedded cases (12 individual MMs). Major Findings: An interim conceptual model emerged from analyzing the data with main concepts that included; key performance indicators (KPI’s), HEI Effectiveness & Outlook, Practices, Processes & Procedures, Support Mechanisms, Student Events, Rules, Regulations & Policies, Career Progression, Reporting/Accountability, Changes and Challenges, and lastly Skills & Attributes. Conclusion: Dynamic elements affecting MM such as; increase in government pressures, student numbers, irrelevant development programmes, bureaucratic structures, transparency and accountability, organization policies, skills sets… can only be confronted by employing structured development programmes originated by HR that are not provided generically. Future Work: Phase 2 (Quantitative Method) of the study plans to validate the interim conceptual model externally through fully completed online survey questionnaire (Bram Oppenheim) from various external HEIs (n=150). The total sample targeted is 1500 MM. Author contribution focuses on enhancing management theory and to narrow the gap existing between by HR and MM development programme provision.
Pre-Primary Schools’ Earthquake Safety Initiative in Greece
Greece due to its location in the Eastern Mediterranean region is characterized by a high degree of seismicity and occurrence of severe earthquakes. It is generally accepted that preventive planning is vital in mitigating impacts, protecting those who are the most vulnerable namely children and increasing the degree of resilience of local communities. Worldwide, States have highlighted the need to ensure the safety of early childhood environments in case of disaster. A great number of children are enrolled in day care facilities, so building and improving the preparedness of pre-primary schools to prevent injuries and fatalities in case of an earthquake becomes an important policy issue. It is more than evident that preparedness in early preschool level will be increased through awareness and education of the people who work to pre-primary classes and provide early childhood care. The aim of the present study is to assess the level of awareness and preparedness of the Greek pre-primary schools staff concerning earthquake protection issues, as well as their risk mitigation behaviors and earthquake management in case of a strong event. In this framework, specific questionnaire was developed and filled by the abovementioned target group at 30 different municipalities of Greece (2014-2016). Also in the framework of this study, it is presented the Pre-Primary Schools’ Earthquake Safety Initiative that has been undertaken by Earthquake Planning and Protection Organization (EPPO) the last years. This initiative aims to develop disaster-resilient day care centers through awareness, self-help, cooperation and education. Recognizing the necessity of integration of the disaster safety concept at pre-primary environments, EPPO published practical guidelines that focused on earthquake planning of these workspaces. Furthermore, dozens of seminars are implemented in municipality or prefecture level every year by EPPO, in order the early childhood schools’ staff to be appropriately educated and adequately trained to face the earthquake risk. Great progress has been made towards building awareness and increasing preschool preparedness in Greece but significant gaps still remain. Anyway, it is extremely important that the implementation of effective programs and practices and the broad collaboration of all involved parties have been recognized as essential in order to develop a comprehensive disaster management system at preschool environment.
Comparison of the H-Index of Researchers in Google Scholar and Scopus Using R and Python Language
This paper aims to analyze the data of top world scientists from webometrics, which is based on Google Scholar. We have created an application that retrieved a dataset of authors in the Scopus database. The method used in data retrieval are the query-method on the Scopus database using an Application Programming Interface (API). We downloaded the author name list data from the Webometrics site and retrieved the Scopus ID using Scopus application programming interface (API). The program used is Phyton programming language. From the Scopus ID as the data input, we query the paper ID and its number of citations. The experiment data was obtained from 1,720 Top scientists from webometrics. The result shows that the data distribution grouped the data into two H-index range, i.e. for researchers with an H-index between 1-54, there are 761 researchers, and for H-index between 55-108, there are 793 researchers. Two more groups are with smaller number of researchers (141 researchers) having H-index of 109-162, and for the researcher with H-index of 163-216, there are only 15 researchers. This work shows that the H-index of the researchers in Google Scholar is 2 to 3 times higher than their H-Index in Scopus.
School Belongingness and Coping with Bullying: Greek Adolescent Students' Experiences
There has been growing interest lately, in the study of victimization among adolescent students in Greece and elsewhere with a view to improve school policies concerning anti-bullying practices. Researchers have recently focused on investigating the relationships between the extent of students’ victimization and the distinct mechanisms that they themselves employ for coping with this particular problem. More specifically, evidence indicates that the kinds of strategies that students use to terminate bullying are related to the extent of the harassment that they experience from peers. Additionally, the level of belonging at school felt by students has been found to be strongly associated with their involvement in bullying problems. More specifically, a weakened sense of belonging at school has been found to contribute to an increased likelihood of victimization. Methods-Within the research framework outlined above, we set out to: a) examine the frequency of self-reported victimization among secondary school students, b) investigate the coping strategies employed by students when confronted with school bullying and c) explore any differences between bullied and non-bullied students with regard to coping strategies and school belongingness. The sample consisted of eight hundred sixty students (860) from fifteen secondary public schools in central Greece. The schools were typical Greek secondary schools and the principals volunteered to participate in this study. Participants’ age ranged from 12 to 16 years. Measures: a) Exposure to Victimization: The frequency of victimization was directly located by asking students the question: ‘Over the last term, how often have you been bullied or harassed by a student or students at this high school?’ b) Coping Strategies: The ‘Living and Learning at School: Bullying at School’ was administered to students, c) School belongingness was assessed by the Psychological Sense of School Membership Scale, that students completed. Results: Regarding the frequency of self-reported victimization, 1.5% of the students reported being victimized every day, 2.8% most days of the week, 2.1% one or more days a week, 2.9% about once a week, 22.6% less than once a week and 68.1% never. The coping strategies that the participants employed for terminating their victimization included: a) adult support seeking, b) emotional coping/keep away from school, c) keeping healthy and fit, d) demonstrating a positive attitude towards the bully, d) peer support seeking, e) emotional outbursting, f) wishful thinking and self-blaming, g) pretending as if it is not happening, h) displaying assertive behaviors and i) getting away from the bullies. Bullied from non-bullied children did not differ as much in coping, as in feelings of being rejected in school. Discussion: The findings are in accordance with accumulated research evidence which points to a strong relationship between student perceptions of school belongingness and their involvement in bullying behaviors. We agree with the view that a positive school climate is likely to serve as a buffer that mitigates wider adverse societal influences and institutional attitudes which favor violence and harassment among peers.
Effectiveness of Active Learning in Social Science Courses at Japanese Universities
In recent, years, Japanese universities have begun to face a dilemma: more than half of all high school graduates go on to attend an institution of higher learning, overwhelming Japanese universities accustomed to small student bodies. These universities have been forced to embrace qualitative changes to accommodate the increased number and diversity of students who enter their establishments, students who differ in their motivations for learning, their levels of eagerness to learn, and their perspectives on the future. One of these changes is an increase in awareness among Japanese educators of the importance of active learning, which deepens students’ understanding of course material through a range of activities, including writing, speaking, thinking, and presenting, in addition to conventional “passive learning” methods such as listening to a one-way lecture. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the teaching method adapted to improve active learning. A teaching method designed to promote active learning was implemented in a social science course at one of the most popular universities in Japan. A questionnaire using a five-point response format was given to students in 2,305 courses throughout the university to evaluate the effectiveness of the method based on the following measures: ① the ratio of students who were motivated to attend the classes, ② the rate at which students learned new information, and ③ the teaching method adopted in the classes. The results of this study show that the percentage of students who attended the active learning course eagerly, and the rate of new knowledge acquired through the course, both exceeded the average for the university, the department, and the subject area of social science. In addition, there are strong correlations between teaching method and student motivation and between teaching method and knowledge acquisition rate. These results indicate that the active learning teaching method was effectively implemented and that it may improve student eagerness to attend class and motivation to learn.
Teachers' Understanding on Teaching through Task-Based Language Teaching
Task-based language teaching (TBLT) has received increasing interest from educators and researchers in the field of second language acquisition around the world. The advantages of implementing task-based language teaching in EFL classroom are discussed in a number of research studies. Since teachers are responsible for implementing the approach in their actual classroom, their understanding of task-based language teaching is considered very important. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore Thai EFL teachers’ understanding about task-based language teaching. The participants in this study were 80 EFL teachers from 11 secondary schools in Bangkok, Thailand. The instruments included a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview asking about teachers’ understanding of using TBLT in EFL classroom. The findings revealed that the participants have a good understanding about task-based language teaching. They understand that teaching materials for TBLT should be authentic. They could answer the questions about the examples of task-type as well as the roles of teachers in TBLT. The results also suggested that the participants perceived what they have to do when applying TBLT. Moreover, the participants understand the structural framework of TBLT well. However, some participants are not sure that TBLT is truly student-centered instructional approach. Based on the overall findings, some suggestions were proposed. First, teachers should have more opportunities to gain more knowledge and experiences on TBLT to ensure that they have sufficient understanding about TBLT from basic principles to specific techniques so that they can implement this teaching technique in the classroom effectively.
Using Educational Gaming as a Blended Learning Tool in South African Education
Based on the Black Swan and Disruptive Innovation Theories, this study proposes an educational game based learning model within the context of the traditional classroom learning environment. In the proposed model, the perceived e-learning component is decomposed into accessibility, perceived quality and perceived usability within the traditional rural classroom environment. A sample of 92 respondents took part in this study. The results suggest that users’ continuance intention is determined by both economic and grassroots internet accessibility, which in turn is jointly determined by perceived usefulness, information quality, service quality, system quality, perceived ease of use and cognitive absorption of learning.
Transformational Leadership and Its Effect on Teacher Job Satisfaction
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between teachers’ perceived transformational leadership behaviors and their job satisfaction in China after controlling for teacher self-efficacy. Hierarchical regression analysis (HRA) technique was employed to examine factors’ contributions to teacher job satisfaction with a sample of Chinese high school teachers. The finding of this study provided evidence that teachers’ perceived transformational leadership behaviors accounted for a large percentage (44.9%) of the variance in Chinese teachers’ job satisfaction. Uniquely, school principals’ sense of power was a negative significant predictor of teacher job satisfaction, meaning that the more teachers perceived their principals’ sense of power, the lower of their job satisfaction. Furthermore, this study provided evidence that teacher self-efficacy significantly contributes to teacher job satisfaction. Specifically, teachers’ self-efficacy on student engagement was found to be a significant predictor of teacher job satisfaction. The conclusions were discussed in terms of Chinese cultures. The authors pointed out that how to make teachers involved in school policy making is a challenge for China and that more shared leadership is needed in Chinese schools.
Policy Guidelines to Enhance the Mathematics Teachers’ Association of the Philippines (MTAP) Saturday Class Program
The study was an attempt to assess the MTAP Saturday Class Program along its eight components namely, modules, instructional materials, scheduling, trainer-teachers, supervisory support, administrative support, financial support and educational facilities, the results of which served as bases in developing policy guidelines to enhance the MTAP Saturday Class Program. Using a descriptive development method of research, this study involved the participation of twenty-eight (28) schools with MTAP Saturday Class Program in the Division of Dasmarinas City where twenty-eight school heads, one hundred twenty-five (125) teacher-trainer, one hundred twenty-five (125) pupil program participants, and their corresponding one hundred twenty-five (125) parents were purposively drawn to constitute the study’s respondent. A self-made validated survey questionnaire together with Pre and Post-Test Assessment Test in Mathematics for pupils participating in the program, and an unstructured interview guide was used to gather the data needed in the study. Data obtained from the instruments administered was organized and analyzed through the use of statistical tools that included the Mean, Weighted Mean, Relative Frequency, Standard Deviation, F-Test or One-Way ANOVA and the T-Test. Results of the study revealed that all the eight domains involved in the MTAP Saturday Class Program were practiced with the areas of 'trainer-teachers', 'educational facilities', and 'supervisory support' identified as the program’s strongest components while the areas of 'financial support', 'modules' and 'scheduling' as being the weakest program’s components. Moreover, the study revealed based on F-Test, that there was a significant difference in the assessment made by the respondents in each of the eight (8) domains. It was found out that the parents deviated significantly from the assessment of either the school heads or the teachers on the indicators of the program. There is much to be desired when it comes to the quality of the implementation of the MTAP Saturday Class Program. With most of the indicators of each component of the program, having received overall average ratings that were at least 0.5 point away from the ideal rating 5 for total quality, school heads, teachers, and supervisors need to work harder for total quality of the implementation of the MTAP Saturday Class Program in the division.
An Electronic and Performance Test for the Applicants to Faculty of Education for Early Childhood in Egypt for Measuring the Skills of Teacher Students
The current study presents an electronic and performance test to measure the teaching skills. This test is a part of the admission system of the Faculty of Education for Early Childhood, Cairo University. The test has been prepared for the university students who apply for admission the Faculty. It measures some social, performance and physiological skills which are important for successful teachers, such as emotional adjustment and problem-solving. Moreover, the extent of their love for children and their capability to interact with them. The test has been approved by 13 experts. Finally, it has been introduced to 1100 students during the admission system of the academic year 2016/2017. The results showed that most of the applicants have an auditory learning style. In addition, 97% of them have the minimum requirement skills for teaching children.
An Investigation into the Motivations and Aspirations of Mature Female Undergraduate Engineering Students in a Distance-Learning Context
The Open University (OU) is a UK based distance-learning provider that offers a number of engineering qualifications to mature students studying part-time. There are no formal entry requirements, and the majority of OU students are in full-time employment whilst studying. Since the introduction in 2012 of a new fee regime and loans for part-time students, there has been a small growth in overall OU engineering undergraduate student numbers, but only approximately 9% of these students are women. In the UK, only 9% of the engineering workforce is female, and only 6% of registered engineers and technicians are women. There have been many initiatives over the past 30 years to increase the number of girls entering higher education to study engineering, with some limited success. However, there is little-reported work aimed at understanding the motivations of mature women to study engineering. The project builds on anecdotal evidence from conversations with women students at engineering residential schools and National Women in Engineering Day conferences held at the OU that women often choose to study engineering qualifications as a result of working in an engineering environment, but that they do not necessarily have a job role that could be described as engineering at the start of their studies. The research includes a literature review of existing strategies and interventions from UK HEIs encouraging women into engineering, focus groups and in-depth interviews with current female students studying engineering with the OU, and an online survey (informed by results from the focus groups and interviews) of all actively studying female OU engineering students. The aim is to understand better the demographic of our female students, alongside their motivations for study and their career aspirations. Developing an understanding of the motivations and aspirations of these women is a first step towards attempting to increase the number of women studying engineering qualifications at the Open University and to provide appropriate support to them during their studies. Curriculum and marketing strategies would also benefit from a deeper understanding of women’s career aspirations and interests.
The Six 'P' Model: Principles of Inclusive Practice for Inclusion Coaches
The research presented is from a small school district in Ontario, Canada, that has made a transition from self-contained classes for students with exceptionalities to inclusive classroom placements for all students with their age-appropriate peers. The school board aided this transition by hiring Inclusion Coaches with a background in special education to work alongside teachers as partners and inform their inclusive practice. Based on qualitative data from four focus groups conducted with Inclusion Coaches, as well as four blog-style reflections collected at various points over two years, six principles of inclusive practice were identified for coaches. The six principals form a model during transition: pre-requisite, process, precipice, promotion, proof and promise. These principles are encapsulated in a visual model of a cascading staircase displaying the conditions that exist prior to coaching, during coaching interactions and considerations for the sustainability of coaching. These six principles are re-iterative and should be re-visited each time a coaching interaction is initiated. Exploring inclusion coaching as a model emulates coaching in other contexts and allows us to examine an established process through a new lens. This research becomes increasingly important as more school boards transition toward inclusive classrooms, The Six ‘P’ Model: Principles of Inclusive Practice for Inclusion Coaches allows for a unique look into a scaffolding model of building educator capacity in an inclusive setting.
The Use of Semantic Mapping Technique When Teaching English Vocabulary at Saudi Schools
Vocabulary is essential factor of learning and mastering any languages, and it helps learners to communicate with others and to be understood. The aim of this study was to examine whether semantic mapping technique was helpful in terms of improving student's English vocabulary learning comparing to the traditional technique. The students’ age was between 11 and 13 years old. There were 60 students in total who participated in this study. 30 students were in the treatment group (target vocabulary items were taught with semantic mapping). The other 30 students were in the control group (the target vocabulary items were taught by a traditional technique). A t-test was used with the results of pre-test and post-test in order to examine the outcomes of using semantic mapping when teaching vocabulary. The results showed that the vocabulary mastery in the treatment group was increased more than the control group.
Observing Vocabulary Teaching Strategies in English Classrooms in Saudi Schools
Teaching vocabulary is a fundamental step in helping students to develop a good grasp of language. Exploring new strategies is an essential part of improving the teaching of vocabulary. The study aimed to explore the teaching vocabulary strategies in Saudi primary classrooms (aged 11 and 12 years old) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The study was based on qualitative data collected from a large-scale case study, which utilised observations at eight male state and private primary schools during the academic year 2016-2017. The observations were transcribed, coded and entered into Nvivo software to be organised and analysed. Varying teaching vocabulary strategies were explored, and then they were circulated to many English teachers to be used in their classes.
Assessing the Impacts of Vocational Training System in the Sudan: A Dynamic CGE Application
Vocational training (VT) has been identified as a potential engine for achieving economic and social development, particularly in developing countries, while during the last two decades it is deemed as an essential determinant of human capital accumulation. Furthermore, it has a crucial role in reducing inequality, wage gaps and unemployment and in promoting skill decomposition. Government plays an important role in the human capital formulation by providing finance for education. In some countries, a large portion of the public educational investment is devoted to academic education (primary, secondary and tertiary). This is reflected in disproportionately increasing investment in various education sectors other than vocational education and VT. Nevertheless, the finance of VT system is not likely to increase or even remain at its existing level. This paper conducts an in-depth analysis to quantify the impacts of various options for expanding the public expenditure on education as well as vocational training in the Sudan. The study uses a recursive dynamic CGE modelling framework that accommodates VT and allows depicting the impact of various policies targeting the vocational training system with special focus on the agricultural sector. This allows for depicting the potential effects of various resource allocation policies not only among education versus non-education sectors, but also between the various types of education and training. Moreover, the study assesses the role of VT system in the economy through its influence on workers’ skill improvement and their movement across sectors. The results show that an increase in the public educational investment will lead to decrease the supply of low and high educated workers as results of increasing the school participation of the students in the short run. While in the medium to long run, this measure guides to increase the productivity of the labour and thus the growth rate of the gross domestic product (GDP). Therefore, the findings of the study provide Sudanese policymakers with needed information to help to adopt measures to reduce unemployment, enhance workers’ skill and ultimately improve livelihoods.
Creativity in Educational Realities: Theoretical Considerations
Creativity implies originality, but originality does not imply the existence of creativity. Today, one of the challenges of the educational context is the development of educated, autonomous, prudent and competent citizens with a critical attitude, a well-founded questioning and a creative search for innovative alternatives and solutions. These supposedly cognitive capacities impose emotional analysis and decision making, and emotion is also considered as a creative act. Authors emphasize the importance of family and school in the creative manifestation of children and young people, and these agents can stimulate or impede creative expression. Thus, children entering the school system are faced with a barrier that blocks the externalization of this competence. This work deals with the implementation of specific strategies and promoters of an educational environment suitable for the development of creativity. The construct of creativity is discussed in a transdisciplinary perspective, and the importance of the construct is enhanced in psychoeducational practices, in challenging and multifaceted environments. It is assumed that the stimulation and early experience of creative thinking in an educational context are conditions that promote the development of problem-solving skills and future challenges.
The Impact of Household Income on Students' Financial Literacy
Financial literacy has become on focus of many research studies. Family household is found to influence students’ financial literacy. The purpose of this study is to explore whether financial literacy of Albanian students is associated with their family household. The main objectives of this research are: i) firstly, to evaluate how financial literate are Albanian university students; ii) secondly, to examine whether the financial literacy differs based on the level of students family income; and iii) finally, to draw some conclusions and recommendations in order to improve student’s financial literacy. An instrument, comprised of personal finance and personal characteristics is administered to 637 students in Albania. The constituency of the survey is tested based on the dimension reduction and factor analyzing techniques. The One Way Welch ANOVA and multiple comparison techniques are utilized to analyze the data. The results indicate that student’s financial literacy is influenced by their family income.
Implementing Lesson Study in Qatari Mathematics Classroom: A Case Study of a New Experience for Teachers through IMPULS-QU Lesson Study Program
The implementation of Japanese lesson study approach in the mathematics classroom has been grown worldwide as a model of professional development for teachers. In Qatar, the implementation of IMPULS-QU lesson study program aimed to establish a robust organizational improvement model of professional development for mathematics teachers in Qatar schools. This study describes the implementation of a lesson study model at Al-Markhyia Independent Primary School through different stages; and discusses how the planning process, the research lesson, and the post discussion participates in providing teachers and researchers with a successful research lesson for teacher professional development. The research followed a case study approach in one mathematics classroom. Two teachers and one professional development specialist participated the planning process. One teacher conducted the research lesson study by introducing a problem solving related to the concept of the ‘Mean’ in a mathematics class, 21 students in grade 6 participated in solving the mathematic problem, 11 teachers, 4 professional development specialists, and 4 mathematics professors observed the research lesson. All previous participants except the students participated in a pre and post-lesson discussion within this research. This study followed a qualitative research approach by analyzing the collected data through different stages in the research lesson study. Observation, field notes, and semi-structured interviews conducted to collect data to achieve the research aims. One feature of this lesson study research is that this research describes the implementation for a lesson study as a new experience for one mathematics teacher and 21 students after 3 years of conducting IMPULS-QU project in Al-Markhyia school. The research describes various stages through the implementation of this lesson study model starting from the planning process and ending by the post discussion process. Findings of the study also address the impact of lesson study approach in teaching mathematics for the development of teachers from their point views. Results of the study show the benefits of using lesson study from the point views of participated teachers, theory perceptions about the essential features of lesson study, and their needs for future development. The discussion of the study addresses different features and issues related to the implementation of IMPULS-QU lesson study model in the mathematics classroom. In the light of the study, the research presents recommendations and suggestions for future professional development.
Applying Knowledge Management and Attitude Based on Holistic Approach in Learning Andragogy, as an Effort to Solve Environmental Problems after Mining Activities
The root cause of environmental damage post coal mining activities as determined by the province of East Kalimantan as a corridor of economic activity masterplan acceleration of economic development expansion (MP3EI) is the behavior of adults. Adult behavior can be changed through knowledge management and attitude. Based on the root of the problem, the objective of the research is to apply knowledge management and attitude based on holistic approach in learning andragogy as an effort to solve environmental problems after coal mining activities. Research methods to achieve the objective of using quantitative research with pretest posttest group design. Knowledge management and attitudes based on a holistic approach in adult learning are applied through initial learning activities, core and case-based cover of environmental damage. The research instrument is a description of the case of environmental damage. The data analysis uses t-test to see the effect of knowledge management attitude based on holistic approach before and after adult learning. Location and sample of representative research of adults as many as 20 people in Kutai Kertanegara District, one of the districts in East Kalimantan province, which suffered the worst environmental damage. The conclusion of the research result is the application of knowledge management and attitude in adult learning influence to adult knowledge and attitude to overcome environmental problem post coal mining activity.
Maximizing the Role of Companion Teachers for the Achievement of Professional Competencies and Pedagogics Workshop Activities of Teacher Professional Participants in the Faculty of Teaching and Education of Mulawarman University
The problems faced by participants of teacher profession program in Faculty of teaching and education Mulawarman University is professional and pedagogic competence. Professional competence related to the mastery of teaching materials, while pedagogic competence related with the ability to plan and to implement learning. Based on the problems, the purpose of the research is to maximize the role of companion teacher for the achievement of professional and pedagogic competencies in the workshop of the participants of teacher professional education in the Faculty of Teaching and Education of Mulawarman University. Qualitative research method with interview guidance and document to get in-depth data on how to maximize the role of companion teachers in the achievement of professional and pedagogic competencies in the workshop participants of professional education participants. Location of this research is on the Faculty of Teaching and Education of Mulawarman University, Samarinda City, East Kalimantan Province. Research respondents were 12 teachers of workshop facilitator. Descriptive data analysis is through interpretation of interview data. The conclusion of the research result, how to maximize the role of assistant teachers in workshop activities for the professional competence and pedagogic competence of professional teacher training program participants, through facilitation activities conducted by teachers of companion related to real problems faced by students in school, so that the workshop participants have professional competence and pedagogic as an initial competence before carrying out practical activities of field experience in school.
Analysis of Senior Secondary II Students Performance/Approaches Exhibited in Solving Circle Geometry
The paper will examine the approaches and solutions that will be offered by Senior Secondary School II Students (Demonstration Secondary School, Azare Bauchi State Northern Nigeria – Hausa/ Fulani predominant area) toward solving exercises related to the circle theorem. The angle that an arc of a circle subtends at the center is twice that which it subtends at any point on the remaining part of the circumference. The Students will be divided in to 2 groups by given them numbers 1, 2; 1, 2; 1, 2, then all 1s formed group I and all 2s formed group II. Group I will be considered as control group in which the traditional method will be applied during instructions. Thus, the researcher will revise the concept of circle, state the theorem, prove the theorem and then solve examples. Group II, experimental group in which the concept of circle will be revised to the students and then the students will be asked to draw different circles, mark arcs, draw angle at the center, angle at the circumference then measure the angles constructed. The students will be asked to explain what they can infer/deduce from the angles measured and lastly, examples will be solved. During the next contact day, both groups will be subjected to solving exercises in the classroom related to the theorem. The angle that an arc of a circle subtends at the center is twice that which it subtends at any point on the remaining part of circumference. The solution to the exercises will be marked, the scores compared/analysed using relevant statistical tool. It is expected that group II will perform better because of the method/ technique followed during instructions is more learner-centered. By exploiting the talents of the individual learners through listening to the views and asking them how they arrived at a solution will really improve learning and understanding.
Cultures, Differences, and Education in EU: Right to Have Rights against Reality
In the pursuit of educational equity within Human Rights and European Fundamental Laws, the reality presents serious problems based on the psychologic, social understanding. Take into account the miscellaneous cultures in the global context and the nowadays numbers of Human mobilities, there are serious problems affecting the societies. This justifies the diagnosed need of a renew pedagogical and social education strategy to achieve the integration positive context preventing violence and discrimination, especially in Education systems. Consequently, it is important to have in mind the respect, acceptance, and integration of special needs students in all study degrees, as it is law but a complex reality. Despite the UN and International Human Rights, European Fundamental Chart, and all EU Treats, as the 28th EU State Member’s fundamental laws forecast the right of Education, the respect, the action and promotion of different cultures and the Education for ‘Difference’ integration – cultures; ideologies, Special Needs Students/Citizens – there are different and severe problems. Firstly, there are questions/contexts/problems not denounced by the lack of investments, political, social or ‘powers’ pressures, so, consequently, the authorities don’t have the action as laws demand and the transgressors haven´t any juridical or judicial punishment. Secondly, and our most important point: Governments, authorities and even victims hide these violations/violence/problems what disable the effective protection and law enforcement. Finally, the official and non-official strategies to get around the duties, break away the laws, failing the victims protection and consequently enable the problems increase dramatically. With this research, we observed that there are international Organizations/regions and States acting without respect to the Education right despite their democratic ideology and the generated external ‘image’ of law-abiding and Human Rights defenders. Nevertheless, it is urgent to develop a consistent Human Rights Education program aiming to protect, promote and implement the Right to be different and be respected by the law, the governments, institutions official and non-official, adapted to the needs in each society. The background of this research is the International and European laws, in accordance with the state’s legal systems. The approaches and the differences of the Education for Human and Fundamental Rights execution in the different EU countries, studying the pedagogy and social inclusion programs/strategies, with particular analysis of the Special Needs students. The results aim to construct a European Education profiling, with the governments and EU interventions need, as well as the panorama of the Special Needs Students effective integration achieving a renewed strategy to promote the respect of the Differences and an Inclusive School life.
The Impact of the Virtual Learning Environment on Teacher's Pedagogy and Student's Learning in Primary School Setting
The rapid growth and advancement in information and communication technology (ICT) at a global scene has greatly influenced and revolutionised interaction amongst society. The use of ICT has become second nature in managing everyday lives, particularly in the education environment. Traditional learning methods of using blackboards and chalks have been largely improved by the use of ICT devices such as interactive whiteboards and computers in school. This paper aims to explore the impacts of virtual learning environments (VLE) on teacher’s pedagogy and student’s learning in primary school settings. The research was conducted in two phases. Phase one of this study comprised a short interview with the school’s senior assistants to examine issues and challenges faced during planning and implementation of FrogVLE in their respective schools. Phase two involved a survey of a number of questionnaires directed to three major stakeholders; the teachers, students and parents. The survey intended to explore teacher’s and student’s perspective and attitude towards the use of VLE as a teaching and learning medium and as a learning experience as a whole. In addition, the survey from parents provided insights on how they feel towards the use of VLE for their child’s learning. Collectively, the two phases enable improved understanding and provided observations on factors that had affected the implementation of the VLE into primary schools. This study offers the voices of the students which were frequently omitted when addressing innovations as well as teachers who may not always be heard. It is also significant in addressing the importance of teacher’s pedagogy on students’ learning and its effects to enable more effective ICT integration with a student-centred approach. Finally, parental perceptions in the implementation of VLE in supporting their children’s learning have been implicated as having a bearing on educational achievement. The results indicate that the all three stakeholders were positive and highly supportive towards the use of VLE in schools. They were able to understand the benefits of moving towards the modern method of teaching using ICT and accept the change in the education system. However, factors such as condition of ICT facilities at schools and homes as well as inadequate professional development for the teachers in both ICT skills and management skills hindered exploitation of the VLE system in order to fully utilise its benefits. Social influences within different communities and cultures and costs of using the technology also has a significant impact. The findings of this study are important to the Malaysian Ministry of Education because it informs policy makers on the impact of the Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) on teacher’s pedagogy and learning of Malaysian primary school children. The information provided to policy makers allows them to make a sound judgement and enables an informed decision making.
Challenges of Online Education and Emerging E-Learning Technologies in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions Using Adeyemi College of Education as a Case Study
This paper presents a review of the challenges of e-learning and e-learning technologies in tertiary institutions. This review is based on the researchers observations of the challenges of making use of ICT for learning in Nigeria using Adeyemi College of Education as a case study; this is in comparison to tertiary institutions in the UK, US and other more developed countries. In Nigeria and probably Africa as a whole, power is the major challenge. Its inconsistency and fluctuations pose the greatest challenge to making use of online education inside and outside the classroom. Internet and its supporting infrastructures in many places in Nigeria are slow and unreliable. This, in turn, could frustrate any attempt at making use of online education and e-learning technologies. Lack of basic knowledge of computer, its technologies and facilities could also prove to be a challenge as many young people up until now are yet to be computer literate. Personal interest on both the parts of lecturers and students is also a challenge. Many people are not interested in learning how to make use of technologies. This makes them resistant to changing from the ancient methods of doing things. These and others were reviewed by this paper, suggestions, and recommendations were proffered.