Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 51965

Educational and Pedagogical Sciences

1540
92674
[Keynote Talk] The Practices and Issues of Career Education: Focusing on Career Development Course on Various Problems of Society
Abstract:
Several universities in Japan have introduced activities aimed at the mutual enlightenment of a diversity of people in career education. However, several programs emphasize on delivering results, and on practicing the prepared materials as planned. Few programs focus on unexpected failures and setbacks. This way of learning is important in career education so that classmates can help each other, overcome difficulties, draw out each other’s strengths, and learn from them. Seijo University in Tokyo offered excursion focusing Various Problems of Society, as second year career education course, Students will learn about contraception, infertility, homeless people, LGBT, and they will discuss based on the excursion. This paper aims to study the ‘learning platform’ created by a series of processes such as the excursion, the discussion, and the presentation. In this course, students looked back on their lives and imagined the future in concrete terms, performing tasks in groups. The students came across a range of values through lectures and conversations, thereby developing feelings of self-efficacy. We conducted a questionnaire to measure the development of career in class. From the results of the questionnaire, we can see, in the example of this class, that students respected diversity and understood the importance of uncertainty and discontinuity. Whereas the students developed career awareness, they actually did not come across that scene and would do so only in the future when it became necessary. In this class, students consciously considered social problems, but did not develop the practical skills necessary to deal with these. This is appropriate for one of project, but we need to consider how this can be incorporated into future courses. University constitutes only a single period in life-long career formation. Thus, further research may be indicated to determine whether the positive effects of career education at university continue to contribute to individual careers going forward.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1539
91608
Peer-to-Peer Mentoring Program for University Students with Disabilities: Self-Report Measures and Academic Outcomes for Program Participants
Abstract:
As individuals with disabilities attend higher education in greater numbers, universities are seeking ways to support the retention and success of these students, beyond the academically based accommodations. Although mentoring programs for this population are being implemented more frequently, there is a lack of empirically validated outcomes which could promote program replication. The research objective of this exploratory study was to examine outcomes for students with disabilities participating in a peer-to-peer mentoring program. Mentees (students with disabilities) met with their mentor (trained upperclassman) once a week for an hour for one semester (14-weeks). Mentors followed a curriculum structured by monthly and weekly goals to guide the sessions. Curriculum topics included socializing on campus, peer pressure, time management, communicating with peers and professors, classroom etiquette, study skills, and seeking help and campus resources. Data was collected over a period of seven semesters resulting in seven separate cohorts (n=46). The impact of the program was measured using quantitative self-report measures as well as qualitative content analysis of focus groups. Academic outcomes (retention, credits earned, and GPA) were compared between those in the mentoring program and a matched group of students registered with Disability Services who did not receive mentoring. In addition, a one-year follow up was conducted to examine the longer term impact of participation. Findings indicated that mentoring had the most impact in knowing how things work at the university, knowing how and where to find opportunities to meet people on campus, and knowing how to access supports. Mentors also provided a supportive relationship to the mentees and helped with social skills. There were no significant differences in academic outcomes between those who were mentored and those in the comparison group. Most mentees reported continuing to benefit from the program one year on, providing support for the retention of knowledge gained and maintenance of positive outcomes over time. In conclusion, while a range of positive outcomes were evidenced, the model was limited in its impact more broadly, particularly with regards to academic success and impacting more complex challenges.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1538
91419
The Wellness Wheel: A Tool to Reimagine Schooling
Abstract:
The wellness wheel as a tool for school growth and change is currently being piloted by a startup school in Chicago, IL. In this case study, members of the school community engaged in the appreciative inquiry process to plan their organizational development around the wellness wheel. The wellness wheel (comprised of physical, emotional, social, spiritual, environmental, cognitive, and financial wellness) is used as a planning tool by teachers, students, parents, and administrators. Through the appreciative inquiry method of change, the community is reflecting on their individual level of wellness and developing organizational structures to ensure the well being of children and adults. The goal of the case study is to test the appropriateness of the use of appreciative inquiry (as a method) and the wellness wheel (as a tool) for school growth and development. Findings of the case study will be realized by the conference. The research is in process now.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1537
91356
Moving from Computer Assisted Learning Language to Mobile Assisted Learning Language Edutainment: A Trend for Teaching and Learning
Abstract:
Technology has led to rapid changes in the world, and most importantly to education, particularly in the 21st century. Technology has enhanced teachers’ potential and has resulted in the provision of greater interaction and choices for learners. In addition, technology is helping to improve individuals’ learning experiences and building their capacity to read, listen, speak, search, analyse, memorise and encode languages, as well as bringing learners together and creating a sense of greater involvement. This paper has been organised in the following way: the first section provides a review of the literature related to the implementation of CALL (computer assisted learning language), and it explains CALL and its phases, as well as attempting to highlight and analyse Warschauer’s article. The second section is an attempt to describe the move from CALL to mobilised systems of edutainment, which challenge existing forms of teaching and learning. It also addresses the role of the teacher and the curriculum content, and how this is affected by the computerisation of learning that is taking place. Finally, an empirical study has been conducted to collect data from teachers in Saudi Arabia using quantitive and qualitative method tools. Connections are made between the area of study and the personal experience of the researcher carrying out the study with a methodological reflection on the challenges faced by the teachers of this same system. The major findings were that it is worth spelling out here that despite the circumstances in which students and lecturers are currently working, the participants revealed themselves to be highly intelligent and articulate individuals who were constrained from revealing this criticality and creativity by the system of learning and teaching operant in most schools.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1536
91355
The Use of Mobile Social Media Applications for Language Learning: A Case Study of Higher Education in Saudi Arabia
Abstract:
The rapid increase in the use of technology in daily life and its growing affordability has changed our lifestyles dramatically. It is primarily the affordability of these mobile devices that have led to their wide use and acceptance around the globe, and Saudi Arabia is no exception. The idea of integrating technology in education has been a remarkable interest for the last decade, and many countries have implemented new projects to acquaint students with educational technologies. Recently, the minister of education in Saudi Arabia has announced that there will be no more of textbooks, and thus electronic books via mobile devices will be used as alternatives/substitutes. The proposed study was divided into two phases; phase I (pilot study) which provided important background for the main (empirical) study. A design-based research was employed in both phases, phase I is a short period to test and refine the main study. The aim of research is to investigate students’ current experiences and perceptions and learning principles towards learning English via social media mobile applications at Al-Imam University, Saudi Arabia. Pilot study was analysed and initial findings were written accordingly. Major initial findings were that Saudi culture has further effects on the way the students deal with one another and any communication between the students and their lecturers. Grounded Theory was used as the theoretical approach to investigate the collected data. The main motivation for the use of this theory was that the findings gained can be valid and reliable in respect of representing real-world settings. In addition, the stories that are told through this approach are context-specific, detailed, and robustly connected to the data.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1535
90957
Critical Assessment of Herbal Medicine Usage and Efficacy by Pharmacy Students
Abstract:
An ability to make an evidence-based decision is a critically important skill required for practicing pharmacists. The development of this skill is incorporated into the pharmacy curriculum. We aimed in our study to estimate perception of pharmacy students regarding herbal medicines and their ability to assess information on herbal medicines professionally. The current Monash University curriculum in Pharmacy does not provide comprehensive study material on herbal medicines and students should find their way to find information, assess its quality and make a professional decision. In the Pharmacy course, students are trained how to apply this process to conventional medicines. In our survey of 93 undergraduate students from year 1-4 of Pharmacy course at Monash University Malaysia, we found that students’ view on herbal medicines is sometimes associated with common beliefs, which affect students’ ability to make evidence-based conclusions regarding the therapeutic potential of herbal medicines. The use of herbal medicines is widespread and 95.7% of the participated students have prior experience of using them. In the scale 1 to 10, students rated the importance of acquiring herbal medicine knowledge for them as 8.1±1.6. More than half (54.9%) agreed that herbal medicines have the same clinical significance as conventional medicines in treating diseases. Even more, students agreed that healthcare settings should give equal importance to both conventional and herbal medicine use (80.6%) and that herbal medicines should comply with strict quality control procedures as conventional medicines (84.9%). The latter statement also indicates that students consider safety issues associated with the use of herbal medicines seriously. It was further confirmed by 94.6% of students saying that the safety and toxicity information on herbs and spices are important to pharmacists and 95.7% of students admitting that drug-herb interactions may affect therapeutic outcome. Only 36.5% of students consider herbal medicines as s safer alternative to conventional medicines. The students use information on herbal medicines from various sources and media. Most of the students (81.7%) obtain information on herbal medicines from the Internet and only 20.4% mentioned lectures/workshop/seminars as a source of such information. Therefore, we can conclude that students attained the skills on the critical assessment of therapeutic properties of conventional medicines have a potential to use their skills for evidence-based decisions regarding herbal medicines.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1534
90666
Persisting Gender Gap in the Field of Academic Entrepreneurship: The Case of Switzerland
Abstract:
While women are increasingly frequent among the founders of innovative companies and advanced researchers in many university research institutes today, they are still an exception among initiators of research-based spin-offs. This also applies to countries such as Switzerland, which does have a leading position in international innovation rankings. Starting from a gender-sensitive neo-institutionalist perspective, this paper examines formal and non-formal institutional framework conditions for academic spin-offs at Swiss universities of applied sciences. This field, which stresses vocational education and practice-oriented research, seems to conserve the gender gap in the area of establishing research-based spin-offs spin-off rates strongly. The analysis starts from a survey conducted in 2017 and 2018 at all seven public universities of applied sciences in Switzerland as well as on an evaluation of expert interviews performed with heads of start-up centers, where also spin-offs from universities of applied sciences get support. The results show the mechanisms, which contribute to gender gaps in academic entrepreneurship in higher education. University's female employees have hardly been discovered as target groups. Thus, only 10.5% of universities of applied sciences offer specific support measures for women in academia. And only 1 out of 7 universities of applied sciences offer mentoring programs for female entrepreneurs while in addition there are no financial resources available to support female founders in academia. Moreover, the awareness of the gender gap in academic entrepreneurship is low among founding commissioners. A consistent transfer strategy might be key for bringing in line the formal and non-formal preconditions relevant for the formation of research-based spin-offs and for providing an effective incentive structure to promote women.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1533
90645
Teaching Children about Their Brains: Evaluating the Role of Neuroscience Undergraduates in Primary School Education
Authors:
Abstract:
Many children leave primary school having formed preconceptions about their relationship with science. Thus, primary school represents a critical window for stimulating scientific interest in younger children. Engagement relies on the provision of hands-on activities coupled with an ability to capture a child’s innate curiosity. This requires children to perceive science topics as interesting and relevant to their everyday life. Teachers and pupils alike have suggested the school curriculum be tailored to help stimulate scientific interest. Young children are naturally inquisitive about the human body; the brain is one topic which frequently engages pupils, although it is not currently included in the UK primary curriculum. Teaching children about the brain could have wider societal impacts such as increasing knowledge of neurological disorders. However, many primary school teachers do not receive formal neuroscience training and may feel apprehensive about delivering lessons on the nervous system. This is exacerbated by a lack of educational neuroscience resources. One solution is for undergraduates to form partnerships with schools - delivering engaging lessons and supplementing teacher knowledge. The aim of this project was to evaluate the success of a short lesson on the brain delivered by an undergraduate neuroscientist to primary school pupils. Prior to entering schools, semi-structured online interviews were conducted with teachers to gain pedagogical advice and relevant websites were searched for neuroscience resources. Subsequently, a single lesson plan was created comprising of four hands-on activities. The activities were devised in a top-down manner, beginning with learning about the brain as an entity, before focusing on individual neurons. Students were asked to label a ‘brain map’ to assess prior knowledge of brain structure and function. They viewed animal brains and created ‘pipe-cleaner neurons’ which were later used to depict electrical transmission. The same session was delivered by an undergraduate student to 570 key stage 2 (KS2) pupils across five schools in Leeds, UK. Post-session surveys, designed for teachers and pupils respectively, were used to evaluate the session. Children in all year groups had relatively poor knowledge of brain structure and function at the beginning of the session. When asked to label four brain regions with their respective functions, older pupils labeled a mean of 1.5 (± 1.0) brain regions compared to 0.8 (± 0.96) for younger pupils (p=0.002). However, by the end of the session, 95% of pupils felt their knowledge of the brain had increased. Hands-on activities were rated most popular by pupils and were considered the most successful aspect of the session by teachers. Although only half the teachers were aware of neuroscience educational resources, nearly all (95%) felt they would have more confidence in teaching a similar session in the future. All teachers felt the session was engaging and that the content could be linked to the current curriculum. Thus, a short fifty-minute session can successfully enhance pupils’ knowledge of a new topic: the brain. Partnerships with an undergraduate student can provide an alternative method for supplementing teacher knowledge, increasing their confidence in delivering future lessons on the nervous system.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1532
90580
Intersectional Perspectives on Gender Equality in Higher Education: A Survey on Swiss Universities of Applied Science
Abstract:
Internationalization of students is part of the agenda of many universities worldwide. Yet, how well do universities achieve to guarantee educational success for male and female students of migrant background? This contribution aims on analyzing the effects of the Swiss university environment on perceived educational outcome of migrant students from a gender sensitive perspective. Social selectivity and gender inequalities strongly influence students’ access and success at universities. However, the complex interaction between universities and their disciplinary environments, and educational success of migrant students of both sex remains rarely examined so far. Starting from an intersectional perspective and neo-institutional approaches on higher education organizations, this contribution addresses formal/informal factors in the university environment in its impact on male/female students’ perception of well-being, success and dropout motivation. The paper starts from a most recent Swiss online-survey of Bachelor-students in two Universities of Applied Science and a University of Education in Switzerland. It compares students’ perspectives in four large BA degree courses with different male/female ratio, i.e. educational science, technical/computer science, economy, and social work (N=9`608). Results highlight the complex interplay of gender, migrant background and further dimensions of social differentiation on students’ perception in these different fields of education. Further, they illustrate correlations between students’ perception of discriminatory contexts, poor ratings of social integration and study success, as well a higher rate of dropout ideas. The paper lines out, that formal aspects of internationalization are less important for successfully integrating male/female migrant students than informal university conditions, such as a culture of diversity, which has to become integral part of internationalization strategies.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1531
90283
Implementation of Language Policy in a Swedish Multicultural Early Childhood School: A Development Project
Abstract:
This presentation focuses a development project aiming at developing and documenting the steps taken at a multilingual, multicultural K-5 school, with the aim to improve the achievement levels of the pupils by focusing language and literacy development across the schedule in a digital classroom, and in all units of the school. This pre-formulated aim, thus, may be said to adhere to neoliberal educational and accountability policies in terms of its focus on digital learning, learning results, and national curriculum standards. In particular the project aimed at improving the collaboration between the teachers, the leisure time unit, the librarians, the mother tongue teachers and bilingual study counselors. This is a school environment characterized by cultural, ethnic, linguistic, and professional pluralization. The overarching aims of the research project were to scrutinize and analyze the factors enabling and obstructing the implementation of the Language Policy in a digital classroom. Theoretical framework: We apply multi-level perspectives in the analyses inspired by Uljens’ ideas about interactive and interpersonal first order (teacher/students) and second order(principal/teachers and other staff) educational leadership as described within the framework of discursive institutionalism, when we try to relate the Language Policy, educational policy, and curriculum with the administrative processes. Methodology/research design: The development project is based on recurring research circles where teachers, leisure time assistants, mother tongue teachers and study counselors speaking the mother tongue of the pupils together with two researchers discuss their digital literacy practices in the classroom. The researchers have in collaboration with the principal developed guidelines for the work, expressed in a Language Policy document. In our understanding the document is, however, only a part of the concept, the actions of the personnel and their reflections on the practice constitute the major part of the development project. One and a half years out of three years have now passed and the project has met with a row of difficulties which shed light on factors of importance for the progress of the development project. Field notes and recordings from the research circles, a survey with the personnel, and recorded group interviews provide data on the progress of the project. Expected conclusions: The problems experienced deal with leadership, curriculum, interplay between aims, technology, contents and methods, the parents as customers taking their children to other schools, conflicting values, and interactional difficulties, that is, phenomena on different levels, ranging from school to a societal level, as for example teachers being substituted as a result of the marketization of schools. Also underlying assumptions from actors at different levels create obstacles. We find this study and the problems we are facing utterly important to share and discuss in an era with a steady flow of refugees arriving in the Nordic countries.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1530
89926
Increasing the Mastery of Kanji with Language Learning Strategies through Multimedia
Abstract:
This study aims to gain a deep understanding of the process and the increase resulting in mastery of Kanji with a Language Learning Strategies through multimedia. This research aims to gain scientific data on process and the result of improving kanji mastery by using Chokusetsu strategy in Kanji learning. The method used in this research is Action Research developed by Kemmis and Mc. Taggart is known as Spiral Model. This model consists of following stages: planning, implementation, observation, and reflection. The research results in following findings: (1) Kanji mastery comprises 4 major aspects, those are reading, writing, the use in sentence, and memorizing, and those aspects show gradual improvement from time to time. (2) Students have more participation in learning activities which can be identified from some positive behaviours such giving respond in finishing exercise in class. (3) Students’ better attention to the lesson shown by active behaviour in giving more questions or asking for more explanation to the lecturers, memorizing Kanji card, finishing the task of making Kanji card/house, doing the exercises more seriously, and finishing homework assignment punctually. (4) More attractive learning activities and tasks in the forms of more engaging colour and pictures enables students to conduct self-evaluation on their learning process.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1529
89766
Comparing Test Equating by Item Response Theory and Raw Score Methods with Small Sample Sizes on a Study of the ARTé: Mecenas Learning Game
Abstract:
The purpose of the present research is to equate two test forms as part of a study to evaluate the educational effectiveness of the ARTé: Mecenas art history learning game. The researcher applied Item Response Theory (IRT) procedures to calculate item, test, and mean-sigma equating parameters. With the sample size n=134, test parameters indicated "good" model fit but low Test Information Functions and more acute than expected equating parameters. Therefore, the researcher applied equipercentile equating and linear equating to raw scores and compared the equated form parameters and effect sizes from each method. Item scaling in IRT enables the researcher to select a subset of well-discriminating items. The mean-sigma step produces a mean-slope adjustment from the anchor items, which was used to scale the score on the new form (Form R) to the reference form (Form Q) scale. In equipercentile equating, scores are adjusted to align the proportion of scores in each quintile segment. Linear equating produces a mean-slope adjustment, which was applied to all core items on the new form. The study followed a quasi-experimental design with purposeful sampling of students enrolled in a college level art history course (n=134) and counterbalancing design to distribute both forms on the pre- and posttests. The Experimental Group (n=82) was asked to play ARTé: Mecenas online and complete Level 4 of the game within a two-week period; 37 participants completed Level 4. Over the same period, the Control Group (n=52) did not play the game. The researcher examined between group differences from post-test scores on test Form Q and Form R by full-factorial Two-Way ANOVA. The raw score analysis indicated a 1.29% direct effect of form, which was statistically non-significant but may be practically significant. The researcher repeated the between group differences analysis with all three equating methods. For the IRT mean-sigma adjusted scores, form had a direct effect of 8.39%. Mean-sigma equating with a small sample may have resulted in inaccurate equating parameters. Equipercentile equating aligned test means and standard deviations, but resultant skewness and kurtosis worsened compared to raw score parameters. Form had a 3.18% direct effect. Linear equating produced the lowest Form effect, approaching 0%. Using linearly equated scores, the researcher conducted an ANCOVA to examine the effect size in terms of prior knowledge. The between group effect size for the Control Group versus Experimental Group participants who completed the game was 14.39% with a 4.77% effect size attributed to pre-test score. Playing and completing the game increased art history knowledge, and individuals with low prior knowledge tended to gain more from pre- to post test. Ultimately, researchers should approach test equating based on their theoretical stance on Classical Test Theory and IRT and the respective  assumptions. Regardless of the approach or method, test equating requires a representative sample of sufficient size. With small sample sizes, the application of a range of equating approaches can expose item and test features for review, inform interpretation, and identify paths for improving instruments for future study.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1528
89674
A Process to Support Multidisciplinary Teams to Design Serious Games
Abstract:
Designing serious games for education is a challenging and resource-intensive effort. If a well-designed process that balances pedagogical principles with game mechanics is in place, it can help to simplify the design process of serious games and increase efficiency. Multidisciplinary teams involved in designing serious games can benefit tremendously from such a process in their endeavours to develop and implement these games at undergraduate and graduate levels. This paper presentation will outline research results on identified gaps within existing processes and frameworks and present an adapted process that emerged from the research. The research methodology was based on a survey, semi-structured interviews and workshops for testing the adapted process for game design. Based on the findings, the authors propose a simple process for the pre-production stage of serious game design that may help guide multidisciplinary teams in their work. This process was used to facilitate team brainstorming, and is currently being tested to assess if multidisciplinary teams find value in using it in their process of designing serious games.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1527
89396
The Education-Development Nexus: The Vision of International Organizations
Abstract:
This presentation will cover the vision of international organizations on the link between development and education. This issue is very relevant to address the general topic of the conference. 'Educating for development' is indeed at the heart of their discourse. For most of international organizations involved in education, it is important to invest in this field since it is at the service of development. The idea of this presentation is to better understand the vision of development according to these international organizations and how education can contribute to this type of development. To address this issue, we conducted a comparative study of three major international organizations (OECD, UNESCO and World Bank) influencing education policy at the international level. The data come from the strategic reports of these organizations over the period 1990-2015. The results show that the visions of development refer mainly to the neoliberal agenda, despite evolutions, even contradictions. And so, education must increase productivity, improve economic growth, etc. UNESCO, which has a less narrow conception of the development and therefore the aims of education, does not have the same means as the two other organizations to advocate for an alternative vision.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1526
89299
Scrum Challenges and Mitigation Practices in Global Software Development of an Integrated Learning Environment: Case Study of Science, Technology, Innovation, Mathematics, Engineering for the Young
Abstract:
The main objective of STIMEY (Science, Technology, Innovation, Mathematics, Engineering for the Young) project is the delivery of a hybrid learning environment that combines multi-level components such as social media concepts, robotic artefacts, and radio, among others. It is based on a well-researched pedagogical framework to attract European youths to STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education and careers. To develop and integrate these various components, STIMEY is executed in iterative research cycles leading to progressive improvements. Scrum was the development methodology of choice in the project, as studies indicated its benefits as an agile methodology in global software development, especially of e-learning and integrated learning projects. This paper describes the project partners’ experience with the Scrum framework, discussing the challenges faced in its implementation and the mitigation practices employed. The authors conclude with exploring user experience tools and principles for future research, as a novel direction in supporting the Scrum development team.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1525
89150
A Case Study on Quantitatively and Qualitatively Increasing Student Output by Using Available Word Processing Applications to Teach Reluctant Elementary School-Age Writers
Abstract:
Background: Between 2010 and 2017, teachers in a suburban public school district struggled to get students to consistently produce adequate writing samples as measured by the Pennsylvania state writing rubric for measuring focus, content, organization, style, and conventions. A common thread in all of the data was the need to develop stamina in the student writers. Method: All of the teachers used the traditional writing process model (prewrite, draft, revise, edit, final copy) during writing instruction. One teacher taught the writing process using word processing and incentivizing with publication instead of the traditional pencil/paper/grading method. Students did not have instruction in typing/keyboarding. The teacher submitted resulting student work to real-life contests, magazines, and publishers. Results: Students in the test group increased both the quantity and quality of their writing over a seven month period as measured by the Pennsylvania state writing rubric. Reluctant writers, as well as students with autism spectrum disorder, benefited from this approach. This outcome was repeated consistently over a five-year period. Interpretation: Removing the burden of pencil and paper allowed students to participate in the writing process more fully. Writing with pencil and paper is physically tiring. Students are discouraged when they submit a draft and are instructed to use the Add, Remove, Move, Substitute (ARMS) method to revise their papers. Each successive version becomes shorter. Allowing students to type their papers frees them to quickly and easily make changes. The result is longer writing pieces in shorter time frames, allowing the teacher to spend more time working on individual needs. With this additional time, the teacher can concentrate on teaching focus, content, organization, style, conventions, and audience. S/he also has a larger body of works from which to work on whole group instruction such as developing effective leads. The teacher submitted the resulting student work to contests, magazines, and publishers. Although time-consuming, the submission process was an invaluable lesson for teaching about audience and tone. All students in the test sample had work accepted for publication. Students became highly motivated to succeed when their work was accepted for publication. This motivation applied to special needs students, regular education students, and gifted students.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1524
89009
Providing Support for Minority LGBTQ Students: Developing a Queer Studies Course
Authors:
Abstract:
The LGBTQ youth of color face stigma related to both race and gender identity. Effectively dealing with racial/ethnic discrimination requires strong connections to family and one’s racial/ethnic group. However, LGBTQ youth of color seldom receive support from family, peer groups or church groups. Moreover, ethnic communities often perceive LGBTQ identities as a rejection of ethnic heritage. Thus, stigma places these young people at greater risk for substance use, violence, risky sexual behaviors, suicide, and homelessness. Offering a Queer Studies (QS) class is one way to facilitate a safer and more inclusive environment for LGBTQ students, faculty and staff. The discipline of Queer Studies encompasses theories and thinkers from numerous fields: cultural studies, gay and lesbian studies, race studies, women's studies, media, postmodernism, post-colonialism, psychoanalysis and more. We began our course development by researching existing programs and classes. Several course syllabi were examined and course materials such as readings, videos, and guest speakers were assessed for possible inclusion. We also employed informal survey methods with students and faculty in order to gauge interest in the course. We then developed a sample course syllabus and began the process of new course approval. Feedback thus far indicates that students of various sexual orientations and gender identities are interested in the course and understand the need to offer it; faculty in Psychology, Social Work, and Interdisciplinary Studies are interested in cross-listing the course; library staff is willing to assist with course material acquisition, and the administration is supportive. The purpose of this session is to 1) explore the various health and wellness issues facing LGBTQ students of color and 2) share our experience of developing a QS course in health education in order to address these needs. This process, from initial recognition of the need to a course offering, will be described and discussed in the hopes that participants will increase their awareness of the issues. A QS course would be an appropriate requirement for any number of majors as well as an elective for any major.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1523
88824
School Leaders and Professional Licenses: Measuring the Impact as Perceived by Qatari Schools' Stakeholders
Abstract:
The purpose of this quantitative study was to measure the difference in levels of satisfaction of students, teachers, and parents in schools run by licensed school leaders comparing with schools run by unlicensed school leaders. Data was gathered from 108 school performance reports as published by Ministry of Education and Higher Education for the year 2015-2016. School leaders in 58 participating schools obtained the professional licenses while school leaders in 56 participating schools have no professional licenses. Percentages, standard deviations, and t-tests were used to analyze the data. Results showed that no statistical differences were found in students’ satisfaction between the two school types. However, there were statistical differences in parents and teachers’ satisfaction in the two school types attributed to obtaining the professional license. Teachers and parents of students in schools run by licensed school leaders satisfied more than schools run by unlicensed school leaders. Finally, many recommendations and implications were discussed and proposed. This paper was made possible by NPRP grant # (NPRP7-1224-5-178) from the Qatar national research fund (a member of Qatar Foundation) to Abdullah M. Abu-Tineh. The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the author
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1522
88566
Study Skills Empowering Strategies to Enhance Second Year Diploma Accountancy Students’ Academic Performance
Abstract:
Accountancy as a subject is one of the sciences that for many years has been perceived as a difficult subject to study and teach. Yet, it continuously attracts scholars graduating from school and entering Higher Education Institutions as a subject of choice and career. The teaching and learning of this subject have not been easy and has evolved and progressed over the past few decades however students still find it difficult to study and this has resulted in poor student achievement. In search of solutions, this study has considered the effect and efficacy that study skills have on the performance of Accountancy students and in particular students studying Second Year Diploma in Accountancy at the University of Johannesburg. These students appear to have a lack of appropriate study skills and as a result of these impacts on their performance in the courses, they are studying. This study also focuses on strategies to enhance Second Year Diploma Accountancy students’ academic performance. A literature review was conducted to investigate what scholarly literature suggests about study skills, in general, and in particular for Accountancy to be successful. In order to determine what study skills Second Year Accountancy students are applying when they learn and why they are failing the Accountancy examinations and formal class tests, the study adopted the quantitative research method. A questionnaire addressing various aspects of study skills, studying accountancy and studying, in general, was provided to 800 students studying Second Year Diploma in Accountancy at the University of Johannesburg’s Soweto Campus. The quantitative data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics in the form of proportions, frequencies, means, and standard deviations, t-tests to compare differences between two groups as well as correlations between variables. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that students are provided with courses in time management, procrastination, reading, note taking and writing, test preparation techniques as well as study attitude. Lecturers spend more time teaching students how to study in general as well as accountancy specifically preferably at the first-year level before proceeding to the second year. It is also recommended that the University implements a study skills course to assist the students with studying.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1521
88316
Sentiment Analysis: An Enhancement of Ontological-Based Features Extraction Techniques and Word Equations
Abstract:
Online business has become popular recently due to the massive amount of information and medium available on the Internet. This has resulted in the huge number of reviews where the consumers share their opinion, criticisms, and satisfaction on the products they have purchased on the websites or the social media such as Facebook and Twitter. However, to analyze customer’s behavior has become very important for organizations to find new market trends and insights. The reviews from the websites or the social media are in structured and unstructured data that need a sentiment analysis approach in analyzing customer’s review. In this article, techniques used in will be defined. Definition of the ontology and description of its possible usage in sentiment analysis will be defined. It will lead to empirical research that related to mobile phones used in research and the ontology used in the experiment. The researcher also will explore the role of preprocessing data and feature selection methodology. As the result, ontology-based approach in sentiment analysis can help in achieving high accuracy for the classification task.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1520
88190
Three Memorizing Strategies Reflective of Individual Students' Learning Modalities Applied to Piano Education
Abstract:
Being an individual activity, the memorizing process is affected to a greater degree by the individual variables; therefore, one of the decisive factors influencing the memorization is students’ individual characteristics. Based on an extensive literature study in the domains of piano education, psychology, and neuroscience, this comprehensive research was designed in order to develop three memorizing strategies that are reflective of individual students’ learning modalities (visual, kinesthetic and auditory) applied to the piano education. The design of the study required an interdisciplinary approach which incorporated the outcome of neuropsychological and pedagogic experiments. The objectives were to determine the interaction between the process of perception and the process of memorizing music; to systematize the methods of memorizing piano sheet music in accordance with the specifics of perception types; to develop Piano Memorization Inventory (PMI) and the Three Memorizing Strategies (TMS). The following research methods were applied: a method of interdisciplinary analysis and synthesis, a method of non-participant observation. As a result of literature analysis, the following conclusions were made: the majority of piano teachers and piano students participated in the surveys, had not used and usually had not known any memorizing strategy regarding learning styles. As a result, they had used drilling as the main strategy of memorizing. The Piano Memorization Inventory and Three Memorizing Strategies developed by the author of the research were based on the observation and findings of the previous researches and considered the experience of pedagogical and neuropsychological studies.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1519
88139
Development and Validation of Research Process for Enhancing Humanities Competence of Medical Students
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the research process for enhancing the humanities competence of the medical students. The research process was developed to be operated as a core subject course of 3 semesters. Among them, the research process for enhancing humanities capacity consisted of humanities and societies (6 teams) and education-psychology (2teams). The subjects of this study were 88-second grade students and 22 professors who participated in the research process. Among them, 13 professors participated in the study of humanities and 37 students. In the validity test, the professors were more likely to have more validity in the research process than the students in all areas of logic (p = .001), influence (p = .037), process (p = .001). The validity of the professor was higher than that of the students. The professors highly evaluated the students' learning outcomes and showed the most frequency to the prize group. As a result of analyzing the agreement between the students and the professors through the Kappa coefficient, the agreement degree of communication and cooperation competence was moderate to .430. Problem-solving ability was .340, which showed a fair degree of agreement. However, other factors showed only a slight degree of agreement of less than .20.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1518
88137
Phenomenological Analysis on the Experience of Volunteer Activities in Pre-Medical School Students
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to understand the experiences of medical students in volunteer activities and to draw implications for medical education. For this purpose, the questionnaire and the reflection essay on the volunteer experience of 54 students in the first year and 57 students in the second year were analyzed and analyzed. As a result, the participation of the students in the volunteer activities was the highest in the first semester and once a month in the second grade. Activities were mostly through volunteer organizations. The essence of the volunteering activities experience revealed through reflection essays was 'I want to avoid with fear' and 'I feel far away' in the recognition before volunteering activities. In terms of knowledge after participating in volunteer activities, 'breaking eggs and getting to know the world' and 'intellectual growth through social experience' appeared. In terms of attitude, it revealed 'deep reflection on me and others', 'understanding of service life'. And in terms of behavior, 'Begin preparing for a life of service' appeared. The results of this study revealed that volunteering activities provide students with opportunities for growth and development. In order to obtain more meaningful results, consciousness education related to social service should be done in advance.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1517
88061
Using Problem-Based Learning on Teaching Early Intervention for College Students
Authors:
Abstract:
In recent years, the increasing number of children with special needs has brought a lot of attention by many scholars and experts in education, which enforced the preschool teachers face the harsh challenge in the classroom. To protect the right of equal education for all children, enhance the quality of children learning, and take care of the needs of children with special needs, the special education paraprofessional becomes one of the future employment trends for students of the department of the early childhood care and education. Problem-based learning is a problem-oriented instruction, which is different from traditional instruction. The instructor first designed an ambiguous problem direction, following the basic knowledge of early intervention, students had to find clues to solve the problem defined by themselves. In the class, the total instruction included 20 hours, two hours per week. The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship of student academic scores, self-awareness, learning motivation, learning attitudes, and early intervention knowledge. A total of 105 college students participated in this study and 97 questionnaires were effective. The effective response rate was 90%. The student participants included 95 females and two males. The average age of the participants was 19 years old. The questionnaires included 125 questions divided into four major dimensions: (1) Self-awareness, (2) learning motivation, (3) learning attitudes, and (4) early intervention knowledge. The results indicated (1) the scores of self-awareness were 58%; the scores of the learning motivations was 64.9%; the scores of the learning attitudes was 55.3%. (2) After the instruction, the early intervention knowledge has been increased to 64.2% from 38.4%. (3) Student’s academic performance has positive relationship with self-awareness (p < 0.05; R = 0.506), learning motivation (p < 0.05; R = 0.487), learning attitudes (p < 0.05; R = 0.527). The results implied that although students had gained early intervention knowledge by using PBL instruction, students had medium scores on self-awareness and learning attitudes, medium high in learning motivations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1516
87966
Contextual and Personal Factors as Predictor of Academic Resilience among Female Undergraduates in Boko Haram Neighbourhood in North-Eastern Nigeria
Authors:
Abstract:
Ongoing Boko Haram crisis and instability in North-Eastern Nigeria has placed additional stress on academic resilience of female undergraduates who are already challenged by gender discrimination in educational opportunities. Students without resilience lack stress hardiness to cope with academic challenges. There is a limited study on academic resilience targeting this disadvantaged population in Nigeria. Consequently, survey research design was employed to investigate the contextual and personal factors that could predict academic resilience among female undergraduates in Boko Haram Neighbourhood in North-Eastern, Nigeria. Five hundred and thirty female students with age range of 18 to 24 years ( = 19.2; SD=6.9) were randomly drawn from 3 Universities in North-Eastern Nigeria. They responded to five instruments, namely; Academic Resilience scale (r=0.72); Social Support questionnaire (r=0. 64); Social Connectedness questionnaire (r=0.75); Self-Efficacy scale (r=0. 68) and Emotional Regulation questionnaire (r=78). Results showed that there was significant positive relationship between the four independent variables and academic resilience. The variables jointly contributed 5.9% variance in the prediction of academic resilience. In terms of magnitude, social support was most potent while self-efficacy was the least. It concluded that the factors considered in this study are academic resilience facilitators. The outcomes of the study have both theoretical and practical implications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1515
87964
Determination of the Content of Teachers’ Presentism through a Web-Based Delphi Method
Authors:
Abstract:
Presentism is one of the orientations of teachers&rsquo; teaching culture. However, there are few researchers to explore it in Taiwan. The objective of this study is to establish an expert-based determination of the content of teachers&rsquo; presentism in Taiwan. The author reviewed the works of Jackson, Lortie, and Hargreaves and employed Hargreaves&rsquo; three forms of teachers&rsquo; presentism as a framework to design the questionnaire of this study. The questionnaire of teachers&rsquo; presentism comprised of 42 statements. A three-round web-based Delphi survey was proposed to 14 participants (two teacher educators, two educational administrators, three school principals, and seven schoolteachers), 13 participants (92.86%) completed the three-rounds of the study. The participants were invited to indicate the importance of each statement. The Delphi study used means and standard deviation to present information concerning the collective judgments of respondents. Finally, the author obtained consensual results for 67% (28/42). However, the outcome of this study could be the result of identifying a series of general statements rather than an in-depth exposition of the topic.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1514
87851
E-Learning Network Support Services: A Comparative Case Study of Australian and United States Universities
Abstract:
This research study examines the current state of support services for e-network practice in an Australian and an American university. It identifies information that will be of assistance to Australian and American universities to improve their existing online programs. The study investigated the two universities using a quantitative methodological approach. Participants were students, lecturers and admins of universities engaged with online courses and learning management systems. The support services for e-network practice variables, namely academic support services, administrative support and technical support, were investigated for e-practice. Evaluations of e-network support service and its sub factors were above average and excellent in both countries, although the American admins and lecturers tended to evaluate this factor higher than others did. Support practice was evaluated higher by all participants of an American university than by Australians. One explanation for the results may be that most suppliers of the Australian university e-learning system were from eastern Asian cultural backgrounds with a western networking support perspective about e-learning.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1513
87664
The Attitude of Second Year Pharmacy Students towards Lectures, Exams and E-Learning
Abstract:
There is an increasing trend toward student-centred interactive e-learning methods and students&rsquo; feedback is a valuable tool for improving learning methods. The aim of this study was to explore the attitude of second year pharmacy students at the University of Babylon, Iraq, towards lectures, exams and e-learning. Materials and methods: Ninety pharmacy students were surveyed by paper questionnaire about their preference for lecture format, use of e-files, theoretical lectures versus practical experiments, lecture and lab time. Students were also asked about their predilection for Moodle-based online exams, different types of exam questions, exam time and other extra academic activities. Results: Students prefer to read lectures on paper (73.3%), use of PowerPoint file (76.7%), short lectures of less than 10 pages (94.5%), practical experiments (66.7%), lectures and lab time of less than two hours (89.9% and 96.6 respectively) and intra-lecture discussions (68.9%). Students also like to have paper-based exam (73.3%), short essay (40%) or MCQ (34.4%) questions and also prefer to do extra activities like reports (22.2%), seminars (18.6%) and posters (10.8%). Conclusion: Second year pharmacy students have different attitudes toward traditional and electronic leaning and assessment methods. Using multimedia, e-learning and Moodle are increasingly preferred methods among some students.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1512
87535
Survey Investigation of Perceptions of Technologists among Primary Students: Stereotypes, Diversity, and Their Use of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics
Abstract:
Gaining career awareness in STEM is an important educational outcome in STEM education. While many studies focused on students’ understanding of scientists and engineers, very few studies explore students’ perceptions of technologists as a group of STEM professionals. In this study, 300 valid surveys which include drawing task and follow-up questions about technologist were collected from 4th to 6th grade students. The results showed that 75.1% of the students draw a technologist as a male and 19.3% draw a technologist as a female. Most students believe that technologists use math, science or engineering in their work and can name a few categories of technologists. The drawings also showed that students tend to present technologists as people who work with a computer.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1511
87532
Motivating Factors of Mobile Device Applications toward Learning
Authors:
Abstract:
Mobile learning (m-learning) has been applied in the education field not only because it is an alternative to web-based learning but also it possesses the ‘anytime, anywhere’ learning features. However, most studies focus on the technology-related issue, such as usability and functionality instead of addressing m-learning from the motivational perspective. Accordingly, the main purpose of the current paper is to integrate critical factors from different motivational theories and related findings to have a better understand the catalysts of an individual’s learning motivation toward m-learning. The main research question for this study is stated as follows: based on different motivational perspectives, what factors of applying mobile devices as medium can facilitate people’s learning motivations? Self-Determination Theory (SDT), Uses and Gratification Theory (UGT), Malone and Lepper’s taxonomy of intrinsic motivation theory, and different types of motivation concepts were discussed in the current paper. In line with the review of relevant studies, three motivating factors with five essential elements are proposed. The first key factor is autonomy. Learning on one’s own path and applying personalized format are two critical elements involved in the factor of autonomy. The second key factor is to apply a build-in instant feedback system during m-learning. The third factor is creating an interaction system, including communication and collaboration spaces. These three factors can enhance people’s learning motivations when applying mobile devices as medium toward learning. To sum up, in the currently proposed paper, with different motivational perspectives to discuss the m-learning is different from previous studies which are simply focused on the technical or functional design. Supported by different motivation theories, researchers can clearly understand how the mobile devices influence people’s leaning motivation. Moreover, instructional designers and educators can base on the proposed factors to build up their unique and efficient m-learning environments.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):