Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 42523

Educational and Pedagogical Sciences

Dilemma of Advanced Level Courses for the Students of English Language Department at Umm Al-Qura University
This paper is concerned about the dilemma of advanced level courses for the students of the ELD (English Language Department) at Umm Al-Qura University. It tends to examine the possible problems and their reasons behind the students’ failure in the advanced levels which is something questionable. To find out these problems and their reasons, data was collected through questionnaires from 34 students. It was found that the important problems are implying within the preliminary stages: first, the nonexistence of the orientation meeting, which is a necessary to be available; weakness of the language adequacy for studying the advanced level courses; the future career equivocality of students; and disregarding the interests of students correlating with courses which is an important point to gain the notion of specialism of discipline. The following recommendations should be applied: need of orientation meeting preparation, strengthening students’ language adequately, and considering students’ interests as a part of how to correlate between courses and them.
Using Music in the Classroom to Help Syrian Refugees Deal with Post-War Trauma
Millions of Syrian families have been displaced since the beginning of the Syrian war, and the negative effects of post-war trauma have shown detrimental effects on the mental health of the refugee children. While educational strategies have focused on vocational training and academic achievement, little has been done to include music in the school curriculum to help these children improve their mental health. The literature of music education and psychology, on the other hand, shows the positive effects of music on traumatized children, especially when it comes to dealing with stress. This paper presents a brief literature review of trauma, music therapy, and music in the classroom, after having introduced the Syrian war and refugee situation. Furthermore, the paper highlights the benefits of using music with traumatized children from the literature and offers strategies for teachers (such as singing, playing an instrument, songwriting, and others) to include music in their classrooms to help the Syrian refugee children deal with post-war trauma.
Robot Technology Impact on Dyslexic Students' English Learning
Involving students with special needs (Dyslexia) in English learning process can be a great challenge for both students and teachers. Indeed, this can prove even a far greater challenge to engage them if they have physical impairment and inadequate mastery of basic communicative competence in the target language. From this perspective, technology like robots can be called upon to enhance the learning process for these special needs students who have extensive communication needs, struggle to interact with their peers and teachers and meet academic requirements. The robots, precisely NAO, provide them with the perfect opportunity to practice social and communication skills and improve their English academic requirements. This research aims to identify to what extent robots can be used to improve students’ social interaction and communication skills and to understand the potential for robotics-based education in motivating and engaging UAEU dyslexic students to meet university requirements. To reach this end, the paper will explore several factors that come into play – Motion Level-involving cognitive activities, Interaction Level-involving language processing, Behavior Level – establishing a close relationship with the robot and Appraisal Level focusing on their achievement in academic field through a survey to assess dyslexic students English language competence improvement.
Development of Industry Oriented Undergraduate Research Program
Many engineering students feel uncomfortable in solving the industry related problems. There are many ways to strengthen the engineering student’s ability to solve the assigned problem when they get a job. Korea National University of Transportation has developed an industry-oriented undergraduate research program (URP). An URP program is designed for engineering students to provide an experience of solving a company’s research problem. The URP project is carried out for 6 months. Each URP team consisted of 1 company mentor, 1 professor, and 3-4 engineering students. A team of different majors is strongly encouraged to integrate different perspectives of multidisciplinary background. The corporate research projects proposed by companies are chosen by the major-related student teams. A company mentor gives the detailed technical background of the project to the students, and he/she also provides a basic data, raw materials and so forth. The company allows students to use the company's research equipment. An assigned professor has adjusted the project scope and level to the student’s ability after discussing with a company mentor. Monthly meeting is used to check the progress, to exchange ideas, and to help the students. It is proven as an effective engineering education program not only to provide an experience of company research but also to motivate the students in their course work. This program provides a premier interdisciplinary platform for undergraduate students to perform the practical challenges encountered in their major-related companies and it is especially helpful for students who want to get a job from a company that proposed the project.
The Effectiveness of Student Leadership Programs Based on the Exemplary Leadership Model: The Development of Education Faculty Students' Leadership Behaviors
The future depends on the rising generation. Therefore, society has a responsibility to guide, shape, and influence the next generation of leaders. The path to becoming a leader is long and arduous; however, the first step is leadership development. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of the student leadership program on the leadership behaviors of students. Based on the Exemplary Leadership Model developed by Kouzes and Posner (1983), the Student Leadership Program aims to improve students' leadership skills according to five key dimensions: model the way, inspire a shared vision, challenge the process, enable others to act, and encourage the heart. The research is conducted by using sequential-descriptive pattern from mixed model research types. In the first stage, a quasi-experimental design with pre-test and post-test control group is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the Student Leadership Program. After the experimental section of the study is completed, interviews are conducted to further interpret the data obtained from the experiment. A study group is established to carry out the experiment. The study group consists of 44 students studying at Yildiz Technical University, which includes the Faculty of Education, the Department of Turkish Language Teaching, and the Department of Primary Education in 2016-2017 academic year. The experimental group consists of 22 students from the Department of Turkish Language Teaching, and the control group consists of 22 students from the Department of Primary Education. The Student Leadership Practices Self Scale (S-LPI) that was applied to test the effectiveness of the program was adapted and translated into Turkish. According to the confirmatory factor analysis, the factor structure of the S-LPA was confirmed as follows: RMSEA= 0.06, AGFI= 0.82, CFI= 0.71, NFI= 0.60. GFI= 0.85. Internal reliabilities revealed the following data: Modeling = 0.76, Inspiring = 0.74, Challenging = 0.73, Enabling = 0.77, Encouraging = 0.77. The S-LPI is applied as a pre-test and post-test in order to measure the effectiveness of the program which is applied once a week throughout seven weeks. In order to analyze the data, descriptive statistics and a two-way analysis of the variance for complex measurements were employed. According to the results, the following variables were found to be statistically significant: inspiring a shared vision (p=0.02, p < 0.05), challenging the process (p=0.03, p < 0.05), and encouraging the heart (p=0.01, p < 0.05). The remaining concepts of modeling the way (p=0.06, p < 0.05) and enabling others to act (p=0.13, p < 0.05) were found not to be statistically insignificant. After the experimental portion was concluded, a semi-structured interview form was created to explain why the two variables of modeling the way and enabling others to act, were found to be statistically insignificant. The interviews were conducted by requesting feedback from 8 students regarding which concepts would be most beneficial to improving the next Students Leadership Development Program. This research is currently in progress.
Social Skills for Students with and without Learning Disabilities in Primary Education in Saudi Arabia
The purpose of this study was to assess the social skills of students with and without learning disabilities in primary education in Saudi Arabia. A Social Skills Rating Scale for Teachers Form (SSRS-TF) was used to evaluate students' social skills as perceived by teachers. A randomly-selected sample was chosen from students with and without learning disabilities. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the demographic characteristics of participants. Analysis indicated that there were statistically significant differences in SSRS-TF by academic status, i.e. students with learning disabilities exhibit less social skills compared to students without learning disabilities. In addition, analysis indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in SSRS-TF by gender. A conclusion and recommendations are presented.
Inclusive School Leaders' Perceptions on the Implementation of Individual Education Plans
Given increases in student diversity in our schools and classrooms of which students with varying disabilities and additional needs form a part, school leaders are tasked with greater responsibility of ensuring that all children irrespective of their developmental backgrounds benefit from quality education. One of the approaches school leaders use to make quality education accessible to students with disabilities is through adoption of IEPs as pedagogical framework. Although IEPs are not a legal requirement in Australian schools, some school leaders have adopted it for use by teachers in supporting students with disabilities and/or additional education needs. At present, no research has been undertaken in Australia on the influence IEPs have on student learning. This phenomenological study explores the roles and experiences of 5 primary and 7 secondary school leaders in two independent schools in metropolitan Victoria who adopt and use IEPs in their schools in programming for quality inclusive education for students with disabilities and/or additional education needs. Thematic analysis of the data revealed IEPs as being working documents that should be used to inform planning, and communicate students’ learning needs amongst their teachers. Continuous professional learning was identified as key to effective implementation of IEPs, yet there was no single best approach in acquiring professional development to educate students with disabilities and/or additional needs. School leaders encouraged collaboration and consultation amongst colleagues when developing students’ IEPs.
Contextual Variables Affecting Frustration Level in Reading: An Integral Inquiry
This study employs a sequential explanatory mixed method. Quantitatively it investigated the profile of the grade VII students. Qualitatively, the prevailing contextual variables that affect their frustration-level were sought based on their perspective and that of their parents and teachers. These students were categorized as frustration-level in reading based on the data on word list of the Philippine Informal Reading Inventory (Phil-IRI). The researcher-made reading factor instrument translated to local dialect (Hiligaynon) was subjected to cross-cultural translation to address content, semantic, technical, criterion, or conceptual equivalence, the open-ended questions, and the one on one unstructured interview was utilized. In the profile of the 26 participants, the 12 males are categorized as grade 2 and grade 3 frustration-levels. The prevailing contextual variables are personal-’having no interest in reading’, ‘being ashamed and having fear to read in front of others’ for extremely high frustration level; social environmental-’having no regular reading schedule at home’ for very high frustration level and personal- ‘having no interest in reading’ for high frustration level. Kendall Tau inferential statistical tool was used to test the significant relationship in the prevailing contextual variables that affect frustration-level readers when grouped according to perspective. The result showed that significant relationship exists between students-parents perspectives; however, there is no significant relationship between students’ and teachers’, and parents’ and teachers’ perspectives. The themes in the narratives of the participants on frustration-level readers are the existence of speech defects, undesirable attitude, an insufficient amount of reading materials, lack of close supervision from parents, and losing time and focus on the task. The intervention was designed.
Mobile Games for Improving Children Reading Skills: An Empirical Study regarding Low Income Students at Brazilian Public Schools
This work describes an empirical, educational and technological research within the context of Brazilian formal literacy education problems. The main purpose of the research was to address the question of whether specific software for mobile devices could improve children reading skills. In this regard, three mobile games, all of them with the objective of creating a self-dubbed storytelling cartoon, were developed to be used by children attending their second year of formal literacy education in a school targeted at low-income students– a well-known public for literacy issues in Brazil. Different games were used according to current children skills in reading in a way that they could develop skills accordingly to their capabilities. A two-groups design (control and experimental groups) with pre-post tests was used in the context of a three months experiment to check inferential properties of the developed technology over children’s literacy skills. Statistical analysis showed that the use of the games was associated with better literacy levels for the students in the experimental group.
First-Year Undergraduate Students' Dilemma with Kinematics Graphs
Students’ comprehension of graphs may be affected by the characteristics of the discipline in which the graph is used, the type of the task as well as the background of the students who are the readers or interpreters of the graph. This research study investigated these aspects of the graph comprehension of 152 first-year undergraduate physics students by comparing their responses to corresponding tasks in the mathematics and physics disciplines. The discipline characteristics were analysed for four task-related constructs namely coordinates, representations, area and slope. Students’ responses to corresponding visual decoding and judgement tasks set in mathematics and kinematics contexts were statistically compared. The effects of the participants’ gender, year of school completion and study course were determined as reader characteristics. The results of the empirical study indicated that participants generally transferred their mathematics knowledge on coordinates and representation of straight line graphs to the physics contexts, but not in the cases of parabolic and hyperbolic functions or area under graphs. Insufficient understanding of the slope concept contributed to weak performances on this construct in both mathematics and physics contexts. Discipline characteristics seem to play a vital role in students’ understanding, while reader characteristics had insignificant to medium effects on their responses.
The Effect of Assigning 'Peer Tutoring' in the Groups on 4th Grade Student's Interaction in Science
This study was designed to investigate the effect of peer tutoring strategy on students' interaction during cooperative work. An observation sheet was employed to measure the effect of peer tutoring on students' interactions. This study was applied on fourth-grade female students in Bait Alhekma girls' school. This study was conducted over a three weeks period. 30 students were involved in the study, divided equally into two groups (experimental and control). One group was engaged in peer tutoring strategy along with cooperative work while the other group was not. The results demonstrated higher average scores for the students who were engaged in the peer tutoring activity. These findings indicated peer tutoring as an effective instructional strategy, resulting in positive students' interactions.
The Changing Role of the Chief Academic Officer in American Higher Education: Causes and Consequences
The landscape of higher education in the United States has undergone significant changes in the last 25 years. What was once a domain of competition among prospective students for a limited number of college and university seats has become a marketplace in which institutions vie for the enrollment of educational consumers. A central figure in this paradigm shift has been the Chief Academic Officer (CAO), whose institutional role has also evolved beyond academics to include such disparate responsibilities as strategic planning, fiscal oversight, student recruitment, fundraising and personnel management. This paper explores the scope and impact of this transition by, first, explaining its context: the intersection of key social, economic and political factors in neo-conservative, late 20th Century America that redefined the value and accountability of institutions of higher learning. This context, in turn, is shown to have redefined the role and function of the CAO from a traditional academic leader to one centered on the successful application of corporate principles of organizational and fiscal management. Information gathered from a number of sitting Provosts, Vice-Presidents of Academic Affairs and Deans of Faculty is presented to illustrate the parameters of this change, as well as the extent to which today’s academic officers feel prepared and equipped to fulfill this broader institutional role. The paper concludes with a discussion of the impact of this transition on the American academy and whether it serves as a portend of change to come in higher education systems around the globe.
Information and Communication Technology as an Empowerment Tool for People with Disabilities in the Gulf Cooperation Countries: A Sociological Perspective
During the past two decades, information and communication technology (ICT) contributed to significant changes in the many areas; socially, economically, politically, culturally .etc. In contrast, the so-called digital divide has been most prominent consequences of this technological revolution. Despite the benefits earned by persons with disabilities (PWDs) from ICT such as the assistive technology, but they are facing difficulties socially and financially in order to achieve the maximum benefit from such technology. The study attempts to shed light on the role of ICT in enabling persons with disabilities in the GCC countries as well as to identify the difficulties that prevent persons with disabilities access to information and communication technology sources. The study will use the descriptive and analytical approach in order to address the subject in a comprehensive manner. It is expected that the study will lead to significant results to stakeholders, decision makers and policymakers in the countries concerned. The study stems from the importance of it is looking at the role of ICT in enabling persons with disabilities in the GCC countries in particular that the studies in this area are very few.
The Experiences of Claiming Welfare Benefits for People with Disabilities in the Uk
Over the years UK Governments have extended the use of welfare conditionality to more marginalised groups. Whereas in the past, disabled people’s rights to unconditional welfare were defended, significant numbers of disabled people have in recent years been re-classified as ‘fit for work’ as a result of this policy shift towards increased conditionality targeting more welfare service user groups. This paper discusses findings from a five-year project exploring the ethics and efficacy of welfare conditionality. Drawing on repeat interviews over three years with 58 disabled welfare service users across England and Scotland, the paper explores the experience of, and impact of conditionality upon, disabled participants. In particular, participants described the process of claiming disability-related benefits as stigmatising, with some describing the medical assessments as demeaning, traumatic and even painful. The medical assessments are conducted by private contractors and participants felt they were treated unfairly, under suspicion and under surveillance. This finding is important in line with a recent UN report concerned with the practice of such assessments. The findings reveal that notions of ‘deservedness’ are embedded in this system as disabled recipients argue for their entitlement to welfare claims relative to what are deemed to be less deserving groups of benefit claimants. This indicates an increasing competition ethic within different sections of the most marginalised social groups that facilitate further forms of social fragmentation, particularly in relation to opposition to benefit cuts and other changes requiring concerted and organised forms of resistance. The impact of media and political scapegoating of the most marginal has generated divisions within even those who position themselves as legitimate recipients.
Phonetics Problems and Solutions for 5th Grade Students of Turkish Language as a Foreign Language in Demirel College in 2015-2016 Academic Year
Foreign language learners are able to make mistakes in their pronunciation and writing when they encounter with alphabetical indications that are not available in their own language. The fifth-grade students who learn Turkish language at Demirel College in Georgia constitute the concrete example. ‘F’, ‘y’, ‘ö’, ‘ü’ letters in the Turkish alphabet are the most common mistakes they make. After a careful comparative linguistic study, it was found out that the mistakes caused by the fact that these signs were not available in Georgian. These problems have been tried to be solved through comparative language teaching method by using the pronunciation possibilities in other languages, which are spoken or known by students. First of all, other languages known by students are identified, the similar pronunciation difficulties in Turkish are also found in those languages in order to minimize the pronunciation problem in Turkish, pronunciation possibilities are that are available in those language are utilized. In this context, visual animations are made for pronunciation of English words such as year (yr), earn (örn), fair (fêir) and made student familiar with pronunciation with these words through repetition. With this study, it is observed that student’s motivation has been increased and with these indications, student’s mistakes are minimized.
Effects of Using Interactive Whiteboards at High School Mathematics Classrooms
This article is the results of a quantitative research about the effects of using interactive whiteboards in high school mathematics classroom. The aim of this article is to investigate the effects of using interactive whiteboards in high school mathematics classrooms. During the article the following questions are answered: 'What can we do with an interactive whiteboard?' and 'Do we really need those properties of the interactive whiteboard?' For the research part of the article, two groups of lessons are executed in Private Demirel College. In the first 6 weeks, the topics are taught on a normal blackboard. Starting from seventh week, we have used interactive whiteboard in the mathematics lessons. At the end of an eight week lectures with interactive whiteboards, a questionnaire is prepared and executed for the students. In the questionnaire 10 questions were asked about the benefits and differences of using the interactive whiteboards in mathematics lessons. By looking at the conclusion of the results of questionnaire and some discussions with the students we found some useful benefits of the usage of interactive whiteboards in mathematics lessons. This article will be helpful for the high school mathematics teachers.
Formation of Science Literations Based on Indigenous Science Mbaru Niang Manggarai
The learning praxis that is proposed by 2013 Curriculum (K-13) is no longer school-oriented as a supply-driven, but now a demand-driven provider. This vision is connected with Jokowi-Kalla Nawacita program to create a competitive nation in the global era. Competition is a social fact that must be faced. Therefore the curriculum will design a process to be the innovators and entrepreneurs.To get this goal, K-13 implements the character education. This aims at creating the innovators and entrepreneurs from an early age (primary school). One part of strengthening it is literacy formations (reading, numeracy, science, ICT, finance, and culture). Thus, science literacy is an integral part of character education. The above outputs are only formed through the innovative process through intra-curricular (blended learning), co-curriculer (hands-on learning) and extra-curricular (personalized learning). Unlike the curriculums before that child cram with the theories dominating the intellectual process, new breakthroughs make natural, social, and cultural phenomena as learning sources. For example, Science in primary schoolsplaceBiology as the platform. And Science places natural, social, and cultural phenomena as a learning field so that students can learn, discover, solve concrete problems, and the prospects of development and application in their everyday lives. Science education not only learns about facts collection or natural phenomena but also methods and scientific attitudes. In turn, Science will form the science literacy. Science literacy have critical, creative, logical, and initiative competences in responding to the issues of culture, science and technology. This is linked with science nature which includes hands-on and minds-on. To sustain the effectiveness of science learning, K-13 opens a new way of viewing a contextual learning model in which facts or natural phenomena are drawn closer to the child's learning environment to be studied and analyzed scientifically. Thus, the topic of elementary science discussion is the practical and contextual things that students encounter. This research is about to contextualize Science in primary schools at Manggarai, NTT, by placing local wisdom as a learning source and media to form the science literacy. Explicitly, this study discovers the concept of science and mathematics in Mbaru Niang. Mbaru Niang is a forgotten potentials of the centralistic-theoretical mainstream curriculum so far. In fact, the traditional Manggarai community stores and inherits much of the science-mathematical indigenous sciences. In the traditional house structures are full of science and mathematics knowledge. Every details have style, sound and mathematical symbols. Learning this, students are able to collaborate and synergize the content and learning resources in student learning activities. This is constructivist contextual learning that will be applied in meaningful learning. Meaningful learning allows students to learn by doing. Students then connect topics to the context, and science literacy is constructed from their factual experiences. The research location will be conducted in Manggarai through observation, interview, and literature study.
Development of Active Learning Calculus Course for Biomedical Program
The paper reviews design and implementation of Calculus Course required for the Biomedical Competency Based Program developed as a joint project between The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, and the University of Texas’ Institute for Transformational Learning, from the theoretical perspective as presented in scholarly work on active learning, formative assessment, and on-line teaching. Following four stage curriculum development process (objective, content, delivery, and assessment), and theoretical recommendations that guarantee effectiveness and efficiency of assessment in active learning, we discuss the practical recommendations on how to incorporate strong formative assessment component to address disciplines’ needs, and students’ major needs. In design and implementation of this project, we used Constructivism and Stage-by-Stage Development of Mental Actions Theory recommendations.
Educational Leadership for Social Justice: Meeting UK Muslim Expectation
This essay discusses how educational leadership response the Muslims pupils’ problems and their expectation about education in the UK. As we know, the Muslims community in the country is increasing. However, the debate about educational leadership is still limited to the separation between religion and academic by westerns approach. It is found that there are four major problems of Muslims pupils that need to solve by the educational leader to provide social justice in education. Leader-teacher as an Islamic concept of the educational leader is an alternative approach that can be used by the educational leader to overcome the problems. In the end, it is strongly recommended to bring this issue to the leadership development program in the UK to give all aspiring heads understanding about Muslims expectation about education.
Creating and Using Videos in a Teacher Education Programme: Success Stories in a Mexican Public University
In an era where teacher educators and student teachers have almost unrestricted access to all kinds of sources through the internet, a research project carried out with a group of student-teachers has revealed how self-made videos are an exciting new way to motivate and engage students. The project was carried out at Universidad de Sonora, a public university in Northern Mexico, where 39 students of the Bachelor in Arts in English Language Teaching (B.A. in ELT) programme participated creating their own videos. In the process, they worked collaboratively, they exploited their creativity, they were highly motivated and showed more interest in the subject. The videos were shared in a private YouTube channel where students had the opportunity to review their peers’ work and where videos are available at any time for later viewing. This experience has led course instructor to face the challenge of planning and designing meaningful tasks that can and to find ways of exploiting the use of these resources for learning and training purposes.
The Effect of Al Andalus Improvement Model on the Teachers Performance and Their High School Students' Skills Acquiring
The study was carried out in the High School Classes of Andalus Private Schools, boys section, using control and experimental groups that were randomly assigned. The study investigated the effect of Al-Andalus Improvement Model (AIM) on the development of students’ skills acquiring. The society of the study composed of Al-Andalus Private Schools, high school students, boys Section (N=700), while the sample of the study composed of four randomly assigned groups two groups of teachers (N=16) and two groups of students (N=42) with one experimental group and one control group for teachers and their students respectively. The study followed the quantitative and qualitative approaches in collecting and analyzing data to investigate the study hypotheses. Results of the study revealed that there were significant statistical differences in teachers’ performances and students' skills acquiring for the favor of the experimental groups and there was a strong correlation between the teachers performances and the students skills acquiring. The study recommended the implementation of the AIM model for the sake of teachers performances and students’ learning outcomes.
The Rigor and Relevance of the Mathematics Component of the Teacher Education Programmes in Jamaica: An Evaluative Approach
For over fifty years there has been widespread dissatisfaction with the teaching of Mathematics in Jamaica. Studies, done in the Jamaican context highlight that teachers at the end of training do not have a deep understanding of the mathematics content they teach. Little research has been done in the Jamaican context that targets the advancement of contextual knowledge on the problem to ultimately provide a solution. The aim of the study is to identify what influences this outcome of teacher education in Jamaica so as to remedy the problem. This study formatively evaluated the curriculum documents, assessments and the delivery of the curriculum that are being used in teacher training institutions in Jamaica to determine their rigor -the extent to which written document, instruction, and the assessments focused on enabling pre-service teachers to develop deep understanding of mathematics and relevance- the extent to which the curriculum document, instruction, and the assessments are focus on developing the requisite knowledge for teaching mathematics. The findings show that neither the curriculum document, instruction nor assessments ensure rigor and enable pre-service teachers to develop the knowledge and skills they need to teach mathematics effectively.
Promoting Critical Thinking in a Robotics Class
This paper describes the creation and teaching of an undergraduate course aimed at promoting critical thinking among the students in the course. The class, Robots in Business and Society, taught at Clemson University, is open to all undergraduate students of any discipline. It is taught as part of Clemson’s online class program and is structured to promote critical thinking via a series of interactive discussion boards and assignments. Critical thinking is measured via pre- and post-testing using a benchmark standardized test. The paper will detail the class organization, and describe and discuss the results and lessons learned with respect to improvement of student critical thinking from three offerings of the class.
Evaluation of Social Studies Curriculum Implementation of Bachelor of Education Degree in Colleges of Education in Southwestern Nigeria
There has been a concern over non-responsiveness of educational programme in Nigeria’s higher institutions to adequately meet social needs. The study, therefore, investigated the effectiveness of basic elements of the Social Studies Curriculum, the contributions of the Teacher–Related Variables (TRV) such as qualification, area of specialization, teaching experience, teaching methods, gender and teaching facilities to the implementation of the curriculum (IOC) in the Colleges of Education (COEs). The study adopted the descriptive survey design. Four COEs in Oyo, Osun, Ondo and Lagos States were purposively selected. Stratified sampling technique was used to select 455 Social Studies students and 47 Social Studies lecturers. Stakeholders’ Perception of Social Studies Curriculum (r = 0.86), Social Studies Curriculum Resources scale (r = 0.78) and Social Studies Basic Concepts Test (r = 0.78) were used for data collection. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, multiple regression, and t-test at 0.05 level of significance. COEs teachers and students rated the elements of the curriculum to be effective with mean scores x̄ =3.02 and x̄ =2.80 respectively; x̄ =5.00 and x̄ = 2.50 being the maximum and minimum mean scores. The finding showed average level of availability (x̄ =1.60), adequacy (x̄ =1.55) and utilization (x̄ =1.64) of teaching materials, x̄ =3.00 and x̄ =1.50 being maximum and minimum mean scores respectively. Academic performance of the students is on average with the mean score of x̄ =51.4775 out of maximum mean score of x̄ =100. The TRV and teaching facilities had significant composite contribution to IOC (F (6,45) = 3.92:R² = 0.26) with 39% contributions to the variance of IOC. Area of specialization (β= 29, t = 2.05) and teaching facilities (β = -25, t = 1.181) contributed significantly. The implementation of bachelor degree in Social Studies curriculum was effective in the colleges of education. There is the need to beef-up the provision of facilities to improve the implementation of the curriculum.
The Effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy in Developing Emotion Regulation Skill for Adolescent with Intellectual Disability
Intellectual disability is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior that appears before the age of 18 years old. The prominent impacts of intellectual disability in adolescents are failure to establish interpersonal relationships as socially expected and lower academic achievement. Meanwhile, it is known that emotion regulation skills have a role in supporting the functioning of individual, either by nourishing the development of social skills as well as by facilitating the process of learning and adaptation in school. This study aims to look for the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) in developing emotion regulation skills for adolescents with intellectual disability. DBT's special consideration toward clients’ social environment and their biological condition is foreseen to be the key for developing emotion regulation capacity for subjects with intellectual disability. Through observations on client's behavior, conducted before and after the completion of DBT intervention program, it was found that there is an improvement in client's knowledge and attitudes related to the mastery of emotion regulation skills. In addition, client's consistency to actually practice emotion regulation techniques over time is largely influenced by the support received from the client's social circles.
Exploring Young Students' Perceptions of Emotional Eating with the Purpose of Informing the Design of an Online Awareness Program
Emotional eating is a type of eating disorders which is characterised by the sufferer responding to emotional disorders by consuming food with a high content of energy. This can lead to gaining weight and more likely affect their health. Emotional eating constitutes a range of challenging behaviours towards eating and food that lead to serious disturbances in eating attitudes. Adolescents' challenges to control their emotions through food consumption can subsequently create a negative impact on them in several different ways. In general, supporting the emotional well-being of adolescent students has many benefits such as it helps in improving health in general and lowering the mental health problems. It also helps students to be more involved in learning, which in turn helps them to have positive results in educational attainment and achievement. In Saudi populations, there is an increasing concern about the mental health problems among adolescents. Nevertheless, emotional eating disorders among this target group have not yet been addressed in a significant or satisfactory way. It is important to understand why adolescents cope with their emotions by using eating. Adolescents’ perceptions and experiences can provide a clear clue about the relationship between emotions and eating attitudes which will, in turn, help to find out effective ways to raise awareness and propose solutions. Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the factors which may contribute to emotional eating in adolescent students in Saudi Arabia and to design a relevant online healthy eating awareness programme in order to address their needs. Methodology: This study will be based on a mixed method approach. It is expected that around 300 students representing different socio cultural levels, will be involved in the project. They will be selected from 5 intermediate (ages 12-15) girls’ schools in different regions in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All of them will be invited to complete a questionnaire. Each questionnaire will be allocated a unique reference code to help the researcher select 15 students for follow up 1:1 interviews. The researcher will invite students who display higher tendencies towards emotional eating. The interviews will focus on exploring ways to develop an online healthy eating awareness program adequate for their age.
The Use of Video in Increasing Speaking Ability of the First Year Students of SMAN 12 Pekanbaru in the Academic Year 2011/2012
This study is a classroom action research. The general objective of this study was to find out students’ speaking ability through teaching English by using video and to find out the effectiveness of using video in teaching English to improve students’ speaking ability. The subjects of this study were 34 of the first-year students of SMAN 12 Pekanbaru who were learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Students were given pre-test before the treatment and post-test after the treatment. Quantitative data was collected by using speaking test requiring the students to respond to the recorded questions. Qualitative data was collected through observation sheets and field notes. The research finding reveals that there is a significant improvement of the students’ speaking ability through the use of video in speaking class. The qualitative data gave a description and additional information about the learning process done by the students. The research findings indicate that the use of video in teaching and learning is good in increasing learning outcome.
Current Account on Teaching Psychology and Career Psychology in Portuguese Higher Education
This work intends to analyse the teaching of Psychology in Portugal and, particularly, the teaching of Career Psychology, reflecting about the changes that have occurred to date. Were analysed the educational offerings of 31 Portuguese higher education institutions, 12 public and 19 private, who teach the course of Psychology. The three degrees of study were considered, namely, bachelors, masters and doctoral. The analysis of the data focused on the curricular plans of the different degrees of studies in Psychology made available online by higher education institutions. Through them, we identified the curricular units with themes related to the teaching of Career Psychology. The results show the existence of 89 higher psychology courses in Portugal, distributed throughout the three degrees of studies. Concerning to the teaching of Career Psychology there were registered 49 curricular units with themes dedicated to this area of knowledge. There were identified 16 curricular units in the bachelor’s degree, 31 in master’s degree, and two in doctoral degree. It was observed a reduction in the number of degrees in Psychology in the last nine years in Portugal. We discuss the current situation of Psychology teaching, particularly the teaching of Career Psychology. The aim is to stimulate reflection about future perspectives of Psychology teaching, and specifically, specialized training in Psychology of Career, in Portugal.
Increasing the Ability of State Senior High School 12 Pekanbaru Students in Writing an Analytical Exposition Text through Comic Strips
This research aimed at describing and testing whether the students’ ability in writing analytical exposition text is increased by using comic strips at SMAN 12 Pekanbaru. The respondents of this study were the second-grade students, especially XI Science 3 academic year 2011-2012. The total number of students in this class was forty-two (42) students. The quantitative and qualitative data was collected by using writing test and observation sheets. The research finding reveals that there is a significant increase of students’ writing ability in writing analytical exposition text through comic strips. It can be proved by the average score of pre-test was 43.7 and the average score of post-test was 65.37. Besides, the students’ interest and motivation in learning are also improved. These can be seen from the increasing of students’ awareness and activeness in learning process based on observation sheets. The findings draw attention to the use of comic strips in teaching and learning is beneficial for better learning outcome.
Development of Visual Working Memory Precision: A Cross-Sectional Study of Simultaneously Delayed Responses Paradigm
Visual working memory (VWM) capacity is the ability to maintain and manipulate short-term information which is not currently available. It is well known for its significance to form the basis of numerous cognitive abilities and its limitation in holding information. VWM span, the most popular measurable indicator, is found to reach the adult level (3-4 items) around 12-13 years’ old, while less is known about the precision development of the VWM capacity. By using simultaneously delayed responses paradigm, the present study investigates the development of VWM precision among 6-18-year-old children and young adults, besides its possible relationships with fluid intelligence and span. Results showed that precision and span both increased with age, and precision reached the maximum in 16-17 age-range. Moreover, when remembering 3 simultaneously presented items, the probability of remembering target item correlated with fluid intelligence and the probability of wrap errors (misbinding target and non-target items) correlated with age. When remembering more items, children had worse performance than adults due to their wrap errors. Compared to span, VWM precision was effective predictor of intelligence even after controlling for age. These results suggest that unlike VWM span, precision developed in a slow, yet longer fashion. Moreover, decreasing probability of wrap errors might be the main reason for the development of precision. Last, precision correlated more closely with intelligence than span in childhood and adolescence, which might be caused by the probability of remembering target item.