Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 53453

Educational and Pedagogical Sciences

1687
95937
Measuring Learning Independence and Transition through the First Year in Architecture
Abstract:
Students in higher education are expected to learn actively and independently. Whilst quite work has been done to understand the perceptions of students’ learning transition regarding independent learning, to author’s best knowledge, it seems relatively few published research on independent learning in studio-based subjects such as architecture. Another major issue in independent learning research concerned the inconsistency in terminology; there appears to be a paucity of research on its definition, challenges, and tools within the UK university sector. It is not always clear how independent learning works in practice, or what are the challenges that face students toward being independent learners. Accordingly, this paper seeks to highlight these problems by analyzing previous and current literature of independent learning, in addition, to measure students’ independence at the very begging of their first academic year and compare it with their level of learning independence at the end of the same year. Eighty-seven student enrolled in 2017/2018 at Cardiff University completed the Autonomous Learning Questionnaire in order to measure their level of learning independence. Students’ initial responses were very positive and showed high level of learning independence. Interestingly, these responses significantly decreased at the end of the year. Time management was the most obvious challenge facing students transition into higher education, and contrary to expectations, we found no effect of student maturity on their level of independence. Moreover, we found no significant differences among students’ gender, but we did find differences among nationalities.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1686
94924
The Flipped Education Case Study on Teacher Professional Learning Community in Technology and Media Implementation
Abstract:
The paper examines teacher professional learning community theory and implementation by using technology and media tools in Taiwan. After literature review, the researcher concluded in five elements of teacher professional learning community theory. They are ‘sharing the vision and value', ‘collaborative cooperation’, ‘ to support the situation', ‘to share practice' and 'Pay Attention to Student Learning Effectiveness' five levels by using technology and media in flipped education. Teacher professional learning community is one kind of models for teacher professional development in flipped education. Due to Taiwan education culture, there is no summative evaluation for teachers. So, there are multiple kinds of ways and education practice in teacher professional learning community nowadays. This study used literature review and quality analysis to analyze the connection theory and practice and discussed the official and non‐official strategies on teacher professional learning community by using technology and media in flipped education. The tablet is used as a camera tool for classroom students to solve problems. The students can instantly see and enable other students to watch the whole class discussion by operating the tablet. This would allow teachers and students to focus on discussing the connotation of subjects, especially bottom‐up and non‐official cases from teachers become an important influence in Taiwan.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1685
94878
The Effect of Using the Active Learning on Achievement and Attitudes toward Studying the Human Rights Course for the Bahrain Teachers College Students
Abstract:
The study aimed at determining the effect of using the active learning on achievement and attitudes toward studying the human rights course for the Bahrain Teachers College students and the extent to which any differences of statistical significance according to gender and section can exist. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher developed and implemented research tools such as academic achievement test and the scale of attitudes towards the study of the Human Rights Course. The scale of attitudes towards Human Rights was constructed of 40 items investigating four dimensions; the cognitive dimension, the behavioral dimension, the affective dimension, and course quality dimension. The researcher then applied some of the active learning strategies in teaching this course to all students of the first year of the Bahrain Teachers College (102 male and female students) after excluding two students who did not complete the course requirements. Students were divided into five groups. These strategies included interactive lecturing, presentations, role playing, group projects, simulation, brainstorming, concept maps and mind maps, reflection and think-pair-share. The course was introduced to students during the second semester of the academic year 2016-2017. The study findings revealed that the use of active learning strategies affected the achievement of students of Bahrain Teachers College in the Human Rights course. The results of the T-test showed statistically significant differences on the pre-test and post-test in favor of the post-test. No statistically significant differences in the achievement of students according to the section and gender were found. The results also indicated that the use of active learning strategies had a positive effect on students' attitudes towards the study of the Human Rights Course on all the scale’s items. The general average reached (4.26) and the percentage reached (85.19%). Regarding the effect of using active learning strategies on students’ attitudes towards all the four dimensions of the scale, the study concluded that the behavioral dimension came first; the quality of the course came second, the cognitive dimension came third and in the fourth place came the affective dimension. No statistically significant differences in the attitude towards studying the Human Rights Course for the students according to their sections or gender were found. Based on the findings of the study, the researchers suggested some recommendations that can contribute to the development of teaching Human Rights Course at the University of Bahrain.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1684
94743
Prevention of Student Radicalism in School through Civic Education
Authors:
Abstract:
Radicalism poses a real threat to Indonesia's future. The target of radicalism is the youth of Indonesia. This is proven by the majority of terrorists are young people. Radicalization is not only a repressive act but also requires educational action. One of the educational efforts is civic education. This study discusses the prevention of radicalism for students through civic education and its constraints. This is qualitative research. Data were collected through literature studies, observations and in-depth interviews. Data were validated by triangulation. The sample of this research is 30 high school students in Surakarta. Data were analyzed by the interactive model of analysis from Miles & Huberman. The results show that (1) civic education can be a way of preventing student radicalism in schools in the form of cultivating the values of education through learning in the classroom and outside the classroom; (2) The obstacles encountered include the lack of learning facilities, the limited ability of teachers and the low attention of students to the civic education.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1683
94543
A Quantitative Study on the Effects of School Development on Character Development
Authors:
Abstract:
One of the aims of education is to educate individuals who have embraced universal moral principles and transform universal moral principles into moral values. Character education aims to educate behaviors of individuals in their mental activities to transform moral principles into moral values in their lives. As the result of this education, individuals are expected to develop positive character traits and become morally indifferent individuals. What are the characteristics of the factors that influence character education at this stage? How should character education help individuals develop positive character traits? Which methods are more effective? These questions come to mind when studying character education. Our research was developed within the framework of these questions. The aim of our study is to provide the most effective use of the education factor that affects character. In this context, we tried to explain character definition, character development, character education and the factors affecting character education using qualitative research methods. At this stage, character education programs applied in various countries were examined and a character education program consisting of Islamic values was prepared and implemented in an International Imam Hatip High School in Istanbul. Our application was carried out with the collaboration of school and families. Various seminars were organized in the school and participation of families was ensured. In the last phase of our study, we worked with the students and their families on the effectiveness of the events held during the program. In this study, it was found that activities such as storytelling and theater in character education programs were effective in recognizing wrong behaviors in individuals. It was determined that our program had a positive effect on the quality of education. It was seen that applications of this educational program affected the behavior of the employees in the educational institution.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1682
94408
Influences on Female Gender Identity and Role in Pre-School, Saudi Arabian: Analyzing Children's Perspectives through Narratives and Teachers' Pedagogies
Abstract:
Microworld theories can help to define the many influences on female development. In this research, theories together with narratives have been used to discover the reality of children’s gender perceptions in Saudi Arabia. Today, Saudi Arabia is considered a ‘closed and conserved’ society due to tribal, cultural and religious factors. This study focuses on how young girls in Saudi Arabia learn about what is expected of them as females. Cultural beliefs and experiences contribute to children’s notions of identity. Moreover, significant others such as more experienced peers, teachers, parents, and other members of a society can influence a child’s development of knowledge through interactions within their social world. There are dominant influences from the Saudi State. These influences have very strong devices and perceptions of what or how a female should act and be. However, children may have other viewpoints, as it also needs to be considered that the Internet and other media sources could have an influence. Consequently, difficulties could exist for these young children to feel an authentic sense of belonging. The study gathered data using a multi-method approach that elicited the perspectives of the children using ‘multiple modes of expression’ such as observations, story-telling, picture prompt cards, group interviews, drawings and annotations. For this study, prompts and a book was devised, specifically, for use in a Saudi setting. It was found that Saudi young girls in preschool were heteronomous, mainly influenced by culture and society, in their perceptions of female gender and role.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1681
94252
Young Social Beings: An Investigation into the Social Interactions and Relationships of a Year Five Class
Authors:
Abstract:
The paper reports a research project which investigated the social interactions of nine to ten-year-olds in a mainstream primary school. The project implemented an adaption of a whole class, behavioural intervention known as 'The Good Behaviour Game (TGBG)'. TGBG is an evidence-based intervention traditionally used to reduce low-level disruptive behaviours in a classroom setting. TGBG was adapted to encourage pupil’s engagement in pro-social behaviour during lessons. A mixed methods research design was employed to evaluate intervention effects and pupil’s perceptions of their social interactions and relationships with others. Single-case research design was used to evaluate behaviour change, and Personal Construct Psychology (PCP) repertory grids were used to explore pupil’s perceptions. The findings demonstrated that TGBG could be successfully adapted to positively influence pupil’s engagement in pro-social behaviours. The findings from the PCP repertory grid interviews revealed the complexities of how children construct their social interactions and relationships with others, and how an understanding of these could be used to design better social skills interventions. It is concluded that TGBG is a cost-effective, simple to implement intervention for promoting positive social interactions and relationships at the whole class level. The paper presents the aims, design, findings, and conclusions of the study in further detail and relates limitations and potential future extensions of the research. The outcomes have direct application and relevance for practitioners interested in children’s social development and how to promote positive outcomes in this critical aspect of childhood.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1680
94192
The Roles of Teachers in Promoting Self-Regulated Learning
Authors:
Abstract:
Self-regulated learning (SRL), which can be defined as learning that takes place when an individual is an active controller over his cognition, behavior, and motivation in the learning process, seems to be an essential educational goal. However, it is asserted that students need an assistance to become self-regulated learners. Therefore, teachers appear to play an important role in the introduction of SRL. Even though the importance of SRL has been shown by many researchers, the issue of how teachers can introduce it in a classroom environment needs to be investigated thoroughly. When it comes to mathematics learning particularly, it seems really difficult to associate this area with self-regulated learning because of the fact that it is mainly seen as a domain that is overwhelmingly memorizing written notations. As a result, self-regulated learning in mathematics education and what roles teachers have seem to deserve a significant attention. In this study, the significance of SRL and the roles of teachers in promoting SRL in the field of mathematics education particularly with the help of current literature have been highlighted. Some of the roles of teachers are becoming self-regulated learners themselves, facilitating motivation and collaboration with their colleagues in their schools.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1679
93592
Cognitive eTransformation Framework for Education Sector
Authors:
Abstract:
21st Century brought waves of business and industry eTransformations. The impact of change is also being seen in education. To identify the extent of this, scenario analysis methodology was utilised with the aim to assess business transformations across industry sectors ranging from craftsmanship, medicine, finance and manufacture to innovations and adoptions of new technologies and business models. Firstly, scenarios were drafted based on the current eTransformation models and its dimensions. Following this, eTransformation framework was utilised with the aim to derive the key eTransformation parameters, the essential characteristics that have enabled eTransformations across the sectors. Following this, identified key parameters were mapped to the transforming domain-education. The mapping assisted in deriving a cognitive eTransformation framework for education sector. The framework, highlights the importance of context and the notion that education today needs not only to deliver content to students, but it also needs to be able to meet the dynamically changing demands of specific student and industry groups. Furthermore, it pinpoints that for such processes to be supported, specific technology is required, so that instant, on demand and periodic feedback as well as flexible, dynamically expanding study content can be sought and received via multiple education mediums.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1678
93299
Exploring Critical Thinking Skill Development in the 21st Century College Classroom: A Multi-Case Study
Abstract:
Employers today expect college graduates to not only develop and demonstrate content-specific knowledge but also 21st century skillsets such as critical thinking. International assessments suggest students enrolled in United States (U.S.) educational institutions are underperforming in comparison to their global peers in areas such as critical thinking and technology. This multi-case study examined how undergraduate digital literacy courses at a four-year university in the U.S., as implemented by instructors, fostered students’ development of critical thinking skills. The conceptual framework for this study presumed that as students engaged in complex thinking within the context of a digital literacy course, their ability to deploy critical thinking was contingent upon whether the course was designed with the expectation for students to use critical thinking skills as well as the instructor’s approach to implementing the course. Qualitative data collected from instructor interviews, classroom observations, and course documents were analyzed with an emphasis on exploring the course design and instructional methods that provided opportunities to foster critical thinking skill development. Findings from the cross-case analysis revealed that although the digital literacy courses were designed and implemented with the expectation students would deploy critical thinking; there was no explicit support for students to develop these skills. The absence of intentional skill development resulted in inequitable opportunities for all students to engage in complex thinking. The implications of this study suggest that if critical thinking is to remain a priority, then universities must expand their support of pedagogical and instructional training for faculty regarding how to support students’ critical thinking skill development.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1677
93125
Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure of the College Readiness Questionnaire
Abstract:
This study describes the psychometric properties and factor structure of the University Readiness Survey (URS). Survey data were collected from sample of 2652 students from Sultan Qaboos University. Exploratory factor analysis identified ten significant factors underlining the structure. The results of Confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit to the data where the indices for the revised model were χ2(df = 1669) = 6093.4; CFI = 0.900; GFI =0.926; PCLOSE = 1.00 and RMSAE = 0.030 where each of these indices were above threshold. The overall value of Cronbach’s alpha was 0.899 indicating that the instrument score was reliable. Results imply that the URS is a valid measure describing the college readiness pattern among Sultan Qaboos University students and the Arabic version could be used by university counselors to identify students’ readiness factors. Nevertheless, further validation of the of the USR is recommended.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1676
92849
The Availability Degree of Transformational Leadership Dimensions among Heads of Scientific Departments in the Education Faculty at King Saud University
Abstract:
This study aimed to identify the availability degree of transformational leadership dimensions among heads of scientific departments in the Education Faculty at King Saud University. It also aimed to identify the degree of opinions divergence of the study sample on the availability degree of transformational leadership dimensions among the department heads according to the variable of scientific rank. The researcher used the descriptive approach. The study sample consisted of (34) members of education faculty which chosen randomly. To collect the data, the researcher developed a questionnaire consisting of (47) items distributed on four areas after ensuring validity and reliability. Results showed that the degree of practicing the dimensions of transformational leadership by the heads of scientific departments was medium and the mean was (3.21). The dimension of Individualized consideration came first and had a high degree of availability with a mean of (3.31) and the dimension of idealized influence came secondly and had a medium degree (near of high) of availability with a mean of (3.25), also and the dimension of inspirational motivation came thirdly and had a medium degree of availability with a mean of (3.16), whereas the dimension of intellectual stimulation came finally and had a medium degree of availability with a mean of (3.13). The study also showed that there are no statistically significant differences at the level of significance (0.05) in the availability degree of transformational leadership dimensions among the heads of scientific departments at the Faculty of Education according to the scientific rank variable. Finally, the researcher made a number of recommendations and suggestions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1675
92696
Factors Impeding Learners’ Use of the Blackboard System in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Abstract:
In recent decades, a number of educational institutions around the world have come to depend on technology such as the Blackboard system to improve their educational environment. On the other hand, there are many factors that delay the usage of this technology, especially in developing nations such as Saudi Arabia. The goal of this study was to investigate learner’s views of the use of Blackboard in one Saudi university in order to gain a comprehensive view of the factors that delay the implementation of technology in Saudi institutions. This study utilizes a qualitative approach, with data being collected through semi-structured interviews. Six participants from different disciplines took part in this study. The findings indicated that there are two levels of factors that affect students’ use of the Blackboard system. These are factors at the institutional level, such as lack of technical support and lack of training support, which lead to insufficient training related to the Blackboard system. The second level of factors is at the individual level, for example, a lack of teacher motivation and encouragement. In addition, students do not have sufficient levels of skills or knowledge related to how to use the Blackboard in their learning. Conclusion: learners confronted and faced two main types of factors (at the institution level and individual level) that delayed and impeded their learning. Institutions in KSA should take steps and implement strategies to remove or reduce these factors in order to allow students to benefit from the latest technology in their learning.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1674
92674
[Keynote Talk] The Practices and Issues of Career Education: Focusing on Career Development Course on Various Problems of Society
Abstract:
Several universities in Japan have introduced activities aimed at the mutual enlightenment of a diversity of people in career education. However, several programs emphasize on delivering results, and on practicing the prepared materials as planned. Few programs focus on unexpected failures and setbacks. This way of learning is important in career education so that classmates can help each other, overcome difficulties, draw out each other’s strengths, and learn from them. Seijo University in Tokyo offered excursion focusing Various Problems of Society, as second year career education course, Students will learn about contraception, infertility, homeless people, LGBT, and they will discuss based on the excursion. This paper aims to study the ‘learning platform’ created by a series of processes such as the excursion, the discussion, and the presentation. In this course, students looked back on their lives and imagined the future in concrete terms, performing tasks in groups. The students came across a range of values through lectures and conversations, thereby developing feelings of self-efficacy. We conducted a questionnaire to measure the development of career in class. From the results of the questionnaire, we can see, in the example of this class, that students respected diversity and understood the importance of uncertainty and discontinuity. Whereas the students developed career awareness, they actually did not come across that scene and would do so only in the future when it became necessary. In this class, students consciously considered social problems, but did not develop the practical skills necessary to deal with these. This is appropriate for one of project, but we need to consider how this can be incorporated into future courses. University constitutes only a single period in life-long career formation. Thus, further research may be indicated to determine whether the positive effects of career education at university continue to contribute to individual careers going forward.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1673
92652
Survey Study of Key Motivations and Drivers for Students to Enroll in Online Programs of Study
Abstract:
Increasingly borderless learning opportunities including online learning are expanding. Singapore University of Social Science (SUSS) conducted research in February of 2017 to determine the level of consumer interest in undertaking a completely online distance learning degree program across three countries in the Asian Pacific region. The target audience was potential bachelor degree and post-degree students from Malaysia, Indonesia, and Vietnam. The results gathered were used to assess the market size and ascertain the business potential of online degree programs in Malaysia, Indonesia and Vietnam. Secondly, the results were used to determine the most receptive markets to prioritise entry and identify the most receptive student segments. In order to achieve the key outcomes, the key points of understanding were as follows: -Motivations for higher education & factors that influence the choice of institution, -Interest in online learning, -Interest in online learning from a Singapore university relative to other foreign institutions, -Key drivers and barriers of interest in online learning. An online survey was conducted from from 7th Feb 2017 to 27th Feb 2017 amongst n=600 respondents aged 21yo-45yo, who have a basic command of English, A-level qualifications and above, and who have an intent to further their education in the next 12 months. Key findings from the study regarding enrolling in an online program include the need for a marriage between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation factors and the flexibility and support offered in an online program. Overall, there was a high interest for online learning. Survey participants stated they are intrinsically motivated to learn because of their interest in the program of study and the need for extrinsic rewards including opportunities for employment or salary increment in their current job. Seven out of ten survey participants reported they are motivated to further their education and expand their knowledge to become more employable. Eight in ten claims that the feasibility of furthering their education depends on cost and maintaining a work-life balance. The top 2 programs of interest are business and information and communication technology. They describe their choice of university as a marriage of both motivational and feasibility factors including cost, choice, quality of support facilities, and the reputation of the institution. Survey participants reported flexibility as important and stated that appropriate support assures and grows their intent to enrol in an online program. Respondents also reported the importance of being able to work while studying as the main perceived advantage of online learning. Factors related to the choice of an online university emphasized the quality of support services. Despite concerns, overall there was a high interest for online learning. One in two expressed strong intent to enrol in an online programme of study. However, unfamiliarity with online learning is a concern including the concern with the lack of face-to-face interactions. Overall, the findings demonstrated an interest in online learning. A main driver was the ability to earn a recognised degree while still being able to be with the family and the ability to achieve a ‘better’ early career growth.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1672
92456
A Grounded Theory of Educational Leadership Development Using Generative Dialogue
Abstract:
The aim of this research is to develop a grounded theory of educational leadership development, using an approach to initiating and maintaining professional growth in school principals and vice principals termed generative dialogue. The research was conducted in a relatively affluent, urban school district in Western Canada. Generative dialogue interviews were conducted by a team of consultants, and anonymous data in the form of handwritten notes were voluntarily submitted to the research team. The data were transcribed and analyzed using grounded theory. The results indicate that a key focus of educational leadership development is focused on navigating relationships within the school setting and that the generative dialogue process is helpful for principals and vice principals to explore how they might do this. Applicability and limitations of the study are addressed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1671
92443
The Reflexive Interaction in Group Formal Practices: The Question of Criteria and Instruments for the Character-Skills Evaluation
Authors:
Abstract:
In the research field on adult education, the learning development project followed different itineraries: recently it has promoted adult transformation by practices focused on the reflexive oriented interaction. This perspective, that connects life stories and life-based methods, characterizes a transformative space between formal and informal education. Within this framework, in the Nursing Degree Courses of Turin University, it has been discussed and realized a formal reflexive path on the care work professional identity through group practices. This path compared the future care professionals with possible experiences staged by texts used with the function of a pre-tests: these texts, setting up real or believable professional situations, had the task to start a reflection on the different 'elements' of care work professional life (relationship, educational character of relationship, relationship between different care roles; or even human identity, aims and ultimate aim of care, …). The learning transformative aspect of this kind of experience-test is that it is impossible to anticipate the process or the conclusion of reflexion because they depend on two main conditions: the personal sensitivity and the specific situation. The narrated experience is not a device, it does not include any tricks to understand the answering advance; the text is not aimed at deepening the knowledge, but at being an active and creative force which takes the group to compare with problematic figures. In fact, the experience-text does not have the purpose to explain but to problematize: it creates a space of suspension to live for questioning, for discussing, for researching, for deciding. It creates a space 'open' and 'in connection' where each one, in comparing with others, has the possibility to build his/her position. In this space, everyone has to possibility to expose his/her own argumentations and to be aware of the others emerged points of view, aiming to research and find the own personal position. However, to define his/her position, it is necessary to learn to exercise character skills (conscientiousness, motivation, creativity, critical thinking, …): if these not-cognitive skills have an undisputed evidence, less evident is how to value them. The paper will reflect on the epistemological limits and possibility to 'measure' character skills, suggesting some evaluation criteria.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1670
92233
Developing Writing Skills of Learners with Persistent Literacy Difficulties through the Explicit Teaching of Grammar in Context: Action Research in a Welsh Secondary School
Abstract:
Background: The benefits of grammar instruction in the teaching of writing is contested in most English speaking countries. A majority of Anglophone countries abandoned the teaching of grammar in the 1950s based on the conclusions that it had no positive impact on learners’ development of reading, writing, and language. Although the decontextualised teaching of grammar is not helpful in improving writing, a curriculum with a focus on grammar in an embedded and meaningful way can help learners develop their understanding of the mechanisms of language. Although British learners are generally not taught grammar rules explicitly, learners in schools in France, the Netherlands, and Germany are taught explicitly about the structure of their own language. Exposing learners to grammatical analysis can help them develop their understanding of language. Indeed, if learners are taught that each part of speech has an identified role in the sentence. This means that rather than have to memorise lists of words or spelling patterns, they can focus on determining each word or phrase’s task in the sentence. These processes of categorisation and deduction are higher order thinking skills. When considering definitions of dyslexia available in Great Britain, the explicit teaching of grammar in context could help learners with persistent literacy difficulties. Indeed, learners with dyslexia often develop strengths in problem solving; the teaching of grammar could, therefore, help them develop their understanding of language by using analytical and logical thinking. Aims: This study aims at gaining a further understanding of how the explicit teaching of grammar in context can benefit learners with persistent literacy difficulties. The project is designed to identify ways of adapting existing grammar focussed teaching materials so that learners with specific learning difficulties such as dyslexia can use them to further develop their writing skills. It intends to improve educational practice through action, analysis and reflection. Research Design/Methods: The project, therefore, uses an action research design and multiple sources of evidence. The data collection tools used were standardised test data, teacher assessment data, semi-structured interviews, learners’ before and after attempts at a writing task at the beginning and end of the cycle, documentary data and lesson observation carried out by a specialist teacher. Existing teaching materials were adapted for use with five Year 9 learners who had experienced persistent literacy difficulties from primary school onwards. The initial adaptations included reducing the amount of content to be taught in each lesson, and pre teaching some of the metalanguage needed. Findings: Learners’ before and after attempts at the writing task were scored by a colleague who did not know the order of the attempts. All five learners’ scores were higher on the second writing task. Learners reported that they had enjoyed the teaching approach. They also made suggestions to be included in the second cycle, as did the colleague who carried out observations. Conclusions: Although this is a very small exploratory study, these results suggest that adapting grammar focused teaching materials shows promise for helping learners with persistent literacy difficulties develop their writing skills.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1669
92106
Physical Aggression and Language Skills among Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities
Abstract:
Physical aggression is one of the most common behavioural problems among children with intellectual disabilities. Behaviours such as hitting, kicking, and threatening with the intent to harm others are examples of physical aggression. Identified language delays are related to physically aggressive behaviours, as children with poor language skills are often frustrated by socially interactions with their peers, leaving them at risk engaging in acts of physical aggression. As a result of this concern, physical aggression and language skills of children with mild intellectual disabilities was investigated. In the current study, 102 students, from years 1-3, with mild intellectual disabilities (51 girls and 51 boys) have been recruited from five educational centres which cater for children with mild intellectual disabilities in the city of Shiraz (a major city in Iran). The Test of Language Development-Primary: 3rd Edition (TOLD-3) and Overt and Relational Aggression Questionnaire were used to assess these children. Results showed that physical aggression had a significant negative association with expressive (p = 0.008), and receptive (p = 0.019) language skills. In addition, boys demonstrated more physically aggressive behaviours than girls (p = 0.014). No difference was found in expressive and receptive language skills between girls and boys with mild intellectual disabilities. The overall findings suggest that improving the language skills of children with intellectual disabilities experiencing language delays will help them to avoid exhibiting antisocial behaviours in social interactions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1668
92070
Self-Esteem in Troubled Gifted and Non-Gifted Children and Adolescents: Comparison within a French Population
Abstract:
There is still no consensus regarding the differences between gifted and non-gifted students in relationship to their self-esteem and the impact that this might have on behavioral and emotional troubles. In fact, some studies present no difference between both groups or present gifted population having higher scores in self-esteem, while others indicate all the opposite, presenting lower self-esteem in gifted population, suggesting that self-esteem issues are probably due to the fact that gifted children who present low self-esteem might not consider their high Intellectual Quotient (IQ) as a positive characteristic, thus leading to behavioral or emotional troubles. According to the author's knowledge, there is poor evidence trying to understand self-esteem issues in troubled gifted and non-gifted students in France, also finding an important lack regarding the possible moderators that might influence self-esteem. This study aimed to validate the results of these samples, looking for age and sex moderators in order to present recent evidence for the study of self-esteem in troubled gifted students in France. This study analysed the data gathered in the past 12 years for troubled students attending to the National Centre for Assistance to High Potential of Children and Adolescents (CNAHP) in France comparing the results of gifted versus non-gifted population. Primary results showed no significant differences between the groups in global self-esteem (t=1,15 p < .25), consistent with correlation analysis that found no correlation between global self-esteem and total IQ for each of the groups (rgifted=.04, rnon-gifted=.-08). Nevertheless, an ANOVA analysis showed an important effect of giftedness over academic self-esteem even though no significant differences were found (t=1,8 p < .06). No significant differences between sex regarding global self-esteem in any of the groups were found. Nevertheless, non-gifted population showed a significant difference in physical self-esteem, being higher for boys than for girls (t=2.65 p < .01). Sex and age moderator analyses for self-esteem will be presented and discussed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1667
91961
Creative Thinking through Mindful Practices: A Business Class Case Study
Abstract:
This study introduces the use of mindfulness techniques in the classroom to make individuals aware of how the creative thinking process works, resulting in more constructive learning and application. Case observation method was utilized within a classroom setting in a graduate class in the Business School. It entailed, briefing the student participants about the use of a template called the dots and depths map, and having them complete it for themselves, compare it to their team members and reflect on the outputs. Finally, they were debriefed about the use of the template and its value to their learning and creative application process. The major finding is the increase in awareness levels of the participants following the use of the template, leading to a subsequent pursuit of diverse knowledge and acquisition of relevant information and not jumping to solutions directly, which increased their overall creative outputs for the given assignment. The significant value of this study is that it can be applied to any classroom on any subject as a powerful mindfulness tool which increases creative problem solving through constructive knowledge building.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1666
91825
Developing a Quality Mentor Program: Creating Positive Change for Students in Enabling Programs
Abstract:
Academic and social support systems are critical for students in enabling education; these support systems have the potential to enhance the student experience whilst also serving a vital role for student retention. In the context of international moves toward widening university participation, Australia has developed enabling programs designed to support underrepresented students to access to higher education. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a mentor program based within an enabling course. This study evaluates how the mentor program supports new students to develop social networks, improve retention, and increase satisfaction with the student experience. Guided by Social Learning Theory (SLT), this study highlights the benefits that can be achieved when students engage in peer-to-peer based mentoring for both social and learning support. Whilst traditional peer mentoring programs are heavily based on face-to-face contact, the present study explores the difference between mentors who provide face-to-face mentoring, in comparison with mentoring that takes place through the virtual space, specifically via a virtual community in the shape of a Facebook group. This paper explores the differences between these two methods of mentoring within an enabling program. The first method involves traditional face-to-face mentoring that is provided by alumni students who willingly return to the learning community to provide social support and guidance for new students. The second method requires alumni mentor students to voluntarily join a Facebook group that is specifically designed for enabling students. Using this virtual space, alumni students provide advice, support and social commentary on how to be successful within an enabling program. Whilst vastly different methods, both of these mentoring approaches provide students with the support tools needed to enhance their student experience and improve transition into University. To evaluate the impact of each mode, this study uses mixed methods including a focus group with mentors, in-depth interviews, as well as engaging in netnography of the Facebook group ‘Wall’. Netnography is an innovative qualitative research method used to interpret information that is available online to better understand and identify the needs and influences that affect the users of the online space. Through examining the data, this research will reflect upon best practice for engaging students in enabling programs. Findings support the applicability of having both face-to-face and online mentoring available for students to assist enabling students to make a positive transition into University undergraduate studies.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1665
91769
The Transition from National Policy to Institutional Practice of Vietnamese English Language Teacher Education
Abstract:
The English Language Teacher Education (ELTE) in Vietnam is rapidly changing to address the new requirements of the globalization and socialization era. Although there has been a range of investments and innovation in policy and curriculum, tertiary educators and learners do not engage in the enactment. It is vital to understand the practices at the tertiary education level. The study is to understand the higher education curriculum development policy, both in theory and in practice across four representatives of ELTE institutions in the North of Vietnam. The lecturers’ perceptions about the extent to which the enacted curriculum is aligned with national standards will be explored. Nineteen policy documents, seventy surveys, and twelve interviews with lecturers and instructional leaders across these four Vietnamese Northern ELTE institutions have been analyzed to investigate how the policy shape the practice. The two most significant findings are (i) a low level of alignment between curriculum and soft-skills standards of the graduates required by the Vietnamese Ministry of Education and Training (MOET) and (ii) incoherence between current national policy and these institutions’ implementation. In order to address these gaps, it is strongly recommended that curriculum needs to be further developed, focusing more on the institutional outcomes, MOET’s standards, and the social demands in times of globalization. More importantly, professional development in ELTE is vital for a range of curriculum and educational policy stakeholders. The study helps to develop the English teaching profession in Vietnam in a systematic way, from policymakers to implementers, and from instructors to learners. Its significance lies in its relevance to English teaching careers, particularly within the researcher’s specific context, yet also remains relevant to ELTE in other parts of Vietnam and in other EFL (English as a Foreign Language) countries.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1664
91732
The Effect of Using Universal Design for Learning to Improve the Quality of Vocational Programme with Intellectual Disabilities and the Challenges Facing This Method from the Teachers' Point of View
Abstract:
This study aims to know the effect of using universal design for learning (UDL) to improve the quality of vocational programme with intellectual disabilities (SID) and the challenges facing this method from the teachers' point of view. The significance of the study: There are comparatively few published studies on UDL in emerging nations. Therefore, this study will encourage the researchers to consider a new approaches teaching. Development of this study will contribute significant information on the cognitively disabled community on a universal scope. In order to collect and evaluate the data and for the verification of the results, this study has been used the mixed research method, by using two groups comparison method. To answer the study questions, we were used the questionnaire, lists of observations, open questions, and pre and post-test. Thus, the study explored the advantages and drawbacks, and know about the impact of using the UDL method on integrating SID with students non-special education needs in the same classroom. Those aims were realized by developing a workshop to explain the three principles of the UDL and train (16) teachers in how to apply this method to teach (12) students non-special education needs and the (12) SID in the same classroom, then take their opinion by using the questionnaire and questions. Finally, this research will explore the effects of the UDL on the teaching of professional photography skills for the SID in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this goal, the research method was a comparison of the performance of the SID using the UDL method with that of female students with the same challenges applying other strategies by teachers in control and experiment groups, we used the observation lists, pre and post-test. Initial results: It is clear from the previous response to the participants that most of the answers confirmed that the use of UDL achieves the principle of inclusion between the SID and students non-special education needs by 93.8%. In addition, the results show that the majority of the sampled people see that the most important advantages of using UDL in teaching are creating an interactive environment with using new and various teaching methods, with a percentage of 56.2%. Following this result, the UDL is useful for integrating students with general education, with a percentage of 31.2%. Moreover, the finding indicates to improve understanding through using the new technology and exchanging the primitive ways of teaching with the new ones, with a percentage of 25%. The result shows the percentages of the sampled people's opinions about the financial obstacles, and it concluded that the majority see that the cost is high and there is no computer maintenance available, with 50%. There are no smart devices in schools to help in implementing and applying for the program, with a percentage of 43.8%.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1663
91656
The Gap between Curriculum, Pedagogy, and National Standards of Vietnamese English Language Teacher Education
Abstract:
Vietnamese English Language Teacher Education (ELTE) has been changing a lot in response to the rapidly evolving socio-economic context requirements. The Vietnamese government assigns the Ministry of Education and Training (MOET) primary tasks to have policy changes to prepare for ELTE development in the globalization and socialization process. Many educational policies have been made to develop ELTE, however, they seem not to address the new global or social demands. The issue is that there are still significant disparities between the national policy and the institutional implementation. This study is to investigate the alignment between ELTE institutional curriculum, pedagogies, and MOET standards. This study used a mixed-method with the data sources from policy documents, a survey, and 33 interviews conducted with the lecturers and administrators from eleven Vietnamese ELTE institutions. The data have been analysed to understand the gap between policy and practice. The initial findings are (i) a low alignment of curriculum and language proficiency standards and (ii) a moderate alignment between curriculum and future-career skills standards. Many pedagogical challenges have been found. In order to address these gaps, it is necessary for the curriculum to be standards-based designed. It is also vital for professional development in order to improve the quality teaching. The study offers multiple perspectives on a complex issue. The study is meaningful not only to educational governance, but also to teaching practitioners, English language researchers, and English language learners. The significance lies in its relevance to English teaching careers across all parts of Vietnam, it yet remains relevant to ELTE in other countries teaching English as a foreign language.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1662
91608
Peer-to-Peer Mentoring Program for University Students with Disabilities: Self-Report Measures and Academic Outcomes for Program Participants
Abstract:
As individuals with disabilities attend higher education in greater numbers, universities are seeking ways to support the retention and success of these students, beyond the academically based accommodations. Although mentoring programs for this population are being implemented more frequently, there is a lack of empirically validated outcomes which could promote program replication. The research objective of this exploratory study was to examine outcomes for students with disabilities participating in a peer-to-peer mentoring program. Mentees (students with disabilities) met with their mentor (trained upperclassman) once a week for an hour for one semester (14-weeks). Mentors followed a curriculum structured by monthly and weekly goals to guide the sessions. Curriculum topics included socializing on campus, peer pressure, time management, communicating with peers and professors, classroom etiquette, study skills, and seeking help and campus resources. Data was collected over a period of seven semesters resulting in seven separate cohorts (n=46). The impact of the program was measured using quantitative self-report measures as well as qualitative content analysis of focus groups. Academic outcomes (retention, credits earned, and GPA) were compared between those in the mentoring program and a matched group of students registered with Disability Services who did not receive mentoring. In addition, a one-year follow up was conducted to examine the longer term impact of participation. Findings indicated that mentoring had the most impact in knowing how things work at the university, knowing how and where to find opportunities to meet people on campus, and knowing how to access supports. Mentors also provided a supportive relationship to the mentees and helped with social skills. There were no significant differences in academic outcomes between those who were mentored and those in the comparison group. Most mentees reported continuing to benefit from the program one year on, providing support for the retention of knowledge gained and maintenance of positive outcomes over time. In conclusion, while a range of positive outcomes were evidenced, the model was limited in its impact more broadly, particularly with regards to academic success and impacting more complex challenges.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1661
91533
A Social Cognitive Investigation in the Context of Vocational Training Performance of People with Disabilities
Abstract:
This study examined the Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) of people with physical disabilities in Saudi Arabia. Improving the VR services in Saudi Arabia is essential in order to help people with physical disabilities become active members in the society, and thus, a better and active life. The aim of this research was to increase knowledge of VR phenomena in Saudi Arabia and make recommendations for improving VR services. Two hundred and twenty-four participants Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI) who completed questionnaires were undertaking or had just finished their VR programs in VR centres or hospitals in Saudi Arabia. A further 32 participants were Trainers. Nine (patients/clients/students) were interviewed by telephone. Factor analysis, multiple regression analysis, and thematic analysis were used to test hypotheses relating VR trainer self-efficacy to proxy efficacy for the trainer, VR self-efficacy, and VR training performance, and proxy efficacy for the trainer and VR self-efficacy to VR training performance of people with physical disabilities. Students and VR trainers completed a questionnaire developed by the researcher, some provided free responses in the questionnaire, and some were interviewed by phone. Quantitative analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 19.0, for Mac. This study employed a conceptual framework based on SCT. The study provided evidence that VR self-efficacy predicted VR training performance. The findings of this study also provide some evidence that VR trainer self-efficacy was related positively to VR self-efficacy of the participants with SCI. VR self-efficacy and proxy efficacy for VR trainer were related to the VR training performance. It was also found that other variables such asTime Since Injury (TSI) predicted VR self-efficacy and proxy efficacy for the trainer. The findings of this study have significant implications for the future of VR of people with physical disabilities in Saudi Arabia. Enhancing VR self-efficacy of people with physical disabilities could enhance their VR training performance. Moreover, improving VR trainer self-efficacy could, in turn, improve VR self-efficacy of people with physical disabilities, and therefore, enhance their VR training performance.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1660
91419
The Wellness Wheel: A Tool to Reimagine Schooling
Abstract:
The wellness wheel as a tool for school growth and change is currently being piloted by a startup school in Chicago, IL. In this case study, members of the school community engaged in the appreciative inquiry process to plan their organizational development around the wellness wheel. The wellness wheel (comprised of physical, emotional, social, spiritual, environmental, cognitive, and financial wellness) is used as a planning tool by teachers, students, parents, and administrators. Through the appreciative inquiry method of change, the community is reflecting on their individual level of wellness and developing organizational structures to ensure the well being of children and adults. The goal of the case study is to test the appropriateness of the use of appreciative inquiry (as a method) and the wellness wheel (as a tool) for school growth and development. Findings of the case study will be realized by the conference. The research is in process now.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1659
91361
Representation of Self and the Client in Social Work Students’ Report
Authors:
Abstract:
New forms of academic writing such as apprenticeship genres are developing in the field of applied linguistics. However, these perspectives have not adequately addressed the issue of social work students in Botswana. The paper addresses the issue of academic writing with special attention to the types of documents written by University of Botswana (UB) social work students on their fieldwork placement. The research method for this study combines two major research tools in the qualitative inquiry which are text analysis and interviews in order to investigate the context in which the texts are produced. 12 students were consulted and gave their consent for the study. 26 case reports were collected from the Department of Social work at the University of Botswana. The findings show that the case reports students write during their fieldwork placements have 6 moves, which focus on the clients’ story and describe what the students have done and achieved. The significance is that the discrepancy between professional writing and students writing raise questions about the extent to which students are being prepared for professional writing. Students have indicated that their academic writing varies according to the preferences of individual lecturers rather than the requirement of the work situation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1658
91356
Moving from Computer Assisted Learning Language to Mobile Assisted Learning Language Edutainment: A Trend for Teaching and Learning
Abstract:
Technology has led to rapid changes in the world, and most importantly to education, particularly in the 21st century. Technology has enhanced teachers’ potential and has resulted in the provision of greater interaction and choices for learners. In addition, technology is helping to improve individuals’ learning experiences and building their capacity to read, listen, speak, search, analyse, memorise and encode languages, as well as bringing learners together and creating a sense of greater involvement. This paper has been organised in the following way: the first section provides a review of the literature related to the implementation of CALL (computer assisted learning language), and it explains CALL and its phases, as well as attempting to highlight and analyse Warschauer’s article. The second section is an attempt to describe the move from CALL to mobilised systems of edutainment, which challenge existing forms of teaching and learning. It also addresses the role of the teacher and the curriculum content, and how this is affected by the computerisation of learning that is taking place. Finally, an empirical study has been conducted to collect data from teachers in Saudi Arabia using quantitive and qualitative method tools. Connections are made between the area of study and the personal experience of the researcher carrying out the study with a methodological reflection on the challenges faced by the teachers of this same system. The major findings were that it is worth spelling out here that despite the circumstances in which students and lecturers are currently working, the participants revealed themselves to be highly intelligent and articulate individuals who were constrained from revealing this criticality and creativity by the system of learning and teaching operant in most schools.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):