On or Off-Line: Dilemmas in Using Online Teaching-Learning in In-Service Teacher Education
The lecture discusses a Language Teaching program in a Teacher Education College in northern Israel. An on-line course was added to the program in order to keep on-campus attendance at a minimum, thus allowing the students to keep their full-time jobs in school. In addition, the use of educational technology to allow students to study anytime anywhere, in keeping with 21st-century innovative teaching-learning practices, was also an issue, as was the wish for this course to serve as a model which the students could then possibly use in their K-12 teaching. On the other hand, there were strong considerations against including an online course in the program. The students in the program were mostly Israeli-Arab married women with young children, living in a traditional society which places a strong emphasis on the place of the woman as a wife, mother, and home-maker. In addition, as teachers, they used much of their free time on school-related tasks. Having careers at the same time as studying was ground-breaking for these women, and using their time at home for studying rather than taking care of their families may have been simply too much to ask of them. At the end of the course, feedback was collected through an online questionnaire including both open and closed questions. The data collected shows that the students believed in online teaching-learning in principle, but had trouble implementing it in practice. This evidence raised the question of whether or not such a course should be included in a graduate program for mature, professional students, particular women with families living in a traditional society. This issue is not relevant to Israel alone, but also to academic institutions worldwide serving such populations. The lecture discusses this issue, sharing the researcher’s conclusions with the audience. Based on the evidence offered, it is the researcher’s conclusion that online education should, indeed, be offered to such audiences. However, the courses should be designed with the students’ special needs in mind, with emphasis placed on initial planning and course organization based on acknowledgment of the teaching context; modeling of online teaching/learning suited for in-service teacher education, and special attention paid to social-constructivist aspects of learning.
National Identity Clarity or Confusion: English and Urdu Textbooks in Pakistan
Schooling in Pakistan is said to have attracted lots of criticism due to many changes in its curriculum and textbooks during the 1980s and 1990s. The current curriculum was revised and rewritten between 2010-2016. This study investigates how these changes are reflective of the national identity conceived in the education policies of 1998 and 2010. For this purpose, the concept of national identity as conceived in these two education policies was studied, and its translation into curriculum and textbook was explored. The date for this study is derived from the textbooks taught at the secondary level (classes six to ten) that are authorized and approved by the Punjab Textbook Board and published by different publishers for the academic year 2015-2016. The critical discourse analysis approach is used to analyse the content of the textbooks. The analysis of the textbooks revealed a common thread, ‘Islam’, ‘Muslims’, running through all the texts of the analysed textbooks which in turn form a single identity, which is synonymous to Islam, ‘Pakistanis are Muslims’. This draws a boundary between the groups that are included and excluded in the textbooks. This boundary has left almost all students unaware of many religious and ethnic groups, considering them as non-Muslims and thus suspecting them as enemies of Pakistan, Islam, and Muslims. The stories and narrative about the religious and ethnic minorities living in Pakistan are excluded which in turn bound to form Pakistani identity as Islamic and Muslim thus missing the pluralistic nature of Pakistan.
Questionnaire for the Evaluation of Entrepreneurship Project Psychopedagogical Practices: Construction Proceedings and Validation
This paper is a report on the findings of the construction and the validation of a questionnaire monetized in a portuguese higher education context with undergraduate students. The Questionnaire for the Evaluation of Entrepreneurship Project Psychopedagogical Practices consists of six scales: Critical appraisal of the project, Developed Learning and Skills, Teamwork, Teacher and Tutor Roles, Evaluation of Student Performance, and Project Effectiveness as a Teaching-Learning Methodology. The proceedings of its construction are analyzed, and the validity and internal consistency analysis are described. Findings indicate good indicators of validity, good fidelity and an interpretable factorial structure.
Misconceptions in Heat Transfer: A Problem Based Learning Approach for Engineering Students
This work has the purpose of study and incorporate Problem Based Learning (PBL) for engineering students, through the analysis of several thermal images of dwellings located in different geographical points of the Region de los Ríos, Chile. The students analyze how heat is transferred in and out of the houses and how is the relation between heat transfer and climatic conditions that affect each zone. As a result of this activity students are able to acquire significant learning in the unit of heat and temperature, and manage to reverse previous conceptual errors related with energy, temperature and heat. In addition, student are able to generate prototype solutions to increase thermal efficiency using low cost materials. Students make public their results in a report using scientific writing standards and in a science fair open to the entire university community. The methodology used to measure previous Conceptual Errors has been applying diagnostic tests with everyday questions that involve concepts of heat, temperature, work and energy, before the unit. After the unit the same evaluation is done in order that themselves are able to evidence the evolution in the construction of knowledge. As a result, we found that in the initial test, 90% of the students showed deficiencies in the concepts previously mentioned, and in the subsequent test 47% showed deficiencies, these percent ages differ between students who carry out the course for the first time and those who have performed this course previously in a traditional way. The methodology used to measure Significant Learning has been by comparing results in subsequent courses of thermodynamics among students who have received problem based learning and those who have received traditional training. We have observe that learning becomes meaningful when applied to the daily lives of students promoting internalization of knowledge and understanding through critical thinking.
Introducing Thermodynamic Variables through Scientific Inquiry for Engineering Students
This work shows how the learning of physics is enriched with scientific inquiry practices, achieving learning that results in the use of higher-level cognitive skills. The activities, which were carried out with students of the 3rd semester of the courses of the Faculty of Sciences of the Engineering of the Austral University of Chile, focused on the understanding of the nature of the thermodynamic variables and how they relate to each other. This, through the analysis of atmospheric data obtained in the meteorological station Miraflores, located on the campus. The proposed activities consisted of the elaboration of time series, linear analysis of variables, as well as the analysis of frequencies and periods. From their results, the students reached conclusions associated with the nature of the thermodynamic variables studied and the relationships between them, to finally make public their results in a report using scientific writing standards. It is observed that introducing topics that are close to them, interesting and which affect their daily lives allows a better understanding of the subjects, which is reflected in higher levels of approval and motivation for the subject.
Syntax-Related Problems of Translation
The present paper deals with the syntax-related problems of translation from English into Armenian. Although Syntax is a part of grammar, syntax-related problems of translation are studied separately during the process of translation. Translation from one language to another is widely accepted as a challenging problem. This becomes even more challenging when the source and target languages are widely different in structure and style, as is the case with English and Armenian. Syntax-related problems of translation from English into Armenian are mainly connected with the syntactical structures of these languages, and particularly, with the word order of the sentence. The word order of the sentence of the Armenian language, which is a synthetic language, is usually characterized as “rather free”, and the word order of the English language, which is an analytical language, is characterized “fixed”. The following research examines the main translation means, particularly, syntactical transformations as the translator has to take real steps while trying to solve certain syntax-related problems. Most of the means of translation are based on the transformation of grammatical components of the sentence, without changing the main information of the text. There are several transformations that occur during translation such as word order of the sentence, transformations of certain grammatical constructions like Infinitive participial construction, Nominative with the Infinitive and Elliptical constructions which have been covered in the following research.
Review of Currently Adopted Intelligent Programming Tutors
Intelligent Programming Tutors, IPTs, are supplemental educational devices that assist in teaching software development. These systems provide customized learning allowing the user to select the presentation pace, pedagogical strategy, and to recall previous and additional teaching materials reinforcing learning objectives. In addition, IPTs automatically records individual’s progress, providing feedback to the instructor and student. These tutoring systems have an advantage over Tutoring Systems because Intelligent Programming Tutors are not limited to one teaching strategy and can adjust when it detects the user struggling with a concept. The Intelligent Programming Tutor is a category of Intelligent Tutoring Systems, ITS. ITS are available for many fields in education, supporting different learning objectives and integrate into other learning tools, improving the student's learning experience. This study provides a comparison of the IPTs currently adopted by the educational community and will focus on the different teaching methodologies and programming languages. The study also includes the ability to integrate the IPT into other educational technologies, such as massive open online courses, MOOCs. The intention of this evaluation is to determine one system that would best serve in a larger ongoing research project and provide findings for other institutions looking to adopt an Intelligent Programming Tutor.
Field-Testing a Digital Music Notebook
The success of one-on-one music study relies heavily on the ability of the teacher to provide sufficient direction to students during weekly lessons so that they can successfully practice from one lesson to the next. Traditionally, these instructions are given in a paper notebook, where the teacher makes notes for the students after describing a task or demonstrating a technique. The ability of students to make sense of these notes varies according to their understanding of the teacher’s directions, their motivation to practice, their memory of the lesson, and their abilities to self-regulate. At best, the notes enable the student to progress successfully. At worst, the student is left rudderless until the next lesson takes place. Digital notebooks have the potential to provide a more interactive and effective bridge between music lessons than traditional pen-and-paper notebooks. One such digital notebook, Cadenza, was designed to streamline and improve teachers’ instruction, to enhance student practicing, and to provide the means for teachers and students to communicate between lessons. For example, Cadenza contains a video annotator, where teachers can offer real-time guidance on uploaded student performances. Using the checklist feature, teachers and students negotiate the frequency and type of practice during the lesson, which the student can then access during subsequent practice sessions. Following the tenets of self-regulated learning, goal setting and reflection are also featured. Accordingly, the present paper addressed the following research questions: (1) How does the use of the Cadenza digital music notebook engage students and their teachers?, (2) Which features of Cadenza are most successful?, (3) Which features could be improved?, and (4) Is student learning and motivation enhanced with the use of the Cadenza digital music notebook? The paper describes the results 10 months of field-testing of Cadenza, structured around the four research questions outlined. Six teachers and 65 students took part in the study. Data were collected through video-recorded lesson observations, digital screen captures, surveys, and interviews. Standard qualitative protocols for coding results and identifying themes were employed to analyze the results. The results consistently indicated that teachers and students embraced the digital platform offered by Cadenza. The practice log and timer, the real-time annotation tool, the checklists, the lesson summaries, and the commenting features were found to be the most valuable functions, by students and teachers alike. Teachers also reported that students progressed more quickly with Cadenza, and received higher results in examinations than those students who were not using Cadenza. Teachers identified modifications to Cadenza that would make it an even more powerful way to support student learning. These modifications, once implemented, will move the tool well past its traditional notebook uses to new ways of motivating students to practise between lessons and to communicate with teachers about their learning. Improvements to the tool called for by the teachers included the ability to duplicate archived lessons, allowing for split screen viewing, and adding goal setting to the teacher window. In the concluding section, proposed modifications and their implications for self-regulated learning are discussed.
Analysis of the Barriers and Aids That Lecturers Offer to Students with Disabilities
In recent years, advances have been made in disability policy at Spanish universities, especially in terms of creating more inclusive learning environments. Nevertheless, while efforts to foster inclusion at the tertiary level -and the growing number of students with disabilities at university- are clear signs of progress, serious barriers to full participation in learning still exist. The research shows that university responses to diversity tend to be reactive, not proactive; as a result, higher education (HE) environments can be especially disabling. It has been demonstrated that the performance of students with disabilities is closely linked to the good will of university faculty and staff. Lectures are key players when it comes to helping or hindering students throughout the teaching/learning process. This paper presents an analysis of how lecturers respond to students with disabilities, the initial question being: do lecturers aid or hinder students? The general aim is to analyse-by listen to the students themselves-lecturers barriers and support identified as affecting academic performance and overall perception of the higher education (HE) experience. Biographical-narrative methodology was employed. This research analysed the results differentiating by fields of knowledge. The research was conducted in two phases: discussion groups along with individual oral/written interviews were set up with 44 students with disabilities and mini life histories were completed for 16 students who participated in the first stage. The study group consisted of students with disabilities enrolled during three academic years. The results of this paper noted that participating students identified many more barriers than bridges when speaking about the role lecturers play in their learning experience. Findings are grouped into several categories: Faculty attitudes when “dealing with” students with disabilities, teaching methodologies, curricular adaptations, and faculty training in working with students. Faculty does not always display appropriate attitudes towards students with disabilities. Study participants speak of them turning their backs on their problems-or behaving in an awkward manner. In many cases, it seems lecturers feel that curricular adaptations of any kind are a form of favouritism. Positive attitudes, however, often depend almost entirely on the good will of faculty and-although well received by students-are hard to come by. As the participants themselves suggest, this study confirms that good teaching practices not only benefit students with disabilities but the student body as a whole. In this sense, inclusive curricula provide new opportunities for all students. A general coincidence has been the lack of training on behalf of lecturers to adequately attend disabled students, and the need to cover this shortage. This can become a primary barrier and is more often due to deficient faculty training than to inappropriate attitudes on the part of lecturers. In conclusion, based on this research we can conclude that more barriers than bridges exist. That said, students do report receiving a good deal of support from their lecturers-although almost exclusively in a spirit of good will; when lecturers do help, however, it tends to have a very positive impact on students' academic performance.
Conceptualizing Creative Leadership and Collaborative School Culture
Lately, in educational organization, voluminous studies accentuate the momentous of leadership in mobilizing creativity. Creativity skill is seen as one of the important skills required for the 21st-century leadership, which is also known as the tool for creative leader’s mind in engaging and stimulating ideas to execute outcomes. Hence, leaders should create an opportunity by involving every employee and stakeholders in schools to contribute their ideas towards developing creative solutions to enhance school productivity. The focal point of this article is to offer a conceptual framework on creative leadership practices among school leaders towards collaborative school culture. Intensive reviews of literature will be used in the fields of creative leadership and school culture with the aim to nurture leaders into better leaders and encourage collaborative school culture. The framework contributes a new shed on the implication of creative leadership practices and collaborative school culture. It also will contribute a new theory development and offered suggestions for follow-up research.
Environmental Factors and Executive Functions of Children in 5-Year-Old Kindergarten
The concept of educational success, combined with the overall development of the child in kindergarten, is at the center of current interests, both in research and in the environments responsible for the education of young children. In order to promote it, researchers emphasize the importance of studying the executive functions [EF] of children in preschool education. More precisely, the EFs, which refers to working memory [WM], inhibition, mental flexibility and planning, would be the pivotal element of the child’s educational success. In order to support the EFs of the child, and even his educational success, the quality of the environments is beginning to be explored more and more. The question that arises now is how to promote EFs for young children in the educational environment, in order to support their educational success? The objective of this study is to investigate the link between the quality of interactions in 5-year-old kindergarten and child’s EFs. The sample consists of 118 children (70 girls, 48 boys) in 12 classes. The quality of the interactions is observed from the Classroom Assessment Scoring System [CLASS], and the EFs (i.e., working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and planning) are measured with administered tests. The hypothesis of this study was that the quality of teacher-child interactions in preschool education, as measured by the CLASS, was associated with the child’s EFs. The results revealed that the quality of emotional support offered by adults in kindergarten, included in the CLASS tool, was positively and significantly related to WM and inhibition skills. The results also suggest that WM is a key skill in the development of EFs, which may be associated with the educational success of the child. However, this hypothesis remains to be clarified, as is the link with educational success. In addition, results showed that factors associated to the family (ex. parents’ income) moderate the relationship between the domain ‘instructional support’ of the CLASS (ex. concept development) and child’s WM skills. These data suggest a moderating effect related to family characteristics in the link between ‘quality of classroom interactions’ and ‘EFs’. This project proposes, as a future avenue, to check the distinctive effect of different environments (familial and educational) on the child’s EFs. More specifically, future study could examine the influence of the educational environment on EF skills, as well as whether or not there is a moderating effect of the family environment (ex. parents' income) on the link between the quality of the interactions in the classroom and the EFs of the children, as anticipated by this research.
Investigating Transformative Processes through Personal, social, Professional and Educational Development of Adult Graduates in Second Chance Schools in Greece: a Quantitative and Qualitative Survey throughout the Country
The object of this research is to explore the views of Greek Second Chance Schools’ (SCS) graduates regarding their personal, social, professional and educational development after graduation. SCS are addressed to adults who had failed to complete their studies in the nine-year compulsory education. Furthermore, the research focuses on their motives as well as on any possible achievement of transformative processes. The quantitative survey involved in total 426 graduates while in the qualitative survey participated 38 persons, all of whom graduated in the period 2010-2012 from 27 schools throughout the country. The survey was conducted by filling in a structured questionnaire and by carrying out semi-structured interviews.
As regards the results, the respondents decided to attend the SCS primarily to acquire knowledge while most of them feel that they managed to meet their goals. Also, graduates recognize that studying in SCS contributed primarily in their social and personal development. In addition, an encouraging fact is that some of the graduates recognize the transformative processes which they experienced during their studies in SCS.
Villar Settlement Farm School for the Aetas: Assimilation through American Colonial Education in Zambales, Philippines
The creation of settlement farm schools at the outset of American colonization of the Philippines was not a matter of accident; rather, their establishment was a major component of a grand plan on public education based on the benevolent assimilation policy of the United States. This argument is illustrated by the case of Villar Settlement Farm School, a school for the Aetas as a non-Christian tribal community in 1907.
The study aims to: (1) identify and describe the antecedents for the establishment of Settlement Farm School, (2) explicate the cultural conflicts encountered by Aetas in school, (3) appraise the consequences of education as acculturation among Aeta population.
The study made use of the following: historical data based on primary and secondary sources and life histories from primary informants.
The Settlement Farm School for the Aetas was borne out of the American’s change in policy from military to civilian authority, recognition of education as a tool for benevolent assimilation. The narratives of informants manifested resistance to certain aspects of the educational process.
Technology Enriched Classroom for Intercultural Competence Building through Films
In this globalized world, intercultural communication is becoming essential for understanding communication among people, for developing understanding of cultures, to appreciate the opportunities and challenges that each culture presents to people. Moreover, it plays an important role in developing an ideal personification to understand different behaviors in different cultures. Native speakers assimilate sociolinguistic knowledge in natural conditions, while it is a great problem for language learners, and in this context feature films reveal cultural peculiarities and involve students in real communication. As we know nowadays the key role of language learning is the development of intercultural competence as communicating with someone from a different cultural background can be exciting and scary, frustrating and enlightening. Intercultural competence is important in FL learning classroom and here feature films can perform as essential tools to develop this competence and overcome the intercultural gap that foreign students face. Current proposal attempts to reveal the correlation of the given culture and language through feature films. To ensure qualified, well-organized and practical classes on Intercultural Communication for language learners a number of methods connected with movie watching have been implemented. All the pre-watching, while watching and post-watching methods and techniques are aimed at developing students’ communicative competence. The application of such activities as Climax, Role-play, Interactive Language, Daily Life helps to reveal and overcome mistakes of cultural and pragmatic character. All the above-mentioned activities are directed at the assimilation of the language vocabulary with special reference to the given culture. The study dwells into the essence of culture as one of the core concepts of intercultural communication. Sometimes culture is not a priority in the process of language learning which leads to further misunderstandings in real life communication. The application of various methods and techniques with feature films aims at developing students’ cultural competence, their understanding of norms and values of individual cultures. Thus, feature film activities will enable learners to enlarge their knowledge of the particular culture and develop a fundamental insight into intercultural communication.
The Role of the Founding Ideals of a University in Higher Education
The “founding spirit” of a Japanese university is similar to the mission statement of a Western university, but the difference between the two is that the former more closely reflects the founder’s inner world because it usually originates from the strong personal beliefs that the founder held when establishing the university. To find how much this ideology actually valued in today’s higher education, this paper surveys 2091 job openings for foreign language full-time faculty positions, posted by Japanese private universities from 2012 to 2016. The results suggest that women’s universities and universities with religious affiliations have a tendency to request that successful candidates observe their founding spirit, or at least demonstrate some understanding of the ideology after being hired. On the other hand, co-ed universities and universities with no religious affiliations do not show such a distinct tendency. A chi-square test revealed that this difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p
The Views of German Preparatory Language Programme Students about German Speaking Activity
The students, who are enrolled in German Preparatory Language Programme at the School of Foreign Languages, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Turkey, learn German as a foreign language for two semesters in an academic year. Although the language programme is a skills-based one, the students lack German speaking skills due to their fear of making language mistakes while speaking in German. This problem of incompetency in German speaking skills exists also in their four-year departmental study at the Faculty of Education. In order to address this problem we design German speaking activities, which are extra-curricular activities. With the help of these activities, we aim to lead Turkish students of German language to speak in the target language, to improve their speaking skills in the target language and to create a stress-free atmosphere and a meaningful learning environment to communicate in the target language. In order to achieve these aims, an ERASMUS+ exchange staff (a German trainee teacher of German as a foreign language), who is from Schwabisch Gmünd University, Germany, conducted out-of-class German speaking activities once a week for three weeks in total. Each speaking activity is lasted for one and a half hour per week. 7 volunteered students of German preparatory language programme attended the speaking activity for three weeks. The activity took place at a cafe in the university campus, that’s the reason, we call it as an out-of-class activity. The content of speaking activity is not related to the topics studied at the units of coursebook, that’s the reason, we call this activity as extra-curricular one. For data collection, three tools are used. A questionnaire, which is an adapted version of Sabo’s questionnaire, is applied to seven volunteers. An interview session is then held with each student on individual basis. The interview questions are developed so as to ask students to expand their answers that are given at the questionnaires. The German trainee teacher wrote fieldnotes, in which the teacher described the activity in the light of her thoughts about what went well and which areas were needed to be improved. The results of questionnaires show that six out of seven students note that such an acitivity must be conducted by a native speaker of German. Four out of seven students emphasize that they like the way that the activities are designed in a learner-centred fashion. All of the students point out that they feel motivated to talk to the trainee teacher in German. Six out of seven students note that the opportunity to communicate in German with the teacher and the peers enable them to improve their speaking skills, the use of grammatical rules and the use of vocabulary.
Attitudes of Academic Staff towards the Use of Information Communication Technology as a Pedagogical Tool for Effective Teaching in FCT College of Education, Zuba-Abuja, Nigeria
With numerous advantages of ICT in teaching such as using images to improve the retentive memory of students, the academic staff is yet to deliver instructions adequately and effectively due to no power supply, lack of technical supports and non-availability of functional ICT tools. Could these challenges affect the attitudes of academic staff in teaching? This study was conducted to investigate the attitudes of academic staff towards the use of information communication technology as a pedagogical tool for effective teaching in FCT College of education, Zuba-Abuja, Nigeria. A sample of 200 academic Staff from five Schools/Faculties was involved in the study. The respondents were selected by using simple random sampling technique (SRST). A questionnaire was developed and validated by the supervisor and reliability co-efficient of 0.85 was obtained. It was used to gather relevant data from the respondents. This study revealed that the respondents had positive attitudes towards the use of ICT as a pedagogical tool for effective teaching. Also, the uses of ICT by the academic staff included: to encourage closer relationship for attainment of higher academic, and to deliver instructions effectively. The study also revealed that there is a significant relationship between the attitudes and the uses of ICT by the academic staff. Based on these findings, some recommendations were made which include: power supply should be provided to operate ICT facilities for effective teaching, and technical assistance on ICT usage for effective delivery of instructions should be provided among other recommendations.
Creating an Inclusive Classroom: Country Case Studies Analysis on Mainstream Teachers' Teaching-Efficacy and Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Japan and Singapore
This study aims to assess the Japanese and Singaporean mainstream teachers’ attitudes and teaching-efficacy towards the inclusion of students with special needs in the regular classrooms by investigating what kind of key variables influence their attitudes and teaching-efficacy. It also further investigates how they strategize to address their challenges to include their students with special needs in their regular classrooms. In order to understand the nature of teachers’ attitudes and teaching-efficacy towards the inclusive education, a mixed-method research methodology was carried out in Japan and Singapore; it involved an explanatory sequential method of employing quantitative research first before qualitative research. In the quantitative research, 189 Japanese and 183 Singaporean teachers were invited to participate in the questionnaires and out of these participants, 38 Japanese and 15 Singaporean teachers shared their views during their semi-structured interviews. Based on the empirical findings, Japanese teachers’ attitudes and teaching-efficacy were more likely to be influenced by their experiences in teaching students with special needs, knowledge about disability legislation, presence of their disabled family members and level of confidence to teach students with special needs. On the other hand, Singaporean teachers’ attitudes and teaching-efficacy were affected by gender, educational level, received trainings in special needs education, knowledge about disability legislation and level of confidence to teach students with special needs. Both country results also demonstrated that there was a positive correlation between their teaching-efficacy and attitude. Narrative findings further expanded the reasons behind these quantitative factors that shaped teachers’ attitudes and teaching-efficacy. Also, it discussed the various problems faced by Japanese and Singaporean teachers and how they identified their coping strategies to circumvent their challenges in including their students with special needs in their regular classrooms. The significance of this research manifests in necessary educational reforms in both countries especially in the context of inclusive education. These findings may not be as definitive as expected but it is believed that it could provide useful information on the current situation about teachers’ concerns towards the inclusive education. In conclusion, this research could potentially make its positive contribution to the body of literature on teachers’ attitudes and teaching-efficacy in the context of Asian developed countries. Further, these findings could posit that regular teachers’ positive attitudes and strong sense of teaching self-efficacy could directly improve the success rate of inclusion of students with special needs in the regular classrooms.
Creating an Inclusive Classroom: Country Case Studies Analysis on Mainstream Teachers’ Teaching-Efficacy and Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Japan and Singapore
How we idealize the regular schools to be inclusive as much as possible hinges on mainstream teachers’ attitudes and teaching-efficacy towards the inclusion of students with special needs in the regular schools. This research studies the Japanese and Singaporean mainstream teachers’ attitudes and teaching-efficacy towards the inclusion of students with special needs in the regular classrooms by investigating what key variables influence their attitudes and teaching-efficacy and how they strategize to address their challenges to include their students with special needs in their regular classrooms. In order to understand the nature of teachers’ attitudes and teaching-efficacy towards the inclusive education, a mixed-method research methodology was carried out in Japan and Singapore; it involved an explanatory sequential method of employing quantitative research first before qualitative research. In the quantitative research, 189 Japanese and 183 Singaporean teachers were invited to participate in the questionnaires and out of these participants, 38 Japanese and 15 Singaporean teachers shared their views during their semi-structured interviews. Based on the empirical findings, Japanese teachers’ attitudes and teaching-efficacy were more likely to be influenced by their experiences in teaching students with special needs, knowledge about disability legislation, presence of their disabled family members and level of confidence to teach students with special needs. On the other hand, Singaporean teachers’ attitudes and teaching-efficacy were affected by gender, educational level, received trainings in special needs education, knowledge about disability legislation and level of confidence to teach students with special needs. Both country results also demonstrated that there was a positive correlation between their teaching-efficacy and attitude. Narrative findings further expanded the reasons behind these quantitative factors that shaped teachers’ attitudes and teaching-efficacy. Also it discussed the various problems faced by Japanese and Singaporean teachers and how they identified their coping strategies to circumvent their challenges in including their students with special needs in their regular classrooms. The significance of this research manifests in necessary educational reforms in both countries especially in the context of inclusive education. These findings may not be as definitive as expected but it is believed that it could provide useful information on the current situation about teachers’ concerns towards the inclusive education. In conclusion, this research could potentially make its positive contribution to the body of literature on teachers’ attitudes and teaching-efficacy in the context of Asian developed countries and these findings could posit that regular teachers’ positive attitudes and strong sense of teaching self-efficacy could directly improve the success rate of inclusion of students with special needs in the regular classrooms.
Impact of Curriculum Politicization on the Teaching-Learning Process in 'Patriotism-Building', Compulsory History Courses in Bangladesh's Higher Education
The National University, the largest public educational institution in Bangladesh, recently made it mandatory for all students to study a course in Bangladesh‘s history of the 1971 Liberation War. This introduction was accompanied by massive political, financial and academic movement that allocated resources towards achieving greater awareness of the country‘s spirit, goals of liberation and patriotism among the youth. This study argues that the infrastructure and political economy around the course heavily politicizes the education system and more specifically the teaching and learning the process. By conducting a qualitative study in three affiliated colleges under the National University, this study aimed to explore the extent to which politicization affected higher education curriculum, especially history education in Bangladesh. The findings revealed significant levels of politicization and structural constraints present in the process that restricts the teacher and student engagement with course materials. The results of this study are useful for curriculum designers and higher education teachers and staffs who wish to develop content and deliver education that promotes critical inquiry among students. The findings further shed light on the importance of identifying and addressing political influences in education curriculum and programme development.
Productivity-Emotiveness Model of School Students’ Capacity Levels
A new two-factor model of school students’ capacity levels is proposed. It considers the academic productivity and emotional condition of children taking part in the study process. Each basic level reflects the correlation of these two factors. The teacher decides whether the required result is achieved or not and write down the grade (from 'A' to 'F') in the register. During the term, the teacher can estimate the students’ progress with any intervals, but it is not desirable to exceed a two-week period (with primary school being an exception). Each boy or girl should have a special notebook to record the emotions which they feel studying a subject. The children can make their notes the way they like it – for example, using a ten-point scale or a short verbal description. It is recommended to record the emotions twice a day: after the lesson and after doing the homework. Before the students start doing this, they should be instructed by a school psychologist, who has to emphasize that an attitude to the subject – not to a person in charge of it – is relevant. At the end of the term, the notebooks are given to the teacher, who is now able to make preliminary conclusions about academic results and psychological comfort of each student. If necessary, some pedagogical measures can be taken. The data about a supposed capacity level is available for the teacher and the school administration. In certain cases, this information can be also revealed to the student’s parents, while the student learns it only after receiving a school-leaving certificate (until this moment, the results are not considered ultimate). Then a person may take these data into consideration when choosing his/her future area of higher education. We single out four main capacity levels: 'nominally low', 'inclination', 'ability' and 'gift'.
Qualitative Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Imagined Professional World vs. Real Experiences of In-Service Teachers
The English teachers’ pedagogical identity construction is the way teachers go through the process of becoming teachers and how they maintain their teaching selves. The pedagogical identity of teachers is influenced by several factors within the individual and the society. The purpose of this study was to compare the imagined social world of the pre-service teachers with the real experiences the in-service teachers had in the context of Iran to see how prepared the pre-service teachers are with a view to their identity being. This study used a qualitative approach to collection and analysis of the data. Structured and semi-structured interviews, focus groups and process logs were used to collect the data. Then, using open coding, the data were analyzed. The findings showed that the imagined world of the pre-service teachers partly corresponded with the real world experiences of the in-service teachers leaving the pre-service teachers unprepared for their real world teaching profession. The findings suggest that the current approaches to English teacher training are in need of modification to better prepare the pre-service teachers for the future that expects them.
Designing a Motivated Tangible Multimedia System for Preschoolers
The paper examined the capability of a prototype of tangible multimedia system that was augmented with tangible objects in motivating young preschoolers in learning. Preschoolers’ learning behaviour is highly captivated and motivated by external physical stimuli. Hence, conventional multimedia which solely depended on digital visual and auditory formats for knowledge delivery could potentially place them in inappropriate state of circumstances that are frustrating, boring, or worse, impede the overall learning motivations. This paper begins by discussion with the objectives of the research, followed by research questions, hypotheses, ARCS model of motivation adopted in the process of macro-design, and the research instrumentation, Persuasive Multimedia Motivational Scale deployed for measuring the level of motivation of subjects towards the experimental tangible multimedia. At the close, succinct description of findings of a relevant research is provided. In the research, a total of 248 preschoolers recruited from seven Malaysian kindergartens were examined. Analyses revealed that the tangible multimedia system improved preschoolers’ learning motivation significantly more than conventional multimedia. Overall, the findings led the conclusion that the tangible multimedia system is a motivation conducive multimedia for preschoolers.
Analysis on Different Pupil Segmentation and Localization Methods
In this paper, several pupil localization, pupil segmentation and pupil parametric values are studied. A detailed analysis and study are performed on different algorithms based on Radial Symmetry transform, Region growing, Laplace Transform, Hough Transform, Adaptive threshold technique, Pixel properties, Starburst algorithm and circular Hough transform which help for precise and effective localization and segmentation results. In this work, an overall comparison is done with the results from various algorithms. The advantages and the disadvantages are compared and tabulated.
Evidence-Based Practice: Inclusive Education for the Effective Implementation for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Interventions for autism are increasing being held to standards such as ‘evidence-based practice’ in psychology and ‘scientifically-based research’ in education. At the factor when these ideas rose with regards to psychotherapy and regular education, they brought on the substantial debate. Evidence-based practices (EBPs) are the premise on which educators and other specialist co-ops are required to outline educational programs for students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Inclusive education as a late modernity reform project is exemplified in the call for ‘Education for All.' Despite the simplicity of its message, inclusion is highly debatable. General education teachers have differing views about the inclusion of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in mainstream classrooms. However, the type and severity of the Autistic children’s affect teachers’ willingness to accommodate certain students and their confidence that they will effectively manage their classrooms. Many parents of children with ASD have reported general discontent with the services offered by the education system and have advocated for increased ASD-specific services to better meet their children’s educational needs. The expanded commonness of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has escalated the require for high-quality specialized Curriculum administrations intended for youngsters and youth with ASD and their families.
In this case, the Implementation science guides the movement of innovations, such as transforming evidence-based practices for students with ASD into regular practices at school. The elements of the effective implementation offer an ideal model for educational support. There are, however, limitations to advocating ASD-specific services. This article is presented as an inclusive educational model to build systems of professional development that increase the quality of services and promote teachers' use of evidence-based practices. Further, it is proposed that the ASD community aligns with the greater inclusive education reform movement. With the use of this unified model of education, all children will receive the educational support they require. Application of the concepts of autism treatments and special education has raised additional concerns. An analysis of the benefits and limitations of current approaches to empiricism in autism interventions is presented, and suggestions for future research are made.
Region of Interest and Feature–Based Analysis to Detect Breast Cancer from a Mammogram Image
This paper expounds on the classification of the breast cancer from the mammogram images - MLO view. This paper proposes a method of detecting the malignant tumor present in the mammogram images using the Gabor cut algorithm for Region of Interest from the morphologically enhanced image for detecting cancer with the improved detection rate and accuracy. The features were analyzed using the improved feature extraction algorithm to avoid false matching points. The algorithm used in this paper is the Improved ORB algorithm with RANSAC implementation which is used to extract the desired features by masking the background details. The proposed algorithms give the features with the precise information on malignant tissues. This automated extraction gives an accuracy of 98.006%.
Urban Art as an Identity Branding of Kampong Ketandan Surabaya
Surabaya, is one of the oldest cities in Indonesia. Most of the old quarter city of Surabaya is an ancient Kampong. Ketandan is one ancient Kampong in the center of Surabaya, surrounded by a thriving trade area. These conditions make Kampong vulnerably degraded of environmental quality and tended to lose their cultural identity. Norms and values eroded by the rapid development of its local surroundings. Through Kampong conservation programs, Surabaya city government established Ketandan as one of the urban heritage. To achieve the ideal condition of urban heritage, public participation is required. One thing that can generate a motivation for Kampong Ketandan community participation is to rediscover the identity of Kampong Ketandan. This research aims to explore the appropriate method to rediscover the identity of Kampong Ketandan. Through qualitative research methods, based on observations and focus group discussions, it was concluded that mural mentoring program was the best method that can be accepted by the Kampong community to rediscover their identity. Mural as one of the urban art form, able to motivate Kampong community to express their self and bring an icon to their Kampong. The benefits of this research are to provide input to the city government and the private sector to preserve urban heritage, moreover, to transform an urban heritage into a productive space in urban areas in order to enhance city revenues.
Teachers’ Views and Experiences of Informal Learning Environments: An Edmodo Example
Informal learning environments such as science and mathematics centers, laboratories, museums, and exhibitions enable learning to take place in settings other than the formal classroom. They serve as contexts to support students’ learning outside the school. In other words, such environments make use of an “on location” setting for learning and instruction which might be for extended periods so that learners become eager and attentive for the authentic learning process. Students’ experiences are invaluable in that it contributes to their learning of the schools subjects. This situation addresses the need to make use of these settings in the best way possible to facilitate learning. Teachers as meeting this need, they are the change agents of the classroom practices. The purpose of this study is to reveal teachers’ perceptions and experiences of informal learning environments. The study depended on a qualitative research design including totally 10 science and mathematics teacher participants. To collect data, two data sources were used, 1) the questions on the Edmodo web-based platform and the content of Edmodo discussions, and 2) the lesson plans teachers prepared. The data collection and data analysis processes are still in progress. Themes and codes are generated with a codebook as the data is analyzed. The preliminary findings indicated examples of teachers’ positive experiences with informal learning environments, limitations of using informal learning environments, and teachers’ perspectives and recommendations on how to link the informal learning environments to classrooms practices. The conclusions of the study can contribute to the improvement of science and mathematics teachers by presenting implications on how to best use informal learning environments.
Higher Education Institution Students’ Perception on Educational Technology
Educational technology such as YouTube and Kahoot have arisen as an alternative to effective learning among higher education institutions. There are many researches done in carrying out experiments to test different educational technologies and received positive feedback from students. Yet, similar study is hardly found in Malaysia especially study that includes the latest educational technologies. As a developing country, it is crucial to ensure that these emerging technologies are assisting students in learning process before it is widely adopted in institutions. This paper conducted a study to explore the perception of higher education institution students on the current educational technologies in Malaysia which include online educational games, online videos/course, social media, presentation tools and resource management tool. Some of these technologies have not been looked into its potential in effective learning process. An online survey using questionnaire is conducted among a target of 300 university/college. In the survey, the result shows that majority of the target students in Malaysia agree that the current educational technologies help them in learning, understanding and manage their studies. It is necessary to discover students’ perceptions on the educational technologies in order to provide guidelines for the educators/institutions in selecting appropriate technology to conduct the lecture/tutorial efficiently and effectively.
HKIE Accreditation: A Comparative Study on the Old and New Criteria
This paper reports a comparative study of new and old criteria for the professional accreditation of programme by the Hong Kong Institution of Engineers (HKIE). The major change in the criteria is the adoption of the outcome-based accreditation criteria and the use of measurement of attainment of outcomes which is very different from what academic did in the past. This has imposed a lot of difficulty for people in preparation for such exercise. Through this comparative study, the major difference between the two criteria is identified and a methodology is devised to help the academic to handle the issues due to the adoption of the new criteria. Thus it saves a lot of efforts.