Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 49738

Educational and Pedagogical Sciences

1548
84185
The Role of Professional Teacher Development in Introducing Trilingual Education into the Secondary School Curriculum: Lessons from Kazakhstan, Central Asia
Abstract:
Kazakhstan, a post-Soviet economy located in the Central Asia, is making great efforts to internationalize its national system of education. The country is very ambitious in making the national economy internationally competitive and education has become one of the main pillars of the nation’s strategic development plan for 2030. This paper discusses the role of professional teacher development in upgrading the secondary education curriculum with the introduction of English as a medium of instruction (EMI) in grades 10-11 grades. Having Kazakh as the state language and Russian as the official language, English bears a status of foreign language in the country. The development of trilingual education is very high on the agenda of the Ministry of Education and Science. It is planned that by 2019 STEM-related subjects – Biology, Chemistry, Computing and Physics – will be taught in EMI. Introducing English-medium education appears to be a very drastic reform and the teaching cadre is the key driver here. At the same time, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the teaching profession is still struggling to become attractive in the eyes of the local youth. Moreover, the quality of Kazakhstan’s secondary education is put in question by OECD national review reports. The paper presents a case study of the nation-wide professional development programme arranged for 5 010 school teachers so that they could be able to teach their content subjects in English starting from 2019 onwards. The study is based on the mixed methods research involving the data derived from the surveys and semi-structured interviews held with the programme participants, i.e. school teachers. The findings of the study imply the significance of the school teachers’ attitudes towards the top-down reform of trilingual education. The qualitative research data reveal the teachers’ beliefs about advantages and disadvantages of having their content subjects (e.g. Biology or Chemistry) taught in EMI. The study highlights teachers’ concerns about their professional readiness to implement the top-down reform of English-medium education and discusses possible risks of academic underperforming on the part of students whose English language proficiency is not advanced. This paper argues that for the effective implementation of the English-medium education in secondary schools, the state should adopt a comprehensive approach to upgrading the national academic system where teachers’ attitudes and beliefs play the key role in making the trilingual education policy effective. The study presents lessons for other national academic systems considering to transfer its secondary education to English as a medium of instruction.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1547
84166
Significance of Personnel Recruitment in Implementation of Computer Aided Design Curriculum of Architecture Schools
Abstract:
The inclusion of relevant content in curricula of architecture schools is vital for attainment of Computer Aided Design (CAD) proficiency by graduates. Implementing this content involves, among other variables, the presence of competent tutors. Consequently, this study sought to investigate the importance of personnel recruitment for inclusion of content vital to the implementation of CAD in the curriculum for architecture education. This was with a view to developing a framework for appropriate implementation of CAD curriculum. It was focused on departments of architecture in universities in south-east Nigeria which have been accredited by National Universities Commission. Survey research design was employed. Data were obtained from sources within the study area using questionnaires, personal interviews, physical observation/enumeration and examination of institutional documents. A multi-stage stratified random sampling method was adopted. The first stage of stratification involved random sampling by balloting of the departments. The second stage involved obtaining respondents’ population from the number of staff and students of sample population. Chi Square analysis tool for nominal variables and Pearson’s product moment correlation test for interval variables were used for data analysis. With ρ < 0.5, the study found significant correlation between the number of CAD literate academic staff and use of CAD in design studio/assignments; that increase in the overall number of teaching staff significantly affected total CAD credit units in the curriculum of the department. The implications of these findings were that for successful implementation leading to attainment of CAD proficiency to occur, CAD-literacy should be a factor in the recruitment of staff and a policy of in-house training should be pursued.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1546
83551
Building the Professional Readiness of Graduates from Day One: An Empirical Approach to Curriculum Continuous Improvement
Abstract:
Industry employers require new graduates to bring with them a range of knowledge, skills and abilities which mean these new employees can immediately make valuable work contributions. These will be a combination of discipline and professional knowledge, skills and abilities which give graduates the technical capabilities to solve practical problems whilst interacting with a range of stakeholders. Underpinning the development of these disciplines and professional knowledge, skills and abilities, are "enabling" knowledge, skills and abilities which assist students to engage in learning. These are academic and learning skills which are essential to common starting points for both the learning process of students entering the course as well as forming the foundation for the fully developed graduate knowledge, skills and abilities. This paper reports on a project created to introduce and strengthen these enabling skills into the first semester of a Bachelor of Information Technology degree in an Australian polytechnic. The project uses an action research approach in the context of ongoing continuous improvement for the course to enhance the overall learning experience, learning sequencing, graduate outcomes, and most importantly, in the first semester, student engagement and retention. The focus of this is implementing the new curriculum in first semester subjects of the course with the aim of developing the "enabling" learning skills, such as literacy, research and numeracy based knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs). The approach used for the introduction and embedding of these KSAs, (as both enablers of learning and to underpin graduate attribute development), is presented. Building on previous publications which reported different aspects of this longitudinal study, this paper recaps on the rationale for the curriculum redevelopment and then presents the quantitative findings of entering students&rsquo; reading literacy and numeracy knowledge and skills degree as well as their perceived research ability. The paper presents the methodology and findings for this stage of the research. Overall, the cohort exhibits mixed KSA levels in these areas, with a relatively low aggregated score. In addition, the paper describes the considerations for adjusting the design and delivery of the new subjects with a targeted learning experience, in response to the feedback gained through continuous monitoring. Such a strategy is aimed at accommodating the changing learning needs of the students and serves to support them towards achieving the enabling learning goals starting from day one of their higher education studies.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1545
82191
A Proposal from Mathematics Problem Solving for the Formation of Ethical Values
Abstract:
A study and its preliminary results are presented. This research is descriptive and exploratory, and it is still in process. Its objective is to develop an assessment method in the field of fostering values using mathematics problem solving. This is part of a more extensive research that aims at contributing to educational integration in Latin America, particularly to the development of proposals to link education for citizenship and the mathematics lessons. This is being carried out by research teams of Universidad of Barcelona-Espana; Universidad Nacional of Costa Rica; University Autonoma of Queretaro-Mexico; Pontificia University Catolica of Peru, University Nacional of Villa Maria- Argentina and University of Los Lagos-Chile, in the context of Andres Bello Chair for the Association of Latin American Universities. This research was developed and implemented in Chile, 2016, using mixed research methods. It included interviews and a problem-solving math test with ethical values that was administered to 285 students of the secondary education of 23 state establishments with scientific modality - humanistic municipalities, pertaining to the regions of Los Rios and of the Lakes of Chile. The results show the lack of integration between the teaching of values and discipline.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1544
81834
[Keynote Talk]: Study of Cooperative Career Education between Universities and Companies
Abstract:
Where there is collaboration between universities and companies in the educational context, companies seek ‘knowledge’ from universities and provide a ‘place of practice’ to them. Several universities have introduced activities aimed at the mutual enlightenment of a diversity of people in career education. However, several programs emphasize on delivering results, and on practicing the prepared materials as planned. Few programs focus on unexpected failures and setbacks. This way of learning is important in career education so that classmates can help each other, overcome difficulties, draw out each other’s strengths, and learn from them. Seijo University in Tokyo offered Tokyo Tourism, a Project-Based Learning course, as a first-year career education course until 2016. In cooperation with a travel agency, students participate in planning actual tourism products for foreigners visiting Japan, undertake tours serving as guides. This paper aims to study the 'learning platform' created by a series of processes such as the fieldwork, planning tours, the presentation, selling the tourism products, and guiding the tourists. We conducted a questionnaire to measure the development of work-related skills in class. From the results of the questionnaire, we can see, in the example of this class, that students demonstrated an increased desire to be pro-active and an improved motivation to learn. Students have not, however, acquired policy or business skills. This is appropriate for first-year careers education, but we need to consider how this can be incorporated into future courses. In the questionnaire filled out by the students after the class, the following results were found. Planning and implementing travel products while learning from each other, and helping the teams has led to improvements in the student workforce. This course is a collaborative project between Japanese universities and the 2020 Tokyo Olympics and Paralympic Games committee.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1543
81688
Mobile Devices and E-Learning Systems as a Cost-Effective Alternative for Digitizing Paper Quizzes and Questionnaires in Social Work
Abstract:
The article deals with possibilities of using cheap mobile devices with the combination of free or open source software tools as an alternative to professional hardware and software equipment. Especially in social work, it is important to find cheap yet functional solution that can compete with complex but expensive solutions for digitizing paper materials. Our research was focused on the analysis of cheap and affordable solutions for digitizing the most frequently used paper materials that are being commonly used by terrain workers in social work. We used comparative analysis as a research method. Social workers need to process data from paper forms quite often. It is still more affordable, time and cost-effective to use paper forms to get feedback in many cases. Collecting data from paper quizzes and questionnaires can be done with the help of professional scanners and software. These technologies are very powerful and have advanced options for digitizing and processing digitized data, but are also very expensive. According to results of our study, the combination of open source software and mobile phone or cheap scanner can be considered as a cost-effective alternative to professional equipment.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1542
80011
Cleaning of Scientific References in Large Patent Databases Using Rule-Based Scoring and Clustering
Authors:
Abstract:
Patent databases contain patent related data, organized in a relational data model, and are used to produce various patent statistics. These databases store raw data about scientific references cited by patents. For example, Patstat holds references to tens of millions of scientific journal publications and conference proceedings. These references might be used to connect patent databases with bibliographic databases, e.g. to study to the relation between science, technology, and innovation in various domains. Problematic in such studies is the low data quality of the references, i.e. they are often ambiguous, unstructured, and incomplete. Moreover, a complete bibliographic reference is stored in only one attribute. Therefore, a computerized cleaning and disambiguation method for large patent databases is developed in this work. The method uses rule-based scoring and clustering. The rules are based on bibliographic metadata, retrieved from the raw data by regular expressions, and are transparent and adaptable. The rules in combination with string similarity measures are used to detect pairs of records that are potential duplicates. Due to the scoring, different rules can be combined, to join scientific references, i.e. the rules reinforce each other. The scores are based on expert knowledge and initial method evaluation. After the scoring, pairs of scientific references that are above a certain threshold, are clustered by means of single-linkage clustering algorithm to form connected components. The method is designed to disambiguate all the scientific references in the Patstat database. The performance evaluation of the clustering method, on a large golden set with highly cited papers, shows on average a 99% precision and a 95% recall. The method is therefore accurate but careful, i.e. it weighs precision over recall. Consequently, separate clusters of high precision are sometimes formed, when there is not enough evidence for connecting scientific references, e.g. in the case of missing year and journal information for a reference. The clusters produced by the method can be used to directly link the Patstat database with bibliographic databases as the Web of Science or Scopus.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1541
79174
Implementation of International Standards in the Field of Higher Secondary Education in Kerala
Abstract:
Kerala, the southern state of India, is known for its accomplishments in universal education and enrollments. Through this mission, the Government proposes comprehensive educational reforms including 1000 Government schools into international standards during the first phase. The idea is not only to improve the infrastructural facilities but also to reform the teaching and learning process to the present day needs by introducing ICT enabled learning and providing smart classrooms. There will be focus on creating educational programmes which are useful for differently abled students. It is also meant to reinforce the teaching–learning process by providing ample opportunities to each student to construct their own knowledge using modern technology tools. The mission will redefine the existing classroom learning process, coordinate resource mobilization efforts and develop ‘Janakeeya Vidyabhyasa Mathruka.' Special packages to support schools which are in existence for over 100 years will also be attempted. The implementation will enlist full involvement and partnership of the Parent Teacher Association. Kerala was the first state in the country to attain 100 percent literacy more than two and a half decades ago. Since then the State has not rested on its laurels. It has moved forward in leaps and bounds conquering targets that no other State could achieve. Now the government of Kerala is taking off towards new goal of comprehensive educational reforms. And it focuses on Betterment of educational surroundings, use of technology in education, renewal of learning method and 1000 schools will be uplifted as Smart Schools. Need to upgrade 1000 schools into international standards and turning classrooms from standard 9 to 12 in high schools and higher secondary into high-tech classrooms and a special unique package for the renovation of schools, which have completed 50 and 100 years. The government intends to focus on developing standards first to eighth standards in tune with the times by engaging the teachers, parents, and alumni to recapture the relevance of public schools. English learning will be encouraged in schools. The idea is not only to improve the infrastructure facilities but also reform the curriculum to the present day needs. Keeping in view the differently-abled friendly approach of the government, there will be focus on creating educational program which is useful for differently abled students. The idea is to address the infrastructural deficiencies being faced by such schools. There will be special emphasis on ensuring internet connectivity to promote IT-friendly existence. A task-force and a full-time chief executive will be in charge of managing the day to day affairs of the mission. Secretary of the Public Education Department will serve as the Mission Secretary and the Chairperson of Task Force. As the Task Force will stress on teacher training and the use of information technology, experts in the field, as well as Directors of SCERT, IT School, SSA, and RMSA, will also be a part of it.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1540
79132
Using a Quantitative Reasoning Framework to Help Students Understand Arc Measure Relationships
Abstract:
Quantitative reasoning is necessary to robustly understand mathematical concepts ranging from elementary to university levels. Quantitative reasoning involves identifying and representing quantities and the relationships between these quantities. Without reasoning quantitatively, students often resort to memorizing formulas and procedures, which have negative impacts when they encounter mathematical topics in the future. This study investigated how high school students’ quantitative reasoning could be fostered within a unit on arc measure and angle relationships. Arc measure, or the measure of a central angle that cuts off a portion of a circle’s circumference, is often confused with arclength. In this study, the researcher redesigned an activity to clearly distinguish arc measure and arc length by using a quantitative reasoning framework. Data were collected from high school students to determine if this approach impacted their understanding of these concepts. Initial data indicates the approach was successful in supporting students’ quantitative reasoning of these topics. Implications for the work are that teachers themselves may also benefit from considering mathematical definitions from a quantitative reasoning framework and can use this activity in their own classrooms.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1539
78937
Undergraduates' Development of Interpersonal and Cooperative Competence in Service-Learning
Authors:
Abstract:
The present study was set out to investigate the extent to which and how service-learning fostered a sample of 138 Hong Kong undergraduates’ interpersonal competence and cooperative orientation development. Interpersonal competence is presented when an individual shows empathy with others, provides intelligent advice to others and has practical judgment. Cooperative orientation reflects individuals’ willingness to work with others to achieve common goals. A quality service-learning programme may exhibit the features of provision of meaningful service, close link to curriculum, continuous reflection, youth voice, and diversity. Mixed methods were employed in the present study. Pre-posttest survey was administered to capture individual undergraduates’ development of interpersonal competence and cooperative orientation over a period of four months. The respondents’ evaluation of service-learning elements was administered in the post-test survey. Focus groups were conducted after the end of the service-learning to further explore how the certain service-learning elements promoted individual undergraduates’ development of interpersonal competence and cooperative orientation. Three main findings were reported from the study. (1) The scores of interpersonal competence increased significantly from the pretest to the posttest, while the change of cooperative orientation was not significant. (2) Cooperative orientation and interpersonal competence were correlated positively with the overall course quality respectively, which suggested that the more a service-learning course complied with quality practice, the students became more competent in interpersonal competence and cooperative orientation. (3) The following service-learning elements showed higher impacts: (a) direct contact with service recipients, which engaged students in practicing interpersonal skills; (b) individual participants’ being exposed to a situation that required communication and dialogue with people from diverse backgrounds with different views; (c) experiencing interpersonal conflicts among team members and having the conflicts solved; (d) students’ taking a leading role in a project-based service. The present study provides compelling evidence about what elements in a service-learning program may foster undergraduates’ development of cooperative orientation and interpersonal competence. Implications for the design of service-learning programmes are provided.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1538
78848
Virtual Science Laboratory (ViSLab): The Effects of Visual Signalling Principles towards Students with Different Spatial Ability
Abstract:
This study aims to explore the impact of Virtual Reality (VR) using visual signaling principles in learning about the science laboratory safety guide; this study involves students with different spatial ability. There are two types of science laboratory safety lessons, which are Virtual Reality with Signaling (VRS) and Virtual Reality Non Signaling (VRNS). This research has adopted a 2 x 2 quasi-experimental factorial design. There are two types of variables involved in this research. The two modes of courseware form the independent variables with the spatial ability as the moderator variable. The dependent variable is the students’ performance. This study sample consisted of 141 students. Descriptive and inferential statistics were conducted to analyze the collected data. The major effects and the interaction effects of the independent variables on the independent variable were explored using the Analyses of Covariance (ANCOVA). Based on the findings of this research, the results exhibited low spatial ability students in VRS outperformed their counterparts in VRNS. However, there was no significant difference in students with high spatial ability using VRS and VRNS. Effective learning in students with different spatial ability can be boosted by implementing the Virtual Reality with Signaling (VRS) in the design as well as the development of Virtual Science Laboratory (ViSLab).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1537
78828
Determinants of E-Government Services Adoption from the African Students’ Perspective
Abstract:
The patronage of e-government services (demand side of e-government) is vital to the successful implementation of e-government initiatives. The purpose of this study is to explore the predictors determining the willingness of African students in China to adopt and use e-government services. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) will be used as the theoretical foundation for this research. Research instrument will be developed and administered to 500 African students in China. Factors such as performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions and culture will be investigated to determine its significant impact on the willingness to use e-government services. This study is a research in progress. The outcome of this study will provide valuable recommendations to improve the provision of public services through e-government.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1536
78593
Mathematics Vision of the Companies' Growth with Educational Technologies
Abstract:
This proposal consists of an analysis of macro concepts involved within an organization growth using educational technologies, which will relate each concept, in a mathematical way with a vision of harmonic work. Working collaboratively, competitively and cooperatively so that this growth is harmonious and homogenous, coining a new term, Harmonic Work. The Harmonic Work ensures that the organization grows in all business directions, allowing managers to project a much more accurate growth, making clear the contribution of each department, resulting in an algorithm that analyzes each of the variables both endogenous and exogenous, establishing different performance indicators in its process of growth.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1535
78363
An Automatic Method for Building Learners’ Groups in Virtual Environment
Abstract:
The group composing is one of the key issue in collaborative learning to achieve a positive educational experience. The goal of this work is to propose for teachers and tutors a method to create effective collaborative learning groups in e-learning environment based on the learner profile. For this purpose, a new function was defined to rate implicitly learning objects used by the learner during his learning experience. This paper describes the proposed algorithm to build an adequate collaborative learning group. In order to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm, several experiments were conducted in real data set in virtual environment. Results show the effectiveness of the method for which it appears that the proposed approach may be promising to produce better outcomes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1534
78284
Focus Group Discussion (FGD) Strategy in Teaching Sociolinguistics to Enhance Students' Mastery: A Survey Research in Sanata Dharma ELESP Department
Abstract:
For ELESP Teachers’ College, teaching learning strategies such as presentation and group discussion are classical ones to be implemented in the class. In order to create a breakthrough which can bring about more positive advancements in the learning process, a Focus Group Discussion (FGD) is being offered and implemented in certain classes. Interestingly, FGD is frequently used in the social-business inquiries such as for recruiting employees. It is then interesting to investigate FGD when it is implemented in the educational scope, especially in the Sociolinguistics class which regarded as one of the most arduous subjects in this study program. Thus, this study focused on how FGD enhances students Sociolinguistics mastery. In response to that, a quantitative survey research was conducted in which observation, questionnaire, and interview (triangulation method) became the instruments. The respondents of this study were 29 sixth-semester students who take Sociolinguistics of ELESP, Sanata Dharma University in 2017. The findings indicated that FGD could help students in enhancing Sociolinguistics mastery. In addition, it also revealed that FGD was exploring students’ logical thinking, English communication skill, and decision-making.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1533
78049
Introducing the Concept of Sustainable Learning: Redesigning the Social Studies and Citizenship Education Curriculum in the Context of Saudi Arabia
Abstract:
Sustainable human development is an essential component of a sustainable economic, social and environmental development. Addressing sustainable learning only through the addition of new teaching methods, or embedding certain approaches, is not sufficient on its own to support the goals of sustainable human development. This research project seeks to explore how the process of redesigning the current principles of curriculum based on the concept of sustainable learning could contribute to preparing a citizen who could later contribute towards sustainable human development. Multiple qualitative methodologies were employed in order to achieve the aim of this study. The main research methods were teachers’ field notes, artefacts, informal interviews (unstructured interview), a passive participant observation, a mini nominal group technique (NGT), a weekly diary, and weekly meeting. The study revealed that the integration of a curriculum for sustainable development, in addition to the use of innovative teaching approaches, highly valued by students and teachers in social studies’ sessions. This was due to the fact that it created a positive atmosphere for interaction and aroused both teachers and students’ interest. The content of the new curriculum also contributed to increasing students’ sense of shared responsibility through involving them in thinking about solutions for some global issues. This was carried out through addressing these issues through the concept of sustainable development and the theory of Thinking Activity in a Social Context (TASC). Students had interacted with sustainable development sessions intellectually and they also practically applied it through designing projects and cut-outs. Ongoing meetings and workshops to develop work between both the researcher and the teachers, and by the teachers themselves, played a vital role in implementing the new curriculum. The participation of teachers in the development of the project through working papers, exchanging experiences and introducing amendments to the students' environment was also critical in the process of implementing the new curriculum. Finally, the concept of sustainable learning can contribute to the learning outcomes much better than the current curriculum and it can better develop the learning objectives in educational institutions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1532
78045
Exploring the Current Practice of Integrating Sustainability into the Social Studies and Citizenship Education Curriculum in the Saudi Educational Context
Abstract:
The study mainly aims at exploring and understanding the current practice of social studies and citizenship education curriculum contribution to sustainability literacy and competency of the ninth and tenth grade students in the Saudi general education context. This study stems from a need for conducting research in general education contexts in order to prepare future graduate students who possess fundamental elements of education for sustainable development. To the best of our knowledge, the literature on education for sustainable development reveals that little research has been conducted so far on general education contexts and this study will add new knowledge in the literature. The study is interpretive in nature and employs a qualitative case study approach, and ethnography methodologies to understand deeply this complex educational phenomenon. 167 participants took part in this study, they were from six general education schools and made up of 25 teachers, and 142 students. Document analysis, semi-structured interviews, nominal group technique, and passive participant observation were used in order to gather the data for this study. The outcomes of the study showed the keenness of the Saudi government on promoting and raising awareness education for sustainable development among its younger generation via a sustainable development promoting curriculum. However, applying this vision in a real school setting, particularly via the social studies and citizenship education curriculum in grades nine and ten, has been challenging for different reasons as revealed by this study. First, incorporating sustainability in the social studies and citizenship education curriculum in the Saudi grade ninth and tenth grade, is based on the vision of the Saudi government but the ministry of education’s rules and regulations do not support it. Moreover, the circulars issued by the ministry are also not supportive of teachers and students efforts to implement a sustainable development education curriculum. Second, teachers, as members of this community who play a significant role in achieving the objectives of incorporating sustainability, are often seen as technicians and not as professional human beings. They are confined to the curriculum, the classroom and stripped of their will power by the school management and the educational administration. The subjects, who are students here, are also not prepared nor guided to achieve the objects. In addition, the tools mediated between subjects and objects are not convenient. There were some major challenges regarding the contradictions in incorporating sustainability processes such as demanding creativity from a teacher who is overloaded with tasks irrelevant to teaching and teachers’ training programs not meeting the teachers’ training needs.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1531
77124
STEAM and Project-Based Learning: Equipping Young Women with 21st Century Skills
Abstract:
UTS STEAMpunk Girls is an educational program for young women (aged 12-16), to empower them to be more informed and active members of the 21st century workforce. With the number of STEM graduates on the decline, especially among young women, an additional aim of the program is to trial a STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts/Humanities/Social Sciences, Mathematics), inter-disciplinary approach to improving STEM engagement. In-line with UNESCO’s recent focus on promoting ‘transversal competencies’ in future graduates, the program utilised co-design, project-based learning, entrepreneurial processes, and inter-disciplinary learning. The program consists of two phases. Taking a participatory design approach, the first phase (co-design workshops) provided valuable insight into student perspectives around engaging young women in STEM and inter-disciplinary thinking. The workshops positioned 26 young women from three schools as subject matter experts (SMEs), providing a platform for them to share their opinions, experiences and findings around the STEAM disciplines. The second (pilot) phase put the co-design phase findings into practice, with 64 students from four schools working in groups to articulate problems with real-world implications, and utilising design-thinking to solve them. The pilot phase utilised project-based learning to engage young women in entrepreneurial and STEAM frameworks and processes. Scalable program design and educational resources were trialed to determine appropriate mechanisms for engaging young women in STEM and in STEAM thinking. Across both phases, data was collected via longitudinal surveys to obtain pre-program, baseline attitudinal information, and compare that against post-program responses. Preliminary findings revealed students’ improved understanding of the STEM disciplines, industries and professions, improved awareness of STEAM as a concept, and improved understanding regarding inter-disciplinary and design thinking. Program outcomes will be of interest to high-school educators in both STEM and the Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences fields, and will hopefully inform future programmatic approaches to introducing inter-disciplinary STEAM learning in STEM curriculum.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1530
76976
Business Skills Laboratory in Action: Combining a Practice Enterprise Model and an ERP-Simulation to a Comprehensive Business Learning Environment
Abstract:
Business education has been criticized for being too theoretical and distant from business life. Different types of experiential learning environments ranging from manual role-play to computer simulations and enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems have been used to introduce the realistic and practical experience into business learning. Each of these learning environments approaches business learning from a different perspective. The implementations tend to be individual exercises supplementing the traditional courses. We suggest combining them into a business skills laboratory resembling an actual workplace. In this paper, we present a concrete implementation of an ERP-supported business learning environment that is used throughout the first year undergraduate business curriculum. We validate the implementation by evaluating the learning outcomes through the different domains of Bloom&rsquo;s taxonomy. We use the role-play oriented practice enterprise model as a comparison group. Our findings indicate that using the ERP simulation improves the poor and average students&rsquo; lower-level cognitive learning. On the affective domain, the ERP-simulation appears to enhance motivation to learn as well as perceived acquisition of practical hands-on skills.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1529
76958
Evidence of a Negativity Bias in the Keywords of Scientific Papers
Abstract:
Science is fundamentally a problem-solving enterprise, and scientists pay more attention to the negative things, that cause them dissonance and negative affective state of uncertainty or contradiction. While this is agreed upon by philosophers of science, there are few empirical demonstrations. Here we examine the keywords from those papers published by PLoS in 2014 and show with several sentiment analyzers that negative keywords are studied more than positive keywords. Our dataset is the 927,406 keywords of 32,870 scientific articles in all fields published in 2014 by the journal PLOS ONE (collected from Altmetric.com). Counting how often the 47,415 unique keywords are used, we can examine whether those negative topics are studied more than positive. In order to find the sentiment of the keywords, we utilized two sentiment analysis tools, Hu and Liu (2004) and SentiStrength (2014). The results below are for Hu and Liu as these are the less convincing results. The average keyword was utilized 19.56 times, with half of the keywords being utilized only 1 time and the maximum number of uses being 18,589 times. The keywords identified as negative were utilized 37.39 times, on average, with the positive keywords being utilized 14.72 times and the neutral keywords - 19.29, on average. This difference is only marginally significant, with an F value of 2.82, with a p of .05, but one must keep in mind that more than half of the keywords are utilized only 1 time, artificially increasing the variance and driving the effect size down. To examine more closely, we looked at those top 25 most utilized keywords that have a sentiment. Among the top 25, there are only two positive words, ‘care’ and ‘dynamics’, in position numbers 5 and 13 respectively, with all the rest being identified as negative. ‘Diseases’ is the most studied keyword with 8,790 uses, with ‘cancer’ and ‘infectious’ being the second and fourth most utilized sentiment-laden keywords. The sentiment analysis is not perfect though, as the words ‘diseases’ and ‘disease’ are split by taking 1st and 3rd positions. Combining them, they remain as the most common sentiment-laden keyword, being utilized 13,236 times. More than just splitting the words, the sentiment analyzer logs ‘regression’ and ‘rat’ as negative, and these should probably be considered false positives. Despite these potential problems, the effect is apparent, as even the positive keywords like ‘care’ could or should be considered negative, since this word is most commonly utilized as a part of ‘health care’, ‘critical care’ or ‘quality of care’ and generally associated with how to improve it. All in all, the results suggest that negative concepts are studied more, also providing support for the notion that science is most generally a problem-solving enterprise. The results also provide evidence that negativity and contradiction are related to greater productivity and positive outcomes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1528
76855
Quality Teaching Evaluation Instrument: A Student Learning-centred Approach
Abstract:
Evaluation instruments of teaching are abundant; however, these do not prompt any enhancement in the quality of teaching, not least because these instruments are framed only by teacher-centered conceptions of teaching. There is a need for more sophisticated teaching evaluation measures that focus on student learning and multi-stakeholder involvement. This study aims to develop such an evaluation instrument for Vietnamese higher education. The study uses several kinds of methods. The instrument was initially drafted through in-depth review of research, paying close attention to Vietnamese higher education. Draft evaluation instruments were produced and reviewed by 34 experts. The outcomes of this qualitative and quantitative data reveal an instrument that highlights the value of a multisource student-centered approach, and the rich integration of contextual and cultural traits where Confucian values are emphasized. The validation affirms that evaluating teaching in such way will facilitate the continuous learning growth of all stakeholders involved.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1527
76698
Variation of Lexical Choice and Changing Need of Identity Expression
Abstract:
Language plays complex roles in society. The previous studies on language and society explain their interconnected, complementary and complex interactions and, those studies were primarily focused on the variations in the language. Variation being the fundamental nature of languages, the question of personal and social identity navigated through language variation and established that there is an interconnection between language variation and identity. This paper analyses the sociolinguistic variation in language at the lexical level and how the lexical choice of the speaker(s) affects in shaping their identity. It obtains primary data from the lexicon of the Mappila dialect of Malayalam spoken by the members of Mappila (Muslim) community of Kerala. The variation in the lexical choice is analysed by collecting data from the speech samples of 15 minutes from four different age groups of Mappila dialect speakers. Various contexts were analysed and the frequency of borrowed words in each instance is calculated to reach a conclusion on how the variation is happening in the speech community. The paper shows how the lexical choice of the speakers could be socially motivated and involve in shaping and changing identities. Lexical items or vocabulary clearly signal the group identity and personal identity. Mappila dialect of Malayalam was rich in frequent use of borrowed words from Arabic, Persian and Urdu. There was a deliberate attempt to show their identity as a Mappila community member, which was derived from the socio-political situation during those days. This made a clear variation between the Mappila dialect and other dialects of Malayalam at the surface level, which was motivated to create and establish the identity of a person as the member of Mappila community. Historically, these kinds of linguistic variation were highly motivated because of the socio-political factors and, intertwined with the historical facts about the origin and spread of Islamism in the region; people from the Mappila community highly motivated to project their identity as a Mappila because of the social insecurities they had to face before accepting that religion. Thus the deliberate inclusion of Arabic, Persian and Urdu words in their speech helped in showing their identity. However, the socio-political situations and factors at the origin of Mappila community have been changed over a period of time. The social motivation for indicating their identity as a Mappila no longer exist and thus the frequency of borrowed words from Arabic, Persian and Urdu have been reduced from their speech. Apart from the religious terms, the borrowed words from these languages are very few at present. The analysis is carried out by the changes in the language of the people according to their age and found to have significant variations between generations and literacy plays a major role in this variation process. The need of projecting a specific identity of an individual would vary according to the change in the socio-political scenario and a variation in language can shape the identity in order to go with the varying socio-political situation in any language.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1526
76646
Architecture and Students with Autism: Exploring Strategies for Their Inclusion in Society Mainstream
Abstract:
Architecture, as an art and science of designing, has always been the medium to create environments that fulfill their users&rsquo; needs. It could create an inclusive environment that would not isolate any individual regardless of his /her disabilities. It could help, hopefully, in setting the strategies that provide a supportive, educational environment that would allow the inclusion of students with autism. Architects could help in the battle against this neuro-developmental disorder by providing the accommodating environment, at home and at school, in order to prevent institutionalizing these children. Through a theoretical approach and a review of literature, this study will explore and analyze best practices in autism-friendly, supportive, teaching environments. Additionally, it would provide the range of measures, and set the strategies to deal with the students with autism sensory peculiarities, and that, in order to allow them to concentrate in the school environment, and be able to succeed, and to be integrated as an important addition to society and the social mainstream. Architects should take into consideration the general guidelines for an autism-friendly built environment, and apply them to specific buildings systems. And that, as certain design elements have great effect on children&rsquo;s behavior, by appropriating architecture to provide inclusive accommodating environments, the basis for equalization of opportunities is set allowing these individuals a better, normal, non-institutional life, as the discussion presented in this study would reveal.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1525
76611
Implementation of an Undergraduate Integrated Biology and Chemistry Course
Abstract:
An integrated biology and chemistry (iBC) course for freshmen college students was developed in University of Delaware. This course will prepare students to (1) become interdisciplinary thinkers in the field of biology and (2) collaboratively work with others from multiple disciplines in the future. This paper documents and describes the implementation of the course. The information gathered from reading literature, classroom observations, and interviews were used to carry out the purpose of this paper. The major goal of the iBC course is to align the concepts between Biology and Chemistry, so that students can draw science concepts from both disciplines which they can apply in their interdisciplinary researches. This course is offered every fall and spring semesters of each school year. Students enrolled in Biology are also enrolled in Chemistry during the same semester. The iBC is composed of lectures, laboratories, studio sessions, and workshops and is taught by the faculty from the biology and chemistry departments. In addition, the preceptors, graduate teaching assistants, and studio fellows facilitate the laboratory and studio sessions. These roles are interdependent with each other. The iBC can be used as a model for higher education institutions who wish to implement an integrated biology course.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1524
76387
Factors Affecting Internet Behavior and Life Satisfaction of Older Adult Learners with Use of Smartphone
Authors:
Abstract:
The intuitive design features and friendly interface of smartphone attract older adults. In Taiwan, many senior education institutes offer smartphone training courses for older adult learners who are interested in learning this innovative technology. It is expected that the training courses can help them to enjoy the benefits of using smartphone and increase their life satisfaction. Therefore, it is important to investigate the factors that influence older adults’ behavior of using smartphone. The purpose of the research was to develop and test a research model that investigates the factors (self-efficacy, social connection, the need to seek health information, and the need to seek financial information) affecting older adult learners’ Internet behaviour and their life satisfaction with use of smartphone. Also, this research sought to identify the relationship between the proposed variables. Survey method was used to collect research data. A Structural Equation Modeling was performed using Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression for data exploration and model estimation. The participants were 394 older adult learners from smartphone training courses in active aging learning centers located in central Taiwan. The research results revealed that self-efficacy significantly affected older adult learner’ social connection, the need to seek health information, and the need to seek financial information. The construct of social connection yielded a positive influence in respondents’ life satisfaction. The implications of these results for practice and future research are also discussed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1523
76378
The Relevance of Sustainability Skills for International Students
Abstract:
Sustainability often appears to be an unfamiliar concept to many international students that enrol in a New Zealand technological degree. Lecturers&rsquo; experiences with classroom interactions and evaluation of assessments indicate that studying the concept enlightens and enhances international students understanding of sustainability. However, in most cases, even after studying sustainability in their degree programme, students are not given an opportunity to practice and apply this concept into their professions in their home countries. Therefore, using a qualitative approach, the academics conducted research to determine the change in international students understanding of sustainability before and after their enrolment in an Applied Technology degree. The research also aimed to evaluate if international students viewed sustainability of relevance to their professions and whether the students felt that they will be provided with an opportunity to apply their knowledge about sustainability in the industry. The findings of the research are presented in this paper.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1522
76360
The Role of Piaget's Theory in Conjecture via Analogical Reasoning
Abstract:
The construction of knowledge is the goal of learning. The purpose of this research is to know how the role of Piaget theory in allegation via analogy reasoning. This study uses Think out loads when troubleshooting. To explore conjecturing via analogical reasoning is given the question of open analogy. The result: conjecture via analogical reasoning has been done by students in the construction of knowledge, in conjecture there are differences in thinking flow depending on the basic knowledge of the students, in the construction of knowledge occurs assimilation and accommodation problems, strategies and relationships.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1521
76297
Enhancing Sustainability Awareness through Social Learning Experiences on Campuses
Abstract:
The campuses at tertiary institutes can act as a social environment for peer to peer connections. However, socialization is not the only aspect that campuses provide. The campus can act as a learning environment that has often been termed as the campus curriculum. Many tertiary institutes have taken steps to make their campus a &lsquo;green campus&rsquo; whereby initiatives have been taken to reduce their impact on the environment. However, as visible as these initiatives are, it is debatable whether these have any effect on students&rsquo; and their understanding of sustainable campus operations. Therefore, research was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of sustainable campus operations in raising students&rsquo; awareness of sustainability. Students at two vocational institutes participated in this interpretive research with data collected through surveys and focus groups. The findings indicated that majority of vocational education students remained oblivious of sustainability initiatives on campuses.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1520
76271
Examining the Attitudes of Pre-School Teachers towards Values Education in Terms of Gender, School Type, Professional Seniority and Location
Abstract:
This study has been made to examine the attitudes of pre-school teachers towards values education. The study has been made as a general scanning model. The study’s working group contains 108 pre-school teachers who worked in Diyarbakır, Turkey. In this study Values Education Attitude Scale (VEAS), which developed by Yaşaroğlu (2014), was used. In order to analyze the data for sociodemographic structure, percentage and frequency values were examined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov method was used in determination of the normal distribution of data. During analyzing the data, KolmogorovSimirnov test and the normal curved histograms were examined to determine which statistical analyzes would be applied on the scale and it was found that the distribution was not normal. Thus, the Mann Whitney U analysis technique which is one of the nonparametric statistical analysis techniques were used to test the difference of the scores obtained from the scale in terms of independent variables. According to the analyses, it seems that pre-school teachers’ attitudes toward values education are positive. According to the scale with the highest average, it points out that pre-school teachers think that values education is very important for students’ and children’s future. The variables included in the scale (gender, seniority, age group, education, school type, school place) seem to have no effect on the pre-school teachers’ attitude grades which joined to the study.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1519
76017
Implementation of Knowledge and Attitude Management Based on Holistic Approach in Andragogy Learning, as an Effort to Solve the Environmental Problems of Post-Coal Mining Activity
Abstract:
The root cause of the problem after the environmental damage due to coal mining activities defined as the province of East Kalimantan corridor masterplan economic activity accelerated the expansion of Indonesia's economic development (MP3EI) is the behavior of adults. Adult behavior can be changed through knowledge management and attitude. Based on the root of the problem, the objective of the research is to apply knowledge management and attitude based on holistic approach in learning andragogy as an effort to solve environmental problems after coal mining activities. Research methods to achieve the objective of using quantitative research with pretest postes group design. Knowledge management and attitudes based on a holistic approach in adult learning are applied through initial learning activities, core and case-based cover of environmental damage. The research instrument is a description of the case of environmental damage. The data analysis uses t-test to see the effect of knowledge management attitude based on holistic approach before and after adult learning. Location and sample of representative research of adults as many as 20 people in Kutai Kertanegara District, one of the districts in East Kalimantan province, which suffered the worst environmental damage. The conclusion of the research result is the application of knowledge management and attitude in adult learning influence to adult knowledge and attitude to overcome environmental problem post-coal mining activity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):