A Practical Protection Method for Parallel Transmission-Lines Based on the Fault Travelling-Waves
In new restructured power systems, swift fault detection is very important. The parallel transmission-lines are vastly used in this kind of power systems because of high amount of energy transferring. In this paper, a method based on the comparison of two schemes, i.e., i) maximum magnitude of travelling-wave (TW) energy ii) the instants of maximum energy occurrence at the circuits of parallel transmission-line is proposed. Using the travelling-wave of fault in order to faulted line identification this method has noticeable operation time. Moreover, the algorithm can cover for identification of faults as external or internal faults. For an internal fault, the exact location of the fault can be estimated confidently. A lot of simulations have been done with PSCAD/EMTDC to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm.
Comparison of the Thermal Characteristics of Induction Motor, Switched Reluctance Motor and Inset Permanent Magnet Motor for Electric Vehicle Application
Modern day electric vehicles require compact high torque/power density motors for electric propulsion. This necessitates proper thermal management of the electric motors. The main focus of this paper is to compare the steady state thermal analysis of a conventional 20 kW 8/6 Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) with that of an Induction Motor and Inset Permanent Magnet (IPM) motor of the same rating. The goal is to develop a proper thermal model of the three types of models for Finite Element Thermal Analysis. JMAG software is used for the development and simulation of the thermal models. The results show that the induction motor is subjected to more heating when used for electric vehicle application constantly, compared to the SRM and IPM.
Backstepping Controller for a Variable Wind Speed Energy Conversion System Based on a DFIG
In this paper we present a contribution for the modeling and control of wind energy conversion system based on a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG). Since the wind speed is random the system has to produce an optimal electrical power to the Network and ensures important strength and stability. In this work, the Backstepping controller is used to control the generator via two converter witch placed a DC bus capacitor and connected to the grid by a Filter R-L, in order to optimize capture wind energy. All is simulated and presented under MATLAB/Simulink Software to show performance and robustness of the proposed controller.
Five-Phase Induction Motor Drive System Driven by Five-Phase Packed U Cell Inverter: Its Modeling and Performance Evaluation
The three phase system drives produce the problem of more torque pulsations and harmonics. This issue prevents the smooth operation of the drives and it also induces the amount of heat generated thus resulting in an increase in power loss. Higher phase system offers smooth operation of the machines with greater power capacity. Five phase variable-speed induction motor drives are commonly used in various industrial and commercial applications like tractions, electrical vehicles, ship propulsions and conveyor belt drive system. In this work, a comparative analysis of the different modulation schemes applied on the five-level five-phase Packed U Cell (PUC) inverter fed induction motor drives is presented. The performance of the inverter is greatly affected with the modulation schemes applied. The system is modeled, designed, and implemented in MATLAB®/Simulink environment. Experimental validation is done for the prototype of single phase, whereas five phase experimental validation is proposed in the future works.
Application of a SubIval Numerical Solver for Fractional Circuits
The paper discusses the subinterval-based numerical
method for fractional derivative computations. It is now referred
to by its acronym – SubIval. The basis of the method is briefly
recalled. The ability of the method to be applied in time stepping
solvers is discussed. The possibility of implementing a time step size
adaptive solver is also mentioned. The solver is tested on a transient
circuit example. In order to display the accuracy of the solver –
the results have been compared with those obtained by means of a
semi-analytical method called gcdAlpha. The time step size adaptive
solver applying SubIval has been proven to be very accurate as
the results are very close to the referential solution. The solver is
currently able to solve FDE (fractional differential equations) with
various derivative orders for each equation and any type of source
Development of a Firmware Downloader for AVR Microcontrollers for Educational Purposes
This paper introduces the development of a firmware downloader for students attending microcontroller-related courses taught by the authors In the courses, AVR microcontroller experiment kits are used for programming exercise and the AVR microcontroller is programmed through a serial communication interface using a bootloader preinstalled on it. To use the bootloader, a matching firmware downloader that runs on a host computer and communicates with the bootloader is also required. When firmware downloading is completed, the serial port used for it needs to be closed. If the downloaded firmware uses serial communication, the serial port needs to be reopened in a serial terminal. As a result, the programmer of the AVR board switches from the downloader program and the serial terminal and vice versa. It is a simple task but quite a hassle to do each time new firmware needs downloading. To provide a more convenient programming environment for the courses, the authors developed a downloader program that includes a serial terminal in it. The program operates in downloader or terminal mode and the mode switching is performed automatically; therefore manual mode switching is not necessary. The feature provides a more convenient development environment by eliminating the need for manual mode switching each time firmware downloading is required.
Increasing the Frequency of Laser Impulses with Optical Choppers with Rotational Shafts
Optical choppers are among the most common optomechatronic devices, utilized in numerous applications, from radiometry to telescopes and biomedical imaging. The classical configuration has a rotational disk with windows with linear margins. This research points out the laser signals that can be obtained with these classical choppers, as well as with another, novel, patented configuration, of eclipse choppers (i.e., with rotational disks with windows with non-linear margins, oriented outwards or inwards). Approximately triangular laser signals can be obtained with eclipse choppers, in contrast to the approximately sinusoidal – with classical devices. The main topic of this work refers to another, novel device, of choppers with shafts of different shapes and with slits of various profiles (patent pending). A significant improvement which can be obtained (with regard to disk choppers) refers to the chop frequencies of the laser signals. Thus, while 1 kHz is their typical limit for disk choppers, with choppers with shafts, a more than 20 times increase in the chop frequency can be obtained with choppers with shafts. Their transmission functions are also discussed, for different types of laser beams. Acknowledgments: This research is supported by the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, through the project PN-III-P2-2.1-BG-2016-0297.
Development of Transmission and Packaging for Parallel Hybrid Light Commercial Vehicle
The hybrid electric vehicle is widely accepted as a promising short to mid-term technical solution due to noticeably improved efficiency and low emissions at competitive costs. Retro fitment of hybrid components into a conventional vehicle for achieving better performance is the best solution so far. But retro fitment includes major modifications into a conventional vehicle with a high cost. This paper focuses on the development of a P3x hybrid prototype with rear wheel drive parallel hybrid electric Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV) with minimum and low-cost modifications. This diesel Hybrid LCV is different from another hybrid with regard to the powertrain. The additional powertrain consists of continuous contact helical gear pair followed by chain and sprocket as a coupler for traction motor. Vehicle powertrain which is designed for the intended high-speed application. This work focuses on targeting of design, development, and packaging of this unique parallel diesel-electric vehicle which is based on multimode hybrid advantages. To demonstrate the practical applicability of this transmission with P3x hybrid configuration, one concept prototype vehicle has been build integrating the transmission. The hybrid system makes it easy to retrofit existing vehicle because the changes required into the vehicle chassis are a minimum. The additional system is designed for mainly five modes of operations which are engine only mode, electric-only mode, hybrid power mode, engine charging battery mode and regenerative braking mode. Its driving performance, fuel economy and emissions are measured and results are analyzed over a given drive cycle. Finally, the output results which are achieved by the first vehicle prototype during experimental testing is carried out on a chassis dynamometer using MIDC driving cycle. The results showed that the prototype hybrid vehicle is about 27% faster than the equivalent conventional vehicle. The fuel economy is increased by 20-25% approximately compared to the conventional powertrain.
Generation of Numerical Data for the Facilitation of the Personalized Hyperthermic Treatment of Cancer with An Interstital Antenna Array Using the Method of Symmetrical Components
The method of moments combined with the method
of symmetrical components is used for the analysis of interstitial
hyperthermia applicators. The basis and testing functions are both
piecewise sinusoids, qualifying our technique as a Galerkin one. The
dielectric coatings are modeled by equivalent volume polarization
currents, which are simply related to the conduction current
distribution, avoiding in that way the introduction of additional
unknowns or numerical integrations. The results of our method
for a four dipole circular array, are in agreement with those
already published in literature for a same hyperthermia configuration.
Apart from being accurate, our approach is more general, more
computationally efficient and takes into account the coupling between
Review of Strategies for Hybrid Energy Storage Management System in Electric Vehicle Application
Electric Vehicles (EV) appear to be gaining increasing patronage as a feasible alternative to Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEVs) for having low emission and high operation efficiency. The Electrical Vehicle (EV) energy storage systems are required to handle high energy and power density capacity constrained by limited space, operating temperature, weight and cost. The choice of strategies for energy storage evaluation, monitoring and control remains a challenging task. This paper presents review of various energy storage technologies and recent researches in battery evaluation techniques used in electric vehicle applications. It also underscores strategies for the hybrid energy storage management and control schemes for the improvement of electric vehicle stability and reliability. Recent advancement in battery technology as electrical energy storage medium has consequently been studied. The battery parameter metrics, existing estimation and control strategies in electric vehicle system application are being clearly emphasized by reviewing 250 related scholarly articles. The existing estimation strategies and battery state evaluation models in technical literature are classified and different methodologies used were evaluated and compared to determine the feasibility and efficiency of the hybrid energy storage management components. The study reveals that despite the advances recorded in battery technologies, to authors’ best knowledge there is still no cell which possesses both the optimum power and energy densities among other requirements, for electrical vehicle application. However combination of two or more energy storages as hybrid and allowing the advantageous attributes from each device to be utilized is a promising solution. The review also reveal that State of Charge (SoC) is the most crucial method for battery estimation. The conventional method of SoC measurement is however questioned in the literature and adaptive algorithms that includes all model of disturbances are being proposed. The review further suggests that heuristic-based approach is commonly adopted in the development of strategies for hybrid energy storage system management. The alternative approach which is optimization-based is found to be more accurate but are memory and computational intensive and as such not recommended in most real-time applications.
Technical Assessment of Utilizing Electrical Variable Transmission Systems in Hybrid Electric Vehicles
The Electrical Variable Transmission (EVT), an electromechanical device, can be considered as an alternative solution to the conventional transmission system utilized in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). This study present comparisons in terms of fuel consumption, power split, and state of charge (SoC) of an HEV containing an EVT to a conventional parallel topology and a series topology. To this end, corresponding simulations of these topologies are all performed in presence of control strategies enabling battery charge-sustaining and efficient power split. The power flow through the components of the vehicle are attained, and fuel consumption results of the considered cases are compared. The investigation of the results indicates utilizing EVT can provide significant added values in HEV configurations. The outcome of the current research paves its path for implementation of design optimization approaches on such systems in further research directions.
Development of a Combustible Gas Detector with Two Sensor Modules to Enable Measuring Range of Low Concentration
In the gas industrial fields, there are many problems to detect extremely small amounts of combustible gas (CH₄) if a conventional semiconductor is used. Those reasons are that measuring is difficult at the low concentration level, the stabilization time is long, and an initial response time is slow. In this study, we propose a method to solve these issues using two specific sensors to overcome the circumstances of temperature and humidity. This idea is to combine a catalytic and a semiconductor type sensor and to utilize every advantage from every sensor’s characteristic. In order to achieve the goal, we reduced fluctuations of a gas sensor for temperature and humidity by applying designed circuits for sensing temperature and humidity. And we induced the best calibration line of gas sensors through adjusting a weight value corresponding to changeable patterns of temperature and humidity after their data are previously acquired and stored. We proposed and developed the gas leak detector using two sensor modules, which is first operated by a semiconductor sensor for measuring small gas quantities and second a catalytic type sensor is detected if measuring range of the first sensor is beyond. We conclusively verified characteristics of sharp sensitivity and fast response time against even at lower gas concentration level through experiments other than a conventional gas sensor. We think that our proposed idea is very useful if another gas leak is developed to enable measuring extremely small quantities of toxic and flammable gases.
Modelling and Technical Assessment of Multi-Motor for Electric Vehicle Drivetrains by Using Electric Differential
This paper presents a technical assessment of an electric vehicle with two independent rear-wheel motor and an improved traction control system. The electric differential and the control strategy have been implemented to assure that in a straight trajectory, the two rear-wheels run exactly at the same speed, considering the same/different road conditions under the left and right side of the wheels. In case of turning to right/left, the difference between the two rear-wheels speeds assures a vehicle trajectory without sliding, thanks to a harmony between the electric differential and the control strategy. The present article demonstrates a complete model and analysis of a traction control system, considering four different traction scenarios, for two independent rear-wheels motors for electric vehicles. Furthermore, the vehicle model, including wheel dynamics, load forces, electric differential, and control strategy, is designed and verified by using MATLAB/Simulink environment.
Hybrid Anomaly Detection Using Decision Tree and Support Vector Machine
Intrusion detection systems (IDS) are the main components of network security. These systems analyze the network events for intrusion detection. The design of an IDS is through the training of normal traffic data or attack. The methods of machine learning are the best ways to design IDSs. In the method presented in this article, the pruning algorithm of C5.0 decision tree is being used to reduce the features of traffic data used and training IDS by the least square vector algorithm (LS-SVM). Then, the remaining features are arranged according to the predictor importance criterion. The least important features are eliminated in the order. The remaining features of this stage, which have created the highest level of accuracy in LS-SVM, are selected as the final features. The features obtained, compared to other similar articles which have examined the selected features in the least squared support vector machine model, are better in the accuracy, true positive rate, and false positive. The results are tested by the UNSW-NB15 dataset.
Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Non-Convex Economic Power Dispatch Problem
This study presents a modified version of the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm by including a local search technique for solving the non-convex economic power dispatch problem. The local search step is incorporated at the end of each iteration. Total system losses, valve-point loading effects and prohibited operating zones have been incorporated in the problem formulation. Thus, the problem becomes highly nonlinear and with discontinuous objective function. The proposed technique is validated using an IEEE benchmark system with ten thermal units. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed optimization algorithm has better convergence characteristics in comparison with the original ABC algorithm.
Influence of Sr(BO2)2 Doping on Superconducting Properties of (Bi,Pb)-2223 Phase
Chemical doping with different elements and compounds at various amounts represents the most suitable approach to improve the superconducting properties of bismuth-based superconductors for technological applications. In this paper, the influence of partial substitution of Sr(BO2)2 for SrO on the phase formation kinetics and transport properties of (Bi,Pb)-2223 HTS has been studied for the first time. Samples with nominal composition Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2-xCa2Cu3Oy[Sr(BO2)2]x, x=0, 0.0375, 0.075, 0.15, 0.25, were prepared by the standard solid state processing. The appropriate mixtures were calcined at 845 oC for 40 h. The resulting materials were pressed into pellets and annealed at 837 oC for 30 h in air. Superconducting properties of undoped (reference) and Sr(BO2)2-doped (Bi,Pb)-2223 compounds were investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), resistivity (ρ) and transport critical current density (Jc) measurements. The surface morphology changes in the prepared samples were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). XRD and Jc studies have shown that the low level Sr(BO2)2 doping (x=0.0375-0.075) to the Sr-site promotes the formation of high-Tc phase and leads to the enhancement of current carrying capacity in (Bi,Pb)-2223 HTS. The doped sample with x=0.0375 has the best performance compared to other prepared samples. The estimated volume fraction of (Bi,Pb)-2223 phase increases from ~25 % for reference specimen to ~70 % for x=0.0375. Moreover, strong increase in the self-field Jc value was observed for this dopant amount (Jc=340 A/cm2), compared to an undoped sample (Jc=110 A/cm2). Pronounced enhancement of superconducting properties of (Bi,Pb)-2223 superconductor can be attributed to the acceleration of high-Tc phase formation as well as the improvement of inter-grain connectivity by small amounts of Sr(BO2)2 dopant.
A Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based ESD Protection Circuit with High Holding Voltage and High Robustness Characteristics
In this paper, a Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)-based Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit with high holding voltage and high robustness characteristics is proposed. Unlike conventional SCR, the proposed circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage and provides effective ESD protection with latch-up immunity. In addition, the TCAD simulation results show that the proposed circuit has better electrical characteristics than the conventional SCR. A stack technology was used for voltage-specific applications. Consequentially, the proposed circuit has a trigger voltage of 17.60 V and a holding voltage of 3.64 V.
2D Numerical Modeling for Induced Current Distribution in Soil under Lightning Impulse Discharge
Empirical analysis of lightning related phenomena in real time is extremely dangerous due to the relatively high electric discharge involved. Hence, design and optimization of efficient grounding systems depending on real time empirical methods are impeded. Using numerical methods, the dynamics of complex systems could be modeled hence solved as sets of linear and non-linear systems . In this work, the induced current distribution as lightning strike traverses the soil have been numerically modeled in a 2D axial-symmetry and solved using finite element method (FEM) in COMSOL Multiphysics 5.2 AC/DC module. Stratified and non- stratified electrode system were considered in the solved model and soil conductivity (σ) varied between 10 – 58 mS/m. The result discussed therein were the electric field distribution, current distribution and soil ionization phenomena. It can be concluded that the electric field and current distribution is influenced by the injected electric potential and the non-linearity in soil conductivity. The result from numerical calculation also agrees with previously laboratory scale empirical results.
Effect of the Levitation Screen Sizes on Magnetic Parameters of Tracking System
Analytical expressions for inductances, current, ampere-turns, excitation winding, maximum width, coordinates of the levitation screen (LS) are derived for the calculation of electromagnetic devices based on tracking systems with levitation elements (TS with LS). Taking into account the expression of the complex magnetic resistance of the screen, the dependence of the screen width on the heating temperature of the physical and technical characteristics of the screen material and the relationship of the geometric dimensions of the magnetic circuit is established. Analytic expressions for a number of functional dependencies characterizing complex parameter relationships in explicit form are obtained and analyzed.
Modeling of Microelectromechanical Systems Diaphragm Based Acoustic Sensor
Acoustic sensors are extensively used in recent days not only for sensing and condition monitoring applications but also for small scale energy harvesting applications to power wireless sensor networks (WSN) due to their inherent advantages. The natural frequency of the structure plays a major role in energy harvesting applications since the sensor key element has to operate at resonant frequency. In this paper, circular diaphragm based MEMS acoustic sensor is modelled by Lumped Element Model (LEM) and the natural frequency is compared with the simulated model using Finite Element Method (FEM) tool COMSOL Multiphysics. The sensor has the circular diaphragm of 3000 µm radius and thickness of 30 µm to withstand the high SPL (Sound Pressure Level) and also to withstand the various fabrication steps. A Piezoelectric ZnO layer of thickness of 1 µm sandwiched between two aluminium electrodes of thickness 0.5 µm and is coated on the diaphragm. Further, a channel with radius 3000 µm radius and length 270 µm is connected at the bottom of the diaphragm. The natural frequency of the structure by LEM method is approximately 16.6 kHz which is closely matching with that of simulated structure with suitable approximations.
Classification of ECG Signal Based on Mixture of Linear and Non-Linear Features
In recent years, the use of intelligent systems in biomedical engineering has increased dramatically, especially in the diagnosis of various diseases. Also, due to the relatively simple recording of the electrocardiogram signal (ECG), this signal is a good tool to show the function of the heart and diseases associated with it. The aim of this paper is to design an intelligent system for automatically detecting a normal electrocardiogram signal from abnormal one. Using this diagnostic system, it is possible to identify a person's heart condition in a very short time and with high accuracy.
The data used in this article are from the Physionet database, available in 2016 for use by researchers to provide the best method for detecting normal signals from abnormalities. Data is of both genders and the data recording time varies between several seconds to several minutes. All data is also labeled normal or abnormal.
Due to the low positional accuracy and ECG signal time limit and the similarity of the signal in some diseases with the normal signal, the heart rate variability (HRV) signal was used. Measuring and analyzing the heart rate variability with time to evaluate the activity of the heart and differentiating different types of heart failure from one another is of interest to the experts. In the preprocessing stage, after noise cancelation by the adaptive Kalman filter and extracting the R wave by the Pan and Tampkinz algorithm, R-R intervals were extracted and the HRV signal was generated. In the process of processing this paper, a new idea was presented that, in addition to using the statistical characteristics of the signal to create a return map and extraction of nonlinear characteristics of the HRV signal due to the nonlinear nature of the signal. Finally, the artificial neural networks widely used in the field of ECG signal processing as well as distinctive features were used to classify the normal signals from abnormal ones. To evaluate the efficiency of proposed classifiers in this paper, the area under curve ROC was used. The results of the simulation in the MATLAB environment showed that the AUC of the MLP and SVM neural network was 0.893 and 0.947, respectively. As well as, the results of the proposed algorithm in this paper indicated that the more use of nonlinear characteristics in normal signal classification of the patient showed better performance. Today, research is aimed at quantitatively analyzing the linear and non-linear or descriptive and random nature of the heart rate variability signal, because it has been shown that the amount of these properties can be used to indicate the health status of the individual's heart. The study of nonlinear behavior and dynamics of the heart's neural control system in the short and long-term provides new information on how the cardiovascular system functions, and has led to the development of research in this field. Given that the ECG signal contains important information and is one of the common tools used by physicians to diagnose heart disease, but due to the limited accuracy of time and the fact that some information about this signal is hidden from the viewpoint of physicians, the design of the intelligent system proposed in this paper can help physicians with greater speed and accuracy in the diagnosis of normal and patient individuals and can be used as a complementary system in the treatment centers.
Strip Size Optimization for Spiral Type Actuator Coil Used in Electromagnetic Flat Sheet Forming Experiment
Flat spiral coil for electromagnetic forming system has been modelled in FEMM 4.2 software. Copper strip was chosen as the material for designing the actuator coil. Relationship between height to width ratio (S-factor) of the copper strip and coil’s performance has been studied. Magnetic field intensities, eddy currents, and Lorentz force were calculated for the coils that were designed using six different 'S-factor' values (0.65, 0.75, 1.05, 1.25, 1.54 and 1.75), keeping the cross-sectional area of strip the same. Results obtained through simulation suggest that actuator coil with S-factor ~ 1 shows optimum forming performance as it exerts maximum Lorentz force (84 kN) on work piece. The same coils were fabricated and used for electromagnetic sheet forming experiments. Aluminum 6061 sheets of thickness 1.5 mm have been formed using different voltage levels of capacitor bank. Smooth forming profiles were obtained with dome heights 28, 35 and 40 mm in work piece at 800, 1150 and 1250 V respectively.
A Strategy of Direct Power Control for PWM Rectifier Reducing Ripple in Instantaneous Power
In order to solve the instantaneous power ripple and achieve better performance of direct power control (DPC) for a three-phase PWM rectifier, a control method is proposed in this paper. This control method is applied to overcome the instantaneous power ripple, to eliminate line current harmonics and therefore reduce the total harmonic distortion and to improve the power factor. A switching table is based on the analysis on the change of instantaneous active and reactive power, to select the optimum switching state of the three-phase PWM rectifier. The simulation result shows feasibility of this control method.
Automatic Classification of Periodic Heart Sounds Using Convolutional Neural Network
This paper presents an automatic normal and abnormal heart sound classification model developed based on deep learning algorithm. MITHSDB heart sounds datasets obtained from the 2016 PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge database were used in this research with the assumption that the electrocardiograms (ECG) were recorded simultaneously with the heart sounds (phonocardiogram, PCG). The PCG time series are segmented per heart beat, and each sub-segment is converted to form a square intensity matrix, and classified using convolutional neural network (CNN) models. This approach removes the need to provide classification features for the supervised machine learning algorithm. Instead, the features are determined automatically through training, from the time series provided. The result proves that the prediction model is able to provide reasonable and comparable classification accuracy despite simple implementation. This approach can be used for real-time classification of heart sounds in Internet of Medical Things (IoMT), e.g. remote monitoring applications of PCG signal.
Implementation of Sensor Fusion Structure of 9-Axis Sensors on the Multipoint Control Unit
In this paper, we study the sensor fusion structure on the multipoint control unit (MCU). Sensor fusion using Kalman filter for 9-axis sensors is considered. The 9-axis inertial sensor is the combination of 3-axis accelerometer, 3-axis gyroscope and 3-axis magnetometer. We implement the sensor fusion structure among the sensor hubs in MCU and measure the execution time, power consumptions, and total energy. Experiments with real data from 9-axis sensor in 20Mhz show that the average power consumptions are 44mW and 48mW on Cortx-M0 and Cortex-M3 MCU, respectively. Execution times are 613.03 us and 305.6 us respectively.
Real Time Monitoring and Control of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell in Cognitive Radio Environment
The generation of electric power from a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is influenced by temperature, pressure, humidity, flow rate of reactant gaseous and partial flooding of membrane electrode assembly (MEA). Among these factors, temperature and cathode flooding are the most affecting parameters on the performance of fuel cell. This paper describes the detail design and effect of these parameters on PEM fuel cell. Performance of all parameters was monitored, analyzed and controlled by using 5KWatt PEM fuel cell. In the real-time data communication for remote monitoring and control of PEM fuel cell, a normalized least mean square algorithm in cognitive radio environment is used. By the use of this method, probability of energy signal detection will be maximum which solved the frequency shortage problem. So the monitoring system hanging out and slow speed problem will be solved. Also from the control unit, all parameters are controlled as per the system requirement. As a result, PEM fuel cell generates maximum electricity with better performance.
Steady State Analysis of Distribution System with Wind Generation Uncertainity
Due to the increased penetration of renewable energy resources in the distribution system, the system is no longer passive in nature. In this paper, a steady state analysis of the distribution system has been done with the inclusion of wind generation. The modeling of wind turbine generator system and wind generator has been made to obtain the average active and the reactive power injection into the system. The study has been conducted on a IEEE-33 bus system with two wind generators. The present research work is useful not only to utilities but also to customers.
Power Reduction of Hall-Effect Sensor by Pulse Width Modulation of Spinning-Current
This work presents a method to reduce spinning current of a Hall-effect sensor for low-power magnetic sensor applications. Spinning current of a Hall-effect sensor changes the direction of bias current periodically and can separate signals from DC-offset. The bias current is proportional to the sensor sensitivity but also increases the power consumption. To achieve both high sensitivity and low power consumption, the bias current can be pulse-width modulated. When the bias current duration Tb is reduced by a factor of N compared to the spinning current period of Tₛ/2, the total power consumption can be saved by N times. N can be large as long as the Hall-effect sensor settles down within Tb. The proposed scheme is implemented and simulated in a 0.18um CMOS process, and the power saving factor is 9.6 when N is 10. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by Institute for Information & communications Technology Promotion (IITP) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (20160001360022003, Development of Hall Semi-conductor for Smart Car and Device).
Defects Classification of Stator Coil Generators by Phase Resolve Partial Discharge
This paper proposed a phase resolve partial discharge (PRPD) shape method to classify types of defect stator coil generator by using off-line PD measurement instrument. The recorded PRPD, by using the instruments MPD600, can illustrate the PRPD patterns of partial discharge of unit’s defects. In the paper, two of large units, No.2 and No.3, in Inalum hydropower plant, North Sumatera, Indonesia is adopted in the experimental measurement. The proposed PRPD shape method is to mark auxiliary lines on the PRPD patterns. The shapes of PRPD from two units are marked with the proposed method. Then, four types of defects in IEC 60034-27 standard is adopted to classify the defect types of the two units, which types are microvoids (S1), delamination tape layer (S2), slot defect (S3) and internal delamination (S4). Finally, the two units are actually inspected to validate the availability of the proposed PRPD shape method.
Realistic Testing Procedure of Power Swing Blocking Function in Distance Relay
As one of the major problems in protecting large-dimension power systems, power swing and its effect on distance have caused a lot of damages to energy transfer systems in many parts of the world. Therefore, power swing has gained attentions of many researchers, which has led to invention of different methods for power swing detection. Power swing detection algorithm is highly important in distance relay, but protection relays should have general requirements such as correct fault detection, response rate, and minimization of disturbances in a power system. To ensure meeting the requirements, protection relays need different tests during development, setup, maintenance, configuration, and troubleshooting steps. This paper covers power swing scheme of the modern numerical relay protection, 7sa522 to address the effect of the different fault types on the function of the power swing blocking. In this study, it was shown that the different fault types during power swing cause different time for unblocking distance relay.