Study of Low Voltage Ride through Control Capability of an 8.5MW PV System Combining DC Chopper and Current Limiting Techniques
With the global upsurge in the integration of photovoltaic (PV) systems into modern power systems, new standards, and industrial codes, require PV systems to act like traditional power plants in responding to transient and dynamic events taking place in the host power system. Low voltage ride through (LVRT) is one of the requirements of grid-connected PV systems (GCPSs). Therefore, this paper presents a comprehensive LVRT control scheme that makes use of both the DC chopper and the current limiting based on the required reactive power during fault time. This helps to overcome the problems of excessive DC-link voltage and AC-over-current that may possibly lead to damage or disconnection of the inverter. Furthermore, the control scheme ensures voltage support and power balance through the injection of reactive current according to the grid code requirements. This control scheme is only activated during fault conditions and has no effect during normal operation of the GCPS. The study is conducted on 8.5MW single stage photovoltaic power plant (PVPP) connected to the Rwandan grid based on modern grid codes connection requirements. By using the proposed scheme, it is possible to provide grid support with both active and reactive power control during different levels of fault caused voltage dips. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated through simulation studies using MATLAB/Simulink.
Application of Two Stages Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System to Improve Dissolved Gas Analysis Interpretation Techniques
Dissolved Gas Analysis is one of impressive technique to detect and predict internal fault of transformers by using gas generated by transformer oil sample. A number of methods are used to interpret the dissolved gas from transformer oil sample: Doernenberg Ratio Method, IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) Ratio Method, and Duval Triangle Method. While the assessment of dissolved gas within transformer oil samples has been standardized over the past two decades, analysis of the results is not always straight forward as it depends on personnel expertise more than mathematical formulas. To get over this limitation, this paper is aimed at improving the interpretation of Doernenberg Ratio Method, IEC Ratio Method, and Duval Triangle Method using Two Stages Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). Dissolved gas analysis data from 520 faulty transformers was analyzed to establish the proposed ANFIS model. Results show that the developed ANFIS model is accurate and can standardize the dissolved gas interpretation process with accuracy higher than 90%.
A Practical Protection Method for Parallel Transmission-Lines Based on the Fault Travelling-Waves
In new restructured power systems, swift fault detection is very important. The parallel transmission-lines are vastly used in this kind of power systems because of high amount of energy transferring. In this paper, a method based on the comparison of two schemes, i.e., i) maximum magnitude of travelling-wave (TW) energy ii) the instants of maximum energy occurrence at the circuits of parallel transmission-line is proposed. Using the travelling-wave of fault in order to faulted line identification this method has noticeable operation time. Moreover, the algorithm can cover for identification of faults as external or internal faults. For an internal fault, the exact location of the fault can be estimated confidently. A lot of simulations have been done with PSCAD/EMTDC to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm.
Excitation Modeling for Hidden Markov Model-Based Speech Synthesis Based on Wavelet Analysis
The conventional Hidden Markov Model (HMM)-based speech synthesis system (HTS) uses only a pulse excitation model, which significantly differs from natural excitation signal. Hence, buzziness can be perceived in the speech generated using HTS. This paper proposes an efficient excitation modeling method that can significantly reduce the buzziness, and improve the quality of HMM-based speech synthesis. The proposed approach models the pitch-synchronous residual frames extracted from the residual excitation signal. Each pitch synchronous residual frame is parameterized using 30 wavelet coefficients. These 30 wavelet coefficients are found to accurately capture the perceptually important information present in the residual waveform. In synthesis phase, the residual frames are reconstructed from the generated wavelet coefficients and are pitch-synchronously overlap-added to generate the excitation signal. The proposed excitation modeling method is integrated into HMM-based speech synthesis system. Evaluation results indicate that the speech synthesized by the proposed excitation model is significantly better than the speech generated using state-of-the-art excitation modeling methods.
An Experimental Study on the Positive Streamer Leader Propagation under Slow Front Impulse Voltages in a 10m Rod-Plane Air Gap
In this work, we performed a large-scale investigation into leader development in a 10 m rod-plane gap under a long front positive impulse. To describe the leader propagation under slow front impulse voltages, we recorded the leader propagation with a high-speed charge coupled device (CCD) camera. It is important to figure out this phenomenon to deepen our understanding of leader discharge. The observation results showed that the leader mechanism is a very complex physical phenomenon; it could be categorized into two types of leader process, namely, continuous and the discontinuous leader streamer-leader propagation. Furthermore, we studied the continuous leader development parameters, including two-dimensional (2-D) leader length, injected charge, and final jump stage, as well as leader velocity for rod–plane configuration. We observed that the discontinuous leader makes an important contribution to the appearance of channel re-illuminations of the positive leader. The comparative study shows better results in terms of standard switch impulse and long front positive impulse. Finally, the results are presented with a view toward improving our understanding of propagation mechanisms related to restrike phenomena, which are rarely reported. To clarify the above doubts under long front cases, we carried out extensive experiments in this study.
Comparison between Continuous Genetic Algorithms and Particle Swarm Optimization for Distribution Network Reconfiguration
This paper proposes a reconfiguration methodology based on a continuous genetic algorithm (CGA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) for minimizing active power loss and minimizing voltage deviation. Both algorithms are adapted using graph theory to generate feasible individuals, and the modified crossover is used for continuous variable of CGA. To demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the proposed methods, a comparative analysis of CGA with PSO for network reconfiguration, on 33-node and 119-bus radial distribution system is presented. The simulation results have shown that both CGA and PSO can be used in the distribution network reconfiguration and CGA outperformed PSO with significant success rate in finding optimal distribution network configuration.
Load Forecasting Using Neural Network Integrated with Economic Dispatch Problem
High cost of fossil fuels and intensifying installations of alternate energy generation sources are intimidating main challenges in power systems. Making accurate load forecasting an important and challenging task for optimal energy planning and management at both distribution and generation side. There are many techniques to forecast load but each technique comes with its own limitation and requires data to accurately predict the forecast load. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is one such technique to efficiently forecast the load. Comparison between two different ranges of input datasets has been applied to dynamic ANN technique using MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox. It has been observed that selection of input data on training of a network has significant effects on forecasted results. Day-wise input data forecasted the load accurately as compared to year-wise input data. The forecasted load is then distributed among the six generators by using the linear programming to get the optimal point of generation. The algorithm is then verified by comparing the results of each generator with their respective generation limits.
Memristor: A Promising Candidate for Neural Circuits in Neuromorphic Computing Systems
The advancements in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and technology have led to an evolution of an intelligent era. Neural networks, having computational power and learning ability similar to the brain is one of the key AI technologies. Neuromorphic computing system (NCS) consists of the synaptic device, neuronal circuit, and neuromorphic architecture. Memristor is a promising candidate for neuromorphic computing systems, but when it comes to neuromorphic computing, the conductance behavior of the synaptic memristor or neuronal memristor needs to be studied thoroughly in order to fathom the neuroscience or computer science. Furthermore, there is a need of more simulation work for utilizing the existing device properties and providing guidance to the development of future devices for different performance requirements. Hence, the development of NCS needs more simulation work to make use of existing device properties. This work aims to provide an insight to build neuronal circuits using memristors to achieve a Memristor based NCS. Here we throw a light on the research conducted in the field of memristors for building analog and digital circuits in order to motivate the research in the field of NCS by building memristor based neural circuits for advanced AI applications. This literature is a step in the direction where we describe the various Key findings about memristors and its analogue and digital circuits implemented over the years which can be further utilized in implementing the neuronal circuits in the NCS. This work aims to help the electronic circuit designers to understand how the research progressed in memristors and how these findings can be used in implementing the neuronal circuits meant for the recent progress in the NCS.
Comparison of the Thermal Characteristics of Induction Motor, Switched Reluctance Motor and Inset Permanent Magnet Motor for Electric Vehicle Application
Modern day electric vehicles require compact high torque/power density motors for electric propulsion. This necessitates proper thermal management of the electric motors. The main focus of this paper is to compare the steady state thermal analysis of a conventional 20 kW 8/6 Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) with that of an Induction Motor and Inset Permanent Magnet (IPM) motor of the same rating. The goal is to develop a proper thermal model of the three types of models for Finite Element Thermal Analysis. JMAG software is used for the development and simulation of the thermal models. The results show that the induction motor is subjected to more heating when used for electric vehicle application constantly, compared to the SRM and IPM.
An Observation of the Information Technology Research and Development Based on Article Data Mining: A Survey Study on Science Direct
One of the most important factors of research and development is the deep insight into the evolutions of scientific development. The state-of-the-art tools and instruments can considerably assist the researchers, and many of the world organizations have become aware of the advantages of data mining for the acquisition of the knowledge required for the unstructured data. This paper was an attempt to review the articles on the information technology published in the past five years with the aid of data mining. A clustering approach was used to study these articles, and the research results revealed that three topics, namely health, innovation, and information systems, have captured the special attention of the researchers.
Backstepping Controller for a Variable Wind Speed Energy Conversion System Based on a DFIG
In this paper we present a contribution for the modeling and control of wind energy conversion system based on a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG). Since the wind speed is random the system has to produce an optimal electrical power to the Network and ensures important strength and stability. In this work, the Backstepping controller is used to control the generator via two converter witch placed a DC bus capacitor and connected to the grid by a Filter R-L, in order to optimize capture wind energy. All is simulated and presented under MATLAB/Simulink Software to show performance and robustness of the proposed controller.
Attitudinal Change: A Major Therapy for Non–Technical Losses in the Nigerian Power Sector
This study investigates and identifies consumer attitude as a major influence that results in non-technical losses in the Nigerian electricity supply sector. This discovery is revealed by the combination of quantitative and qualitative research to complete a survey. The dataset employed is a simple random sampling of households using electricity (public power supply), and the number of units chosen is based on statistical power analysis. The units were subdivided into two categories (household with and without electrical meters). The hypothesis formulated was tested and analyzed using a chi-square statistical method. The results obtained shows that the critical value for the household with electrical prepared meter (EPM) was (9.488 < 427.4) and those without electrical prepared meter (EPMn) was (9.488 < 436.1) with a p-value of 0.01%. The analysis demonstrated so far established the real-time position, which shows that the wrong attitude towards handling the electricity supplied (not turning off light bulbs and electrical appliances when not in use within the rooms and outdoors within 12 hours of the day) characterized the non-technical losses in the power sector. Therefore the adoption of efficient lighting attitudes in individual households as recommended by the researcher is greatly encouraged. The results from this study should serve as a model for energy efficiency and use for the improvement of electricity consumption as well as a stable economy.
Five-Phase Induction Motor Drive System Driven by Five-Phase Packed U Cell Inverter: Its Modeling and Performance Evaluation
The three phase system drives produce the problem of more torque pulsations and harmonics. This issue prevents the smooth operation of the drives and it also induces the amount of heat generated thus resulting in an increase in power loss. Higher phase system offers smooth operation of the machines with greater power capacity. Five phase variable-speed induction motor drives are commonly used in various industrial and commercial applications like tractions, electrical vehicles, ship propulsions and conveyor belt drive system. In this work, a comparative analysis of the different modulation schemes applied on the five-level five-phase Packed U Cell (PUC) inverter fed induction motor drives is presented. The performance of the inverter is greatly affected with the modulation schemes applied. The system is modeled, designed, and implemented in MATLAB®/Simulink environment. Experimental validation is done for the prototype of single phase, whereas five phase experimental validation is proposed in the future works.
Design of a Hand-Held, Clamp-on, Leakage Current Sensor for High Voltage Direct Current Insulators
Leakage current monitoring for high voltage transmission line insulators is of interest as a performance indicator. Presently, to the best of our knowledge, there is no commercially available, clamp-on type, non-intrusive device for measuring leakage current on energised high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line insulators. The South African power utility, Eskom, is investigating the development of such a hand-held sensor for two important applications; first, for continuous real-time condition monitoring of HVDC line insulators and, second, for use by live line workers to determine if it is safe to work on energised insulators. In this paper, a DC leakage current sensor based on magnetic field sensing techniques is developed. The magnetic field sensor used in the prototype can also detect alternating current up to 5 MHz. The DC leakage current prototype detects the magnetic field associated with the current flowing on the surface of the insulator. Preliminary HVDC leakage current measurements are performed on glass insulators. The results show that the prototype can accurately measure leakage current in the specified current range of 1-200 mA. The influence of external fields from the HVDC line itself on the leakage current measurements is mitigated through a differential magnetometer sensing technique. Thus, the developed sensor can perform measurements on in-service HVDC insulators. The research contributes to the body of knowledge by providing a sensor to measure leakage current on energised HVDC insulators non-intrusively. This sensor can also be used by live line workers to inform them whether or not it is safe to perform maintenance on energized insulators.
Application of a SubIval Numerical Solver for Fractional Circuits
The paper discusses the subinterval-based numerical
method for fractional derivative computations. It is now referred
to by its acronym – SubIval. The basis of the method is briefly
recalled. The ability of the method to be applied in time stepping
solvers is discussed. The possibility of implementing a time step size
adaptive solver is also mentioned. The solver is tested on a transient
circuit example. In order to display the accuracy of the solver –
the results have been compared with those obtained by means of a
semi-analytical method called gcdAlpha. The time step size adaptive
solver applying SubIval has been proven to be very accurate as
the results are very close to the referential solution. The solver is
currently able to solve FDE (fractional differential equations) with
various derivative orders for each equation and any type of source
Design Optimization of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Performance by Differential Evolution
Doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) due to its advantages like speed variation and four quadrant operation, find its application in wind turbines. DFIG besides supplying power to grid, has to support reactive power (kvar) under grid voltage variations, contribute to minimum fault current during faults, have high efficiency, minimum weight, adequate rotor protection during crow-bar-operation and many more at speeds from +20% to -20% of rated speed. To achieve the above optimum performance, a good electro-magnetic design of DFIG is required. In this paper, a simple and heuristic global optimization, differential evolution, has been used. Variables considered are lamination details such as slot dimensions, stack diameters, air gap length and generator stator and rotor stack length. Two operating conditions have been considered; voltage and speed variations. Constraints included were reactive power supplied to grid and limiting fault current and torque. The optimization has been executed separately for three objective functions; maximum efficiency, weight reduction and grid fault stator currents. Subsequent calculations led to the conclusion that designs determined through differential evolution helps in determining an optimum electrical design for each objective function.
Hardware in the Loop Platform for Virtual Commissioning: Case Study of a Hydraulic-Press Model Simulated in Real-Time
Hydraulic-press commissioning consumes a great amount of man-hours, due to the fact that it takes place several miles away from where it has been designed. This factor became exacerbated due to control designers’ lack of knowledge about which will be the final controller gains before they start working with it. Virtual commissioning has been postulated as an optimal solution to deal with this lack of knowledge. Here, a case study is presented in which a controller is set up against a real-time model based on a hydraulic-press. The press model is designed following manufacturer specifications and it is embedded in a real-time simulator. This methodology ensures that the model achieves similar responses as the real machine that would be placed on the industry. A deterministic communication protocol is in charge of the bidirectional information transmission between the real-time model and the controller. This platform allows the engineer to test and verify the final control responses with exactly the same hardware that is going to be installed in the hydraulic-press, in other words, realize a virtual commissioning of the electro-hydraulic actuator. The Hardware in the Loop (HiL) platform validates in laboratory conditions and harmless for the machine the control algorithms designed, which allows embedding them afterwards in the industrial environment without further modifications.
Validation of Solar Photovoltaic Inverter Harmonics Behaviour at Different Power Levels in a Test Network
Grid connected solar PV inverters need to be compliant to standard regulations regarding unwanted harmonic generation. This paper gives an introduction to harmonics, solar PV inverter voltage regulation and balancing through compensation and investigates the behaviour of harmonic generation at different power levels. Practical measurements of harmonics and power levels with a power quality data logger were made, on a test network at a university in Germany. The test setup and test results are discussed. The major finding was that between the morning and afternoon load peak windows when the PV inverters operate under low solar insolation and low power levels, more unwanted harmonics are generated. This has a huge impact on the power quality of the grid as well as capital and maintenance costs. The design of a single-tuned harmonic filter towards harmonic mitigation is presented.
Development of a Firmware Downloader for AVR Microcontrollers for Educational Purposes
This paper introduces the development of a firmware downloader for students attending microcontroller-related courses taught by the authors In the courses, AVR microcontroller experiment kits are used for programming exercise and the AVR microcontroller is programmed through a serial communication interface using a bootloader preinstalled on it. To use the bootloader, a matching firmware downloader that runs on a host computer and communicates with the bootloader is also required. When firmware downloading is completed, the serial port used for it needs to be closed. If the downloaded firmware uses serial communication, the serial port needs to be reopened in a serial terminal. As a result, the programmer of the AVR board switches from the downloader program and the serial terminal and vice versa. It is a simple task but quite a hassle to do each time new firmware needs downloading. To provide a more convenient programming environment for the courses, the authors developed a downloader program that includes a serial terminal in it. The program operates in downloader or terminal mode and the mode switching is performed automatically; therefore manual mode switching is not necessary. The feature provides a more convenient development environment by eliminating the need for manual mode switching each time firmware downloading is required.
A Comprehensive Review of Axial Flux Machines and Its Applications
This paper presents a thorough review concerning the design types of axial flux permanent magnet machines (AFPM) in terms of different features such as construction, design, materials, and manufacturing. Particular emphasis is given on the design and performance analysis of AFPM machines. A comparison among different permanent magnet machines is also provided. First of all, early and modern axial flux machines are mentioned. Secondly, rotor construction of different axial flux machines is described, then different stator constructions are mentioned depending upon the presence of slots and stator back iron. Then according to the arrangement of the rotor stator structure the machines are classified into single, double and multi-stack arrangements. Advantages, disadvantages and applications of each type of rotor and stator are pointed out. Finally on the basis of the reviewed literature merits, demerits, features and application of different axial flux machines structures are explained and clarified. Thus, this paper provides connection between the machines that are currently being used in industry and the developments of AFPM throughout the years.
Increasing the Frequency of Laser Impulses with Optical Choppers with Rotational Shafts
Optical choppers are among the most common optomechatronic devices, utilized in numerous applications, from radiometry to telescopes and biomedical imaging. The classical configuration has a rotational disk with windows with linear margins. This research points out the laser signals that can be obtained with these classical choppers, as well as with another, novel, patented configuration, of eclipse choppers (i.e., with rotational disks with windows with non-linear margins, oriented outwards or inwards). Approximately triangular laser signals can be obtained with eclipse choppers, in contrast to the approximately sinusoidal – with classical devices. The main topic of this work refers to another, novel device, of choppers with shafts of different shapes and with slits of various profiles (patent pending). A significant improvement which can be obtained (with regard to disk choppers) refers to the chop frequencies of the laser signals. Thus, while 1 kHz is their typical limit for disk choppers, with choppers with shafts, a more than 20 times increase in the chop frequency can be obtained with choppers with shafts. Their transmission functions are also discussed, for different types of laser beams. Acknowledgments: This research is supported by the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, through the project PN-III-P2-2.1-BG-2016-0297.
Development of Transmission and Packaging for Parallel Hybrid Light Commercial Vehicle
The hybrid electric vehicle is widely accepted as a promising short to mid-term technical solution due to noticeably improved efficiency and low emissions at competitive costs. Retro fitment of hybrid components into a conventional vehicle for achieving better performance is the best solution so far. But retro fitment includes major modifications into a conventional vehicle with a high cost. This paper focuses on the development of a P3x hybrid prototype with rear wheel drive parallel hybrid electric Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV) with minimum and low-cost modifications. This diesel Hybrid LCV is different from another hybrid with regard to the powertrain. The additional powertrain consists of continuous contact helical gear pair followed by chain and sprocket as a coupler for traction motor. Vehicle powertrain which is designed for the intended high-speed application. This work focuses on targeting of design, development, and packaging of this unique parallel diesel-electric vehicle which is based on multimode hybrid advantages. To demonstrate the practical applicability of this transmission with P3x hybrid configuration, one concept prototype vehicle has been build integrating the transmission. The hybrid system makes it easy to retrofit existing vehicle because the changes required into the vehicle chassis are a minimum. The additional system is designed for mainly five modes of operations which are engine only mode, electric-only mode, hybrid power mode, engine charging battery mode and regenerative braking mode. Its driving performance, fuel economy and emissions are measured and results are analyzed over a given drive cycle. Finally, the output results which are achieved by the first vehicle prototype during experimental testing is carried out on a chassis dynamometer using MIDC driving cycle. The results showed that the prototype hybrid vehicle is about 27% faster than the equivalent conventional vehicle. The fuel economy is increased by 20-25% approximately compared to the conventional powertrain.
Generation of Numerical Data for the Facilitation of the Personalized Hyperthermic Treatment of Cancer with An Interstital Antenna Array Using the Method of Symmetrical Components
The method of moments combined with the method
of symmetrical components is used for the analysis of interstitial
hyperthermia applicators. The basis and testing functions are both
piecewise sinusoids, qualifying our technique as a Galerkin one. The
dielectric coatings are modeled by equivalent volume polarization
currents, which are simply related to the conduction current
distribution, avoiding in that way the introduction of additional
unknowns or numerical integrations. The results of our method
for a four dipole circular array, are in agreement with those
already published in literature for a same hyperthermia configuration.
Apart from being accurate, our approach is more general, more
computationally efficient and takes into account the coupling between
Review of Strategies for Hybrid Energy Storage Management System in Electric Vehicle Application
Electric Vehicles (EV) appear to be gaining increasing patronage as a feasible alternative to Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEVs) for having low emission and high operation efficiency. The Electrical Vehicle (EV) energy storage systems are required to handle high energy and power density capacity constrained by limited space, operating temperature, weight and cost. The choice of strategies for energy storage evaluation, monitoring and control remains a challenging task. This paper presents review of various energy storage technologies and recent researches in battery evaluation techniques used in electric vehicle applications. It also underscores strategies for the hybrid energy storage management and control schemes for the improvement of electric vehicle stability and reliability. Recent advancement in battery technology as electrical energy storage medium has consequently been studied. The battery parameter metrics, existing estimation and control strategies in electric vehicle system application are being clearly emphasized by reviewing 250 related scholarly articles. The existing estimation strategies and battery state evaluation models in technical literature are classified and different methodologies used were evaluated and compared to determine the feasibility and efficiency of the hybrid energy storage management components. The study reveals that despite the advances recorded in battery technologies, to authors’ best knowledge there is still no cell which possesses both the optimum power and energy densities among other requirements, for electrical vehicle application. However combination of two or more energy storages as hybrid and allowing the advantageous attributes from each device to be utilized is a promising solution. The review also reveal that State of Charge (SoC) is the most crucial method for battery estimation. The conventional method of SoC measurement is however questioned in the literature and adaptive algorithms that includes all model of disturbances are being proposed. The review further suggests that heuristic-based approach is commonly adopted in the development of strategies for hybrid energy storage system management. The alternative approach which is optimization-based is found to be more accurate but are memory and computational intensive and as such not recommended in most real-time applications.
Modular Harmonic Cancellation in a Multiplier High Voltage Direct Current Generator
Generation of high DC voltages is necessary for testing the insulation material of high voltage AC transmission lines with long lengths. The harmonic and ripple contents of the output DC voltage supplied by high voltage DC circuits require the use of costly capacitors to smooth the output voltage after rectification. This paper proposes a new modular multiplier high voltage DC generator with embedded Cockcroft-Walton circuits that achieve a negligible harmonic and ripple contents of the output DC voltage without the need for costly filters to produce a nearly constant output voltage. In this new topology, Cockcroft-Walton modules are connected in series to produce a high DC output voltage. The modules are supplied by low input AC voltage sources that have the same magnitude and frequency and shifted from each other by a certain angle to eliminate the harmonics from the output voltage. The small ripple factor is provided by the smoothing column capacitors and the phase shifted input voltages of the cascaded modules. The constituent harmonics within each module are determined using Fourier analysis. The viability of the proposed DC generator for testing purposes and the effectiveness of the cascaded connection are confirmed by numerical simulations using MATLAB/Simulink.
Technical Assessment of Utilizing Electrical Variable Transmission Systems in Hybrid Electric Vehicles
The Electrical Variable Transmission (EVT), an electromechanical device, can be considered as an alternative solution to the conventional transmission system utilized in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). This study present comparisons in terms of fuel consumption, power split, and state of charge (SoC) of an HEV containing an EVT to a conventional parallel topology and a series topology. To this end, corresponding simulations of these topologies are all performed in presence of control strategies enabling battery charge-sustaining and efficient power split. The power flow through the components of the vehicle are attained, and fuel consumption results of the considered cases are compared. The investigation of the results indicates utilizing EVT can provide significant added values in HEV configurations. The outcome of the current research paves its path for implementation of design optimization approaches on such systems in further research directions.
Development of a Combustible Gas Detector with Two Sensor Modules to Enable Measuring Range of Low Concentration
In the gas industrial fields, there are many problems to detect extremely small amounts of combustible gas (CH₄) if a conventional semiconductor is used. Those reasons are that measuring is difficult at the low concentration level, the stabilization time is long, and an initial response time is slow. In this study, we propose a method to solve these issues using two specific sensors to overcome the circumstances of temperature and humidity. This idea is to combine a catalytic and a semiconductor type sensor and to utilize every advantage from every sensor’s characteristic. In order to achieve the goal, we reduced fluctuations of a gas sensor for temperature and humidity by applying designed circuits for sensing temperature and humidity. And we induced the best calibration line of gas sensors through adjusting a weight value corresponding to changeable patterns of temperature and humidity after their data are previously acquired and stored. We proposed and developed the gas leak detector using two sensor modules, which is first operated by a semiconductor sensor for measuring small gas quantities and second a catalytic type sensor is detected if measuring range of the first sensor is beyond. We conclusively verified characteristics of sharp sensitivity and fast response time against even at lower gas concentration level through experiments other than a conventional gas sensor. We think that our proposed idea is very useful if another gas leak is developed to enable measuring extremely small quantities of toxic and flammable gases.
Modelling and Technical Assessment of Multi-Motor for Electric Vehicle Drivetrains by Using Electric Differential
This paper presents a technical assessment of an electric vehicle with two independent rear-wheel motor and an improved traction control system. The electric differential and the control strategy have been implemented to assure that in a straight trajectory, the two rear-wheels run exactly at the same speed, considering the same/different road conditions under the left and right side of the wheels. In case of turning to right/left, the difference between the two rear-wheels speeds assures a vehicle trajectory without sliding, thanks to a harmony between the electric differential and the control strategy. The present article demonstrates a complete model and analysis of a traction control system, considering four different traction scenarios, for two independent rear-wheels motors for electric vehicles. Furthermore, the vehicle model, including wheel dynamics, load forces, electric differential, and control strategy, is designed and verified by using MATLAB/Simulink environment.
Hybrid Anomaly Detection Using Decision Tree and Support Vector Machine
Intrusion detection systems (IDS) are the main components of network security. These systems analyze the network events for intrusion detection. The design of an IDS is through the training of normal traffic data or attack. The methods of machine learning are the best ways to design IDSs. In the method presented in this article, the pruning algorithm of C5.0 decision tree is being used to reduce the features of traffic data used and training IDS by the least square vector algorithm (LS-SVM). Then, the remaining features are arranged according to the predictor importance criterion. The least important features are eliminated in the order. The remaining features of this stage, which have created the highest level of accuracy in LS-SVM, are selected as the final features. The features obtained, compared to other similar articles which have examined the selected features in the least squared support vector machine model, are better in the accuracy, true positive rate, and false positive. The results are tested by the UNSW-NB15 dataset.
Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Non-Convex Economic Power Dispatch Problem
This study presents a modified version of the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm by including a local search technique for solving the non-convex economic power dispatch problem. The local search step is incorporated at the end of each iteration. Total system losses, valve-point loading effects and prohibited operating zones have been incorporated in the problem formulation. Thus, the problem becomes highly nonlinear and with discontinuous objective function. The proposed technique is validated using an IEEE benchmark system with ten thermal units. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed optimization algorithm has better convergence characteristics in comparison with the original ABC algorithm.