Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 46707

Electrical and Computer Engineering

776
82115
Stator Short-Circuits Fault Diagnosis in Induction Motors
Abstract:
This paper deals with the problem of stator faults diagnosis in induction motors. Using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for the current Park’s vector modulus (CPVM) analysis, the inter-turn short-circuit faults diagnosis can be achieved. This method is based on the decomposition of the CPVM signal, where wavelet approximation and detail coefficients of this signal have been extracted. The energy evaluation of a known bandwidth detail permits to define a fault severity factor (FSF). This method has been tested through the simulation of an induction motor using a mathematical model based on the winding-function approach. Simulation, as well as experimental results, show the effectiveness of the used method.
775
81592
Practical Model of Regenerative Braking Using DC Machine and Boost Converter
Abstract:
Increasing use of traditional vehicles driven by internal combustion engine is responsible for the environmental pollution. Further, it leads to depletion of limited energy resources. Therefore, it is required to explore alternative energy sources for the transportation. The promising solution is to use electric vehicle. However, it suffers from limited driving range. Regenerative braking increases the range of the electric vehicle to a certain extent. In this paper, a novel methodology utilizing regenerative braking is described. The model comprising of DC machine, feedback based boost converter and micro-controller is proposed. The suggested method is very simple and reliable. The proposed model successfully shows the energy being saved into during regenerative braking process.
774
81165
Fault Location Identification in High Voltage Transmission Lines
Abstract:
This paper introduces a digital method for fault section identification in transmission lines. The method uses digital set of the measured short circuit current to locate faults in electrical power systems. The digitized current is used to construct a set of overdetermined system of equations. The problem is then constructed and solved using the proposed digital optimization technique to find the fault distance. The proposed optimization methodology is an application of simulated annealing optimization technique. The method is tested using practical case study to evaluate the proposed method. The accurate results obtained show that the algorithm can be used as a powerful tool in the area of power system protection.
773
80764
Using Game Engines in Lightning Shielding: The Application of the Rolling Spheres Method on Virtual As-Built Power Substations
Abstract:
Lightning strikes can cause severe negative impacts to the electrical sector causing direct damage to equipment as well as shutdowns, especially when occurring in power substations. In order to mitigate this problem, a meticulous planning of the power substation protection system is of vital importance. A critical part of this is the distribution of shielding wires through the substation, which creates a 3D imaginary protection mesh similar to a circus tarpaulin. Equipment enclosed in the volume defined by that 3D mesh is considered protected against lightning strikes. The use of traditional methods of longitudinal cutting analysis based on 2D CAD tools makes the process laborious and the results obtained may not guarantee satisfactory protection of electrical equipment. This work describes the application of a Game Engine to the problem of lightning protection of power substations providing the visualization of the 3D protection mesh, the amount of protected components and the highlight of equipment which remain unprotected. In addition, aspects regarding the implementation and the advantages of approaching the problem using Unreal ® Engine 4 are described. In order to validate results, a comparison with traditional 2D methods is applied to the same case study to which the proposed technique has been applied. Finally, a comparative study involving different levels of protection using the technique developed in this work is presented, showing that modern game engines can be a powerful accessory for simulations in several areas of engineering.
772
80748
Design and Implementation of 3kva Grid-Tied Transformerless Power Inverter for Solar Photovoltaic Application
Abstract:
Power Inverter is a very important device in renewable energy use particularly for solar photovoltaic power application because it is the effective interface between the DC power generator and the load or the grid. Transformerless inverter is getting more and more preferred to the power converter with galvanic isolation transformer and may eventually supplant it. Transformerless inverter offers advantages of improved DC to AC conversion and power delivery efficiency; and reduced system cost, weight and complexity. This work presents thorough analysis of the design and prototyping of 3KVA grid-tie transformerless inverter. The inverter employs electronic switching method with minimised heat generation in the system and operates based on the principle of pulse-width modulation (PWM). The design is such that it can take two inputs, one from PV arrays and the other from Battery Energy Storage BES and addresses the safety challenge of leakage current. The inverter system was designed around microcontroller system, modeled with Proteus® software for simulation and testing of the viability of the designed inverter circuit. The firmware governing the operation of the grid-tied inverter is written in C language and was developed using MicroC software by Mikroelectronica® for writing sine wave signal code for synchronization to the grid. The simulation results show that the designed inverter circuit performs excellently with very high efficiency, good quality sinusoidal output waveform, negligible harmonics and gives very stable performance under voltage variation from 36VDC to 60VDC input. The prototype confirmed the simulated results and was successfully synchronized with the utility supply. The comprehensive analyses of the circuit design, the prototype and explanation on overall performance will be presented.
771
80565
System Security Impact on the Dynamic Characteristics of Measurement Sensors in Smart Grids
Abstract:
Smart grid is a term used to describe the next generation power grid. New challenges such as integration of renewable and decentralized energy sources, the requirement for continuous grid estimation and optimization, as well as the use of two-way flows of energy have been brought to the power grid. In order to achieve efficient, reliable, sustainable, as well as secure delivery of electric power more and more information and communication technologies are used for the monitoring and the control of power grids. Consequently, the need for cybersecurity is dramatically increased and has converged into several standards which will be presented here. These standards for the smart grid must be designed to satisfy both performance and reliability requirements. An in depth investigation of the effect of retrospectively embedded security in existing grids on its dynamic behavior is required. Therefore, a retrofitting plan for existing meters is offered, and its performance in a test low voltage microgrid is investigated. As a result of this, integration of security measures into measurement architectures of smart grids at the design phase is strongly recommended.
770
80537
A Study on Electrostatic Discharge Protection Circuit Applying Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based Stack Technology with High Holding Voltage
Abstract:
In this study, an improved ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) protection circuit with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage is proposed. ESD has become a serious problem in the semiconductor process because the semiconductor density has become very high these days. Therefore, much research has been done to prevent ESD. The proposed circuit is a stacked structure of the new unit structure combined by the ZTSCR (Zener Triggering SCR) and the HHVSCR (High Holding Voltage SCR). The simulation results show that the proposed circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage. Moreover, the stack technology is applied to adjust the various operating voltage. As the results, the holding voltage is 7.7V for 2-stack and 10.7V for 3-stack.
769
80457
Simulation and Demonstration of Visible Light Communication Optical Code Division Multiplexing Using Catenated Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing Modulation Method
Abstract:
This paper demonstrates a new high speed architecture of visible light communication (VLC) system combining with zero cross correlation (ZCC) code and novel catenated-OFDM modulation scheme. In order to achieved high spectral efficiency and higher bit rate system, we embedded multiband catenated-OFDM modulation technique and optical code division multiplexing (OCDMA) in VLC design system. Moreover, by employing visible laser diode (VLD) in designing VLC system, we achieved 10Gbps bit rate at 2.5dBm input power. We investigate this new combination system design to analyze the bit rate and bit error rate (BER) in 3m indoor VLC channel propagation.
768
80335
Application of Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise and Multipoint Optimal Minimum Entropy Deconvolution in Railway Bearings Fault Diagnosis
Abstract:
Although the measured vibration signal contains rich information on machine health conditions, the white noise interferences and the discrete harmonic coming from blade, shaft and mash make the fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings difficult. In order to overcome the interferences of useless signals, a new fault diagnosis method combining Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN) and Multipoint Optimal Minimum Entropy Deconvolution (MOMED) is proposed for the fault diagnosis of high-speed train bearings. Firstly, the CEEMDAN technique is applied to adaptively decompose the raw vibration signal into a series of finite intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residue. Compared with Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD), the CEEMDAN can provide an exact reconstruction of the original signal and a better spectral separation of the modes, which improves the accuracy of fault diagnosis. An effective sensitivity index based on the Pearson's correlation coefficients between IMFs and raw signal is adopted to select sensitive IMFs that contain bearing fault information. The composite signal of the sensitive IMFs is applied to further analysis of fault identification. Next, for propose of identifying the fault information precisely, the MOMED is utilized to enhance the periodic impulses in composite signal. As a non-iterative method, the MOMED has better deconvolution performance than the classical deconvolution methods such Minimum Entropy Deconvolution (MED) and Maximum Correlated Kurtosis Deconvolution (MCKD). Third, the envelope spectrum analysis is applied to detect the existence of bearing fault. The simulated bearing fault signals with white noise and discrete harmonic interferences are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, the superiorities of the proposed method are further demonstrated by high-speed train bearing fault datasets measured from test rig. The analysis results indicate that the proposed method has strong practicability.
767
80090
Safety-Security Co-Engineering of Control Systems
Abstract:
Designers of modern safety-critical control systems are increasingly relying on networking to provide the systems with advanced functionality and satisfy customer’s needs. However, networking nature of modern control systems also brings new technological challenges associated with ensuring system safety in the presence of openness and hence, potential security threats. In this paper, we propose a methodology that relies on systems-theoretic analysis to enable an integrated analysis of safety and security requirements of controlling software. We demonstrate how to create a safety case – a structured argument about system safety – with explicit representation of both safety and security goals. Our approach provides the designers with a systematic approach to analysing safety and security interdependencies while designing safety-critical control systems.
766
80062
A 3Y/3Y Pole-Changing Winding of High-Power Asynchronous Motors; Pole Changing in 1:3, 1:6 … Ratio
Authors:
Abstract:
Requirement for pole-changing motors emerged at the very early times of asynchronous motor design. Different solutions have been elaborated, and some of them are generally used. An alternative is the so called 3 Y/3 Y Pole-Changing Winding. This paper deals with high power application of this solution. A complete, comprehensive study is introduced, including features and design guidelines. The method presented in this paper is especially suitable for pole numbers being close to each other. The study also reveals that the method is more advantageous than the existing solutions for high power motors with 1:3 pole ratio. Using this motor, a new, complete drive supply system has been proposed as the most appropriate arrangement of high power main naval propulsion drive. Further, the method makes possible to extend the pole ratio to 1:6, 1:9, 1: 12, etc.
765
79906
Improvement of Global Vacuum Pressurized Impregnation Insulation System Characteristics by Curing Process Modification
Authors:
Abstract:
The curing process of insulation system for electrical machines plays a determinative role for its durability and reliability. Polar structure of insulating resin molecules and used filler of insulation system can be taken an occasion to leverage it to enhance overall characteristics of insulation system, mechanically and electrically. The curing process regime for insulating system plays an important role for its mechanical and electrical characteristics by arranging the polymerization of chain structure for resin. In this research the effect of electrical field application on in-curing insulating system for GVPI (Global Vacuum Pressurized Impregnation) system for traction motor was considered by performing the dissipation factor, polarization and de-polarization current (PDC) and voltage endurance (aging) measurements on sample test objects. Outcome results depicted obvious improvement in mechanical strength of the insulation system as well as higher electrical characteristics with routing and long-time (aging) electrical tests. Coming together polarization of insulation system during curing process would enhance the machine life time.
764
79642
Transferring Data from Glucometer to Mobile Device via Bluetooth with Arduino Technology
Abstract:
Being healthy is undoubtedly an indispensable necessity for human life. With technological improvements, in the literature, various health monitoring and imaging systems have been developed to satisfy your health needs. In this context, the work of monitoring and recording the data of individual health monitoring data via wireless technology is also being part of these studies. Nowadays, mobile devices which are located in almost every house and which become indispensable of our life and have wireless technology infrastructure have an important place of making follow-up health everywhere and every time because these devices were using in the health monitoring systems. In this study, Arduino an open-source microcontroller card was used in which a sample sugar measuring device was connected in series. In this way, the glucose data (glucose ratio, time) obtained with the glucometer is transferred to the mobile device based on the Android operating system with the Bluetooth technology channel. A mobile application was developed using the Apache Cordova framework for listing data, presenting graphically and reading data over Arduino. Apache Cordova, HTML, Javascript and CSS are used in coding section. The data received from the glucometer is stored in the local database of the mobile device. It is intended that people can transfer their measurements to their mobile device by using wireless technology and access the graphical representations of their data. In this context, the aim of the study is to be able to perform health monitoring by using different wireless technologies in mobile devices that can respond to different wireless technologies at present. Thus, that will contribute the other works done in this area.
763
78902
Concentrated Winding Permanent Magnet Axial Flux Motor with Soft Magnetic Composite Core
Abstract:
Compacted insulated iron powder is a key material in high volume electric motors manufacturing. It offers high production rates, dimensionally stable components, and low scrap volumes. It is the aim of this paper to develop a three-phase compact single sided concentrated winding axial flux PM motor with soft magnetic composite (SMC) core for reducing core losses and cost. To succeed the motor would need to be designed in such a way as to exploit the isotropic magnetic properties of the material and open slot constructions with surface mounted PM for higher speed up to 6000 rpm, without excessive rotor losses. Higher fill factor up to 70% was achieved by compacting the coils, which offered a significant improvement in performance. A finite-element analysis was performed for accurate parameters calculation and the simulation results are thoroughly presented and agree with the theoretical calculations very well.
762
78574
Energy Storage Technologies and Projections of Grid Parity: A Case Study of Singapore
Abstract:
World renewable energy production is growing fast. This is mostly due to a sharp price reduction of energy sources, and particularly solar modules. Unfortunately, the growth of solar energy production is driven only by some countries (i.e. Germany, China, Japan, Italy, United States of America, Spain, France, India, Australia). Not surprisingly that some of them (i.e. Australia, Germany, Italy and Netherlands) have already achieved grid parity, where the cost of renewable energy reached the grid electricity price. However, other countries, such as Singapore, did not reach grid parity yet, cost of solar energy is still greater than fuel-based electricity price. Electricity storage technologies, such as batteries, can help reduce cost of solar energy further. Renewable energy, such as solar energy, is highly variable, thus more solar panels are required to meet energy demand. The main advantage of energy storage is that it allows to satisfy peak demand with lesser capacity of solar modules installations, and thus, to reduce payback period. Due to high price of energy storage technologies and their characteristics, such as power capacity, power density, efficiency, scale, discharge capacity, response time and lifetime; the benefit of energy storage might not offset their price yet. But it might offset in the future due to falling price. Bloomberg New Energy Finance projects that lithium-ion batteries will become three times cheaper by 2030. To compare energy storage technologies with electricity price we calculate levelized cost of solar energy. It measures the cost of kWh of solar energy in monetary units. Levelized cost of solar energy is a present value of an average total cost of electricity generation over the operational lifetime, including price of panels, installation, maintenance costs etc., per kWh of energy generated over the operational lifetime. Using projections of electricity price in Singapore, solar photovoltaics modules and energy storage technologies developed by International Renewable Energy Agency, International Energy Agency, Fraunhofer and Energy Market Authority of Singapore till 2030, this paper provides projections when grid parity will be achieved in Singapore with two types of batteries. Lead acid and lithium-ion batteries are considered as they have the greatest price fall projections. The preliminary results show that although lead acid batteries are more attractive now, due to lower price, lithium-ion batteries will allow reaching grid parity by 2030 due to significant price fall. The results of this paper have practical implications for energy policy design and the choice of solar inverters. Although installation of batteries could become attractive only in the future, solar inverters compatible with specific types of batteries could be already installed to save on future purchase of inverters compatible with lithium-ion batteries.
761
78503
IoT Based Monitoring Temperature and Humidity
Abstract:
Today there is a demand to monitor environmental factors almost in all research institutes and industries and even for domestic uses. The analog data measurement requires manual effort to note readings, and there may be a possibility of human error. Such type of systems fails to provide and store precise values of parameters with high accuracy. Analog systems are having drawback of storage/memory. Therefore, there is a requirement of a smart system which is fully automated, accurate and capable enough to monitor all the environmental parameters with utmost possible accuracy. Besides, it should be cost-effective as well as portable too. This paper represents the Wireless Sensor (WS) data communication using DHT11, Arduino, SIM900A GSM module, a mobile device and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). Experimental setup includes the heating arrangement of DHT11 and transmission of its data using Arduino and SIM900A GSM shield. The mobile device receives the data using Arduino, GSM shield and displays it on LCD too. Heating arrangement is used to heat and cool the temperature sensor to study its characteristics.
760
78306
Experimental Verification of On-Board Power Generation System for Vehicle Application
Abstract:
The usage of renewable energy sources is increased day by day to overcome the dependency on fossil fuels. The wind energy is considered as a prominent source of renewable energy. This paper presents an approach for utilizing wind energy obtained from moving the vehicle for cell-phone charging. The selection of wind turbine, blades, generator, etc. is done to have the most efficient system. The calculation procedure for power generated and drag force is shown to know the effectiveness of the proposal. The location of the turbine is selected such that the system remains symmetric, stable and has the maximum induced wind. The calculation of the generated power at different velocity is presented. The charging is achieved for the speed 30 km/h and the system works well till 60 km/h. The model proposed seems very useful for the people traveling long distances in the absence of mobile electricity. The model is very economical and easy to fabricate. It has very less weight and area that makes it portable and comfortable to carry along. The practical results are shown by implementing the portable wind turbine system on two-wheeler.
759
78157
Sliding Mode Control of an Internet Teleoperated PUMA 600 Robot
Abstract:
In this paper, we have developed a sliding mode controller for PUMA 600 manipulator robot, to control the remote robot a teleoperation system was developed. This system includes two sites, local and remote. The sliding mode controller is installed at the remote site. The client asks for a position through an interface and receives the real positions after running of the task by the remote robot. Both sites are interconnected via the Internet. In order to verify the effectiveness of the sliding mode controller, that is compared with a classic PID controller. The developed approach is tested on a virtual robot. The results confirmed the high performance of this approach.
758
78113
Design and Implementation a Virtualization Platform for Providing Smart Tourism Services
Abstract:
This paper proposes an Internet of Things (IoT) based virtualization platform for providing smart tourism services. The virtualization platform provides a consistent access interface to various types of data by naming IoT devices and legacy information systems as pathnames in a virtual file system. In the other words, the IoT virtualization platform functions as a middleware which uses the metadata for underlying collected data. The proposed platform makes it easy to provide customized tourism information by using tourist locations collected by IoT devices and additionally enables to create new interactive smart tourism services focused on the tourist locations. The proposed platform is very efficient so that the provided tourism services are isolated from changes in raw data and the services can be modified or expanded without changing the underlying data structure.
757
78092
An Improved Visible Range Absorption Spectroscopy on Soil Macronutrient
Abstract:
Soil fertility is commonly evaluated by soil macronutrients such as nitrate, potassium, and phosphorus contents. Optical spectroscopy is an emerging technology which is rapid and simple has been widely used in agriculture to measure soil fertility. For visible and near infrared absorption spectroscopy, the absorbed light level in is useful for soil macro-nutrient measurement. This is because the absorption of light in a soil sample influences sensitivity of the measurement. This paper reports the performance of visible and near infrared absorption spectroscopy in the 400–1400 nm wavelength range using light-emitting diode as the excitation light source to predict the soil macronutrient content of nitrate, potassium, and phosphorus. The experimental results show an improved linear regression analysis of various soil specimens based on the Beer–Lambert law to determine sensitivity of soil spectroscopy by evaluating the absorption of characteristic peaks emitted from a light-emitting diode and detected by high sensitivity optical spectrometer. This would denote in developing a simple and low-cost soil spectroscopy with light-emitting diode for future implementation.
756
78090
Low Power CMOS Amplifier Design for Wearable Electrocardiogram Sensor
Abstract:
The trend of health care screening devices in the world is increasingly towards the favor of portability and wearability, especially in the most common electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring system. This is because these wearable screening devices are not restricting the patient’s freedom and daily activities. While the demand of low power and low cost biomedical system on chip (SoC) is increasing in exponential way, the front end ECG sensors are still suffering from flicker noise for low frequency cardiac signal acquisition, 50 Hz power line electromagnetic interference, and the large unstable input offsets due to the electrode-skin interface is not attached properly. In this paper, a high performance CMOS amplifier for ECG sensors that suitable for low power wearable cardiac screening is proposed. The amplifier adopts the highly stable folded cascode topology and later being implemented into RC feedback circuit for low frequency DC offset cancellation. By using 0.13 µm CMOS technology from Silterra, the simulation results show that this front end circuit can achieve a very low input referred noise of 1 pV/√Hz and high common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of 174.05 dB. It also gives voltage gain of 75.45 dB with good power supply rejection ratio (PSSR) of 92.12 dB. The total power consumption is only 3 µW and thus suitable to be implemented with further signal processing and classification back end for low power biomedical SoC.
755
78081
Multiple Winding Multiphase Motor for Electric Drive System
Abstract:
This paper proposes a novel multiphase motor structure. The armature winding consists of several independent multiphase windings that have different rating rotate speed and power. Compared to conventional motor, the novel motor structure has more operation mode and fault tolerance mode, which makes it adapt to high-reliability requirement situation such as electric vehicle, aircraft and ship. Performance of novel motor structure varies with winding match. In order to find optimum control strategy, motor torque character, efficiency performance and fault tolerance ability under different operation mode are analyzed in this paper, and torque distribution strategy for efficiency optimization is proposed. Simulation analyze is taken and the result shows that proposed structure has the same efficiency on heavy load and higher efficiency on light load operation points, which expands high efficiency area of motor and cruise range of vehicle. The proposed structure can improve motor highest speed.
754
77995
Thermal Analysis and Optimization of a High-Speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Toroidal Windings
Abstract:
Toroidal windings were taken advantage of to reduce of axial length of the motor, so as to match the applications that have severe restrictions on the axial length. But slotting in the out edge of the stator will decrease the heat-dissipation capacity of the water cooling of the housing. Besides, the windings in the outer slots will increase the copper loss, which will further increase the difficult for heat dissipation of the motor. At present, carbon-fiber composite retaining sleeve are increasingly used to be mounted over the magnets to ensure the rotor strength at high speeds. Due to the poor thermal conductivity of carbon-fiber sleeve, the cooling of the rotor becomes very difficult, which may result in the irreversible demagnetization of magnets for the excessively high temperature. So it is necessary to analyze the temperature rise of such motor. This paper builds a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of a toroidal-winding high-speed permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) with water cooling of housing and forced air cooling of rotor. Thermal analysis was carried out based on the model and the factors that affects the temperature rise were investigated. Then thermal optimization for the prototype was achieved. Finally, a small-size prototype was manufactured and the thermal analysis results were verified.
753
77730
Hardware Implementation of Local Binary Pattern Based Two-Bit Transform Motion Estimation
Abstract:
Nowadays, demand for using real-time video transmission capable devices is ever-increasing. So, high-resolution videos have made efficient video compression techniques an essential component for capturing and transmitting video data. Motion estimation has a critical role in encoding raw video. Hence, various motion estimation methods are introduced to efficiently compress the video. Low bit depth representation based motion estimation methods facilitate computation of matching criteria thus, provide small hardware footprint. In this paper, a hardware implementation of two-bit transformation based low-complexity motion estimation method using local binary pattern approach is proposed. Image frames are represented in two-bit depth instead of full-depth by making use of local binary pattern as a binarization approach, and binarization part of hardware architecture is explained in detail. Experimental results demonstrate the difference between proposed hardware architecture and the architectures of well-known low complexity motion estimation methods in terms of important aspects such as resource utilization, energy, and power consumption.
752
77563
Contribution to the Success of the Energy Audit in the Industrial Environment: A Case Study about Audit of Interior Lighting for an Industrial Site in Morocco
Abstract:
The energy audit is the essential initial step to ensure a good definition of energy control actions. The in-depth study of the various energy-consuming equipments makes it possible to determine the actions and investments with best cost for the company. The analysis focuses on the energy consumption of production equipment and utilities (lighting, heating, air conditioning, ventilation, transport). Successful implementation of this approach requires, however, to take account of a number of prerequisites. This paper proposes a number of useful recommendations concerning the energy audit in order to achieve better results and a case study concerning the lighting audit of a Moroccan company by showing the gains that can be made through this audit.
751
77554
Performance Enhancement of Hybrid Racing Car by Design Optimization
Abstract:
Environmental pollution and shortage of conventional fuel are the main concerns in the transportation sector. Most of the vehicles use an internal combustion engine (ICE), powered by gasoline fuels. This results into emission of toxic gases. Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powered by electric machine and ICE is capable of reducing emission of toxic gases and fuel consumption. However to build HEV, it is required to accommodate motor and batteries in the vehicle along with engine and fuel tank. Thus, overall weight of the vehicle increases. To improve the fuel economy and acceleration, the weight of the HEV can be minimized. In this paper, the design methodology to reduce the weight of the hybrid racing car is proposed. To this end, the chassis design is optimized. Further, attempt is made to obtain the maximum strength with minimum material weight. The best configuration out of the three main configurations such as series, parallel and the dual-mode (series-parallel) is chosen. Moreover, the most suitable type of motor, battery, braking system, steering system and suspension system are identified. The racing car is designed and analyzed in the simulating software. The safety of the vehicle is assured by performing static and dynamic analysis on the chassis frame. From the results, it is observed that, the weight of the racing car is reduced by 11 % without compromising on safety and cost. It is believed that the proposed design and specifications can be implemented practically for manufacturing hybrid racing car.
750
77251
Cascaded Multi-Level Single-Phase Switched Boost Inverter
Abstract:
Recently, multilevel inverters have become more attractive for researchers due to low total harmonic distortion (THD) in the output voltage and low electromagnetic interference (EMI). This paper proposes a single-phase cascaded H-bridge quasi switched boost inverter (CHB-qSBI) for renewable energy sources applications. The proposed inverter has the advantage over the cascaded H-bridge quasi-Z-source inverter (CHB-qZSI) in reducing two capacitors and two inductors. As a result, cost, weight, and size are reduced. Furthermore, the dc-link voltage of each module is controlled by individual shoot-through duty cycle to get the same values. Therefore, the proposed inverter solves the imbalance problem of dc-link voltage in traditional CHB inverter. This paper shows the operating principles and analysis of the single-phase cascaded H-bridge quasi switched boost inverter. Also, a control strategy for the proposed inverter is shown. Experimental and simulation results are shown to verify the operating principle of the proposed inverter.
749
77120
High-Quality Flavor of Black Belly Pork under Lightning Corona Discharge Using Tesla Coil for High Voltage Education
Abstract:
The Tesla coil is an electrical resonant transformer circuit designed by inventor Nikola Tesla in 1891. It is used to produce high voltage, low current and high frequency alternating current electricity. Tesla experimented with a number of different configurations consisting of two or sometimes three coupled resonant electric circuits. This paper focuses on development and high voltage education to apply a Tesla coil to cuisine for high quality flavor and taste conditioning as well as high voltage education under 50 kV corona discharge. The result revealed that the velocity of roasted black belly pork by Tesla coil is faster than that of conventional methods such as hot grill and steel plate etc. depending on applied voltage level and applied voltage time. Besides, carbohydrate and crude protein increased, whereas natrium and saccharides significantly decreased after lightning surge by Tesla coil. This idea will be useful in high voltage education and high voltage application.
748
76760
Extended Constraint Mask Based One-Bit Transform for Low-Complexity Fast Motion Estimation
Authors:
Abstract:
In this paper, an improved motion estimation (ME) approach based on weighted constrained one-bit transform is proposed for block-based ME employed in video encoders. Binary ME approaches utilize low bit-depth representation of the original image frames with a Boolean exclusive-OR based hardware efficient matching criterion to decrease computational burden of the ME stage. Weighted constrained one-bit transform (WC 1BT) based approach improves the performance of conventional C-1BT based motion estimation employing two bit-depth constraint mask in place of a one bit-depth mask. In this work, the range of constraint mask is further extended to increase ME performance of WC-1BT approach. Experiments reveal that the proposed method provides better ME accuracy compared existing similar ME methods in the literature.
747
76711
Immunity Improvement for High Voltage PEDMOS Leakage Current Shift after High Temperature Operating Lifetime through Optimized Ld (Drain Channel Length) and X(P+ to Salicide O/L)
Abstract:
Generally, an increment of leakage current Immunity Improvement for high voltage PEDMOS Leakage Current Shift after high temperature operating lifetime through Optimized Ld (Drain Channel Length) and X(P+ to Salicide O/L) according to Vth (threshold voltage) shift after PLR(product level reliability) HTOL (high temperature operating lifetime) test of HV(high voltage) PEDMOS, is observed, which comes from hot hole accumulation caused by Hot Carrier Injection (HCI) stress. However, high standby leakage current (TIDD) after HTOL which comes from scale-down of HV PEDMOS, shows little Vth shift with high BV level compared to conventional HV PEDMOS transistor so far as we generally knows. Especially, a reduction issue of ‘X’ length which is overlap (O/L) distance between P+ and silicide on drain region due to reduction of Ld (drift length) exists for LCD display driver IC which high voltage of more than 10V is required according to chip shrinkage. It might be assumed that large BV& high standby leakage current according to ‘X’ shrinkage induces reduction of boron dopant by boron segregation at the interface between P-DRIFT region and X(P+ to Sal O/L) during silicide formation, thereby resulting in the leakage current.