Development of an Evaluation Metric on the Basis of a Comprehensive Proband Study in Order to Benchmark Conventional an Electrified Vehicle Concepts in Terms of Customer-Oriented Driving Dynamics
Automobile manufacturers progressively focus on a downsizing strategy to meet the EU's CO2 requirements concerning type-approval consumption cycles. The reduction in naturally aspirated engine power is compensated by increased levels of turbocharging. By downsizing conventional engines, CO2 emissions are reduced. However, it also implicates major challenges regarding longitudinal dynamic characteristics. An example of this circumstance is the delayed turbocharger-induced torque reaction which leads to a partially poor response behavior of the vehicle during acceleration operations. That is why it is important to focus conventional drive train design on real customer driving again. The currently considered dynamic maneuvers like the acceleration time 0-100 km/h discussed by journals and car manufacturers describe longitudinal dynamics experienced by a driver inadequately. For that reason we present the realization and evaluation of a comprehensive proband study. Subjects are provided with different vehicle concepts (electrified vehicles, vehicles with naturally aspired engines and vehicles with different concepts of turbochargers etc.) in order to find out which dynamic criteria are decisive for a subjectively strong acceleration and response behavior of a vehicle. Subsequently, realistic acceleration criteria are derived. By weighing the criteria an evaluation metric is developed to objectify customer-oriented transient dynamics. Fully-electrified vehicles are the benchmark in terms of customer-oriented longitudinal dynamics. The electric machine provides the desired torque almost without delay. This advantage compared to combustion engines is especially noticeable at low engine speeds. In conclusion, we will show the degree to which extent customer-relevant longitudinal dynamics of conventional vehicles can be approximated to electrified vehicle concepts. Therefore, various technical measures (turbocharger concepts, 48V electrical chargers etc.) and drive train designs (e.g. varying the final drive) are presented and evaluated in order to strengthen the vehicle’s customer-relevant transient dynamics. As a rating size the newly developed evaluation metric will be used.
Advanced Stability Criterion for Time-Delayed Systems of Neutral Type and Its Application
This paper investigates stability problem for linear systems of neutral type with time-varying delay. By constructing various Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, and utilizing some mathematical techniques, the sufficient stability conditions for the systems are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be easily solved by various effective optimization algorithms. Finally, some illustrative examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed criterion.
Study of Transformer and Motor Winding under Pulsed Power Application
Pulsed Power in the form of Recurrent Surge Generator (RSG) can be used for testing various parameters of Motor or Transformer windings including inter-turn, interlayer insulation. Windings with solid insulation in motor and transformer have many interfaces and undesirable defects, and these defects can be exposed under this nondestructive testing methodology. Due to rapid development in power electronics variable frequency drives (VFD), Dry Type or cast resin Transformer used with PWM Sine wave inverters for solar power, solid insulation system used nowadays are shifting more and more to a high-frequency application. Authors have used the recurrent surge generator for testing winding integrity as well as Partial Discharge(PD) at fast rising voltage enabling PD measurement at closer situation under which the insulation system is supposed to work. Authors have discussed test results on a different system with recurrent surge voltages of different rise time.
PSS®E Based Modelling, Simulation and Synchronous Interconnection of Eastern Grid and North-Eastern Regional Grid of India
Eastern Regional(ER) Grid and North Eastern Regional (NER) Grid are two major grids of Eastern Part of India. Both of the grid consists of voltage level 765kV, 400 kV, 220 kV and numerous buses at lower voltage range. Eastern Regional Grid and North Eastern Regional Grid are not only connected among themselves but are also connected to various other grids of India. ER and NER Grid having various HVDC lines or back to back systems which form the total network. The studied system comprises of 340 buses of different voltage levels and transmission lines running over a length of 32089 km. The validation of load flow has been done using IEEE STANDARD 30 bus system. The power flow simulation analysis has been performed after synchronizing both the Eastern Grid and North-Eastern Regional Grid of India using Power System Simulators for Engineering (PSS®E) Important inferences has been drawn from the study.
Modeling and Simulation of the Tripod Gait of a Hexapod Robot
Hexapod legged robot’s missions, particularly in irregular and dangerous areas, require high stability and high precision. In this paper, we consider the rectangular architecture body of legged robots with six legs distributed symmetrically along two sides; each leg contains three degrees of freedom for greater mobility. The aim of this work is planning tripod gait trajectory, based on the computing of the kinematic model to determine the joint variables in the lifting and the propelling phases. For this, an appropriate coordinate frames are attached to the body and legs in order to obtain clear representation and efficient generation of the system equations. A simulation in Matlab software platform is developed to confirm the kinematic model and various trajectories to the tripod gait adopted by the hexapod robot in its locomotion.
Effects of Magnetization Patterns on Characteristics of Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Generator for Wave Energy Converter Applications
The rare earth magnets used in synchronous generators offer many advantages, including high efficiency, greatly reduced the size, and weight. The permanent magnet linear synchronous generator (PMLSG) allows for direct drive without the need for a mechanical device. Therefore, the PMLSG is well suited to translational applications, such as wave energy converters and free piston energy converters. This manuscript compares the effects of different magnetization patterns on the characteristics of double-sided PMLSGs in slotless stator structures. The Halbach array has a higher flux density in air-gap than the Vertical array, and the advantages of its performance and efficiency are widely known. To verify the advantage of Halbach array, we apply a finite element method (FEM) and analytical method. In general, a FEM and an analytical method are used in the electromagnetic analysis for determining model characteristics, and the FEM is preferable to magnetic field analysis. However, the FEM is often slow and inflexible. On the other hand, the analytical method requires little time and produces accurate analysis of the magnetic field. Therefore, the flux density in air-gap and the Back-EMF can be obtained by FEM. In addition, the results from the analytical method correspond well with the FEM results. The model of the Halbach array reveals less copper loss than the model of the Vertical array, because of the Halbach array’s high output power density. The model of the Vertical array is lower core loss than the model of Halbach array, because of the lower flux density in air-gap. Therefore, the current density in the Vertical model is higher for identical power output. The completed manuscript will include the magnetic field characteristics and structural features of both models, comparing various results, and specific comparative analysis will be presented for the determination of the best model for application in a wave energy converting system.
Thermal Image Segmentation Method for Stratification of Freezing Temperatures
The study uses an image analysis technique employing thermal imaging to measure the percentage of areas with various temperatures on a freezing surface. An image segmentation method using threshold values is applied to a sequence of image recording the freezing process. The phenomenon is transient and temperatures vary fast to reach the freezing point and complete the freezing process. Freezing salt water is subjected to the salt rejection that makes the freezing point dynamic and dependent on the salinity at the phase interface. For a specific area of freezing, nucleation starts from one side and end to another side, which causes a dynamic and transient temperature in that area. Thermal cameras are able to reveal a difference in temperature due to their sensitivity to infrared radiance. Using Experimental setup, a video is recorded by a thermal camera to monitor radiance and temperatures during the freezing process. Image processing techniques are applied to all frames to detect and classify temperatures on the surface. Image processing segmentation method is used to find contours with same temperatures on the icing surface. Each segment is obtained using the temperature range appeared in the image and correspond pixel values in the image. Using the contours extracted from image and camera parameters, stratified areas with different temperatures are calculated. To observe temperature contours on the icing surface using the thermal camera, the salt water sample is dropped on a cold surface with the temperature of -20°C. A thermal video is recorded for 2 minutes to observe the temperature field. Examining the results obtained by the method and the experimental observations verifies the accuracy and applicability of the method.
Analysis of Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based Electrostatic Discharge Protection Circuits with Electrical Characteristics for the 5V Power Clamp
This paper analyzed the SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier)-based ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) protection circuits with the turn-on time characteristics. The structures are the LVTSCR (Low Voltage Triggered SCR), the ZTSCR (Zener Triggered SCR) and the PTSCR (P-Substrate Triggered SCR). The three structures are for the 5V power clamp. In general, the structures with the low trigger voltage structure can have the fast turn-on characteristics than other structures. All the ESD protection circuits have the low trigger voltage by using the N+ bridge region of LVTSCR, by using the zener diode structure of ZTSCR, by increasing the trigger current of PTSCR. The simulation for the comparison with the turn-on time was conducted by the Synopsys TCAD simulator. As the simulation results, the LVTSCR has the turn-on time of 2.8 ns, ZTSCR of 2.1 ns and the PTSCR of 2.4 ns. The HBM simulation results, however, show that the PTSCR is the more robust structure of 430K in HBM 8kV standard than 450K of LVTSCR and 495K of ZTSCR. Therefore the PTSCR is the most effective ESD protection circuit for the 5V power clamp.
Indoor Temperature Estimation with FIR Filter Using R-C Network Model
In this paper, we proposed a new strategy for estimating indoor temperature based on the modified resistance capacitance (R–C) network thermal dynamic model. Using minimum variance finite impulse response (FIR) filter, accurate indoor temperature estimation can be achieved. Our study is clarified by the experimental validation of the proposed indoor temperature estimation method. This experiment scenario environment is composed of a demand response (DR) server and home energy management system (HEMS) in a test bed.
Designing an Intelligent Voltage Instability System in Power Distribution Systems in the Philippines Using IEEE 14 Bus Test System
The state of an electric power system may be classified as either stable or unstable. The borderline of stability is at any condition for which a slight change in an unfavourable direction of any pertinent quantity will cause instability. Voltage instability in power distribution systems could lead to voltage collapse and thus power blackouts. The researchers will present an intelligent system using back propagation algorithm that can detect voltage instability and output voltage of a power distribution and classify it as stable or unstable. The researchers’ work is the use of parameters involved in voltage instability as input parameters to the neural network for training and testing purposes that can provide faster detection and monitoring of the power distribution system.
Hybrid GA-PSO Based Pitch Controller Design for Aircraft Control System
In this paper proportional, integral, derivative (PID) controller is used to control the pitch angle of the aircraft when the elevation angle is changed or modified. The pitch angle is dependent on elevation angle; a change in one corresponds to a change in the other. The PID controller helps in restricted change of pitch rate in response to the elevation angle. The PID controller is dependent on different parameters like Kp, Ki, Kd which change the pitch rate as they change. Various methodologies are used for changing those parameters for getting a perfect time response pitch angle, as desired or wished by a concerned person. While reckoning the values of those parameters, trial and guessing may prove to be futile in order to provide comfort to passengers. So, using some metaheuristic techniques can be useful in handling these errors. Hybrid GA-PSO is one such powerful algorithm which can improve transient and steady state response and can give us more reliable results for PID gain scheduling problem.
A Study on Improvement of the Electromagnetic Vibration of a Polygon Mirror Scanner Motor
Electric machines for office automation device such as printer and scanner have been required the low noise and vibration performance. Many researches about the low noise and vibration of polygon mirror scanner motor have been also progressed. The noise and vibration of polygon mirror scanner motor can be classified by aerodynamic, structural and electromagnetic. Electromagnetic noise and vibration can be occurred by high cogging torque and nonsinusoidal back EMF. To improve the cogging torque and back EMF characteristic, we apply unequal air-gap. To analyze characteristic of a polygon mirror scanner motor, two dimensional finite element method is used. To minimize the cogging torque of a polygon mirror motor, Kriging based on latin hypercube sampling (LHS) is utilized. Compared to the initial model, the torque ripple of the optimized unequal air-gap model was reduced by 23.4 % while maintaining the back EMF and average torque. To verify the optimal design results, the experiment was performed. We measured the vibration in motors at 23,600 rpm which is the rated velocity. The radial and axial gravitational acceleration of the optimal model were declined more than seven times and three times, respectively. From these results, a shape optimized unequal polygon mirror scanner motor has shown the usefulness of an improvement in the torque ripple and electromagnetic vibration characteristic.
Inverter Based Gain-Boosting Fully Differential CMOS Amplifier
This work presents a fully differential CMOS amplifier consisting of two self-biased gain boosted inverter stages, that provides an alternative to the power hungry operational amplifier. The self-biasing avoids the use of external biasing circuitry, thus reduces the die area, design efforts, and power consumption. In the present work, regulated cascode technique has been employed for gain boosting. The Miller compensation is also applied to enhance the phase margin. The circuit has been designed and simulated in 1.8 V 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The simulation results show a high DC gain of 100.7 dB, Unity-Gain Bandwidth of 107.8 MHz, and Phase Margin of 66.7o with a power dissipation of 286 μW and makes it suitable candidate for the high resolution pipelined ADCs.
Drugstore Control System Design and Realization Based on Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)
Population growth and Chinese two-child policy will boost pharmaceutical market, and it will continue to maintain the growth for a period of time in the future, the traditional pharmacy dispensary has been unable to meet the growing medical needs of the peoples. Under the strong support of the national policy, the automatic transformation of traditional pharmacies is the inclination of the Times, the new type of intelligent pharmacy system will continue to promote the development of the pharmaceutical industry. Under this background, based on PLC control, the paper proposed an intelligent storage and automatic drug delivery system; complete design of the lower computer's control system and the host computer's software system has been present. The system can be applied to dispensing work for Chinese herbal medicinal and Western medicines. Firstly, the essential of intelligent control system for pharmacy is discussed. After the analysis of the requirements, the overall scheme of the system design is presented. Secondly, introduces the software and hardware design of the lower computer's control system, including the selection of PLC and the selection of motion control system, the problem of the human-computer interaction module and the communication between PC and PLC solves, the program design and development of the PLC control system is completed. The design of the upper computer software management system is described in detail. By analyzing of E-R diagram, built the establish data, the communication protocol between systems is customize, C++ Builder is adopted to realize interface module, supply module, main control module, etc. The paper also gives the implementations of the multi-threaded system and communication method. Lastly, each module of the lower computer control system is tested. Then, after building a test environment, the function test of the upper computer software management system is completed. On this basis, the entire control system accepts the overall test.
A Computationally Efficient Algorithm for Discrete Time-Varying Finite Memory Filter
In this paper, a computationally efficient discrete time-varying finite memory filter is proposed using only finite measurements on the most recent window. The proposed discrete time-varying finite memory filter is represented in a matrix form and then represented in an iterative form. In addition, a computationally efficient algorithm for the proposed filter is derived for the numerical stability and the amenability to parallel and systolic implementation, which can improve computational reliability and burden. This algorithm is derived from the iterative form of proposed filter by applying a square-root strategy. Via computer simulations, the proposed computationally efficient algorithm can be shown to be better than the infinite memory filtering based algorithm for the temporarily uncertain system.
Iridology as a Diagnostic Tool for Diabetic People
Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) techniques are quite popular and effective for chronic. Iridology is more than 150 years old CAM technique which analyzes the patterns, tissue weakness, color, shape, structure etc. for disease diagnosis. The objective of this paper is to validate the use of iridology for the diagnosis of diabetes. The suggested model was applied in a systemic disease with ocular effects. Two hundred subjects' data of 100 each diabetic and non-diabetic was evaluated. Complete procedure was kept very simple and free from the involvement of any iridologist. From the normalized iris the region of interest was cropped. In all 63 features were extracted using statistical, texture analysis and two dimensional discrete wavelet transformation. A comparison of accuracies of six different classifiers has been presented. The result shows 89.66% accuracy by the random forest classifier.
Power Generation through Water Vapour: An Approach of Using Sea/River/Lake Water as Renewable Energy Source
As present world needs more and more energy in a low cost way, it needs to find out the optimal way of power generation. In the sense of low cost, renewable energy is one of the greatest sources of power generation. Water vapour of sea/river/lake can be used for power generation by using the greenhouse effect in a large flat type water chamber floating on the water surface. The water chamber will always be kept half filled. When water evaporates by sunlight, the high pressured gaseous water will be stored in the chamber. By passing through a pipe and by using aerodynamics it can be used for power generation. The water level of the chamber is controlled by some means. As a large amount of water evaporates, an estimation can be highlighted, approximately 3 to 4 thousand gallons of water evaporates from per acre of surface (this amount will be more by greenhouse effect). This large amount of gaseous water can be utilized for power generation by passing through a pipe. This method can be a source of power generation.
A Modified Selective Harmonic Elimination Method for Balancing Capacitor Voltage in Modular Multilevel Converter
The modular multilevel converter (MMC) has proven itself as an exceptionally effective converter in High Voltage DC (HVDC) applications, due to its modularity, reliability, and robustness. Yet, it requires unique modulation techniques to accomplish the troublesome capacitor voltage balancing. In this paper, a Modified Selective Harmonic Elimination (M-SHE) is introduced where the switching of the submodules is done in a certain preconfigured arrangement which accomplishes the required capacitor balancing. The proposed technique is then compared with Third Harmonic Injection - Phase Shift - Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (THI-PS-SPWM) and with the traditional Selective Harmonic Elimination (SHE). The performance of the proposed M-SHE, traditional SHE and THI-PS-SPWM for a five-level MMC unit is evaluated based on time-domain simulation studies in the MATLAB/SIMULINK software. The reported study results demonstrate that the M-SHE satisfies capacitor balancing and has lower Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) than the traditional SHE and lower switching frequency than THI-PS-SPWM.
[Keynote Talk]: sEMG Interface Design for Locomotion Identification
Surface electromyographic (sEMG) signal has the potential to identify the human activities and intention. This potential is further exploited to control the artificial limbs using the sEMG signal from residual limbs of amputees. The paper deals with the development of multichannel cost efficient sEMG signal interface for research application, along with evaluation of proposed class dependent statistical approach of the feature selection method. The sEMG signal acquisition interface was developed using ADS1298 of Texas Instruments, which is a front-end interface integrated circuit for ECG application. Further, the sEMG signal is recorded from two lower limb muscles for three locomotions namely: Plane Walk (PW), Stair Ascending (SA), Stair Descending (SD). A class dependent statistical approach is proposed for feature selection and also its performance is compared with 12 preexisting feature vectors. To make the study more extensive, performance of five different types of classifiers are compared. The outcome of the current piece of work proves the suitability of the proposed feature selection algorithm for locomotion recognition, as compared to other existing feature vectors. The SVM Classifier is found as the outperformed classifier among compared classifiers with an average recognition accuracy of 97.40%. Feature vector selection emerges as the most dominant factor affecting the classification performance as it holds 51.51% of the total variance in classification accuracy. The results demonstrate the potentials of the developed sEMG signal acquisition interface along with the proposed feature selection algorithm.
A Study on Improvement of the Torque Ripple and Demagnetization Characteristics of a PMSM
The study on the torque ripple of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSMs) has been rapidly progressed, which effects on the noise and vibration of the electric vehicle. There are several ways to reduce torque ripple, which are the increase in the number of slots and poles, the notch of the rotor and stator teeth, and the skew of the rotor and stator. However, the conventional methods have the disadvantage in terms of material cost and productivity.
The demagnetization characteristic of PMSMs must be attained for electric vehicle application. Due to rare earth supply issue, the demand for Dy-free permanent magnet has been increasing, which can be applied to PMSMs for the electric vehicle. Dy-free permanent magnet has lower the coercivity; the demagnetization characteristic has become more significant.
To improve the torque ripple as well as the demagnetization characteristics, which are significant parameters for electric vehicle application, an unequal air-gap model is proposed for a PMSM. A shape optimization is performed to optimize the design variables of an unequal air-gap model. Optimal design variables are the shape of an unequal air-gap and the angle between V-shape magnets. An optimization process is performed by Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS), Kriging Method, and Genetic Algorithm (GA). Finite element analysis (FEA) is also utilized to analyze the torque and demagnetization characteristics.
The torque ripple and the demagnetization temperature of the initial model of 45kW PMSM with unequal air-gap are 10 % and 146.8 degrees, respectively, which are reaching a critical level for electric vehicle application. Therefore, the unequal air-gap model is proposed, and then an optimization process is conducted.
Compared to the initial model, the torque ripple of the optimized unequal air-gap model was reduced by 7.7 %. In addition, the demagnetization temperature of the optimized model was also increased by 1.8 % while maintaining the efficiency. From these results, a shape optimized unequal air-gap PMSM has shown the usefulness of an improvement in the torque ripple and demagnetization temperature for the electric vehicle.
A Test Methodology to Measure the Open-Loop Voltage Gain of an Operational Amplifier
It is practically not feasible to measure the open-loop voltage gain of the operational amplifier in the open loop configuration. It is so because the open-loop voltage gain of the operational amplifier is very large. In order to avoid the saturation of the output voltage, a very small input should be given to operational amplifier which is not possible to be measured practically by a digital multimeter. A test circuit for measurement of open loop voltage gain of an operational amplifier has been proposed and verified using simulation tools as well as by experimental methods on the breadboard. The main advantage of this test circuit is that it is simple, fast, accurate, cost-effective and easy to handle even on a breadboard. The test circuit requires only the device under test (DUT) along with resistors. This circuit has been tested for measurement of open loop voltage gain for different operational amplifiers. The underlying goal is to design testable circuits for various analog devices that are simple to realize in VLSI systems, giving accurate results and without changing the characteristics of the original system. The DUTs used are LM741CN and UA741CP. For LM741CN, the simulated gain and experimentally measured gain (average) are calculated as 89.71 dB and 87.71 dB respectively. For UA741CP the simulated gain and experimentally measured gain (average) are calculated as 101.15 dB and 105.15 dB respectively. These values are found to be close to the datasheet values.
Ultra-High Voltage Energization of Electrostatic Precipitators for Coal Fired Boilers
Strict air pollution control is today high on the agenda world-wide. By reducing the particular emission, not only the mg/Nm3 will be reduced – also parts of mercury and other hazardous matters attached to the particles will be reduced. Furthermore, it is possible to catch the fine particles (PM2.5). For particulate control, the precipitators are still the preferred choice and much efforts have been done to improve the efficiencies. Many ESP’s have seen electrical upgrading by changing the traditional 1 phase power system into either 3 phase or SMPS (High Frequency) units. However, there exist a 4th type of power supply – the pulse type. This is unfortunately widely unknown, but may be of great benefit to power plants. The FLSmidth type is called COROMAX® and it is a high voltage pulse generator for precipitators using a semiconductor switch operating at medium potential. The generated high voltage pulses have rated amplitude of 80 kV and duration of 75 μs and are superimposed on a variable base voltage of 60 kV rated voltage. Hereby, achieving a peak voltage of 140 kV. COROMAX® has the ability to increase the voltage beyond the natural spark limit inside the precipitator. Voltage levels may often be twice as high after installation of COROMAX®. Hereby also the migration velocity increases and thereby the efficiency. As the collection efficiency is proportional to the voltage peak and mean values, this also increases the collection efficiency of the fine particles where test has shown 80% removal of particles less than 0.07 micron. Another great advantage is the indifference to back-corona. Simultaneously with emission reduction, the power consumption will also be reduced. Another great advantage of the COROMAX® system is that the emission can be improved without the need to change the internal parts or enlarge the ESP. Recently, more than 150 units have been installed in China, where emissions have been reduced to ultra-low levels.
Conditions for Model Matching of Switched Asynchronous Sequential Machines with Output Feedback
Solvability of the model matching problem for
input/output switched asynchronous sequential machines is discussed
in this paper. The control objective is to determine the existence
condition and design algorithm for a corrective controller that can
match the stable-state behavior of the closed-loop system to that of
a reference model. Switching operations and correction procedures
are incorporated using output feedback so that the controlled
switched machine can show the desired input/output behavior. A
matrix expression is presented to address reachability of switched
asynchronous sequential machines with output equivalence with
respect to a model. The presented reachability condition for the
controller design is validated in a simple example.
An Exitance Based Lighting Design Method
The visual needs of people in modern work based buildings are changing. Self-illuminated screens of computers, televisions, tablets and smart phones have changed the relationship between people and the lit environment. In the past, lighting design practice was primarily based on providing uniform horizontal illuminance on the working plane, but this has failed to ensure good quality lit environments. Lighting standards of today continue to be set based upon an old-fashioned approach that at its core, considers the task illuminance of the utmost importance, with this task typically being located on a horizontal plane. An alternative approach using two new metrics is proposed; Mean Room Surface Exitance (MRSE) and Target-Ambient Illuminance Ratio (TAIR) are proposed to assess illumination adequacy in interiors. The hypothesis is that these factors will be superior to the existing metrics used, which are horizontal illuminance led. For the six past years research has examined this within the Dublin Institute of Technology with a view to determining the suitability of this approach for application to general lighting practice. Since the start of this PhD research, a number of key findings have been produced that centered on how occupants will react to various levels of MRSE. This paper would provide a broad update on how this research has progressed. More specifically, this paper would: -Describe experimental results that demonstrate how occupants have reacted to various levels of MRSE within experimental office environments. -Demonstrate how MRSE can be measured using HDR images technology. -Illustrate how MRSE can be calculated using scripting and an open source lighting computation engine. -Outline a number of pilot studies that have investigated how people react to various changes in Target Ambient Illumination Ratios.
Comparison of Techniques for Detection and Diagnosis of Eccentricity in the Air-Gap Fault in Induction Motors
The induction motors are used worldwide in various industries. Several maintenance techniques are applied to increase the operating time and the lifespan of these motors. Among these, the predictive maintenance techniques such as Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA), Motor Square Current Signature Analysis (MSCSA), Park's Vector Approach (PVA) and Park's Vector Square Modulus (PVSM) are used to detect and diagnose faults in electric motors, characterized by patterns in the stator current frequency spectrum. In this article, these techniques are applied and compared on a real motor, which has the fault of eccentricity in the air-gap. It was used as a theoretical model of an electric induction motor without fault in order to assist comparison between the stator current frequency spectrum patterns with and without faults. Metrics were purposed and applied to evaluate the sensitivity of each technique fault detection. The results presented here show that the above techniques are suitable for the fault of eccentricity in the air gap, whose comparison between these showed the suitability of each one.
Portable Cardiac Monitoring System Based on Real-Time Microcontroller and Multiple Communication Interfaces
This paper presents the contributions in designing a mobile system named Tele-ECG implemented for remote monitoring of cardiac patients. For a better flexibility of this application, the authors chose to implement a local memory and multiple communication interfaces. The project described in this presentation is based on the ARM Cortex M0+ microcontroller and the ADAS1000 dedicated chip necessary for the collection and transmission of Electrocardiogram signals (ECG) from the patient to the microcontroller, without altering the performances and the stability of the system. The novelty brought by this paper is the implementation of a remote monitoring system for cardiac patients, having a real-time behavior and multiple interfaces. The microcontroller is responsible for processing digital signals corresponding to ECG and also for the implementation of communication interface with the main server, using GSM/Bluetooth SIMCOM SIM800C module. This paper translates all the characteristics of the Tele-ECG project representing a feasible implementation in the biomedical field.
Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Effectiveness of a Corrugated Rectangular Waveguide for a Microwave Conveyor-Belt Drier
Traditional heating methods such as electric ovens or steam heating are slow and not very efficient. For continuously heating the objects, a microwave conveyor-belt drier is widely used in the industrial microwave heating systems. However, there is a problem in which electromagnetic wave leaks toward outside of the heating cavity through the insertion opening. To achieve the prevention of the leakage of microwaves and improved heating characteristics, the corrugated rectangular waveguide at the entrance and exit openings of a microwave conveyor-belt drier is proposed and its electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness is analyzed and verified. The corrugated waveguides in the proposed microwave heating system achieve at least 20 dB shielding effectiveness while ensuring a sufficient height of the openings.
Temperature Contour Detection of Salt Ice Using Color Thermal Image Segmentation Method
The study uses a novel image analysis based on thermal imaging to detect temperature contours created on salt ice surface during transient phenomena. Thermal cameras detect objects by using their emissivities and IR radiance. The ice surface temperature is not uniform during transient processes. The temperature starts to increase from the boundary of ice towards the center of that. Thermal cameras are able to report temperature changes on the ice surface at every individual moment. Various contours, which show different temperature areas, appear on the ice surface picture captured by a thermal camera. Identifying the exact boundary of these contours is valuable to facilitate ice surface temperature analysis. Image processing techniques are used to extract each contour area precisely. In this study, several pictures are recorded while the temperature is increasing throughout the ice surface. Some pictures are selected to be processed by a specific time interval. An image segmentation method is applied to images to determine the contour areas. Color thermal images are used to exploit the main information. Red, green and blue elements of color images are investigated to find the best contour boundaries. The algorithms of image enhancement and noise removal are applied to images to obtain a high contrast and clear image. A novel edge detection algorithm based on differences in the color of the pixels is established to determine contour boundaries. In this method, the edges of the contours are obtained according to properties of red, blue and green image elements. The color image elements are assessed considering their information. Useful elements proceed to process and useless elements are removed from the process to reduce the consuming time. Neighbor pixels with close intensities are assigned in one contour and differences in intensities determine boundaries. The results are then verified by conducting experimental tests. An experimental setup is performed using ice samples and a thermal camera. To observe the created ice contour by the thermal camera, the samples, which are initially at -20° C, are contacted with a warmer surface. Pictures are captured for 20 seconds. The method is applied to five images ,which are captured at the time intervals of 5 seconds. The study shows the green image element carries no useful information; therefore, the boundary detection method is applied on red and blue image elements. In this case study, the results indicate that proposed algorithm shows the boundaries more effective than other edges detection methods such as Sobel and Canny. Comparison between the contour detection in this method and temperature analysis, which states real boundaries, shows a good agreement. This color image edge detection method is applicable to other similar cases according to their image properties.
Influence of Measurement System on Negative Bias Temperature Instability Characterization: Fast BTI vs Conventional BTI vs Fast Wafer Level Reliability
Negative Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI) is one of the critical degradation mechanisms in semiconductor device reliability that causes shift in the threshold voltage (Vth). However, thorough understanding of this reliability failure mechanism is still unachievable due to a recovery characteristic known as NBTI recovery. This paper will demonstrate the severity of NBTI recovery as well as one of the effective methods used to mitigate, which is the minimization of measurement system delays. Comparison was done in between two measurement systems that have significant differences in measurement delays to show how NBTI recovery causes result deviations and how fast measurement systems can mitigate NBTI recovery. Another method to minimize NBTI recovery without the influence of measurement system known as Fast Wafer Level Reliability (FWLR) NBTI was also done to be used as reference.
Exciting Voltage Control for Efficiency Maximization for 2-D Omni-Directional Wireless Power Transfer Systems
The majority of wireless power transfer (WPT) systems transfer power in a directional manner. Recently, omni-directional WPT systems have been addressed by several research groups. This paper describes a discrete exciting voltage control technique for wireless power transfer via magnetic resonant coupling with two orthogonal transmitter coils (2D omni-directional WPT system) which can maximize the power transfer efficiency in response to the change of coupling status. The theory allows the equations of the efficiency of the system to be determined at all the rate of the mutual inductance. The calculated results are included to confirm the advantage to one directional WPT system and the validity of the theory and the equations.