Availability Strategy of Medical Information for Telemedicine Services
The telemedicine services require correct computing resource management to guarantee productivity and efficiency for medical and non-medical staff. The aim of this study was to examine web management strategies to ensure the availability of resources and services in telemedicine so as to provide medical information management with an accessible strategy. In addition, to evaluate the quality-of-service parameters, the following were measured: delays, throughput, jitter, latency, available bandwidth, percent of access and denial of services based of web management performance map with profiles permissions and database management. Through of 24 different test scenarios, the results show that medical staff access 99% with QoS and 100% availability of medial information. The findings of this study suggest that the proposed strategy of web management is an ideal solution to guarantee the availability, reliability, and accessibility of medical information. Finally, this strategy offers seven user profile used at telemedicine center of Bogota-Colombia keeping QoS parameters suitable to telemedicine services.
Performance Analysis of Search Medical Imaging Service on Cloud Storage Using Decision Trees
Telemedicine services use large amounts of data, most of which are diagnostic images in Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) and Health Level Seven (HL7) formats. Metadata is generated from each related image to support their identification. This study presents the use of decision trees for the optimization of information search processes for diagnostic images, hosted on the cloud server. To analyze the performance in the server, the following quality of service (QoS) metrics are evaluated: delay, bandwidth, jitter, latency and throughput in five test scenarios for a total of 26 experiments during the loading and downloading of DICOM images, hosted by the telemedicine group server of the Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Bogotá, Colombia. By applying decision trees as a data mining technique and comparing it with the sequential search, it was possible to evaluate the search times of diagnostic images in the server. The results show that by using the metadata in decision trees, the search times are substantially improved, the computational resources are optimized, and the request management of the telemedicine image service is improved. Based on the experiments carried out, search efficiency increased by 45% in relation to the sequential search, given that, when downloading a diagnostic image, false positives are avoided in management and acquisition processes of said information. It is concluded that, for the diagnostic images services in telemedicine, the technique of decision trees guarantees the accessibility and robustness in the acquisition and manipulation of medical images, in the improvement of the diagnoses and medical procedures in patients.
Design of Replication System for Computer-Generated Hologram in Optical Component Application
Holographic optical elements (HOEs) have recently been one of the most suitable components in optoelectronic technology owing to the requirement of the product system with compact size. Computer-generated holography (CGH) is a well-known technology for HOEs production. In some cases, a well-designed diffractive optical element with multifunctional components is also an important issue and needed for an advanced optoelectronic system. Spatial light modulator (SLM) is one of the key components that has great capability to display CGH pattern and is widely used in various applications, such as an image projection system. As mentioned to multifunctional components, such as phase and amplitude modulation of light, high-resolution hologram with multiple-exposure procedure is also one of the suitable candidates. However, holographic recording under multiple exposures, the diffraction efficiency of the final hologram is inevitably lower than that with single exposure process. In this study, a two-step holographic recording method, including the master hologram fabrication and the replicated hologram production, will be designed. Since there exist a reduction factor M² of diffraction efficiency in multiple-exposure holograms (M multiple exposures), so it seems that single exposure would be more efficient for holograms replication. In the second step of holographic replication, a stable optical system with one-shot copying is introduced. For commercial application, one may utilize this concept of holographic copying to obtain duplications of HOEs with higher optical performance.
Study on the Efficient Routing Algorithms in Delay-Tolerant Networks
In Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN), there may not exist an end-to-end path between source and destination at the time of message transmission. Employing ‘Store Carry and Forward’ delivery mechanism for message transmission in such networks usually incurs long message delays. In this paper, we present the modified Binary Spray and Wait (BSW) routing protocol that enhances the performance of the original one. Our proposed algorithm adjusts the number of forward messages depending on the number of neighbor nodes. By using beacon messages periodically, the number of neighbor nodes can be managed. The simulation using ONE simulator results shows that our modified version gives higher delivery ratio and less latency as compared to BSW.
A Short-Baseline Dual-Antenna BDS/MEMS-IMU Integrated Navigation System
This paper puts forward a short-baseline dual-antenna BDS/MEMS-IMU integrated navigation, constructs the carrier phase double difference model of BDS (BeiDou Navigation Satellite System), and presents a 2-position initial orientation method on BDS. The Extended Kalman-filter has been introduced for the integrated navigation system. The differences between MEMS-IMU and BDS position, velocity and carrier phase indications are used as measurements. To show the performance of the short-baseline dual-antenna BDS/MEMS-IMU integrated navigation system, the experiment results show that the position error is less than 1m, the pitch angle error and roll angle error are less than 0.1°, and the heading angle error is about 1°.
Highly Accurate Target Motion Compensation Using Entropy Function Minimization
One of the defects of stepped frequency radar systems
is their sensitivity to target motion. In such systems, target motion
causes range cell shift, false peaks, Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR)
reduction and range profile spreading because of power spectrum
interference of each range cell in adjacent range cells which induces
distortion in High Resolution Range Profile (HRRP) and disrupt target
recognition process. Thus Target Motion Parameters (TMPs) effects
compensation should be employed. In this paper, such a method
for estimating TMPs (velocity and acceleration) and consequently
eliminating or suppressing the unwanted effects on HRRP based on
entropy minimization has been proposed. This method is carried out
in two major steps: in the first step, a discrete search method has
been utilized over the whole acceleration-velocity lattice network, in a
specific interval seeking to find a less-accurate minimum point of the
entropy function. Then in the second step, a 1-D search over velocity
is done in locus of the minimum for several constant acceleration
lines, in order to enhance the accuracy of the minimum point found
in the first step. The provided simulation results demonstrate the
effectiveness of the proposed method.
Performance Analysis in 5th Generation Massive Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output Systems
With fifth-generation wireless data networks guarantee significant capacity enhancement to suit more clients and services at higher information rates with better reliability while consuming less power. The deployment of massive multiple-input-multiple-output technology guarantees broadband wireless networks with the use of base station antenna arrays to serve a large number of clients at the same time slot and same frequency resources. In this work, we evaluate the performance of massive MIMO systems in 5th generation cellular networks in terms of capacity and bit error rate. Several cases were considered and analyzed to compare the performance of massive MIMO systems while varying the number of antennas at both transmitting and receiving ends. We found that, unlike classical MIMO systems, reducing the number of transmit antennas while increasing the number of antennas at the receiver end provides a better solution to performance enhancement. In addition, enhanced orthogonal frequency division multiplexing and beam division multiple access schemes further improve the performance of massive MIMO systems and make them more reliable.
A Methodology for the Identification of Technological Gaps and the Measurement of the Level of Technological Acceptance in the Rural Sector in Colombia
Since the advent of the Internet, the use of Information Technologies (IT) has increased exponentially. The field of informatics and telecommunications has put on the table countless possibilities for the development of different socio-economic activities, promoting a change of social paradigm and the emergence of the so-called information and knowledge society. For more than a decade, the Colombian government has been working on the incorporation of IT into the public sector through an e-government strategy. However, to date, many technological gaps has not yet been identified in the country to our knowledge, especially in rural areas and far from large cities, where factors such as low investment and the expansion of the armed conflict have led to economic and technological stagnation. This paper presents the research results obtained from the execution of a research project, which was approach from a qualitative approach and a methodological design of a participatory action research type. This design consists of nine fundamental stages divided into four work cycles. For which different strategies for data collection and analysis were established. From which, a methodology was obtained for the identification of technological gaps and the measurement of the level of technological acceptance in the rural sector, based on the TAM (Technology Acceptance Model) model, as a previous activity to the development of IT solutions framed in the e-government strategy in Colombia. The result of this research work represents a contribution from academia for the improvement of the country's technological development and a guide for the proper planning of IT solutions aimed at promoting a close relationship between government and citizens.
Relaxor Ferroelectric Lead-Free Na₀.₅₂K₀.₄₄Li₀.₀₄Nb₀.₈₄Ta₀.₁₀Sb₀.₀₆O₃ Ceramic: Giant Electromechanical Response with Intrinsic Polarization and Resistive Leakage Analyses
Environment-friendly lead-free Na₀.₅₂K₀.₄₄Li₀.₀₄Nb₀.₈₄Ta₀.₁₀Sb₀.₀₆O₃ (NKLNTS) ceramic was synthesized by solid-state reaction method in search of a potential candidate to replace lead-based ceramics such as PbZrO₃-PbTiO₃ (PZT), Pb(Mg₁/₃Nb₂/₃)O₃-PbTiO₃ (PMN-PT) etc., for various applications. The ceramic was calcined at temperature 850 ᵒC and sintered at 1090 ᵒC. The powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern revealed the formation of pure perovskite phase having tetragonal symmetry with space group P4mm of the synthesized ceramic. The surface morphology of the ceramic was studied using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) technique. The well-defined grains with homogeneous microstructure were observed. The average grain size was found to be ~ 0.6 µm. A very large value of piezoelectric charge coefficient (d₃₃ ~ 754 pm/V) was obtained for the synthesized ceramic which indicated its potential for use in transducers and actuators. In dielectric measurements, a high value of ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition temperature (Tm~305 ᵒC), a high value of maximum dielectric permittivity ~ 2110 (at 1 kHz) and a very small value of dielectric loss ( < 0.6) were obtained which suggested the utility of NKLNTS ceramic in high-temperature ferroelectric devices. Also, the degree of diffuseness (γ) was found to be 1.61 which confirmed a relaxor ferroelectric behavior in NKLNTS ceramic. P-E hysteresis loop was traced and the value of spontaneous polarization was found to be ~11μC/cm² at room temperature. The pyroelectric coefficient was obtained to be very high (p ∼ 1870 μCm⁻² ᵒC⁻¹) for the present case indicating its applicability in pyroelectric detector applications including fire and burglar alarms, infrared imaging, etc. NKLNTS ceramic showed fatigue free behavior over 107 switching cycles. Remanent hysteresis task was performed to determine the true-remanent (or intrinsic) polarization of NKLNTS ceramic by eliminating non-switchable components which showed that a major portion (83.10 %) of the remanent polarization (Pr) is switchable in the sample which makes NKLNTS ceramic a suitable material for memory switching devices applications. Time-Dependent Compensated (TDC) hysteresis task was carried out which revealed resistive leakage free nature of the ceramic. The performance of NKLNTS ceramic was found to be superior to many lead based piezoceramics and hence can effectively replace them for use in piezoelectric, pyroelectric and long duration ferroelectric applications.
Email Based Global Automation with Raspberry Pi and Control Circuit Module: Development of Smart Home Application
Global Automation is an emerging technology of today’s era and is based on Internet of Things (IoT). Global automation deals with the controlling of electrical appliances throughout the world. The fabrication of this system has been carried out with interfacing an electrical control system module to Raspberry Pi. An electrical control system module includes a relay driver mechanism through which appliances are controlled automatically in respective condition. In this research project, one email ID has been assigned to Raspberry Pi, and the users from different location having different email ID can mail to Raspberry Pi on assigned email address "[email protected]
mail.com" with subject heading "Device Control" with predefined command on compose email line. Also, a notification regarding current working condition of this system has been updated on respective user email ID. This approach is an innovative way of implementing smart automation system through which a user can control their electrical appliances like light, fan, television, refrigerator, etc. in their home with the use of email facility. The development of this project helps to enhance the concept of smart home application as well as industrial automation.
Dynamic Variation in Nano-Scale CMOS SRAM Cells Due to LF/RTS Noise and Threshold Voltage
The dynamic variation in memory devices such as the Static Random Access Memory can give errors in read or write operations. In this paper, the effect of low-frequency and random telegraph noise on the dynamic variation of one SRAM cell is detailed. The effect on circuit noise, speed, and length of time of processing is examined, using the Supply Read Retention Voltage and the Read Static Noise Margin. New test run methods are also developed. The obtained results simulation shows the importance of noise caused by dynamic variation, and the impact of Random Telegraph noise on SRAM variability is examined by evaluating the statistical distributions of Random Telegraph noise amplitude in the pull-up, pull-down. The threshold voltage mismatch between neighboring cell transistors due to intrinsic fluctuations typically contributes to larger reductions in static noise margin. Also the contribution of each of the SRAM transistor to total dynamic variation has been identified.
Motion Detection Method for Clutter Rejection in the Bio-Radar Signal Processing
The cardiopulmonary signal monitoring, without the
usage of contact electrodes or any type of in-body sensors, has
several applications such as sleeping monitoring and continuous
monitoring of vital signals in bedridden patients. This system has
also applications in the vehicular environment to monitor the driver,
in order to avoid any possible accident in case of cardiac failure.
Thus, the bio-radar system proposed in this paper, can measure vital
signals accurately by using the Doppler effect principle that relates
the received signal properties with the distance change between the
radar antennas and the person’s chest-wall. Once the bio-radar aim
is to monitor subjects in real-time and during long periods of time,
it is impossible to guarantee the patient immobilization, hence their
random motion will interfere in the acquired signals. In this paper,
a mathematical model of the bio-radar is presented, as well as its
simulation in MATLAB. The used algorithm for breath rate extraction
is explained and a method for DC offsets removal based in a motion
detection system is proposed. Furthermore, experimental tests were
conducted with a view to prove that the unavoidable random motion
can be used to estimate the DC offsets accurately and thus remove
Estimation of Mobility Parameters and Threshold Voltage of an Organic Thin Film Transistor Using an Asymmetric Capacitive Test Structure
Carrier mobility at the organic/insulator interface is essential to the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFT). The present work describes estimation of field dependent mobility (FDM) parameters and the threshold voltage of an OTFT using a simple, easy to fabricate two terminal asymmetric capacitive test structure using admittance measurements. Conventionally, transfer characteristics are used to estimate the threshold voltage in an OTFT with field independent mobility (FIDM). Yet, this technique breaks down to give accurate results for devices with high contact resistance and having field dependent mobility. In this work, a new technique is presented for characterization of long channel organic capacitor (LCOC). The proposed technique helps in the accurate estimation of mobility enhancement factor (γ), the threshold voltage (V_th) and band mobility (µ₀) using capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement in OTFT. This technique also helps to get rid of making short channel OTFT or metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures for making C-V measurements. To understand the behavior of devices and ease of analysis, transmission line compact model is developed. The 2-D numerical simulation was carried out to illustrate the correctness of the model. Results show that proposed technique estimates device parameters accurately even in the presence of contact resistance and field dependent mobility. Pentacene/Poly (4-vinyl phenol) based top contact bottom-gate OTFT’s are fabricated to illustrate the operation and advantages of the proposed technique. Small signal of frequency varying from 1 kHz to 5 kHz and gate potential ranging from +40 V to -40 V have been applied to the devices for measurement.
Comparative Analysis of Geographical Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks
The field of wireless sensor networks (WSN) engages a lot of associates in the research community as an interdisciplinary field of interest. This type of network is inexpensive, multifunctionally attributable to advances in micro-electromechanical systems and conjointly the explosion and expansion of wireless communications. A mobile ad hoc network is a wireless network without fastened infrastructure or federal management. Due to the infrastructure-less mode of operation, mobile ad-hoc networks are gaining quality. During this work, we have performed an efficient performance study of the two major routing protocols: Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocols. We have used an accurate simulation model supported NS2 for this purpose. Our simulation results showed that AODV mitigates the drawbacks of the DSDV and provides better performance as compared to DSDV.
Design of SAE J2716 Single Edge Nibble Transmission Digital Sensor Interface for Automotive Applications
Modern sensors often embed small-size digital controller for sensor control, value calibration, and signal processing. These sensors require digital data communication with host microprocessors, but conventional digital communication protocols are too heavy for price reduction. SAE J2716 SENT (single edge nibble transmission) protocol transmits direct digital waveforms instead of complicated analog modulated signals. In this paper, a SENT interface is designed in Verilog HDL (hardware description language) and implemented in FPGA (field-programmable gate array) evaluation board. The designed SENT interface consists of frame encoder/decoder, configuration register, tick period generator, CRC (cyclic redundancy code) generator/checker, and TX/RX (transmission/reception) buffer. Frame encoder/decoder is implemented as a finite state machine, and it controls whole SENT interface. Configuration register contains various parameters such as operation mode, tick length, CRC option, pause pulse option, and number of nibble data. Tick period generator generates tick signals from input clock. CRC generator/checker generates or checks CRC in the SENT data frame. TX/RX buffer stores transmission/received data. The designed SENT interface can send or receives digital data in 25~65 kbps at 3 us tick. Synthesized in 0.18 um fabrication technologies, it is implemented about 2,500 gates.
Design of Photonic Crystal with Defect Layer to Eliminate Interface Corrugations for Obtaining Unidirectional and Bidirectional Beam Splitting under Normal Incidence
Working with a dielectric photonic crystal (PC) structure which does not include surface corrugations, unidirectional transmission and dual-beam splitting are observed under normal incidence as a result of the strong diffractions caused by the embedded defect layer. The defect layer has twice the period of the regular PC segments which sandwich the defect layer. Although the PC has even number of rows, the structural symmetry is broken due to the asymmetric placement of the defect layer with respect to the symmetry axis of the regular PC. The simulations verify that efficient splitting and occurrence of strong diffractions are related to the dispersion properties of the Floquet-Bloch modes of the photonic crystal. Unidirectional and bi-directional splitting, which are associated with asymmetric transmission, arise due to the dominant contribution of the first positive and first negative diffraction orders. The effect of the depth of the defect layer is examined by placing single defect layer in varying rows, preserving the asymmetry of PC. Even for deeply buried defect layer, asymmetric transmission is still valid even if the zeroth order is not coupled. This transmission is due to evanescent waves which reach to the deeply embedded defect layer and couple to higher order modes. In an additional selected performance, whichever surface is illuminated, i.e., in both upper and lower surface illumination cases, incident beam is split into two beams of equal intensity at the output surface where the intensity of the out-going beams are equal for both illumination cases. That is, although the structure is asymmetric, symmetric bidirectional transmission with equal transmission values is demonstrated and the structure mimics the behavior of symmetric structures. Finally, simulation studies including the examination of a coupled-cavity defect for two different permittivity values (close to the permittivity values of GaAs or Si and alumina) reveal unidirectional splitting for a wider band of operation in comparison to the bandwidth obtained in the case of a single embedded defect layer. Since the dielectric materials that are utilized are low-loss and weakly dispersive in a wide frequency range including microwave and optical frequencies, the studied structures should be scalable to the mentioned ranges.
, beam deflection
, bi-directional splitting
, defect layer
, dual beam splitting
, Floquet-Bloch modes
, isofrequency contours
, line defect
, oblique incidence
, photonic crystal
Beam Deflection with Unidirectionality Due to Zeroth Order and Evanescent Wave Coupling in a Photonic Crystal with a Defect Layer without Corrugations under Oblique Incidence
Single beam deflection and unidirectional transmission are examined for oblique incidence in a Photonic Crystal (PC) structure which employs defect layer instead of surface corrugations at the interfaces. In all of the studied cases, the defect layer is placed such that the symmetry is broken. Two types of deflection are observed depending on whether the zeroth order is coupled or not. These two scenarios can be distinguished from each other by considering the simulated field distribution in PC. In the first deflection type, Floquet-Bloch mode enables zeroth order coupling. The energy of the zeroth order is redistributed between the diffraction orders at the defect layer, providing deflection. In the second type, when zeroth order is not coupled, strong diffractions cause blazing and the evanescent waves deliver energy to higher order diffraction modes. Simulated isofrequency contours can be utilized to estimate the coupling behavior. The defect layer is placed at varying rows, preserving the asymmetry of PC while evancescent waves can still couple to higher order modes. Even for deeply buried defect layer, asymmetric transmission and beam deflection are still encountered when the zeroth order is not coupled. We assume ε=11.4 (refractive index close to that of GaAs and Si) for the PC rods. A possible operation wavelength can be within microwave and infrared range. Since the suggested material is low loss, the structure can be scaled down to operate higher frequencies. Thus, a sample operation wavelength is selected as 1.5μm. Although the structure employs no surface corrugations transmission value T≈0.97 can be achieved by means of diffraction order m=-1. Moreover, utilizing an extra line defect, T value can be increased upto 0.99, under oblique incidence even if the line defect layer is deeply embedded in the photonic crystal. The latter configuration can be used to obtain deflection in one frequency range and can also be utilized for the realization of another functionality like defect-mode wave guiding in another frequency range but still using the same structure.
, beam deflection
, bi-directional splitting
, defect layer
, dual beam splitting
, Floquet-Bloch modes
, isofrequency contours
, line defect
, oblique incidence
, photonic crystal
Comparison of Direction of Arrival Estimation Method for Drone Based on Phased Microphone Array
Drones were first developed for military use and were used in World War 1. But recently drones have been used in a variety of fields. Several companies actively utilize drone technology to strengthen their services, and in agriculture, drones are used for crop monitoring and sowing. Other people use drones for hobby activities such as photography. However, as the range of use of drones expands rapidly, problems caused by drones such as improperly flying, privacy and terrorism are also increasing. As the need for monitoring and tracking of drones increases, researches are progressing accordingly. The drone detection system estimates the position of the drone using the physical phenomena that occur when the drones fly. The drone detection system measures being developed utilize many approaches, such as radar, infrared camera, and acoustic detection systems. Among the various drone detection system, the acoustic detection system is advantageous in that the microphone array system is small, inexpensive, and easy to operate than other systems. In this paper, the acoustic signal is acquired by using minimum microphone when drone is flying, and direction of drone is estimated. When estimating the Direction of Arrival(DOA), there is a method of calculating the DOA based on the Time Difference of Arrival(TDOA) and a method of calculating the DOA based on the beamforming. The TDOA technique requires less number of microphones than the beamforming technique, but is weak in noisy environments and can only estimate the DOA of a single source. The beamforming technique requires more microphones than the TDOA technique. However, it is strong against the noisy environment and it is possible to simultaneously estimate the DOA of several drones. When estimating the DOA using acoustic signals emitted from the drone, it is impossible to measure the position of the drone, and only the direction can be estimated. To overcome this problem, in this work we show how to estimate the position of drones by arranging multiple microphone arrays. The microphone array used in the experiments was four tetrahedral microphones. We simulated the performance of each DOA algorithm and demonstrated the simulation results through experiments.
Applicability of Fuzzy Logic for Intrusion Detection in Mobile Adhoc Networks
Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs) are gaining popularity due to their potential of providing low-cost mobile connectivity solutions to real-world communication problems. Integrating Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) in MANETs is a tedious task by reason of its distinctive features such as dynamic topology, de-centralized authority and highly controlled/limited resource environment. IDS primarily use automated soft-computing techniques to monitor the inflow/outflow of traffic packets in a given network to detect intrusion. Use of machine learning techniques in IDS enables system to make decisions on intrusion while continuous keep learning about their dynamic environment. An appropriate IDS model is essential to be selected to expedite this application challenges. Thus, this paper focused on fuzzy-logic based machine learning IDS technique for MANETs and presented their applicability for achieving effectiveness in identifying the intrusions. Further, the selection of appropriate protocol attributes and fuzzy rules generation plays significant role for accuracy of the fuzzy-logic based IDS, have been discussed. This paper also presents the critical attributes of MANET’s routing protocol and its applicability in fuzzy logic based IDS.
A Method for Time Synchronization between the eNodeBs in Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network under the Asymmetric Network
In this paper, we present a method for time synchronization between the two eNodeBs (eNBs) in E-UTRAN (Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access) network. The two eNBs are cooperating in so-called inter eNB CA (Carrier Aggregation) case and connected via asymmetrical IP network. We solve the problem by using broadcasting signals generated in E-UTRAN as synchronization signals. The results show that the time synchronization with the proposed method is possible with the error significantly less than 1 ms which is sufficient considering the time transmission interval is 1 ms in E-UTRAN. This makes this method (with low complexity) more suitable than Network Time Protocol (NTP) in the mobile applications with generated broadcasting signals where time synchronization in asymmetrical network is required.
Monitoring of Spectrum Usage and Signal Identification Using Cognitive Radio
The monitoring of spectrum usage and signal identification, using cognitive radio, is done to identify frequencies that are vacant for reuse. It has been established that ‘internet of things’ device uses a second frequency which is free, thereby facing the challenge of interference from other users, where some primary frequencies are not being utilized. The design was done by analyzing a specific frequency spectrum, checking if all the frequency stations that range from 87.5- 108MHz are presently being used in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. From the results, it was noticed that by using Software Defined Radio/Simulink, we were able to identify vacant frequencies in the range of frequency under consideration. Also, we were able to use the significance of energy detection threshold to reuse this vacant frequency spectrum, when the cognitive radio displays a zero output (that is decision H0), meaning that the channel is unoccupied. Hence, the analysis was able to find the spectrum hole and identify how it can be reused.
Fully Printed Strain Gauges: A Comparison of Aerosoljet-Printing and Micropipette-Dispensing
Strain sensors based on a change in resistance are
well established for the measurement of forces, stresses, or material
fatigue. Within the scope of this paper, fully additive manufactured
strain sensors were produced using an ink of silver nanoparticles.
Their behavior was evaluated by periodic tensile tests. Printed
strain sensors exhibit two advantages: Their measuring grid is
adaptable to the use case and they do not need a carrier-foil,
as the measuring structure can be printed directly onto a thin
sprayed varnish layer on the aluminum specimen. In order to
compare quality characteristics, the sensors have been manufactured
using two different technologies, namely aerosoljet-printing and
micropipette-dispensing. Both processes produce structures which
exhibit continuous features (in contrast to what can be achieved with
droplets during inkjet printing). Briefly summarized the results show
that aerosoljet-printing is the preferable technology for specimen with
non-planar surfaces whereas both technologies are suitable for flat
Modification of Electrical and Switching Characteristics of a Non Punch-Through Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor by Gamma Irradiation
Fast neutron irradiation using nuclear reactors is an effective method to improve switching loss and short circuit durability of power semiconductor (insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT) and insulated gate transistors (IGT), etc.). However, not only fast neutrons but also thermal neutrons, epithermal neutrons and gamma exist in the nuclear reactor. And the electrical properties of the IGBT may be deteriorated by the irradiation of gamma. Gamma irradiation damages are known to be caused by Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effect and Single Event Effect (SEE), Displacement Damage. Especially, the TID effect deteriorated the electrical properties such as leakage current and threshold voltage of a power semiconductor. This work can confirm the effect of the gamma irradiation on the electrical properties of 600 V NPT-IGBT. Irradiation of gamma forms lattice defects in the gate oxide and Si-SiO2 interface of the IGBT. It was confirmed that this lattice defect acts on the center of the trap and affects the threshold voltage, thereby negatively shifted the threshold voltage according to TID. In addition to the change in the carrier mobility, the conductivity modulation decreases in the n-drift region, indicating a negative influence that the forward voltage drop decreases. The turn-off delay time of the device before irradiation was 212 ns. Those of 2.5, 10, 30, 70 and 100 kRad(Si) were 225, 258, 311, 328, and 350 ns, respectively. The gamma irradiation increased the turn-off delay time of the IGBT by approximately 65%, and the switching characteristics deteriorated.
Investigation of User Position Accuracy for Stand-Alone and Hybrid Modes of the Indian Navigation with Indian Constellation Satellite System
Satellite Navigation System such as the United States Global Positioning System (GPS) plays a significant role in determining the user position. Similar to that of GPS, Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) is a Satellite Navigation System indigenously developed by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), India, to meet the country’s navigation applications. This system is also known as Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC). The NavIC system’s main objective, is to offer Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) services to users in its two service areas i.e., covering the Indian landmass and the Indian Ocean. Six NavIC satellites are already deployed in the space and their receivers are in the performance evaluation stage. Four NavIC dual frequency receivers are installed in the ‘Advanced GNSS Research Laboratory’ (AGRL) in the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, University College of Engineering, Osmania University, India. The NavIC receivers can be operated in two positioning modes: Stand-alone IRNSS and Hybrid (IRNSS+GPS) modes. In this paper, analysis of various parameters such as Dilution of Precision (DoP), three Dimension (3D) Root Mean Square (RMS) Position Error and Horizontal Position Error with respect to Visibility of Satellites is being carried out using the real-time IRNSS data, obtained by operating the receiver in both positioning modes. Two typical days (6th July 2017 and 7th July 2017) are considered for Hyderabad (Latitude-17°24'28.07’N, Longitude-78°31'4.26’E) station are analyzed. It is found that with respect to the considered parameters, the Hybrid mode operation of NavIC receiver is giving better results than that of the standalone positioning mode. This work finds application in development of NavIC receivers for civilian navigation applications.
Faculty Members' Acceptance of Mobile Learning in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Case Study of a Saudi University
It is difficult to find an aspect of our modern lives that has been untouched by mobile technology. Indeed, the use of mobile learning in Saudi Arabia may enhance students’ learning and increase overall educational standards. However, within tertiary education, the success of e-learning implementation depends on the degree to which students and educators accept mobile learning and are willing to utilise it. Therefore, this research targeted the factors that influence Hail University instructors’ intentions to use mobile learning. An online survey was completed by eighty instructors and it was found that their use of mobile learning was heavily predicted by performance experience, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions; the multiple regression analysis revealed that 67% of the variation was accounted for by these variables. From these variables, effort expectancy was shown to be the strongest predictor of intention to use e-learning for instructors.
Partial M-Sequence Code Families Applied in Spectral Amplitude Coding Fiber-Optic Code-Division Multiple-Access Networks
Nowadays, numerous spectral amplitude coding (SAC) fiber-optic code-division-multiple-access (FO-CDMA) techniques were appealing due to their capable of providing moderate security and relieving the effects of multiuser interference (MUI). Nonetheless, the performance of the previous network is degraded due to fixed in-phase cross-correlation (IPCC) value. Based on the above problems, a new SAC FO-CDMA network using partial M-sequence (PMS) code is presented in this study. Because the proposed PMS code is originated from M-sequence code, the system using the PMS code could effectively suppress the effects of MUI. In addition, two-code keying (TCK) scheme can applied in the proposed SAC FO-CDMA network and enhance the whole network performance. According to the consideration of system flexibility, simple optical encoders/decoders (codecs) using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) were also developed. First, we constructed a diagram of the SAC FO-CDMA network, including (N/2-1) optical transmitters, (N/2-1) optical receivers, and one N×N star coupler for broadcasting transmitted optical signals to arrive at the input port of each optical receiver. Note that the parameter N for the PMS code was the code length. In addition, the proposed SAC network was using superluminescent diodes (SLDs) as light sources, which then can save a lot of system cost compared with the other FO-CDMA methods. For the design of each optical transmitter, it is composed of an SLD, one optical switch, and two optical encoders according to assigned PMS codewords. On the other hand, each optical receivers includes a 1 × 2 splitter, two optical decoders, and one balanced photodiode for mitigating the effect of MUI. In order to simplify the next analysis, the some assumptions were used. First, the unipolarized SLD has flat power spectral density (PSD). Second, the received optical power at the input port of each optical receiver is the same. Third, all photodiodes in the proposed network have the same electrical properties. Fourth, transmitting '1' and '0' has an equal probability. Subsequently, by taking the factors of phase‐induced intensity noise (PIIN) and thermal noise, the corresponding performance was displayed and compared with the performance of the previous SAC FO-CDMA networks. From the numerical result, it shows that the proposed network improved about 25% performance than that using other codes at BER=10-9. This is because the effect of PIIN was effectively mitigated and the received power was enhanced by two times. As a result, the SAC FO-CDMA network using PMS codes has an opportunity to apply in applications of the next-generation optical network.
Digital Encoder Based Power Frequency Deviation Measurement
In the proposed technique a simple method is presented for measurement of power frequency deviations. A phase locked loop (PLL) is used to multiply the signal under test by a factor of 100. The number of pulses in this pulse train signal are counted over a stable known period, using decade driving assemblies (DDAs) and flip-flops. These signals are combined using logic gates and then passed through decade counters to give a unique combination of pulses or levels, which are further encoded. These pulses are equally suitable for both control applications and display units. The experimental circuit developed gives a resolution of 1 Hz within the measurement period of 20 ms. The proposed circuit is also simulated in Verilog Hardware Description Language (VHDL) and implemented using Field Programming Gate Arrays (FPGAs). A high resolution Logic Analyzer is used to observe the results of FPGA implementation. These results are compared with the results of the proposed circuit of discrete components. The proposed system is useful for frequency deviation measurement and control in power systems.
Power Allocation Algorithm for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Based Cognitive Radio Networks
Cognitive radio (CR) is the promising technology that addresses the spectrum scarcity problem for future wireless communications. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) technology provides more power band ratios for cognitive radio networks (CRNs). While CR is a solution to the spectrum scarcity, it also brings up the capacity problem. In this paper, a novel power allocation algorithm that aims at maximizing the sum capacity in the OFDM based cognitive radio networks is proposed. Proposed allocation algorithm is based on the previously developed water-filling algorithm. To reduce the computational complexity calculating in water filling algorithm, proposed algorithm allocates the total power according to each subcarrier. The power allocated to the subcarriers increases sum capacity. To see this increase, Matlab program was used, and the proposed power allocation was compared with average power allocation, water filling and general power allocation algorithms. The water filling algorithm performed worse than the proposed algorithm while it performed better than the other two algorithms. The proposed algorithm is better than other algorithms in terms of capacity increase. In addition the effect of the change in the number of subcarriers on capacity was discussed. Simulation results show that the increase in the number of subcarrier increases the capacity.
Performance of High Efficiency Video Codec over Wireless Channels
Due to recent advances in wireless communication technologies and hand-held devices, there is a huge demand for video-based applications such as video surveillance, video conferencing, remote surgery, Digital Video Broadcast (DVB), IPTV, online learning courses, YouTube, WhatsApp, Instagram, Facebook, Interactive Video Games. However, the raw videos posses very high bandwidth which makes the compression a must before its transmission over the wireless channels. The High Efficiency Video Codec (HEVC) (also called H.265) is latest state-of-the-art video coding standard developed by the Joint effort of ITU-T and ISO/IEC teams. HEVC is targeted for high resolution videos such as 4K or 8K resolutions that can fulfil the recent demands for video services. The compression ratio achieved by the HEVC is twice as compared to its predecessor H.264/AVC for same quality level. The compression efficiency is generally increased by removing more correlation between the frames/pixels using complex techniques such as extensive intra and inter prediction techniques. As more correlation is removed, the chances of interdependency among coded bits increases. Thus, bit errors may have large effect on the reconstructed video. Sometimes even single bit error can lead to catastrophic failure of the reconstructed video. In this paper, we study the performance of HEVC bitstream over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. Moreover, HEVC over Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) combined with forward error correction (FEC) schemes are also explored over the noisy channel. The video will be encoded using HEVC, and the coded bitstream is channel coded to provide some redundancies. The channel coded bitstream is then modulated using QAM and transmitted over AWGN channel. At the receiver, the symbols are demodulated and channel decoded to obtain the video bitstream. The bitstream is then used to reconstruct the video using HEVC decoder. It is observed that as the signal to noise ratio of channel is decreased the quality of the reconstructed video decreases drastically. Using proper FEC codes, the quality of the video can be restored up to certain extent. Thus, the performance analysis of HEVC presented in this paper may assist in designing the optimized code rate of FEC such that the quality of the reconstructed video is maximized over wireless channels.
Proximity-Inset Fed Triple Band Antenna for Global Position System with High Gain
A triple band circularly polarized antenna covering 1.17, 1.22, and 1.57 GHz is presented. To extend to the triple-band operation, we need to add one more ring while maintaining the mechanism to independently control each ring. The inset-part in the feeding scheme is used to excite the band at 1.22 GHz, while the proximate-part of the feeding scheme is used to excite not only the band at 1.57 GHz but also the band at 1.17 GHz. This is achieved by up-vertically coupled with one ring to radiate at 1.57 GHz and down-vertically coupled another ring to radiate at 1.17 GHz. It is also noted that the inset-part in our feeding scheme is by horizontal coupling. Furthermore, to increase the gain at all three bands, three air-layers are added to make the total height of the antenna be 7.8 mm. The total thickness of the three air-layers is 3 mm. The gains of the three bands are all greater than 5 dBiC after adding the air-layers.