Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 56400

Electronics and Communication Engineering

Mobility-Aware Relay Selection in Two Hop Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Network
Unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAV’s) have gained great popularity due to their remoteness, ease of deployment and high maneuverability in different applications like real-time surveillance, image capturing, weather atmospheric studies, disaster site monitoring and mapping. These applications can involve a real-time communication with the ground station. However, altitude and mobility possess a few challenges for the communication. UAV’s at high altitude usually require more transmit power. One possible solution can be with the use of multi hops (UAV’s acting as relays) and exploiting the mobility pattern of the UAV’s. In this paper, we studied a relay (UAV’s acting as relays) selection for a reliable transmission to a destination UAV. We exploit the mobility information of the UAV’s to propose a Mobility-Aware Relay Selection (MARS) algorithm with the objective of giving improved data rates. The results are compared with Non Mobility-Aware relay selection scheme and optimal values. Numerical results show that our proposed MARS algorithm gives 6% better achievable data rates for the mobile UAV’s as compared with Non MobilityAware relay selection scheme. On average a decrease of 20.2% in data rate is achieved with MARS as compared with SDP solver in Yalmip.
Availability Strategy of Medical Information for Telemedicine Services
The telemedicine services require correct computing resource management to guarantee productivity and efficiency for medical and non-medical staff. The aim of this study was to examine web management strategies to ensure the availability of resources and services in telemedicine so as to provide medical information management with an accessible strategy. In addition, to evaluate the quality-of-service parameters, the following were measured: delays, throughput, jitter, latency, available bandwidth, percent of access and denial of services based of web management performance map with profiles permissions and database management. Through of 24 different test scenarios, the results show that medical staff access 99% with QoS and 100% availability of medial information. The findings of this study suggest that the proposed strategy of web management is an ideal solution to guarantee the availability, reliability, and accessibility of medical information. Finally, this strategy offers seven user profile used at telemedicine center of Bogota-Colombia keeping QoS parameters suitable to telemedicine services.
Performance Analysis of Search Medical Imaging Service on Cloud Storage Using Decision Trees
Telemedicine services use large amounts of data, most of which are diagnostic images in Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) and Health Level Seven (HL7) formats. Metadata is generated from each related image to support their identification. This study presents the use of decision trees for the optimization of information search processes for diagnostic images, hosted on the cloud server. To analyze the performance in the server, the following quality of service (QoS) metrics are evaluated: delay, bandwidth, jitter, latency and throughput in five test scenarios for a total of 26 experiments during the loading and downloading of DICOM images, hosted by the telemedicine group server of the Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Bogotá, Colombia. By applying decision trees as a data mining technique and comparing it with the sequential search, it was possible to evaluate the search times of diagnostic images in the server. The results show that by using the metadata in decision trees, the search times are substantially improved, the computational resources are optimized, and the request management of the telemedicine image service is improved. Based on the experiments carried out, search efficiency increased by 45% in relation to the sequential search, given that, when downloading a diagnostic image, false positives are avoided in management and acquisition processes of said information. It is concluded that, for the diagnostic images services in telemedicine, the technique of decision trees guarantees the accessibility and robustness in the acquisition and manipulation of medical images, in the improvement of the diagnoses and medical procedures in patients.
Distant Speech Recognition Using Laser Doppler Vibrometer
Most existing applications of automatic speech recognition relies on cooperative subjects at a short distance to a microphone. Standoff speech recognition using microphone arrays can extend the subject to sensor distance somewhat, but it is still limited to only a few feet. As such, most deployed applications of standoff speech recognitions are limited to indoor use at short range. Moreover, these applications require air passway between the subject and the sensor to achieve reasonable signal to noise ratio. This study reports long range (50 feet) automatic speech recognition experiments using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) sensor. This study shows that the LDV sensor modality can extend the speech acquisition standoff distance far beyond microphone arrays to hundreds of feet. In addition, LDV enables 'listening' through the windows for uncooperative subjects. This enables new capabilities in automatic audio and speech intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) for law enforcement, homeland security and counter terrorism applications. The Polytec LDV model OFV-505 is used in this study. To investigate the impact of different vibrating materials, five parallel LDV speech corpora, each consisting of 630 speakers, are collected from the vibrations of a glass window, a metal plate, a plastic box, a wood slate, and a concrete wall. These are the common materials the application could encounter in a daily life. These data were compared with the microphone counterpart to manifest the impact of various materials on the spectrum of the LDV speech signal. State of the art deep neural network modeling approaches is used to conduct continuous speaker independent speech recognition on these LDV speech datasets. Preliminary phoneme recognition results using time-delay neural network, bi-directional long short term memory, and model fusion shows great promise of using LDV for long range speech recognition. To author’s best knowledge, this is the first time an LDV is reported for long distance speech recognition application.
Modeling and Design of Rectenna for Low Power Medical Implants
Wireless power transfer is continuously becoming more powerful and compact in medical implantable devices and the wide range of applications. A rectenna is designed for wireless power transfer technique that can be applied to medical implant devices. The experiment is performed using ANSYS HFSS, a full wave electromagnetic simulation. The dipole antenna combinations operating at 2.4 GHz are used for wireless power transfer and the maximum DC voltage reception by the implant considering International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) regulation. The power receiving dipole antenna is placed inside the cylindrical geometry having the similar properties of the human body at the frequency of 2.4 GHz. Our design can provide the power at the depth of 5 mm skin and 5mm of bone for the implant. The voltage doubler/quadrupler rectifier in ANSYS Simplorer is used to calculate the exact DC current utilized by implant inside the human body. The qualitative design and analysis of this wireless power transfer method could also be used for other biomedical implants systems such as cardiac pacemaker, insulin pump, and retinal implants.
A Low Cost Gain-Coupled Distributed Feedback Laser Based on Periodic Surface p-Contacts
The distributed feedback (DFB) lasers are indispensable in optical phase array (OPA) used for light detection and ranging (LIDAR) techniques, laser communication systems and integrated optics, thanks to their stable single longitudinal mode and narrow linewidth properties. Traditional index-coupled (IC) DFB lasers with uniform gratings have an inherent problem of lasing two degenerated modes. Phase shifts are usually required to eliminate the mode degeneration, making the grating structure complex and expensive. High-quality antireflection (AR) coatings on both lasing facets are also essential owing to the random facet phases introduced by the chip cleavage process, which means half of the lasing energy is wasted. Gain-coupled DFB (GC-DFB) lasers based on the periodic gain (or loss) are announced to have single longitudinal mode as well as capable of the unsymmetrical coating to increase lasing power and efficiency thanks to facet immunity. However, expensive and time-consuming technologies such as epitaxial regrowth and nanoscale grating processing are still required just as IC-DFB lasers, preventing them from practical applications and commercial markets. In this research, we propose a low-cost, single-mode regrowth-free GC-DFB laser based on periodic surface p-contacts. The gain coupling effect is achieved simply by periodic current distribution in the quantum well caused by periodic surface p-contacts, introducing very little index-coupling effect that can be omitted. It is prepared by i-line lithography, without nanoscale grating fabrication or secondary epitaxy. Due to easy fabrication techniques, it provides a method to fabricate practical low cost GC-DFB lasers for widespread practical applications.
Challenges for IoT Adoption in India: A Study Based on Foresight Analysis for 2025
In the era of the digital world, the Internet of Things (IoT) has been receiving significant attention. Its ubiquitous connectivity between humans, machines to machines (M2M) and machines to humans provides it a potential to transform the society and establish an ecosystem to serve new dimensions to the economy of the country. Thereby, this study has attempted to identify the challenges that seem prevalent in IoT adoption in India through the literature survey. Further, the data has been collected by taking the opinions of experts to conduct the foresight analysis and it has been analyzed with the help of scenario planning process – Micmac, Mactor, Multipol, and Smic-Prob. As a methodology, the study has identified the relationship between variables through variable analysis using Micmac and actor analysis using Mactor, this paper has attempted to generate the entire field of possibilities in terms of hypotheses and construct various scenarios through Multipol. And lastly, the findings of the study include final scenarios that are selected using Smic-Prob by assigning the probability to all the scenarios (including the conditional probability). This study may help the practitioners and policymakers to remove the obstacles to successfully implement the IoT in India.
Design of Replication System for Computer-Generated Hologram in Optical Component Application
Holographic optical elements (HOEs) have recently been one of the most suitable components in optoelectronic technology owing to the requirement of the product system with compact size. Computer-generated holography (CGH) is a well-known technology for HOEs production. In some cases, a well-designed diffractive optical element with multifunctional components is also an important issue and needed for an advanced optoelectronic system. Spatial light modulator (SLM) is one of the key components that has great capability to display CGH pattern and is widely used in various applications, such as an image projection system. As mentioned to multifunctional components, such as phase and amplitude modulation of light, high-resolution hologram with multiple-exposure procedure is also one of the suitable candidates. However, holographic recording under multiple exposures, the diffraction efficiency of the final hologram is inevitably lower than that with single exposure process. In this study, a two-step holographic recording method, including the master hologram fabrication and the replicated hologram production, will be designed. Since there exist a reduction factor M² of diffraction efficiency in multiple-exposure holograms (M multiple exposures), so it seems that single exposure would be more efficient for holograms replication. In the second step of holographic replication, a stable optical system with one-shot copying is introduced. For commercial application, one may utilize this concept of holographic copying to obtain duplications of HOEs with higher optical performance.
Model Order Reduction Using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm and Simulated Annealing
Model order reduction has been one of the most challenging topics in the past years. In this paper, a hybrid solution of genetic algorithm (GA) and simulated annealing algorithm (SA) are used to approximate high-order transfer functions (TFs) to lower-order TFs. In this approach, hybrid algorithm is applied to model order reduction putting in consideration improving accuracy and preserving the properties of the original model which are two important issues for improving the performance of simulation and computation and maintaining the behavior of the original complex models being reduced. Compared to conventional mathematical methods that have been used to obtain a reduced order model of high order complex models, our proposed method provides better results in terms of reducing run-time. Thus, the proposed technique could be used in electronic design automation (EDA) tools.
Study on the Efficient Routing Algorithms in Delay-Tolerant Networks
In Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN), there may not exist an end-to-end path between source and destination at the time of message transmission. Employing ‘Store Carry and Forward’ delivery mechanism for message transmission in such networks usually incurs long message delays. In this paper, we present the modified Binary Spray and Wait (BSW) routing protocol that enhances the performance of the original one. Our proposed algorithm adjusts the number of forward messages depending on the number of neighbor nodes. By using beacon messages periodically, the number of neighbor nodes can be managed. The simulation using ONE simulator results shows that our modified version gives higher delivery ratio and less latency as compared to BSW.
A Short-Baseline Dual-Antenna BDS/MEMS-IMU Integrated Navigation System
This paper puts forward a short-baseline dual-antenna BDS/MEMS-IMU integrated navigation, constructs the carrier phase double difference model of BDS (BeiDou Navigation Satellite System), and presents a 2-position initial orientation method on BDS. The Extended Kalman-filter has been introduced for the integrated navigation system. The differences between MEMS-IMU and BDS position, velocity and carrier phase indications are used as measurements. To show the performance of the short-baseline dual-antenna BDS/MEMS-IMU integrated navigation system, the experiment results show that the position error is less than 1m, the pitch angle error and roll angle error are less than 0.1°, and the heading angle error is about 1°.
Highly Accurate Target Motion Compensation Using Entropy Function Minimization
One of the defects of stepped frequency radar systems is their sensitivity to target motion. In such systems, target motion causes range cell shift, false peaks, Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) reduction and range profile spreading because of power spectrum interference of each range cell in adjacent range cells which induces distortion in High Resolution Range Profile (HRRP) and disrupt target recognition process. Thus Target Motion Parameters (TMPs) effects compensation should be employed. In this paper, such a method for estimating TMPs (velocity and acceleration) and consequently eliminating or suppressing the unwanted effects on HRRP based on entropy minimization has been proposed. This method is carried out in two major steps: in the first step, a discrete search method has been utilized over the whole acceleration-velocity lattice network, in a specific interval seeking to find a less-accurate minimum point of the entropy function. Then in the second step, a 1-D search over velocity is done in locus of the minimum for several constant acceleration lines, in order to enhance the accuracy of the minimum point found in the first step. The provided simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Preprocessing and Fusion of Multiple Representation of Finger Vein patterns using Conventional and Machine Learning techniques
Application of biometric features to the cryptography for human identification and authentication is widely studied and promising area of the development of high-reliability cryptosystems. Biometric cryptosystems typically are designed for patterns recognition, which allows biometric data acquisition from an individual, extracts feature sets, compares the feature set against the set stored in the vault and gives a result of the comparison. Preprocessing and fusion of biometric data are the most important phases in generating a feature vector for key generation or authentication. Fusion of biometric features is critical for achieving a higher level of security and prevents from possible spoofing attacks. The paper focuses on the tasks of initial processing and fusion of multiple representations of finger vein modality patterns. These tasks are solved by applying conventional image preprocessing methods and machine learning techniques, Convolutional Neural Network (SVM) method for image segmentation and feature extraction. An article presents a method for generating sets of biometric features from a finger vein network using several instances of the same modality. Extracted features sets were fused at the feature level. The proposed method was tested and compared with the performance and accuracy results of other authors.
Performance Analysis in 5th Generation Massive Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output Systems
With fifth-generation wireless data networks guarantee significant capacity enhancement to suit more clients and services at higher information rates with better reliability while consuming less power. The deployment of massive multiple-input-multiple-output technology guarantees broadband wireless networks with the use of base station antenna arrays to serve a large number of clients at the same time slot and same frequency resources. In this work, we evaluate the performance of massive MIMO systems in 5th generation cellular networks in terms of capacity and bit error rate. Several cases were considered and analyzed to compare the performance of massive MIMO systems while varying the number of antennas at both transmitting and receiving ends. We found that, unlike classical MIMO systems, reducing the number of transmit antennas while increasing the number of antennas at the receiver end provides a better solution to performance enhancement. In addition, enhanced orthogonal frequency division multiplexing and beam division multiple access schemes further improve the performance of massive MIMO systems and make them more reliable.
A Methodology for the Identification of Technological Gaps and the Measurement of the Level of Technological Acceptance in the Rural Sector in Colombia
Since the advent of the Internet, the use of Information Technologies (IT) has increased exponentially. The field of informatics and telecommunications has put on the table countless possibilities for the development of different socio-economic activities, promoting a change of social paradigm and the emergence of the so-called information and knowledge society. For more than a decade, the Colombian government has been working on the incorporation of IT into the public sector through an e-government strategy. However, to date, many technological gaps has not yet been identified in the country to our knowledge, especially in rural areas and far from large cities, where factors such as low investment and the expansion of the armed conflict have led to economic and technological stagnation. This paper presents the research results obtained from the execution of a research project, which was approach from a qualitative approach and a methodological design of a participatory action research type. This design consists of nine fundamental stages divided into four work cycles. For which different strategies for data collection and analysis were established. From which, a methodology was obtained for the identification of technological gaps and the measurement of the level of technological acceptance in the rural sector, based on the TAM (Technology Acceptance Model) model, as a previous activity to the development of IT solutions framed in the e-government strategy in Colombia. The result of this research work represents a contribution from academia for the improvement of the country's technological development and a guide for the proper planning of IT solutions aimed at promoting a close relationship between government and citizens.
Relaxor Ferroelectric Lead-Free Na₀.₅₂K₀.₄₄Li₀.₀₄Nb₀.₈₄Ta₀.₁₀Sb₀.₀₆O₃ Ceramic: Giant Electromechanical Response with Intrinsic Polarization and Resistive Leakage Analyses
Environment-friendly lead-free Na₀.₅₂K₀.₄₄Li₀.₀₄Nb₀.₈₄Ta₀.₁₀Sb₀.₀₆O₃ (NKLNTS) ceramic was synthesized by solid-state reaction method in search of a potential candidate to replace lead-based ceramics such as PbZrO₃-PbTiO₃ (PZT), Pb(Mg₁/₃Nb₂/₃)O₃-PbTiO₃ (PMN-PT) etc., for various applications. The ceramic was calcined at temperature 850 ᵒC and sintered at 1090 ᵒC. The powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern revealed the formation of pure perovskite phase having tetragonal symmetry with space group P4mm of the synthesized ceramic. The surface morphology of the ceramic was studied using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) technique. The well-defined grains with homogeneous microstructure were observed. The average grain size was found to be ~ 0.6 µm. A very large value of piezoelectric charge coefficient (d₃₃ ~ 754 pm/V) was obtained for the synthesized ceramic which indicated its potential for use in transducers and actuators. In dielectric measurements, a high value of ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition temperature (Tm~305 ᵒC), a high value of maximum dielectric permittivity ~ 2110 (at 1 kHz) and a very small value of dielectric loss ( < 0.6) were obtained which suggested the utility of NKLNTS ceramic in high-temperature ferroelectric devices. Also, the degree of diffuseness (γ) was found to be 1.61 which confirmed a relaxor ferroelectric behavior in NKLNTS ceramic. P-E hysteresis loop was traced and the value of spontaneous polarization was found to be ~11μC/cm² at room temperature. The pyroelectric coefficient was obtained to be very high (p ∼ 1870 μCm⁻² ᵒC⁻¹) for the present case indicating its applicability in pyroelectric detector applications including fire and burglar alarms, infrared imaging, etc. NKLNTS ceramic showed fatigue free behavior over 107 switching cycles. Remanent hysteresis task was performed to determine the true-remanent (or intrinsic) polarization of NKLNTS ceramic by eliminating non-switchable components which showed that a major portion (83.10 %) of the remanent polarization (Pr) is switchable in the sample which makes NKLNTS ceramic a suitable material for memory switching devices applications. Time-Dependent Compensated (TDC) hysteresis task was carried out which revealed resistive leakage free nature of the ceramic. The performance of NKLNTS ceramic was found to be superior to many lead based piezoceramics and hence can effectively replace them for use in piezoelectric, pyroelectric and long duration ferroelectric applications.
Email Based Global Automation with Raspberry Pi and Control Circuit Module: Development of Smart Home Application
Global Automation is an emerging technology of today&rsquo;s era and is based on Internet of Things (IoT). Global automation deals with the controlling of electrical appliances throughout the world. The fabrication of this system has been carried out with interfacing an electrical control system module to Raspberry Pi. An electrical control system module includes a relay driver mechanism through which appliances are controlled automatically in respective condition. In this research project, one email ID has been assigned to Raspberry Pi, and the users from different location having different email ID can mail to Raspberry Pi on assigned email address "[email protected]" with subject heading "Device Control" with predefined command on compose email line. Also, a notification regarding current working condition of this system has been updated on respective user email ID. This approach is an innovative way of implementing smart automation system through which a user can control their electrical appliances like light, fan, television, refrigerator, etc. in their home with the use of email facility. The development of this project helps to enhance the concept of smart home application as well as industrial automation.
Dynamic Variation in Nano-Scale CMOS SRAM Cells Due to LF/RTS Noise and Threshold Voltage
The dynamic variation in memory devices such as the Static Random Access Memory can give errors in read or write operations. In this paper, the effect of low-frequency and random telegraph noise on the dynamic variation of one SRAM cell is detailed. The effect on circuit noise, speed, and length of time of processing is examined, using the Supply Read Retention Voltage and the Read Static Noise Margin. New test run methods are also developed. The obtained results simulation shows the importance of noise caused by dynamic variation, and the impact of Random Telegraph noise on SRAM variability is examined by evaluating the statistical distributions of Random Telegraph noise amplitude in the pull-up, pull-down. The threshold voltage mismatch between neighboring cell transistors due to intrinsic fluctuations typically contributes to larger reductions in static noise margin. Also the contribution of each of the SRAM transistor to total dynamic variation has been identified.
Motion Detection Method for Clutter Rejection in the Bio-Radar Signal Processing
The cardiopulmonary signal monitoring, without the usage of contact electrodes or any type of in-body sensors, has several applications such as sleeping monitoring and continuous monitoring of vital signals in bedridden patients. This system has also applications in the vehicular environment to monitor the driver, in order to avoid any possible accident in case of cardiac failure. Thus, the bio-radar system proposed in this paper, can measure vital signals accurately by using the Doppler effect principle that relates the received signal properties with the distance change between the radar antennas and the person&rsquo;s chest-wall. Once the bio-radar aim is to monitor subjects in real-time and during long periods of time, it is impossible to guarantee the patient immobilization, hence their random motion will interfere in the acquired signals. In this paper, a mathematical model of the bio-radar is presented, as well as its simulation in MATLAB. The used algorithm for breath rate extraction is explained and a method for DC offsets removal based in a motion detection system is proposed. Furthermore, experimental tests were conducted with a view to prove that the unavoidable random motion can be used to estimate the DC offsets accurately and thus remove them successfully.
Estimation of Mobility Parameters and Threshold Voltage of an Organic Thin Film Transistor Using an Asymmetric Capacitive Test Structure
Carrier mobility at the organic/insulator interface is essential to the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFT). The present work describes estimation of field dependent mobility (FDM) parameters and the threshold voltage of an OTFT using a simple, easy to fabricate two terminal asymmetric capacitive test structure using admittance measurements. Conventionally, transfer characteristics are used to estimate the threshold voltage in an OTFT with field independent mobility (FIDM). Yet, this technique breaks down to give accurate results for devices with high contact resistance and having field dependent mobility. In this work, a new technique is presented for characterization of long channel organic capacitor (LCOC). The proposed technique helps in the accurate estimation of mobility enhancement factor (γ), the threshold voltage (V_th) and band mobility (µ₀) using capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement in OTFT. This technique also helps to get rid of making short channel OTFT or metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures for making C-V measurements. To understand the behavior of devices and ease of analysis, transmission line compact model is developed. The 2-D numerical simulation was carried out to illustrate the correctness of the model. Results show that proposed technique estimates device parameters accurately even in the presence of contact resistance and field dependent mobility. Pentacene/Poly (4-vinyl phenol) based top contact bottom-gate OTFT’s are fabricated to illustrate the operation and advantages of the proposed technique. Small signal of frequency varying from 1 kHz to 5 kHz and gate potential ranging from +40 V to -40 V have been applied to the devices for measurement.
Comparative Analysis of Geographical Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks
The field of wireless sensor networks (WSN) engages a lot of associates in the research community as an interdisciplinary field of interest. This type of network is inexpensive, multifunctionally attributable to advances in micro-electromechanical systems and conjointly the explosion and expansion of wireless communications. A mobile ad hoc network is a wireless network without fastened infrastructure or federal management. Due to the infrastructure-less mode of operation, mobile ad-hoc networks are gaining quality. During this work, we have performed an efficient performance study of the two major routing protocols: Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocols. We have used an accurate simulation model supported NS2 for this purpose. Our simulation results showed that AODV mitigates the drawbacks of the DSDV and provides better performance as compared to DSDV.
Design of SAE J2716 Single Edge Nibble Transmission Digital Sensor Interface for Automotive Applications
Modern sensors often embed small-size digital controller for sensor control, value calibration, and signal processing. These sensors require digital data communication with host microprocessors, but conventional digital communication protocols are too heavy for price reduction. SAE J2716 SENT (single edge nibble transmission) protocol transmits direct digital waveforms instead of complicated analog modulated signals. In this paper, a SENT interface is designed in Verilog HDL (hardware description language) and implemented in FPGA (field-programmable gate array) evaluation board. The designed SENT interface consists of frame encoder/decoder, configuration register, tick period generator, CRC (cyclic redundancy code) generator/checker, and TX/RX (transmission/reception) buffer. Frame encoder/decoder is implemented as a finite state machine, and it controls whole SENT interface. Configuration register contains various parameters such as operation mode, tick length, CRC option, pause pulse option, and number of nibble data. Tick period generator generates tick signals from input clock. CRC generator/checker generates or checks CRC in the SENT data frame. TX/RX buffer stores transmission/received data. The designed SENT interface can send or receives digital data in 25~65 kbps at 3 us tick. Synthesized in 0.18 um fabrication technologies, it is implemented about 2,500 gates.
Design of Photonic Crystal with Defect Layer to Eliminate Interface Corrugations for Obtaining Unidirectional and Bidirectional Beam Splitting under Normal Incidence
Working with a dielectric photonic crystal (PC) structure which does not include surface corrugations, unidirectional transmission and dual-beam splitting are observed under normal incidence as a result of the strong diffractions caused by the embedded defect layer. The defect layer has twice the period of the regular PC segments which sandwich the defect layer. Although the PC has even number of rows, the structural symmetry is broken due to the asymmetric placement of the defect layer with respect to the symmetry axis of the regular PC. The simulations verify that efficient splitting and occurrence of strong diffractions are related to the dispersion properties of the Floquet-Bloch modes of the photonic crystal. Unidirectional and bi-directional splitting, which are associated with asymmetric transmission, arise due to the dominant contribution of the first positive and first negative diffraction orders. The effect of the depth of the defect layer is examined by placing single defect layer in varying rows, preserving the asymmetry of PC. Even for deeply buried defect layer, asymmetric transmission is still valid even if the zeroth order is not coupled. This transmission is due to evanescent waves which reach to the deeply embedded defect layer and couple to higher order modes. In an additional selected performance, whichever surface is illuminated, i.e., in both upper and lower surface illumination cases, incident beam is split into two beams of equal intensity at the output surface where the intensity of the out-going beams are equal for both illumination cases. That is, although the structure is asymmetric, symmetric bidirectional transmission with equal transmission values is demonstrated and the structure mimics the behavior of symmetric structures. Finally, simulation studies including the examination of a coupled-cavity defect for two different permittivity values (close to the permittivity values of GaAs or Si and alumina) reveal unidirectional splitting for a wider band of operation in comparison to the bandwidth obtained in the case of a single embedded defect layer. Since the dielectric materials that are utilized are low-loss and weakly dispersive in a wide frequency range including microwave and optical frequencies, the studied structures should be scalable to the mentioned ranges.
Beam Deflection with Unidirectionality Due to Zeroth Order and Evanescent Wave Coupling in a Photonic Crystal with a Defect Layer without Corrugations under Oblique Incidence
Single beam deflection and unidirectional transmission are examined for oblique incidence in a Photonic Crystal (PC) structure which employs defect layer instead of surface corrugations at the interfaces. In all of the studied cases, the defect layer is placed such that the symmetry is broken. Two types of deflection are observed depending on whether the zeroth order is coupled or not. These two scenarios can be distinguished from each other by considering the simulated field distribution in PC. In the first deflection type, Floquet-Bloch mode enables zeroth order coupling. The energy of the zeroth order is redistributed between the diffraction orders at the defect layer, providing deflection. In the second type, when zeroth order is not coupled, strong diffractions cause blazing and the evanescent waves deliver energy to higher order diffraction modes. Simulated isofrequency contours can be utilized to estimate the coupling behavior. The defect layer is placed at varying rows, preserving the asymmetry of PC while evancescent waves can still couple to higher order modes. Even for deeply buried defect layer, asymmetric transmission and beam deflection are still encountered when the zeroth order is not coupled. We assume ε=11.4 (refractive index close to that of GaAs and Si) for the PC rods. A possible operation wavelength can be within microwave and infrared range. Since the suggested material is low loss, the structure can be scaled down to operate higher frequencies. Thus, a sample operation wavelength is selected as 1.5μm. Although the structure employs no surface corrugations transmission value T≈0.97 can be achieved by means of diffraction order m=-1. Moreover, utilizing an extra line defect, T value can be increased upto 0.99, under oblique incidence even if the line defect layer is deeply embedded in the photonic crystal. The latter configuration can be used to obtain deflection in one frequency range and can also be utilized for the realization of another functionality like defect-mode wave guiding in another frequency range but still using the same structure.
A Motion Dictionary to Real-Time Recognition of Sign Language Alphabet Using Dynamic Time Warping and Artificial Neural Network
Computacional recognition of sign languages aims to allow a greater social and digital inclusion of deaf people through interpretation of their language by computer. This article presents a model of recognition of two of global parameters from sign languages; hand configurations and hand movements. Hand motion is captured through an infrared technology and its joints are built into a virtual three-dimensional space. A Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP) was used to classify hand configurations and Dynamic Time Warping (DWT) recognizes hand motion. Beyond of the method of sign recognition, we provide a dataset of hand configurations and motion capture built with help of fluent professionals in sign languages. Despite this technology can be used to translate any sign from any signs dictionary, Brazilian Sign Language (Libras) was used as case study. Finally, the model presented in this paper achieved a recognition rate of 80.4%.
Comparison of Direction of Arrival Estimation Method for Drone Based on Phased Microphone Array
Drones were first developed for military use and were used in World War 1. But recently drones have been used in a variety of fields. Several companies actively utilize drone technology to strengthen their services, and in agriculture, drones are used for crop monitoring and sowing. Other people use drones for hobby activities such as photography. However, as the range of use of drones expands rapidly, problems caused by drones such as improperly flying, privacy and terrorism are also increasing. As the need for monitoring and tracking of drones increases, researches are progressing accordingly. The drone detection system estimates the position of the drone using the physical phenomena that occur when the drones fly. The drone detection system measures being developed utilize many approaches, such as radar, infrared camera, and acoustic detection systems. Among the various drone detection system, the acoustic detection system is advantageous in that the microphone array system is small, inexpensive, and easy to operate than other systems. In this paper, the acoustic signal is acquired by using minimum microphone when drone is flying, and direction of drone is estimated. When estimating the Direction of Arrival(DOA), there is a method of calculating the DOA based on the Time Difference of Arrival(TDOA) and a method of calculating the DOA based on the beamforming. The TDOA technique requires less number of microphones than the beamforming technique, but is weak in noisy environments and can only estimate the DOA of a single source. The beamforming technique requires more microphones than the TDOA technique. However, it is strong against the noisy environment and it is possible to simultaneously estimate the DOA of several drones. When estimating the DOA using acoustic signals emitted from the drone, it is impossible to measure the position of the drone, and only the direction can be estimated. To overcome this problem, in this work we show how to estimate the position of drones by arranging multiple microphone arrays. The microphone array used in the experiments was four tetrahedral microphones. We simulated the performance of each DOA algorithm and demonstrated the simulation results through experiments.
Applicability of Fuzzy Logic for Intrusion Detection in Mobile Adhoc Networks
Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs) are gaining popularity due to their potential of providing low-cost mobile connectivity solutions to real-world communication problems. Integrating Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) in MANETs is a tedious task by reason of its distinctive features such as dynamic topology, de-centralized authority and highly controlled/limited resource environment. IDS primarily use automated soft-computing techniques to monitor the inflow/outflow of traffic packets in a given network to detect intrusion. Use of machine learning techniques in IDS enables system to make decisions on intrusion while continuous keep learning about their dynamic environment. An appropriate IDS model is essential to be selected to expedite this application challenges. Thus, this paper focused on fuzzy-logic based machine learning IDS technique for MANETs and presented their applicability for achieving effectiveness in identifying the intrusions. Further, the selection of appropriate protocol attributes and fuzzy rules generation plays significant role for accuracy of the fuzzy-logic based IDS, have been discussed. This paper also presents the critical attributes of MANET’s routing protocol and its applicability in fuzzy logic based IDS.
A Method for Time Synchronization between the eNodeBs in Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network under the Asymmetric Network
In this paper, we present a method for time synchronization between the two eNodeBs (eNBs) in E-UTRAN (Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access) network. The two eNBs are cooperating in so-called inter eNB CA (Carrier Aggregation) case and connected via asymmetrical IP network. We solve the problem by using broadcasting signals generated in E-UTRAN as synchronization signals. The results show that the time synchronization with the proposed method is possible with the error significantly less than 1 ms which is sufficient considering the time transmission interval is 1 ms in E-UTRAN. This makes this method (with low complexity) more suitable than Network Time Protocol (NTP) in the mobile applications with generated broadcasting signals where time synchronization in asymmetrical network is required.
Monitoring of Spectrum Usage and Signal Identification Using Cognitive Radio
The monitoring of spectrum usage and signal identification, using cognitive radio, is done to identify frequencies that are vacant for reuse. It has been established that ‘internet of things’ device uses a second frequency which is free, thereby facing the challenge of interference from other users, where some primary frequencies are not being utilized. The design was done by analyzing a specific frequency spectrum, checking if all the frequency stations that range from 87.5- 108MHz are presently being used in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. From the results, it was noticed that by using Software Defined Radio/Simulink, we were able to identify vacant frequencies in the range of frequency under consideration. Also, we were able to use the significance of energy detection threshold to reuse this vacant frequency spectrum, when the cognitive radio displays a zero output (that is decision H0), meaning that the channel is unoccupied. Hence, the analysis was able to find the spectrum hole and identify how it can be reused.
Distributed Optical Fiber Vibration Sensing Using Phase Generated Carrier Demodulation Algorithm
Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensors are gaining extensive attention, for the advantages of high sensitivity, accurate location, light weight, large-scale monitoring, good concealment, and etc. In this paper, a novel optical fiber distributed vibration sensing system is proposed, which is based on self-interference of Rayleigh backscattering with phase generated carrier (PGC) demodulation algorithm. Pulsed lights are sent into the sensing fiber and the Rayleigh backscattering light from a certain position along the sensing fiber would interfere through an unbalanced Michelson Interferometry (MI) to generate the interference light. An improved PGC demodulation algorithm is carried out to recover the phase information of the interference signal, which carries the sensing information. Three vibration events were applied simultaneously to different positions over 2000m sensing fiber and demodulated correctly. Experiments show that the spatial resolution of is 10 m, and the noise level of the Φ-OTDR system is about 10-3 rad/√Hz, and the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is about 30.34dB. This vibration measurement scheme can be applied at surface, seabed or downhole for vibration measurements or distributed acoustic sensing (DAS).