Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 53163

Electronics and Communication Engineering

810
94620
Design of SAE J2716 Single Edge Nibble Transmission Digital Sensor Interface for Automotive Applications
Abstract:
Modern sensors often embed small-size digital controller for sensor control, value calibration, and signal processing. These sensors require digital data communication with host microprocessors, but conventional digital communication protocols are too heavy for price reduction. SAE J2716 SENT (single edge nibble transmission) protocol transmits direct digital waveforms instead of complicated analog modulated signals. In this paper, a SENT interface is designed in Verilog HDL (hardware description language) and implemented in FPGA (field-programmable gate array) evaluation board. The designed SENT interface consists of frame encoder/decoder, configuration register, tick period generator, CRC (cyclic redundancy code) generator/checker, and TX/RX (transmission/reception) buffer. Frame encoder/decoder is implemented as a finite state machine, and it controls whole SENT interface. Configuration register contains various parameters such as operation mode, tick length, CRC option, pause pulse option, and number of nibble data. Tick period generator generates tick signals from input clock. CRC generator/checker generates or checks CRC in the SENT data frame. TX/RX buffer stores transmission/received data. The designed SENT interface can send or receives digital data in 25~65 kbps at 3 us tick. Synthesized in 0.18 um fabrication technologies, it is implemented about 2,500 gates.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
809
93900
Monitoring of Spectrum Usage and Signal Identification Using Cognitive Radio
Abstract:
The monitoring of spectrum usage and signal identification, using cognitive radio, is done to identify frequencies that are vacant for reuse. It has been established that ‘internet of things’ device uses a second frequency which is free, thereby facing the challenge of interference from other users, where some primary frequencies are not being utilized. The design was done by analyzing a specific frequency spectrum, checking if all the frequency stations that range from 87.5- 108MHz are presently being used in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. From the results, it was noticed that by using Software Defined Radio/Simulink, we were able to identify vacant frequencies in the range of frequency under consideration. Also, we were able to use the significance of energy detection threshold to reuse this vacant frequency spectrum, when the cognitive radio displays a zero output (that is decision H0), meaning that the channel is unoccupied. Hence, the analysis was able to find the spectrum hole and identify how it can be reused.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
808
92764
Partial M-Sequence Code Families Applied in Spectral Amplitude Coding Fiber-Optic Code-Division Multiple-Access Networks
Abstract:
Nowadays, numerous spectral amplitude coding (SAC) fiber-optic code-division-multiple-access (FO-CDMA) techniques were appealing due to their capable of providing moderate security and relieving the effects of multiuser interference (MUI). Nonetheless, the performance of the previous network is degraded due to fixed in-phase cross-correlation (IPCC) value. Based on the above problems, a new SAC FO-CDMA network using partial M-sequence (PMS) code is presented in this study. Because the proposed PMS code is originated from M-sequence code, the system using the PMS code could effectively suppress the effects of MUI. In addition, two-code keying (TCK) scheme can applied in the proposed SAC FO-CDMA network and enhance the whole network performance. According to the consideration of system flexibility, simple optical encoders/decoders (codecs) using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) were also developed. First, we constructed a diagram of the SAC FO-CDMA network, including (N/2-1) optical transmitters, (N/2-1) optical receivers, and one N×N star coupler for broadcasting transmitted optical signals to arrive at the input port of each optical receiver. Note that the parameter N for the PMS code was the code length. In addition, the proposed SAC network was using superluminescent diodes (SLDs) as light sources, which then can save a lot of system cost compared with the other FO-CDMA methods. For the design of each optical transmitter, it is composed of an SLD, one optical switch, and two optical encoders according to assigned PMS codewords. On the other hand, each optical receivers includes a 1 × 2 splitter, two optical decoders, and one balanced photodiode for mitigating the effect of MUI. In order to simplify the next analysis, the some assumptions were used. First, the unipolarized SLD has flat power spectral density (PSD). Second, the received optical power at the input port of each optical receiver is the same. Third, all photodiodes in the proposed network have the same electrical properties. Fourth, transmitting '1' and '0' has an equal probability. Subsequently, by taking the factors of phase‐induced intensity noise (PIIN) and thermal noise, the corresponding performance was displayed and compared with the performance of the previous SAC FO-CDMA networks. From the numerical result, it shows that the proposed network improved about 25% performance than that using other codes at BER=10-9. This is because the effect of PIIN was effectively mitigated and the received power was enhanced by two times. As a result, the SAC FO-CDMA network using PMS codes has an opportunity to apply in applications of the next-generation optical network.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
807
91482
Proximity-Inset Fed Triple Band Antenna for Global Position System with High Gain
Abstract:
A triple band circularly polarized antenna covering 1.17, 1.22, and 1.57 GHz is presented. To extend to the triple-band operation, we need to add one more ring while maintaining the mechanism to independently control each ring. The inset-part in the feeding scheme is used to excite the band at 1.22 GHz, while the proximate-part of the feeding scheme is used to excite not only the band at 1.57 GHz but also the band at 1.17 GHz. This is achieved by up-vertically coupled with one ring to radiate at 1.57 GHz and down-vertically coupled another ring to radiate at 1.17 GHz. It is also noted that the inset-part in our feeding scheme is by horizontal coupling. Furthermore, to increase the gain at all three bands, three air-layers are added to make the total height of the antenna be 7.8 mm. The total thickness of the three air-layers is 3 mm. The gains of the three bands are all greater than 5 dBiC after adding the air-layers.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
806
91476
A Parasitic Resonator-Based Diamond Shape Microstrip Antenna for Ultra-Wide-Band Applications
Abstract:
This study proposes a diamond-shaped microstrip patch antenna for ultra-wideband applications. The antenna is made up of a diamond shape radiating patch, partial ground plane, and three asterisk-shaped parasitic elements. The parasitic elements are positioned above the ground plane to enhance the bandwidth and gain. The proposed antenna has a compact dimension of 30 x 25 x 1.6 mm3 and achieves an overall bandwidth (S11
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
805
91475
Depiction of a Circulated Double Psi-Shaped Microstrip Antenna for Ku-Band Satellite Applications
Abstract:
This paper presents the architecture and exploration of a compact, circulated double Psi-shaped microstrip patch antenna for Ku-band satellite applications. The antenna is composed of the double Psi-shaped patch in opposite focus which is circulated with a ring. The antenna size is 24 mm × 18 mm and the prototype is imprinted on Rogers RT/duroid 5880 materials with the depth of 1.57 mm. The substrate has a relative permittivity of 2.2 and the dielectric constant of 0.0009. The excitation is supplied through a 50Ω microstrip line. The performance of the presented antenna has been simulated and verified with the High-Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS). The results depict that the antenna covers the frequency spectrum 14.6 - 17.4 GHz (Ku-band) with 10 dB return loss. The antenna has a 4.40 dBi maximum gain with stable radiation patterns throughout the operating band which makes the proposed antenna compatible for the satellite application in Ku-band.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
804
91441
The Grinding Influence on the Strength of Fan-Out Wafer-Level Packages
Abstract:
To build a thin fan-out wafer-level package, the package had to be ground to a thin level. In this work, the influence of the grinding processes on the strength of the fan-out wafer-level packages was investigated. After different grinding processes, all specimens were placed on a three-point-bending fixture installed on a universal tester for three-point-bending testing, and the strength of the fan-out wafer-level packages was measured. The experiments revealed that the average flexure strength increased with the decreasing surface roughness height of the fan-out wafer-level package tested. The grinding processes had a significant influence on the strength of the fan-out wafer-level packages investigated.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
803
90881
Design and Performance Comparison of Metamaterial Based Antenna for 4G/5G Mobile Devices
Abstract:
This paper presents the design and performance evaluation of multiband metamaterial based antenna operating in the 3.6 GHz (4G), 14.33 GHz, and 28.86 GHz (5G) frequency bands, for future mobile and handheld devices. The radiating element of the proposed design is made up of a conductive material supported by a 1.524 mm thicker Rogers-4003 substrate, having a relative dielectric constant and loss tangent of 3.55 and 0.0027, respectively. The substrate is backed by truncated ground plane. The future mobile communication system is based on higher frequencies, which are highly affected by the atmospheric conditions. Therefore, to overcome the path loss problem, essential enhancements and improvements must be made in the overall performance of the antenna. The traditional ground plane does not provide the in-phase reflection and surface wave suppression due to which side and back lobes are produced. This will affect the antenna performance in terms of gain and efficiency. To enhance the overall performance of the antenna, a metamaterial acting as a high impedance surface (HIS) is used as a reflector in the proposed design. The simulated gain of the metamaterial based antenna is enhanced from {2.76-6.47, 4.83-6.71 and 7.52-7.73} dB at 3.6, 14.33 and 28.89 GHz, respectively relative to the gain of the antenna backed by a traditional ground plane. The proposed antenna radiated efficiently with a radiated efficiency (>85 %) in all the three frequency bands with and without metamaterial surface. The total volume of the antenna is (L x W x h=45 x 40 x 1.524) mm3. The antenna can be potentially used for wireless handheld devices and mobile terminal. All the simulations have been performed using the Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
802
90782
Knowledge Reactor: A Contextual Computing Work in Progress for Eldercare
Abstract:
The world-wide population of people over 60 years of age is growing rapidly. The explosion is placing increasingly onerous demands on individual families, multiple industries and entire countries. Current, human-intensive approaches to eldercare are not sustainable, but IoT and AI technologies can help. The Knowledge Reactor (KR) is a contextual, data fusion engine built to address this and other similar problems. It fuses and centralizes IoT and System of Record/Engagement data into a reactive knowledge graph. Cognitive applications and services are constructed with its multiagent architecture. The KR can scale-up and scaledown, because it exploits container-based, horizontally scalable services for graph store (JanusGraph) and pub-sub (Kafka) technologies. While the KR can be applied to many domains that require IoT and AI technologies, this paper describes how the KR specifically supports the challenging domain of cognitive eldercare. Rule- and machine learning-based analytics infer activities of daily living from IoT sensor readings. KR scalability, adaptability, flexibility and usability are demonstrated.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
801
89567
LGG Architecture for Brain Tumor Segmentation Using Convolutional Neural Network
Abstract:
The most aggressive form of brain tumor is called glioma. Glioma is kind of tumor that arises from glial tissue of the brain and occurs quite often. A fully automatic 2D-CNN model for brain tumor segmentation is presented in this paper. We performed pre-processing steps to remove noise and intensity variances using N4ITK and standard intensity correction, respectively. We used Keras open-source library with Theano as backend for fast implementation of CNN model. In addition, we used BRATS 2015 MRI dataset to evaluate our proposed model. Furthermore, we have used SimpleITK open-source library in our proposed model to analyze images. Moreover, we have extracted random 2D patches for proposed 2D-CNN model for efficient brain segmentation. Extracting 2D patched instead of 3D due to less dimensional information present in 2D which helps us in reducing computational time. Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) is used as performance measure for the evaluation of the proposed method. Our method achieved DSC score of 0.77 for complete, 0.76 for core, 0.77 for enhanced tumor regions. However, these results are comparable with methods already implemented 2D CNN architecture.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
800
89564
An Accurate Brain Tumor Segmentation for High Graded Glioma Using Deep Learning
Abstract:
Gliomas are most challenging and aggressive type of tumors which appear in different sizes, locations, and scattered boundaries. CNN is most efficient deep learning approach with outstanding capability of solving image analysis problems. A fully automatic deep learning based 2D-CNN model for brain tumor segmentation is presented in this paper. We used small convolution filters (3 x 3) to make architecture deeper. We increased convolutional layers for efficient learning of complex features from large dataset. We achieved better results by pushing convolutional layers up to 16 layers for HGG model. We achieved reliable and accurate results through fine-tuning among dataset and hyper-parameters. Pre-processing of this model includes generation of brain pipeline, intensity normalization, bias correction and data augmentation. We used the BRATS-2015, and Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) is used as performance measure for the evaluation of the proposed method. Our method achieved DSC score of 0.81 for complete, 0.79 for core, 0.80 for enhanced tumor regions. However, these results are comparable with methods already implemented 2D CNN architecture.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
799
89052
Microstrip Bandpass Filter with Wide Stopband and High Out-of-Band Rejection Based on Inter-Digital Capacitor
Abstract:
This paper present a compact Microstrip Bandpass filter exhibiting a very wide stop band and high selectivity. The filter comprises of asymmetric resonator structures, which are interconnected by an inter-digital capacitor to enable the realization of a wide bandwidth with high rejection level. High selectivity is obtained by optimizing the parameters of the interdigital capacitor. The filter has high out-of-band rejection (> 30 dB), less than 0.6 dB of insertion-loss, up to 5.5 GHz spurii free, and about 18 dB of return-loss. Full-wave electromagnetic simulator ADSTM (Mom) is used to analyze and optimize the prototype bandpass filter. The proposed technique was verified practically to validate the design methodology. The experimental results of the prototype circuit are presented and a good agreement was obtained comparing with the simulation results. The dimensions of the proposed filter are 32 x 24 mm2.The filter’s characteristics and compact size make it suitable for wireless communication systems.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
798
88658
Simulation of 3-D Direction-of-Arrival Estimation Using MUSIC Algorithm
Abstract:
DOA (Direction of Arrival) estimation is an important method in array signal processing and has a wide range of applications such as direction finding, beam forming, and so on. In this paper, we briefly introduce the MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) Algorithm, one of DOA estimation methods for analyzing several targets. Then we apply the MUSIC algorithm to the two-dimensional antenna array to analyze DOA estimation in 3D space through MATLAB simulation. We also analyze the design factors that can affect the accuracy of DOA estimation through simulation, and proceed with further consideration on how to apply the system.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
797
88656
Iterative Panel RC Extraction for Capacitive Touchscreen
Abstract:
Electrical characteristics of capacitive touchscreen need to be accurately analyzed to result in better performance for multi-channel capacitance sensing. In this paper, we extracted the panel resistances and capacitances of the touchscreen by comparing measurement data and model data. By employing a lumped RC model for driver-to-receiver paths in touchscreen, we estimated resistance and capacitance values according to the physical lengths of channel paths which are proportional to the RC model. As a result, we obtained the model having 95.54% accuracy of the measurement data.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
796
88236
Low Complexity Carrier Frequency Offset Estimation for Cooperative Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Communication Systems without Cyclic Prefix
Authors:
Abstract:
Cooperative orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission, which possesses the advantages of better connectivity, expanded coverage, and resistance to frequency selective fading, has been a more powerful solution for the physical layer in wireless communications. However, such a hybrid scheme suffers from the carrier frequency offset (CFO) effects inherited from the OFDM-based systems, which lead to a significant degradation in performance. In addition, insertion of a cyclic prefix (CP) at each symbol block head for combating inter-symbol interference will lead to a reduction in spectral efficiency. The design on the CFO estimation for the cooperative OFDM system without CP is a suspended problem. This motivates us to develop a low complexity CFO estimator for the cooperative OFDM decode-and-forward (DF) communication system without CP over the multipath fading channel. Especially, using a block-type pilot, the CFO estimation is first derived in accordance with the least square criterion. A reliable performance can be obtained through an exhaustive two-dimensional (2D) search with a penalty of heavy computational complexity. As a remedy, an alternative solution realized with an iteration approach is proposed for the CFO estimation. In contrast to the 2D-search estimator, the iterative method enjoys the advantage of the substantially reduced implementation complexity without sacrificing the estimate performance. Computer simulations have been presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed CFO estimation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
795
87550
Technology Computer Aided Design Simulation of Space Charge Limited Conduction in Polycrystalline Thin Films
Abstract:
TCAD numerical simulation is one of the most tried and tested powerful tools for designing devices in semiconductor foundries worldwide. It has also been used to explain conduction in organic thin films where the processing temperature is often enough to make homogeneous samples (often imperfect, but homogeneously imperfect). In this report, we have presented the results of TCAD simulation in multi-grain thin films. The work has addressed the inhomogeneity in one dimension, but can easily be extended to two and three dimensions. The effect of grain boundaries has mainly been approximated as barriers located at the junction between two adjacent grains. The effect of the value of grain boundary barrier, the bulk traps, and the measurement temperature have been investigated.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
794
86644
Road Vehicle Recognition Using Magnetic Sensing Feature Extraction and Classification
Abstract:
This paper presents a road vehicle detection approach for the intelligent transportation system. This approach mainly uses low-cost magnetic sensor and associated data collection system to collect magnetic signals. This system can measure the magnetic field changing, and it also can detect and count vehicles. We extend Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients to analyze vehicle magnetic signals. Vehicle type features are extracted using representation of cepstrum, frame energy, and gap cepstrum of magnetic signals. We design a 2-dimensional map algorithm using Vector Quantization to classify vehicle magnetic features to four typical types of vehicles in Australian suburbs: sedan, VAN, truck, and bus. Experiments results show that our approach achieves a high level of accuracy for vehicle detection and classification.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
793
86236
Reliability and Cost Focused Optimization Approach for a Communication Satellite Payload Redundancy Allocation Problem
Abstract:
A typical reliability engineering problem regarding communication satellites has been considered to determine redundancy allocation scheme of power amplifiers within payload transponder module, whose dominant function is to amplify power levels of the received signals from the Earth, through maximizing reliability against mass, power, and other technical limitations. Adding each redundant power amplifier component increases not only reliability but also hardware, testing, and launch cost of a satellite. This study investigates a multi-objective approach used in order to solve Redundancy Allocation Problem (RAP) for a communication satellite payload transponder, focusing on design cost due to redundancy and reliability factors. The main purpose is to find the optimum power amplifier redundancy configuration satisfying reliability and capacity thresholds simultaneously instead of analyzing respectively or independently. A mathematical model and calculation approach are instituted including objective function definitions, and then, the problem is solved analytically with different input parameters in MATLAB environment. Example results showed that payload capacity and failure rate of power amplifiers have remarkable effects on the solution and also processing time.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
792
86040
Robust and Transparent Spread Spectrum Audio Watermarking
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a blind and robust audio watermarking scheme based on spread spectrum in Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) domain. Watermarks are embedded in the low-frequency coefficients, which is less audible. The key idea is dividing the audio signal into small frames, and magnitude of the 6th level of DWT approximation coefficients is modifying based upon the Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) technique. Also, the psychoacoustic model for enhancing in imperceptibility, as well as Savitsky-Golay filter for increasing accuracy in extraction, is used. The experimental results illustrate high robustness against most common attacks, i.e. Gaussian noise addition, Low pass filter, Resampling, Requantizing, MP3 compression, without significant perceptual distortion (ODG is higher than -1). The proposed scheme has about 83 bps data payload.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
791
85699
Design of Compact Dual-Band Planar Antenna for WLAN Systems
Abstract:
A compact planar monopole antenna with dual-band operation suitable for wireless local area network Application (WLAN) is presented in this paper. The antenna occupies an overall area of 18 ×12 mm2. The antenna combines two folded strips is fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line, which radiates at 2.4 and 5.2 GHz. In the proposed antenna by optimally selecting the antenna dimensions, dual-band resonant modes with a much wider impedance matching at the higher band can be produced. Prototypes of the obtained optimized design have been simulated using EM solver. The simulated results explore good dual-band operation with -10 dB impedance bandwidths of 50 MHz and 2400 MHz at bands of 2.4 and 5.2 GHz, respectively, which cover the 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN operating bands. Good antenna performances such as radiation patterns and antenna gains over the operating bands have also been observed. The antenna with a compact size of 18×12×1.6 mm3 which is designed on an FR4 substrate with a dielectric constant of 4.4.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
790
85256
Relay Node Placement for Connectivity Restoration in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Genetic Algorithms
Abstract:
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of a set of sensor nodes with limited capability. WSNs may suffer from multiple node failures when they are exposed to harsh environments such as military zones or disaster locations and lose connectivity by getting partitioned into disjoint segments. Relay nodes (RNs) are alternatively introduced to restore connectivity. They cost more than sensors as they benefit from mobility, more power and more transmission range, enforcing a minimum number of them to be used. This paper addresses the problem of RN placement in a multiple disjoint network by developing a genetic algorithm (GA). The problem is reintroduced as the Steiner tree problem (which is known to be an NP-hard problem) by the aim of finding the minimum number of Steiner points where RNs are to be placed for restoring connectivity. An upper bound to the number of RNs is first computed to set up the length of initial chromosomes. The GA algorithm then iteratively reduces the number of RNs and determines their location at the same time. Experimental results indicate that the proposed GA is capable of establishing network connectivity using a reasonable number of RNs compared to the best existing work.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
789
85145
Method of False Alarm Rate Control for Cyclic Redundancy Check-Aided List Decoding of Polar Codes
Abstract:
Polar coding is a novel example of error correcting codes, which can achieve Shannon limit at block length N→∞ with log-linear complexity. Active research is being carried to adopt this theoretical concept for using in practical applications such as 5th generation wireless communication systems. Cyclic redundancy check (CRC) error detection code is broadly used in conjunction with successive cancellation list (SCL) decoding algorithm to improve finite-length polar code performance. However, there are two issues: increase of code block payload overhead by CRC bits and decrease of CRC error-detection capability. This paper proposes a method to control CRC overhead and false alarm rate of polar decoding. As shown in the computer simulations results, the proposed method provides the ability to use any set of CRC polynomials with any list size while maintaining the desired level of false alarm rate. This level of flexibility allows using polar codes in 5G New Radio standard.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
788
85090
PIN-Diode Based Slotted Reconfigurable Multiband Antenna Array for Vehicular Communication
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel patch antenna array design is proposed for vehicular communication. The reported antenna consists of 2-element patch array. The antenna array is operating at multiple frequency bands. The multiband operation is achieved by use of slots at proper locations at the patch. The array is made reconfigurable by use of two PIN-diodes. The antenna is simulated and measured in four states of diodes i.e. ON-ON, ON-OFF, OFF-ON, and OFF-OFF.In ON-ON state of diodes, the resonant frequencies are (4.62 – 4.96) GHz, (6.50 – 6.75) GHz, (6.90 – 7.01) GHz, (7.34 – 8.22) GHz, (8.89 – 9.09) GHz. In ON-OFF state of diodes, the measured resonant frequencies are (4.63 – 4.93) GHz, (6.50 – 6.70) GHz and (7.81 – 7.91) GHz. In OFF-ON states of diodes the resonant frequencies are (1.24 – 1.46) GHz, (3.40 – 3.75) GHz, (5.07 – 5.25) GHz and (6.90 – 7.20) GHz and in the OFF-OFF state of diodes (4.49 – 4.75) GHz and (5.61 – 5.98) GHz.The maximum bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 16.29 %.The peak gain of the antenna is 3.4 dB at 5.9 GHz, which makes it suitable for vehicular communication.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
787
84977
Frequency Reconfigurable Multiband Patch Antenna Using PIN-Diode for Intelligent Transportation System Applications
Abstract:
A frequency reconfigurable multiband antenna for intelligent transportation system (ITS) applications is proposed in this paper. A PIN-diode is used for reconfigurability. Centre frequencies are 1.38 GHz, 1.98 GHz, 2.89 GHz, 3.86 GHz, and 4.34 GHz in “ON” state of Diode and 1.56 GHz, 2.16 GHz, 2.88 GHz, 3.91 GHz and 4.45 GHz in “OFF” state. Achieved maximum bandwidth is 18%. The maximum gain of the proposed antenna is 2.7 dBi in “ON” state and 3.95 dBi in “OFF” state of the diode. The antenna is simulated, fabricated, and tested in the lab. Measured and simulated results are in good confirmation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
786
84686
Detection of Nutrients Using Honeybee-Mimic Bioelectronic Tongue Systems
Abstract:
We report a floating electrode-based bioelectronic tongue mimicking honeybee taste systems for the detection and discrimination of various nutrients. Here, carbon nanotube field effect transistors with floating electrodes (CNT-FET) were hybridized with nanovesicles containing honeybee nutrient receptors, gustatory receptors of Apis mellifera. This strategy enables us to detect nutrient substance with a high sensitivity and selectivity. It could also be utilized for the detection of nutrients in liquid food. This floating electrode-based bioelectronic tongue mimicking insect taste systems can be a simple, but highly effective strategy in many different basic research areas about sensory systems. Moreover, our research provides opportunities to develop various applications such as food screening, and it also can provide valuable insights on insect taste systems.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
785
84628
Adaptive Beamforming with Steering Error and Mutual Coupling between Antenna Sensors
Abstract:
Owing to close antenna spacing between antenna sensors within a compact space, a part of data in one antenna sensor would outflow to other antenna sensors when the antenna sensors in an antenna array operate simultaneously. This phenomenon is called mutual coupling effect (MCE). It has been shown that the performance of antenna array systems can be degraded when the antenna sensors are in close proximity. Especially, in a systems equipped with massive antenna sensors, the degradation of beamforming performance due to the MCE is significantly inevitable. Moreover, it has been shown that even a small angle error between the true direction angle of the desired signal and the steering angle deteriorates the effectiveness of an array beamforming system. However, the true direction vector of the desired signal may not be exactly known in some applications, e.g., the application in land mobile-cellular wireless systems. Therefore, it is worth developing robust techniques to deal with the problem due to the MCE and steering angle error for array beamforming systems. In this paper, we present an efficient technique for performing adaptive beamforming with robust capabilities against the MCE and the steering angle error. Only the data vector received by an antenna array is required by the proposed technique. By using the received array data vector, a correlation matrix is constructed to replace the original correlation matrix associated with the received array data vector. Then, the mutual coupling matrix due to the MCE on the antenna array is estimated through a recursive algorithm. An appropriate estimate of the direction angle of the desired signal can also be obtained during the recursive process. Based on the estimated mutual coupling matrix, the estimated direction angle, and the reconstructed correlation matrix, the proposed technique can effectively cure the performance degradation due to steering angle error and MCE. The novelty of the proposed technique is that the implementation procedure is very simple and the resulting adaptive beamforming performance is satisfactory. Simulation results show that the proposed technique provides much better beamforming performance without requiring complicated complexity as compared with the existing robust techniques.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
784
83934
Statistical Shape Analysis of the Human Upper Airway
Abstract:
The main objective of this project is to develop a statistical shape model using principal component analysis that could be used for analyzing the shape of the human airway. The ultimate goal of this project is to identify geometric risk factors for diagnosis and management of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA). Anonymous CBCT scans of 25 individuals were obtained from the Otago Radiology Group. The airways were segmented between the hard-palate and the aryepiglottic fold using snake active contour segmentation. The point data cloud of the segmented images was then fitted with a bi-cubic mesh, and pseudo landmarks were placed to perform PCA on the segmented airway to analyze the shape of the airway and to find the relationship between the shape and OSA risk factors. From the PCA results, the first four modes of variation were found to be significant. Mode 1 was interpreted to be the overall length of the airway, Mode 2 was related to the anterior-posterior width of the retroglossal region, Mode 3 was related to the lateral dimension of the oropharyngeal region and Mode 4 was related to the anterior-posterior width of the oropharyngeal region. All these regions are subjected to the risk factors of OSA.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
783
83795
Barrier Characteristics of Molecular Semiconductor-Based Organic/Inorganic Au/C₄₂H₂₈/n-InP Hybrid Junctions
Authors:
Abstract:
Thin film of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon rubrene, C₄₂H₂₈ (5,6,11,12-tetraphenyltetracene), has been surfaced on Moderately Doped (MD) n-InP substrate as an interfacial layer by means of spin coating technique for the electronic modification of Au/MD n-InP structure. Ex situ annealing has been carried out at 150 °C for three minutes under a brisk flow of nitrogen for the better adhesion of the deposited film with the substrate surface. Room temperature electrical characterization has been performed on the C₄₂H₂₈/MD n-InP hybrid junctions by current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement in the dark. It has been seen that the C₄₂H₂₈/MD n-InP structure demonstrated extraordinary rectifying behavior. An effective barrier height (BH) as high as 0.743 eV, along with an ideality factor very close to unity (n=1.203), has been achieved for C₄₂H₂₈/n-InP organic/inorganic device. A thin C₄₂H₂₈ interfacial layer between Au and MD n-InP also reduce the reverse leakage current by almost four orders of magnitude and enhance the BH about 0.278 eV. This good performance of the device is ascribed to the passivation effect of organic interfacial layer between Au and n-InP. By using C-V measurement, in addition, the value of BH of the C₄₂H₂₈/n-InP organic/inorganic hybrid junctions have been obtained as 0.796 eV. It has been seen that both of the BH value (0.743 and 0.796 eV) for the organic/inorganic hybrid junction obtained I-V and C-V measurement, respectively are significantly larger than that of the conventional Au/n-InP structure (0.465 and 0.503 eV). It was also seen that the device had good sensitivity to the light under 100 mW/cm² illumination conditions. The obtained results indicated that modification of the interfacial potential barrier for Metal/n-InP junctions might be attained using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon thin interlayer C₄₂H₂₈.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
782
83695
An Implementation of a Configurable UART-to-Ethernet Converter
Abstract:
This paper presents an implementation of a configurable UART-to-Ethernet converter using an ARM-based 32-bit microcontroller as well as a dedicated configuration program running on a PC for configuring the operating parameters of the converter. The program was written in Python. Various parameters pertaining to the operation of the converter can be modified by the configuration program through the Ethernet interface of the converter. The converter supports 3 representative asynchronous serial communication protocols, RS-232, RS-422, and RS-485 and supports 3 network modes, TCP/IP server, TCP/IP client, and UDP client. The TCP/IP and UDP protocols were implemented on the microcontroller using an open source TCP/IP protocol stack called lwIP (A lightweight TCP/IP) and FreeRTOS, a free real-time operating system for embedded systems. Due to the use of a real-time operating system, the firmware of the converter was implemented as a multi-thread application and as a result becomes more modular and easier to develop. The converter can provide a seamless bridge between a serial port and an Ethernet port, thereby allowing existing legacy apparatuses with no Ethernet connectivity to communicate using the Ethernet protocol.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
781
83499
A Framework for the Design of Green Giga Passive Optical Fiber Access Network in Kuwait
Abstract:
In this work, a practical study on a commissioned Giga Passive Optical Network (GPON) fiber to the home access network in Kuwait is presented. The work covers the framework of the conceptual design of the deployed Passive Optical Networks (PONs), access network, optical fiber cable network distribution, technologies, and standards. The work also describes methodologies applied by system engineers for design of Optical Network Terminals (ONTs) and Optical Line Terminals (OLTs) transceivers with respect to the distance, operating wavelengths, splitting ratios. The results have demonstrated and justified the limitation of transmission distance of a PON link in Fiber to The Premises (FTTP) to not exceed 20 km. Optical Time Domain Reflector (OTDR) test has been carried for this project to confirm compliance with International Telecommunication Union (ITU) specifications regarding the total length of the deployed optical cable, total loss in dB, and loss per km in dB/km with respect to the operating wavelengths. OTDR test results with traces for segments of implemented fiber network will be provided and discussed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):