Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 53163

Energy and Environmental Engineering

97
92763
Economic Growth and Transport Carbon Dioxide Emissions in New Zealand: A Co-Integration Analysis of the Environmental Kuznets Curve
Abstract:
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from national transport account for the largest share of emissions from energy use in New Zealand. Whether the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) relationship exists between environmental degradation indicators from the transport sector and economic growth in New Zealand remains unclear. This paper aims at exploring the causality relationship between CO₂ emissions from the transport sector, fossil fuel consumption, and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in New Zealand, using annual data for the period 1977 to 2013. First, conventional unit root tests (Augmented Dickey–Fuller and Phillips–Perron tests), and a unit root test with the breakpoint (Zivot-Andrews test) are employed to examine the stationarity of the variables. Second, the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds test for co-integration, followed by Granger causality investigated causality among the variables. Empirical results of the study reveal that, in the short run, there is a unidirectional causality between economic growth and transport CO₂ emissions with direction from economic growth to transport CO₂ emissions, as well as a bidirectional causality from transport CO₂ emissions to road energy consumption.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
96
92684
Studies on the Feasibility of Cow’s Urine as Non-Conventional Energy Sources
Abstract:
Bio-batteries represent an entirely new long-term, reasonable, reachable, and eco-friendly approach to generation of sustainable energy. In the present experimental work, we have studied the effect of the generation of power by bio-battery using different electrode pairs. The tests show that it is possible to generate electricity using cow’s urine as an electrolyte. C-Mg electrode pair shows maximum Voltage and Short Circuit Current (SCC), while C-Zn electrode pair shows less Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) and SCC. By the studies of cow urine and different electrodes, it is found that C-Zn electrode battery is more economical. The cow urine battery with C-Zn electrode provides maximum power (707.4 mW) and durability (up to 145 h). This result shows that the bio-batteries have the potency to full fill the need of electricity demand for lower energy equipment.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
95
92143
A Detail Analysis of Solar Energy Potential of Provinces of Pakistan for Power Generation
Abstract:
Solar energy potential of Capital city Islamabad and five major cities Peshawar, Lahore, Multan, Quetta and Karachi have been analyzed by using sun shine hour data of the area. Global and diffused solar radiation on horizontal surfaces has been assessed to see the feasibility of solar energy utilization. The result obtained shows 70% direct and 30% diffuse solar radiation for five cities throughout the year except Karachi which shows large variation in direct and diffuse component of solar radiation 57% direct and 43% diffuse in the month of July and August. The cloudiness index were also calculated which lies between 60 to 70% for all the cities except for Karachi which shows 37% clear sky in monsoon month July and August. All the cities show high solar potential throughout the year except Karachi which shows low solar potential during July and August months.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
94
91997
Optimization of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Based on Artificial Neural Network
Abstract:
The neural networks are one of the power tools of machine learning. After the invention of perceptron in early 1980's, the neural networks and its application have grown rapidly. Neural networks are a technique originally developed for pattern investigation. The structure of a neural network consists of neurons connected through synapse. Here, we have investigated the different algorithms and cost function reduction techniques for optimization of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) rotor blades. The aerodynamic force coefficients corresponding to the airfoils are stored in a database along with the airfoil coordinates. A forward propagation neural network is created with the input as aerodynamic coefficients and output as the airfoil co-ordinates. In the proposed algorithm, the hidden layer is incorporated into cost function having linear and non-linear error terms. In this article, it is observed that the ANNs (Artificial Neural Network) can be used for the VAWT’s optimization.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
93
91280
Exergy: An Effective Tool to Quantify Sustainable Development of Biodiesel Production
Abstract:
This study focuses on the exergy flow analysis in the transesterification of waste cooking oil with methanol to decrease the consumption of materials and energy and promote the use of renewable resources. The exergy analysis performed is based on the thermodynamic performance parameters namely exergy destruction and exergy efficiency to investigate the effects of variable parameters on renewability of transesterification. The experiment variables were methanol to WCO ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction temperature in the transesterification reaction. The optimum condition with yield of 90.2% and exergy efficiency of 95.2% was obtained at methanol to oil molar ratio of 8:1, 1 wt.% of KOH, at 55 °C. In this condition, the total waste exergy was found to be 45.4 MJ for 1 kg biodiesel production. However high yield in the optimal condition resulted high exergy efficiency in the transesterification of WCO with methanol.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
92
91171
Energy Atlas: Geographic Information Systems-Based Energy Analysis and Planning Tool
Abstract:
Due to an increase in living standards along with global population growth and a trend of urbanization, municipalities and regions are faced with an ever rising energy demand. A challenge has arisen for cities around the world to modify the energy supply chain in order to reduce its consumption and CO₂ emissions. The aim of our work is the development of a computational-analytical platform for dynamic support in decision-making and the determination of economic and technical indicators of energy efficiency in a smart city, named Energy Atlas. Similar products in this field focuse on a narrower approach, whereas in order to achieve its aim, this platform encompasses a wider spectrum of beneficial and important information for energy planning on a local or regional scale. GIS based interactive maps provide an extensive database on the potential, use and supply of energy and renewable energy sources along with climate, transport and spatial data of the selected municipality. Beneficiaries of Energy atlas are local communities, companies, investors, contractors as well as residents. The Energy Atlas platform consists of three modules named E-Planning, E-Indicators and E-Cooperation. The E-Planning module is a comprehensive data service, which represents a support towards optimal decision-making and offers a sum of solutions and feasibility of measures and their effects in the area of efficient use of energy and renewable energy sources. The E-Indicators module identifies, collects and develops optimal data and key performance indicators and develops an analytical application service for dynamic support in managing a smart city in regards to energy use and sustainable environment. In order to support cooperation and direct involvement of citizens of the smart city, the E-cooperation is developed with the purpose of integrating the interdisciplinary and sociological aspects of energy end-users. Interaction of all the above-described modules contributes to regional development because it enables for a precise assessment of the current situation, strategic planning, detection of potential future difficulties and also the possibility of public involvement in decision-making. From the implementation of the technology in Slovenian municipalities of Ljubljana, Piran, and Novo mesto, there is evidence to suggest that the set goals are to be achieved to a great extent. Such thorough urban energy planning tool is viewed as an important piece of the puzzle towards achieving a low-carbon society, circular economy and therefore, sustainable society.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
91
90934
Kinetic Studies on CO₂ Gasification of Low and High Ash Indian Coals in Context of Underground Coal Gasification
Abstract:
Underground coal gasification (UCG) technology is an efficient and an economic in-situ clean coal technology, which converts unmineable coals into calorific valuable gases. This technology avoids ash disposal, coal mining, and storage problems. CO₂ gas can be a potential gasifying medium for UCG. CO₂ is a greenhouse gas and, the liberation of this gas to the atmosphere from thermal power plant industries leads to global warming. Hence, the capture and reutilization of CO₂ gas are crucial for clean energy production. However, the reactivity of high ash Indian coals with CO₂ needs to be assessed. In the present study, two varieties of Indian coals (low ash and high ash) are used for thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). Two low ash north east Indian coals (LAC) and a typical high ash Indian coal (HAC) are procured from the coal mines of India. Low ash coal with 9% ash (LAC-1) and 4% ash (LAC-2) and high ash coal (HAC) with 42% ash are used for the study. TGA studies are carried out to evaluate the activation energy for pyrolysis and gasification of coal under N₂ and CO₂ atmosphere. Coats and Redfern method is used to estimate the activation energy of coal under different temperature regimes. Volumetric model is assumed for the estimation of the activation energy. The activation energy estimated under different temperature range. The inherent properties of coals play a major role in their reactivity. The results show that the activation energy decreases with the decrease in the inherent percentage of coal ash due to the ash layer hindrance. A reverse trend was observed with volatile matter. High volatile matter of coal leads to the estimation of low activation energy. It was observed that the activation energy under CO₂ atmosphere at 400-600°C is less as compared to N₂ inert atmosphere. At this temperature range, it is estimated that 15-23% reduction in the activation energy under CO₂ atmosphere. This shows the reactivity of CO₂ gas with higher hydrocarbons of the coal volatile matters. The reactivity of CO₂ with the volatile matter of coal might occur through dry reforming reaction in which CO₂ reacts with higher hydrocarbon, aromatics of the tar content. The observed trend of Ea in the temperature range of 150-200˚C and 400-600˚C is HAC > LAC-1 >LAC-2 in both N₂ and CO₂ atmosphere. At the temperature range of 850-1000˚C, higher activation energy is estimated when compared to those values in the temperature range of 400-600°C. Above 800°C, char gasification through Boudouard reaction progressed under CO₂ atmosphere. It was observed that 8-20 kJ/mol of activation energy is increased during char gasification above 800°C compared to volatile matter pyrolysis between the temperature ranges of 400-600°C. The overall activation energy of the coals in the temperature range of 30-1000˚C is higher in N₂ atmosphere than CO₂ atmosphere. It can be concluded that higher hydrocarbons such as tar effectively undergoes cracking and reforming reactions in presence of CO₂. Thus, CO₂ gas is beneficial for the production of high calorific value syngas using high ash Indian coals.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
90
90338
Experimental Study on Effects of Addition of Rice Husk on Coal Gasification
Abstract:
In this experimental study, effects of addition of rice husk on coal gasification in a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, operating at atmospheric pressure with air as gasifying agent, are reported. Rice husks comprising of 6.5% and 13% by mass are added to coal. Results show that, when rice husk is added the methane yield increases from volumetric percentage of 0.56% (with no rice husk) to 2.77% (with 13% rice husk). CO and H2 remain almost unchanged and CO2 decreases with addition of rice husk. The calorific value of the synthetic gas is around 2.73 MJ/Nm3. All performance indices, such as cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion, increase with addition of rice husk.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
89
90334
Study of Exciton Binding Energy in Photovoltaic Polymers and Non-Fullerene Acceptors
Abstract:
The excitonic effect in organic semiconductors plays a key role in determining the electronic devices performance. Strong exciton binding energy has been regarded as the detrimental factor limiting the further improvement in organic photovoltaic cells. To the best of our knowledge, only limited reported can be found in measuring the exciton binding energy in organic photovoltaic materials. Conventional sophisticated approach using photoemission spectroscopy (UPS and IPES) would limit the wide access of the investigation. Here, we demonstrate a facile approach to study the electrical and optical quantum efficiencies of a series of conjugated photovoltaic polymer, fullerene and non-fullerene materials. Quantitative values of the exciton binding energy in those prototypical materials were obtained with concise photovoltaic device structure. And the extracted binding energies have excellent agreement with those determined by the conventional photoemission technique. More importantly, our findings can provide valuable information on the excitonic dissociation in the first excited state. Particularly, we find that the high binding energy of some non-fullerene acceptors limits the combination of polymer acceptors for efficiency exciton dissociation. The results bring insight into the engineering of excitonic effect for the development of efficient organic photovoltaic cells.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
88
90319
A Hybrid Simulation Approach to Evaluate Cooling Energy Consumption for Public Housings of Subtropics
Abstract:
Cooling energy consumption in the residential sector, different from shopping mall, office or commercial buildings, is significantly subject to occupant decisions where in-depth investigations are found limited. It shows that energy consumptions could be associated with housing types. Surveys have been conducted in existing Hong Kong public housings to understand the housing characteristics, apartment electricity demands, occupant’s thermal expectations, and air–conditioning usage patterns for further cooling energy-saving assessments. The aim of this study is to develop a hybrid cooling energy prediction model, which integrated by EnergyPlus (EP) and artificial neural network (ANN) to estimate cooling energy consumption in public residential sector. Sensitivity tests are conducted to find out the energy impacts with changing building parameters regarding to external wall and window material selection, window size reduction, shading extension, building orientation and apartment size control respectively. Assessments are performed to investigate the relationships between cooling demands and occupant behavior on thermal environment criteria and air-conditioning operation patterns. The results are summarized into a cooling energy calculator for layman use to enhance the cooling energy saving awareness in their own living environment. The findings can be used as a directory framework for future cooling energy evaluation in residential buildings, especially focus on the occupant behavioral air–conditioning operation and criteria of energy-saving incentives.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
87
90318
Potential of Ozonation and Phytoremediation to Reduce Hydrocarbon Levels Remaining after the Pilot Scale Microbial Based Bioremediation (Land-Farming) of a Heavily Polluted Soil
Abstract:
Petroleum contamination of sandy soils is a severe environmental problem in Libya, but relatively little work has been carried out to optimize the bioremediation of such heavily contaminated soil, particularly at a pilot scale. The purpose of this research was to determine the potential for the microbial-based bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil obtained from an oil refinery in Libya and to assess the potential of both ozonation and phytoremediation (both applied after initial bioremediation) to reduce residual hydrocarbon levels. Plots containing 500 kg soil (triplicates) (contaminated soil diluted with clean soil 50% volume) were set up, (designated as Land Treatment Units; LTUs) containing five different nutrient levels and mixtures (Urea + NPK (nitrogen; phosphor; potassium) mixtures) to obtain C:N:P ratios 100:10:1, and monitored for 90 days. Hydrocarbon levels, microbial numbers, and toxicity (EC50 using luminescent microbial based tests) were assessed. Hydrocarbon levels in non-diluted and diluted soil ranged from 20 733-22 366 mg/kg and from 16 000-17 000 mg/kg respectively. Although all the land treatment units revealed a significant hydrocarbon reduction over time, the highest reduction in hydrocarbon levels obtained was around 60%. For example, 63% hydrocarbon removal was observed using a mixture of urea and NPK with a C:N:P ratio of 100:10:1). Soil toxicity (as assessed using luminescence based toxicity assays) reduced in line with the reduction in total petroleum hydrocarbons observed. However, as relatively high residual TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbon) levels (ranging from 6033-14166mg/kg) were still present after initial bioremediation two ‘post-treatments’ (phytoremediation and ozonation) were attempted to remove residual hydrocarbons remaining. Five locally grown (agriculturally important) plant species were tested. The germination of all plants examined was strongly inhibited (80-100%) and seedlings failed to grow well in the contaminated soil, indicating that the previously bioremediated soils were still toxic to the plants. Subsequent ozonation followed by another bioremediation of soil was more successful than phytoremediation. But even the most promising successful treatment in this study (ozonation for 6 hours at 25ppm followed by bioremediation) still only removed approximately 31% of the residual hydrocarbons. Overall, this work showed that the bioremediation of such highly contaminated soils is difficult and that a combination of treatments would be required to achieve successful remediation. Even after initial dilution and bioremediation the soils remained toxic to plant growth and were therefore not suitable for phytoremediation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
86
90300
Character and Evolution of Electronic Waste: A Technologically Developing Country's Experience
Abstract:
The discourse of this paper is the examination of the generation, accumulation and growth of e-waste in a developing country. Images and other data about computer e-waste were collected using a digital camera, 290 copies of questionnaire and three structured interviews using Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife, Nigeria environment as a case study. The numerical data were analysed using R data analysis and process tool. Automata-based techniques and Petri net modeling tool were used to design and simulate a computational model for the recovery of saleable materials from e-waste. The R analysis showed that at a 95 percent confidence level, the computer equipment that will be disposed by 2020 will be 417 units. Compared to the 800 units in circulation in 2014, 50 percent of personal computer components will become e-waste. This indicates that personal computer components were in high demand due to their low costs and will be disposed more rapidly when replaced by new computer equipment Also, 57 percent of the respondents discarded their computer e-waste by throwing it into the garbage bin or by dumping it. The simulated model using Coloured Petri net modelling tool for the process showed that the e-waste dynamics is a forward sequential process in the form of a pipeline meaning that an e-waste recovery of saleable materials process occurs in identifiable discrete stages indicating that e-waste will continue to accumulate and grow in volume with time.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
85
90070
Integrated Waste-to-Energy Approach: An Overview
Abstract:
This study evaluates the benefits of advanced waste management practices in unlocking waste-to-energy opportunities within the solid waste industry. The key drivers of sustainable waste management practices, specifically with respect to packaging waste-to-energy technology options are discussed. The success of a waste-to-energy system depends significantly on the appropriateness of available technologies, including those that are well established as well as those that are less so. There are hard and soft interventions to be considered when packaging an integrated waste treatment solution. Technology compatibility with variation in feedstock (waste) quality and quantities remains a key factor. These factors influence the technology reliability in terms of production efficiencies and product consistency, which in turn, drives the supply and demand network. Waste treatment technologies rely on the waste material as feedstock; the feedstock varies in quality and quantities depending on several factors; hence, the technology fails, as a result. It is critical to design an advanced waste treatment technology in an integrated approach to minimize the possibility of technology failure due to unpredictable feedstock quality, quantities, conversion efficiencies, and inconsistent product yield or quality. An integrated waste-to-energy approach offers a secure system design that considers sustainable waste management practices.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
84
90063
Solar and Wind Energy Potential Study of Sindh Province, Pakistan for Power Generation
Abstract:
Global and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal surface of southern sindh namely Karachi, Hyderabad, Nawabshah were carried out using sunshine hour data of the area to asses the feasibility of solar Energy utilization at Sindh province for power generation. From the observation, result is derived which shows a drastic variation in the diffuse and direct component of solar radiation for summer and winter for Southern Sindh that is both contributes 50% for Karachi and Hyderabad. In Nawabshah area, the contribution of diffuse solar radiation is low in monsoon months, July and August. The Kᴛ value of Nawabshah indicates a clear sky almost throughout the year. The percentage of diffuse radiation does not exceed more than 20%. In Nawabshah, the appearance of cloud is rare even in monsoon months. The estimated values indicate that Nawabshah has high solar potential whereas Karachi and Hyderabad has low solar potential. During the monsoon months, the southern part of Sind can utilize the hybrid system with wind power. Near Karachi and Hyderabad, the wind speed ranges between 6.2 to 6.9 m/sec. There exist a wind corridor near Karachi, Hyderabad, Gharo, Keti Bander and Shah Bander. The short fall of solar can be compensated by wind because in monsoon months July and August the wind speed are higher in the southern region of Sindh.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
83
89836
Simulation and Breakdown of Maximum Power Point Tracking in a PV System: A Circumstance Research Using Analysis and Pulse Width Modulation Analysis
Abstract:
Optimized gain in respect to output power of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems is one of the major focus of PV in recent times. This is evident to its low carbon emission and efficiency. Power failure or outage from commercial providers, in general, does not promote development to public and private sector, these basically limit the development of industries. The need for a well-structured PV system is of importance for an efficient and cost effective monitoring system. The purpose of this paper is to validate the maximum power point of an off-grid PV system taking into consideration the most effective tilt and orientation angles for PV's in the southern hemisphere. This paper is based on analyzing the system using a solar charger with MPPT from a pulse width modulation (PWM) perspective. The power conditioning device chosen is a solar charger with MPPT. The practical setup consists of a PV panel that is set to an orientation angle of 0° north, with a corresponding tilt angle of 36°, 26° and 16°. Preliminary results include regression analysis (normal probability plot) showing the maximum power point in the system as well the best tilt angle for maximum power point tracking.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
82
89576
Study on the Relationship between the Urban Geography and Urban Agglomeration to the Effects of Carbon Emissions
Abstract:
In recent years, global warming, the dramatic change in energy prices and the exhaustion of natural resources illustrated that energy-related topic cannot be ignored. Despite the relationship between the cities and CO₂ emissions has been extensively studied in recent years, little attention has been paid to differences in the geographical location of the city. However, the geographical climate has a great impact on lifestyle from city to city, such as the type of buildings, the major industry of the city, etc. Therefore, the paper instigates empirically the effects of kinds of urban factors and CO₂ emissions with consideration of the different geographic, climatic zones which cities are located. Using the regression model and a dataset of urban agglomeration in East Asia cities with over one million population, including 2005, 2010, and 2015 three years, the findings suggest that the impact of urban factors on CO₂ emissions vary with the latitude of the cities. Surprisingly, all kinds of urban factors, including the urban population, the share of GDP in service industry, per capita income, and others, have different level of impact on the cities locate in the tropical climate zone and temperate climate zone. The results of the study analyze the impact of different urban factors on CO₂ emissions in urban area with different geographical climate zones. These findings will be helpful for the formulation of relevant policies for urban planners and policy makers in different regions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
81
89477
Scope of Rainwater Harvesting in Residential Plots of Dhaka City
Abstract:
Urban flood and drought has been a major problem of Dhaka city, particularly in recent years. Continuous increase of the city built up area, and limiting rainwater infiltration zone, are thought to be the main causes of the problem. Proper rainwater management, even at the individual plot level, might bring significant improvement in this regard. As residential use pattern occupies a significant portion of the city surface, the scope of rainwater harvesting (RWH) in residential buildings can be investigated. This paper reports on a research which explored the scope of rainwater harvesting in residential plots, with multifamily apartment buildings, in Dhaka city. The research investigated the basics of RWH, contextual information, i.e., hydro-geological, meteorological data of Dhaka city and the rules and legislations for residential building construction. The study also explored contemporary rainwater harvesting practices in the local and international contexts. On the basis of theoretical understanding, 21 sample case-studies, in different phases of construction, were selected from seven different categories of plot sizes, in different residential areas of Dhaka city. Primary data from the 21 case-study buildings were collected from a physical survey, from design drawings, accompanied by a questionnaire survey. All necessary secondary data were gathered from published and other relevant sources. Collected primary and secondary data were used to calculate and analyze the RWH needs for each case study, based on the theoretical understanding. The main findings have been compiled and compared, to observe residential development trends with regards to building rainwater harvesting system. The study has found that, in ‘Multifamily Apartment Building’ of Dhaka city, storage, and recharge structure size for rainwater harvesting, increases along with occupants’ number, and with the increasing size of the plot. Hence, demand vs. supply ratio remains almost the same for different sizes of plots, and consequently, the size of the storage structure increases significantly, in large-scale plots. It has been found that rainwater can meet only 12%-30% of the total restricted water demand of these residential buildings of Dhaka city. Therefore, artificial groundwater recharge might be the more suitable option for RWH, than storage. The study came up with this conclusion that, in multifamily residential apartments of Dhaka city, artificial groundwater recharge might be the more suitable option for RWH, than storing the rainwater on site.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
80
89034
Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Ground Water in the Coastal Part of Cauvery Deltaic Region, South India
Abstract:
In order to assess the heavy metal contamination totally fourty five groundwater samples were collected from the coastal part of Cauvery deltaic region, South India, during monsoon season in the year of 2017. The study area lies between longitudes 79º15’ to 79º 50’ E and latitudes 10º10’ to 11º20’ N with total area of 2,569 km². The concentration of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The heavy metals ranged between 0.007-117.8 µg/l for As, 8.503-1281 µg/l for Ba, 0.006-0.12 µg/l for Cd, 0.23-5.572µg/l for Cr, 0.44-17.9 µg/l for Co, 0.633-11.56 µg/l for Cu, 0.467-29.34 µg/l for Ni, 0.008-5.756 µg/l for Pb, 0.979 to 45.49 µg/l for Se, and 2.712-10480 µg/l for Zn in the groundwaters. A comparison of heavy metal concentration with WHO and BIS drinking water standards shows that Ni, Zn, As, Se, and Ba level is higher than the drinking water standards in some of the groundwater samples, and the concentrations of all the other heavy metals were lower than the drinking water standards. The present levels of heavy metal concentration in the studied area groundwaters are moderate to severe to public health and environmental concerns and need attention.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
79
88695
Quantitative Analysis of Potential Rainwater Harvesting and Supply to a Rural Community at Northeast of Amazon Region, Brazil
Abstract:
Riverside population of Brazilian amazon suffers drinking water scarcity, seeking alternative water resources such as well and rivers, ordinary polluted. Although Amazon Region holds high annual river inflow and enough available of underground water, human activities have compromised the conservation of water resources. In addition, decentralized rural households make difficult to access of potable water. Main objective is to analyze quantitatively the potential of rainwater harvesting to human consumption at Marupaúba community, located in northeast of Amazon region, Brazil. Methods such as historical rainfall data series of municipality of Tomé-Açu at Pará state were obtained from Hydrological Information System of National Water Agency (ANA). Besides, Rippl method was used to calculate, mainly, volume of the reservoir based on difference of water demand and volume available through rainwater using as references two houses (CA I and CA II) as model of rainwater catchment and supply. Results presented that, from years 1984 to 2017, average annual precipitation was 2.607 mm, average maximum precipitation peak was 474 mm on March and average minimum peak on September was 44 mm. All months, of a year, surplus volume of water have presented in relation to demand, considering catchment area (CA) I = 134.4m² and demand volume =0.72 m³/month; and, CA II = 81.84 m² and demand volume = 0.48 m³/month. Based on results, it is concluded that it is feasible to use rainwater for the supply of the rural community Marupaúba, since the access of drinking water is a human right and the lack of this resource compromises health and daily life of human beings.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
78
88433
Recognition of Early Enterococcus Faecalis through Image Treatment by Using Octave
Abstract:
The problem of detecting enterococcus faecalis is receiving considerable attention with the new cases of beachgoers infected with the bacteria, which can be found in fecal matter. The process detection of this kind of bacteria would be taking a long time, which waste time and money as a result of closing recreation place, like beach or pools. Hence, new methods for automating the process of detecting and recognition of this bacteria has become in a challenge. This article describes a novel approach to detect the enterococcus faecalis bacteria in water by using an octave algorithm, which embody a network neural. This document shows result of performance, quality and integrity of the algorithm.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
77
87784
Investigation of the Effects of the Whey Addition on the Biogas Production of a Reactor Using Cattle Manure for Biogas Production
Abstract:
In a lab-scale research, the effects of feeding whey into the biogas system and how to solve the probable problems arising were analysed. In the study a semi-continuous glass reactor, having a total capacity of 13 liters and having a working capacity of 10 liters, was placed in an incubator, and the temperature was tried to be held at 38 °C. At first, the reactor was operated by adding 5 liters of animal manure and water with a ratio of 1/1. By passing time, the production rate of the gas reduced intensively that on the fourth day there was no production of gas and the system stopped working. In this condition, the pH was adjusted and by adding NaOH, it was increased from 5.4 to 7. On 48th day, the first gas measurement was done and an amount of 12.07 % of CH₄ was detected. After making buffer in the ambient, the number of bacteria existing in the cattle’s manure and contributing to the gas production was thought to be not adequate, and up to 20 % of its volume 2 liters of mud was added to the reactor. 7 days after adding the anaerobic mud, second gas measurement was carried out, and biogas including 43 % CH₄ was obtained. From the 61st day of the study, the cheese whey with the animal manure was started to be added with an amount of 40 mL per day. However, by passing time, the raising of the microorganisms existed in the whey (especially Ni and Co), the percent of methane in the biogas decreased. In fact, 2 weeks after adding PAS, the gas measurement was done and 36,97 % CH₄ was detected. 0,06 mL Ni-Co (to gain a concentration of 0.05 mg/L in the reactor’s mixture) solution was added to the system for 15 days. To find out the effect of the solution on archaea, 7 days after stopping addition of the solution, methane gas was found to have a 9,03 % increase and reach 46 %. Lastly, the effects of adding molasses to the reactor were investigated. The effects of its activity on the bacteria was analysed by adding 4 grams of it to the system. After adding molasses in 10 days, according to the last measurement, the amount of methane gas reached up to 49%.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
76
87064
Fungal Flocculation of Single Algae Species and Mixed Algal Communities
Abstract:
Microalgae are extremely useful organisms but notoriously hard to harvest. The use of fungal pellets has been found to be an efficient way to flocculate numerous species of algae. However, only the flocculation of single species of algae has been investigated. Algae are generally found in complex communities in the environment comprising of numerous species of algae ranging from simple single cell algae such as Chlorella to more complex or communal algae such as Dictyosphaerium. This study investigated the flocculation capabilities of Aspergillus oryzae to flocculate four species of algae; Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Scenedesmus acuminatus and Dictyosphaerium sp., and the algal communities in four different types of domestic effluent from a lagoon-based treatment plant; primary effluent, secondary effluent and the high rate algal pond effluent at a natural and at a lowered pH level. Spectrophotometry was used to measure the changes in algal population. C. vulgaris, S. acuminatus and S. quadricauda, had over 90% reduction of algal in suspension after 24 hours. Dictyosphaerium sp. showed a little to no removal after 24 hours. The primary, secondary, and natural pH level HRAP had roughly a 50% removal after 24 hours, the HRAP which was grown at a lower pH level had over a 90% removal after 24 hours. pH has been shown previously to affect fungal flocculation. Fungal and algae pellets have been shown to be able to treat wastewater and can be converted to biofuels in a very similar method to how algae are currently converted. The mixture of both fungi and algae has also been shown to provide a higher yield of oils then separately and are able to more efficiently treat wastewater then algae or fungi by themselves.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
75
86916
Supercritical Water Gasification of Organic Wastes for Hydrogen Production and Waste Valorization
Abstract:
Population growth and industrial development imply an increase in the energy demands and the problems caused by emissions of greenhouse effect gases, which has inspired the search for clean sources of energy. Hydrogen (H₂) is expected to play a key role in the world’s energy future by replacing fossil fuels. The properties of H₂ make it a green fuel that does not generate pollutants and supplies sufficient energy for power generation, transportation, and other applications. Supercritical Water Gasification (SCWG) represents an attractive alternative for the recovery of energy from wastes. SCWG allows conversion of a wide range of raw materials into a fuel gas with a high content of hydrogen and light hydrocarbons through their treatment at conditions higher than those that define the critical point of water (temperature of 374°C and pressure of 221 bar). Methane used as a transport fuel is another important gasification product. The number of different uses of gas and energy forms that can be produced depending on the kind of material gasified and type of technology used to process it, shows the flexibility of SCWG. This feature allows it to be integrated with several industrial processes, as well as power generation systems or waste-to-energy production systems. The final aim of this work is to study which conditions and equipment are the most efficient and advantageous to explore the possibilities to obtain streams rich in H₂ from oily wastes, which represent a major problem both for the environment and human health throughout the world. In this paper, the relative complexity of technology needed for feasible gasification process cycles is discussed with particular reference to the different feedstocks that can be used as raw material, different reactors, and energy recovery systems. For this purpose, a review of the current status of SCWG technologies has been carried out, by means of different classifications based on key features as the feed treated or the type of reactor and other apparatus. This analysis allows to improve the technology efficiency through the study of model calculations and its comparison with experimental data, the establishment of kinetics for chemical reactions, the analysis of how the main reaction parameters affect the yield and composition of products, or the determination of the most common problems and risks that can occur. The results of this work show that SCWG is a promising method for the production of both hydrogen and methane. The most significant choices of design are the reactor type and process cycle, which can be conveniently adopted according to waste characteristics. Regarding the future of the technology, the design of SCWG plants is still to be optimized to include energy recovery systems in order to reduce costs of equipment and operation derived from the high temperature and pressure conditions that are necessary to convert water to the SC state, as well as to find solutions to remove corrosion and clogging of components of the reactor.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
74
86797
Increasing Photosynthetic H2 Production by in vivo Expression of Re-Engineered Ferredoxin-Hydrogenase Fusion Protein in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Abstract:
The most urgent challenge of our time is to replace the depleting resources of fossil fuels by sustainable environmentally friendly alternatives. Hydrogen is a promising CO2-neutral fuel for a more sustainable future especially when produced photo-biologically. Hydrogen can be photosynthetically produced in unicellular green alga like Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, catalysed by the inducible highly active and bidirectional [FeFe]-hydrogenase enzymes (HydA). However, evolutionary and physiological constraints severely restrict the hydrogen yield of algae for industrial scale-up, mainly due to its competition among other metabolic pathways on photosynthetic electrons. Among them, a major challenge to be resolved is the inferior competitiveness of hydrogen production (catalysed by HydA) with NADPH production (catalysed by ferredoxin-NADP+-reductase (FNR)), which is essential for cell growth and takes up ~95% of photosynthetic electrons. In this work, the in vivo hydrogen production efficiency of mutants with ferredoxin-hydrogenase (Fd*-HydA1*) fusion protein construct, where the electron donor ferredoxin (Fd*) is fused to HydA1* and expressed in the model organism C. reinhardtii was investigated. Once Fd*-HydA1* fusion gene is expressed in algal cells, the fusion enzyme is able to draw the redistributed photosynthetic electrons and use them for efficient hydrogen production. From preliminary data, mutants with Fd*-HydA1* transgene showed a ~2-fold increase in the photosynthetic hydrogen production rate compared with its parental strain, which only possesses the native HydA in vivo. Therefore, a solid method of having more efficient hydrogen production in microalgae can be achieved through the expression of the synthetic enzymes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
73
86006
The 2017 Summer Campaign for Night Sky Brightness Measurements on the Tuscan Coast
Abstract:
The presentation will report the activities managed during the Summer of 2017 by a team composed by staff from a University Department, a National Research Council Institute, and an outreach NGO, collecting measurements of night sky brightness and other information on artificial lighting, in order to characterize light pollution issues on portions of the Tuscan coast, in Central Italy. These activities combine measurements collected by the principal scientists, citizen science observations led by students, and outreach events targeting a broad audience. This campaign aggregates the efforts of three actors: the BuioMetria Partecipativa project, which started collecting light pollution data on a national scale in 2008 with an environmental engineering and free/open source GIS core team; the Institute of Biometeorology from the National Research Council, with ongoing studies on light and urban vegetation and a consolidated track record in environmental education and citizen science; the Department of Biology from the University of Pisa, which started experiments to assess the impact of light pollution in coastal environments in 2015. While the core of the activities concerns in situ data, the campaign will account also for remote sensing data, thus considering heterogeneous data sources. The aim of the campaign is twofold: (1) To test actions of citizen and student engagement in monitoring sky brightness (2) To collect night sky brightness data and test a protocol for applications to studies on the ecological impact of light pollution, with a special focus on marine coastal ecosystems. The collaboration of an interdisciplinary team in the study of artificial lighting issues is not a common case in Italy, and the possibility of undertaking the campaign in Tuscany has the added value of operating in one of the territories where it is possible to observe both sites with extremely high lighting levels, and areas with extremely low light pollution, especially in the Southern part of the region. Combining environmental monitoring and communication actions in the context of the campaign, this effort will contribute to the promotion of night skies with a good quality as an important asset for the sustainability of coastal ecosystems, as well as to increase citizen awareness through star gazing, night photography and actively participating in field campaign measurements.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
72
85982
Biodiesel Synthesis Using Animal Excreta-Based Biochar and Waste Cooking Oil
Abstract:
This study laid an emphasis on the possible employment of biochar generated from pyrolysis of animal excreta to establish a green platform for producing biodiesel. To this end, the pseudo-catalytic transesterification reaction using chicken manure biochar and waste cooking oil was investigated. Compared with a commercial porous material (SiO2), chicken manure biochar generated from 350 C showed better performance, resulting in 95.6% of the FAME yield at 350C. The Ca species in chicken manure biochar imparted strong catalytic capability by providing the basicity for transesterification. The identified catalytic effect also led to the thermal cracking of unsaturated FAMEs, which decreased the overall FAME yield. For example, 40–60% of converted FAMEs were thermally degraded. To avoid undesirable thermal cracking arising from the high content of the Ca species in chicken manure biochar, the fabrication of chicken manure biochar at temperatures ≥350C was highly recommended.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
71
85744
Clouds Influence on Atmospheric Ozone from GOME-2 Satellite Measurements
Abstract:
This study is mainly focused on the determination and analysis of the photolysis rate of atmospheric, specifically tropospheric, ozone as function of cloud properties through-out the year 2007. The observational basis for ozone concentrations and cloud properties are the measurement data set of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) sensor on board the polar orbiting Metop-A satellite. Two different spectral ranges are used; ozone total column are calculated from the wavelength window 325 – 335 nm, while cloud properties, such as cloud top height (CTH) and cloud optical thick-ness (COT) are derived from the absorption band of molecular oxygen centered at 761 nm. Cloud fraction (CF) is derived from measurements in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared range of GOME-2. First, ozone concentrations above clouds are derived from ozone total columns, subtracting the contribution of stratospheric ozone and filtering those satellite measurements which have thin and low clouds. Then, the values of ozone photolysis derived from observations are compared with theoretical modeled results, in the latitudinal belt 5˚N-5˚S and 20˚N - 20˚S, as function of CF and COT. In general, good agreement is found between the data and the model, proving both the quality of the space-borne ozone and cloud properties as well as the modeling theory of ozone photolysis rate. The found discrepancies can, however, amount to approximately 15%. Latitudinal seasonal changes of photolysis rate of ozone are found to be negatively correlated to changes in upper-tropospheric ozone concentrations only in the autumn and summer months within the northern and southern tropical belts, respectively. This fact points to the entangled roles of temperature and nitrogen oxides in the ozone production, which are superimposed on its sole photolysis induced by thick and high clouds in the tropics.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
70
85400
Thermal Pre-Treatment of Sewage Sludge in Fluidized Bed for Enhancing Its Solid Fuel Properties
Abstract:
A lab-scale fluidized bed was used for the study of sewage sludge, a non-lignocellulosic biomass, torrefaction. The influence of torrefaction temperature ranging from 200–350 °C and residence time of 0–50 minutes on the physical and chemical properties of the torrefied product was investigated. Properties of the torrefied product were analyzed on the basis of degree of torrefaction, ultimate and proximate analysis, gas analysis and chemical exergy. The degree of torrefaction and chemical exergy had a positive influence on increasing the torrefaction temperature. Moreover, the effect of torrefaction temperature and residence time on the elemental variation of sewage sludge exhibited an increase in the weight percentage of carbon while the content of H/C and O/C molar ratios decreased. The product gas emitted during torrefaction was analyzed to study the pathway of hydrocarbons and oxygen-containing compounds. The compounds with oxygen were emitted at higher temperatures in contrast to hydrocarbon gases. An attempt was made to obtain the chemical exergy of sewage sludge. In addition, the study of various correlations for predicting the calorific value of torrefied sewage sludge was made.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
69
85316
From Conflicts to Synergies between Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change: The Case of Lisbon Downtown 2010-2030
Abstract:
In the last thirty years, European cities have been addressing global climate change and its local impacts by implementing mitigation and adaptation strategies. Lisbon Downtown is no exception with 10 plans under implementation since 2010 with completion scheduled for 2030 valued 1 billion euros of public investment. However, the gap between mitigation and adaptation strategies is not yet sufficiently studied alongside with its nuances- vulnerability and risk mitigation, resilience and adaptation. In Lisbon Downtown, these plans are being implemented separately, therefore compromising the effectiveness of public investment. The research reviewed the common ground of mitigation and adaptation strategies of the theoretical framework and analyzed the current urban development actions in Lisbon Downtown in order to identify potential conflicts and synergies. The empirical fieldwork supported by a sounding board of experts has been developed during two years and the results suggest that the largest public investment in Lisbon on flooding mitigation will conflict with the new Cruise ship terminal and old Downton building stock, therefore increasing risk and vulnerability factors. The study concludes that the Lisbon Downtown blue infrastructure plan should be redesigned in some areas in a trans- disciplinary and holistic approach and that the current theoretical framework on climate change should focus more on mitigation and adaptation synergies articulating the gray, blue and green infrastructures, combining old knowledge tested by resilient communities and new knowledge emerging from the digital era.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
68
85295
Techno-Economic Analysis of 1,3-Butadiene and ε-Caprolactam Production from C6 Sugars
Abstract:
In order to achieve the transition from a fossil to bio-based economy, biomass needs to replace fossil resources in meeting the world’s energy and chemical needs. This calls for development of biorefinery systems allowing cost-efficient conversion of biomass to chemicals. In biorefinery systems, feedstock is converted to key intermediates called platforms which are converted to wide range of marketable products. The C6 sugars platform stands out due to its unique versatility as precursor for multiple valuable products. Among the different potential routes from C6 sugars to bio-based chemicals, 1,3-butadiene and ε-caprolactam appear to be of great interest. Butadiene is an important chemical for the production of synthetic rubbers, while caprolactam is used in production of nylon-6. In this study, ex-ante techno-economic performance of 1,3-butadiene and ε-caprolactam routes from C6 sugars were assessed. The aim is to provide insight from an early stage of development into the potential of these new technologies, and the bottlenecks and key cost-drivers. Two cases for each product line were analyzed to take into consideration the effect of possible changes on the overall performance of both butadiene and caprolactam production. Conceptual process design for the processes was developed using Aspen Plus based on currently available data from laboratory experiments. Then, operating and capital costs were estimated and an economic assessment was carried out using Net Present Value (NPV) as indicator. Finally, sensitivity analyses on processing capacity and prices was done to take into account possible variations. Results indicate that both processes perform similarly from an energy intensity point of view ranging between 34-50 MJ per kg of main product. However, in terms of processing yield (kg of product per kg of C6 sugar), caprolactam shows higher yield by a factor 1.6-3.6 compared to butadiene. For butadiene production, with the economic parameters used in this study, for both cases studied, a negative NPV (-642 and -647 M€) was attained indicating economic infeasibility. For the caprolactam production, one of the cases also showed economic infeasibility (-229 M€), but the case with the higher caprolactam yield resulted in a positive NPV (67 M€). Sensitivity analysis indicated that the economic performance of caprolactam production can be improved with the increase in capacity (higher C6 sugars intake) reflecting benefits of the economies of scale. Furthermore, humins valorization for heat and power production was considered and found to have a positive effect. Butadiene production was found sensitive to the price of feedstock C6 sugars and product butadiene. However, even at 100% variation of the two parameters, butadiene production remained economically infeasible. Overall, the caprolactam production line shows higher economic potential in comparison to that of butadiene. The results are useful in guiding experimental research and providing direction for further development of bio-based chemicals.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):