Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 48505

Energy and Environmental Engineering

68
83504
The Synthesis of AgInS₂/SnS₂/RGO Heterojunctions with Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Norfloxacin
Abstract:
Novel AgInS2/SnS2/RGO (AISR) heterojunctions photocatalysts were synthesized by simple hydrothermal method. The morphology and composition of the fabricated AISR nanocomposites were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, the as-prepared AISR photocatalysts exhibited excellent photocatalytic activities for the degradation of Norfloxacin (NOR), mainly due to its high optical absorption and separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, as evidenced by UV–vis diffusion reflection spectra (DRS) and Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectra. Furthermore, laser flash photolysis technique was conducted to test the lifetime of charge carriers of the fabricated nanocomposites. The interfacial charges transfer mechanism was also discussed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
67
83324
Monitoring of Vector Mosquitors of Diseases in Areas of Energy Employment Influence in the Amazon (Amapa State), Brazil
Abstract:
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of a hydroelectric power plant in the state of Amapá, and to present the results obtained by dimensioning the diversity of the main mosquito vectors involved in the transmission of pathogens that cause diseases such as malaria, dengue and leishmaniasis. Methodology: The present study was conducted on the banks of the Araguari River, in the municipalities of Porto Grande and Ferreira Gomes in the southern region of Amapá State. Nine monitoring campaigns were conducted, the first in April 2014 and the last in March 2016. The selection of the catch sites was done in order to prioritize areas with possible occurrence of the species considered of greater importance for public health and areas of contact between the wild environment and humans. Sampling efforts aimed to identify the local vector fauna and to relate it to the transmission of diseases. In this way, three phases of collection were established, covering the schedules of greater hematophageal activity. Sampling was carried out using Shannon Shack and CDC types of light traps and by means of specimen collection with the hold method. This procedure was carried out during the morning (between 08:00 and 11:00), afternoon-twilight (between 15:30 and 18:30) and night (between 18:30 and 22:00). In the specific methodology of capture with the use of the CDC equipment, the delimited times were from 18:00 until 06:00 the following day. Results: A total of 32 species of mosquitoes was identified, and a total of 2,962 specimens was taxonomically subdivided into three genera (Culicidae, Psychodidae and Simuliidae) Psorophora, Sabethes, Simulium, Uranotaenia and Wyeomyia), besides those represented by the family Psychodidae that due to the morphological complexities, allows the safe identification (without the method of diaphanization and assembly of slides for microscopy), only at the taxonomic level of subfamily (Phlebotominae). Conclusion: The nine monitoring campaigns carried out provided the basis for the design of the possible epidemiological structure in the areas of influence of the Cachoeira Caldeirão HPP, in order to point out among the points established for sampling, which would represent greater possibilities, according to the group of identified mosquitoes, of disease acquisition. However, what should be mainly considered, are the future events arising from reservoir filling. This argument is based on the fact that the reproductive success of Culicidae is intrinsically related to the aquatic environment for the development of its larvae until adulthood. From the moment that the water mirror is expanded in new environments for the formation of the reservoir, a modification in the process of development and hatching of the eggs deposited in the substrate can occur, causing a sudden explosion in the abundance of some genera, in special Anopheles, which holds preferences for denser forest environments, close to the water portions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
66
83009
Analyses of Reference Evapotranspiration in West of Iran under Climate Change
Abstract:
Reference evapotranspiration (ET₀) is an important element in the water cycle that integrates atmospheric demands and surface conditions, and analysis of changes in ET₀ is of great significance for understanding climate change and its impacts on hydrology. As ET₀ is an integrated effect of climate variables, increases in air temperature should lead to increases in ET₀. ET₀ estimated by using the globally accepted Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Penman-Monteith (FAO-56 PM) method in 18 meteorological stations located in the West of Iran. The trends of ET₀ detected by using the Mann-Kendall (MK) test. The slopes of the trend lines were computed by using the Sen’s slope estimator. The results showed significant increasing as well as decreasing trends in the annual and monthly ET₀. However, ET₀ trends were increasing. In the monthly scale, the number of the increasing trends was more than the number of decreasing trends, in the majority of warm months of the year.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
65
82982
Probabilistic Life Cycle Assessment of Nano-Membrane Toilet and Contemporary Sanitation Systems
Abstract:
Developing countries are confronted, nowadays, with great challenges related to domestic sanitation services in view of the imminent water scarcity. Contemporary sanitation technologies, such as pit latrines and urine-diverting dry toilets, are likely to pose health risks unless waste management standards are followed properly. An alternative solution to the given problem has been provided by Cranfield University with the development of an innovative sanitation system, called Nano-membrane Toilet (NMT), which is sponsored by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The particular technology converts human faeces into energy through gasification and provides potable water from urine through membrane filtration. In order to evaluate the environmental profile of the NMT system against the conventional ones, a deterministic life cycle assessment (LCA) has been conducted in SimaPro software employing the Ecoinvent v3 database. The particular study, incorporating also a quantitative microbial assessment (QMRA), has determined the most contributory factors to the environmental footprint of all examined systems and has demonstrated, overall, a better performance for the NMT system - under specific design considerations - against the other sanitation systems. However, as sensitivity analysis has identified certain critical operating parameters for the robustness of the LCA results, adopting a stochastic approach to the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) will comprehensively capture the input data uncertainty and enhance the credibility of the LCA outcome. For that purpose, Monte Carlo simulations will be conducted for the input parameters of nutrient composition and transportation involved in the studied sanitation systems. The given analysis will provide the distribution and the confidence intervals of the selected impact categories and, in turn, more credible conclusions will be drawn on the respective LCIA (Life Cycle Impact Assessment) profiles of the investigated sanitation technologies. Last but not least, the specific study will also yield essential insights into the methodological framework that can be adopted in the environmental impact assessment of other complex engineering systems subject to a high level of input data uncertainty.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
64
82849
The Current Development and Legislation on the Acquisition and Use of Nuclear Energy in Contemporary International Law
Abstract:
Over the past decades, the acquisition and utilization of nuclear energy have remained a standout amongst the most intractable issues which past world leaders have unsuccessfully endeavored to grapple with. This study analyzes the present advancement and enactment on the acquisition and utilization of nuclear energy in contemporary international law. It seeks to address international co-operations in the field of nuclear energy by looking at what nuclear energy is all about and how it came into being. It also seeks to address concerns expressed by a few researchers on the position of nuclear law in the most extensive domain of the law by looking at the authoritative procedure for nuclear law, system of arrangements and traditions. This study also agrees in favour of treaty on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons based on human right and humanitarian principles that are not duly moral, but also legal ones. Specifically, the past development activities on nuclear weapon and the practical system of the nuclear energy institute will be inspected. The study noted among others, former president Obama's remark on nuclear energy and Pakistan nuclear policies and its attendant outcomes. Essentially, we depended on documentary evidence and henceforth scooped a great part of the data from secondary sources. The study emphatically advocates for the adoption of absolute liability principles and setting up of a viability trust fund, all of which will help in sustaining global peace where global best practices in acquisition and use of nuclear energy will be widely accepted in the contemporary international law. Essentially, the fundamental proposals made in this paper if completely adopted, might go far in fortifying the present advancement and enactment on the application and utilization of nuclear energy and accordingly, addressing a portion of the intractable issues under international law.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
63
82720
Electricity Production from Vermicompost Liquid Using Microbial Fuel Cell
Abstract:
Electricity production from vermicompost liquid was investigated in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The aim of this study was to determine the performance of vermicompost liquid as a biocatalyst for electricity production by MFCs. Chemical and physical parameters of vermicompost liquid as total nitrogen, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, total phosphorus, potassium, organic matter, C:N ratio, pH, and electrical conductivity in MFCs were studied. The performance of MFCs was operated in open circuit mode for 7 days. The maximum open circuit voltage (OCV) was 0.45 V. The maximum power density of 5.29 ± 0.75 W/m² corresponding to a current density of 0.024 2 ± 0.0017 A/m² was achieved by the 1000 Ω on day 2. Vermicompost liquid has efficiency to generate electricity from organic waste.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
62
82514
Performance Analysis of Solar Assisted Air Condition Using Carbon Dioxide as Refrigerant
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to model an air conditioning system that brings about effective cooling and reduce fossil fuel consumption with solar energy as an alternative source of energy. The objective of the study is to design a system with high COP, low usage of electricity and to integrate solar energy into AC systems. A hybrid solar assisted air conditioning system is designed to produce 30kW cooling capacity and R744 (CO₂) is used as a refrigerant. The effect of discharge pressure on the performance of the system is studied. The subcool temperature, evaporating temperature (5°C) and suction gas return temperature (12°C) are kept constant for the four different discharge pressures considered. The cooling gas temperature is set at 25°C, and the discharge pressure includes 80, 85, 90 and 95 bars. Copeland Scroll software is used for the simulation. A pressure-enthalpy graph is also used to deduce each enthalpy point while numerical methods were used in making other calculations. From the result of the study, it is observed that a higher COP is achieved with the use of solar assisted systems. As much as 46% of electricity requirements will be save using solar input at compressor stage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
61
81882
Evaluation of Fluidized Bed Bioreactor Process for Mmabatho Waste Water Treatment Plant
Abstract:
The rapid population growth in South Africa has increased the requirement of waste water treatment facilities. The aim of this study is to assess the potential use of Fluidized bed Bio Reactor for Mmabatho sewage treatment plant. The samples were collected from the Inlet and Outlet of reactor daily to analysis the pH, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Suspended Solid (TSS) as per standard method APHA 2005. The studies were undertaken on a continue laboratory scale, and analytical data was collected before and after treatment. The reduction of 87.22 % COD, 89.80 BOD % was achieved. Fluidized Bed Bio Reactor remove Bod/COD removal as well as nutrient removal. The efforts also made to study the impact of the biological system if the domestic wastewater gets contaminated with any industrial contamination and the result shows that the biological system can tolerate high Total dissolved solids up to 6000 mg/L as well as high heavy metal concentration up to 4 mg/L. The data obtained through the experimental research are demonstrated that the FBBR may be used (
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
60
81655
Synthesis, Spectral Characterization and Photocatalytic Applications of Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite with Copper Doped Zinc Oxide
Abstract:
The reinforced photocatalytic activity of graphene oxide (GO) along with composites of ZnO nanoparticles and copper-doped ZnO nanoparticles were studied by synthesizing ZnO and copper- doped ZnO nanoparticles by co-precipitation method. Zinc acetate and copper acetate were used as precursors, whereas graphene oxide was prepared from pre-oxidized graphite in the presence of H2O2.The supernatant was collected carefully and showed high-quality single-layer characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), XRD (X-ray Diffraction Analysis), EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry). The degradation of methylene blue as standard pollutant under UV-Visible irradiation gave results for photocatalytic activity of dopants. It could be concluded that shrinking of optical band caused by composites of Cu-dopped nanoparticles with GO enhances the photocatalytic activity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
59
81623
Customized Cow’s Urine Battery Using MnO2 Depolarizer
Abstract:
Bio-battery represents an entirely new long term, reasonable, reachable and ecofriendly approach to production of sustainable energy. Types of batteries have been developed using MnO2 in various ways. MnO2 is suitable with physical, chemical, electrochemical, and catalytic properties, serving as an effective cathodic depolarizer and may be considered as being the life blood of the battery systems. In the present experimental work, we have studied the effect of generation of power by bio-battery using different concentrations of MnO2. The tests show that it is possible to generate electricity using cow’s urine as an electrolyte. After ascertaining the optimum concentration of MnO2, various battery parameters and performance indicates that cow urine solely produces power of 695 mW, while a combination with MnO2 (40%) enhances power of bio-battery, i.e. 1377 mW. On adding more and more MnO2 to the electrolyte, the power suppressed because inflation of internal resistance. The analysis of the data produced from experiment shows that MnO2 is quite suitable to energize the bio-battery.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
58
81507
Hybrid Dynamic Approach to Optimize the Impact of Shading Design and Control on Electrical Energy Demand
Abstract:
Applying motorized shades have substantial effect on reducing energy consumption in building sector. Moreover, the combination of motorized shades with lighting systems and PV panels can lead to considerable reduction in the energy demand of buildings. In this paper, a model is developed to assess and find an optimum combination from shade designs, lighting control systems (dimming and on/off) and implementing PV panels in shades point of view. It is worth mentioning that annual saving for all designs is obtained during hourly simulation of lighting, solar heat flux and electricity generation with the use of PV panel. From 12 designs in general, three designs, two lighting control systems and PV panel option is implemented for a case study. The results illustrate that the optimum combination causes a saving potential of 792kW.hr per year.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
57
80900
A Model-Based Approach for Energy Performance Assessment of a Spherical Stationary Reflector-Tracking Absorber Solar Concentrator
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to analyze the energy performance of a spherical Stationary Reflector / Tracking Absorber (SRTA) solar concentrator. This type of collector consists of a segment of a spherical mirror placed in a stationary position facing the sun and a cylindrical absorber that tracks the sun by a simple pivoting motion about the center of curvature of the reflector. The energy analysis is performed through the development of a dynamic simulation model in TRNSYS software that calculates the annual heat production and the efficiency of the SRTA solar concentrator. The effect of solar concentrator design features and characteristics, such the reflector material, the reflector diameter, the receiver type, the solar radiation level and the concentration ratio, are discussed in details. Moreover, the energy performance curve of the SRTA solar concentrator, for various temperature differences between the mean fluid temperature and the ambient temperature and radiation intensities is drawn. The results are shown in diagrams, visualizing the effect of solar, optical and thermal parameters to the overall performance of the SRTA solar concentrator throughout the year. The analysis indicates that the SRTA solar concentrator can operate efficiently under a wide range of operating conditions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
56
80852
A Non-Combustible Way to Generate Electricity by Using Natural Gas’s Pressure
Abstract:
Conventional ways of producing electricity are leaving disastrous impacts on the environment. They affect the whole ecosystem. To overcome this problem, new ways of generating electricity are introducing by using 'green methods'. Non-conventional energy resources like solar, wind and biogas are substantially contributing to fulfill the world energy demand of the future. In addition, power crisis is rising high every year in third world countries. Researchers are merely emphasizing upon the introduction of new and versatile non-conventional energy sources, which may effectively reduce the worst power crisis without disturbing the environment. In the present study, an idea is proposed to generate power by using natural gas pressure present in ‘gas distribution stations’ (GDS) to transmit it to end user. By using this anticipated proposal, turbine can be derived through this gas pressure, which eventually runs the alternator to generate electricity. This method could be highly economical and easily maintainable with zero pollution as no combustion is involved in this process.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
55
80811
Effect of Methanol on the Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics of a Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Vegetable Oils
Abstract:
In view of increasing pressure on crude oil reserves and environmental degradation as an outcome, fuels like Methanol blended with Apricot oil, Pogamia oil, Cotton seed oil may present a sustainable solution as it can be produced from a wide range of carbon based feedstock. The present investigation evaluates Methanol blended with Apricot oil, Pogamia oil, Cotton seed oil as a diesel engine fuel. The objectives of this paper is to analyze the fuel consumption and the emission characteristic of a twin cylinder diesel engine that are using Methanol blended with Apricot oil, Pogamia oil, Cotton seed oil & compared to usage of ordinary diesel that are available in the market. A Twin cylinder diesel engine was adopted to study the brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption, and emissions at zero load & full load with the fuel of Methanol. In this study, the diesel engine was tested using Methanol blended with Apricot oil, Pogamia oil, Cotton seed oil. By the end of the experiment, the successful of the experiment have been started which is Diesel engine is able to run with Methanol blended with Apricot oil, Pogamia oil, Cotton seed oil but the engine needs to run by using diesel fuel first, then followed by Methanol blended with Apricot oil, Pogamia oil, Cotton seed oil and finished with diesel fuel as the last fuel usage before the engine turned off. The performance of the engine using Methanol blended with Apricot oil, Pogamia oil, Cotton seed oil fuel compared to the performance of engine with diesel fuel. Experimental results of Methanol blended with Apricot oil, Pogamia oil, Cotton seed oil and Diesel fuel are also compared.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
54
80689
Sustainable Solid Waste Management Solutions for Asian Countries Using the Potential in Municipal Solid Waste of Indian Cities
Abstract:
Majority of the world's population is expected to live in the Asia and Pacific region by 2050 and thus their cities will generate the maximum waste. India, being the second populous country in the world, is an ideal case study to identify a solution for Asian countries. Waste minimisation and utilisation have always been part of the Indian culture. During rapid urbanisation, our society lost the art of waste minimisation and utilisation habits. Presently, Waste is not considered as a resource, thus wasting an opportunity to tap resources. The technologies in vogue are not suited for effective treatment of large quantities of generated solid waste, without impacting the environment and the population. If not treated efficiently, Waste can become a silent killer. The article is trying to highlight the Indian municipal solid waste scenario as a key indicator of Asian waste management and recommend sustainable waste management and suggest effective solutions to treat the Solid Waste. The methods followed during the research were to analyse the solid waste data on characteristics of solid waste generated in Indian cities, then evaluate the current technologies to identify the most suitable technology in Indian conditions with minimal environmental impact, interact with the technology technical teams, then generate a technical process specific to Indian conditions and further examining the environmental impact and advantages/ disadvantages of the suggested process. The most important finding from the study was the recognition that most of the current municipal waste treatment technologies being employed, operate sub-optimally in Indian conditions. Therefore, the study using the available data, generated heat and mass balance of processes to arrive at the final technical process, which was broadly divided into Waste processing, Waste Treatment, Power Generation, through various permutations and combinations at each stage to ensure that the process is techno-commercially viable in Indian conditions. Then environmental impact was arrived through secondary sources and a comparison of environmental impact of different technologies was tabulated. The major advantages of the suggested process are the effective use of waste for resource generation both in terms of maximised power output or conversion to eco-friendly products like biofuels or chemicals using advanced technologies, minimum environmental impact and the least landfill requirement. The major drawbacks are the capital, operations and maintenance costs. The existing technologies in use in Indian municipalities have their own limitations and the shortlisted technology is far superior to other technologies in vogue. Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste with an efficient green power generation is possible through a combination of suitable environment-friendly technologies. A combination of bio-reactors and plasma-based gasification technology is most suitable for Indian Waste and in turn for Asian waste conditions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
53
80591
Ce-Zr/Al-MCM-41 Heterogeneous Catalyst for Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Oil
Abstract:
A series of bimetallic heterogeneous catalysts supported on Al-MCM-41 aluminosilicate with cerium and zirconium loading ranging from 2.5 to 7.5 wt%, has been prepared by co-impregnation method. The characterization of the catalysts obtained by various analytical methods (XRD, N2-adsorption, FT-IR, FESEM, EDX, NH3-TPD, CO2-TPD and TPR profiles) shows that metals were well incorporated in the framework of the support, catalysts retained the mesoporous character and stability of structure after impregnation, exhibiting both acidic and basic properties. The catalysts were active in one step transesterification of non-edible jatropha oil to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) with methanol to oil ratio 6:1 at 90˚C, with a biodiesel yield higher than 80% after 4 h reaction time. 93% FAME yield was found as the maximum activity with the catalyst 5 wt% Ce and 5 wt% Zr loadings supported by Al-MCM-41 at reaction time 4 h, reaction temperature 90 ˚C and catalyst loading 5 wt%. The catalyst was recovered and the catalytic activity was maintained after 4 cycles of reutilization with minor loss in yield percentage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
52
80469
Numerical Simulation of a Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter Using OpenFOAM in Indian Scenario
Abstract:
There is a growing need for alternative way of power generation worldwide. The reason can be attributed to limited resources of fossil fuels, environmental pollution, increasing cost of conventional fuels, and lower efficiency of conversion of energy in existing systems. In this context, one of the potential alternatives for power generation is wave energy. However, it is difficult to estimate the amount of electrical energy generation in an irregular sea condition by experiment and or analytical methods. Therefore in this work, a numerical wave tank is developed using the computational fluid dynamics software Open FOAM. In this software a specific utility known as waves2Foam utility is being used to carry out the simulation work. The computational domain is a tank of dimension: 5m*1.5m*1m with a floating object of dimension: 0.5m*0.2m*0.2m. Regular waves are generated at the inlet of the wave tank according to Stokes second order theory. The main objective of the present study is to validate the numerical model against existing experimental data. It shows a good matching with the existing experimental data of floater displacement. Later the model is exploited to estimate energy extraction due to the movement of such a point absorber in real sea conditions. Scale down the wave properties like wave height, wave length, etc. are used as input parameters. Seasonal variations are also considered.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
51
80426
Detection of Glyphosate Using Disposable Sensors for Fast, Inexpensive and Reliable Measurements by Electrochemical Technique
Abstract:
Pesticides have been intensively used in agriculture to control weeds, insects, fungi, and pest. One of the most commonly used pesticides is glyphosate. Glyphosate has the ability to attach to the soil colloids and degraded by the soil microorganisms. As glyphosate led to the appearance of resistant species, the pesticide was used more intensively. As a consequence of the heavy use of glyphosate, residues of this compound are increasingly observed in food and water. Recent studies reported a direct link between glyphosate and chronic effects such as teratogenic, tumorigenic and hepatorenal effects although the exposure was below the lowest regulatory limit. Today, pesticides are detected in water by complicated and costly manual procedures conducted by highly skilled personnel. It can take up to several days to get an answer regarding the pesticide content in water. An alternative to this demanding procedure is offered by electrochemical measuring techniques. Electrochemistry is an emerging technology that has the potential of identifying and quantifying several compounds in few minutes. It is currently not possible to detect glyphosate directly in water samples, and intensive research is underway to enable direct selective and quantitative detection of glyphosate in water. This study focuses on developing and modifying a sensor chip that has the ability to selectively measure glyphosate and minimize the signal interference from other compounds. The sensor is a silicon-based chip that is fabricated in a cleanroom facility with dimensions of 10×20 mm. The chip is comprised of a three-electrode configuration. The deposited electrodes consist of a 20 nm layer chromium and 200 nm gold. The working electrode is 4 mm in diameter. The working electrodes are modified by creating molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) using electrodeposition technique that allows the chip to selectively measure glyphosate at low concentrations. The modification included using gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 10 nm functionalized with 4-aminothiophenol. This configuration allows the nanoparticles to bind to the working electrode surface and create the template for the glyphosate. The chip was modified using electrodeposition technique. An initial potential for the identification of glyphosate was estimated to be around -0.2 V. The developed sensor was used on 6 different concentrations and it was able to detect glyphosate down to 0.5 mgL⁻¹. This value is below the accepted pesticide limit of 0.7 mgL⁻¹ set by the US regulation. The current focus is to optimize the functionalizing procedure in order to achieve glyphosate detection at the EU regulatory limit of 0.1 µgL⁻¹. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to modify miniaturized sensor electrodes with functionalized nanoparticles for glyphosate detection.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
50
80401
Preparation and Characterization of Modified ZnO Incorporated into Mesoporous MCM-22 Catalysts and Their Catalytic Performances of Crude Jatropha Oil to Biodiesel
Abstract:
In this study, the ZnO/MCM-22 catalyst with different ZnO loading were prepared using conventional wet impregnation process and the catalyst activity was tested for biodiesel production from Jatropha oil. The effects of reaction parameters with regards to catalyst activity were investigated. The synthesized catalysts samples were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) for crystal phase, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) for surface area, pore volume and pore size, Field Emission Scanning electron microscope attached to energy dispersive x-ray (FESEM/EDX) for morphology and elemental composition and TPD (NH3 and CO2) for basic and acidic properties of the catalyst. The XRD spectra couple with the EDX result shows the presence of ZnO in the catalyst confirming the positive intercalation of the metal oxide into the mesoporous MCM-22. The synthesized catalyst was confirmed to be mesoporous according to BET findings. Also, the catalysts can be considered as a bifunctional catalyst based on TPD outcomes. Transesterification results showed that the synthesized catalyst was highly efficient and effective to be used for biodiesel production from low grade oil such as Jatropha oil and other industrial application where the high fatty acid methyl ester (FAMEs) yield was achieved at moderate reaction conditions. It was also discovered that the catalyst can be used more than five (5) runs with little deactivation confirming the catalyst to be highly active and stable to the heat of reaction.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
49
80326
Experimental Investigation of an Earth Air Heat Exchanger for Summer Cooling in Urban India
Abstract:
An EAHE ( Earth air Heat Exchanger) was installed for demonstration in the conference room (volume = 72 m³/ floor area = 24 m²) of an office in an urban location in India. The installation of the EAHE was performed under typical urban physical constraints of space and installation depth respectively and not ideal as desired by EAHE design principles. This paper investigates the impacts of these constraints on the performance of the EAHE. The user feedback on the thermal comfort of the EAHE and the data acquired over the period of last two years revealed that a carefully positioned EAHE, even with the above constraints, can perform on par with the ideal EAHE. This study supports the use of a constrained-EAHE as a tool for energy-efficient thermal comfort.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
48
79997
Thermodynamic Analysis of a Multi-Generation Plant Driven by Pine Sawdust as Primary Fuel
Abstract:
The current study is based on a combined heat and power system with multi-objectives, driven by biomass. The system consists of a combustion chamber (CC), a single effect absorption cooling system (SEACS), an air conditioning unit (AC), a reheat steam Rankine cycle (RRC), an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and an electrolyzer. The purpose of this system is to produce hydrogen, electricity, heat, cooling, and air conditioning. All the simulations had been performed by Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software. Pine sawdust is the selected biofuel for the combustion process. The overall utilization factor (εₑₙ) and exergetic efficiency (ψₑₓ) were calculated to be 2.096 and 24.03% respectively. The performed renewable and environmental impact analysis indicated a sustainability index of 1.316 (SI) and a specific CO2 emission of 353.8 kg/MWh. The parametric study is conducted based on the variation of ambient (sink) temperature, biofuel mass flow rate, and boilers outlet temperatures. The parametric simulation showed that the increase in biofuel mass flow rate has a positive effect on the sustainability of the system.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
47
77401
The Development of Wind Energy and Its Social Acceptance: The Role of Income Received by Wind Farm Owners, the Case of Galicia, Northwest Spain
Abstract:
The last decades have witnessed a significant increase in renewable energy, especially wind energy, to achieve sustainable development. Specialized literature in this field has carried out interesting case studies to extensively analyze both the environmental benefits of this energy and its social acceptance. However, to the best of our knowledge, work to date makes no analysis of the role of private owners of lands with wind potential within a broader territory of strong wind implantation, nor does it estimate their economic incomes relating them to social acceptance. This work fills this gap by focusing on Galicia, territory housing over 4,000 wind turbines and almost 3,400 MW of power. The main difficulty in getting this financial information is that it is classified, not public. We develop methodological techniques (semi- structured interviews and work groups), inserted within the Participatory Research, to overcome this important obstacle. In this manner, the work directly compiles qualitative and quantitative information on the processes as well as the economic results derived from implementing wind energy in Galicia. During the field work, we held 106 semi-structured interviews and 32 workshops with owners of lands occupied by wind farms. The compiled information made it possible to create the socioeconomic database on wind energy in Galicia (SDWEG). This database collects a diversity of quantitative and qualitative information and contains economic information on the income received by the owners of lands occupied by wind farms. In the Galician case, regulatory framework prevented local participation under the community wind farm formula. The possibility of local participation in the new energy model narrowed down to companies wanting to install a wind farm and demanding land occupation. The economic mechanism of local participation begins here, thus explaining the level of acceptance of wind farms. Land owners can receive significant income given that these payments constitute an important source of economic resources, favor local economic activity, allow rural areas to develop productive dynamism projects and improve the standard of living of rural inhabitants. This work estimates that land owners in Galicia perceive about 10 million euros per year in total wind revenues. This represents between 1% and 2% of total wind farm invoicing. On the other hand, relative revenues (Euros per MW), far from the amounts reached in other spaces, show enormous payment variability. This signals the absence of a regulated market, the predominance of partial agreements, and the existence of asymmetric positions between owners and developers. Sustainable development requires the replacement of conventional technologies by low environmental impact technologies, especially those that emit less CO₂. However, this new paradigm also requires rural owners to participate in the income derived from the structural transformation processes linked to sustainable development. This paper demonstrates that regulatory framework may contribute to increasing sustainable technologies with high social acceptance without relevant local economic participation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
46
76078
Paraffin/Expanded Perlite Composite as a Novel Form-Stable Phase Change Material for Latent Heat Energy Storage
Abstract:
Latent heat storage using Phase Change Materials (PCMs) has attracted growing attention recently in the renewable energy utilization and building energy efficiency. Paraffin (PA) of low melting temperature, which is close to human comfort temperature in the range of 24-28 °C has been considered to be used in building applications. A form-stable composite Paraffin/Expanded perlite (PA-EP) has been prepared by retaining PA into porous particles of EP. DSC (Differential scanning calorimeter) is used to measure the thermal properties of PA in the form-stable composite with/without building materials. TGA (Thermal gravimetric analysis) shows that the composite is thermally stable. SEM (Scanning electron microscope) demonstrates that the layer structure of the EP particles is uniformly absorbed by PA. The mechanical properties in flexural mode have been discussed. The thermal energy storage performance has been evaluated using a small test room (100 mm ×100 mm ×100 mm) with thickness 10 mm. The flammability test of modified sample has been discussed using a cone calorimeter. The results confirm that the form-stable composite PA has the function of reducing building energy consumption.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
45
70387
Heat Transfer Augmentation in Solar Air Heater Using Fins and Twisted Tape Inserts
Abstract:
Fins and twisted tape inserts are widely used passive elements to enhance heat transfer rate in various engineering applications. The present paper describes the theoretical analysis of solar air heater fitted with fins and twisted tape inserts. Mathematical model is develop for this novel design of solar air heater and a MATLAB code is generated for the solution of the model. The effect of twist ratio, mass flow rate and inlet temperature on the thermal efficiency and exit air temperature has been investigated. The results are compared with the results of plane solar air heater. Results show a substantial enhancement in heat transfer rate, efficiency and exit air temperature.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
44
68689
Analysis of a Multiejector Cooling System in a Truck at Different Loads
Abstract:
An alternative way of addressing the difficult to recover the useless heat is through an ejector refrigeration cycle for vehicles applications. A group of thermo-compressor supply the mechanical compressor function at conventional refrigeration compression system. The thermo-compressor group recovers the thermal energy from waste streams (exhaust gases product in internal combustion motors, gases burned in wellhead among others) to eliminate the power consumption of the mechanical compressor. These types of alternative cooling system (air-conditioners) present a kind of advantages in both the increase in energy efficiency and the improvement of the COP of the system being studied from their its mechanical simplicity (decrease of moving parts). An ejector refrigeration cycle represents a significant step forward in the optimization of the efficient use of energy in the process of air conditioning and an alternative to reduce the environmental impacts. On one side, with the energy recycling decreases the temperature of the gases thrown into the atmosphere, which contributes to the principal beneficiaries of the average temperature of the planet. In parallel, mitigating the environmental impact caused by the production and handling of conventional cooling fluids commonly available in the market, causing the destruction of the ozone layer. This work had studied the operation of the multiejector cooling system for a truck with a 420 HP engine at different rotation speed. The operation condition limits and the COP of multi-ejector cooling systems applied in a truck are analyzed for a variable rpm range from to 800–1800 rpm.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
43
65433
The Potential and Economic Viability Analysis of Grid-Connected Solar PV Power in Kenya
Abstract:
This present study is aimed at minimizing the dependence on fossil fuels thus reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and also to curb for the rising energy demands in Kenya. In this analysis, 35 locations were each considered for their techno-economic potential of installation of a 10MW grid-connected PV plant. The sites are scattered across the country but are mostly concentrated in the eastern region and were selected based on their accessibility to the national grid and availability of their meteorological parameters from NASA Solar Energy Dataset. RETScreen software 4.0 version will be employed for the analysis in this present paper. The capacity factor, simple payback, equity payback, the net present value (NPV), annual life cycle savings, energy production cost, net annual greenhouse gas emission reduction and the equivalent barrels of crude oil not consumed are outlined. Energy accounting is performed and compared to the existing grid tariff for an effective feasibility argument of this 10MW grid-connected PV power system.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
42
64079
Numerical Investigation of Flow Boiling within Micro-Channels in the Slug-Plug Flow Regime
Abstract:
The present paper investigates the hydrodynamics and heat transfer characteristics of slug-plug flows under saturated flow boiling conditions within circular micro-channels. Numerical simulations are carried out, using an enhanced version of the open-source CFD-based solver ‘interFoam’ of OpenFOAM CFD Toolbox. The proposed user-defined solver is based in the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method for interface advection, and the mentioned enhancements include the implementation of a smoothing process for spurious current reduction, the coupling with heat transfer and phase change as well as the incorporation of conjugate heat transfer to account for transient solid conduction. In all of the considered cases in the present paper, a single phase simulation is initially conducted until a quasi-steady state is reached with respect to the hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layer development. Then, a predefined and constant frequency of successive vapour bubbles is patched upstream at a certain distance from the channel inlet. The proposed numerical simulation set-up can capture the main hydrodynamic and heat transfer characteristics of slug-plug flow regimes within circular micro-channels. In more detail, the present investigation is focused on exploring the interaction between subsequent vapour slugs with respect to their generation frequency, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the liquid film between the generated vapour slugs and the channel wall as well as of the liquid plug between two subsequent vapour slugs. The proposed investigation is carried out for the 3 different working fluids and three different values of applied heat flux in the heated part of the considered microchannel. The post-processing and analysis of the results indicate that the dynamics of the evolving bubbles in each case are influenced by both the upstream and downstream bubbles in the generated sequence. In each case a slip velocity between the vapour bubbles and the liquid slugs is evident. In most cases interfacial waves appear close to the bubble tail that significantly reduce the liquid film thickness. Finally, in accordance with previous investigations vortices that are identified in the liquid slugs between two subsequent vapour bubbles can significantly enhance the convection heat transfer between the liquid regions and the heated channel walls. The overall results of the present investigation can be used to enhance the present understanding by providing better insight of the complex, underpinned heat transfer mechanisms in saturated boiling within micro-channels in the slug-plug flow regime.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
41
62395
Procedure Model for Data-Driven Decision Support Regarding the Integration of Renewable Energies into Industrial Energy Management
Abstract:
The climate change causes a change in all aspects of society. While the expansion of renewable energies proceeds, industry could not be convinced based on general studies about the potential of demand side management to reinforce smart grid considerations in their operational business. In this article, a procedure model for a case-specific data-driven decision support for industrial energy management based on a holistic data analytics approach is presented. The model is executed on the example of the strategic decision problem, to integrate the aspect of renewable energies into industrial energy management. This question is induced due to considerations of changing the electricity contract model from a standard rate to volatile energy prices corresponding to the energy spot market which is increasingly more affected by renewable energies. The procedure model corresponds to a data analytics process consisting on a data model, analysis, simulation and optimization step. This procedure will help to quantify the potentials of sustainable production concepts based on the data from a factory. The model is validated with data from a printer in analogy to a simple production machine. The overall goal is to establish smart grid principles for industry via the transformation from knowledge-driven to data-driven decisions within manufacturing companies.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
40
58608
Evaluation of a Hybrid System for Renewable Energy in a Small Island in Greece
Abstract:
The proper management of the water supply and electricity is the key issue, especially in small islands, where sustainability has been combined with the autonomy and covering of water needs and the fast development in potential sectors of economy. In this research work a hybrid system in Fournoi island (Icaria), a small island of Aegean, has been evaluated in order to produce hydropower and cover water demands, as it can provide solutions to acute problems, such as the water scarcity or the instability of local power grids. The meaning and the utility of hybrid system and the cooperation with a desalination plant has also been considered. This kind of project has not yet been widely applied, so the consideration will give us valuable information about the storage of water and the controlled distribution of the generated clean energy. This process leads to the conclusions about the functioning of the system and the profitability of this project, covering the demand for water and electricity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
39
54517
Morphology Study of Inverted Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells in Sequential Deposition
Abstract:
In this study, a sequential deposition process is used for the fabrication of PEDOT: PSS based inverted planar perovskite solar cell. A small amount of additive deionized water (DI-H2O) was added into PbI2 + Dimethyl formamide (DMF) precursor solution in order to increase the solubility of PbI2 in DMF, and finally to manipulate the surface morphology of the perovskite films. A morphology transition from needle like structure to hexagonal plates, and then needle-like again has been observed as the DI-H2O was added continuously (0.0 wt% to 3.0wt%). The latter one leads to full surface coverage of the perovskite, which is essential for high performance solar cell.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):