Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 50781

Energy and Power Engineering

1294
89070
High-Tech Based Simulation and Analysis of Maximum Power Point in Energy System: A Case Study Using IT Based Software Involving Regression Analysis
Abstract:
Improved achievement with respect to output control of photovoltaic (PV) systems is one of the major focus of PV in recent times. This is evident to its low carbon emission and efficiency. Power failure or outage from commercial providers, in general, does not promote development to public and private sector, these basically limit the development of industries. The need for a well-structured PV system is of importance for an efficient and cost-effective monitoring system. The purpose of this paper is to validate the maximum power point of an off-grid PV system taking into consideration the most effective tilt and orientation angles for PV's in the southern hemisphere. This paper is based on analyzing the system using a solar charger with MPPT from a pulse width modulation (PWM) perspective. The power conditioning device chosen is a solar charger with MPPT. The practical setup consists of a PV panel that is set to an orientation angle of 0∘N, with a corresponding tilt angle of 36∘, 26∘ and 16∘. Preliminary results include regression analysis (normal probability plot) showing the maximum power point in the system as well the best tilt angle for maximum power point tracking.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1293
88904
Energy and Exergy Performance Optimization on a Real Gas Turbine Power Plant
Abstract:
This paper presents an energy and exergy optimization of a real gas turbine power plant performance of 100 MW of power, installed in the South East of Tunisia. A numerical simulation is done with software calculation EES of a gas turbine cycle with an injection system of steam to the chamber combustion witch power equal of 100 Mw for a range of variation of the operating variables. The results show that thermal and exergetic efficiency decrease with the increase of the ambient temperature. Air excess has an important effect on the thermal efficiency. The emission of NOx rises in the summer and decreases in the winter. The obtained rates of NOx are compared with measurements results.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1292
87902
Design and Implementation of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Inverter
Authors:
Abstract:
Nowadays, a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverter is adopted in various places like as home, factory, because grid-connected PV inverter can reduce total power consumption by supplying electricity from PV array. In this paper, design and implementation of a 300 W grid-connected PV inverter are described. It is implemented with TI Piccolo DSP core and operated at 100 kHz switching frequency in order to reduce harmonic contents. The maximum operating input voltage is up to 45 V. The characteristics of the designed system that include maximum power point tracking (MPPT), single operation and battery charging are verified by simulation and experimental results.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1291
87803
Optimization of a Combined Ejector-Vapor Compression Refrigeration Systems with R134a
Abstract:
A computer simulation model for a combined ejector-vapor compression cycle that uses working fluid R134a. A refrigeration system was developed which combines a basic vapor compression refrigeration cycle with an ejector cooling cycle. A one-dimensional mathematical model was developed using the equations governing the flow and thermodynamics based on the constant area ejector flow model. The effects of the operating parameters on the cooling capacity, the performance coefficient, and the entrainment ratio are studied. The current model is based on the NIST-REFPROP database for refrigerants properties calculations. The simulated performance is compared with the available experimental data from the literature for validation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1290
86110
Comparison of Performance of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assemblies Prepared from 10 and 15-Micron Proton Exchange Membranes
Abstract:
Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) applications were prepared by using 10 and 15 um PEMs. Except for different membrane thicknesses, these MEAs were prepared by the same conditions. They were prepared by using catalyst coated membrane (CCM) process. The catalyst employed is 40% Pt/C, and the Pt loading is 0.5mg/cm² for the sum of anode and cathode. Active area of the MEAs employed in this study is 5cm*5cm=25cm². In polarization measurements, the flow rates were always set at 1.2 stoic for anode and 3.0 stoic for cathode. The outlets were in open-end mode. The flow filed is tri-serpentine design. The cell temperatures and the humidification conditions were varied for the purpose of MEA performance observations. It was found that the performance of these two types of MEAs is about the same at fully or partially humidified operation conditions; however, 10um MEA exhibits higher current density in dry or low humidified conditions. For example, at 70C cell, 100% RH, and 0.6V condition, both MEAs have similar current density which is 1320 and 1342mA/cm² for 15um and 10um product, respectively. However, when in operation without external humidification, 10um MEA can produce 1085mA/cm²; whereas 15um MEA produces only 720mA/cm².
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1289
86008
Improvising Grid Interconnection Capabilities through Implementation of Power Electronics
Abstract:
The swift reduction of fossil fuels from nature has crucial need for alternative energy sources to cater vital demand. It is essential to boost alternative energy sources to cover the continuously increasing demand for energy while minimizing the negative environmental impacts. Solar energy is one of the reliable sources that can generate energy. Solar energy is freely available in nature and is completely eco-friendly, and they are considered as the most promising power generating sources due to their easy availability and other advantages for the local power generation. This paper is to review the implementation of power electronic devices through Solar Energy Grid Integration System (SEGIS) to increase the efficiency. This paper will also concentrate on the future grid infrastructure and various other applications in order to make the grid smart. Development and implementation of a power electronic devices such as PV inverters and power controllers play an important role in power supply in the modern energy economy. Solar Energy Grid Integration System (SEGIS) opens pathways for promising solutions for new electronic and electrical components such as advanced innovative inverter/controller topologies and their functions, economical energy management systems, innovative energy storage systems with equipped advanced control algorithms, advanced maximum-power-point tracking (MPPT) suited for all PV technologies, protocols and the associated communications. In addition to advanced grid interconnection capabilities and features, the new hardware design results in small size, less maintenance, and higher reliability. The SEGIS systems will make the 'advanced integrated system' and 'smart grid' evolutionary processes to run in a better way. Since the last few years, there was a major development in the field of power electronics which led to more efficient systems and reduction of the cost per Kilo-watt. The inverters became more efficient and had reached efficiencies in excess of 98%, and commercial solar modules have reached almost 21% efficiency.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1288
85167
Water Gas Shift Activity of PtBi/CeO₂ Catalysts for Hydrogen Production
Abstract:
The influence of bismuth on the water gas shift activities of Pt on ceria was studied. The flow reactor was used to study the activity of the catalysts in temperature range 100-400°C. The feed gas composition contains 5%CO, 10% H₂O and balance N₂. The total flow rate was 100 mL/min. The outlet gas was analyzed by on-line gas chromatography with thermal conductivity detector. The catalytic activities of bimetallic 1%Pt1%Bi/CeO₂ catalyst were greatly enhanced when compared with the activities of monometallic 2%Pt/CeO₂ catalyst. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Temperature-Programmed Reduction (TPR) and surface area analysis. X-ray diffraction pattern of Pt/CeO₂ and PtBi/CeO₂ indicated slightly shift of diffraction angle when compared with pure ceria. This result was due to strong metal-support interaction between platinum and ceria solid solution, causing conversion of Ce⁴⁺ to larger Ce³⁺. The distortions inside ceria lattice structure generated strain into the oxide lattice and facilitated the formation of oxygen vacancies which help to increase water gas shift performance. The H₂-Temperature Programmed Reduction indicated that the reduction peak of surface oxygen of 1%Pt1%Bi/CeO₂ shifts to lower temperature than that of 2%Pt/CeO₂ causing the enhancement of the water gas shift activity of this catalyst. Pt played an important role in catalyzing the surface reduction of ceria and addition of Bi alter the reduction temperature of surface ceria resulting in the improvement of the water gas shift activity of Pt catalyst.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1287
84878
Study on NOₓ Emission Characteristics of Internal Gas Recirculation Technique
Abstract:
This study is aimed to develop ultra-low NOₓ burner using the internal recirculation of flue gas inside the combustion chamber that utilizes the momentum of intake fuel and air. Detailed experimental investigations are carried out to study these fluid dynamic effects on the emission characteristics of newly developed burner in industrial steam boiler system. Experimental parameters are distance of Venturi tube from burner, Coanda nozzle gap distance, and air sleeve length at various fuel/air ratio and thermal heat load conditions. The results showed that NOₓ concentration decreases as the distance of Venturi tube from burner increases. The CO concentration values at all operating conditions were negligible. In addition, the increase of the Coanda nozzle gap distance decreased the NOₓ concentration. It is experimentally found out that both fuel injection recirculation and air injection recirculation technique was very effective in reducing NOₓ formation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1286
84051
Thermal Securing of Electrical Contacts inside Oil Power Transformers
Authors:
Abstract:
Power transformers mounted in substations 110kV/MV are crossed by short circuit currents resulting from defects that were recorded in medium voltage power lines. Defect electrical contacts are worming when they are travelled from fault currents. In case of high temperatures to achieve over 135 0C electro-insulating oil from the vicinity of electrical faults contacts self-ignition, liberate gases and is action gas relay. To avoid auto-flammability of electro-insulating oil, the author has designed a security system thermal of electrical contacts defects by pouring fire-resistant polyurethane foam, mastic or mortar fire inside a cardboard electro-insulating cylinder. From practical experience, in the exploitation of power transformers 110kV/MT in oil electro-insulating were recorded some passing disconnecting commanded by the gas protection at internal defects. In normal operation and in the optimal load, nominal currents do not require thermal secure contacts inside electrical transformers, contacts made at the fabrication according to the projects or to repair by solder. In the case of external short circuits close to the substation, the contacts inside electrical transformers, even if they are well made in sizes of Rcontact=10 6 Ω, are subjected to short-circuit currents of the order of 10kA-20kA which lead to the dissipation of some significant second-order electric powers 100W-400W on contact. At some internal or external factors who action on electrical contacts, including electrodynamic efforts at short-circuits, these factors could be degraded over time to values in the range of 10-4 Ω to 10-5 Ω and if the action time of protection is great, on the order of seconds, power dissipation on electrical contacts achieve high values of 1,0kW to 40,0kW. This power leads to strong local heating, hundreds of degrees Celsius and can initiate self-ignition and burning oil in the vicinity of electro-insulating contacts with action the gas relay. Degradation of electrical contacts inside power transformers may not be limited for the duration of their operation. In order to avoid oil burn with gas release near electrical contacts, at short-circuit currents 10kA-20kA, we have outlined the following solutions: covering electrical contacts in fireproof materials that would avoid direct burn oil at short circuit and transmission of heat from electrical contact along the conductors with heat dissipation gradually over time, in a large volume of cooling. Fireproof materials: polyurethane foam, mastic, cement. In the normal condition of operation of transformer, insulating of conductors coils is with paper and insulating oil. Ignition points of its two components, respectively are approximated: 135°C heat for oil and 2000C for paper. In the case of a faulty electrical contact, about 10-3Ω, at short-circuit, temperature can reach for a short time, a value of 3000C 4000C who ignition the paper insulation and also the oil. By burning oil, there are local gases who disconnect the power transformer. Securing thermal electrical contacts inside the transformer, in cardboard tube with polyurethane foams, mastic or cement, ensure avoiding gas release and also gas protection working.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1285
84045
Numerical Investigation of the Integration of a Micro-Combustor with a Free Piston Stirling Engine in an Energy Recovery System
Abstract:
Recently, energy recovery systems are thriving and raising attention in the power generation sector, due to the request for cleaner forms of energy that are friendly and safe for the environment. This has created an avenue for cogeneration, where Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies have been recognised for their feasibility, and use in homes and small-scale businesses. The efficiency of combustors and the advantages of the free piston Stirling engines over other conventional engines in terms of output power and efficiency, have been observed and considered. This study presents the numerical analysis of a micro-combustor with a free piston Stirling engine in an integrated model of a Nano Membrane Toilet (NMT) unit. The NMT unit will use the micro-combustor to produce waste heat of high energy content from the combustion of human waste and the heat generated will power the free piston Stirling engine which will be connected to a linear alternator for electricity production. The thermodynamic influence of the combustor on the free piston Stirling engine was observed, based on the heat transfer from the flue gas to working gas of the free piston Stirling engine. The results showed that with an input of 25 MJ/kg of faecal matter, and flue gas temperature of 773 K from the micro-combustor, the free piston Stirling engine generates a daily output power of 428 W, at thermal efficiency of 10.7% with engine speed of 1800 rpm. An experimental investigation into the integration of the micro-combustor and free piston Stirling engine with the NMT unit is currently underway.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1284
83887
Energy Analysis of Seasonal Air Conditioning Demand of All Income Classes Using Bottom up Model in Pakistan
Abstract:
Currently, the energy crisis is taking serious attention. Globally, industries and building are major share takers of energy. 72% of total global energy is consumed by residential houses, markets, and commercial building. Additionally, in appliances air conditioners are major consumer of electricity; about 60% energy is used for cooling purpose in houses due to HVAC units. Energy demand will aid in determining what changes will be needed whether it is the estimation of the required energy for households or instituting conservation measures. Bottom-up model is one of the most famous methods for forecasting. In current research bottom-up model of air conditioners' energy consumption in all income classes in comparison with seasonal variation and hourly consumption is calculated. By comparison of energy consumption of all income classes by usage of air conditioners, total consumption of actual demand and current availability can be seen.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1283
83886
Impact Analysis of Cultivation of Jatropha Tree on Fuel Prices and Environment
Abstract:
Globally transportation sector accounts for around 25% of energy demand and nearly 62% of oil consumed. Therefore, new energy sources are required to introduce for this huge demand replenishment of depleting conventional energy sources. Currently, biofuels such as Jatropha trees as an energy carrier for transportation sector are being utilized effectively round the globe. However, climate conditions at low altitudes with an average annual temperature above 20 degrees Celsius and rainfall of 300-1000mm are considered the most suitable environment for the efficient growth of Jatropha trees. The current study is providing a theoretical survey-based analysis to investigate the effect of rate of cultivation of jatropha trees on the reduction of fuel prices and its environmental benefits. The resulted study shows that jatropha tree’s 100 kg seeds give 80kg oil and the conversion process cost is very small as 890 PKR. Moreover, the extraction of oil from Jatropha tree is tax-free compared to other fuels. The analysis proved very essential for potential assessment of Jatropha regarding future energy fuel for transportation sector at global level. Additionally, it can be very beneficial for increment in the total amount of transportation fuel in Pakistan.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1282
83522
The Studies of the Sorption Capabilities of the Porous Microspheres with Lignin
Abstract:
Lignin is one of three main constituents of biomass together with cellulose and hemicellulose. It is a complex biopolymer, which contains a large number of functional groups, including aliphatic and aromatic hydroxyl groups, carbohylic groups and methoxy groups in its structure, that is why it shows potential capacities for process of sorption. Lignin is a highly cross-linked polymer with a three-dimentional structure which can provide large surface area and pore volumes. It can also posses better dispersion, diffusion and mass transfer behavior in a field of the removal of, e.g., heavy-metal-ions or aromatic pollutions. In this work emulsion-suspension copolymerization method, to synthesize the porous microspheres of divinylbenzene (DVB), styrene (St) and lignin was used. There are also microspheres without the addition of lignin for comparison. Before the copolymerization, modification lignin with methacryloyl chloride, to improve its reactivity with other monomers was done. The physico-chemical properties of the obtained microspheres, e.g., pore structures (adsorption-desorption measurements), thermal properties (DSC), tendencies to swell and the actual shapes were also studied. Due to well-developed porous structure and the presence of functional groups our materials may have great potential in sorption processes. To estimate the sorption capabilities of the microspheres towards phenol and its chlorinated derivatives the off-line SPE (solid-phase extraction) method is going to be applied. This method has various advantages, including low-cost, easy to use and enables the rapid measurements for a large number of chemicals. The efficiency of the materials in removing phenols from aqueous solution and in desorption processes will be evaluated.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1281
83473
Power Quality Modeling Using Recognition Learning Methods for Waveform Disturbances
Abstract:
This paper presents a Power Quality (PQ) modeling and filtering processes for the distribution system disturbances using recognition learning methods. Typical PQ waveforms with mathematical applications and gathered field data are applied to the proposed models. The objective of this paper is analyzing PQ data with respect to monitoring, discriminating, and evaluating the waveform of power disturbances to ensure the system preventative system failure protections and complex system problem estimations. Examined signal filtering techniques are used for the field waveform noises and feature extractions. Using extraction and learning classification techniques, the efficiency was verified for the recognition of the PQ disturbances with focusing on interactive modeling methods in this paper. The waveform of selected 8 disturbances is modeled with randomized parameters of IEEE 1159 PQ ranges. The range, parameters, and weights are updated regarding field waveform obtained. Along with voltages, currents have same process to obtain the waveform features as the voltage apart from some of ratings and filters. Changing loads are causing the distortion in the voltage waveform due to the drawing of the different patterns of current variation. In the conclusion, PQ disturbances in the voltage and current waveforms indicate different types of patterns of variations and disturbance, and a modified technique based on the symmetrical components in time domain was proposed in this paper for the PQ disturbances detection and then classification. Our method is based on the fact that obtained waveforms from suggested trigger conditions contain potential information for abnormality detections. The extracted features are sequentially applied to estimation and recognition learning modules for further studies.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1280
83269
Batteryless DCM Boost Converter for Kinetic Energy Harvesting Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, a bidirectional boost converter operated in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM) is presented as a suitable power conditioning circuit for tuning of kinetic energy harvesters without the need of a battery. A nonlinear control scheme, composed by two linear controllers, is used to control the average value of the input current, enabling the synthesization of complex loads. The converter, along with the control system, is validated through SPICE simulations using the LTspice tool. The converter model and the controller transfer functions are derived. From the simulation results, it was found that the input current distortion increases with the introduced phase shift and that, such distortion, is almost entirely present at the zero-crossing point of the input voltage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1279
82902
Design and Analysis of 1.4 MW Hybrid Saps System for Rural Electrification in Off-Grid Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, optimal design of hybrid standalone power supply system (SAPS) is done for off grid applications in remote areas where transmission of power is difficult. The hybrid SAPS system uses two primary energy sources, wind and solar, and in addition to these diesel generator is also connected to meet the load demand in case of failure of wind and solar system. This paper presents mathematical modeling of 1.4 MW hybrid SAPS system for rural electrification. This paper firstly focuses on mathematical modeling of PV module connected in a string, secondly focuses on modeling of permanent magnet wind turbine generator (PMWTG). The hybrid controller is also designed for selection of power from the source available as per the load demand. The power output of hybrid SAPS system is analyzed for meeting load demands at urban as well as for rural areas.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1278
82579
Studies on the Feasibility of Cow Dung as a Non-Conventional Energy Source
Abstract:
Bio-batteries represent an entirely new long-term, reasonable, reachable and ecofriendly approach to production of sustainable energy. In the present experimental work, we have studied the effect of generation of power by bio-battery using different electrode pairs. The tests show that it is possible to generate electricity using cow-dung as an electrolyte. C-Mg electrode pair shows maximum Voltage and SCC while C-Zn electrode pair shows less OCV and SCC. We have chosen C-Zn electrodes because Mg electrodes are not economical. By the studies of different electrodes and cow-dung, it is found that C-Zn electrode battery is more suitable. This result shows that the bio-batteries have the potency to full fill the need of electricity demand for lower energy equipments.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1277
82185
Peltier Air Conditioning System for Preventing Ambient Heating: An Alternative to Gas Air Conditioners
Abstract:
The use of gas cooler has always been associated with high consumption of electrical energy, environmental pollution, and heat production. Therefore, it is not a suitable method for converting electric energy into cold energy. In this paper, an air conditioning system was designed by a creative and scientific method using inexpensive parts with very low energy consumption that produces considerable cold electric energy near the freezing point (without heat generation for the environment) using only 30 watts. This could be a major development in the production of refrigeration systems through which non-fossil or renewable energy cooling systems could be used as the best option for various applications such as industry, buildings, cooling, reduction of urban heating, and so forth. In addition to studying and identifying LEED standards, energy star, and their application in buildings and electrical and electronic devices, the paper investigated and designed an air conditioning system in the building to achieve significant efficiency using the minimum electrical energy so that the consumption of energy is only one eighth of the global average without heat generation for the environment.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1276
81961
Development of Alternative Fuels Technologies: Compressed Natural Gas Home Refueling Station
Abstract:
Compressed natural gas (CNG) represents an excellent compromise between the availability of a technology that is proven and relatively easy to use in many areas of the automotive industry and incurred costs. This fuel causes a lower corrosion effect due to the lower content of products causing the potential difference on the walls of the engine system. Natural gas powered vehicles (NGVs) do not emit any substances that can contaminate water or land. The absence of carcinogenic substances in gaseous fuel extends the life of the engine. In the longer term, it contributes positively to waste management as well as waste disposal. Popularization of propulsion systems powered by natural gas CNG positively affects the reduction of heavy duty transport. For these reasons, CNG as a fuel stimulates considerable interest around the world. Over the last few years, technologies related to use of natural gas as an engine fuel have been developed and improved. These solutions have evolved from the prototype phase to the industrial scale implementation. The widespread availability of gaseous fuels has led to the development of a technology that allows the CNG fuel to be refueled directly from the urban gas network to the vehicle tank (ie. HYGEN - CNGHRS). Home refueling installations, although they have been known for many years, are becoming increasingly important in the present day. The major obstacle in the sale of this technology was, until recently, quite high capital expenditure compared to the later benefits. Home refueling systems allow refueling vehicle tank, with full control of fuel costs and refueling time. CNG Home Refueling Stations (such as HYGEN) allow gas value chain to overcome the dogma that there is a lack of refueling infrastructure allowing companies in gas value chain to participate in transportation market. Technology is based on one stage hydraulic compressor (instead of multistage mechanical compressor technology) which provides the possibility to compress low pressure gas from distribution gas network to 200 bar for its further usage as a fuel for NGVs. This boosts revenues and profits of gas companies by expanding its presence in higher margin of energy sector.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1275
81576
Recirculated Sedimentation Method to Control Contamination for Algal Biomass Production
Abstract:
Microalgae-derived biodiesel, fertilizer or industrial chemicals' production with wastewater has great potential. Especially water from a municipal wastewater treatment plant is a very important nutrient source for biofuel production. Microalgae biomass production in open ponds system is lower cost culture systems. There are many hurdles for commercial algal biomass production in large scale. One of the important technical bottlenecks for microalgae production in open system is culture contamination. The algae culture contaminants can generally be described as invading organisms which could cause pond crash. These invading organisms can be competitors, parasites, and predators. Contamination is unavoidable in open systems. Potential contaminant organisms are already inoculated if wastewater is utilized for algal biomass cultivation. Especially, it is important to control contaminants to retain in acceptable level in order to reach true potential of algal biofuel production. There are several contamination management methods in algae industry, ranging from mechanical, chemical, biological and growth condition change applications. However, none of them are accepted as a suitable contamination control method. This experiment describes an innovative contamination control method, 'Recirculated Sedimentation Method', to manage contamination to avoid pond cash. The method can be used for the production of algal biofuel, fertilizer etc. and algal wastewater treatment. To evaluate the performance of the method on algal culture, an experiment was conducted for 90 days at a lab-scale raceway (60 L) reactor with the use of non-sterilized and non-filtered wastewater (secondary effluent and centrate of anaerobic digestion). The application of the method provided the following; removing contaminants (predators and diatoms) and other debris from reactor without discharging the culture (with microscopic evidence), increasing raceway tank’s suspended solids holding capacity (770 mg L-1), increasing ammonium removal rate (29.83 mg L-1 d-1), decreasing algal and microbial biofilm formation on inner walls of reactor, washing out generated nitrifier from reactor to prevent ammonium consumption.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1274
81400
Useful Effects of Silica Nanoparticles in Ionic Liquid Electrolyte for Energy Storage
Abstract:
Improved energy storage is inevitably needed to improve energy efficiency and to be environmentally friendly to chemical processes. Ionic liquids (ILs) can play a crucial role in addressing these needs due to inherent adjustable properties including low volatility, low flammability, inherent conductivity, wide liquid range, broad electrochemical window, high thermal stability, and recyclability. Here, binary mixtures of ILs were prepared with fumed silica nanoparticles and characterized to obtain ILs with conductivity and electrochemical properties optimized for use in energy storage devices. The solutes were prepared by varying the size and the weight percent concentration of the nanoparticles and made up 10 % of the binary mixture by weight. We report on the physical and electrochemical properties of the individual ILs and their binary mixtures.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1273
81377
Catalytic Deoxygenation of Non-Edible Oil to Renewable Fuel by Using Calcium-Based Nanocatalyst
Abstract:
Cracking–Deoxygenation process is one of the important reaction pathways for the production of bio-fuel with desirable n-C17 hydrocarbon chain via removal of oxygen compounds. Calcium-based catalyst has attracted much attention in deoxygenation process due to its relatively high capacity in removing oxygenated compounds in the form of CO₂ and CO under decarboxylation and decarbonylation reaction, respectively. In the present study, deoxygenation of triolein was investigated using Ca(OH)₂ nanocatalyst derived from low cost natural waste shells. The Ca(OH)₂ nanocatalyst was prepared via integration techniques between surfactant treatment (anionic and non-ionic) and wet sonochemical effect. Results showed that sonochemically assisted surfactant treatment has successfully enhanced the physicochemical properties of Ca(OH)₂ nanocatalyst in terms of nanoparticle sizes (∼50 nm), high surface area(∼130 m²g⁻¹), large porosity (∼18.6 nm) and strong basic strength. The presence of superior properties from surfactant treated Ca(OH)₂ nanocatalysts rendered high deoxygenation degree, which is capable of producing high alkane and alkene selectivity in chain length of n-C17(high value of C17/(n-C17+ n-C18)ratio = 0.88). Furthermore, both Ca(OH)₂–EG and Ca(OH)₂–CTAB nanocatalysts showed high reactivity with 47.37% and 44.50%, respectively in total liquid hydrocarbon content of triolein conversion with high H/C and low O/C ratio.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1272
81346
Influence of Disintegration of Sida hermaphrodita Silage on Methane Fermentation Efficiency
Abstract:
As a result of sonification, the destruction of complex biomass structures results in an increase in the biogas yield from the conditioned material. First, the amount of organic matter released into the solution due to disintegration was determined. This parameter was determined by changes in the carbon content in liquid phase of the conditioned substrate. The amount of carbon in the liquid phase increased with the prolongation of the sonication time to 16 min. Further increase in the duration of sonication did not cause a statistically significant increase in the amount of organic carbon in the liquid phase. The disintegrated material was then used for respirometric measurements for determination of the impact of the conditioning process used on methane fermentation effectiveness. The relationship between the amount of energy introduced into the lignocellulosic substrate and the amount of biogas produced has been demonstrated. Statistically significant increase in the amount of biogas was observed until sonication of 16 min. Further increase in energy in the conditioning process did not significantly increase the production of biogas from the treated substrate. The biogas production from the conditioned substrate was 17% higher than from the reference biomass at that time. The ultrasonic disintegration method did not significantly affect the observed biogas composition. In all series, the methane content in the produced biogas from the conditioned substrate was similar to that obtained with the raw substrate sample (51.1%). Another method of substrate conditioning was hydrothermal depolymerization. This method consists in application of increased temperature and pressure to substrate. These phenomena destroy the structure of the processed material, the release of organic compounds to the solution, which should lead to increase the amount of produced biogas from such treated biomass. The hydrothermal depolymerization was conducted using an innovative microwave heating method. Control measurements were performed using conventional heating. The obtained results indicate the relationship between depolymerization temperature and the amount of biogas. Statistically significant value of the biogas production coefficients increased as the depolymerization temperature increased to 150°C. Further raising the depolymerization temperature to 180°C did not significantly increase the amount of produced biogas in the respirometric tests. As a result of the hydrothermal depolymerization obtained using microwave at 150°C for 20 min, the rate of biogas production from the Sida silage was 780 L/kg VS, which accounted for nearly 50% increase compared to 370 L/kg VS obtained from the same silage but not depolymerised. The study showed that by microwave heating it is possible to effectively depolymerized substrate. Significant differences occurred especially in the temperature range of 130-150ºC. The pre-treatment of Sida hermaphrodita silage (biogas substrate) did not significantly affect the quality of the biogas produced. The methane concentration was about 51.5% on average. The study was carried out in the framework of the project under program BIOSTRATEG funded by the National Centre for Research and Development No. 1/270745/2/NCBR/2015 'Dietary, power, and economic potential of Sida hermaphrodita cultivation on fallow land'.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1271
81343
Possibility of Membrane Filtration to Treatment of Effluent from Digestate
Abstract:
The problem with digestate management is one of the most important factors influencing on the development and operation of biogas plant. Turbidity and bacterial contamination negatively affect the growth of algae, which can limit the use of the effluent in the production of algae biomass on a large scale. These problems can be overcome by cultivating of algae species resistant to environmental factors, such as Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., or reducing load of organic compounds to prevent bacterial contamination. The effluent requires dilution and/or purification. One of the methods of effluent treatment is the use of a membrane technology such as microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), depending on the membrane pore size and the cut off point. Membranes are a physical barrier to solids and particles larger than the size of the pores. MF membranes have the largest pores and are used to remove turbidity, suspensions, bacteria and some viruses. UF membranes remove also color, odor and organic compounds with high molecular weight. In treatment of wastewater or other waste streams, MF and UF can provide a sufficient degree of purification. NF membranes are used to remove natural organic matter from waters, water disinfection products and sulfates. RO membranes are applied to remove monovalent ions such as Na⁺ or K⁺. The effluent was used in UF for medium to cultivation of two microalgae: Chlorella sp. and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Growth rates of Chlorella sp. and P. tricornutum were similar: 0.216 d⁻¹ and 0.200 d⁻¹ (Chlorella sp.); 0.128 d⁻¹ and 0.126 d⁻¹ (P. tricornutum), on synthetic medium and permeate from UF, respectively. The final biomass composition was also similar, regardless of the medium. Removal of nitrogen was 92% and 71% by Chlorella sp. and P. tricornutum, respectively. The fermentation effluents after UF and dilution were also used for cultivation of algae Scenedesmus sp. that is resistant to environmental conditions. The authors recommended the development of biorafinery based on the production of algae for the biogas production. There are examples of using a multi-stage membrane system to purify the liquid fraction from digestate. After the initial UF, RO is used to remove ammonium nitrogen and COD. To obtain a permeate with a concentration of ammonium nitrogen allowing to discharge it into the environment, it was necessary to apply three-stage RO. The composition of the permeate after two-stage RO was: COD 50–60 mg/dm³, dry solids 0 mg/dm³, ammonium nitrogen 300–320 mg/dm³, total nitrogen 320–340 mg/dm³, total phosphorus 53 mg/dm³. However compostion of permeate after three-stage RO was: COD < 5 mg/dm³, dry solids 0 mg/dm³, ammonium nitrogen 0 mg/dm³, total nitrogen 3.5 mg/dm³, total phosphorus < 0,05 mg/dm³. Last stage of RO might be replaced by ion exchange process. The negative aspect of membrane filtration systems is the fact that the permeate is about 50% of the introduced volume, the remainder is the retentate. The management of a retentate might involve recirculation to a biogas plant.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1270
81338
Design and Modeling of a Green Building Energy Efficient System
Abstract:
Conventional commericial buildings are among the highest unwisely consumes enormous amount of energy and as consequence produce significant amount Carbon Dioxide (CO2). Traditional/conventional buildings have been built for years without consideration being given to their impact on the global warming issues as well as their CO2 contributions. Since 1973, simulation of Green Building (GB) for Energy Efficiency started and many countries in particular the US showed a positive response to minimize the usage of energy in respect to reducing the CO2 emission. As a consequence many software companies developed their own unique building energy efficiency simulation software, interfacing interoperability with Building Information Modeling (BIM). The last decade has witnessed very rapid growing number of researches on GB energy efficiency system. However, the study also indicates that the results of current GB simulation are not yet satisfactory to meet the objectives of GB. In addition most of these previous studies are unlikely excluded the studies of ultimate building energy efficiencies simulation. The aim of this project is to meet the objectives of GB by design, modeling and simulation of building ultimate energy efficiencies system. This research project presents multi-level, L-shape office building in which every particular part of the building materials has been tested for energy efficiency. An overall of 78.62% energy is saved, approaching to NetZero energy saving. Furthermore, the building is implements with distributed energy resources like renewable energies and integrating with Smart Building Automation System (SBAS) for controlling and monitoring energy usage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1269
81313
Sizing of Hybrid Source Battery/Supercapacitor for Automotive Applications
Abstract:
Energy storage system is a key aspect for the development of clean cars. The work proposed here deals with the modeling of hybrid storage sources composed of a combination of lithium-ion battery and supercapacitors. Simulation results show the performance of the active model for a hybrid source and confirm the feasibility of our approach. In this context, sizing of the electrical energy supply is carried out. The aim of this sizing is to propose an 'optimal' solution that improves the performance of electric vehicles in term of weight, cost and aging.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1268
81024
Energy Trading for Cooperative Microgrids with Renewable Energy Resources
Abstract:
Micro-grid equipped with heterogeneous energy resources present the idea of small scale distributed energy management (DEM). DEM helps in minimizing the transmission and operation costs, power management and peak load demands. Micro-grids are collections of small, independent controllable power-generating units and renewable energy resources. Micro-grids also motivate to enable active customer participation by giving accessibility of real-time information and control to the customer. The capability of fast restoration against faulty situation, integration of renewable energy resources and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) make micro-grid as an ideal system for distributed power systems. Micro-grids can have a bank of energy storage devices. The energy management system of micro-grid can perform real-time energy forecasting of renewable resources, energy storage elements and controllable loads in making proper short-term scheduling to minimize total operating costs. We present a review of existing micro-grids optimization objectives/goals, constraints, solution approaches and tools used in micro-grids for energy management. Cost-benefit analysis of micro-grid reveals that cooperation among different micro-grids can play a vital role in the reduction of import energy cost and system stability. Cooperative micro-grids energy trading is an approach to electrical distribution energy resources that allows local energy demands more control over the optimization of power resources and uses. Cooperation among different micro-grids brings the interconnectivity and power trading issues. According to the literature, it shows that open area of research is available for cooperative micro-grids energy trading. In this paper, we proposed and formulated the efficient energy management/trading module for interconnected micro-grids. It is believed that this research will open new directions in future for energy trading in cooperative micro-grids/interconnected micro-grids.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1267
80999
Study of Lamination Quality of Semi-Flexible Solar Modules with Special Textile Materials
Abstract:
The army, police and fire brigade commonly use dedicated equipment based on special textile materials. The properties of these textiles should ensure human life and health protection. Equally important is the ability to use electronic equipment and this requires access to the source of electricity. Photovoltaic cells integrated with such textiles can be solution for this problem in the most of outdoor circumstances. One idea may be to laminate the cells to textile without changing their properties. The main goal of this work was analyzed lamination quality of special designed semi-flexible solar module with special textile materials as a backsheet. In the first step of investigation, the quality of lamination was determined using device equipped with dynamometer. In this work, the crystalline silicon solar cells 50 x 50 mm and thin chemical tempered glass - 62 x 62 mm and 0.8 mm thick - were used. The obtained results showed the correlation between breaking force and type of textile weave and fiber. The breaking force was in the ranges: 4.5-5.5 N, 15-20 N and 30-33 N depending on the type of wave and fiber type. To verify these observations the microscopic and FTIR analysis of fibers was performed. The studies showed the special textile can be used as a backsheet of semi-flexible solar modules. This work presents a new composition of solar module with special textile layer which, to our best knowledge, has not been published so far. Moreover, the work presents original investigations on adhesion of EVA (ethylene-vinyl acetate) polymer to textile with respect to fiber structure of laminated substrate. This work is realized for the GEKON project (No. GEKON2/O4/268473/23/2016) sponsored by The National Centre for Research and Development and The National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1266
80875
Solar Power Generation in a Mining Town: A Case Study for Australia
Abstract:
Climate change is a pertinent issue facing governments and societies around the world. The industrial revolution has resulted in a steady increase in the average global temperature. The mining and energy production industries have been significant contributors to this change prompting government to intervene by promoting low emission technology within these sectors. This paper initially reviews the energy problem in Australia and the mining sector with a focus on the energy requirements and production methods utilised in Western Australia (WA). Renewable energy in the form of utility-scale solar photovoltaics (PV) provides a solution to these problems by providing emission-free energy which can be used to supplement the existing natural gas turbines in operation at the proposed site. This research presents a custom renewable solution for the mining site considering the specific township network, local weather conditions, and seasonal load profiles. A summary of the required PV output is presented to supply slightly over 50% of the towns power requirements during the peak (summer) period, resulting in close to full coverage in the trench (winter) period. Dig Silent Power Factory Software has been used to simulate the characteristics of the existing infrastructure and produces results of integrating PV. Large scale PV penetration in the network introduce technical challenges, that includes; voltage deviation, increased harmonic distortion, increased available fault current and power factor. Results also show that cloud cover has a dramatic and unpredictable effect on the output of a PV system. The preliminary analyses conclude that mitigation strategies are needed to overcome voltage deviations, unacceptable levels of harmonics, excessive fault current and low power factor. Mitigation strategies are proposed to control these issues predominantly through the use of high quality, made for purpose inverters. Results show that use of inverters with harmonic filtering reduces the level of harmonic injections to an acceptable level according to Australian standards. Furthermore, the configuration of inverters to supply active and reactive power assist in mitigating low power factor problems. Use of FACTS devices; SVC and STATCOM also reduces the harmonics and improve the power factor of the network, and finally, energy storage helps to smooth the power supply.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1265
80836
Well Inventory Data Entry: Utilization of Developed Technologies to Progress the Integrated Asset Plan
Abstract:
In light of recent changes affecting the Oil & Gas Industry, optimization measures have become imperative for all companies globally, including Kuwait Oil Company (KOC). To keep abreast of the dynamic market, a detailed Integrated Asset Plan (IAP) was developed to drive optimization across the organization, which was facilitated through the in-house developed software “Well Inventory Data Entry” (WIDE). This comprehensive and integrated approach enabled centralization of all planned asset components for better well planning, enhancement of performance, and to facilitate continuous improvement through performance tracking and midterm forecasting. Traditionally, this was hard to achieve as, in the past, various legacy methods were used. This paper briefly describes the methods successfully adopted to meet the company’s objective. IAPs were initially designed using computerized spreadsheets. However, as data captured became more complex and the number of stakeholders requiring and updating this information grew, the need to automate the conventional spreadsheets became apparent. WIDE, existing in other aspects of the company (namely, the Workover Optimization project), was utilized to meet the dynamic requirements of the IAP cycle. With the growth of extensive features to enhance the planning process, the tool evolved into a centralized data-hub for all asset-groups and technical support functions to analyze and infer from, leading WIDE to become the reference two-year operational plan for the entire company. To achieve WIDE’s goal of operational efficiency, asset-groups continuously add their parameters in a series of predefined workflows that enable the creation of a structured process which allows risk factors to be flagged and helps mitigation of the same. This tool dictates assigned responsibilities for all stakeholders in a method that enables continuous updates for daily performance measures and operational use. The reliable availability of WIDE, combined with its user-friendliness and easy accessibility, created a platform of cross-functionality amongst all asset-groups and technical support groups to update contents of their respective planning parameters. The home-grown entity was implemented across the entire company and tailored to feed in internal processes of several stakeholders across the company. Furthermore, the implementation of change management and root cause analysis techniques captured the dysfunctionality of previous plans, which in turn resulted in the improvement of already existing mechanisms of planning within the IAP. The detailed elucidation of the 2 year plan flagged any upcoming risks and shortfalls foreseen in the plan. All results were translated into a series of developments that propelled the tool’s capabilities beyond planning and into operations (such as Asset Production Forecasts, setting KPIs, and estimating operational needs). This process exemplifies the ability and reach of applying advanced development techniques to seamlessly integrated the planning parameters of various assets and technical support groups. These techniques enables the enhancement of integrating planning data workflows that ultimately lay the founding plans towards an epoch of accuracy and reliability. As such, benchmarks of establishing a set of standard goals are created to ensure the constant improvement of the efficiency of the entire planning and operational structure.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):