Investigation of Main Operating Parameters Affecting Gas Turbine Efficiency and Pollutant Emissions
This work presents a study on the influence of the main operating variables on the Gas Turbine cycle. A numerical simulation of a gas turbine cycle is performed for a real net power of 100 MW.A calculation code is developed using EES software. The operating variables for values usually adopted for the Tunisian Society of Electricity and Gas. Results show that the increase of ambient temperature leads to an increase of Tpz and NOx emissions rate and a decrease of cycle efficiency and UHC emissions. The CO emissions decrease with the raise of residence time while NOx emissions rate increases and UHC emissions rate decreases. Furthermore, more than the pressure ratio increases more than both of cycle efficiency and NOx emissions rate increase.
Study of Desing Parameters of a HHO Cell
Diesel engines used in the vehicle are inexpensive and contaminants. These require a system of high precision injection (mechanical or electronic adjustment) that injects the fuel/oxidizer to a properly pressure to obtain a certain power to the cylinders. This precision is not achieved or with regulation or with the turbocharger. The addition of the HHO gas in the combustion of a Diesel engine allows a gain in energy and reduction of emissions of pollutants. This gas is generated by an HHO cell that transforms water (H2O) into a flammable gas (HHO). There are two types of HHO cells: wet cell and dry cell. The wet cell has electrodes submerged in water; its major drawback is that electric current can be diverted to adjacent electrodes. Dry cells have electrodes separated by intermediate membranes whose form limits to the electrolyte, allowing withstanding a greater amount of current and dissipating heat. There are different electrolytes for HHO cells: hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and others. Potassium hydroxide improves its conductivity to increase temperature, making it ideal for cells. The behavior of the dry cell under variations in its parameters of construction (determinant in HHO gas production) has not been studied in depth. This paper presents an experimental study of the behavior of an HHO dry cell and its gas production when power, number, and separation between its plates is varied. To develop this pilot study was built a cell model of unitary area with hexagonal stainless steel plates. The plates were separated with O-ring of different thickness, allowing modifying the distance between plates and their quantity. In this model cell a mixture of potassium hydroxide (4%) and distilled water was used. The output of the cell was connected to a bubbler as detection and firewall and, besides, to a gasometer to measure gas production. In testing the power was variable and the emission of gas for different currents of consumption was measured. The tests performed were two: variation of the amount of plates (Test-1) and variation of the separation between the plates (Test-2). In Test-1 the amount of intermediate plates is varied from 1 to 5. In Test-2 the separation between plates is varied: 1.4, 2.92 and 4.3 mm. In both tests the current applied ranged from 5.0 to 10.0 A. Test-1 gets the maximum volume of gas with 5 intermediate plates and with a current of 10 A, obtaining 3 times more gas than with an intermediate plate. In Test-2 was obtained 490 ml/min at a distance of 1.4 mm and 350 ml/min with 2.62 mm. This study accomplished to determine a set of parameters and values of operation for a unitary HHO cell. The values obtained for the amount of plates and the separation between them were determined for 10 an operating current, allowing the use of this cell HHO on Diesel engines previously doing the scaling of the cell to the engine size.
Heterologous Expression of Heat-Shock Protein Improves Butanol Yield in a High-Speedy Growing Clostridium acetobutylicum Mutant
A high speed growing and butanol-tolerant Clostridium acetobutylicum HOL1 mutant was screened throughout continuous adaption culture with C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The HOL1 strain can grow well in 10 g/L butanol contained CGM medium and can produce about 12.8 g /L butanol during 24 hrs. The C. acetobutylicum HOL1 strain was able to produce 166 mM butanol with 21 mM acetone at pH 4.8, resulting in a butanol selectivity (a molar ratio of butanol to total solvents) of 0.79, which is much higher than that (0.6) of the wild-type strain C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The acetate and butyrate accumulation were not observed during fermentation of the HOL1 strain. A hyper-butanol producing C. acetobutylicum HOL1 (pBPHS-3), which was created to overexpress the Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus originated specific heat-shock protein gene, hspX, from a clostridial phosphotransbutyrylase promoter, was studied for its potential to produce a high titer of butanol. Overexpression of hspX resulted in increased final butanol yield 47% and 30% higher than those of the the ATCC824 and the HOL1 strains, respectively. The remarkable high-speed growth and butanol tolerance of strain HOL1 (pBPHS-3) demonstrates that overexpression of heterogeneous stress protein-encoding gene, hspX, could help C. acetobutylicum to effectively produce a high concentration of butanol.
An Improved Particle Swarm Optimization Technique to Combined Economic and Environmental Power Dispatch including Valve Point Loading Effects
In recent years, the combined economic and emission power dispatch is one of the main problems of electrical power system. It aims to schedule the power generation of generators in order to minimize cost production and emission of harmful gasses caused by fossil-fueled thermal units such as CO, CO2, NOx, and SO2. To solve this complicated multiobjective problem, an improved version of the particle swarm optimization technique that includes non-dominated sorting concept has been proposed. Valve point loading effects and system losses have been considered. Three-unit, six-unit, and ten-unit test systems have been used to show the effectiveness of the suggested optimization technique for solving this kind of non-convex problem. The simulation results have been compared with those obtained in the literature using particle swarm optimization and genetic algorithm methods. Comparison results show that the proposed approach can provide a higher quality solution with better performance.
Mature Field Rejuvenation Using Hydraulic Fracturing: A Case Study of Tight Mature Oilfield with Reveal Simulator
The main characteristics of unconventional reservoirs include low-to ultra low permeability and low-to-moderate porosity. As a result, hydrocarbon production from these reservoirs requires different extraction technologies than from conventional resources. An unconventional reservoir must be stimulated to produce hydrocarbons at an acceptable flow rate to recover commercial quantities of hydrocarbons. Permeability for unconventional reservoirs is mostly below 0.1 mD, and reservoirs with permeability above 0.1 mD are generally considered to be conventional. The hydrocarbon held in these formations naturally will not move towards producing wells at economic rates without aid from hydraulic fracturing which is the only technique to assess these tight reservoir productions. Horizontal well with multi-stage fracking is the key technique to maximize stimulated reservoir volume and achieve commercial production. The main objective of this research paper is to investigate development options for a tight mature oilfield. This includes multistage hydraulic fracturing and spacing by building of reservoir models in the Reveal simulator to model potential development options based on sidetracking the existing vertical well. To simulate potential options, reservoir models have been built in the Reveal. An existing Petrel geological model was used to build the static parts of these models. A FBHP limit of 40bars was assumed to take into account pump operating limits and to maintain the reservoir pressure above the bubble point. 300m, 600m and 900m lateral length wells were modelled, in conjunction with 4, 6 and 8 stages of fracs. Simulation results indicate that higher initial recoveries and peak oil rates are obtained with longer well lengths and also with more fracs and spacing. For a 25year forecast, the ultimate recovery ranging from 0.4% to 2.56% for 300m and 1000m laterals respectively. The 900m lateral with 8 fracs 100m spacing gave the highest peak rate of 120m3/day, with the 600m and 300m cases giving initial peak rates of 110m3/day. Similarly, recovery factor for the 900m lateral with 8 fracs and 100m spacing was the highest at 2.65% after 25 years. The corresponding values for the 300m and 600m laterals were 2.37% and 2.42%. Therefore, the study suggests that longer laterals with 8 fracs and 100m spacing provided the optimal recovery, and this design is recommended as the basis for further study.
The Effect of Finding and Development Costs and Gas Price on Basins in the Barnett Shale
Shale gas reservoirs have been of greater importance compared to shale oil reservoirs since 2009 and with the current nature of the oil market, understanding the technical and economic performance of shale gas reservoirs is of importance. Using the Barnett shale as a case study, an economic model was developed to quantify the effect of finding and development costs and gas prices on the basins in the Barnett shale using net present value as an evaluation parameter. A rate of return of 20% and a payback period of 60 months or less was used as the investment hurdle in the model. The Barnett was split into four basins (Strawn Basin, Ouachita Folded Belt, Forth-worth Syncline and Bend-arch Basin) with analysis conducted on each of the basin to provide a holistic outlook. The dataset consisted of only horizontal wells that started production from 2008 to at most 2015 with 1835 wells coming from the strawn basin, 137 wells from the Ouachita folded belt, 55 wells from the bend-arch basin and 724 wells from the forth-worth syncline. The data was analyzed initially on Microsoft Excel to determine the estimated ultimate recoverable (EUR). The range of EUR from each basin were loaded in the Palisade Risk software and a log normal distribution typical of Barnett shale wells was fitted to the dataset. Monte Carlo simulation was then carried out over a 1000 iterations to obtain a cumulative distribution plot showing the probabilistic distribution of EUR for each basin. From the cumulative distribution plot, the P10, P50 and P90 EUR values for each basin were used in the economic model. Gas production from an individual well with a EUR similar to the calculated EUR was chosen and rescaled to fit the calculated EUR values for each basin at the respective percentiles i.e. P10, P50 and P90. The rescaled production was entered into the economic model to determine the effect of the finding and development cost and gas price on the net present value (10% discount rate/year) as well as also determine the scenario that satisfied the proposed investment hurdle. The finding and development costs used in this paper (assumed to consist only of the drilling and completion costs) were £1 million, £2 million and £4 million while the gas price was varied from $2/MCF-$13/MCF based on Henry Hub spot prices from 2008-2015. One of the major findings in this study was that wells in the bend-arch basin were least economic, higher gas prices are needed in basins containing non-core counties and 90% of the Barnet shale wells were not economic at all finding and development costs irrespective of the gas price in all the basins. This study helps to determine the percentage of wells that are economic at different range of costs and gas prices, determine the basins that are most economic and the wells that satisfy the investment hurdle.
A Mathematical Model for SOC of LiFePO4 Batteries under Different Aging Conditions
A mathematical model is developed by fitting the discharging curve of LiFePO4 batteries and used to investigate the relationship between state of charge (SOC), state of health (SOH) and the closed-circuit voltage. Various factors impacting the aging of a LiFePO4 battery are considered in the proposed mathematical model respectively, including different discharge c-rate, charge/discharge cycle number and different environment temperature. Both X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis are applied as validation to investigate how the materials inside the LiFePO4 battery change. Hence, this mathematical model can also describe the electrochemical reactions of a battery under different circumstances. The model can closely fit the characteristics of dual equivalent RC circuits which represent a LiFePO4 battery. The results indicate that the mathematical model is applicable for SoC and SoH estimation and scalable for a LiFePO4 battery under different conditions.
Distributed Automation System Based Remote Monitoring of Power Quality Disturbance on LV Network
Electrical distribution networks are prone to power quality disturbances originating from the complexity of the distribution network, mode of distribution (overhead or underground) and types of loads used by customers. Data on the types of disturbances present and frequency of occurrence is needed for economic evaluation and hence finding solution to the problem. Utility companies have resorted to using secondary power quality devices such as smart meters to help gather the required data. Even though this approach is easier to adopt, data gathered from these devices may not serve the required purpose since the installation of these devices in the electrical network usually do not conform to available PQM placement methods. This paper presents a design of a PQM that is capable of integrating into an existing DAS infrastructure to take advantage of available placement methodologies. The monitoring component of the design is implemented and installed to monitor an existing LV network. Data from the monitor is analyzed and presented. A portion of the LV network of the Electricity Company of Ghana is modeled in matlab Simulink and analyzed under various earth fault conditions. Results presented shows the ability of the PQM to detect and analyze PQ disturbance such as voltage sag and overvoltage. By adopting a placement methodology and installing these nodes, utilities are assured of accurate and reliable information with respect to the quality of power delivered to consumers.
The Performance Improvement of Solar Aided Power Generation System by Introducing the Second Solar Field
Solar aided power generation (SAPG) technology has been proven as an efficient way to make use of solar energy for power generation purpose. In an SAPG plant, a solar field consisting of parabolic solar collectors is normally used to supply the solar heat in order to displace the high pressure/temperature extraction steam. To understand the performance of such a SAPG plant, a new simulation model was developed by the authors recently, in which the boiler was treated, as a series of heat exchangers unlike other previous models. Through the simulations using the new model, it was found the outlet properties of reheated steam, e.g. temperature, would decrease due to the introduction of the solar heat. The changes make the (lower stage) turbines work under off-design condition. As a result, the whole plant’s performance may not be optimal. In this paper, the second solar filed was proposed to increase the inlet temperature of steam to be reheated, in order to bring the outlet temperature of reheated steam back to the designed condition. A 600MW SAPG plant was simulated as a case study using the new model to understand the impact of the second solar field on the plant performance. It was found in the study, the 2nd solar field would improve the plant’s performance in terms of cycle efficiency and solar-to-electricity efficiency by 1.91% and 6.01%. The solar-generated electricity produced by per aperture area under the design condition was 187.96W/m2, which was 26.14% higher than the previous design.
A Strategy to Oil Production Placement Zones Based on Maximum Closeness
Increasing the oil recovery factor of an oil reservoir has been a concern of the oil industry. Usually, the production placement zones are defined after some analysis of geological and petrophysical parameters, being the rock porosity, permeability and oil saturation of fundamental importance. In this context, the determination of hydraulic flow units (HFUs) renders an important step in the process of reservoir characterization since it may provide specific regions in the reservoir with similar petrophysical and fluid flow properties and, in particular, techniques supporting the placement of production zones that favour the tracing of directional wells. A HFU is defined as a representative volume of a total reservoir rock in which petrophysical and fluid flow properties are internally consistent and predictably distinct of other reservoir rocks. Technically, a HFU is characterized as a rock region that exhibit flow zone indicator (FZI) points lying on a straight line of the unit slope. The goal of this paper is to provide a trustful indication for oil production placement zones for the best-fit HFUs. The FZI cloud of points can be obtained from the reservoir quality index (RQI), a function of effective porosity and permeability. Considering log and core data the HFUs are identified and using the discrete rock type (DRT) classification, a set of connected cell clusters can be found and by means a graph centrality metric, the maximum closeness (MaxC) cell is obtained for each cluster. Considering the MaxC cells as production zones, an extensive analysis, based on several oil recovery factor and oil cumulative production simulations were done for the SPE Model 2 and the UNISIM-I-D synthetic fields, where the later was build up from public data available from the actual Namorado Field, Campos Basin, in Brazil. The results have shown that the MaxC is actually technically feasible and very reliable as high performance production placement zones.
A Mixture Vine Copula Structures Model for Dependence Wind Speed among Wind Farms and Its Application in Reactive Power Optimization
This paper aims at exploring the impacts of high dimensional dependencies of wind speed among wind farms on probabilistic optimal power flow. To obtain the reactive power optimization faster and more accurately, a mixture vine Copula structure model combining the K-means clustering, C vine copula and D vine copula is proposed in this paper, through which a more accurate correlation model can be obtained. Moreover, a Modified Backtracking Search Algorithm (MBSA), the three-point estimate method is applied to probabilistic optimal power flow. The validity of the mixture vine copula structure model and the MBSA are respectively tested in IEEE30 node system with measured data of 3 adjacent wind farms in a certain area, and the results indicate effectiveness of these methods.
Comparison between the Efficiency of Heterojunction Thin Film InGaP\GaAs\Ge and InGaP\GaAs Solar Cells
This paper presents the design parameters for a thin film 3J InGaP/GaAs/Ge solar cell with a simulated maximum efficiency of 32.16% using Tcad Silvaco. Design parameters include the doping concentration, molar fraction, thickness layers’ and tunnel junction characteristics. An initial dual junction InGaP/GaAs model of a previous published heterojunction cell was simulated in Tcad Silvaco to accurately predict solar cell performance. The model's meshing, material property statements, model statements, and numerical methods were fixed. However, the layer doping concentration levels and thicknesses were modified in order to improve the cell's efficiency. Simulations of the dual junction cell began by first changing the doping concentrations and thicknesses which showed an increase in efficiency. Next, a triple junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge cell was modeled by adding a Ge layer to the previous dual junction InGaP/GaAs model with an InGaP /GaAs tunnel junction. This process produced the design parameters for a 32.28% efficient 3J solar cell.
Performance and Processing Evaluation of Solid Oxide Cells by Co-Sintering of Gdc Buffer Layer and Lscf Air Electrode
Solid Oxide Cell(SOC) systems can contribute to the transition to the hydrogen society by utilized as a power and hydrogen generator by the electrochemical reaction with high efficiency at high operation temperature (>750 ℃). La1-xSrxCo1-yFeyO3, which is an air electrode, is occurred stability degradations due to reaction and delamination with yittria stabilized zirconia(YSZ) electrolyte in a water electrolysis mode. To complement this phenomenon SOCs need gadolinium doped ceria(GDC) buffer layer between electrolyte and air electrode. However, GDC buffer layer requires a high sintering temperature and it causes a reaction with YSZ electrolyte.
This study carried out low temperature sintering of GDC layer by applying Cu-oxide as a sintering aid. The effect of a copper additive as a sintering aid to lower the sintering temperature for the construction of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) was investigated. GDC buffer layer with 0.25-10 mol% CuO sintering aid was prepared by reacting GDC power and copper nitrate solution followed by heating at 600 ℃. The sintering of CuO-added GDC powder was optimized by investigating linear shrinkage, microstructure, grain size, ionic conductivity, and activation energy of CuO-GDC electrolytes at temperatures ranging from 1100 to 1400 ℃. The sintering temperature of the CuO-GDC electrolyte decreases from 1400 ℃ to 1100 ℃ by adding the CuO sintering aid. The ionic conductivity of the CuO-GDC electrolyte shows a maximum value at 0.5 mol% of CuO. However, the addition of CuO has no significant effects on the activation energy of GDC electrolyte. GDC-LSCF layers were co-sintering at 1050 and 1100 ℃ and button cell tests were carried out at 750 ℃.
Control of Stability for PV and Battery Hybrid System in Partial Shading
The abrupt light change and uneven illumination will make the PV system get rid of constant output power, which will affect the efficiency of the grid connected inverter as well as the stability of the system. To solve this problem, this paper presents a strategy to control the stability of photovoltaic power system under the condition of partial shading of PV array, leading to constant power output, improving the capacity of resisting interferences. Firstly, a photovoltaic cell model considering the partial shading is established, and the backtracking search algorithm is used as the maximum power point to track algorithm under complex illumination. Then, the energy storage system based on the constant power control strategy is used to achieve constant power output. Finally, the effectiveness and correctness of the proposed control method are verified by the joint simulation of MATLAB/Simulink and RTLAB simulation platform.
Windstorm Risk Assessment for Offshore Wind Farms in the North Sea
In 2017 there will be about 38 wind farms in the North Sea belonging to 5 different countries. The North Sea is ideal for offshore wind power generation and is thus attractive to offshore wind energy developers and investors. With concerns about the potential for offshore wind turbines to sustain substantial damage as a result of extreme weather conditions, particularly windstorms, this poses a unique challenge to insurers and reinsurers as to adequately quantify the risk and offer appropriate insurance cover for these assets. The need to manage this risk also concerns regulators, who provide the oversight needed to ensure that if a windstorm or a series of storms occur in this area over a one-year time frame, the insurers of these assets in the EU remain solvent even after meeting consequent damage costs. In this paper, using available European windstorm data for the past 33 years and actual wind farm locations together with information pertaining to each of the wind farms (number of turbines, total capacity and financial value), we present a Monte Carlo simulation approach to assess the number of turbines that would be buckled in each of the wind farms using maximum wind speeds reaching each of them. These wind speeds are drawn from historical windstorm data. From the number of turbines buckled, associated financial loss and output capacity can be deduced. The results presented in this paper are targeted towards offshore wind energy developers, insurance and reinsurance companies and regulators.
Distributed Control Strategy for Dispersed Energy Storage Units in the DC Microgrid Based on Discrete Consensus
The SOC (state of charge) based droop control has limitations on the load power sharing among different energy storage units, due to the line impedance. In this paper, a distributed control strategy for dispersed energy storage units in the DC microgrid based on discrete consensus is proposed. Firstly, a sparse information communication network is built. Thus, local controllers can communicate with its neighbors using voltage, current and SOC information. An average voltage of grid can be evaluated to compensate voltage offset by droop control, and an objective virtual resistance fulfilling above requirement can be dynamically calculated to distribute load power according to the SOC of the energy storage units. Then, the stability of the whole system and influence of communication delay are analyzed. It can be concluded that this control strategy can improve the robustness and flexibility, because of having no center controller. Finally, a model of DC microgrid with dispersed energy storage units and loads is built, the discrete distributed algorithm is established and communication protocol is developed. The co-simulation between Matlab/Simulink and JADE (Java agent development framework) has verified the effectiveness of proposed control strategy.
Managing the Effects of Wet Coal on Generation in Thermal Power Station: A Case Study
The coal acts as a fuel on a very large scale. Coal forms the basis of any thermal power plant. Different types of coal are available for utilization. The moisture content, volatile nature and ash content determines the type of the coal. Out of these moisture plays a very important part as it is present naturally within the coal and is added while handling the coal and is termed as wet coal. The problems of wet coal are many and more particularly during rainy season such as generation loss, jamming of crusher, reduction in calorific value, transportation of coal etc. Efforts are made to resolve the problems arising out of wet coal worldwide. This paper highlights the issue of resolving the problem due to wet coal with the help of a case study involving installation of V-type wiper on the conveyer belt.
Processing and Economic Analysis of Rain Tree (Samanea Saman) Pods for Village Level Hydrous Bioethanol Production
Biofuels are one of the renewable energy types that were adopted by the Philippine government in order to lessen the dependency on foreign fuel and to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Rain tree pods were seen to be a promising source of bioethanol since it contains a significant amount of fermentable sugars. The study was conducted to establish the complete procedure in processing rain tree pods for village level hydrous bioethanol production. Production processes were done for village level hydrous bioethanol production from collection, drying, storage, shredding, dilution, extraction, fermentation and distillation. The feedstock was sundried, and moisture content was determined at a range of 20 % to 26 % prior to storage. Dilution ratio was 1:1.25 (1 kg of pods = 1.25 L of water) and after extraction process yielded a sugar concentration of 22 0Bx to 24 0Bx. The dilution period was three hours. After three hours of diluting the samples, the juice was extracted using an extractor with a capacity of 64.10 litres/hour. One hundred fifty litres of rain tree pods juice was extracted and was subjected to fermentation process using a village level anaerobic bioreactor. Fermentation with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) can fasten up the process, thus producing more ethanol in a shorter period of time, however, without yeast fermentation also produces ethanol at lower volume and slower fermentation process. Distillation of one hundred fifty litres of fermented broth was done for six hours at 85 °C to 95 °C temperature (feedstock) and 74 °C to 95 °C temperature of the column head (vapor state of ethanol). The highest volume of ethanol recovered was established at with yeast fermentation at five days duration with a value of 14.89 litres and lowest actual ethanol content was found at without yeast fermentation at three days duration having a value of 11.63 litres. In general, the results suggested that rain tree pods had a very good potential as feedstock for bioethanol production. Fermentation of rain tree pods juice can be done with yeast and without yeast.
On the Application of Single Tuned Passive Filters in Distribution Networks at the Point of Common Coupling
The harmonic distortion of voltage is important in relation to power quality due to the interaction between the large diffusion of non-linear and time-varying single-phase and three-phase loads with power supply systems. However, harmonic distortion levels can be reduced by improving the design of polluting loads or by applying arrangements and adding filters. The application of passive filters is an effective solution that can be used to achieve harmonic mitigation mainly because filters offer high efficiency, simplicity, and are economical. Additionally, possible different frequency response characteristics can work to achieve certain required harmonic filtering targets. With these ideas in mind, the objective of this paper is to determine what size single tuned passive filters work in distribution networks best, in order to economically limit violations caused at a given point of common coupling (PCC). This article suggests that a single tuned passive filter could be employed in typical industrial power systems. Furthermore, constrained optimization can be used to find the optimal sizing of the passive filter in order to reduce both harmonic voltage and harmonic currents in the power system to an acceptable level, and, thus, improve the load power factor. The optimization technique works to minimize voltage total harmonic distortions (VTHD) and current total harmonic distortions (ITHD), where maintaining a given power factor at a specified range is desired. According to the IEEE Standard 519, both indices are viewed as constraints for the optimal passive filter design problem. The performance of this technique will be discussed using numerical examples taken from previous publications.
Thermodynamic Optimization of an R744 Based Transcritical Refrigeration System with Dedicated Mechanical Subcooling Cycle
The thermodynamic analysis shows that the performance of the R744 based transcritical refrigeration cycle drops drastically for higher ambient temperatures. This is due to the peculiar s-shape of the isotherm in the supercritical region. However, subcooling of the refrigerant at the gas cooler exit enhances the performance of the R744 based system. The present study is carried out to analyze the R744 based transcritical system with dedicated mechanical subcooling cycle. Based on this proposed cycle, the thermodynamic analysis is performed, and optimum operating parameters are determined. The amount of subcooling and the pressure ratio in the subcooling cycle are the parameters which are needed to be optimized to extract the maximum COP from this proposed cycle. It is expected that this study will be helpful in implementing the dedicated subcooling cycle with R744 based transcritical system to improve the performance.
Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Padina boryana Alga Collected from a Contaminated Site at the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia
The brown alga Padina boryanawas was used for bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulation at the seashore of Jeddah city. PAHs were determined in the coastal water and algal tissues by GC-MS.
Acenaphthene (Ace) and dibenzo (a,h) anthracene (dB(a,h)An) were the main PAHs in seawater (50.02 and 46.18) and algal tissues (64.67 and 72.45), respectively. The ratios of low molecular weight/high molecular weight hydrocarbons (1.76 – 1.44), fluoranthene/pyrene (1.57 – 1.52) and phenanthrene/anthracene (0.86 – 0.67) in seawater and algal tissues, respectively, indicated the origin of the PAHs to be mainly petrogenic.
This study has demonstrated the utility of using Padina boryanawas as a biomonitor of PAH contamination and bioavailability in the coastal waters.
Artificial Intelligence Based Predictive Models for Short Term Global Horizontal Irradiation Prediction
The whole world is on the drive to go green owing to the negative effects of burning fossil fuels. Therefore, there is immediate need to identify and utilise alternative renewable energy sources. Among these energy sources solar energy is one of the most dominant in Zimbabwe. Solar power plants used to generate electricity are entirely dependent on solar radiation. For planning purposes, solar radiation values should be known in advance to make necessary arrangements to minimise the negative effects of the absence of solar radiation due to cloud cover and other naturally occurring phenomena. This research focused on the prediction of Global Horizontal Irradiation values for the sixth day given values for the past five days. Artificial intelligence techniques were used in this research. Three models were developed based on Support Vector Machines, Radial Basis Function, and Feed Forward Back-Propagation Artificial neural network. Results revealed that Support Vector Machines gives the best results compared to the other two with a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 2%, Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of 0.05kWh/m²/day root mean square (RMS) error of 0.15kWh/m²/day and a coefficient of determination of 0.990. The other predictive models had prediction accuracies of MAPEs of 4.5% and 6% respectively for Radial Basis Function and Feed Forward Back-propagation Artificial neural network. These two models also had coefficients of determination of 0.975 and 0.970 respectively. It was found that prediction of GHI values for the future days is possible using artificial intelligence-based predictive models.
Biogas Production from Co-Digestion of Poultry Manure and Orange Peel through Thermal Pre-Treatments in Batch Fermentation
The increasing demand for the treatment of organic wastes from municipalities, faming and industrial activities is a great opportunity to convert organic wastes into energy in a form of biogas. With the aim of producing biogas from co- digestion of Poultry Manure (PM) and Orange Peel (OP) a series of experiments were carried out for 21 consecutive days. Five different proportions of PM and OP (100%PM, 75%MP+25%OP, 50%PM+50%OP, 25%PM+75%OP, 100%OP) were used to obtain the suitable mix ratio (which gives maximum biogas production). Having determined the optimum mix ratio, temperature pre-treatment at 60 and 80 oC were applied to compare the results with those obtained with non-pre-treated waste. Cumulative biogas production obtained from 75%PM+25%OP was 768ml, whereas 218.33ml was measured from 100%OP. Increasing the proportion of OP above 25% decreased the amount of gas production, volatile solids (VS) and total solids (TS) reduction. This indicated that addition of PM to mix ratios improves biogas production. Thus 75%PM+25%OP mix was found to be the optimum mix ratio which resulted in high biogas yield. In thermal pre-treatments, maximum cumulative gas production was measured at 80 ºC pre-treated substrate. It exceeded by 11.7% and 6.6% over the control and the 60 ºC pre-treated sample respectively. Overall the results indicated that the biogas yield and VS and TS reduction of the 75%PM+25%OP mix ratio can be enhanced with the use of thermal pre-treatments prior to anaerobic digestion.
Amazonian Native Biomass Residue for Sustainable Development of Isolated Communities
The Amazon region development was related to large-scale projects associated with economic cycles. Economic cycles were originated from policies implemented by successive governments that exploited the resources and have not yet been able to improve the local population's quality of life. These implanted development strategies were based on vertical planning centered on State that didn’t know and showed no interest in know the local needs and potentialities. The future of this region is a challenge that depends on a model of development based on human progress associated to intelligent, selective and environmentally safe exploitation of natural resources settled in renewable and no-polluting energy generation sources – a differential factor of attraction of new investments in a context of global energy and environmental crisis. In this process the planning and support of Brazilian State, local government, and selective international partnership are essential. Residual biomass utilization allows the sustainable development by the integration of production chain and energy generation process which could improve employment condition and income of riversides. Therefore, this research discourses how the use of local residual biomass (açaí lumps) could be an important instrument of sustainable development for isolated communities located at Alcobaça Sustainable Development Reserve (SDR), Tucuruí, Pará State, since in this region the energy source more accessible for who can pay are the fossil fuels that reaches about 54% of final energy consumption by the integration between the açaí productive chain and the use of renewable energy source besides it can promote less environmental impact and decrease the use of fossil fuels and carbon dioxide emissions.
Mini Coal Gasifier for Fulfilling Small-Scale Industries Energy Consumption in Indonesia
Mini coal gasifier (GasMin) is a small reactor that could convert coal into combustible gas or producer gas which is designed to fulfill energy needs of small-scale industries. The producer gas can be utilized for both external and internal combustion. The design of coal gasifier is suitable for community require because it is easy to handle, affordable and environmentally friendly. The feasibility study shows that the substitution of 12 kg LPG or specially 50 kg LPG into GasMin of 20 kg coal capacity per hour is very attractive. The estimation price of 20 kg coal per hour capacity GasMin is 40 million rupiahs. In the year 2016, the implementation of GasMin conducted at alumunium industry and batik industry at Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
Grid-Connected Doubly-Fed Induction Generator under Integral Backstepping Control Combined with High Gain Observer
In this paper, modeling and control of a grid connected 660KW Doubly-Fed Induction Generator wind turbine is presented. Stator flux orientation is used to realize active-reactive power decoupling to enable independent control of active and reactive power. The recursive Integral Backstepping technique is used to control generator speed to its optimum value and to obtain unity power factor. The controller is combined with High Gain Observer to estimate the mechanical torque of the machine. The most important advantage of this combination of High Gain Observer and the Integral Backstepping controller is the annulation of static error that may occur due to incertitude between the actual value of a parameter and its estimated value by the controller. Simulation results under Matlab/Simulink show the robustness of this control technique in presence of parameter variation.
An Efficient Tool for Mitigating Voltage Unbalance with Reactive Power Control of Distributed Grid-Connected Photovoltaic (PV) Systems
With the rapid increase of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems over the last decade, genuine challenges have arisen for engineers and professionals of energy field in the planning and operation of existing distribution networks with integration of these new generation sources. However, the conventional distribution network, in its design was not expected to receive other generation outside the main supply, so the network analysis tools generally used become inefficient to take into account all the constraints related to the operation of grid-connected PV systems. Some of its constraints can be enumerated as voltage control difficulty, reverse power flow, overvoltage, and mainly the voltage unbalance that could result from poor distribution of single-phase PV systems in the network. In order to analyze the impact of the connection of small and large number of PV systems to the distribution networks, this paper presents an efficient optimization tool that minimizes voltage unbalance in three-phase distribution networks with active power generation and reactive power control of single and three-phase PV plants. Reactive power can be generated or absorbed using the available capacity and the adjustable power factor of the inverter. Good reduction of voltage unbalance can be achieved by reactive power control of the PV systems. The proposed tool is based on the three-phase current injection method and the PV systems are modeled via an equivalent circuit. The primal-dual interior point method is used to obtain the optimal operating points for the systems for different scenarios of solar irradiance and temperature.
Unbalanced Distribution Optimal Power Flow to Minimize Losses with Distributed Photovoltaic (PV) Plants
Electric power systems are likely to operate with minimum losses and voltage meeting international standards. This is made possible generally by control actions provide by automatic voltage regulators, capacitors and transformers with on-load tap changer (OLTC). With the development of photovoltaic systems technology, their integration on distribution networks has increased over the few years to the extent of replacing the above mentioned techniques. Simulation tools for analyzing electrical networks, available on the market, are not able to take into account control actions necessary for studying PV systems impact on distribution networks. This paper presents an unbalanced optimal power flow (OPF) model that minimize losses with active power generation and reactive power control of single and three-phase PV systems. Reactive power can be generated or absorbed using the available capacity and the adjustable power factor of the inverter. The unbalance OPF is formulated by current balance equations and solved by primal-dual interior point method. Several simulation cases have been carried out varying the size and location of PV systems and the results show a detailed view of the impact of photovoltaic distributed generation on distribution systems.
Optimal Control of Generators and Series Compensators within Multi-Space-Time Frame
The operation of power grid is becoming more and more complex and difficult due to its rapid development towards high voltage, long distance, and large capacity. For instance, many large-scale wind farms have connected to power grid, where their fluctuation and randomness is very likely to affect the stability and safety of the grid. Fortunately, many new-type equipments based on power electronics have been applied to power grid, such as UPFC (Unified Power Flow Controller), TCSC (Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation), STATCOM (Static Synchronous Compensator) and so on, which can help to deal with the problem above. Compared with traditional equipment such as generator, new-type controllable devices, represented by the FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission System), have more accurate control ability and respond faster. But they are too expensive to use widely. Therefore, on the basis of the comparison and analysis of the controlling characteristics between traditional control equipment and new-type controllable equipment in both time and space scale, a coordinated optimizing control method within mutil-time-space frame is proposed in this paper to bring both kinds of advantages into play, which can better both control ability and economical efficiency. Firstly, the coordination of different space sizes of grid is studied focused on the fluctuation caused by large-scale wind farms connected to power grid. With generator, FSC (Fixed Series Compensation) and TCSC, the coordination method on two-layer regional power grid vs. its sub grid is studied in detail. The coordination control model is built, the corresponding scheme is promoted, and the conclusion is verified by simulation. By analysis, interface power flow can be controlled by generator and the specific line power flow between two-layer regions can be adjusted by FSC and TCSC. The smaller the interface power flow adjusted by generator, the bigger the control margin of TCSC, instead, the total consumption of generator is much higher. Secondly, the coordination of different time sizes is studied to further the amount of the total consumption of generator and the control margin of TCSC, where the minimum control cost can be acquired. The coordination method on two-layer ultra short-term correction vs. AGC (Automatic Generation Control) is studied with generator, FSC and TCSC. The optimal control model is founded, genetic algorithm is selected to solve the problem, and the conclusion is verified by simulation. Finally, the aforementioned method within multi-time-space scale is analyzed with practical cases, and simulated on PSASP (Power System Analysis Software Package) platform. The correctness and effectiveness are verified by the simulation result. Moreover, this coordinated optimizing control method can contribute to the decrease of control cost and will provide reference to the following studies in this field.
Techno-Economic Comparative Analysis of Grid Connected Solar Photovoltaic (PV) to Solar Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) for Developing Countries: A Case Study of Kenya and Zimbabwe
The potential of power generation from solar resources has been established as being robust in sub Saharan Africa. Consequently many governments in the region have encouraged the exploitation of this resource through, inter alia direct funding, subsidies and legislation (such as feed in tariffs). Through a case study of Kenya and Zimbabwe it is illustrated that a good deal of proposed grid connected solar power projects and related feed in tariffs have failed to take into account key economic and technical considerations in the selection of solar technologies to be implemented. This paper therefore presents a comparison between concentrated solar power (CSP) and solar photovoltaic (PV) to assess which technology is better suited to meet the energy demand for a given set of prevailing conditions. The evaluation criteria employed is levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), net present value (NPV) and plant capacity factor. The outcome is therefore a guide to aid policy makers and project developers in choosing between CSP and PV given certain solar irradiance values, planned nominal plant capacity, availability of water resource and a consideration of whether or not the power plant is intended to compete with existing technologies, primarily fossil fuel powered, in meeting the peak load.load.