Disaster Resilience Analysis of Atlanta Interstate Highway System within the Perimeter
Interstate highway system within the Atlanta Perimeter plays an important role in residents’ daily life. The serious influence of Atlanta I-85 Collapses implies that transportation system in the region lacks a cohesive and comprehensive transportation plan. Therefore, disaster resilience analysis of the transportation system is necessary. Resilience is the system’s capability to persist or to maintain transportation services when exposed to changes or shocks. This paper analyzed the resilience of the whole transportation system within the Perimeter and see how removing interstates within the Perimeter will affect the resilience of the transportation system. The data used in the paper are Atlanta transportation networks and LEHD Origin-Destination Employment Statistics data. First, we calculate the traffic flow on each road section based on LEHD data assuming each trip travel along the shortest travel time paths. Second, we calculate the measure of resilience, which is flow-based connectivity and centrality of the transportation network, and see how they will change if we remove each section of interstates from the current transportation system. Finally, we get the resilience function curve of the interstates and identify the most resilient interstates section. The resilience analysis results show that the framework of calculation resilience is effective and can provide some useful information for the transportation planning and sustainability analysis of the transportation infrastructures.
Seed Germination, Seedling Emergence and Response to Herbicides of Papaver Species (Papaver Rhoeas and P. dubium)
Weed management decisions for weed species can be derived from knowledge of seed germination biology. Experiments were conducted in laboratory and greenhouse to determine the effects of light, temperature, salt and water stress, seed burial depth on seed germination and seedling emergence of Papaver rhoeas and P.dubium and to assay the response of these species to commonly available POST herbicides. Germination of the Papaver seeds was influenced by the tested temperatures (day/night temperatures of 20 and 25 °C) and light. The concentrations of sodium chloride, ranging from 0 to 80 mM, influence germination of seeds. The osmotic potential required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination of P. rhoeas was -0.27 MPa and for P. dubium species was 0.25 MPa. Seedling emergence was greatest for the seeds placed at 1 cm and emergence declined with increased burial depth in the soil. No seedlings emerged from a burial depth of 6 cm. The herbicide 2,4-D at 400 g ai ha-1 provided excellent control of both species when applied at the four-leaf and six-leaf stages. However, at the six-leaf stage, percent control was reduced. The information gained from this study could contribute to developing components of integrated weed management strategies for Papaver species.
Cadmium Accumulation and Depuration Characteristics through Food Source of Cage-Cultivated Fish after Accidental Pollution in Longjiang River
Heavy metal pollution accidents, frequently happened in this decade in China, severely threaten aquatic ecosystem and economy. In January 2012, a basin-scale accidental Cd pollution happened in Longjiang River in southwest China. Although water quality was recovered in short period by emergency treatment with flocculants, a large amount of contaminated cage-cultivated fish were left with the task of preventing or mitigating Cd contamination of fish. In this study, unpolluted Ctenopharyngodon idellus were fed by Cd-contaminated macrophytes for assessing the effect of Cd accumulation through food exposure, and the contaminated C. idellus were fed with Cd-free macrophytes for assessing the ability of Cd depuration. The on-site cultivation experiments were done in two sites of Lalang (S1, accidental Cd pollution originated) and Sancha (S2, a large amount of flocculants were added to accelerate Cd precipitation) in Longjiang river. Results showed that Cd content in fish muscle presented an increasing trend in the accumulation experiment. In S1, Cd content of fish muscle rose sharply from day 8 to day 18 with higher average Cd content in macrophytes and sediment, and kept in the range of 0.208-0.308 mg/kg afterward. In S2, Cd content of fish muscle rose gradually throughout the experiment and reached the maximum level of 0.285 mg/kg on day 76. The results of the depuration experiment showed that Cd content in fish muscle decreased and significant changes were observed in the first half time of the experiment. Meanwhile, fish with lower initial Cd content presented higher elimination constant. In S1, Cd content of fish significantly decreased from 0.713 to 0.304 mg/kg in 18 days and kept decreasing to 0.110 mg/kg in the end, and 84.6% of Cd content was eliminated. While in S2, there was a sharp decrease of Cd content of fish in 0-8 days from 0.355 mg/kg to 0.069 mg/kg. The total elimination percentage was 93.8% and 80.6% of which appeared in day 0-8. The elimination constant of fish in S2 was 0.03 which was higher than 0.02 in S1. Collectively, our results showed Cd could be absorbed through food exposure and accumulate in fish muscle, and the accumulated Cd in fish muscle can be excreted after isolated from the polluted food sources. This knowledge allows managers to assess health risk of Cd contaminated fish and minimize aquaculture loss when considering fish cultivation after accidental pollution.
Impact of Import Restriction on Rice Production in Nigeria
This research paper on the impact of import restriction on rice production in Nigeria is aimed at finding/proffering valid solutions to the age long problem of rice self-sufficiency, through a better understanding of policy measures used in the past, in this case, the effectiveness of rice import restriction of the early 90’s. It tries to answer the questions of; import restriction boosting domestic rice production and the macroeconomic determining factors of Gross Domestic Rice Product (GDRP). The research probe is investigated through literature and analytical frameworks, such that time series data on the GDRP, Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF), average foreign rice producers’ prices(PPF), domestic producers’ prices (PPN) and the labour force (LABF) are collated for analysis (with an import restriction dummy variable, POL1). The research objectives/hypothesis are analysed using; Cointegration, Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), Impulse Response Function (IRF) and Granger Causality Test(GCT) methodologies. Results show that in the short-run error correction specification for GDRP, a percentage (1%) deviation away from the long-run equilibrium in a current quarter is only corrected by 0.14% in the subsequent quarter. Also, the rice import restriction policy had no significant effect on the GDRP at this time. Other findings show that the policy period has, in fact, had effects on the PPN and LABF. The choice variables used are valid macroeconomic factors that explain the GDRP of Nigeria, as adduced from the IRF and GCT, and in the long-run. Policy recommendations suggest that the import restriction is not disqualified as a veritable tool for improving domestic rice production, rather better enforcement procedures and strict adherence to the policy dictates is needed. Furthermore, accompanying policies which drive public and private capital investment and accumulation must be introduced. Also, employment rate and labour substitution in the agricultural sector should not be drastically changed, rather its welfare and efficiency be improved.
Ethical 'Spaces': A Critical Analysis of the Medical, Ethical and Legal Complexities in the Treatment and Care of Unidentified and Critically Incapacitated Victims Following a Disaster
The increasing threat of ‘marauding terror,' utilising improvised explosive devices and firearms, has focused the attention of policy makers and emergency responders once again on the treatment of the critically injured patient in a highly volatile scenario. Whilst there have been significant improvements made in the response and lessons learned from recent disasters in the international disaster community there still remain areas of uncertainty and a lack of clarity in the care of the critically injured. This innovative, longitudinal study has at its heart the aim of using ethnographic methods to ‘slow down’ the journey such patients will take and make visible the ethical complexities that 2017 technologies, expectations and over a decade of improved combat medicine techniques have brought. The primary researcher, previously employed in the hospital emergency management environment, has closely followed responders as they managed casualties with life-threatening injuries. Ethnographic observation of Exercise Unified Response in March 2016, exposed the ethical and legal 'vacuums' within a mass casualty and fatality setting, specifically the extrication, treatment and care of critically injured patients from crushed and overturned train carriages. This article highlights a gap in the debate, evaluation, planning and response to an incident of this nature specifically the incapacitated, unidentified patients and the ethics of submitting them to the invasive ‘Disaster Victim Identification’ process. Using a qualitative ethnographic analysis, triangulating observation, interviews and documentation, this analysis explores the gaps and highlights the next stages in the researcher’s pathway as she continues to explore with emergency practitioners some of this century’s most difficult questions in relation to the medico-legal and ethical challenges faced by emergency services in the wake of new and emerging threats and medical treatment expectations.
Aerodynamics of Nature Inspired Turbine Blade Using Computational Simulation
In the airfoil analysis, as the camber is greater, the minimal angle of attack causing the stall and maximum lift force increases. The shape of the turbine blades is similar to the shape of the wings of planes. After major wars, many remarkable blade shapes are made through researches about optimal blade shape. The blade shapes developed by National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, NACA, is well known. In this paper, using computational and numerical analysis, the NACA airfoils are analyzed. This research shows that the blades vary with their thickness, which thinner blades are expected to be better. There is no significant difference of coefficient of lift due to the difference in thickness, but the coefficient of drag increases as the thickness increases.
Strategic Environmental Assessment and Climate Change: From European Experiences to Brazilian Needs
This paper proposes the analysis of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in relation to the three pillars of the sustainable development, highlighting its particular importance to combat climate change. Theoretical and practical examples from Europe show how SEA has been implemented under the SEA Directive in the recent years, while the Brazilian case study shows a situation in which no regulation on SEA was implemented, despite the strong demand for it, as revealed by past experiences and future planning needs. In the end, some aspects to the formulation of a SEA Act are suggested, in an attempt to contribute to a better Brazilian environmental governance in relation to the future plans, programmes and policies required to the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions.
Potential Environmental Implications of Triethylamine Modified Graphene Oxide/Chitosan Composite for Cr(VI) Adsorption
The triethylamine modified graphene oxide/chitosan composite (TEGOCS) material was successfully synthesized and used for chromium(VI) adsorption in this study. Here, the graphene oxide material was synthesized via modified Hummers method. The structural properties of TEGOCS composite materials were examined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder-X-ray diffraction (powder-XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and BET analysis. The effects of various parameters such as pH, temperature, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and agitation speed on adsorption of Cr(VI) by TEGOCS composite material were evaluated in batch mode. The adsorption mechanism of TEGOCS composite material on to Cr(VI) was well described by Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model, with a high regression coefficient ( < 0.99). The interactive mechanism between TEGOCS composite material and Cr(VI) ions was examined by FT-IR, XRD, and SEM. The application of TEGOCS material is more suitable for cost-effective and practical application for efficient removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions.
Willingness to Pay for Environmental Conservation and Management of Nogas Island and Its Surrounding Waters Among the Residents of Anini-Y, Antique
Nogas Island situated in the municipality of Anini-y in the province of Antique is endowed with natural resources especially a thriving marine ecosystem that attracts tourists all year round. But despite its beauty and emerging popularity, the island and its surrounding waters remain vulnerable to degradation brought about by anthropocentric activities. An emphasis on the protection and conservation is paramount in order to ensure environmental sustainability over time. This study was conducted in order to determine the willingness-to-pay (WTP) of the local residents of Anini-y, Antique for the conservation of Nogas Island and its surrounding waters. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was used to determine the WTP of the study participants. In addition, the study also described the socio-demographic and economic characteristics, the level of awareness, knowledge and attitude towards the conservation and the reasons for the willingness to pay off the residents for the conservation of the island and its surrounding waters. A pilot-tested interview schedule was used to collect data from 320 randomly selected study participants in 8 barangays in the municipality of Anini-y from January to December 2017. Binary logit regression was conducted in order to identify factors affecting the study participants’ WTP. The results revealed that 54.69 percent of the study participants were willing to pay (with adjustment to the level of certainty) for the conservation program. The sex, monthly household income, randomly assigned bid price and the knowledge index were the variables that affected the willingness-to-pay of the study participants for both with and without adjustment to the level of certainty. The monthly mean WTP of the study participants with and without adjustment to the level of certainty were P115 and P104.5, respectively. This study can serve as a guide for the municipality of Anini-y in creating a policy or program that aims to conserve and protect Nogas Island and its surrounding waters.
Greenland Monitoring Using Vegetation Index: A Case Study of Lal Suhanra National Park
The analysis of the spatial extent and temporal change of vegetation cover using remotely sensed data is of critical importance to agricultural sciences. Pakistan, being an agricultural country depends on this resource as it makes 70% of the GDP. The case study is of Lal Suhanra National Park, which is not only the biggest forest reserve of Pakistan but also of Asia. The study is performed using different temporal images of Landsat. Also, the results of Landsat are cross-checked by using Sentinel-2 imagery as it has both higher spectral and spatial resolution. Vegetation can easily be detected using NDVI which is a common and widely used index. It is an important vegetation index, widely applied in research on global environmental and climatic change. The images are then classified to observe the change occurred over 15 years. Vegetation cover maps of 2000 and 2016 are used to generate the map of vegetation change detection for the respective years and to find out the changing pattern of vegetation cover. Also, the NDVI values aided in the detection of percentage decrease in vegetation cover. The study reveals that vegetation cover of the area has decreased significantly during the year 2000 and 2016.
Biodiesel Production and Heavy Metal Removal by Aspergillus fumigatus sp.
Some of filamentous fungi can be used for biodiesel production as they are able to accumulate high amounts of intracellular lipids when grown at stress conditions. Aspergillus fumigatus sp. was isolated from Nile delta soil in Egypt. The fungus was primarily screened for its capacity to accumulate lipids using Nile red staining assay. The fungus could accumulate more than 20% of its biomass as lipids when grown at optimized minimal medium. After lipid extraction, we could use fungal cell debris to remove some heavy metals from contaminated waste water. The fungal cell debris could remove Cd, Cr, and Zn with absorption efficiency of 73%, 83.43%, and 69.39% respectively. In conclusion, the Aspergillus fumigatus isolate may be considered as a promising biodiesel producer, and its biomass waste can be further used for bioremediation of wastewater contaminated with heavy metals.
Examining the Missing Feedback Link in Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis
The inverted U-shaped Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) demonstrates(pollution-income relationship)that initially the pollution and environmental degradation surpass the level of income per capita; however this trend reverses since at the higher income levels, economic growth initiates environmental upgrading. However, what effect does increased environmental degradation has on growth is the missing feedback link which has not been addressed in the EKC hypothesis. This paper examines the missing feedback link in EKC hypothesis in Indian context by examining the casual association between fossil fuel consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth for India. Fossil fuel consumption here has been taken as a proxy of driver of economic growth. The casual association between the aforementioned variables has been analyzed using five interventions namely 1) urban development for which urbanization has been taken proxy 2) industrial development for which industrial value added has been taken proxy 3) trade liberalization for which sum of exports and imports as a share of GDP has been taken as proxy 4)financial development for which a)domestic credit to private sector and b)net foreign assets has been taken as proxies. The choice of interventions for this study has been done keeping in view the economic liberalization perspective of India. The main aim of the paper is to investigate the missing feedback link for Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis before and after incorporating the intervening variables. The period of study is from 1971 to 2011 as it covers pre and post liberalization era in India. All the data has been taken from World Bank country level indicators. The Johansen and Juselius cointegration testing methodology and Error Correction based Granger causality have been applied on all the variables. The results clearly show that out of five interventions, only in two interventions the missing feedback link is being addressed. This paper can put forward significant policy implications for environment protection and sustainable development.
Benefits of Monitoring Acid Sulfate Potential of Coffee Rock (Indurated Sand) across Entire Dredge Cycle in South East Queensland
Shipping trends suggest increasing vessel size and draught visiting Australian ports highlighting potential challenges to port infrastructure and requiring optimization of shipping channels to ensure safe passage for vessels. The Port of Brisbane in Queensland, Australia has an 80 km long access shipping channel which vessels must transit 15 km of relatively shallow coffee rock (generic class of indurated sands where sand grains are bound within an organic clay matrix) outcrops towards the northern passage in Moreton Bay. This represents a risk to shipping channel deepening and maintenance programs as the dredgeability of this material is more challenging due to its high cohesive strength compared with the surrounding marine sands and potential higher acid sulfate risk. In situ assessment of acid sulfate sediment for dredge spoil control is an important tool in mitigating ecological harm. The coffee rock in an anoxic undisturbed state does not pose any acid sulfate risk, however when disturbed via dredging it’s vital to ensure that any present iron sulfides are either insignificant or neutralized. To better understand the potential risk we examined the reduction potential of coffee rock across the entire dredge cycle in order to accurately portray the true outcome of disturbed acid sulfate sediment in dredging operations in Moreton Bay. In December 2014 a dredge trial was undertaken with a trailing suction hopper dredger. In situ samples were collected prior to dredging revealed acid sulfate potential above threshold guidelines which could lead to expensive dredge spoil management. However, potential acid sulfate risk was then monitored in the hopper and subsequent discharge, both showing a significant reduction in acid sulfate potential had occurred. Additionally, the acid neutralizing capacity significantly increased due to the inclusion of shell fragments (calcium carbonate) from the dredge target areas. This clearly demonstrates the importance of assessing potential acid sulfate risk across the entire dredging cycle and highlights the need to carefully evaluate sources of acidity.
Towards an Environmental Knowledge System in Water Management
Water supply and water quality are key problems of mankind at the moment and - due to increasing population - in the future. Management disciplines like water, environment and quality management therefore need to closely interact, to establish a high level of water quality and to guarantee water supply in all parts of the world. Groundwater remediation is one aspect in this process. From a knowledge management perspective it is only possible to solve complex ecological or environmental problems if different factors, expert knowledge of various stakeholders and formal regulations regarding water, waste or chemical management are interconnected in form of a knowledge base. In general knowledge management focuses the processes of gathering and representing existing and new knowledge in a way, which allows for inference or deduction of knowledge for e.g. a situation where a problem solution or decision support are required. A knowledge base is no sole data repository, but a key element in a knowledge based system, thus providing or allowing for inference mechanisms to deduct further knowledge from existing facts. In consequence this knowledge provides decision support. The given paper introduces an environmental knowledge system in water management. The proposed environmental knowledge system is part of a research concept called Green Knowledge Management. It applies semantic technologies or concepts such as ontology or linked open data to interconnect different data and information sources about environmental aspects, in this case, water quality, as well as background material enriching an established knowledge base. Examples for the aforementioned ecological or environmental factors threatening water quality are among others industrial pollution (e.g. leakage of chemicals), environmental changes (e.g. rise in temperature) or floods, where all kinds of waste are merged and transferred into natural water environments. Water quality is usually determined with the help of measuring different indicators (e.g. chemical or biological), which are gathered with the help of laboratory testing, continuous monitoring equipment or other measuring processes. During all of these processes data are gathered and stored in different databases. Meanwhile the knowledge base needs to be established through interconnecting data of these different data sources and enriching its semantics. Experts may add their knowledge or experiences of previous incidents or influencing factors. In consequence querying or inference mechanisms are applied for the deduction of coherence between indicators, predictive developments or environmental threats. Relevant processes or steps of action may be modeled in form of a rule based approach. Overall the environmental knowledge system supports the interconnection of information and adding semantics to create environmental knowledge about water environment, supply chain as well as quality. The proposed concept itself is a holistic approach, which links to associated disciplines like environmental and quality management. Quality indicators and quality management steps need to be considered e.g. for the process and inference layers of the environmental knowledge system, thus integrating the aforementioned management disciplines in one water management application.
Synergistic Sorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) onto Sweet Potato Vine from Binary Mixtures Cr(VI)-Cu(II)
Over the last decades, biosorption has been an alternative to costly wastewaters treatment for metal removal. Most of the literature on metal biosorption was devoted to studying of single metal ions but nowadays studies on multi-components biosorption are booming. Hexavalent chromium is usually found in mixtures with divalent metal ions in industries wastewaters. However, studies on the simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and divalent metals are hardly found and the cooperative or competitive mechanism governing each metal ions sorption is still unclear. In this work, simultaneous sorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) from their binary mixtures by using sweet potato vine (SPV) was investigated. Sweet potato is one of the four major grain crops in China. Each year about 2000 tons of SPV are generated as by-products. SPV could be a low-cost biosorbent for metal ions due to its rich in cellulose and lignin. In this work, the sorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) from their binary mixtures solutions was studied by using SPV sorbent. Equilibrium studies were carried out in binary mixtures in which Cr(VI) and Cu(II) concentration was both varied between 0.1 mM and 0.3 mM, Cr(VI) and Cu(II) single solutions were also prepared as comparison. All the experiments were performed at pH 3±0.05 under 30±2°C for 7 days to make sure sorption achieved equilibrium. Results showed that (i) chromium was partially (10.93%-42.04%) eliminated under studied conditions through reduction and sorption of hexavalent and trivalent forms. The presence of Cu(II) exerts a synergistic effect on the overall sorption process in all the cases of the 0.1-0.3 mM binary mixtures concentration range. (ii) Cr(VI) removal by SPV is favoured by the presence of Cu(II) in solution, because more protons needed for Cr(VI) reduction are available due to Cu(II)-proton competition; however sorption of the formed Cr(III) is unfavoured as a result of the competition between Cr(III) and Cu(II) for protons and sorbent active sites. (iii) Copper was partially (9.26%-13.91%) sorbed onto SPV under studied conditions. The presence of Cr(VI) in binary mixtures also exerts a synergistic effect on the Cu(II) removal in all the cases of the 0.1-0.3 mM binary mixtures concentration range. The results of the present work indicate that sweet potato vine can be successfully employed for the simultaneously removal of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) in binary mixtures, taking advantage of the synergistic effect provoked by one of the metal ion to each other, even though the acquisition of higher removal yields has to be further investigated. Acknowledgements—This work has been financially supported by Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security of PRC (Anhui15), Education Department of Anhui Province (KJ2016A270) and Anhui Normal University (2015rcpy33, 2014bsqdjj53).
Synthesis of Ultra-Small Platinum, Palladium and Gold Nanoparticles by Electrochemically Active Biofilms and Their Enhanced Catalytic Activities
Ultra-Small Nanoparticles of metals (USNPs) have attracted the attention from the perspective of both basic and developmental science in a wide range of fields. These NPs exhibit electrical, optical, magnetic, and catalytic phenomena. In addition, they are considered effective catalysts because of their enormously large surface area. Many chemical methods of synthesising USNPs are reported. However, the drawback of these methods is the use of different capping agents and ligands in the process of the production such as Polyvinylpyrrolidone, Thiol and Ethylene Glycol. In this research ultra-small nanoparticles of gold, palladium and platinum metal have been successfully produced using electrochemically active biofilm (EAB) after optimising the pH of the media. The production of ultra-small nanoparticles has been conducted in a reactor using a simple two steps method. Initially biofilm was grown on the surface of a carbon paper for 7 days using Shewanella Loihica bacteria. Then, biofilm was employed to synthesise platinum, palladium and gold nanoparticles in water using sodium lactate as electron donor without using any toxic chemicals at mild operating conditions. Electrochemically active biofilm oxidise the electron donor and produces electrons in the solution. Since these electrons are a strong reducing agent, they can reduce metal precursors quite effectively and quickly. The As-synthesized ultra-small nanoparticles have a size range between (2-7nm) and showed excellent catalytic activity on the degradation of methyl orange. The growth of metal USNPs is strongly related to the condition of the EAB. Where using low pH for the synthesis was not successful due to the fact that it might affect and destroy the bacterial cells. However, increasing the pH to 7 and 9, led to the successful formation of USNPs. By changing the pH value, we noticed a change in the size range of the produced NPs. The EAB seems to act as a Nano factory for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles by offering a green, sustainable and toxic free synthetic route without the use of any capping agents or ligands and depending only on their respiration pathway.
Researches on Attractive Flowered Natural Woody Plants of Bursa Flora in Terms of Landscape Design
One of the most important criteria that increase the success of design in landscape architecture is the visual effect. The characteristics that affect visual appearance in plant design vary depending on the phenological periods of the plants. In plants, although different effects are observed in different periods of the year, this effect is felt most prominently in flowering periods. For this reason, knowing the flowering time, duration and flower characteristics should be considered as a factor increasing the success of plant design. In this study, the species which are found in Bursa flora, attractive in terms of floral characteristics and can be used in urban landscape design have been determined and the flowering times, durations and flower characteristics of these species have been examined. Because of the variability of these characteristics of plants in the region, consideration of these criteria in the planting design process to be carried out in the region may increase the success of the design. At the same time, considering the obtained data, it may be possible to make designs that are compatible in color and sustainable in Bursa urban planting works.
Examination of The Woody Taxa of Urban Parks in the Context of Climate Change: Resat Oyal Kulturpark and Hudavendigar Urban Park Samples
Climate change, which has become effective on a global scale, is accompanied by an increase in negative conditions for human, plant and animal life. Especially these negative conditions (drought, warming, glowing, etc.) are felt more rapidly in urban life and affect the sustainability of green areas which are of great importance in terms of life comfort. In this context, the choice of woody taxa used in the design and design of green spaces in the city increase one more time. Within the scope of this study, two of four urban parks located in the city center of Bursa province were selected and evaluated for woody taxa. Urban parks have been identified as the oldest and newest urban park in Bursa, and it has been tried to emphasize the differences that may exist over time. It was determined that 54 woody taxa took place in Resat Oyal Kulturpark and 76 woody taxa in Hudavendigar Urban Park. These taxa have been evaluated in terms of water consumption and ecological tolerances by taking into account climate change, and suggestions have been developed against possible problems.
Segregation of Domestic Solid Waste: An Evidence of Households' Knowledge, Attitude, Behavior and Challenges from Manipal, India
The ever-increasing quantity and variety of domestic solid waste pose a major challenge to both households as well as to municipal authorities. In keeping with the Indian Prime Minister’s mission of Swachh Bharat (Clean India), the local municipal administration distributed 2 buckets to each household in a residential colony in Manipal (an educational town in southern India). Households were instructed to segregate their waste into wet and dry waste and keep these buckets at their gate for daily collection. This paper captures the knowledge, attitude and behavior of 145 households along with the challenges they face in segregating their wastes. Survey representatives self-administered a questionnaire based on 107 variables that gathered demographic details, attitude and behavior constructs, knowledge about waste segregation and method of disposal for organic, recyclable and hazardous wastes. The study used descriptive tools to explore the data. While 95% of the respondents preferred good segregation practices, only 86% of them exhibited such behavior. 88% of the families observed had members who were either graduates or post-graduates whereas only 37% of the families had women who were working. In both attitude and behavior, 63% of the households did not have working women. Also, among those who practiced segregation, 7% were observed to not practice segregation in spite of the lady member being at home (The authors of this study in no way intend to name women as responsible for waste segregation at home; this thought is based on the fact that while in conversation with households, all respondents opined that women lead this activity). The findings of the study are intended to add value to the existing perceptions of the municipality regarding citizen behavior towards policy implementation/improvement. India as a country faces road blocks at many levels of policy implementation. The findings of this study is meant to contribute/clarify about the Clean India drive.
Effects of Indole on Aerobic Biodegradation of Butanoic Acid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens
In low resource settings in Africa and other developing regions, pit latrines remain the dominant basic minimum acceptable form of sanitation. However, unpleasant smells-malodours emitted from faecal sludge in the pit latrines, which elicit disgusting or repulsive response, are one of the factors that thwart people to use latrines and instead opt for open defecation as an alternative. This provides an important but often overlooked major impediment, dissuading people from adopting and using the pit latrines hence affecting successful, effective sanitation promotion. The malodours are primarily attributed to four odorants: butanoic acid (C₄H₈O₂), dimethyl trisulphide (C₂H₆S₃), indole (C₈H₇N) and para-cresol (C₇H₈O). Several pit latrine deodorisation methods such as addition of carbonous materials, use of ventilation systems and urine separation are available, and they continue to occupy their niche, but social, economic, environmental and technological shortfalls remain. Bioremediation has been gaining popularity because it is inexpensive, simple to operate and environmentally friendly. Recently, the biodegradation of butanoic acid as individual odorant has been studied. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no kinetic studies of the butanoic acid in the presence of other key odorous compounds. In this study, a series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of indole on the removal of butanoic acid under aerobic conditions using indigenous bacteria strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens isolated from faecal sludge as pure cultures as well as mixed cultures. In this purpose, butanoic acid removal was performed in a batch reactor containing the bacterial strains in mineral salt medium (MSM) amended with 3000 ppm of butanoic acid at the temperature of 30°C, under continuous stirring rate of 150 rpm and the concentration of indole was varied from 50-200 ppm. The initial pH of the solution was in the range of 6.0-7.2. Overall, there were significant differences in the bacterial growth rate and total butanoic acid removal dependent on the concentration of indole in the solution.
Effect of Brackish Water Quality on Crop Yield of Bitter-Gourd under Drip Irrigation System
The water scarcity has been increased for the last couple of decades; it is incumbent on agriculture to maximize the use of water of all qualities. Drip irrigation system practice has shown vast increase in profit and research interest in the last two decades. However, the application of this system is still limited. The research study was conducted at Malir, Karachi, the semi-arid region Pakistan. The aim was to evaluate the effects of three different qualities of ground-water on water use efficiency. To this end, bitter-gourd was grown under drip irrigation system during the year, 2016. The uniformity coefficient (UC) ranged from 93 to 96% was achieved. Three qualities of ground water having ECiw 2.80dSs.m⁻¹ (IT1), ECiw 3.23dSs.m⁻¹ (IT2) and ECiw 3.56dSs.m⁻¹ (IT3) were used through drip irrigation system to bitter-gourd crop. The total amounts of water of 12937m3.ha⁻¹ were applied in each treatment. The results showed a significantly higher average weight (53.24gm), average length (12.93 cm) and average diameter (3.37cm) of fruit was observed under E.C 2.80dS.m⁻¹ (IT1). Two-way ANOVA proved statistically significant higher water use efficiency (p < 0.001) was achieved by 1.54kg.m⁻³ under IT1 when compared with 1.12 kg.m⁻³ under IT2 and 0.83 kg.m⁻³ under IT3. The study concluded that bitter-gourd crop can be grown successfully on sandy loam using brackish quality ground-water for irrigation. The sustainable use of brackish and saline ground-water should be utilized for vegetable cultivation to meet the food demand at the marginal areas in Pakistan.
Evaluation of Fluidized Bed Bioreactor Process for Mmabatho Wastewater Treatment Plant
The rapid population growth in South Africa has increased the requirement of wastewater treatment facilities. The aim of this study is to assess the potential use of Fluidized Bed Bio Reactor (FBBR) for Mmabatho sewage treatment plant. The samples were collected from the inlet and outlet of reactor daily to analysis the pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solid (TSS) as per standard method APHA 2005. The studies were undertaken on a continue laboratory scale, and analytical data were collected before and after treatment. The reduction of 87.22 % COD, 89.80 BOD % was achieved. Fluidized Bed Bio Reactor removes BOD/COD removal as well as nutrient removal. The efforts also made to study the impact of the biological system if the domestic wastewater gets contaminated with any industrial contaminations, and the result shows that the biological system can tolerate high total dissolved solids up to 6000 mg/L as well as high heavy metal concentration up to 4 mg/L. The data obtained through the experimental research are demonstrated that the FBBR may be used ( < 3 h total Hydraulic Retention Time) for secondary treatment in Mmabatho wastewater treatment plant.
Solar Aided Vacuum Desalination of Sea-Water: Get Fresh Water from Sea Using Renewable Energy
art of planning to address shortfalls in fresh water supply for the world, Sea water can be a huge source of fresh water. But Desalinating sea water to get fresh water could require a lots of fossil fuels. To save the fossil fuel in terms of save the green world but meet the up growing need for fresh water, a very useful but energy efficient method needs to be introduced. Vacuum desalination of sea water using only the Renewable energy can be an effective solution to this issue. Taking advantage of sensitivity of water's boiling point to air pressure a vacuum desalination water treatment plant can be designed which would only use sea water as feed water and solar energy as fuel to produce fresh drinking water. The study indicates that reducing the air pressure to a certain value water can be boiled at very low temperature. Using solar energy to provide the condensation and the vacuum creation would be very useful and efficient. Compared to existing resources, desalination is considered to be expensive, but using only renewable energy the cost can be reduced significantly. Despite its very few drawbacks, it can be considered a possible solution to the world's fresh water shortages.
Occurrence of Illicit Drugs in Aqueous Environment and Removal Efficiency of Wastewater Treatment Plants
Illicit drugs are considered as emerging contaminants of concern that have become an interesting issue for the scientific community from last few years due to their existence in the water environment. A number of the literature has revealed their occurrence in the environment. This is mainly due to the fact that some drugs are partially removed during wastewater treatment processes, and remaining being able to enter the environment and contaminate surface and groundwater and subsequently, drinking water. Therefore, this paper evaluates the occurrence of key illicit drugs in wastewater (influent and effluent) samples in 4 wastewater treatment plants across Adelaide, South Australia over a 1 year period. This paper also compares the efficiency of wastewater treatment plants adopting different technologies in the removal of selected illicit drugs, especially in the context of which technology has higher removal rates. The influent and effluent samples were analysed using Liquid Chromatography tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The levels of drugs detected were in the range of mg/L – ng/L in effluent samples; thus emphasising the influence on water quality of receiving water bodies and the significance of removal efficiency of WWTPs(Wastewater Treatment Plants). The results show that the drugs responded differently in the removal depending on the treatment processes used by the WWTPs.
Analysis of the Air Pollution Behavior Registered at MACAM Net Using DOAS, Associated with High Pollution Episodes
The combination of the geographical and meteorological conditions of the Santiago basin are unfavorable for the circulation of atmospheric pollution, especially in the autumn and winter months. The problem of environmental pollution in the Metropolitan Region has been studied since the 1960s because the city has presented high pollution levels for most of the year, levels that have even been compared with those in cities in developed countries, This implies serious consequences for the health of the population. Two of the most important gasses present in the contamination are NO2, and O3, the highest concentrations of nitrogen dioxide are measured during the winter, in addition, it is considered as a great contribution to the fine fraction of particulate matter and as a precursor of tropospheric ozone. On the other hand, tropospheric ozone is a pollutant of photochemical origin and is strongly enhanced by solar radiation, which is why its presence in the atmosphere is more significant in the spring and summer. The measurements were made at 3 different places in Santiago, and were used different equipment; a DOAS for gasses measures, SIMCA for Black Carbon Measure and the MACAM net for particulate matter and meteorological condition. The results shows an important relation between height and presence of pollution gasses, and additionally, pollution episodes are in common low temperature (< 10 °C) and high relative humidity (> 80%), which are factors that allows the air suspension of particulate matter and focus NH4+ and NO3-.
Spatial Variability of Environmental Parameters and Its Relationship with an Environmental Injustice on the Bike Paths of Santiago, Chile
Pollution in Santiago de Chile has a spatial variability due to different factors, including meteorological parameters and emission sources. Socioenvironmental aspects are also significant for pollution in the canopy layer since it influences the type of edification, vegetal mass proportion and other environmental conditions. This study analyzes spatially urban pollution in Santiago, specifically, from the bike path perspective. Bike paths are located in high traffic zones, as consequence, users are constantly exposed to urban pollution. Measurements were made at the higher polluted hour, three days a week, including three transit regimes, on the most polluted month of the year. The environmental parameters are fine particulate matter (Model 8520, DustTrak Aerosol Monitor, TSI), temperature and relative humidity; it was also considerate urban parameters as sky view factor and vegetal mass. Identification of an environmental injustice will be achieved with a spatial modeling, including all urban factors and environmental mediations with an economic index of population.
Pollution Associated with Combustion in Stove to Firewood (Eucalyptus) and Pellet (Radiate Pine): Effect of UVA Irradiation
In several cities in Chile, there is significant urban pollution, particularly in Santiago and in cities in the south where biomass is used as fuel in heating and cooking in a large proportion of homes. This has generated interest in knowing what factors can be modulated to control the level of pollution. In this project was conditioned and set up a photochemical chamber (14m3) equipped with gas monitors e.g. CO, NOX, O3, others and PM monitors e.g. dustrack, DMPS, Harvard impactors, etc. This volume could be exposed to UVA lamps, producing a spectrum similar to that generated by the sun. In this chamber, PM and gas emissions associated with biomass burning were studied in the presence and absence of radiation. From the comparative analysis of wood stove (eucalyptus globulus) and pellet (radiata pine), it can be concluded that, in the first approximation, 9-nitroanthracene, 4-nitropyrene, levoglucosan, water soluble potassium and CO present characteristics of the tracers. However, some of them show properties that interfere with this possibility. For example, levoglucosan is decomposed by radiation. The 9-nitroanthracene, 4-nitropyrene are emitted and formed under radiation. The 9-nitroanthracene has a vapor pressure that involves a partition involving the gas phase and particulate matter. From this analysis, it can be concluded that K+ is compound that meets the properties known to be tracer. The PM2.5 emission measured in the automatic pellet stove that was used in this thesis project was two orders of magnitude smaller than that registered by the manual wood stove. This has led to encouraging the use of pellet stoves in indoor heating, particularly in south-central Chile. However, it should be considered, while the use of pellet is not without problems, due to pellet stove generate high concentrations of Nitro-HAP's (secondary organic contaminants). In particular, 4-nitropyrene, compound of high toxicity, also primary and secondary particulate matter, associated with pellet burning produce a decrease in the size distribution of the PM, which leads to a depth penetration of the particles and their toxic components in the respiratory system.
Indoor Emissions Produced by Kerosene Heating, Determining Its Formation Potential of Secondary Particulate Matter and Transport
All emissions of contaminants inside of homes, offices, school and another enclosure closer that affect the health of those who inhabit or use them are cataloged how indoor pollution. The importance of this study is because individuals spend most of their time in indoors ambient. The main indoor pollutants are oxides of nitrogen (NOₓ), sulfur dioxide (SO₂), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM). Combustion heaters are an important source of pollution indoors. It will be measured: NOₓ, SO₂, CO, PM₂,₅ y PM₁₀ continuous and discreet form at indoor and outdoor of two households with different heating energy; kerosene and electricity (control home) respectively, in addition to environmental parameters such as temperature. With the values obtained in the 'control home' it will be possible estimate the contaminants transport from outside to inside of the household and later the contribution generated by kerosene heating. Transporting the emissions from burning kerosene to a photochemical chamber coupled to a continuous and discreet measuring system of contaminants it will be evaluated the oxidation of the emissions and formation of secondary particulate matter. It will be expected watch a contaminants transport from outside to inside of the household and the kerosene emissions present a high potential of formation secondary particulate matter.
Industrial Waste Management in the Process of Aromatic Compounds Production: Case Study of Nouri Petrochemical Complex, Assaluyeh, Iran²
In recent years, different petrochemical complexes have be established to produce the aromatic compounds. Amongst, Nouri Petrochemical Complex (NPC) is the largest producer of aromatic raw materials in the world which is located in south of Iran. Environmental concerns have been raised in this region due to generation of different types of solid waste in the process of aromatics production and subsequently industrial waste characterization has been extremely considered. The aims of this study is identify industrial waste generated in the aromatics production process and determine the best method for industrial waste management. For this purpose, all generated industrial waste during production process was determined by using a checklist. Four main industrial wastes were identified as follows: industrial soil, spent catalyst, spent molecular sieves and N-Formyl Morpholine (NFM) solvent. The amount of heavy metals and organic compounds in these wastes were further measured in order to identify the nature and toxicity of such a dangerous compound. Finally the best method of waste disposal is selected based on environmental, economic and technical aspects. Regarding physicochemical nature of the foregoing wastes, extract of valuable metals from catalysts, recycling of molecular sieves and industrial soil as additive in building materials and recovery of energy through incineration of NFM solvent are further proposed as a solution for final disposal.
Municipal Solid Waste Management Using Life Cycle Assessment Approach: Case Study of Maku City, Iran
This paper aims to determine the best environmental and economic scenario for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management of the Maku city by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The functional elements of this study are collection, transportation and disposal of MSW in Maku city. Waste composition and density as tow key parameters of MSW have been determined by field sampling and then other important specifications of MSW like chemical formula, thermal energy and water content were calculated. These data beside other information related to collection and disposal facilities are used as a reliable source of data to assess the environmental impacts of different waste management options, including landfills, composting, recycling and energy recovery. The environmental impact of MSW management options have been investigated in 15 different scenarios by Integrated Waste Management (IWM) software. The photochemical smog, greenhouse gases, acid gases, toxic emissions and energy consumption of each scenario are measured. Then, the environmental indices of each scenario are specified by weighting these parameters. Economic costs of scenarios have been also compared with each other based on literature. As final result, since the organic materials make more than 80% of the waste, compost can be a suitable method as the best option. Although the major part of the remaining 20% of waste can be recycled but due to the high cost of necessary equipment, the landfill option has been suggested. Therefore the scenario with 80% composting and 20% landfilling is selected as superior environmental and economic scenario. This study shows that to select a scenario with practical applications simultaneously environmental and economic aspects of different scenarios most be considered.