Laboratory Scale Purification of Water from Copper Waste
Heavy metals presence in water streams is a big danger for aquatic life and ultimately effects human health. Removal of copper (Cu) by ispaghula husk, maize fibre, and maize oil cake from synthetic solution in batch conditions was studied. Different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial solution pH, agitation rate, initial Cu concentration, biosorbent concentration, and biosorbent particle size has been studied to quantify the Cu biosorption. The rate of adsorption of metal ions was very fast at the beginning and became slow after reaching the saturation point, followed by a slower active metabolic uptake of metal ions into the cells. Up to a certain point, (pH=4, concentration of Cu = ~ 640 mg/l, agitation rate = ~ 400 rpm, biosorbent concentration = ~ 0.5g, 3g, 3g for ispaghula husk, maize fiber and maize oil cake, respectively) increasing the pH, concentration of Cu, agitation rate, and biosorbent concentration, increased the biosorption rate; however the sorption capacity increased by decreasing the particle size. At optimized experimental parameters, the maximum Cu biosorption by ispaghula husk, maize fibre and maize oil cake were 86.7%, 59.6% and 71.3%, respectively. Moreover, the results of the kinetics studies demonstrated that the biosorption of copper on ispaghula husk, maize fibre, and maize oil cake followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The results of adsorption were fitted to both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The Langmuir model represented the sorption process better than Freundlich, and R² value ~ 0.978. Optimizations of physical and environmental parameters revealed, ispaghula husk as more potent copper biosorbent than maize fibre, and maize oil cake. The sorbent is cheap and available easily, so this study can be applied to remove Cu impurities on pilot and industrial scale after certain modifications.
Comparison of Chaos Theory in Predicting Precipitation with Stochastic Model
Investigations into chaotic behaviour in rainfall time series are explained in terms of underlying physical processes. Otherwise, they are regarded as noisy data characterised by stochastic effects. The data are used to test the effects of different timescales (daily, 2-day, 4-day, 8-day). Chaos theory is applied to gain an insight into the problem through the reconstruction of phase space from the data, which is based on estimating the values of delay time and embedding dimension. For calculating delay time, the method of autocorrelation function has been applied. Correlation dimension method has been used to probe chaotic behaviour of rainfall in the daily, 2-day, 4-day and 8-day timescales. Increasing time scale of the rainfall data series from daily to 8-day causes decreasing ability in chaos. Local prediction has been used for prediction time series in chaos theory and the accuracy of prediction decrease with increase timescales. In this paper 8-day rainfall predicting by local prediction, that has lower result in timescales compared with stochastic model (ARIMA). The results show that predicting by chaos is better than ARIMA model if rainfall data has been chaotic behaviour and correlation dimension between 2-7 has higher prediction and increase time scale causes increasing correlation dimension higher prediction accuracy for data with lower correlation dimension.
Comparison of Intelligent Models for River Flow Forecasting
River flow forecasting is an important task for water resources management and planning. In this study, three intelligent models namely, artificial neural network, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, and gene expression programming models are applied for river flow forecasting of the Ghare-Soo River located in the Ardabil province using daily lagged discharge data in the period of 2005-2013 collected from the Doostbigloo hydrometric station. Five performance criteria namely, correlation coefficient, root mean square error, Nash-Sutcliff coefficient, bias and relative error of peak discharge were used to evaluate and compare results of the models. The performance of the models was compared with the classic multiple linear regression model. The results obtained showed that the performances of all the models are satisfactory. The intelligent models were somewhat more successful than the classic model and the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system was identified as the most suitable model for flow forecasting of the Ghare-soo River.
Hydraulic Performance of Curtain Wall Breakwaters Based on Improved Moving Particle Semi-Implicit Method
This paper addresses the hydraulic performance of curtain wall breakwaters as a coastal structure protection based on the particles method modelling. The hydraulic functions of curtain wall as wave barriers by reflecting large parts of incident waves through the vertical wall, a part transmitted and a particular part was dissipating the wave energies through the eddy flows formed beneath the lower end of the plate. As a Lagrangian particle, the Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method which has a robust capability for numerical representation has proven useful for design of structures application that concern free-surface hydrodynamic flow, such as wave breaking and overtopping. In this study, a vertical two-dimensional numerical model for the simulation of violent flow associated with the interaction between the curtain-wall breakwaters and progressive water waves is developed by MPS method in which a higher precision pressure gradient model and free surface particle recognition model were proposed. The wave transmission, reflection, and energy dissipation of the vertical wall were experimentally and theoretically examined. With the numerical wave flume by particle method, very detailed velocity and pressure fields around the curtain-walls under the action of waves can be computed in each calculation steps, and the effect of different wave and structural parameters on the hydrodynamic characteristics was investigated. Also, the simulated results of temporal profiles and distributions of velocity and pressure in the vicinity of curtain-wall breakwaters are compared with the experimental data. Herein, the numerical investigation of hydraulic performance of curtain wall breakwaters indicated that the incident wave is largely reflected from the structure, while the large eddies or turbulent flows occur beneath the curtain-wall resulting in big energy losses. The improved MPS method shows a good agreement between numerical results and analytical/experimental data which are compared to related researches. It is thus verified that the improved pressure gradient model and free surface particle recognition methods are useful for enhancement of stability and accuracy of MPS model for water waves and marine structures. Therefore, it is possible for particle method (MPS method) to achieve an appropriate level of correctness to be applied in engineering fields through further study.
Impact of Syngenetic Elements on the Physico-Chemical Properties of Lignocellulosic Biochar
The growing demand for organic products in the market promotes their use in various fields. One of such products is biochar. Among the innovative environmental applications, biochar has the potential as an adsorbent for retaining contaminants in environmental engineering and agrotechnical systems. Artificial modification of biochar can improve its adsorption capacity. However, indirect/natural change of biochar composition (e.g., contaminated biomass) based on syngenetic elements provides prospects for new applications of biochar as well as decreases the modification costs. Natural lignocellulosic and biochar composition variations would lead to a new field of application of biochar and reduce resources for biochar modifications. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of syngenetic elements of biochar’s feedstock on the physicochemical properties of lignocellulosic biochar. Syngenetic elements (e.g., Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Mg) and other intrinsic properties (e.g., lignin, COHN, moisture, ash) of indifferent types of lignocellulosic feedstock on the physicochemical characteristics of biochar are discussed.
Sustanable Development Change within Our Environs
Critical natural resources such as clean ground water, fertile topsoil, and biodiversity are diminishing at an exponential rate, orders of magnitude above that at which they can be regenerated. Based on news on world population record, over 6 billion people on earth, and almost a quarter million added each day, the scale of human activity and environmental impact is unprecedented. Soaring human population growth over the past century has created a visible challenge to earth’s life support systems. In addition, the world faces an onslaught of other environmental threats including degenerated global climate change, global warming, intensified acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion and health threatening pollution. Overpopulation and the use of deleterious technologies combine to increase the scale of human activities to a level that underlies these entire problems. These intensifying trends cannot continue indefinitely, hopefully, through increased understanding and valuation of ecosystems and their services, earth’s basic life-support system will be protected for the future.To say the fact, human civilization is now the dominant cause of change in the global environment. Now that our relationship to the earth has change so utterly, we have to see that change and understand its implication. These are actually 2 aspects to the challenges which we should believe. The first is to realize that our power to harm the earth can indeed have global and even permanent effects. Second is to realize that the only way to understand our new role as a co-architect of nature is to see ourselves as part of a complex system that does operate according to the same simple rules of cause and effect we are used to. So understanding the physical/biological dimension of earth system is an important precondition for making sensible policy to protect our environment. Because we believe Sustainable Development Is a matter of reconciling respect for the environment, social equity and economic profitability. Also, we strongly believe that environmental protection is naturally about reducing air and water pollution, but it also includes the improvement of the environmental performance of existing process. That is why we should always have it at the heart of our business that the environmental problem is not our effect on the environment so much as our relationship with the environment. We should always think of being environmental friendly in our operation.
The Effect of Flow Discharge on Suspended Solids Transport in the Nakhon-Nayok River
Suspended solid is one factor for water quality in open channel. It affects various problems in waterways that could cause high sedimentation in the channels, leading to shallowness in the river. It is composed of the organic and inorganic materials which can settle down anywhere along the open channel. Thus, depends on the solid amount and its composition, it occupies the water body capacity and causes the water quality problems simultaneously. However, the existing of suspended solid in the water column depends on the flow discharge (Q) and secchi depth (sec). This study aims to examine the effect of flow discharge (Q) and secchi depth (sec) on the suspended solids concentration in open channel and attempts to establish the formula that represents the relationship between flow discharges (Q), secchi depth (sec) and suspended solid concentration. The field samplings have been conducted in the Nakhon-Nayok river, during the wet season, September 15-16, 2014 and dry season, March 10-11, 2015. The samplings with five different locations are measured. The discharge has been measured onsite by floating technics, the secchi depth has been measured by secchi disc and the water samples have been collected at the center of the water column. They have been analyzed in the laboratory for the suspended solids concentration. The results demonstrate that the decrease in suspended solids concentration is dependent on flow discharge, since the natural processes in erosion consists of routing of eroded material. Finally, an empirical equation to compute the suspended solids concentration that shows an equation (SScon = 9.852 (sec)-0.759 Q0.0355) is developed. The calculated suspended solids concentration, with uses of empirical formula, show good agreement with the record data as the R2 = 0.831. Therefore, the empirical formula in this study is clearly verified.
Spatio-Temporal Variability and Trends in Frost-Free Season Parameters in Finland: Influence of Climate Teleconnections
Variability and changes in thermal conditions play a crucial role in functioning of human society, particularly over cold climate regions like Finland. Accordingly, the frost-free season (FFS) parameters in terms of start (FFSS), end (FFSE) and length (FFSL) have substantial effects not only on natural environment (e.g. flora and fauna), but also on human requirements (e.g. agriculture, forestry and energy generation). Applying the 0°C threshold of minimum temperature (Tmin), the FFS was defined as the period between the last spring frost as FFSS and the first fall frost as FFSE. For this study, gridded (10 x 10 km2) daily minimum temperature datasets throughout Finland during 1961-2011 was used to investigate recent spatio-temporal variations and trends in frost-free season (FFS) parameters and their relationships with the well-known large-scale climate teleconnections (CTs). The FFS in Finland naturally increases from north (~60 days) to south (~190 days), in association with earlier FFSS (~24 April) and later FFSE (~30 October). Statistically significant (p< 0.05) trends in FFSL were all positive (increasing) ranged between 0 and 13.5 (days/decade) and mainly observed in the east, upper west, centre and upper north of Finland. Such lengthening trends in FFS were attributable to both earlier FFSS and later FFSE mostly over central and upper northern Finland, while only to later FFSE in eastern and upper western parts. Variations in both FFSL and FFSS were significantly associated with the Polar (POL) pattern over northern Finland, while with the East Atlantic (EA) pattern over eastern and upper western areas. However, the POL and Scandinavia (SCA) patterns were most influential CTs for FFSE variability over northern Finland.
Modelling Natural Organic Matter in a Water Treatment Plant Using Solo/Parafac
This study introduces a modelling technique that can be used to determine the characteristics and quantity of natural organic matter (NOM) fractions as well as predict the number and identity of molecules and fractions that make up NOM in water. To achieve this, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (FEEM) dataset were inputted into a parallel factor (Solo/ParaFac) model. The FEEM datasets were used to determine the NOM fractions that persist throughout each plant and contribute to the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs). Analytical techniques such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measure amount of NOM, but do not determine the number of fractions that make up NOM. Liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) characterizes the NOM fractions by molecular weight but is time-consuming. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) characterizes NOM based only on the size of constituent fractions. Owing to the limitations of these techniques, there is a need to develop new approaches for NOM characterization. The major strengths of modelling include (1) determination of the number of unknown molecular fractions making up NOM and (2) rapid prediction of the quality and quantity of NOM changes in the water treatment plant and water distribution processes. The outcome of this study is to develop a model that will assist water treatment authorities to respond rapidly to changes in NOM characteristics due to seasonal and weather variations. The principal expected outcomes are (1) NOM characterisation using FEEM data to generate datasets for raw water and samples taken after each unit within the drinking water treatment train, (2) determine excitation/emission using FEEM for online monitoring, (3) perform disinfection by-products formation potential (DBPFP) measurements relating ultra violet visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis) and FEEM, and (4) perform modelling using Solo/ParaFac with the intention to predict the amount of different groups of molecules that make up NOM in water.
Nitrogen/Platinum Co-doped TiO₂ for enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Degradation of Brilliant black
Elimination of toxic organic compounds from wastewater is currently one of the most important subjects in water pollution control. The discharge of azo dyes such as Brilliant black (BB) into the water bodies has carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on humankind and the ecosystem. Conventional water treatment techniques fail to degrade these dyes completely thereby posing more problems. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are promising technologies in solving the problem. Anatase type nitrogen-platinum (N,Pt) co-doped TiO₂ photocatalyts were prepared by a modified sol-gel method using amine terminated polyamidoamine generation 1 (PG1) as a template and source of nitrogen. SEM/ EDX, TEM, XRD, XPS, TGA, FTIR, RS, PL and UV-Vis were used to characterize the prepared nanomaterials. The synthesized photocatalysts exhibited lower band gap energies as compared to the commercial TiO₂ revealing a shift in band gap towards the visible light absorption region. Photocatalytic activity of N,Pt co-doped TiO₂ was measured by the reaction of photocatalytic degradation of BB dye. Enhanced photodegradation efficiency of BB was achieved after 180 min reaction time with initial concentration of 50 ppm BB solution. This was attributed to the rod-like shape of the materials, larger surface area, and enhanced absorption of visible light induced by N,Pt co-doping. The co-doped N,Pt also exhibited pseudo-first order kinetic behaviour with half-life and rate constant of 0.37 min 0.1984 min⁻¹ and respectively. N doped TiO₂ and N,Pt co-doped TiO₂ exhibited enhanced photocatalytic performances for the removal of BB from water.
Remediation of Dye Contaminated Wastewater Using N, Pd Co-Doped TiO₂ Photocatalyst Derived from Polyamidoamine Dendrimer G1 as Template
The discharge of azo dyes such as Brilliant black (BB) into the water bodies has carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on humankind and the ecosystem. Conventional water treatment techniques fail to degrade these dyes completely thereby posing more problems. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are promising technologies in solving the problem. Anatase type nitrogen-platinum (N, Pt) co-doped TiO₂ photocatalysts were prepared by a modified sol-gel method using amine terminated polyamidoamine generation 1 (PG1) as a template and source of nitrogen. The resultant photocatalysts were characterized by X‐ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV‐Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy (RS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the calcination atmosphere played an important role in the morphology, crystal structure, spectral absorption, oxygen vacancy concentration, and visible light photocatalytic performance of the catalysts. Anatase phase particles ranging between 9- 20 nm were also confirmed by TEM, SEM, and analysis. The origin of the visible light photocatalytic activity was attributed to both the elemental N and Pd dopants and the existence of oxygen vacancies. Co-doping imparted a shift in the visible region of the solar spectrum. The visible light photocatalytic activity of the samples was investigated by monitoring the photocatalytic degradation of brilliant black dye. Co-doped TiO₂ showed greater photocatalytic brilliant black degradation efficiency compared to singly doped N-TiO₂ or Pd-TiO₂ under visible light irradiation. The highest reaction rate constant of 3.132 x 10-2 min⁻¹ was observed for N, Pd co-doped TiO₂ (2% Pd). The results demonstrated that the N, Pd co-doped TiO₂ (2% Pd) sample could completely degrade the dye in 3 h, while the commercial TiO₂ showed the lowest dye degradation efficiency (52.66%).
Assessment of Drinking Water Quality in Relation to Arsenic (AS) Contamination in Drinking Water in Liberia: Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal of Ensuring Clean Water and Sanitation
The population is increasing accompanied by rapid urbanization in Liberia. Due to rapid urbanization, economic development, higher living standards and changes in consumption patterns and lifestyle, the generation rate of waste has also increased. Mismanagement of solid waste can hinder any progress towards environmental sustainability, particularly health and sanitation, water quality and general environmental protection. Solid waste management challenges are exacerbated by insufficient technology, budgetary constraints, lack of technically skilled professionals, poor implementation of regulations, policies, and guidelines, and poor public educational awareness and uncoordinated programs. The main aim of this mini-review paper is to discover the connection between population, development, solid waste management and implications for sustainable development in Liberia critically. This article suggests mitigation measures for improving solid waste management efficiency to help curb the health risks emanating from inadequate solid waste management and would contribute to ensuring sustainable development.
Study on the Treatment of Waste Water Containing Nitrogen Heterocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Phenol-Induced Microbial Communities
This project has treated the waste-water that contains the nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, by using the phenol-induced microbial communities. The treatment of nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is a difficult problem for coking waste-water treatment. Pyridine, quinoline and indole are three kinds of most common nitrogen heterocyclic compounds in the f, and treating these refractory organics biologically has always been a research focus. The phenol-degrading bacteria can be used in the enhanced biological treatment effectively, and has a good treatment effect. Therefore, using the phenol-induced microbial communities to treat the coking waste-water can remove multiple pollutants concurrently, and improve the treating efficiency of coking waste-water. Experiments have proved that the phenol-induced microbial communities can degrade the nitrogen heterocyclic ring aromatic hydrocarbon efficiently.
Metal Contamination in an E-Waste Recycling Community in Northeastern Thailand
Electronic waste, ‘e-waste’, refers generally to discarded electronics and electrical equipment, including products from cell phones and laptops to wires, batteries and appliances. While e-waste represents a transformative source of income in low- and middle-income countries, informal e-waste workers use rudimentary methods to recover materials, simultaneously releasing harmful chemicals into the environment and creating a health hazard for themselves and surrounding communities. Valuable materials such as precious metals, copper, aluminum, ferrous metals, plastic and components are recycled from e-waste. However, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and some polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and heavy metals are toxicants contained within e-waste and are of great concern to human and environmental health. The current study seeks to evaluate the environmental contamination resulting from informal e-waste recycling in a predominantly agricultural community in northeastern Thailand. To accomplish this objective, five types of environmental samples were collected and analyzed for concentrations of eight metals commonly associated with e-waste recycling during the period of July 2016 through July 2017. Rice samples from the community were collected after harvest and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gas furnace atomic spectroscopy (GF-AS). Soil samples were collected and analyzed using methods similar to those used in analyzing the rice samples. Surface water samples were collected and analyzed using absorption colorimetry for three heavy metals. Environmental air samples were collected using a sampling pump and matched-weight PVC filters, then analyzed using Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICAP-AES). Finally, surface wipe samples were collected from surfaces in homes where e-waste recycling activities occur and were analyzed using ICAP-AES. Preliminary1 results indicate that some rice samples have concentrations of lead and cadmium significantly higher than limits set by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Similarly, some soil samples show levels of copper, lead and cadmium more than twice the maximum permissible level set by the USDA and WHO, and significantly higher than other areas of Thailand. Surface water samples indicate that areas near e-waste recycling activities, particularly the burning of e-waste products, result in increased levels of cadmium, lead and copper in surface waters. This is of particular concern given that many of the surface waters tested are used in irrigation of crops. Surface wipe samples measured concentrations of metals commonly associated with e-waste, suggesting a danger of ingestion of metals during cooking and other activities. Of particular concern is the relevance of surface contamination of metals to child health. Finally, air sampling showed that the burning of e-waste presents a serious health hazard to workers and the environment through inhalation and deposition2. Our research suggests a need for improved methods of e-waste recycling that allows workers to continue this valuable revenue stream in a sustainable fashion that protects both human and environmental health. 1Statistical analysis to be finished in October 2017 due to follow-up field studies occurring in July and August 2017. 2Still awaiting complete analytic results.
Studies on the Use of Sewage Sludge in Agriculture or in Incinerators
The amounts of sludge resulting from the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater can create serious environmental problems if no solutions are found to eliminate them. At present, the predominant method of sewage sludge disposal is to store and use them in agricultural applications. The sewage sludge has fertilizer properties and can be used to enrich agricultural soils due to the nutrient content. In addition to plant growth (nitrogen and phosphorus), the sludge also contains heavy metals in varying amounts. An increasingly used method is the incineration of sludge. Thermal processes can be used to convert large amounts of sludge into useful energy. The sewage sludge analyzed for the present paper was extracted from the Wastewater Treatment Station (WWTP) Galati, Romania. The physico-chemical parameters determined were: pH (upH), nutrients and heavy metals. The determination methods were electrochemical, spectrophotometric and energy dispersive X–ray analyses (EDX). The results of the tests made on the content of nutrients in the sewage sludge have shown that existing nutrients can be used to increase the fertility of agricultural soils. The conclusion reached was that these sludge can be safely used on agricultural land and with good agricultural productivity results. To be able to use sewage sludge as a fuel, we need to know its calorific values. For wet sludge, the caloric power is low, while for dry sludge it is high. Higher calorific value and lower calorific value are determined only for dry solids. The apparatus used to determine the calorific power was a Parr 6755 Solution Calorimeter Calorimeter (Parr Instrument Company USA 2010 model). The calorific capacities for the studied sludge indicate that they can be used successfully in incinerators. Mixed with coal, they can also be used to produce electricity. The advantages are: it reduces the cost of obtaining electricity and considerably reduces the amount of sewage sludge.
Experimental Study on Floating Breakwater Anchored by Piles
Coastline is vulnerable to coastal erosion which damage infrastructure and buildings. Floating breakwaters are applied in order to minimize material cost but still can reduce wave height. In this paper, we investigated floating breakwater anchored by piles based on experimental study in the laboratory with model scale 1:8. Two type of floating model were tested with several combination wave height, wave period and surface water elevation to determined transmission coefficient. This experimental study proved that floating breakwater with piles can prevent wave height up to 27 cm. The physical model shows that ratio of depth to wave length is less than 0.6 and ratio of model width to wave length is less than 0.3. It is confirmed that if those ratio are less than those value, the transmission coefficient is 0.5. The result also showed that the first type model of floating breakwater can reduce wave height by 60.4 % while the second one can reduce up to 55.56 %.
Degradation of Commercial Polychlorinated Biphenyl Mixture by Naturally Occurring Facultative Microorganisms via Anaerobic Dechlorination and Aerobic Oxidation
The production and use of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a group of synthetic halogenated hydrocarbons have been restricted worldwide due to its toxicity and categorized as one of the twelve priority persistent organic pollutants (POP) by the Stockholm Convention. Low reactivity and high chemical stability of PCBs have made them highly persistent in the environment and bio-concentration and bio-magnification along the food chain contribute to multiple health impacts in humans and animals. Remediating environments contaminated with PCBs is a challenging task for decades. Use of microorganisms for remediation of PCB contaminated soils and sediments have been widely investigated due to the potential of breakdown these complex contaminants with minimum environmental impacts. To achieve an effective bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated environments, microbes were sourced from environmental samples and tested for their ability to hydrolyze PCBs under different conditions. Comparison of PCB degradation efficiencies of four naturally occurring facultative bacterial cultures isolated through selective enrichment under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were simultaneously investigated in minimal salt medium using 50 mg/L Aroclor 1260, a commonly used commercial PCB mixture as the sole source of carbon. The results of a six-week study demonstrated that all the tested facultative Achromobacter, Ochrobactrum, Lysinibacillus and Pseudomonas strains are capable of degrading PCBs under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions while assisting hydrophobic PCBs to make solubilize in the aqueous minimal medium. Overall, the results suggest that some facultative bacteria are capable of effective in degrading PCBs under anaerobic conditions through reductive dechlorination and under aerobic conditions through oxidation. Therefore, use of suitable facultative microorganisms under combined anaerobic-aerobic conditions and combination of such strains capable of solubilization and breakdown of PCBs has high potential in achieving higher PCB removal rates.
Molecular Characterization and Determination of Bioremediation Potentials of Some Bacteria Isolated from Spent Oil Contaminated Soil Mechanic Workshops in Kaduna Metropolis
Spent oil contaminated Soil from ten selected mechanic workshops were investigated for their bacteria and bioremediation potentials. The bacterial isolates were morphologically and molecularly identified as Enterobacter hormaechei, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella flexneri , Wesiella cibaria, Lactobacillus planetarium. The singles and a consortium of these bacteria incubated in the minimal salt medium incorporated with 1% engine oil exhibited various biodegradation rates, with the mixed consortium exhibiting the highest for this oil. The gene for the hydrocarbon enzyme Catechol 2, 3 dioxygenase (C2,30) was detected and amplified in Enterobacter hormaechei, Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri using PCR and Agarose gel electrophoresis. The detection of the (C2,30) enzyme gene in, and the spent oil biodegradation activity exhibited by these bacteria suggest their possible possession of bioremediating potentials for the spent engine oil. It is therefore suggested that a pilot study on the field application of these bacteria for bioremediation and restoration of spent oil polluted environment should be done in mechanic workshops.
Analyzing Fine-Scale Computations in the Hybrid Embedded Fracture Model Statistically
In order to preserve the physics while decreasing all various possible computational expenses, a Hybrid Embedded Fracture (HEF) model is used. HEF model depends on splitting the computations into fine scale and coarse scale computations. Fine scale computations solve analytically for the matrix-fracture flux exchange parameter α and the coarse scale uses that α and solves for both fracture and matrix system properties as a system. HEF model concurrent with the simplified vertical and horizontal shape fractures within each grid cell from literature. It also applies for actual random shape fractures and comparing both the HEF scheme results and the Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) scheme results for exactly similar settings gives an indication of the accuracy. Such tests revealed that α solution values and their similarity to DFN change according to the fracture shapes. In this paper, further statistical analysis tests are applied for α results in single-phase incompressible fluids to help in understanding the possible ways to enhance the analytical solutions for α in general. The results are explained and discussed.
Disposal Behavior of Extreme Poor People Living in Guatemala at the Base of the Pyramid
With the decrease of poverty, the focus on the solid waste challenge shifts away from affluent, mostly Westernized consumers to the base of the pyramid. The relevance of considering the disposal behavior of impoverished people arises from improved welfare, leading to an increase in consumption opportunities and, consequently, of waste production. In combination with the world’s growing population the relevance of the topic increases, because solid waste management has global impacts on consumers’ welfare. The current annual municipal solid waste generation is estimated to 1.9 billion tonnes, 30% remains uncollected. As for the collected 70% is landfilling and dumping, 19% is recycled or recovered, 11% is led to energy recovery facilities. Therefore, aim is to contribute by adding first insights about poor people's disposal behaviors, including the framing of their rationalities, emotions and cognitions. The study provides novel empirical results obtained from qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews near Guatemala City. In the study’s framework consumers have to choose from three options when deciding what to do with their obsolete possessions: Keeping the product: The main reason for this is the respondent´s emotional attachment to a product. Further, there is a willingness to use the same product under a different scope when it loses its functionality–they recycle their belongings in a customized and sustainable way. Permanently disposing of the product: The study reveals two dominant disposal methods: burning in front of their homes and throwing away in the physical environment. Respondents clearly recognized the disadvantages of burning toxic durables, like electronics. Giving a product away as a gift supports the integration of individuals in their peer networks of family and friends. Temporarily disposing of the product: Was not mentioned–to be specific, rent or lend a product to someone else was out of question. Contrasting the background to which extend poor people are aware of the consequences of their disposal decisions and how they feel about and rationalize their actions were quite unexpected. Respondents reported that they are worried about future consequences with impacts they cannot anticipate now–they are aware that their behaviors harm their health and the environment. Additionally, they expressed concern about the impact this disposal behavior would have on others’ well-being and are therefore sensitive to the waste that surrounds them. Concluding, the BoP-framed life and Westernized consumption, both fit in a circular economy pattern, but the nature of how to recycle and dispose separates these two societal groups. Both systems own a solid waste management system, but people living in slum-type districts and rural areas of poor countries are less interested in connecting to the system–they are primarily afraid of the costs. Further, it can be said that a consumer’s perceived effectiveness is distinct from environmental concerns, but contributes to forecasting certain pro-ecological behaviors. Considering the rationales underlying disposal decisions, thoughtfulness is a well-established determinant of disposition behavior. The precipitating events, emotions and decisions associated with the act of disposing of products are important because these decisions can trigger different results for the disposal process.
Potential of Water Purification of Turbid Surface Water Sources in Remote Arid and Semi-Arid Rural Areas of Rajasthan by Moringa Oleifera (Drumstick) Tree Seeds
Rajasthan is among regions with greatest climate sensitivity and lowest adaptive capabilities. In many parts of the Rajasthan surface water which can be highly turbid and contaminated with fecal coliform bacteria is used for drinking purposes. The majority rely almost exclusively upon traditional sources of highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water for their domestic water needs. In many parts of rural areas of Rajasthan, it is still difficult to obtain clean water, especially remote habitations with no groundwater due to quality issues or depletion and limited feasibility to connect with surface water schemes due to low density of population in these areas to justify large infrastructure investment. The most viable sources are rain water harvesting, community managed open wells, private wells, ponds and small-scale irrigation reservoirs have often been the main traditional sources of rural drinking water. Turbidity is conventionally removed by treating the water with expensive chemicals. This study has to investigate the use of crushed seeds from the tree Moringa oleifera (drumstick) as a natural alternative to conventional coagulant chemicals. The use of Moringa oleifera seed powder can produce potable water of higher quality than the original source. Moringa oleifera a native species of northern India, the tree is now grown extensively throughout the tropics and found in many countries of Africa, Asia & South America. The seeds of tree contains significant quantities of low molecular weight, water soluble proteins which carries the positive charge when the crushed seeds are added to water. This protein binds in raw water with negatively charged turbid water with bacteria, clay, algae, etc. Under proper mixing, these particles make flocks, which may be left to settle by gravity or be removed by filtration. Using Moringa oleifera as a replacement coagulation in such surface sources of arid and semi-arid areas can meet the need for water purification in remote places of Rajasthan state of India. The present study accesses to find out laboratory based investigation of the effect of seeds of Moringa tree on its coagulation effectiveness (purification) using turbid water samples of surface source of the Rajasthan state. In this study, moringa seed powder showed that filtering with seed powder may diminish water pollution and bacterial counts. Results showed Moringa oleifera seeds coagulate 90-95% of turbidity and color efficiently leading to an aesthetically clear supernatant & reduced about 85-90% of bacterial load reduction in samples.
Assesment of De-Fluoridation in Waste Water Using Activated Biochar: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Study
Thermally treated domestic food waste is utilized to prepare bio-char, followed by chemical activation to obtain activated bio-char (Biochar-act) which is used as de-fluoridating agent in contaminated water. The structural property of the synthesized activated bio-char is studied in detail. From continuous batch process, it is shown that efficiency of bio-char with lower degree of carbonization has remarkable properties of de-fluoridation. Here temperature, contact time and adsorbent dose, used as process parameters, have strong influence on fluoride uptake process. The adsorption equilibrium data are well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model. Comparatively the data provided by pseudo-second-order kinetic model correlated better experimentally than pseudo-first-order kinetic model. From thermodynamic point of view, it is experimentally proved that de-fluoridation onto activated bio-char is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Here, a low-cost process is suggested using low-cost starting materials to convert bio-char upon heat treatment at 350˚C and then activated chemically by acid. The prepared adsorbent has higher de-fluoridation efficiency such as 91.24%.So it may be concluded that activated bio-char is economically and environmentally safe for de-fluoridation in waste water.
Flood Management Plans in Different Flooding Zones of Gujranwala and Rawalpindi Divisions, Punjab, Pakistan
In this paper, flood issues in Gujranwala and Rawalpindi divisions are discussed as a primary importance as these zones are affected continuously from flooding in recent years, provincial variability of the issue, introduce status of the continuous administration measures, their adequacy and future needs in flood administration are secured. Flood issues in these zones are exhibited by Chenab River Basin, Jhelum Rivers Basin. Some unique problems, related to floods in these divisions is lack of major dams on Chenab and Jhelum rivers and also mismanagement of rivers and canal water like dam break stream, and water signing in Tal zones, are additionally mentioned. There are major Nalaas in these regions like Nalaa Lai of Rawalpindi and Nalaa Daik, Nalaa Palkhu, Nalaa Aik of Gujranwala are major cause of floods in these regions other than rivers. Proper management of these Nalaas and moving of nearby population well in time could reduce impacts from flood in these regions. Progress of different flood administration measures, both auxiliary and non-basic, are discussed. Likewise, future needs to accomplish proficient and fruitful flood management measures in Pakistan are additionally brought up. In this paper, we describe different hard and soft engineering techniques to overcome flood situations in these zones as these zones are more vulnerable due to lack of management in canal and river water. Effective management and use of hard and soft techniques are need of time in coming future for controlling greater flooding in flood risk zones to overcome or minimize people’s death as well as agricultural and financial resources as flood and other natural disasters are a major drawback in the economic prosperity of the country.
Plants as Alternative Covers at Contaminated Sites
In the reclamation of contaminated sites, it is essential to reach concentrations of contaminants which are determined on the basis of risk assessment procedures. This in many cases implies that a certain amount of contaminants remain in the soil even after remediation. Very often, it is necessary to minimize the possibility of rainwater infiltration, in order to avoid potential leaching of residual contaminants. As an alternative to covering with waterproof materials, it is possible to use the plant's action to increase the reclamation of the contaminated site by promoting its insertion into the environment and improving its reuse possibilities. The use of transpiration capacity of plants has been increasingly used to cover landfills. This technology can also be used in contaminated sites, but a more accurate feasibility study is required. In fact, while a clean soil is used to cover the landfills, in a contaminated site, it is necessary to assess whether the plants are able to grow in a soil that is still degraded and in which a certain amounts of contaminants remain. To this aim, incremental tests have to be carried out to evaluate the most appropriate plant species for each specific site, both to achieve high growth rates and to carry out evaporation processes. For final cover of remediated sites, a lab-scale feasibility test must be planned before the lysimeter tests, which are used for landfills. This feasibility test is based on a microcosm phase to evaluate the most suitable vegetable plants able to grow in the specific soil contaminated, and their ability to carry out the transpiration processes. In this work, the preliminary steps of the feasibility test have been carried out and the transpiration results of two different species (Triticum durum and Brassica juncea) at microcosm scale have been reported, together with soil chemical and physical characterization. Soil samples from two areas within the contaminated site have been used in microcosm test with 500 g of soil. In these tests, the selected plants grow essentially in a semi-closed system under controlled conditions of humidity, light and temperature. to understand in a short time the possibility of growing different plant species their survival capacity and to measure their transpiration rate in the specific soil considered, and soil evaporation. The obtained data indicate that more of 65% of added water has been transpired by plants while about 20% is evaporated from the soil. These results support the use of plants as alternative cover at this contaminated site to reduce rainwater infiltration. The plants' transpiration processes bring the water retained by the surface layers of the soil in the atmosphere, preventing its movement along the soil profile, in addition, to the rainwater interception that a vegetative cover perform, reducing the infiltration and runoff phenomena.
Produced Gas Conversion of Microwave Carbon Receptor Reforming
Carbon dioxide and methane, the major components of biomass pyrolysis/gasification gas and biogas, top the list of substances that cause climate change but they are also among the most important renewable energy sources in modern society. The purpose of this study is to convert carbon dioxide and methane into high-quality energy using char and commercial activated carbon obtained from biomass pyrolysis as a microwave receptor. The methane reforming process produces hydrogen and carbon. This carbon is deposited in the pores of the microwave receptor and lowers catalytic activity, thereby reducing the methane conversion rate. The deposited carbon was removed by carbon gasification due to the supply of carbon dioxide, which solved the problem of microwave receptor inactivity. In particular, the conversion rate remained stable at over 90% when the ratio of carbon dioxide to methane was 1:1. When the reforming results of carbon dioxide and methane were compared after fabricating nickel and iron catalysts using commercial activated carbon as a carrier, the conversion rate was higher in the iron catalyst than in the nickel catalyst and when no catalyst was used.
Variation in Water Utilization of Typical Desert Shrubs in a Desert-Oasis Ecotone
Water is one of the most important factors limiting plant growth and development in desert ecosystems. In order to understand how desert shrubs cope with variation in water sources over time, it is important to understand plant–water relations in desert-oasis ecotone. We selected the typical desert shrubs: Nitraria sibirica, Calligonum mongolicum and Haloxylon ammodendron of 5-, 10-, 20- and 40-year old as the research species, to study the seasonal variation of plant water sources and response to precipitation in the desert-oasis ecotone of Linze, Northwestern China. We examined stable isotopic ratios of oxygen (δ18O) in stem water of desert shrubs as well as in precipitation, groundwater, and soil water in different soil layers and seasons to determine water sources for the shrubs. We found that the N. sibirica and H. ammodendron of 5-, 10-year old showed significant seasonal variation characteristics of δ18O value of stem water and water sources. However, the C. mongolicum and 20- and 40-year H. ammodendron main water sources were from deep soil water and groundwater, and less response to precipitation pulse. After 22.4 mm precipitation, the contribution of shallow soil water (0-50cm) to the use of N. sibirica increased from 6.7% to 36.5%; the C. mongolicum rarely use precipitation that were about 58.29% and 23.51%, absorbed from the deep soil water and groundwater; the contribution of precipitation to use of H. ammodendron had significantly differences among the four ages. The H. ammodendron of 5- and 10-year old about 86.3% and 42.5% water sources absorbed from the shallow soil water after precipitation. However, the contribution to 20- and 40-year old plant was less than 15%. So, the precipitation was one of the main water sources for desert shrubs, but the species showed different water utilization. We conclude that the main water source of the N. sibirica and H. ammodendron of 5-, 10-year was soil water recharged by precipitation, but the deeply rooted H. ammodendron of 20‐ and 40‐year‐old and the C. mongolicum have the ability to exploit a deep and reliable water source.
Value Chain Network: A Social Network Analysis of the Value Chain Actors of Recycled Polymer Products in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria
Value Chain Analysis is a common method of examining the stages involved in the production of a product, mostly agricultural produce, from the input to the consumption stage including the actors involved in each stage. However, the Functional Institutional Analysis is the most common method in literature employed to analyze the value chain of products. Apart from studying the relatively neglected phenomenon of recycled polymer products in Lagos Metropolis, this paper adopted the use of social network analysis to attempt a grounded theory of the nature of social network that exists among the value chain actors of the subject matter. The study adopted a grounded theory approach by conducting in-depth interviews, administering questionnaires and conducting observations among the identified value chain actors of recycled polymer products in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. The thematic analysis of the collected data gave the researchers the needed background to formulate a truly representative network of the social relationships among the value chain actors of recycled polymer products in Lagos Metropolis. The paper introduced concepts such as Transient and Perennial Social Ties to explain the observed social relations among the actors. Some actors have more social capital than others as a result of the structural holes that exist in their triad network. Households and resource recoverers are at disadvantaged position in the network as they have high constraints in their relationships with other actors. The study attempted to provide a new perspective in the study of the environmental value chain by analyzing the network of actors to bring about policy action points and improve recycling in Nigeria. Government and social entrepreneurs can exploit the structural holes that exist in the network for the socio-economic and sustainable development of the state.
Vehicular Emission Estimation of Islamabad by Using Copert-5 Model
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan with the population of 1.365 million people and with a vehicular fleet size of 0.75 million. The vehicular fleet size is growing annually by the rate of 11%. Vehicular emissions are major source of Black carbon (BC). In developing countries like Pakistan, most of the vehicles consume conventional fuels like Petrol, Diesel, and CNG. These fuels are the major emitters of pollutants like CO, CO2, NOx, CH4, VOCs, and particulate matter (PM10). Carbon dioxide and methane are the leading contributor to the global warming with a global share of 9-26% and 4-9% respectively. NOx is the precursor of nitrates which ultimately form aerosols that are noxious to human health. In this study, COPERT (Computer program to Calculate Emissions from Road Transport) was used for vehicular emission estimation in Islamabad. COPERT is a windows based program which is developed for the calculation of emissions from the road transport sector. The emissions were calculated for the year of 2016 include pollutants like CO, NOx, VOC, and PM and energy consumption. The different variable was input to the model for emission estimation including meteorological parameters, average vehicular trip length and respective time duration, fleet configuration, activity data, degradation factor, and fuel effect. The estimated emissions for CO, CH4, CO2, NOx, and PM10 were found to be 9814.2, 44.9, 279196.7, 3744.2 and 304.5 tons respectively.
Adaptive Strategies of Clonal Shrub to Sand Dune Environment in Desert-Oasis Transitional Zone
Plants growth in desert often suffered from stresses like water deficit, wind erosion and sand burial. Thus, plants in desert always have unique strategies to adapt these stresses. However, data regarding how clonal shrubs withstand wind erosion and sand burial in natural habitats remain relatively scarce. Therefore, we selected a common clonal shrub Calligonum arborescens to study the adaptive strategies of clonal plants to sand dune environment in a transitional zone of desert and Hexi Oasis of China. Our results show that sand burial is one of the essential prerequisites for the survival of C. arborescens rhizome fragments. Both the time and degrees of sand burial and wind erosion had significantly effects on clonal reproduction and growth of C. arborescens. With increasing burial depth, the number of ramets and biomass production significantly decreased. There is same change trend in severe erosion treatments. However, the number of ramets and biomass production significantly increased in moderate erosion treatments. Rhizome severed greatly decreased ramet number and biomass production under both sand burial and severe erosion treatments. That indicated that both sand burial and severe erosion had negative effects on the clonal growth of C. arborescens, but moderate wind erosion had positive effects. And rhizome connections alleviated the negative effects of sand burial and of severe erosion on the growth and performance of C. arborescens. Most fragments of C. arborescens grew in the directions of northeastern and southwestern. Ramet number and biomass, rhizome length and biomass in these two directions were significantly higher than those found in other directions. Interestingly, these directions were perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction. Distribution of C. arborescens differed in different habitats. The total number of individuals was significantly higher in inter-dune areas and on windward slopes than on the top and leeward slopes of dunes; more clonal ramets were produced on the top of dunes than elsewhere, and a few were found on leeward slopes. The mainly reason is that ramets on windward and top of dunes can easily suffered with moderated wind erosion which promoted clonal growth and reproduction of C. arborescens. These results indicated that C. arborescens adapted sand dune environment through directional growth and patchy distribution, and sand-burial and wind erosion were the key factors which led to the directional growth and patchiness of C. arborescens.
Study on the Integration Schemes and Performance Comparisons of Different Integrated Solar Combined Cycle-Direct Steam Generation Systems
The integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) system has a series of advantages such as increasing the system power generation, less pollutant, and CO2 emission and reducing the cost of solar power generation. In this paper, the parabolic trough collectors with direct steam generation (DSG) technology are considered to replace the heat load of heating surfaces in heat regenerator steam generation (HRSG) of a conventional natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) system containing a PG9351FA gas turbine and a triple pressure HRSG with reheat. The detailed model of the NGCC system is built in ASPEN PLUS software and the parabolic trough collectors with DSG technology is modeled in EBSILON software. ISCC-DSG systems with the replacement of single, two, three and four heating surfaces are studied in this paper. Results show that: (1) the ISCC-DSG systems with the replacement heat load of HPB, HPB+LPE, HPE2+HPB+HPS, HPE1+HPE2+ HPB+HPS are the best integration schemes when single, two, three and four stages of heating surfaces are partly replaced by the parabolic trough solar energy collectors with DSG technology. (2) Both the changes of feed water flow and the heat load of the heating surfaces in ISCC-DSG systems with the replacement of multi-stage heating surfaces are smaller than those in ISCC-DSG systems with the replacement of single heating surface. (3) ISCC-DSG systems with the replacement of HPB+LPE heating surfaces can increase the solar power output significantly.(4)The ISCC-DSG systems with the replacement of HPB heating surfaces has the highest solar-thermal-to-electricity efficiency (47.45%) and the solar radiation energy-to-electricity efficiency (30.37%), as well as the highest exergy efficiency of solar filed (33.61%).