Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 39602

Environmental and Ecological Engineering

Experimental Study of Semitransparent and Opaque Photovoltaic Modules with and without Air Duct
In this paper, thermal modeling has been developed for photovoltaic PV modules, namely; Case A: semitransparent PV module without duct, Case B: semitransparent PV module with duct, Case C: opaque PV module without duct, Case D: opaque PV module with duct for Delhi, India climatic condition. MATLAB 7.0 software has been used to solve mathematical models of the proposed system. For validation of proposed system, the experimental study has also been carried out for all above four cases, and then comparative analysis of all different type of PV module has been presented. The hybrid PVT module air collectors presented in this study are self sustaining the system and can be used for the electricity generation in remote areas where access of electricity is not economical due to high transmission and distribution losses. It has been found that overall annual thermal energy and exergy gain of semitransparent PV module is higher by 11.6% and7.32% in summer condition and 16.39% and 18% in winter condition respectively as compared to opaque PV module considering same area (0.61 m2) of PV module.
Heavy Metals in PM2.5 Aerosols in Urban Sites of Győr, Hungary
Atmospheric concentrations of some heavy metal compounds (Pb, Ni, Cd) and the metalloid As were identified and determined in airborne PM2.5 particles in urban sites of Győr, northwest area of Hungary. PM2.5 aerosol samples were collected in two different sampling sites, and the trace metal(loid) (Pb, Ni, Cd and As) content were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The concentration of PM2.5 fraction was varied between 12.22 and 36.92 μg/m3 at the two sampling sites. The trend of heavy metal means concentrations at the two urban sites of Győr was found in decreasing order of Pb > Ni > Cd. The mean values were 7.59 ng/m3 for Pb, 0.34 ng/m3 for Ni and 0.11 ng/m3 for Cd, respectively. The metalloid As could be detected only in 3.57 % of the total collected samples. The levels of PM2.5 bounded heavy metals were determined and compared with other cities located in Hungary and around the world.
Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Air Particulate Matter
An assessment of the air quality of Győr (Hungary) was performed by determining the ambient concentrations of PM10-bound carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (cPAHs) in different seasons. A high volume sampler was used for the collection of ambient aerosol particles and the associated cPAH compounds (benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benzo[a]anthracene, benzo fluoranthene isomers, indeno[123-cd]pyrene and dibenzo[ah]anthracene) were analyzed by a gas chromatographic method. Higher mean concentrations of total cPAHs were detected in samples collected in winter (9.62 ng/m3) and autumn (2.69 ng/m3) compared to spring (1.05 ng/m3) and summer (0.21 ng/m3). The calculated BaP toxic equivalent concentrations have also reflected that the local population appears to be exposed to significantly higher cancer risk in the heating seasons. Moreover, the concentration levels of cPAHs determined in this study were compared to other Hungarian urban sites.
Spatio-Temporal Variation of Suspended Sediment Concentration in the near Shore Waters, Southern Karnataka, India
Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) was estimated for the period of four months (November, 2013 to February 2014) using Oceansat-2 (Ocean Colour Monitor) satellite images to understand the coastal dynamics and regional sediment transport, especially distribution and budgeting in coastal waters. The coastal zone undergoes continuous changes due to natural processes and anthropogenic activities. The importance of the coastal zone, with respect to safety, ecology, economy and recreation, demands a management strategy in which each of these aspects is taken into account. Monitoring and understanding the sediment dynamics and suspended sediment transport is an important issue for coastal engineering related activities. A study of the transport mechanism of suspended sediments in the near shore environment is essential not only to safeguard marine installations or navigational channels, but also for the coastal structure design, environmental protection and disaster reduction. Such studies also help in assessment of pollutants and other biological activities in the region. An accurate description of the sediment transport, caused by waves and tidal or wave-induced currents, is of great importance in predicting coastal morphological changes. Satellite-derived SSC data have been found to be useful for Indian coasts because of their high spatial (360 m), spectral and temporal resolutions. The present paper outlines the applications of state‐of‐the‐art operational Indian Remote Sensing satellite, Oceansat-2 to study the dynamics of sediment transport.
Evaluate the Possibility of Using ArcGIS Basemaps as GCP for Large Scale Maps
Awareness of the importance large-scale maps for development of a country is growing in all walks of life, especially for governments in Indonesia. Various parties, especially local governments throughout Indonesia demanded for immediate availability the large-scale maps of 1:5000 for regional development. But in fact, the large-scale maps of 1:5000 is only available less than 5% of the entire territory of Indonesia. Unavailability precise GCP at the entire territory of Indonesia is one of causes of slow availability the large scale maps of 1:5000. This research was conducted to find an alternative solution to this problem. This study was conducted to assess the accuracy of ArcGIS base maps coordinate when it shall be used as GCP for creating a map scale of 1:5000. The study was conducted by comparing the GCP coordinate from Field survey using GPS Geodetic than the coordinate from ArcGIS basemaps in various locations in Indonesia. Some areas are used as a study area are Lombok Island, Kupang City, Surabaya City and Kediri District. The differences value of the coordinates serve as the basis for assessing the accuracy of ArcGIS basemaps coordinates. The results of the study at various study area show the variation of the amount of the coordinates value given. Differences coordinate value in the range of millimeters (mm) to meters (m) in the entire study area. This is shown the inconsistency quality of ArcGIS base maps coordinates. This inconsistency shows that the coordinate value from ArcGIS Basemaps is careless. The Careless coordinate from ArcGIS Basemaps indicates that its cannot be used as GCP for large-scale mapping on the entire territory of Indonesia.
Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Snow Cover and Melt/Freeze Conditions in Indian Himalayas
Indian Himalayas also known as third pole with 0.9 Million SQ km area, contain the largest reserve of ice and snow outside poles and affect global climate and water availability in the perennial rivers. The variations in the extent of snow are indicative of climate change. The snow melt is sensitive to climate change (warming) and also an influencing factor to the climate change. A study of the spatio-temporal dynamics of snow cover and melt/freeze conditions is carried out using space based observations in visible and microwave bands. An analysis period of 2003 to 2015 is selected to identify and map the changes and trend in snow cover using Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer(MODIS) data. For mapping of wet snow, microwave data is used, which is sensitive to the presence of liquid water in the snow. The present study uses Ku-band scatterometer data from QuikSCAT and Oceansat satellites. The enhanced resolution images at 2.25 km from the 13.6GHz sensor are used to analyze the backscatter response to dry and wet snow for the period of 2000-2013 using threshold method. The study area is divided into three major river basins namely Brahmaputra, Ganges and Indus which also represent the diversification in Himalayas as the Eastern Himalayas, Central Himalayas and Western Himalayas. Topographic variations across different zones show that a majority of the study area lies in 4000–5500 m elevation range and the maximum percent of high elevated areas (>5500 m) lies in Western Himalayas. The effect of climate change could be seen in the extent of snow cover and also on the melt/freeze status in different parts of Himalayas. Melt onset day increases from east (March11+11) to west (May12+15) with large variation in number of melt days. Western Himalayas has shorter melt duration (120+15) in comparison to Eastern Himalayas (150+16) providing lesser time for melt. Eastern Himalaya glaciers are prone for enhanced melt due to large melt duration. The extent of snow cover coupled with the status of melt/freeze indicating solar radiation can be used as precursor for monsoon prediction.
Sorption of Radiocobalt from Simulated Nuclear Waste Effluent by Modified Electroactive Polymer: Sorption Kinetics, Isotherms and Thermodynamics Modellings
Nuclear technologies appear to be a significant breakthrough towards achieving a better quality in different fields of our life. However, the increasing use of nuclear materials has contributed immensely to the shortage of clean water supply and the rate of water body pollution across the globe, through the increasing release of nuclear waste effluents. Among the most active nuclear materials in the water and wastewater, today is ⁶⁰Co radioisotope which takes its origin from the use of radioisotopes in medicine and nuclear power plants. Because of its acute toxicity, non-biodegradability, and relatively long half-life, ⁶⁰Co creates serious problems once ingested into the body via various routes. Therefore, it is important to remove ⁶⁰Co from the aqueous nuclear wastes before disposal into water and landfills for human and animal safety. Some conventional methods such as chemical precipitation, biosorption, ion exchange, membrane process, adsorption, etc. are found efficient and effective for the removal of pollutants from water and wastewater. However, adsorption is widely accepted as the most economically viable owing to easy operational requirements, available low-cost materials and possible reusability. As a result, a novel low-cost adsorbent based on the composite of electroactive polymer and activated carbon prepared in the presence of a large size dopant has been investigated for the removal of ⁶⁰Co from simulated waste effluents. Several factors were tested on the adsorption process to optimize the application of the as-prepared adsorbent. Under the equilibrium conditions, the modification of the electroactive polymer increased the sorption capacity from 9.78 mg/g (pure polymer) to 18.07 mg/g (modified polymer) for ⁶⁰Co removal, which shows the prepared modified electroactive polymer can be suitable for liquid radioactive waste treatment. The as-prepared composite adsorbent was characterized by surface morphology, functional groups, thermal stability and surface area by FESEM, TEM, FTIR, XRD, TGA-DSC and BET analysis, respectively. The analysis shows that electrostatic and complexation interactions are the main mechanisms for the adsorption. The prepared material also exhibited good radiation stability to 200 kGy dose of gamma source.
Application of Activated Carbon Prepared from Post Brewing Tea Waste to Enhance Power Production in Microbial Fuel Cell
The activated carbon was synthesized from post brewing tea waste (PBTW) and was applied as an anodic catalyst for the microbial fuel cell (MFCs) to enhance power output. Till now many costly catalysts such as platinum, Ni-ACF/CNF, CB/FePc, PEI/MWCNT composite, PPy/CNT composite, CNT/Au/TiO2, rGO-CNT, SSM/Co3O4, etc. are popularly being used by researchers to increase the power production. In this study, the low-cost clayware pots were used to fabricate MFCs. Here, MFC-1 was used as the control MFC whereas in MFC-2, collected PBTW was added whereas in MFC-3, the activated carbon synthesized using collected PBTW was used as a catalyst. The synthetic wastewater was used as carbon source for all three MFCs and as inoculum exoelectrogenic bacteria Shewanella putrefacient was used. The obtained power density was significantly higher in the case of MFC-3 in which activated carbon obtained from PBTW was used as an anodic catalyst. The maximum power density of 308 mW/m2 was achieved in the case of MFC-3. However, the power density of 194 and 204 mW/m2 were achieved in MFC-1 and MFC-2 respectively. Also, internal resistance (60 Ω) and COD removal efficiency (76 %) of MFC-3 using activated carbon showed the better catalyst option to be used in MFCs to increase power production.
Understanding the 3R's Element in the Creation of Ecological Form That Leads to Ecodesign
The rapid growth of global industrialism over the past few decades has led to various environmental issues and ecological instability, all due to human activity. In order to solve this global issue, the manufacturers alike have begun to embrace the use of ecodesign products. However, when considering a specific field, multiple questions have been raised and industrial designers (the practising designer's R&D group) have been unable to define the ecological cycle methodology. In this paper, we investigate the validation of problematic in the creation of ecodesign products with the 'reduce, reuse and recycle' (3R’s) method, which is an untested product design theory. The aim of this research is to address the 3R’s method can be extracted in order to transmit an ecological form of ecodesign, specifically among Malaysian furniture manufacturers. By operating the Descriptive Study I (DS-I) phase: Design Research Methodology (DRM), the research has applied two research approaches by the methodological triangulation tradition. To achieve the result, this validation of descriptive structure (design theory) shall be matched with the research hypothesis along the use of research questions.
PM Air Quality of Windsor Regional Scale Transport’s Impact and Climate Change
This paper is mapping air quality model to engineering the industrial system that ultimately utilized in extensive range of energy systems, distribution resources, and end-user technologies. The model is determining long-range transport patterns contribution as area source can either traced from 48 hrs backward trajectory model or remotely described from background measurements data in those days. The trajectory model will be run within stable conditions and quite constant parameters of the atmospheric pressure at the most time of the year. Air parcel trajectory is necessary for estimating the long-range transport of pollutants and other chemical species. It provides a better understanding of airflow patterns. Since a large amount of meteorological data and a great number of calculations are required to drive trajectory, it will be very useful to apply HYPSLIT model to locate areas and boundaries influence air quality at regional location of Windsor. 2–days backward trajectories model at high and low concentration measurements below and upward the benchmark which was areas influence air quality measurement levels. The benchmark level will be considered as 30 (μg/m3) as the moderate level for Ontario region. Thereby, air quality model is incorporating a midpoint concept between biotic and abiotic components to broaden the scope of quantification impact. The later outcomes’ theories of environmental obligation suggest either a recommendation or a decision of what is a legislative should be achieved in mitigation measures of air emission impact ultimately.
Urban Livelihoods and Climate Change: Adaptation Strategies for Urban Poor in Douala, Cameroon
This paper sets to examine the relationship between climate change and urban livelihood through a vulnerability assessment of the urban poor in Douala. Urban development in Douala places priority towards industrial and city-centre development with little focus on the urban poor in terms of housing units and areas of sustenance. With the high rate of urbanisation and increased land prices, the urban poor are forced to occupy marginal lands which are mainly wetlands, wastelands and along abandoned neighbourhoods prone to natural hazards. Due to climate change and its effects, these wetlands are constantly flooded thereby destroying homes, properties, and crops. Also, most of these urban dwellers have found solace in urban agriculture as a means for survival. However, since agriculture in tropical regions like Cameroon depends largely on seasonal rainfall, the changes in rainfall pattern has led to misplaced periods for crop planting and a huge wastage of resources as rainfall becomes very unreliable with increased temperature levels. Data for the study was obtained from both primary and secondary sources. Secondary sources included published materials related to climate change and vulnerability. Primary data was obtained through focus-group discussions with some urban farmers while a stratified sampling of residents within marginal lands was done. Each stratum was randomly sampled to obtain information on different stressors related to climate change and their effect on livelihood. Findings proved that the high rate of rural-urban migration into Douala has led to increased prevalence of the urban poor and their vulnerability to climate change as evident in their constant fight against flood from unexpected sea level rise and irregular rainfall pattern for urban agriculture. The study also proved that women were most vulnerable as they depended solely on urban agriculture and its related activities like retailing agricultural products in different urban markets which to them serves as a main source of income in the attainment of basic needs for the family. Adaptation measures include the constant use of sand bags, raised makeshifts as well as cultivation along streams, planting after evidence of constant rainfall has become paramount for sustainability.
Standardized Testing of Filter Systems regarding Their Separation Efficiency in Terms of Allergenic Particles and Airborne Germs
Our surrounding air contains various particles. Besides typical representatives of inorganic dust, such as soot and ash, also particles originating from animals, microorganisms or plants are floating through the air, so-called bioaerosols. The group of bioaerosols consists of a broad spectrum of particles of different size, including fungi, bacteria, viruses, spores, or tree, flower and grass pollen that are of high relevance for allergy sufferers. In dependence of the environmental climate and the actual season, these allergenic particles can be found in enormous numbers in the air and are inhaled by humans via the respiration tract, with a potential for inflammatory diseases of the airways, such as asthma or allergic rhinitis. As a consequence air filter systems of ventilation and air conditioning devices are required to meet very high standards to prevent, or at least lower the number of allergens and airborne germs entering the indoor air. Still, filter systems are merely classified for their separation rates using well-defined mineral test dust, while no appropriate sufficiently standardized test methods for bioaerosols exist. However, determined separation rates for mineral test particles of a certain size cannot simply be transferred to bioaerosols, as separation efficiency of particularly fine and respirable particles (< 10 microns) is dependent not only on their shape and particle diameter, but also defined by their density and physicochemical properties. For this reason, the OFI developed a test method, which directly enables a testing of filters and filter media for their separation rates on bioaerosols, as well as a classification of filters. Besides allergens from an intact or fractured tree or grass pollen, allergenic proteins bound to particulates, as well as allergenic fungal spores (e.g. Cladosporium cladosporioides), or bacteria can be used to classify filters regarding their separation rates. Allergens passing through the filter can then be detected by highly sensitive immunological assays (ELISA) or in the case of fungal spores by microbiological methods, which allow for the detection of even one single spore passing the filter. The test procedure, which is carried out in laboratory scale, was furthermore validated regarding its sufficiency to cover real life situations by upscaling using air conditioning devices showing great conformity in terms of separation rates. Additionally, a clinical study with allergy sufferers was performed to verify analytical results. Several different air conditioning filters from the car industry have been tested, showing significant differences in their separation rates.
A Case for Ethics Practice under the Revised ISO 14001:2015
The ISO 14001 management system standard was first published in 1996. It is a voluntary standard adopted by both private and public sector organizations globally. Adoption of the ISO 14001 standard at the corporate level is done to help manage business impacts on the environment e.g. pollution control. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) revised the standard in 2004 and recently in 2015. The current revision of the standard appears to adopt a communitarian-type philosophy. The inclusion of requirements to consider external 'interested party' needs and expectations implies this philosophy. Therefore, at operational level businesses implementing ISO 14001 will have to consider needs and expectations beyond local laws. Should these external needs and expectations be included in the scope of the environmental management system, they become requirements to be complied with in much the same way as compliance to laws. The authors assert that the recent changes to ISO 14001 introduce an ethical dimension to the standard. The authors assert that business ethics as a discipline now finds relevance in ISO 14001 via contemporary stakeholder theory and discourse ethics. Finally, the authors postulate implications of (not) addressing these requirements before July 2018 when transition to the revised standard must be complete globally.
Bioprotective Role of Soil Borne Bacillus Strains against Selected Fungal Pathogens of Agriculture Relevance
The agriculture productivity losses due to microbial pathogens have been a serious issue in Pakistan and rest of the world. Present work was designed to isolate soil borne microorganisms having the antagonistic ability against notorious phytopathogens. From the initial collection of 23 bacterial isolates, two potent strains of Bacillus were screened on the basis of their comparative efficacy against devastating fungal pathogens. The strains AK-1 and AK-5 showed excellent inhibitory indexes against the majority of tested fungal strains. It was noted that both strains of Bacillus showed significant biocontrolling activity against Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium moniliforme, Colletotricum falcatum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Phythopthora capsici and Rhizopus oryzae. The strain AK-1 was efficient to suppress Aspergillus species and Rhizopus oryzae while AK-5 expressed significant antagonistic activity against Fusarium, Botrytis and Colletotricum species. On the basis of in vitro assay, it can be postulated that the Bacillus strains AK-1 and AK-5 can be used as bio-protective agent against various plant diseases. In addition, their applications as natural pesticides could be very helpful to prevent the adverse effects of chemical pesticides.
Concentration of Waste Waters by Enzyme-Assisted Low-Temperature Evaporation
The present research aimed at the development of an energy efficient process for the concentration of starchy waste waters. The selected principle is mechanical vapor recompression evaporation (MVR) which leads to concentrated solid material and evaporated water phase. Evaporation removes water until a certain viscosity limit is reached. Materials with high viscosity cannot be concentrated using standard evaporators due to limitations of pumps and other constraints, such as wetting. Control of viscosity is thus essential for efficient evaporation. This applies especially to fluids in which due starch or other compounds the viscosity tends to increase via removal of water. In the present research, the effect of enzymes on evaporation of highly viscous starch industry waste waters was investigated. Wastewater samples were received from starch industry at pH of 4.8. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied for the investigation of factor effects on the behaviour of concentrate during evaporation. The RSM was prepared using quadratic face-centered central composite design (CCF). The evaporation performance was evaluated by monitoring the viscosity of fluid during processing. Based on viscosity curves, the addition of glucoamylase reduced the viscosity during evaporation. This assumption was confirmed by CCF, suggesting that the use of starch decomposing glucoamylase allowed evaporation of the starchy wastewater to a relatively high total solid concentration without a detrimental increase in the viscosity. The results suggest that use of enzymes for reduction of viscosity during the evaporation allows more effective concentration of the wastewater and thereby recovery of potable water.
Estimating Industrial Pollution Load in Phnom Penh by Industrial Pollution Projection System
Manufacturing plays an important role in job creation around the world. In 2013, it was estimated that there were more than half a billion jobs in manufacturing. In Cambodia in 2015, the primary industry occupies 26.18% of the total economy, while agriculture is contributing 29% and the service sector 39.43%. The number of industrial factories, which are dominated by garment and textiles, has increased since 1994, mainly in Phnom Penh city. Approximately 56% out of total 1302 firms are operated in the Capital city in Cambodia. Industrialization to achieve the economic growth and social development is directly responsible for environmental degradation, threatening the ecosystem and human health issues. About 96% of total firms in Phnom Penh city are the most and moderately polluting firms, which have contributed to environmental concerns. Despite an increasing array of laws, strategies and action plans in Cambodia, the Ministry of Environment has encountered some constraints in conducting the monitoring work, including lack of human and financial resources, lack of research documents, the limited analytical knowledge, and lack of technical references. Therefore, the necessary information on industrial pollution to set strategies, priorities and action plans on environmental protection issues is absent in Cambodia. In the absence of this data, effective environmental protection cannot be implemented. The objective of this study is to estimate industrial pollution load by employing the Industrial Pollution Projection System (IPPS), a rapid environmental management tool for assessment of pollution load, to produce a scientific rational basis for preparing future policy direction to reduce industrial pollution in Phnom Penh city. Due to lack of industrial pollution data in Phnom Penh, industrial emissions to the air, water, and land as well as the sum of emissions to all mediums (air, water, land) are estimated using employment economic variable in IPPS. Due to the high number of employees, the total environmental load generated in Phnom Penh city is estimated to be 476.980.93 tons in 2014, which is the highest industrial pollution compared to other locations in Cambodia. The result clearly indicates that Phnom Penh city is the highest emitter of all pollutants in comparison with environmental pollutants released by other provinces. The total emission of industrial pollutants in Phnom Penh shares 55.79% of total industrial pollution load in Cambodia. Phnom Penh city generates 189,121.68 ton of VOC, 165,410.58 ton of toxic chemicals to air, 38,523.33 ton of toxic chemicals to land and 28,967.86 ton of SO2 in 2014. The results of the estimation show that Textile and Apparel sector is the highest generators of toxic chemicals into land Vibol SAN is with the Royal University of Phnom Penh, Cambodia (phone: +855-16-254-348-; e-mail: san.vibol@rupp.edu.kh or sanvibol@gmail.com). Vin SPOANN is with the Royal University of Phnom Penh, Cambodia (email: spoann.vin@rupp.edu.kh). and air, and toxic metals into land, air, and water, while Basic Metal sector is the highest contributor of toxic chemicals to the water. Textile and Apparel sector alone emits 436,015.84 ton of total industrial pollution loads. The results suggest that reduction in industrial pollution could be achieved by focusing on the most polluting sectors.
From Economic Crisis to Environmental Sustainability: The Case of Greece
Greece finds itself in challenging times, facing a severe economic slowdown since 2009. Despite the fact that Greece is in the epicenter of the global interest, to the best of our knowledge there is no extend research on how the crisis has affected the Greek environment (directly and indirectly), the past years. Thus, the present study aims to fill the aforementioned research gap by examining a number of environmental indicators related with air emissions, waste, water and energy. Our results indicate that the crisis affected the Greek environment in both positive and negative ways. For Greece, the main challenge is to recover from the present economic recession as soon as possible, but not at any cost to the environment. In this context, this research unfolds the interrelation between the economic and the environmental crisis and suggests a sustainable restructuring of the Greek economy.
Influence of Sewage Sludge on Agricultural Land Quality and Crop
The accumulation of large quantities of sewage sludge produces serious environmental problems. This is the reasons for the environmental specialists are looking for solutions to solve this real problem. The sewage sludge obtained by treatment of municipal waste water will be used like fertiliser on agricultural soils because these contain large amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic matter. In many countries sewage sludge is used in place of chemical fertilizers in agriculture, this will be the most feasible method of reducing the quantities of increasingly larger. The use of sewage sludge on agricultural soils is allowed only with a strictly monitoring of their physical and chemical parameters because in sewage sludge exist heavy metals in varying amounts. Exceeding maximum permitted quantities of harmful substances will lead to pollution of agricultural soils and cause their removal aside because the plants will take up heavy metals in soil and finally these will be found in human and animal bodies through food. For this work, we were used sewage sludge from the Wastewater Treatment Station (WWTP) Galati, Romania. Physico-chemical parameters determined were: pH (upH), total organic carbon (TOC) (mg L⁻¹), N-total (mg L⁻¹), P-total (mg L⁻¹), N-NH₄ (mg L⁻¹), N-NO₂ (mg L⁻¹), N-NO₃ (mg L⁻¹), Fe-total (mg L⁻¹), Cr-total (mg L⁻¹), Cu (mg L⁻¹), Zn (mg L⁻¹), Cd (mg L⁻¹), Pb (mg L⁻¹), Ni (mg L⁻¹). Determination methods were electrometrical methods (pH, C, TSD) with a multiparameter portable HI 9828 HANNA electrodes committed; Spectrophotometric methods with a spectrophotometer Spectroquant NOVA 60-Merck and specific parameter kits -Merck. After tests it was found that sludge analysed are low heavy metal falling within the legal limits, it is much lower than the maximum allowable. The same, the conclusions of results of tests which determined the content of nutrients of sewage sludge have shown that these will be used to increase the fertility of agricultural soils. Other tests were carried out on lands that were applied sewage sludge in order to establish the maximum quantity of sludge that may be applied so as not to constitute a source of pollution. Tests were carried out on three plots: the first batch was not applied mud and no chemical fertilizers, the group 2 were applied only sewage sludge, and on lot 3 were applied, in addition to sewage sludge and small amounts of chemical fertilizers. The results showed that the production increases when treated with the sludge is used and small amounts of chemical fertilizers. Based on the results of research it has proposed a fertilization plan. This will be recalculated each year based on the crops planned; the yields proposed, the indications agrochemical, analysis of sludge, etc.
Sorption of Crystal Violet from Aqueous Solution Using Chitosan−Charcoal Composite
The study investigated the removal efficiency of crystal violet from aqueous solution using chitosan-charcoal composite as adsorbent. Deproteination was carried out by placing 200g of powdered snail shell in 4% w/v NaOH for 2hours. The sample was then placed in 1% HCl for 24 hours to remove CaCO3. Deacetylation was done by boiling in 50% NaOH for 2hours. 10% Oxalic acid was used to dissolve the chitosan before mixing with charcoal at 55°C to form the composite. The composite was characterized by Fourier Transform Infra-Red and Scanning Electron Microscopy measurements. The efficiency of adsorption was evaluated by varying pH of the solution, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dose. Maximum removal of crystal violet by composite and activated charcoal was attained at pH10 while maximum removal of crystal violet by chitosan was achieved at pH 8. The results showed that adsorption of both dyes followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation and fit the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The data showed that composite was best suited for crystal violet removal and also did relatively well in the removal of alizarin red. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy change (ΔHº), free energy change (ΔGº) and entropy change (ΔSº) indicate that adsorption process of Crystal Violet was endothermic, spontaneous and feasible respectively.
Rainfall-Runoff Forecasting Utilizing Genetic Programming Technique
In this study, genetic programming (GP) technique has been investigated in prediction of set of rainfall-runoff data. To assess the effect of input parameters on the model, the sensitivity analysis was adopted. To evaluate the performance of the proposed model, three statistical indexes were used, namely; Correlation Coefficient (CC), Mean Square Error (MSE) and Correlation of Efficiency (CE). The principle aim of this study is to develop a computationally efficient and robust approach for predict of rainfall-runoff which could reduce the cost and labour for measuring these parameters. This research concentrates on the Johor River in Johor State, Malaysia.
Review on Future Economic Potential Stems from Global Electronic Waste Generation and Sustainable Recycling Practices.
Abstract Global digital advances associated with consumer’s strong inclination for the state of art digital technologies is causing overwhelming social and environmental challenges for global community. During recent years not only economic advances of electronic industries has taken place at steadfast rate, also the generation of e-waste outshined the growth of any other types of wastes. The estimated global e-waste volume is expected to reach 65.4 million tons annually by 2017. Formal recycling practices in developed countries are stemming economic liability, opening paths for illegal trafficking to developing countries. Informal crude management of large volume of e-waste is transforming into an emergent environmental and health challenge in. Contrariwise, in several studies formal and informal recycling of e-waste has also exhibited potentials for economic returns both in developed and developing countries. Some research on China illustrated that from large volume of e-wastes generation there are recycling potential in evolving from ∼16 (10−22) billion US$ in 2010, to an anticipated ∼73.4 (44.5−103.4) billion US$ by 2030. While in another study, researcher found from an economic analysis of 14 common categories of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) the overall worth is calculated as €2.15 billion to European markets, with a potential rise to €3.67 billion as volumes increase. These economic returns and environmental protection approaches are feasible only when sustainable policy options are embraced with stricter regulatory mechanism. This study will critically review current researches to stipulate how global e-waste generation and sustainable e-waste recycling practices demonstrate future economic development potential in terms of both quantity and processing capacity, also triggering complex some environmental challenges.
Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Land Use Change and Green Cover Index
Cities are complex and dynamic systems that constitute a significant challenge to urban planning. The increasing size of the built-up area owing to growing population pressure and economic growth have lead to massive Landuse/Landcover change resulted in the loss of natural habitat and thus reducing the green covers in urban areas. Urban environmental quality is influenced by several aspects, including its geographical configuration, the scale, and nature of human activities occurring and environmental impacts generated. Cities have transformed into complex and dynamic systems that constitute a significant challenge to urban planning. Cities and their sustainability are often discussed together as the cities stand confronted with numerous environmental concerns as the world becoming increasingly urbanized, and the cities are situated in the mesh of global networks in multiple senses. A rapid transformed urban setting plays a crucial role to change the green area of natural habitats. To examine the pattern of urban growth and to measure the Landuse/Landcover change in Gurgoan in Haryana, India through the integration of Geospatial technique is attempted in the research paper. Satellite images are used to measure the spatiotemporal changes that have occurred in the land use and land cover resulting into a new cityscape. It has been observed from the analysis that drastically evident changes in land use has occurred with the massive rise in built up areas and the decrease in green cover and therefore causing the sustainability of the city an important area of concern. The massive increase in built-up area has influenced the localised temperatures and heat concentration. To enhance the decision-making process in urban planning, a detailed and real world depiction of these urban spaces is the need of the hour. Monitoring indicators of key processes in land use and economic development are essential for evaluating policy measures.
Water Resources Vulnerability Assesment to Climate Change in a Semi-Arid Basin of South India
This paper examines vulnerability assessment of water resources in a semi-arid basin using the 4-step approach. The vulnerability assessment framework is developed to study the water resources vulnerability which includes creation of GIS-based vulnerability maps. These maps represent the spatial variability of the vulnerability index. This paper introduces 4-step approach to assess vulnerability that incorporates a new set of indicators. The approach is demonstrated using a framework composed of a precipitation data for (1975–2010) period, temperature data for (1965–2010) period, hydrological model outputs and water resources GIS database. The vulnerability assessment is a function of three components such as exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. The current water resources vulnerability is assessed using GIS based spatio-temporal information. Totally, five indicators (rainfall CV, monsoon onset and end date, rainy days, seasonality indices, temperature) fall into the criterion ‘exposure’, three indicators (water yield, ground water recharge, ET) fall into the criterion ‘sensitivity’ and two belong to adaptive capacity (type of irrigation, storage structures). These indicators were mapped and integrated in GIS environment using overlay analysis. The five subbasins namely Arjunanadhi, Kousiganadhi, Sindapalli-Uppodai and Vallampatti Odai fall under medium vulnerability profile, which indicates that the basin is under moderate stress of water resources. The paper also explores prioritization of subbasinwise adaptation strategies to climate change based on the vulnerability indices.
Application of Remote Sensing Technique on the Monitoring of Mine Eco-Environment
Aiming to overcome the limitation of the application of traditional remote sensing (RS) technique in the mine eco-environmental monitoring, in this paper, we first classified the eco-environmental damages caused by mining activities and then introduced the principle, classification and characteristics of the Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technique. The potentiality of LiDAR technique in the mine eco-environmental monitoring was analyzed, particularly in extracting vertical structure parameters of vegetation, through comparing the feasibility and applicability of traditional RS method and LiDAR technique in monitoring different types of indicators. The application situation of LiDAR technique in extracting typical mine indicators, such as land destruction in mining areas, damage of ecological integrity and natural soil erosion. The result showed that the LiDAR technique has the ability to monitor most of the mine eco-environmental indicators, and exhibited higher accuracy comparing with traditional RS technique, specifically speaking, the applicability of LiDAR technique on each indicator depends on the accuracy requirement of mine eco-environmental monitoring. In the item of large mine, LiDAR three-dimensional point cloud data not only could be used as the complementary data source of optical RS, Airborne/Satellite LiDAR could also fulfill the demand of extracting vertical structure parameters of vegetation in large areas.
Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH4) in Some Popular Tea Brands in Nigeria
The occurrence of sixteen (16) USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in twenty-three (23) popular green, black and herbal tea brands sold in Nigeria were investigated with focus on four PAHs (PAH4), classified by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as suitable carcinogenic and mutagenic indicators: benz[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (CHR), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). PAHs congeners were analyzed using an Agilent 7890A gas chromatograph (GC) with 7683B autosampler equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID), with percentage recovery higher than 90.24%. The degree of contamination concentration expressed as the sum of sixteen priority PAHs (∑16PAHs) ranged between 1.63±0.33–75.53±6.07, 4.71±0.23–79.61±7.02, and 12.52±0.15–26.89±0.68 mg/kg, for green, herbal and black tea samples, respectively. The PAH4 levels ranged from 1.28 – 44.57, 4.34 – 11.20, and 0.76 – 34.82 mg/kg, in green, black and herbal tea products, respectively. The highest PAH4 contribution relative to ∑16PAHs was 71.37% in Twinings Pure Green Tea, 48.76% in Top Tea Regular (black tea), and 85.53% in Kidney Flush Herbal Tea. The estimated BaP-equivalent carcinogenicity (BaP-TEQ) and mutagenicity (BaP-MEQ) risks indicate highest TEQ in Joint Care Herbal Tea, while Typhoo Pure Green Tea had the lowest BaP-TEQ (0.16) and BaP-MEQ (0.43). Benzo[a]pyrene played a significant role in the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity potentials of the tea samples.
Catchment Yield Prediction in an Ungauged Basin Using Pytopkapi
This study extends use of Drainage Area Regionalization (DAR) method in generating synthetic data and calibrating PYTOPKAPI stream yield for an ungauged basin with respect to daily time scale. The generation of runoff redistribution in determining a river yield has been subjected to various topographic and spatial meteorological variables which integer form the Catchment Characteristics Model (CCM). Many of the conventional CCM models adapted in Africa has been challenge with paucity of adequate, relevance and accurate data to parameterize and validate it potential. The purpose of generating synthetic flow is to test a hydrological model, which will not suffer from the impact of very low flows or very high flows, thus allowing to check whether the model is structurally sound enough or not. The employed physically-based, watershed-scale hydrologic model (PyTOPKAPI) was parameterized with GIS-pre-processing parameters and remote sensing hydro-meteorological variables. The validation with mean annual precipitation ratio proposes a decent graphical understanding between observed and the simulated discharge. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and coefficient of determination (R²) values of 0.704 and 0.739 prove a strong model efficiency. Given the current climate variability impact, water planner can now assert a tool for flow quantification and sustainable planning purposes.
Hydrological Characterization of a Watershed for Stream Flow Prediction
In this paper, we extend the versatility and usefulness of GIS as a new methodology for any river basin hydrologic characteristics analysis (HCA). The Gurara River basin located in North-Central Nigeria is presented in this study. It is an on-going research using spatial Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Arc-Hydro tools to take inventory of the basin characteristics in order to predict water abstraction quantification on stream flow regime. One of the main concerns of hydrological modelling is the quantification of runoff from rainstorm events. In practice, the soil conservation service curve (SCS) method and the Conventional procedure called rational technique are still generally used these traditional hydrological lumped models convert statistical properties of rainfall in river basin to observed runoff and hydrograph. However, the models give little or no information about spatially dispersed information on rainfall and basin physical characteristics. Therefore, this paper synthesizes morphometric parameters in generating runoff. The expected results of the basin characteristics such as size, area, shape, slope of the watershed and stream distribution network analysis could be useful in estimating streamflow discharge. Water resources managers and irrigation farmers could utilize the tool for determining net return from available scarce water resources, where past data records are sparse for the aspect of land and climate.
Analysis of Pollution Caused by the Animal Feed Industry and the Fertilizer Industry Using Rock Magnetic Method
Industrial activities get increase in this globalization era, one of the major impacts of industrial activities is a problem to the environment. This can happen because at the industrial production term will bring out pollutant in the shape of solid, liquid or gas. Normally this pollutant came from some dangerous materials for environment. However not every industry produces the same amount of pollutant, every industry produces different kind of pollution. To compare the pollution impact of industrial activities, soil sample has been taken around the animal feed industry and the fertilizer industry. This study applied the rock magnetic method and used Bartington MS2B to measured magnetic susceptibility (χ) as the physical parameter. This study tested soil samples using the value of susceptibility low frequency (χ lf) and Frequency Dependent (χ FD). Samples only taken in the soil surface with 0-5 cm depth and sampling interval was 20 cm. The animal feed factory has susceptibility low frequency (χ lf) = 111,9 – 325,7 and Frequency Dependent (χ FD) = 0,8 – 3,57 %. And the fertilizer factory has susceptibility low frequency (χ lf) = 187,1 – 494,8 and Frequency Dependent (χ FD) = 1,37 – 2,46 %. Based on the results, the highest value of susceptibility low frequency (χ lf) is the fertilizer factory, but the highest value of Frequency Dependent (FD) is the animal feed factory.
Correlation Results Based on Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements by in-situ and Ex-Situ Measurements as Indicators of Environmental Changes Due to the Fertilizer Industry
Fertilizer industry activities contribute to environmental changes. Changes to the environment became one of a few problems in this era of globalization. Parameters that can be seen as criteria to identify changes in the environment can be seen from the aspects of physics, chemistry, and biology. One aspect that can be assessed quickly and efficiently to describe environmental change is the aspect of physics, one of which is the value of magnetic susceptibility (χ). The rock magnetism method can be used as a proxy indicator of environmental changes, seen from the value of magnetic susceptibility. The rock magnetism method is based on magnetic susceptibility studies to measure and classify the degree of pollutant elements that cause changes in the environment. This research was conducted in the area around the fertilizer plant, with five coring points on each track, each coring point a depth of 15 cm. Magnetic susceptibility measurements were performed by in-situ and ex-situ. In-situ measurements were carried out directly by using the SM30 tool by putting the tools on the soil surface at each measurement point and by that obtaining the value of the magnetic susceptibility. Meanwhile, ex-situ measurements are performed in the laboratory by using the Bartington MS2B tool’s susceptibility, which is done on a coring sample which is taken every 5 cm. In-situ measurement shows results that the value of magnetic susceptibility at the surface varies, with the lowest score on the second and fifth points with the -0.81 value and the highest value at the third point, with the score of 0,345. Ex-situ measurements can find out the variations of magnetic susceptibility values at each depth point of coring. At a depth of 0-5 cm, the value of the highest XLF = 494.8 (x10-8m³/kg) is at the third point, while the value of the lowest XLF = 187.1 (x10-8m³/kg) at first. At a depth of 6-10 cm, the highest value of the XLF was at the second point, which was 832.7 (x10-8m³/kg) while the lowest XLF is at the first point, at 211 (x10-8m³/kg). At a depth of 11-15 cm, the XLF’s highest value = 857.7 (x10-8m³/kg) is at the second point, whereas the value of the lowest XLF = 83.3 (x10-8m³/kg) is at the fifth point. Based on the in situ and exsit measurements, it can be seen that the highest magnetic susceptibility values from the surface samples are at the third point.
Assessment of Water Resources and Inculcation of Controlled Water Consumption System
Deficiency of fresh water is a vital global problem today. It must be taken into consideration that in the nearest future fresh water crisis will become even more acute owing to the global climate warming and fast desertification processes in the world. Georgia has signed the association agreement with Euro Union last year where the priority spheres of cooperation are the management of water resources, development of trans-boundary approach to the problem and active participation in the “Euro Union water initiative” component of “the East Europe, Caucasus and the Central Asia”. Fresh water resources are the main natural wealth of Georgia. According to the average water layer height Georgia is behind such European countries only as Norway, Switzerland and Austria. The annual average water provision of Georgia is 4-8 times higher than in its neighbor countries Armenia and Azerbaijan. Despite abundant water resources in Georgia there is considerable discrepancy between their volume and use in some regions because of the uneven territorial distribution. In the East Georgia, water supply of the territory and population is four times less than in the West Georgia. Inculcation of controlled water consumption system will create better conditions for the rational and more efficient use of the budget expenditures that will have positive effect on economics and social sphere of the country.