Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 50671

Environmental and Ecological Engineering

2315
88576
Biosorption of Fluoride from Aqueous Solutions by Tinospora Cordifolia Leaves
Abstract:
Tinospora cordifolia leaves biomass used for the removal fluoride from aqueous solutions. Batch biosorption technique was applied, pH, contact time, biosorbent dose and initial fluoride concentration was studied. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques used to study the surface characteristics and the presence of chemical functional groups on the biosorbent. Biosorption isotherm models and kinetic models were applied to understand the sorption mechanism. Results revealed that pH, contact time, biosorbent dose and initial fluoride concentration played a significant effect on fluoride removal from aqueous solutions. The developed biosorbent derived from Tinospora cordifolia leaves biomass found to be a low-cost biosorbent and could be used for the effective removal of fluoride in synthetic as well as real water samples.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2314
88496
Factors Affecting Sustainable Water Management in Water-Challenged Societies: Case Study of Doha Qatar
Abstract:
Qatar is a desert country with scarce fresh water resources, low rainfall and very high evaporation rate. It meets the majority of its water requirement through desalination process which is very expensive. Pressures are expected to mount on account of high population growth rate and demands posed by being the venue for 2022 FIFA World cup. This study contributes towards advancing the knowledge of the factors affecting sustainable water consumption in water-challenged societies by examining the case of Doha, Qatar. Survey research methods have been predominantly used for this research. Surveys were conducted using self-administered questionnaires. Focused group interviews and personal interviews with Qatar’s residents were also used to obtain deeper insights. Salient socio-cultural factors that drive the water consumption behavior of the public and which in turn affect sustainable water management practices are determined. Suggestions for reducing water consumption as well as fiscal and punitive measures to curb overuse and misuse of water are also identified.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2313
88309
Optimization of Monitoring Networks for Air Quality Management in Urban Hotspots
Abstract:
Air quality management in urban areas is a serious concern in both developed and developing countries. In this regard, more number of air quality monitoring stations are planned to mitigate air pollution in urban areas. In India, Central Pollution Control Board has set up 574 air quality monitoring stations across the country and proposed to set up another 500 stations in the next few years. The number of monitoring stations for each city has been decided based on population data. The setting up of ambient air quality monitoring stations and their operation and maintenance are highly expensive. Therefore, there is a need to optimize monitoring networks for air quality management. The present paper discusses the various methods such as Indian Standards (IS) method, US EPA method and European Union (EU) method to arrive at the minimum number of air quality monitoring stations. In addition, optimization of rain-gauge method and Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) method using Geographical Information System (GIS) are also explored in the present work for the design of air quality network in Chennai city. In summary, additionally 18 stations are required for Chennai city, and the potential monitoring locations with their corresponding land use patterns are ranked and identified from the 1km x 1km sized grids.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2312
87938
Avifaunal Diversity in the Mallathahalli Lake of Bangalore Urban District, Karnataka, India
Abstract:
The study was conducted from July 2015 to July 2017 to determine and understand the occurrence, frequency and diversity of avifauna in the Mallathahalli Lake of Bangalore Urban district. During the study period, 46 species of both terrestrial, as well as, aquatic birds belonging to 30 families were identified out of which 9 families were aquatic birds and 21 families were terrestrial birds. There were 4 species of migratory birds out of 46, showing diurnal migration. There was a significant reduce in the number of bird species both terrestrial and aquatic during the summer season and also varied greatly during winters and monsoon. Of the total 24 species of aquatic birds, Fulica atra and Tachybaptus ruficolis were the most common with 100% frequency and the least frequent species with 3.02% frequency was identified as Threskiornis melanocephalus. Among the 22 species of terrestrial birds, Acridotheres tristis had a frequency of 89% and the least frequent was Pycnonotus cafer (4.45%). The most commonly encountered bird species were from the families- Anatidae, Podicipedidae, Ardeidae, Phalacrocoracidae, Rallidae, Accipitridae, Scolopacidae, Charadridae, Laridae, Meropidae, Hirudinidae. All the birds surviving around the area are dependent on the wetland and crop vegetation surrounding the lake, which are deteriorating due to anthropogenic interventions and urbanization which are rising to its peak gradually causing the decline in the avifaunal diversity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2311
87867
Acoustic Emission Techniques in Monitoring Low-Speed Bearing Conditions
Abstract:
It is widely acknowledged that bearing failures are the primary reason for breakdowns in rotating machinery. These failures are extremely costly, particularly in terms of lost production. Roller bearings are widely used in industrial machinery and need to be maintained in good condition to ensure the continuing efficiency, effectiveness, and profitability of the production process. The research presented here is an investigation of the use of acoustic emission (AE) to monitor bearing conditions at low speeds. Many machines, particularly large, expensive machines operate at speeds below 100 rpm, and such machines are important to the industry. However, the overwhelming proportion of studies have investigated the use of AE techniques for condition monitoring of higher-speed machines (typically several hundred rpm, or even higher). Few researchers have investigated the application of these techniques to low-speed machines ( < 100 rpm). This paper addressed this omission and has established which, of the available, AE techniques are suitable for the detection of incipient faults and measurement of fault growth in low-speed bearings. The first objective of this paper program was to assess the applicability of AE techniques to monitor low-speed bearings. It was found that the measured statistical parameters successfully monitored bearing conditions at low speeds (10-100 rpm). The second objective was to identify which commonly used statistical parameters derived from the AE signal (RMS, kurtosis, amplitude and counts) could identify the onset of a fault in the out race. It was found that these parameters effectually identify the presence of a small fault seeded into the outer races. Also, it is concluded that rotational speed has a strong influence on the measured AE parameters but that they are entirely independent of the load under such load and speed conditions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2310
87688
Assessment of Households' Food Security and Hunger Level across Communities in Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria
Abstract:
This study assessed households’ food security and hunger levels among different communities with varying educational and economic background in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, and its environment. It also examined the impacts of varying demography on the household food security level in the area. This was with a view to providing information on the food security status of the subjects within the study area. Ten different communities with varying demography (Parakin, Mokuro, Ilare, Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU) Staff Quarters, Ibadan Road, Aba-Iya Gani, Eleweran, Iraye, Boosa, and Eku-Isobo) were identified within the study area. Fieldwork was then carried out from 7th to 14th of March, 2016 in each of these communities through survey of market prices of food stuff, diet, and nutrition, social well-being, food accessibility and affordability as well as price fluctuation and variation in household’s social background. Selection of households for the survey was done using stratified random sampling method. Key informants included community heads, landlords, tenants, and household heads. Similarly, information on food security levels with respect to demographic backgrounds was obtained from the use of modified Food and Hunger Insecurity Module (FHIM) structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to one percent of the households’ population per community. The results showed that communities such as Parakin and OAU Senior Staff Quarters were dominated by civil servants, while community such as Boosa was dominated by artisans. Respondents earning between ₦11,000 and ₦20,000 per month, during the study period, had the highest percentage across the selected communities. The household food security indices showed that about 41% of the investigated respondents could not guarantee their household food for a month, while 18% reduced or skipped meals. There were positive significant relationships between monthly income (F-value = 132.04), educational status (F-value = 102.30), occupation (F-value = 104.05) and food budget (F-value = 122.09), all at p < 0.05. However, there was no significant relationship between the monthly food budget and household sizes (t-value = -1.4074, p > 0.05). Food secured households’ had the household heads with a higher level of educational attainment. The study concluded that large variations which existed between socio-economic and educational background among the communities had significant effects on households’ food security level in the study area.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2309
87604
Mathematical Modelling, Simulation and Prototype Designing of Potable Water System on Basis of Forward Osmosis
Abstract:
The development of reverse osmosis happened in 1960. Along the years this technique has been widely accepted all over the world for varied applications ranging from seawater desalination to municipal water treatment. Forward osmosis (FO) is one of the foremost technologies for low energy consuming solutions for water purification. In this study, we have carried out a detailed analysis on selection, design, and pricing for a prototype of potable water system for purifying water in emergency situations. The portable and light purification system is envisaged to be driven by FO. This pouch will help to serve as an emergency water filtration device. The current effort employs a model to understand the interplay of permeability and area on the rate of purification of water from any impure source/brackish water. The draw solution for the FO pouch is considered to be a combination of salt and sugar such that dilution of the same would result in an oral rehydration solution (ORS) which is a boon for dehydrated patients. However, the effort takes an extra step to actually estimate the cost and pricing of designing such a prototype. While the mathematical model yields the best membrane (compositions are taken from literature) combination in terms of permeability and area, the pricing takes into account the feasibility of such a solution to be made available as a retail item. The product is envisaged to be a market competitor for packaged drinking water and ORS combination (costing around $0.5 combined) and thus, to be feasible has to be priced around the same range with greater margins in order to have a better distribution. Thus a proper business plan and production of the same has been formulated in order to be a feasible solution for unprecedented calamities and emergency situations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2308
87473
Accounting Propositions for Sustainability Performance Information Systems Introduction: Environmental Attributes from Croatian Hotels
Abstract:
Purpose: For some time now, the global hotel industry trends are strongly oriented towards sustainable development and environmental management accounting (EMA) should have the supporting role for hotel’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) management. The aim of this paper is thus to analyse and present data on the key steps leading toward the effective incorporation of EMA within hotel performance information systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research study is a continuation of the process carried out on the sample of 20 eco-hotels in the UK, a year ago. Research evidence was obtained via in-depth case studies on sample of 180 hotels (4 and 5 stars hotels) located in Croatia. Research was conducted through interviews with key personnel and an online survey which specifically focused on 10 business areas considered vital for successful EMA integration. Findings: The research results indicate a pattern by which hotels can determine the existing level of their sustainable (environmental) business. Furthermore, the management understanding of the sustainability concept was still proven to lead to a relatively subjective appreciation and presentation of sustainable hotel operations and their performance. It was determined that majority of analysed hotel organisations reflect typical short-term, financially oriented performance information systems. Steps for EMA introduction have been offered. Research Limitations/Implications: CSR is still a broad-set concept. Exploring the effects of EMA on such-like a defined management system may be subject to considerable influence of the respondent’s subjective perception of the concept. Originality/Value: This article should be of interest to higher education academics and careers staff who have an interest in CSR introduction and the ways of implementing its informational support for performance measurement.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2307
87191
Fusionopolis: The Most Decisive Economic Power Centers of the 21st Century
Abstract:
The 21st Century's main power centers are the cities. More than 52% of the world’s population lives in cities, in particular in the megacities which have a population over 10 million people and is still growing. According to various research and forecasts, the main economic concentration will be in 40 megacities and global centers. Based on various competitiveness analyzes and indices, global city centers, and city networks are outlined, but if we look at other aspects of urban development like complexity, connectivity, creativity, technological development, viability, green cities, pedestrian and child friendly cities, creative and cultural centers, cultural spaces and knowledge centers, we get a city competitiveness index with quite new complex indicators. The research shows this result. In addition to the megacities and the global centers, with the investigation of functionality, we got 64 so-called ‘fusiononopolis’ (i.e., fusion-polis) which stand for the most decisive economic power centers of the 21st century. In this city competition Asian centers considerably rise, as the world's functional city competitiveness index is being formed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2306
86220
Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solution by Polymer Enhanced Ultrafiltration Using Unmodified Starch as Biopolymer
Abstract:
The effects of pH, polymer concentration, and metal ions feed concentration for four selected heavy metals Zn (II), Pb (II), Cr (III) and Cr (VI) were tested by using Polymer Enhanced Ultrafiltration (PEUF). An alternative biopolymer namely unmodified starch is proposed as a binding reagent in consequences, as compared to commonly used water-soluble polymers namely polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) in the removal of selected four heavy metal ions. The speciation species profiles of four selected complexes ions namely Zn (II), Pb (II), Cr (III) and Cr (VI) and the present of hydroxides ions (OH-) in variously charged ions were investigated by available software at certain pH range. In corresponds to identify the potential of complexation behavior between metal ion-polymers, potentiometric titration studies were obtained at first before carried out experimental works. Experimental works were done using ultrafiltration systems obtained by laboratory ultrafiltration bench scale equipped with 10 kDa polysulfone hollow fiber membrane. Throughout the laboratory works, the rejection coefficient and permeate flux were found to be significantly affected by the main operating parameter, namely the effects of pH, polymer composition and metal ions concentrations. The interaction of complexation between two binding polymers namely unmodified starch and PEG were occurred due to physical attraction of metal ions to the polymer on the molecular surface with high possibility of chemical occurrence. However, these selected metal ions are mainly complexes by polymer functional groups whenever there is interaction with PEI polymer. For study of single metal ions solutions, Zn (II) ions' rejections approaching over 90% were obtained at pH 7 for each tested polymer. This behavior was similar to Pb (II), Cr (III) and Cr (VI); where the rejections were obtained at lower acidic pH and increased at neutral pH of 7. Different behavior was found by Cr (VI) ions where a high rejection was only achieved at acidic pH region with PEI. Polymer concentration and metal ions concentration are found to have a significant effect on rejections. For mixed metal ion solutions, the behavior of metal ion rejections was similar to single metal ion solutions for investigation on the effects of pH. Rejection values were high at pH 7 for Zn (II) pH 7 for Zn (II) and Cr (III) ions, corresponding to higher rejections with unmodified starch. Pb (II) ions obtained high rejections when tested with PEG whenever carried out in mixed metal ion solutions. High Cr (VI) ions' rejection was found with PEI in single and mixed metal ions solutions at neutral pH range. The influence of starch’s granule structure towards the rejections of these four selected metal ions is found to be attracted in a non-ionic manner. No significant effects on permeate flux were obtained when tested at different pH ranges, polymer concentrations and metal ions feed either by single or mixtures metal ions solutions. Canizares Model was employed as the theoretical model to predict permeate flux and metal ions retention on the study of heavy metal ions removal.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2305
86012
Highly Specific DNA-Aptamer-Based Electrochemical Biosensor for Mercury (II) and Lead (II) Ions Detection in Water Samples
Abstract:
Aptamers are single-strand of DNA or RNA nucleotides sequence which is designed in vitro using selection process known as SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) were developed for the selective detection of many toxic materials. In this work, we have developed an electrochemical biosensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of Hg2+ and Pb2+ using a specific aptamer probe (SAP) labelled with ferrocene (or methylene blue) in (5′) end and the thiol group at its (3′) termini, respectively. The SAP has a specific coil structure that matching with G-G for Pb2+ and T-T for Hg2+ interaction binding nucleotides ions, respectively. Aptamers were immobilized onto surface of screen-printed gold electrodes via SH groups; then the cyclic voltammograms were recorded in binding buffer with the addition of the above metal salts in different concentrations. The resulted values of anode current increase upon binding heavy metal ions to aptamers and analyte due to the presence of electrochemically active probe, i.e. ferrocene or methylene blue group. The correlation between the anodic current values and the concentrations of Hg2+ and Pb2+ ions has been established in this work. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of using a specific DNA aptamers for electrochemical detection of heavy metals. Each increase in concentration of 0.1 μM results in an increase in the anode current value by simple DC electrochemical test i.e (Cyclic Voltammetry), thus providing an easy way of determining Hg2+ and Pb2+concentration.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2304
85961
A Case Study of Rainfall Derived Inflow/Infiltration in a Separate Sewer System in Gwangju, Korea
Abstract:
The separate sewer system is that collects the wastewater as a sewer pipe and rainfall as a stormwater pipe separately, and then sewage is treated in the wastewater treatment plant, the stormwater is discharged to rivers or lakes through stormwater drainage pipes. Unfortunately, even for separate sewer systems, it is not possible to prevent Rainfall Driven Inflow/Infiltration(RDII) completely to the sewer pipe. Even if the sewerage line is renovated, there is an ineluctable RDII due to the combined sewer system in the house or the difficulty of sewage maintenance in private areas. The basic statistical analysis was performed using environmental data including rainfall, sewage, water qualities and groundwater level in the strict of Gwangju in ​South Korea. During rainfall in the target area, RDII showed an increased rate of 13.4 ~ 53.0% compared to that of a clear day and showed a rapid hydrograph response of 0.3 ~ 3.0 hr. As a result of water quality analysis, BOD5 concentration decreased by 17.3 % and salinity concentration decreased by 8.8 % at the representative spot in the project area compared to the sunny day during rainfall. In contrast to the seasonal fluctuation range of 0.38 m ~ 0.55 m in groundwater in Gwangju area and 0.58 m ~ 0.78 m in monthly fluctuation range, while the difference between groundwater level and the depth of sewer pipe laying was 2.70 m on average, which is larger than the range of fluctuation. Comprehensively, it can be concluded that the increasing of flowrate at sewer line is due to not infiltration water caused by groundwater level rise, construction failure, cracking due to joint failure or conduit deterioration, rainfall was directly inflowed into the sewer line rapidly. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the 'Climate Technology Development and Application' research project (#K07731) through a grant provided by GIST in 2017.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2303
85957
Estimating Algae Concentration Based on Deep Learning from Satellite Observation in Korea
Abstract:
Over the last few tens of years, the coastal regions of Korea have experienced red tide algal blooms, which are harmful and toxic to both humans and marine organisms due to their potential threat. It was accelerated owing to eutrophication by human activities, certain oceanic processes, and climate change. Previous studies have tried to monitoring and predicting the algae concentration of the ocean with the bio-optical algorithms applied to color images of the satellite. However, the accurate estimation of algal blooms remains problems to challenges because of the complexity of coastal waters. Therefore, this study suggests a new method to identify the concentration of red tide algal bloom from images of geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI) which are representing the water environment of the sea in Korea. The method employed GOCI images, which took the water leaving radiances centered at 443nm, 490nm and 660nm respectively, as well as observed weather data (i.e., humidity, temperature and atmospheric pressure) for the database to apply optical characteristics of algae and train deep learning algorithm. Convolution neural network (CNN) was used to extract the significant features from the images. And then artificial neural network (ANN) was used to estimate the concentration of algae from the extracted features. For training of the deep learning model, backpropagation learning strategy is developed. The established methods were tested and compared with the performances of GOCI data processing system (GDPS), which is based on standard image processing algorithms and optical algorithms. The model had better performance to estimate algae concentration than the GDPS which is impossible to estimate greater than 5mg/m³. Thus, deep learning model trained successfully to assess algae concentration in spite of the complexity of water environment. Furthermore, the results of this system and methodology can be used to improve the performances of remote sensing. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the 'Climate Technology Development and Application' research project (#K07731) through a grant provided by GIST in 2017.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2302
85951
Anti-Fire Group 'Peduli Api': Case Study of Mitigating the Fire Hazard Impact and Climate Policy Enhancement on Riau Province Indonesia
Abstract:
Riau Province is the worst emitter for forest burning which causes the huge scale of externality such as declining of forest habitat, health disease, and climate change impact. Indonesia forum of budget transparency for Riau Province (FITRA) reported the length of forest burning reached about 186.069 hectares which is 7,13% of total national forest burning disaster, consisted of 107.000 hectares of peatland and the rest 79.069 hectares of mineral land. Anti-fire group, a voluntary group next to the forest, to help in protecting the forest burning and heavily smoke residual has been established but unfortunately the implementation still far from expectation. This research will emphasize on (1) how the anti-fire group contribute to fire hazard tackling; (2) the identification of SWOT analysis to enhance the group benefit; and (3) government policy implication to maximize the role of Anti-fire group and reduce the case of forest burning as well as heavily smoke which can raise climate change impact. As the observation found some weakness from SWOT identification such as (1) lack of education and training; (2) facility in extinguishing the fire damage; (3) law for economic incentive; (4) communication and field experience; (5) also the reporting the fire case.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2301
85794
Hydrochemical Assessment and Quality Classification of Water in Torogh and Kardeh Dam Reservoirs, North-East Iran
Abstract:
Khorasan Razavi is the second most important province in north-east of Iran, which faces a water shortage crisis due to recent droughts and huge water consummation. Kardeh and Torogh dam reservoirs in this province provide a notable part of Mashhad metropolitan (with more than 4.5 million inhabitants) potable water needs. Hydrochemical analyses on these dam reservoirs samples demonstrate that MgHCO3 in Kardeh and CaHCO3 and to lower extent MgHCO3 water types in Torogh dam reservoir are dominant. On the other hand, Gibbs binary diagram demonstrates that rock weathering is the main factor controlling water quality in dam reservoirs. Plotting dam reservoir samples on Mg2+/Na+ and HCO3-/Na+ vs. Ca2+/ Na+ diagrams demonstrate evaporative and carbonate mineral dissolution is the dominant rock weathering ion sources in these dam reservoirs. Cluster Analyses (CA) also demonstrate intense role of rock weathering mainly (carbonate and evaporative minerals dissolution) in water quality of these dam reservoirs. Studying water quality by the U.S. National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) WQI index NSF-WQI, Oregon Water Quality Index (OWQI) and Canadian Water Quality Index DWQI index show moderate and good quality.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2300
85643
An Occupational Health Risk Assessment for Exposure to Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes: A Case Study of Informal Traders in a Metro Centre (Taxi Rank) in South Africa
Abstract:
Many South Africans commuters use minibus taxis daily and are connected to the informal transport network through metro centres informally known as Taxi Ranks. Taxi ranks form part of an economic nexus for many informal traders, connecting them to commuters, their prime clientele. They work along designated areas along the periphery of the taxi rank and in between taxi lanes. Informal traders are therefore at risk of adverse health effects associated with the inhalation of exhaust fumes from minibus taxis. Of the exhaust emissions, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) have high toxicity. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a Human Health Risk Assessment for informal traders, looking at their exposure to BTEX compounds. Methods: The study was conducted in a subsection of a taxi rank which is representative of the entire taxi rank. This subsection has a daily average of 400 minibus taxi moving through it and an average of 60 informal traders working in it. In the health risk assessment, a questionnaire was conducted to understand the occupational behaviour of the informal traders. This was used to deduce the exposure scenarios and sampling locations. Three sampling campaigns were run for an average of 10 hours each covering the average working hours of traders. A gas chronographer was used for collecting continues ambient air samples at 15 min intervals. Results: Over the three sampling days, the average concentrations were, 8.46ppb, 0.63 ppb, 1.27ppb and 1.0ppb for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene respectively. The average cancer risk is 9.46E-03. In several cases, they were incidences of unacceptable risk for the cumulative exposure of all four BTEX compounds. Conclusion: This study adds to the body of knowledge on the Human Health Risk effects of urban BTEX pollution, furthermore focusing on the impact of urban BTEX on high risk personal such as informal traders, in Southern Africa.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2299
85635
Exploring Perceptions of Local Stakeholders in Climate Change Adaptation in Central and Western Terai, Nepal
Abstract:
Climate change has varied impacts on diverse livelihood sectors, which is more prominent at the community level. The stakeholders and local institutions have been supporting the communities either by building adaptive capacities and resilience or minimizing the impacts of different adaptation interventions. Some of these interventions are effective, whereas others need further dynamisms and exertions considering the complexity of the risks and vulnerabilities. Hence, consolidated efforts of concerned stakeholders are required to minimize and adapt the present and future impacts. This study digs out and analyses the perceptions of local stakeholders in climate change adaptation in Madi and Deukhuri valleys of Nepal through a questionnaire survey. The study has categorized the local stakeholders into 5 groups in the study sites – Farmers groups and cooperatives, Government, I/NGOs, Development banks and education and other organizations. The local stakeholders revealed flood, drought, cold wave and riverbank erosion as the major climatic risks and hazards found in the sites eventually impacting on the loss of agricultural production, loss of agricultural land and properties, loss of livestock, the emergence of diseases and pest. The stakeholders believed that most of the farmers dealing with these impacts based on their traditional knowledge and practices, followed by with the support of NGOs and with the help of neighbors and community. The major supports of the stakeholders to deal with these impacts were on training and awareness, risk analysis and minimization, livelihood improvement, financial support, coordination and networking and facilitation in policy formulation. The stakeholders emphasized primarily on capacity building, appropriate technologies, community-based planning and monitoring, prioritization to the poor and the marginalized and establishment of community fund respectively for building adaptive capacities.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2298
85594
Iron Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Fabricated Calcite Ooids
Abstract:
The precipitated low magnesium calcite ooids in assembled softening unit from natural Mediterranean seawater samples were used as adsorbent media in a comparative study with granular activated carbon media in a two separated single-media filtration vessels (operating in parallel) for removal of iron from aqueous solutions. In each vessel, the maximum bed capacity, which required to be filled, was 13.2 l and the bed filled in the vessels of ooids and GAC were 8.6, and 6.6 l, respectively. The operating conditions applied to the semi-pilot filtration unit were constant pH (7.5), different temperatures (293, 303 and 313 k), different flow rates (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 l/min), different initial Fe(II) concentrations (15–105 mg/ l) and the calculated adsorbent masses were 34.1 and 123 g/l for GAC and calcite ooids, respectively. At higher temperature (313 k) and higher flow rate (60 l/min), the maximum adsorption capacities for ferrous ions by GAC and calcite ooids filters were 3.87 and 1.29 mg/g and at lower flow rate (20 l/min), the maximum adsorption capacities were 2.21 and 3.95 mg/g, respectively. From the experimental data, Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were used to verify the adsorption performance. Therefore, the calcite ooids could act as new highly effective materials in iron removal from aqueous solutions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2297
85320
Environmental Education and Water Resources Management in the City of Belem, Para, Brazil
Abstract:
The environmental education, from Tbilisi, is signaled as an important instrument for conservation and environmental management. However, the social, economic, political and environmental aspects of each place require an environmental management that corresponds to the reality to which they are inserted, as well as environmental education practices. The city of Belém, the capital of the State of Pará, is one of the most important cities in the Amazon Region, and its vast water dimension requires that its watersheds take a careful look at their socio-environmental management. The Estrada Nova Hydrographic Basin is considered as one of the most critical river basins in the city due to flooding, lack of basic sanitation and degradation of water bodies. In this context, environmental education is understood as one of the necessary conditions to reduce environmental degradation. Environmental education presents itself as an instrument of social transformation and conservation of natural resources (especially water resources), where thinking about the sustainability of natural resources is moving towards dialogue on the importance of building an environmental awareness. The commitment that environmental education proposes covers all spheres of society, since the main objective of the same is the transformation of thought and attitudes from the understanding of reality. Therefore, to analyze how the government is managing the basin, as well as the environmental education practices developed in it, is fundamental, so that government can be charged with improvements for the population and for the natural environment. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the influence of environmental education actions developed by local public authorities in the management of the Estrada Nova Hydrographic Basin, Belém/PA. For the accomplishment of this study, some methodological procedures will be used, like documentary analysis, bibliographical survey and fieldwork. If the multivariate statistical method is used to analyze the results obtained in the field. Unfortunately, public policies in the area of ​environmental education in Belém are still moving in short steps, since government interests have had very little dialogue with the socio-environmental problems that affect the Estrada Nova Hydrographic Basin. Both formal and informal environmental education has been poorly developed, hampering the continuous process proposed by water resources management.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2296
85151
Effects of Temperature and Mechanical Abrasion on Microplastics
Abstract:
Since the last decade, a wave of research has begun to study the prevalence and impact of ever-increasing plastic pollution in the environment. The wide application and ubiquitous distribution of plastic have become a global concern due to its persistent nature. The disposal of plastics has emerged as one of the major challenges for waste management landfills. Microplastics (MPs) have found its existence in almost every environment, from the high altitude mountain lake to the deep sea sediments, polar icebergs, coral reefs, estuaries, beaches, and river, etc. Microplastics are fragments of plastics with size less than 5 mm. Microplastics can be classified as primary microplastics and secondary microplastics. Primary microplastics includes purposefully introduced microplastics into the end products for consumers (microbeads used in facial cleansers, personal care product, etc.), pellets (used in manufacturing industries) or fibres (from textile industries) which finally enters into the environment. Secondary microplastics are formed by disintegration of larger fragments under the exposure of sunlight, mechanical abrasive forces by rain, waves, wind and/or water. A number of factors affect the quantity of microplastic present in freshwater environments. In addition to physical forces, human population density proximal to the water body, proximity to urban centres, water residence time, and size of the water body also affects plastic properties. With time, other complex processes in nature such as physical, chemical and biological break down plastics by interfering with its structural integrity. Several studies demonstrate that microplastics found in wastewater sludge being used as manure for agricultural fields, thus having the tendency to alter the soil environment condition influencing the microbial population as well. Inadequate data are available on the fate and transport of microplastics under varying environmental conditions that are required to supplement important information for further research. In addition, microplastics have the tendency to absorb heavy metals and hydrophobic organic contaminants such as PAHs and PCBs from its surroundings and thus acting as carriers for these contaminants in the environment system. In this study, three kinds of microplastics (polyethylene, polypropylene and expanded polystyrene) of different densities were chosen. Plastic samples were placed in sand with different aqueous media (distilled water, surface water, groundwater and marine water). It was incubated at varying temperatures (25, 35 and 40 °C) and agitation levels (rpm). The results show that the number of plastic fragments enhanced with increase in temperature and agitation speed. Moreover, the rate of disintegration of expanded polystyrene is high compared to other plastics. These results demonstrate that temperature, salinity, and mechanical abrasion plays a major role in degradation of plastics. Since weathered microplastics are more harmful as compared to the virgin microplastics, long-term studies involving other environmental factors are needed to have a better understanding of degradation of plastics.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2295
85148
Nano-Pesticides: Recent Emerging Tool for Sustainable Agricultural Practices
Authors:
Abstract:
Nanotechnology offers the potential of simultaneously increasing efficiency as compared to their bulk material as well as reducing harmful environmental impacts of pesticides in field of agriculture. The term nanopesticide covers different pesticides that are cumulative of several surfactants, polymers, metal ions, etc. of nanometer size ranges from 1-1000 nm and exhibit abnormal behavior (high efficacy and high specific surface area) of nanomaterials. Commercial formulations of pesticides used by farmers nowadays cannot be used effectively due to a number of problems associated with them. For example, more than 90% of applied formulations are either lost in the environment or unable to reach the target area required for effective pest control. Around 20−30% of pesticides are lost through emissions. A number of factors (application methods, physicochemical properties of the formulations, and environmental conditions) can influence the extent of loss during application. It is known that among various formulations, polymer-based formulations show the greatest potential due to their greater efficacy, slow release and protection against premature degradation of active ingredient as compared to other commercial formulations. However, the nanoformulations can have a significant effect on the fate of active ingredient as well as may release some new ingredients by reacting with existing soil contaminants. Environmental fate of these newly generated species is still not explored very well which is essential to field scale experiments and hence a lot to be explored in the field of environmental fate, nanotoxicology, transport properties and stability of such formulations. In our preliminary work, we have synthesized polymer based nanoformulation of commercially used weedicide atrazine. Atrazine belongs to triazine class of herbicide, which is used in the effective control of seed germinated dicot weeds and grasses. It functions by binding to the plastoquinone-binding protein in PS-II. Plant death results from starvation and oxidative damage caused by breakdown in electron transport system. The stability of the suspension of nanoformulation containing herbicide has been evaluated by considering different parameters like polydispersity index, particle diameter, zeta-potential under different environmental relevance condition such as pH range 4-10, temperature range from 25°C to 65°C and stability of encapsulation also have been studied for different amount of added polymer. Morphological characterization has been done by using SEM.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2294
85048
Improvement of Ground Water Quality Index Using Citrus limetta
Abstract:
The demand for water is increasing at an alarming rate due to rapid urbanization and increase in population. Due to freshwater scarcity, Groundwater became the necessary source of potable water to major parts of the world. This problem of freshwater scarcity and groundwater dependency is very severe particularly in developing countries and overpopulated regions like India. The present study aimed at evaluating the Ground Water Quality Index (GWQI), which represents overall quality of water at certain location and time based on water quality parameters. To evaluate the GWQI, sixteen water quality parameters have been considered viz. colour, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, total hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, nitrate, sulphate, iron, manganese and fluorides. The groundwater samples are collected from Kadapa City in Andhra Pradesh, India and subjected to comprehensive physicochemical analysis. The high value of GWQI has been found to be mainly from higher values of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, turbidity, alkalinity, hardness, and fluorides. in the present study, citrus limetta (sweet lemon) peel powder has used as a coagulant and GWQI values are recorded in different concentrations to improve GWQI. Sensitivity analysis is also carried out to determine the effect of coagulant dosage, mixing speed and stirring time on GWQI. The research found the maximum percentage improvement in GWQI values are obtained when the coagulant dosage is 100ppm, mixing speed is 100 rpm and stirring time is 10 mins. Alum is also used as a coagulant aid and the optimal ratio of citrus limetta and alum is identified as 3:2 which resulted in best GWQI value. The present study proposes Citrus limetta peel powder as a potential natural coagulant to treat Groundwater and to improve GWQI.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2293
84970
A Plan of Smart Management for Groundwater Resources
Abstract:
Groundwater resources play a vital role in regional water supply because over 1/3 of total demand is satisfied by groundwater resources. Because over-pumpage might cause environmental impact such as land subsidence, a sustainable management of groundwater resource is required. In this study, a blueprint of smart management for groundwater resource is proposed and planned. The framework of the smart management can be divided into two major parts, hardware and software parts. First, an internet of groundwater (IoG) which is inspired by the internet of thing (IoT) is proposed to observe the migration of groundwater usage and the associated response, groundwater levels. Second, algorithms based on data mining and signal analysis are proposed to achieve the goal of providing highly efficient management of groundwater. The entire blueprint is a 4-year plan and this year is the first year. We have finished the installation of 50 flow meters and 17 observation wells. An underground hydrological model is proposed to determine the associated drawdown caused by the measured pumpages. Besides, an alternative to the flow meter is also proposed to decrease the installation cost of IoG. An accelerometer and 3G remote transmission are proposed to detect the on and off of groundwater pumpage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2292
84787
Isolation and Characterization of Chromium Tolerant Staphylococcus aureus from Industrial Wastewater and Their Potential Use to Bioremediate Environmental Chromium
Abstract:
Isolation and characterization of chromium tolerant Staphylococcus aureus from industrial wastewater and their potential use to bioremediate environmental chromium. Objectives: Chromium with its great economic importance in industrial use is major metal pollutant of the environment. Chromium are used in different industries for various applications such as textile, dyeing and pigmentation, wood preservation, manufacturing pulp and paper, chrome plating, steel and tanning. The release of untreated chromium in industrial effluents causes serious threat to environment and human health, therefore, the current study designed to isolate chromium tolerant Staphylococcus aureus for removal of chromium prior to their final discharge into the environment due to its cost effective and beneficial advantage over physical and chemical methods. Methods: Wastewater samples were collected from discharge point of different industries. Heavy metal analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and microbiological analysis such as total viable count, total coliform, fecal coliform and Escherichia coli were conducted. Staphylococcus aureus was identified through gram’s staining, biomeriux vitek 2 microbial identification system and 16S rRNA gene amplification by polymerase chain reaction. Optimum growth conditions with respect to temperature, pH, salt concentrations and effect of chromium on the growth of bacteria, resistance to other heavy metal ions, minimum inhibitory concentration and chromium uptake ability of Staphylococcus aureus strain K1 was determined by spectrophotometer. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern was also determined by disc diffusion method. Furthermore, chromium uptake ability was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope equipped with Oxford Energy Dipersive X-ray (EDX) micro analysis system. Results: The results presented that optimum temperature was 35ᵒC, pH was 8.0 and salt concentration was 0.5% for growth of Staphylococcus aureus K1. The maximum uptake ability of chromium by bacteria was 20mM than other heavy metal ions. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern revealed that Staphylococcus aureus was vancomycin and methicillin sensitive. Non hemolytic activity on blood agar and negative coagulase reaction showed that it was non-pathogenic. Furthermore, the growth of bacteria decreases in the presence of chromium and maximum chromium uptake by bacteria observed at optimum growth conditions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis confirmed the presence of chromium uptake by Staphylococcus aureus K1. Conclusion: The study revealed that Staphylococcus aureus K1 have the potential to bio-remediate chromium toxicity from wastewater. Gradually, this biological treatment becomes more important due to its advantage over physical and chemical methods to protect environment and human health.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2291
84724
Segregation of Domestic Solid Waste: An Evidence of Households’ Knowledge, Attitude, Behavior, and Challenges from Manipal, India
Abstract:
The ever-increasing quantity and variety of domestic solid waste pose a major challenge to both households as well as to municipal authorities. In keeping with the Indian Prime Minister’s mission of Swachh Bharat (Clean India), the local municipal administration distributed 2 buckets to each household in a residential colony in Manipal (an educational town in southern India). Households were instructed to segregate their waste into wet and dry waste and keep these buckets at their gate for daily collection. This paper captures the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of 145 households along with the challenges they face in segregating their wastes. Survey representatives self-administered a questionnaire based on 107 variables that gathered demographic details, attitude and behavior constructs, knowledge about waste segregation and method of disposal for organic, recyclable and hazardous wastes. The study used descriptive tools to explore the data. While 95% of the respondents preferred good segregation practices, only 86% of them exhibited such behavior. 88% of the families observed had members who were either graduates or post-graduates whereas only 37% of the families had women who were working. In both attitude and behavior, 63% of the households did not have working women. Also, among those who practiced segregation, 7% were observed to not practice segregation in spite of the lady member being at home (The authors of this study in no way intend to name women as responsible for waste segregation at home; this thought is based on the fact that while in conversation with households, all respondents opined that women lead this activity). The findings of the study are intended to add value to the existing perceptions of the municipality regarding citizen behavior towards policy implementation/improvement. India as a country faces roadblocks at many levels of policy implementation. The findings of this study are meant to contribute/clarify about the Clean India drive.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2290
84598
Best-Performing Color Space for Land-Sea Segmentation Using Wavelet Transform Color-Texture Features and Fusion of over Segmentation
Abstract:
Color and texture are the two most determinant elements for perception and recognition of the objects in an image. For this reason, color and texture analysis find a large field of application, for example in image classification and segmentation. But, the pioneering work in texture analysis was conducted on grayscale images, thus discarding color information. Many grey-level texture descriptors have been proposed and successfully used in numerous domains for image classification: face recognition, industrial inspections, food science medical imaging among others. Taking into account color in the definition of these descriptors makes it possible to better characterize images. Color texture is thus the subject of recent work, and the analysis of color texture images is increasingly attracting interest in the scientific community. In optical remote sensing systems, sensors measure separately different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum; the visible ones and even those that are invisible to the human eye. The amounts of light reflected by the earth in spectral bands are then transformed into grayscale images. The primary natural colors Red (R) Green (G) and Blue (B) are then used in mixtures of different spectral bands in order to produce RGB images. Thus, good color texture discrimination can be achieved using RGB under controlled illumination conditions. Some previous works investigate the effect of using different color space for color texture classification. However, the selection of the best performing color space in land-sea segmentation is an open question. Its resolution may bring considerable improvements in certain applications like coastline detection, where the detection result is strongly dependent on the performance of the land-sea segmentation. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study conducted on different color spaces in order to show the best-performing color space for land-sea segmentation. In this sense, an experimental analysis is carried out using five different color spaces (RGB, XYZ, Lab, HSV, YCbCr). For each color space, the Haar wavelet decomposition is used to extract different color texture features. These color texture features are then used for Fusion of Over Segmentation (FOOS) based classification; this allows segmentation of the land part from the sea one. By analyzing the different results of this study, the HSV color space is found as the best classification performance while using color and texture features; which is perfectly coherent with the results presented in the literature.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2289
84539
Comparison of Different Methods to Produce Fuzzy Tolerance Relations for Rainfall Data Classification in the Region of Central Greece
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is the comparison of three different methods, in order to produce fuzzy tolerance relations for rainfall data classification. More specifically, the three methods are correlation coefficient, cosine amplitude and max-min method. The data were obtained from seven rainfall stations in the region of central Greece and refers to 20-year time series of monthly rainfall height average. The three methods were used to express these data as a fuzzy relation. This specific fuzzy tolerance relation is reformed into an equivalence relation with max-min composition for all three methods. From the equivalence relation, the rainfall stations were categorized and classified according to the degree of confidence. The classification shows the similarities among the rainfall stations. Stations with high similarity can be utilized in water resource management scenario interchangeably or to augment data from one to another. Due to the complexity of calculations, it is important to find out which of the method is computationally simpler and needs fewer compositions in order to give reliable results.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2288
84538
Critical Terrain Slope Calculation for Locating Small Hydropower Plants
Abstract:
As known, the water energy is a renewable and clean source of energy. Energy production from hydropower has been the first, and still is today a renewable source used to generate electricity. The optimal location and sizing of a small hydropower plant is a very important issue in engineering design which encourages investigation. The aim of this paper is to present a formula that can be utilized for locating the position of a small hydropower plant although there is a high dependence on economic, environmental, and social parameters. In this paper, the economic and technical side of the problem is considered. More specifically, there is a critical terrain slope that determines if the plant should be located at the end of the slope or not. Of course, this formula can be used for a first estimate and does not include detailed economic analysis. At the end, a case study is presented for the location of a small hydropower plant in order to demonstrate the validity of the proposed formula.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2287
84194
Formulation and Anticancer Evaluation of Beta-Sitosterol in Henna Methanolic Extract Embedded in Controlled Release Nanocomposite
Abstract:
In the present study, Beta-Sitosterol in Lawsonia methanolic leaf extract embedded in controlled release nanocomposite was prepared and evaluated for in vivo anticancer efficacy in dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) induced colon cancer. In the present study, colon cancer was induced by s.c injection of DMH (20 mg/kg b.wt) for 15 weeks. The animals were divided into five groups as follows control, DMH alone, DMH and Beta Sitosterol nanocomposite (50mg/kg), DMH and Beta Sitosterol nanocomposite (100 mg/kg) and DMH and Standard Silymarin (100mg/kg) and the treatment was carried out for 15 weeks. At the end of the study period, the blood was withdrawn, and serum was separated for haematological, biochemical analysis and tumor markers. Further, the colonic tissue was removed for the estimation of antioxidants and histopathological analysis. The results of the study displays that DMH intoxication elicits altered haematological parameters (RBC,WBC, and Hb), elevated lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidants level (SOD, CAT, GPX, GST and GSH), elevated lipid profiles (cholesterol and triglycerides), tumor markers (CEA and AFP) and altered colonic tissue histology. Meanwhile, treatment with Beta Sitosterol nanocomposites significantly restored the altered biochemicals parameters in DMH induced colon cancer mediated by its anticancer efficacy. Further, Beta Sitosterol nanocomposite (100 mg/kg) showed marked efficacy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2286
84193
Recycling Waste Product for Metal Removal from Water
Abstract:
The research was performed to assess the potential of nickel smelter slag, an industrial waste, as an adsorbent in the removal of metals from aqueous solution. An investigation was carried out for Arsenic (As), Copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) adsorption from aqueous solution. Smelter slag was obtain from Ni ore at the Vale Inco Ni smelter in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The batch experimental studies were conducted to evaluate the removal efficiencies of smelter slag. The slag was characterized by surface analytical techniques. The slag contained different iron oxides and iron silicate bearing compounds. In this study, the effect of pH, contact time, particle size, competition by other ions, slag dose and distribution coefficient were evaluated to measure the optimum adsorption conditions of the slag as an adsorbent for As, Cu, Pb and Cd. The results showed 95-99% removal of As, Cu, Pb, and almost 50-60% removal of Cd, while batch experimental studies were conducted at 5-10 mg/L of initial concentration of metals, 10 g/L of slag doses, 10 hours of contact time and 170 rpm of shaking speed and 25oC condition. The maximum removal of Arsenic (As), Copper (Cu), lead (Pb) was achieved at pH 5 while the maximum removal of Cd was found after pH 7. The column experiment was also conducted to evaluate adsorption depth and service time for metal removal. This study also determined adsorption capacity, adsorption rate and mass transfer rate. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 3.84 mg/g for As, 4 mg/g for Pb, and 3.86 mg/g for Cu. The adsorption capacity of nickel slag for the four test metals were in decreasing order of Pb > Cu > As > Cd. Modelling of experimental data with Visual MINTEQ revealed that saturation indices of < 0 were recorded in all cases suggesting that the metals at this pH were under- saturated and thus in their aqueous forms. This confirms the absence of precipitation in the removal of these metals at the pHs. The experimental results also showed that Fe and Ni leaching from the slag during the adsorption process was found to be very minimal, ranging from 0.01 to 0.022 mg/L indicating the potential adsorbent in the treatment industry. The study also revealed that waste product (Ni smelter slag) can be used about five times more before disposal in a landfill or as a stabilization material. It also highlighted the recycled slags as a potential reactive adsorbent in the field of remediation engineering. It also explored the benefits of using renewable waste products for the water treatment industry.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):