Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 54437

Environmental and Ecological Engineering

2363
99494
Artificial Neural Network-Based Prediction of Effluent Quality of Wastewater Treatment Plant Employing Data Preprocessing Approaches
Abstract:
Prediction of treated wastewater quality is a matter of growing importance in water treatment procedure. In this way artificial neural network (ANN), as a robust data-driven approach, has been widely used for forecasting the effluent quality of wastewater treatment. However, developing ANN model based on appropriate input variables is a major concern due to the numerous parameters which are collected from treatment process and the number of them are increasing in the light of electronic sensors development. Various studies have been conducted, using different clustering methods, in order to classify most related and effective input variables. This issue has been overlooked in the selecting dominant input variables among wastewater treatment parameters which could effectively lead to more accurate prediction of water quality. In the presented study two ANN models were developed with the aim of forecasting effluent quality of Tabriz city’s wastewater treatment plant. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was utilized to determine water quality as a target parameter. Model A used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for input selection as a linear variance-based clustering method. Model B used those variables identified by the mutual information (MI) measure. Therefore, the optimal ANN structure when the result of model B compared with model A showed up to 15% percent increment in Determination Coefficient (DC). Thus, this study highlights the advantage of PCA method in selecting dominant input variables for ANN modeling of wastewater plant efficiency performance.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2362
99385
The Use of Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) Stirton and Microbial Biotechnologies for Restoration of Degraded Pastoral Lands: The Case of the Middle Atlas of Morocco
Abstract:
Rangelands and silvopastoral systems in the middle Atlas are under a heavy pressure, which led to pasture degradation, invasion by non-palatable and toxic species and edaphic aridification due to the regression of the global vegetation cover. In this situation, the introduction of multipurpose leguminous shrubs such as Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) Stirton., commonly known as bituminous clover, could be a promising socio-ecological alternative for the rehabilitation of these degraded areas. The application of biofertilizers like plant growth promoting rhizobacteria especially phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) can ensure a successful installation of this plant in the selected degraded areas. The main objective of the present work is to produce well-inoculated seedlings using the best efficient PSB strains in the greenhouse to increase their ability to resist to environmental constraints once transplanted to the field in the central Middle Atlas.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2361
98402
The Impact of Diesel Exhaust Particles on Tight Junction Proteins on Nose and Lung in a Mouse Model
Abstract:
Background: Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) lead to trigger airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway dysfunction or inflammation in respiratory systems. Whether tight junction protein changes can contribute to development or exacerbations of airway diseases remain to be clarified. Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the effect of DEP on tight junction proteins in one airway both nose and lung in a mouse model. Methods: Mice were treated with saline (Sham) and exposed to 100 μg/m³ DEPs 1 hour a day for 5 days a week for 4 weeks and 8 weeks in a closed-system chamber attached to a ultrasonic nebulizer. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was measured and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, nasal lavage (NAL) fluid, lung and nasal tissue was collected. The effects of DEP on tight junction proteins were estimated using western blot, immunohistochemical in lung and nasal tissue. Results: Airway hyperresponsiveness and number of inflammatory cells were higher in DEP exposure group than in control group, and were higher in 4 and 8 weeks model than in control group. The expression of tight junction proteins CLND4, -5, and -17 in both lung and nasal tissue were significantly increased in DEP exposure group than in the control group. Conclusion: These results suggesting that CLDN4, -5 and -17 may be involved in the airway both nose and lung, suggesting that air pollutants cause to disruption of epithelial and endothelial cell barriers. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) as 'The Environmental Health Action Program' (2016001360009) and Soonchunhyang University Research Fund.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2360
97862
Alkali Activated Materials Based on Natural Clay from Raciszyn
Abstract:
Limited resources of raw materials determine the necessity of obtaining materials from other sources. In this area, the most known and widespread are recycling processes, which are mainly focused on the reuse of material. Another possible solution used in various companies to achieve improvement in sustainable development is waste-free production. It involves the production exclusively from such materials, whose waste is included in the group of renewable raw materials. This means that they can: (i) be recycled directly during the manufacturing process of further products or (ii) be raw material obtained by other companies for the production of alternative products. The article presents the possibility of using post-production clay from the Jurassic limestone deposit "Raciszyn II" as a raw material for the production of alkali activated materials (AAM). Such products are currently increasingly used, mostly in various building applications. However, their final properties depend significantly on many factors; the most important of them are: chemical composition of the raw material, particle size, specific surface area, type and concentration of the activator and the temperature range of the heat treatment. Conducted mineralogical and chemical analyzes of clay from the “Raciszyn II” deposit confirmed that this material, due to its high content of aluminosilicates, can be used as raw material for the production of AAM. In order to obtain the product with the best properties, the optimization of the clay calcining process was also carried out. Based on the obtained results, it was found that this process should occur in the range between 750 oC and 800 oC. The use of a lower temperature causes getting a raw material with low metakaolin content which is the main component of materials suitable for alkaline activation processes. On the other hand, higher heat treatment temperatures cause thermal dissociation of large amounts of calcite, which is associated with the release of large amounts of CO2 and the formation of calcium oxide. This compound significantly accelerates the binding process, which consequently often prevents the correct formation of geopolymer mass. The effect of the use of various activators: (i) NaOH, (ii) KOH and (iii) a mixture of KOH to NaOH in a ratio of 10%, 25% and 50% by volume on the compressive strength of the AAM was also analyzed. Obtained results depending on the activator used were in the range from 25 MPa to 40 MPa. These values are comparable with the results obtained for materials produced on the basis of Portland cement, which is one of the most popular building materials.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2359
97587
The Use of Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) Stirton and Microbial Biotechnologies for Restoration of Degraded Pastoral Lands: The Case of the Middle Atlas of Morocco
Abstract:
Rangelands and silvopastoral systems in the middle Atlas are under a heavy pressure, which led to pasture degradation, invasion by non-palatable and toxic species and edaphic aridification due to the regression of the global vegetation cover. In this situation, the introduction of multipurpose leguminous shrubs such as Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) Stirton., commonly known as bituminous clover, could be a promising socio-ecological alternative for the rehabilitation of these degraded areas. The application of biofertilizers like plant growth promoting rhizobacteria especially phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) can ensure a successful installation of this plant in the selected degraded areas. The main objective of the present work is to produce well-inoculated seedlings using the best efficient PSB strains in the greenhouse to increase their ability to resist to environmental constraints once transplanted to the field in the central Middle Atlas.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2358
97585
Assessment of the Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Soybean Sown in Different Types of Moroccan Soils
Abstract:
The present study aims to assess the biological nitrogen fixation in the soybean tested in different Moroccan soils combined with the rhizobial inoculation. These effects were evaluated by the plant growth mainly by the aerial biomass production, total nitrogen content and the proportion of the nitrogen fixed. This assessment clearly shows that the inoculation with bacteria increases the growth of soybean. Five different soils and a control (peat) were used. The rhizobial inoculation was performed by applying the peat that contained a mixture of 2 strains Sinorhizobium fredii HH103 and Bradyrhizobium. The biomass, the total nitrogen content and the proportion of nitrogen fixed were evaluated under different treatments. The essay was realized at the greenhouse the Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismail University. The soybean has shown a great response for the parameters assessed. Moreover, the best response was reported by the inoculated plants compared to non- inoculated and to the absolute control. Finally, good production and the best biological nitrogen fixation present an important ecological technology to improve the sustainable production of soybean and to ensure the increase of the fertility of soils.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2357
97580
A Review of Recent Studies on Advanced Technologies for Water Treatment
Authors:
Abstract:
Growing concern for the presence and contamination of heavy metals in our water supplies has steadily increased over the last few years. A number of specialized technologies including precipitation, coagulation/flocculation, ion exchange, cementation, electrochemical operations, have been developed for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. However, these technologies have many limitations in the application, such as high cost, low separation efficiency, Recently, numerous approaches have been investigated to overcome these difficulties and membrane filtration, advanced oxidation technologies (AOPs), and UV irradiation etc. are sufficiently developed to be considered as alternative treatments. Many factors come into play when selecting wastewater treatment technology, such as type of wastewater, operating conditions, economics etc. This study describes these various treatment technologies employed for heavy metal removal. Advantages and disadvantages of these technologies are also compared to highlight their current limitations and future research needs. For example, we investigated the applicability of the ultrafiltration technology for treating of heavy metal ions (e.g., Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II)) from synthetic wastewater solutions. Results shown that complete removal of metal ions, could be achieved.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2356
97532
Advances in Membrane Technologies for Wastewater Treatment
Authors:
Abstract:
This study provides a literature review of the special issue on wastewater treatment technologies, especially membrane technologies. Currently, wastewater is a serious and increasing worldwide problem with an adverse effect on the environment and living organisms. For this reason, many technologies have been developed to treat wastewater before discharging it to water bodies. We have been discussed membrane technologies to remove contaminants from wastewater such as heavy metals, dyes, pesticides, etc., which represent the main pollutants in wastewater. All the properties of these technologies including performance, economics, simplicity, and operability are also compared with other wastewater treatment technologies. The conventional water treatment technologies have the disadvantages of low separation efficiency, high energy consumption, and strict operating temperature. To overcome these difficulties, membrane technologies have been developed and used in wastewater treatment. Membrane technology uses a selectively permeable membrane to remove suspended and dissolved solids from water. This membrane is a very thin film of synthetic organic or inorganic materials, that can allow a very selective separation between a mixture and its components. Examples of membrane technologies include microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO), electrodialysis (ED), gas separation, etc. Most of these technologies have been used extensively for the treatment of heavy metal wastewater. For instance, wastewater that contains Cu²⁺, Cd²⁺, Pb²⁺, Zn²⁺ was treated by ultrafiltration technology. It was shown that complete removal of metal ions could be achieved.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2355
97522
Comparison of Power Generation Status of Photovoltaic Systems under Different Weather Conditions
Abstract:
Based on multivariate statistical analysis theory, this paper uses the principal component analysis method, Mahalanobis distance analysis method and fitting method to establish the photovoltaic health model to evaluate the health of photovoltaic panels. First of all, according to weather conditions, the photovoltaic panel variable data are classified into five categories: sunny, cloudy, rainy, foggy, overcast. The health of photovoltaic panels in these five types of weather is studied. Secondly, a scatterplot of the relationship between the amount of electricity produced by each weather and other variables was plotted. It was found that the amount of electricity generated by photovoltaic panels has a significant nonlinear relationship with time. The fitting method was used to fit the relationship between the amount of weather generated and the time, and the nonlinear equation was obtained. Then, using the principal component analysis method to analyze the independent variables under five kinds of weather conditions, according to the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test, it was found that three types of weather such as overcast, foggy, and sunny meet the conditions for factor analysis, while cloudy and rainy weather do not satisfy the conditions for factor analysis. Therefore, through the principal component analysis method, the main components of overcast weather are temperature, AQI (Air Quality Index), and pm2.5. The main component of foggy weather is temperature, and the main components of sunny weather are temperature, AQI, and pm2.5. Cloudy and rainy weather require analysis of all of their variables, namely temperature, AQI, pm2.5, solar radiation intensity and time. Finally, using the Mahalanobis distance method, using the variables of sunny weather as the observed value, using the main components of cloudy, foggy, overcast and rainy weather as sample data, the Mahalanobis distances between observed value and these sample values are obtained. A comparative analysis was carried out to compare the degree of deviation of the Mahalanobis distance to determine the health of the photovoltaic panels under different weather conditions. It was found that the weather conditions in which the Mahalanobis distance fluctuations ranged from small to large were: foggy, cloudy, overcast and rainy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2354
97516
Effect of Polymer Residues for Wastewater Treatment from Petroleum Production
Abstract:
For petroleum industry, polymer flooding is the one of the main methods in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) that is used water-soluble polymer such as partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) to increase oil production. It is added to the flooding water to improve the mobility ratio in the flooding process. During the polymer flooding process, water is produced as a by-product along with oil and gas production. This produced water is a mixture of inorganic and organic compound. Moreover, produced water is more difficult to treat than that from water flooding. In this work, the effect of HPAM residue on the wastewater treatment from polymer flooding is studied. Polyaluminium chloride (PAC) is selected to use as a flocculant. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of polymer residues in produced water on the wastewater treatment by using PAC. The operating parameters of this study are flocculant dosage ranging from 300,400 and 500 mg/L temperature from 30-50 Celsius degree and HPAM concentrations from 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/L. Furthermore, the turbidity, as well as total suspended solids (TSS), are also studied. The results indicated that with an increase in HPAM concentration, the TSS and turbidity increase gradually with the increasing of coagulant dosage under the same temperature. Also, the coagulation-flocculation performance is improved with the increasing temperature. This can be applied to use in the wastewater treatment from oil production before this water can be injected back to the reservoir.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2353
96762
Women Empowerment, Joint Income Ownership and Planning for Building Household Resilience on Climate Change: The Case of Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania
Abstract:
Communities, especially in the global south, have been reported to have low adaptive capacity to cope with climate change impacts. As an attempt to improve adaptive capacity, most studies have focused on understanding the access of the household resources which can contribute to resilience against changes. However, little attention has been shown in uncovering how the household resources could be used and their implications to resilience against weather related shocks. By using a case study qualitative study, this project analyzed the trends in livelihoods practices and their implication to social equity. The study was done in three different villages within Kilimanjaro region. Each in different agro ecological zone. Two focus group discussions in two agro-ecological zones were done, one for women and another one for men except in the third zone where focus group participant were combined together (due to unforeseen circumstances). In the focus group discussion, several participatory rural appraisal tools were used to understand trend in crops and animal production and the use in which it is made: climate trends, soil fertility, trees and other livelihoods resources. Data were analyzed using thematic network analysis. Using an amalgam of magnitude (to note weather comments made were positive or negative) and descriptive coding (to note the topic), six basic themes were identified under social equity: individual ownership, family ownership, love and respect, women no education, women access to education as well as women access to loans. The results implied that despite mum and dad in the family providing labor in the agro pastoral activities, there were separations on who own what, as well as individual obligations in the family. Dad owned mostly income creating crops and mum, food crops. therefore, men controlled the economy which made some of them become arrogant and spend money to meet their interests sometimes not taking care of the family. Separation in ownership was reported to contribute to conflicts in the household as well as causing controversy on the use income is spent. Men were reported to use income to promote matriarchy system. However, as women were capacitated through access to education and loans they become closer to their husband and get access to own and plan the income together for the interest of the family. Joint ownership and planning on the household resources were reported to be important if families have to better adapt to climate change. The aim of this study is not to show women empowerment and joint ownership and planning as only remedy for low adaptive capacity. There is the need to understand other practices that either directly or indirectly impacts environmental integrity, food security and economic development for household resilience against changing climate.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2352
96636
Assessment of Air Pollution with Fine Particles (PM-10, PM-2.5 and PM-1) in Algiers
Abstract:
The aim of the study is the assessment of the air pollution levels by fine particles PM-10, PM-2.5 and PM-1 in the urban area of Algiers. Samples are taken using an HVS-PM-10 sampler equipped with a Sierra-Andersen cascade impactor with four stages. The measurements were carried out during 9 months, from January to September 2014. Results show that air pollution by fine and very fine particles are high and exceed the European and WHO guidelines. The average content of PM-10 rises up to 66.8 µg/m3 with a maximum of 126.2 µg/m³. The PM-2.5 average content amounts to 36.2 µg/m³ and the PM-1 to 22.3 µg/m³. It is shown that PM-10 are distributed according to a bimodal distribution with a good correlation between very fine PM-1 and the respirable PM-2.5 fraction. Analysis of trace heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Pb,..) indicates a significant presence of lead. This atmospheric lead is related to emissions of leaded fuel that is still used in Algeria. The heavy metals of soil dust of earth's crust Fe and Mn are enriched in the coarse fraction (diameter range 2.5-10 µm). In Algiers, road traffic, vehicle fleet age, and particles resuspension are the main sources of air pollution by fine particles.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2351
95921
Estimation of PM2.5 Emissions and Source Apportionment Using Receptor and Dispersion Models
Abstract:
Source apportionment using Dispersion model depends primarily on the quality of Emission Inventory. In the present study, a CMB receptor model has been used to identify the sources of PM2.5, while the AERMOD dispersion model has been used to account for missing sources of PM2.5 in the Emission Inventory. A statistical approach has been developed to quantify the missing sources not considered in the Emission Inventory. The inventory of each grid was improved by adjusting emissions based on road lengths and deficit in measured and modelled concentrations. The results showed that in CMB analyses, fugitive sources - soil and road dust - contribute significantly to ambient PM2.5 pollution. As a result, AERMOD significantly underestimated the ambient air concentration at most locations. The revised Emission Inventory showed a significant improvement in AERMOD performance which is evident through statistical tests.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2350
95869
Spatial Distribution and Source Identification of Trace Elements in Surface Soil from Izmir Metropolitan Area
Abstract:
The soil is a crucial component of the ecosystem, and in industrial and urban areas it receives large amounts of trace elements from several sources. Therefore, accumulated pollutants in surface soils can be transported to different environmental components, such as deep soil, water, plants, and dust particles. While elemental contamination of soils is caused mainly by atmospheric deposition, soil also affects the air quality since enriched trace elemental contents in atmospheric particulate matter originate from resuspension of polluted soils. The objectives of this study were to determine the total and leachate concentrations of trace elements in soils of city area in Izmir and characterize their spatial distribution and to identify the possible sources of trace elements in surface soils. The surface soil samples were collected from 20 sites. They were analyzed for total element concentrations and leachate concentrations. Analyses of trace elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ho, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pr, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, W, Y, Yb, Zn and Zr) were carried out using ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer). The elemental concentrations were calculated along with overall median, kurtosis, and skewness statistics. Elemental composition indicated that the soil samples were dominated by crustal elements such as Si, Al, Fe, Ca, K, Mg and the sea salt element, Na which is typical for Aegean region. These elements were followed by Ti, P, Mn, Ba and Sr. On the other hand, Zn, Cr, V, Pb, Cu, and Ni (which are anthropogenic based elements) were measured as 61.6, 39.4, 37.9, 26.9, 22.4, and 19.4 mg/kg dw, respectively. The leachate element concentrations were showed similar sorting although their concentrations were much lower than total concentrations. In the study area, the spatial distribution patterns of elemental concentrations varied among sampling sites. The highest concentrations were measured in the vicinity of industrial areas and main roads. To determine the relationships among elements and to identify the possible sources, PCA (Principal Component Analysis) was applied to the data. The analysis resulted in six factors. The first factor exhibited high loadings of Co, K, Mn, Rb, V, Al, Fe, Ni, Ga, Se, and Cr. This factor could be interpreted as residential heating because of Co, K, Rb, and Se. The second factor associated positively with V, Al, Fe, Na, Ba, Ga, Sr, Ti, Se, and Si. Therefore, this factor presents mixed city dust. The third factor showed high loadings with Fe, Ni, Sb, As, Cr. This factor could be associated with industrial facilities. The fourth factor associated with Cu, Mo, Zn, Sn which are the marker elements of traffic. The fifth factor presents crustal dust, due to its high correlation with Si, Ca, and Mg. The last factor is loaded with Pb and Cd emitted from industrial activities.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2349
95728
Fine-Scale Modeling the Influencing Factors of Multi-Time Dimensions of Transit Ridership at Station Level: The Study of Guangzhou City
Abstract:
Nowadays, China is experiencing rapidly urban rail transit expansions in the world. The purpose of this study is to finely model factors influencing transit ridership at multi-time dimensions within transit stations’ pedestrian catchment area (PCA) in Guangzhou, China. This study was based on multi-sources spatial data, including smart card data, high spatial resolution images, points of interest (POIs), real-estate online data and building height data. Eight multiple linear regression models using backward stepwise method and Geographic Information System (GIS) were created at station-level. According to Chinese code for classification of urban land use and planning standards of development land, residential land-use were divided into three categories: first-level (e.g. villa), second-level (e.g. community) and third-level (e.g. urban villages). Finally, it concluded that: (1) four factors (CBD dummy, number of feeder bus route, number of entrance or exit and the years of station operation) were proved to be positively correlated with transit ridership, but the area of green land-use and water land-use negative correlated instead. (2) The area of education land-use, the second-level and third-level residential land-use were found to be highly connected to the average value of morning peak boarding and evening peak alighting ridership. But the area of commercial land-use and the average height of buildings, were significantly positive associated with the average value of morning peak alighting and evening peak boarding ridership. (3) The area of the second-level residential land-use was rarely correlated with ridership in other regression models. Because private car ownership is still large in Guangzhou now, and some residents living in the community around the stations go to work by transit at peak time, but others are much more willing to drive their own car at non-peak time. The area of the third-level residential land-use, like urban villages, was highly positive correlated with ridership in all models, indicating that residents who live in the third-level residential land-use are the main passenger source of the Guangzhou Metro. (4) The diversity of land-use was found to have a significant impact on the passenger flow on the weekend, but was non-related to weekday. The findings can be useful for station planning, management and policymaking.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2348
95088
Changes in Forest Cover Regulate Streamflow in Central Nigerian Gallery Forests
Abstract:
Gallery forests in sub-Saharan Africa are drastically disappearing due to intensive anthropogenic activities thus reducing ecosystem services, one of which is water provisioning. The role played by forest cover in regulating streamflow and water yield is not well understood, especially in West Africa. This pioneering 2-year study investigated the interrelationships between plant cover and hydrology in protected and unprotected gallery forests. Rainfall, streamflow, and evapotranspiration (ET) measurements/estimates over 2015-2016 were obtained to form a water balance for both catchments. In addition, transpiration in the protected gallery forest with high vegetation cover was calculated from stomatal conductance readings of selected species chosen from plot level data of plant diversity and abundance. Results showed that annual streamflow was significantly higher in the unprotected site than the protected site, even when normalized by catchment area. However, streamflow commenced earlier and lasted longer in the protected site than the degraded unprotected site, suggesting regulation by the greater tree density in the protected site. Streamflow correlated strongly with rainfall with the highest peak in August. As expected, transpiration measurements were less than potential evapotranspiration estimates, while rainfall exceeded ET in the water cycle. The water balance partitioning suggests that the lower vegetation cover in the unprotected catchment leads to a larger runoff in the rainy season and less infiltration, thereby leading to streams drying up earlier, than in the protected catchment. This baseline information is important in understanding the contribution of plants in water cycle regulation, for modeling integrative water management in applied research and natural resource management in sustaining water resources with changing the land cover and climate uncertainties in this data-poor region.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2347
94998
Study on Ecological Water Demand Evaluation of Typical Mountainous Rivers in Zhejiang Province: Taking Kaihua River as an Example
Abstract:
In view of the ecological environmental problems and protection needs of mountainous rivers in Zhejiang province, a suitable ecological water demand evaluation system was established based on investigation and monitoring. Taking the Kaihua river as an example, the research on ecological water demand and the current situation evaluation were carried out. The main types of ecological water demand in Majin River are basic ecological flow and lake wetland outside the river, and instream flow and water demands for water quality in Zhongcun river. In the wet season, each ecological water demand is 18.05m3/s and 2.56m3 / s, and in the dry season is 3.00m3/s and 0.61m3/s. Three indexes of flow, duration and occurrence time are used to evaluate the ecological water demand. The degree of ecological water demand in the past three years is low level of satisfaction. Meanwhile, the existing problems are analyzed, and put forward reasonable and operable safeguards and suggestions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2346
94868
Physico-Chemical and Heavy Metals Analysis of Contaminated Ndawuse River in North Central of Nigeria
Abstract:
The study assessed quality of surface water across Ndawuse River Phase 1, District of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria based on physico-chemical variables that are linked to agrochemical and eutrophication, as well as heavy metals concentrations. In total, sixteen surface water samples were obtained from five locations along the river. The results were compared with the standard limits set by both World Health Organization and Federal Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. The results obtained indicated that BOD5, turbidity, 0.014-3.511 mg Fe/L and 0.078-0.14 mg Cr/L were all above the standard limits. The results further showed that the quality of surface water is being significantly affected by human activities around the Ndawuse River which could pose an adverse health risk to several communities that rely on these receiving water bodies primarily as their source of water. Therefore, there is a need for strict enforcement of environmental laws considering the physico-chemical analysis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2345
94511
Impacts of Climate Change on Number of Snowy Days and Snow Season Lengths in Turkey
Abstract:
As a result of global warming and climate change, air temperature has increased and will continue to increase in the future. Increases in air temperatures have effects on a large number of variables in meteorology. One of the most important effects is the changes in the types of precipitation, especially in mid-latitudes. Because of increasing air temperatures, less snowfall was observed in the eastern parts of Turkey. Snowfall provides most of the water supply in spring and summer months, especially in mountainous regions of Turkey. When the temperature begins to increase in spring season, this snow starts to melt and plays an important role in agricultural purposes, drinking water supply and energy production. On the other hand, defining the snow season is very crucial especially in mountainous areas which have winter tourism opportunities. A reduction in the length of the snow season (LSS) in these regions will result in serious consequences in the long run. In the study, snow season was examined for 10 meteorological stations that are located above the altitude of 1000m. These stations have decreasing trends in the ratio of number of snowy days to total precipitation days considering earlier studies. Daily precipitation records with the observation period of 1971-2011 were used in the study. Then, the observation period was separated into 4 non-overlapping parts in order to identify decadal variations. Changes in the length of the snow season with increasing temperatures were obtained for these stations. The results of LSS were evaluated with the number of snowy days for each station. All stations have decreasing trend in number of snowy days for 1971-2011 period. In addition, seven of the results are statistically significant. Besides, decrease is observed regarding the length of snow season for studied stations. The decrease varies between 6.6 and 47.6 days according to decadal snow season averages of the stations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2344
94476
Urban Wastewater Governance in South Africa: A Case Study of Stellenbosch Town
Abstract:
Due to climate change, population growth and rapid urbanization the demand for water in South Africa is inevitably surpassing supply. To address similar challenges globally, there has been a paradigm shift from traditional urban water management practice namely ‘government’ to a ‘governance’ paradigm. From the governance ideology water management principles have emerged for, efficient urban water management. These principles include Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM), a principle which seeks to manage the Urban Water System (UWS) in an integrated manner mimicking natural water systems. Since water as a single resource should satisfy contemporary concerns while adapting to future needs. This paper focused on the Stellenbosch municipality, which is the Water Service Authority of Stellenbosch town. The study investigated drivers of shifting the current urban wastewater management which follows a 'government' paradigm towards 'governance' which is informed by IUWM principles. The study was conducted through Interactive Management soft systems research methodology which follows a qualitative research design. A case study methodology was followed guided by realism research philosophy. Qualitative data gathered was analysed through interpretative structural modelling using Concept Star for Professional Decision-Making (CSPDM) version 3.64 tools. The model deduced that the main drivers in shifting the Stellenbosch municipal urban wastewater management towards IUWM is centred on the social component characterised by over ambitious expectations of the public on municipal water service delivery, which emanates from lack of water education in the community of both the rich and the poor. The Stellenbosch society’s frame of mind on water is that access to adequate clean water and sanitation is a human right. The water service authority i.e. the municipality) has the full responsibility of fulfilling this right according to the South African Constitution. Disruptive events such as the current draught emerged also as a strong driver which may raise an awareness on the value of water. Rapid urbanisation resulting in irregular projected population growth would require innovative ways to deal with wastewater management. Inefficient public participation which stems from a highly unequal society ranging from education, material possessions and interests emerged also as a strong driver as it creates a fertile ground for populism to influence the perceptions of the public in recycling urban wastewater. Poor public participation would influence urban wastewater management plans including the selection of technology to be employed for urban wastewater treatment. Once these strong drivers are addressed the alignment of governance and administration elements towards IUWM is achievable. Hence the point of departure for the desired paradigm shift is the change of serviced communities’ perceptions and behaviours towards urban wastewater management.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2343
94235
The Basin Management Methodology for Integrated Water Resources Management and Development
Abstract:
The challenges of water management are aggravated by global change, which implies high complexity and associated uncertainty; water management is difficult because water networks cross domains (natural, societal, and political), scales (space, time, jurisdictional, institutional, knowledge, etc.) and levels (area: patches to global; knowledge: a specific case to generalized principles). In this context, we need to apply natural and non-natural measures to manage water and soil. The Basin Management Methodology considers multifunctional measures of natural water retention and erosion control and soil formation to protect water resources and address the challenges related to the recovery or conservation of the ecosystem, as well as natural characteristics of water bodies, to improve the quantitative status of water bodies and reduce vulnerability to floods and droughts. This method of water management focuses on the positive impacts of the chemical and ecological status of water bodies, restoration of the functioning of the ecosystem and its natural services; thus, contributing to both adaptation and mitigation of climate change. This methodology was applied in 7 interventions in the sub-basin of the Shullcas River in Huancayo-Junín-Peru, obtaining great benefits in the framework of the participation of alliances of actors and integrated planning scenarios. To implement the methodology in the sub-basin of the Shullcas River, a process called Climate Smart Territories (CST) was used; with which the variables were characterized in a highly complex space. The diagnosis was then worked using risk management and adaptation to climate change. Finally, it was concluded with the selection of alternatives and projects of this type. Therefore, the CST approach and process face the challenges of climate change through integrated, systematic, interdisciplinary and collective responses at different scales that fit the needs of ecosystems and their services that are vital to human well-being. This methodology is now replicated at the level of the Mantaro river basin, improving with other initiatives that lead to the model of a resilient basin.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2342
94234
Real-Time Radiological Monitoring of the Atmosphere Using an Autonomous Aerosol Sampler
Abstract:
An early and reliable detection of an increased radioactivity level in the atmosphere is one of the key aspects of atmospheric radiological monitoring. Although the standard laboratory procedures provide detection limits as low as few µBq/m³, their major drawback is the delayed result reporting: typically a few days. This issue is the main objective of the HAMRAD project, which gave rise to a prototype of an autonomous monitoring device. It is based on the idea of sequential aerosol sampling using a carrousel sample changer combined with a gamma-ray spectrometer. In our hardware configuration, the air is drawn through a filter positioned on the carrousel so that it could be rotated into the measuring position after a preset sampling interval. Filter analysis is performed via a 50% HPGe detector inside an 8.5cm lead shielding. The spectrometer output signal is then analyzed using DSP electronics and Gamwin software with preset nuclide libraries and other analysis parameters. After the counting, the filter is placed into a storage bin with a capacity of 250 filters so that the device can run autonomously for several months depending on the preset sampling frequency. The device is connected to a central server via GPRS/GSM where the user can view monitoring data including raw spectra and technological data describing the state of the device. All operating parameters can be remotely adjusted through a simple GUI. The flow rate is continuously adjustable up to 10 m³/h. The main challenge in spectrum analysis is the natural background subtraction. As detection limits are heavily influenced by the deposited activity of radon decay products and the measurement time is fixed, there must exist an optimal sample decay time (delayed spectrum acquisition). To solve this problem, we adopted a simple procedure based on sequential spectrum acquisition and optimal partial spectral sum with respect to the detection limits for a particular radionuclide. The prototyped device proved to be able to detect atmospheric contamination at the level of mBq/m³ per an 8h sampling.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2341
94214
Hydrological-Economic Modeling of Two Hydrographic Basins of the Coast of Peru
Abstract:
There are very few models that serve to analyze the use of water in the socio-economic process. On the supply side, the joint use of groundwater has been considered in addition to the simple limits on the availability of surface water. In addition, we have worked on waterlogging and the effects on water quality (mainly salinity). In this paper, a 'complex' water economy is examined; one in which demands grow differentially not only within but also between sectors, and one in which there are limited opportunities to increase consumptive use. In particular, high-value growth, the growth of the production of irrigated crops of high value within the basins of the case study, together with the rapidly growing urban areas, provides a rich context to examine the general problem of water management at the basin level. At the same time, the long-term aridity of nature has made the eco-environment in the basins located on the coast of Peru very vulnerable, and the exploitation and immediate use of water resources have further deteriorated the situation. The presented methodology is the optimization with embedded simulation. The wide basin simulation of flow and water balances and crop growth are embedded with the optimization of water allocation, reservoir operation, and irrigation scheduling. The modeling framework is developed from a network of river basins that includes multiple nodes of origin (reservoirs, aquifers, water courses, etc.) and multiple demand sites along the river, including places of consumptive use for agricultural, municipal and industrial, and uses of running water on the coast of Peru. The economic benefits associated with water use are evaluated for different demand management instruments, including water rights, based on the production and benefit functions of water use in the urban agricultural and industrial sectors. This work represents a new effort to analyze the use of water at the regional level and to evaluate the modernization of the integrated management of water resources and socio-economic territorial development in Peru. It will also allow the establishment of policies to improve the process of implementation of the integrated management and development of water resources. The input-output analysis is essential to present a theory about the production process, which is based on a particular type of production function. Also, this work presents the Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) version of the economic model for water resource policy analysis, which was specifically designed for analyzing large-scale water management. As to the platform for CGE simulation, GEMPACK, a flexible system for solving CGE models, is used for formulating and solving CGE model through the percentage-change approach. GEMPACK automates the process of translating the model specification into a model solution program.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2340
94110
Passive Seismic in Hydrogeological Prospecting: The Case Study from Hard Rock and Alluvium Plain
Abstract:
Passive seismic, a wavefield interferometric imaging, low cost and rapid tool for subsurface investigation is used for various geotechnical purposes such as hydrocarbon exploration, seismic microzonation, etc. With the recent advancement, its application has also been extended to groundwater exploration by means of finding the bedrock depth. Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR)-National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI) has experimented passive seismic studies along with electrical resistivity tomography for groundwater in hard rock (Choutuppal, Hyderabad). Passive Seismic with Electrical Resistivity (ERT) can give more clear 2-D subsurface image for Groundwater Exploration in Hard Rock area. Passive seismic data were collected using a Tromino, a three-component broadband seismometer, to measure background ambient noise and processed using GRILLA software. The passive seismic results are found corroborating with ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomography) results. For data acquisition purpose, Tromino was kept over 30 locations consist recording of 20 minutes at each station. These location shows strong resonance frequency peak, suggesting good impedance contrast between different subsurface layers (ex. Mica rich Laminated layer, Weathered layer, granite, etc.) This paper presents signature of passive seismic for hard rock terrain. It has been found that passive seismic has potential application for formation characterization and can be used as an alternative tool for delineating litho-stratification in an urban condition where electrical and electromagnetic tools cannot be applied due to high cultural noise. In addition to its general application in combination with electrical and electromagnetic methods can improve the interpreted subsurface model.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2339
93988
Sulfate Radicals Applied to the Elimination of Selected Pollutants in Water Matrices
Abstract:
Five selected pollutants which are frequently present in waters and wastewaters have been degraded by the advanced oxidation process constituted by UV radiation activated with the additional presence of persulfate (UV/PS). These pollutants were 1H-benzotriazole (BZ), N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide or DEET (DT), chlorophene (CP), 3-methylindole (ML), and nortriptyline hydrochloride (NH).While UV radiation alone almost not degraded these substances, the addition of PS generated the very reactive and oxidizing sulfate radical SO₄⁻. The kinetic study provided the second order rate constants for the reaction between this radical and each pollutant. An increasing dose of PS led to an increase in the degradation rate, being the highest results obtained at near neutral pH. Several water matrices were tested, and the presence of bicarbonate showed different effects: a decrease in the elimination of DT, BZ, and NH; and an increase in the oxidation of CP and ML. The additional presence of humic acids (AH) decreased this degradation, because of several effects: light screening and radical scavenging. The presence of several natural substances in waters (both types, inorganic and organic matter) usually diminishes the oxidation rates of organic pollutants, but this combination UV/PS process seems to be an efficient solution for the removal of the selected contaminants when are present in contaminated waters.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2338
93838
Studying the Effect of Froude Number and Densimetric Froude Number on Local Scours around Circular Bridge Piers
Abstract:
A very large percentage of bridge failures are attributed to scouring around bridge piers and this directly influences public safety. Experiments are carried out in a 12-m long rectangular open channel flume made of transparent tempered glass. A 300 mm thick bed made up of sand particles is leveled horizontally to create the test bed and a 50 mm hollow plastic cylinder is used as a model bridge pier. Tests are carried out with varying flow depths and velocities. Data points of various scour parameters such as scour depth, width, and length are collected based on different flow conditions and visual observations of changes in the stream bed downstream the bridge pier are also made as the scour progresses. Result shows that all three major flow characteristics (flow depth, Froude number and densimetric Froude number) have one way or other affect the scour profile.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2337
93816
Pollutants Removal from Synthetic Wastewater by the Combined Electrochemical Sequencing Batch Reactor
Abstract:
Synthetic domestic wastewater was treated via combining treatment methods, including electrochemical oxidation, adsorption and sequencing batch reactor (SBR). In the upper part of the reactor, an anode and a cathode (Ti/RuO2-IrO2) were organized in parallel for the electrochemical oxidation procedure. Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) with a concentration of 2.5 g/L was applied as the electrolyte. The voltage and current were fixed at 7.50 V and 0.40 A, respectively. Then, 15% working value of the reactor was filled by activated sludge, and 85% working value of the reactor was added with synthetic wastewater. Powdered cockleshell, 1.5 g/L, was added in the reactor to do ion-exchange. Response surface methodology was employed for statistical analysis. Reaction time (h) and pH were considered as independent factors. A total of 97.0% biochemical oxygen demand, 99.9% phosphorous and 88.6% cadmium were eliminated at the optimum reaction time (80.0 min) and pH (6.4).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2336
93589
Industrial and Environmental Safety in the Integrated Security Policy of the Industry: A Corporation and an Enterprise
Abstract:
Today, in the context of rapidly developing technosphere and hourly emerging new technologies, the industrial and environmental safety issue is ever more pressing. The article is devoted to the relationship of social, environmental, and industrial policies with industrial safety, occupational health and safety, environmental safety, and environmental protection. The author assesses the up-to-day situation through system analysis and on the basis of the existing practices. A complex system of the policies implementation without "gaps" and missing links ensures preservation of human lives, health and a favorable living environment. The author demonstrates that absence of an "environmental safety" high-priority link can lead to a significant loss of human lives and health and the global changes in the environment. The role of implementing the environmental policy of enterprises and organizations, and of economic sectors in the implementation of national environmental policy is shown. It was established that the system for implementing environmental policy should be based on a system analysis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2335
93546
Assessment of Compost Usage Quality and Quality for Agricultural Use: A Case Study of Hebron District, Palestine
Abstract:
Complying with the technical specifications of compost production is of high importance not only for environmental protection but also for increasing the productivity and promotion of compost use by farmers in agriculture. This study focuses on the compost quality of the Palestinian market and farmers’ attitudes toward agricultural use of compost. The quality is assessed through selection of 20 compost samples of different suppliers and producers and lab testing for quality parameters, while the farmers’ attitudes to compost use for agriculture are evaluated through survey questionnaire of 321 farmers in the Hebron area. The results showed that the compost in the Palestinian markets is of medium quality due to partial or non-compliance with the quality standards and guidelines. The Palestinian farmers showed a positive attitude since 91.2% of them have the desire to use compost in agriculture. The results also showed that knowledge of difference between compost and chemical fertilizers, perception of compost benefits and previously experiencing problems in compost use, are significant factors affecting the farmers’ attitude toward the use of compost as an organic fertilizer.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2334
93484
Assessment of the Physico-Chemical Parameters and Heavy Metal Concentration in Water and Callinectes amnicola (Swimming Crab) in a Crude Oil Exposed Community (Bodo Creek), Rivers State, Nigeria
Abstract:
The exploration and production of fossil fuel particularly crude oil has led to some serious environmental damage in some oil producing communities like the Bodo Community who rely heavily on their aquatic environment for food and water. This study was therefore carried out to investigate the level of some heavy metals in water and Callinectes amnicola (Swimming Crab) in the month of August, September and October from Bodo creek, Rivers State, Nigeria. The physico-chemical parameters of the water were also analyzed in-situ. The levels of heavy metals, Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu) were analyzed in water and in Callinectes amnicola (Swimming Crab), using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) after acid digestion. For the concentration of heavy metals in water, Pb ranged from 0.103 - 0.791 mg/l, Zn 0.0025 - 0.342 mg/l, Cr < 0.001 - 0.304 mg/l, Cd 0.011 - 0.116 mg/l and Cu < 0.001 - 0.079 mg/l. For the concentration of heavy metals in Callinectes amnicola (Swimming Crab), the level of Pb ranged from 0.359 - 0.849 mg/l, Zn 0.134 - 0.342 mg/l, Cd 0.053 - 0.103 mg/l, Cr < 0.001 - < 0.001 mg/l, Cu < 0.001 - 0.131 mg/l. The concentrations of Pb, Cd and Cr for all water and crab samples collected from the various stations were higher than permissible level suggesting serious anthropogenic influence. Thus, precaution needs to be taken to prevent further contamination and adequate purification measures need to be put in place. Therefore, there should be periodic environmental pollution monitoring, for assessment and awareness especially with regards heavy metal.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):