Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 50720

Fashion and Textile Engineering

108
87856
Impact of Story-Telling through Indian Textiles: Mata Ni Pachedi and Pabuji Ki Phad
Abstract:
In the endeavour of connecting culture to stories, textile to narratives and people to material, authors analyse the impact of narratives in two popular Indian textiles namely - Mata Ni Pachedi and Pabuji Ki Phad. These textiles narrate people’s tale or Folk tale. Each textile has a style or format in which the story is told (and it is visual). Mata Ni Pachedi, when translated into the English language literally means behind the mother goddess. Mata Ni Pachedi is an Indian textile from the province of Gujarat which constitutes an entire temple of the goddess, with the idol herself in it. On the other hand, Pabuji ki Phad is scroll painting of folk deities of Rajasthan, narrated by Bhopas (the Priest singers of Rajasthan). These textiles narrate stories of ordinary people with extraordinary courage, of social reform, and people’s belief in the divine. Authors take to task their years of craft-cluster study conducted in the past and use existing literature to map their journey in the preliminary phase of research. And then carried out an ethnographic study by visiting the origins of these textiles in Rajasthan and Gujrat (in India), met artisans and their families who are still practicing these dying art form, in order to understand the format and impact of textile story-telling. This research paper talks about the narrative in Indian textiles; the stories in them, artisans and their life as metaphorical representations of the People in Mata Ni Pachedi and Pabuji Ki Phad.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
107
85799
Polymerization of Epsilon-Caprolactone Using Lipase Enzyme for Medical Applications
Abstract:
Polycaprolactone is polymer belonging to the polyester family that has noticeable characteristics of biodegradability and biocompatibility which is essential for medical applications. Polycaprolactone is produced by the ring opening polymerization of the monomer epsilon-Caprolactone (ε-CL) which is a closed ester, comprising of seven-membered ring. This process is normally catalysed by metallic components such as stannous octoate. It is difficult to remove the catalysts after the reaction, and they are also toxic to the human body. An alternate route of using enzymes as catalysts is being employed to reduce the toxicity. Lipase enzyme is a subclass of esterase that can easily attack the ester bonds of ε-CL. This research paper throws light on the extraction of lipase from germinating sunflower seeds and the activity of the biocatalyst in the polymerization of ε-CL. Germinating Sunflower seeds were crushed with fine sand in phosphate buffer of pH 6.5 into a fine paste which was centrifuged at 5000rpm for 10 minutes. The clear solution of the enzyme was tested for activity at various pH ranging from 5 to 7 and temperature ranging from 40oC to 70oC. The enzyme was active at pH6.0 and at 600C temperature. Polymerization of ε-CL was done using toluene as solvent with the catalysis of lipase enzyme, after which chloroform was added to terminate the reaction and was washed in cold methanol to obtain the polymer. The polymerization was done by varying the time from 72 hours to 6 days and tested for the molecular weight and the conversion of the monomer. The molecular weight obtained at 6 days is comparably higher. This method will be very effective, economical and eco-friendly to produce as the enzyme used can be regenerated as such at the end of the reaction and can be reused. The obtained polymers can be used for drug delivery and other medical applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
106
85760
Fashion and Soft War: Analysis of Iran's Regulatory Measures for Fashion Industry
Abstract:
Since 2009, when the Green movement, Iran’s most significant political uprising in post-Islamic revolution materialized, the term 'soft war' has become an integral part of the Iranian regime’s lexicon when addressing the media propaganda waged by the west and the regime’s so-called 'enemies'. Iran’s authorities describe soft war as a western campaign aiming at undermining the revolutionary values by covert activities, deploying cultural tools and purposeful dissemination of information. With this respect, Internet and in particular, the social media networks, and oppositional radio-television broadcasts have been considered as the west’s soft war conduits. With the rising of the underground fashion industry in the past couple of years that does not conform to the compulsory dress codes prescribed by the state, the Islamic regime expands the soft war narrative to include any undesired fashion-related activities and frames the rising fashion industry as a cultural war intoxicating the Iranian-Islamic identity. Accordingly, fashion products created by the Iranian fashion intermediators have been attributed to the westerners and outsiders and are regarded as the matter of national security. This study examines the reactive and proactive measures deployed by the Iranian regime to control the rise of fashion industry. It further puts under the scrutiny how the state as a part of its proactive measure shapes the narrative of 'soft war' in relation to fashion in Iran and explores how the notion of soft war has been articulated in relation to the modeling and fashion in the state’s political rhetoric. Through conducting a content analysis of the authorities’ statements, it describes how the narrative of soft war assists the state policing the fashion industry.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
105
84935
Investigating the Need to Align with and Adapt Sustainability of Cotton
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper investigates the need of cotton to integrate sustainability. The methodology used in the paper is to do secondary research to find out the various environmental implications of cotton as textile material across its life cycle and try to look at ways and possibilities of minimizing its ecological footprint. Cotton is called ‘The Fabric of Our Lives’. History is replete with examples where this fabric used to be more than a fabric of lives. It used to be a miracle fabric, a symbol India’s pride and social Movement of Swaraj, Gandhijee’s clarion call to self reliance. Cotton is grown in more than 90 countries across the globe on 2.5 percent of the world's arable land in countries like China, India, United States, etc. accounting for almost three fourth of global production. But cotton as a raw material has come under the scanner of sustainability experts because of myriad reasons a few have been discussed here. It may take more than 20,000 liters of water to produce 1kg of cotton. Cotton harvest is primarily done from irrigated land which leads to Salinization and depletion of local water reservoirs, e.g., Drying up of Aral Sea. Cotton is cultivated on 2.4% of total world’s crop land but accounts for 24% usage of insecticide and shares the blame of 11% usage of pesticides leading to health hazards and having an alarmingly dangerous impact on the ecosystem. One of the possible solutions to these problems as proposed was GM, Genetically Modified cotton crop. However, use of GM cotton is still debatable and has many ethical issues. The practice of mass production and increasing consumerism and especially fast fashion has been major culprits to disrupt this delicate balance. Disposable fashion or fast fashion is on the rise and cotton being one of the major choices adds on to the problem. Denims – made of cotton and have a strong fashion statement and the washes being an integral part of their creation they share a lot of blame. These are just a few problems listed. Today Sustainability is the need of the hour and it is inevitable to incorporate have major changes in the way we cultivate and process cotton to make it a sustainable choice. The answer lies in adopting minimalism and boycotting fast fashion, in using Khadi, in saying no to washed denims and using selvedge denims or using better methods of finishing the washed out fabric so that the environment does not bleed blue. Truly, the answer lies in integrating state of art technology with age old sustainable practices so that the synergy of the two may help us come out of the vicious circle.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
104
84920
Sustainable Textiles: Innovation through Waste
Abstract:
This paper traces the waste produced by the textile industry and evaluates the need for this waste to be reused or repurposed. From ancient times the textile industry has been a prominent part of all the economies of the world. It is famous for traditional as well as mill made fabrics. However the beauty and utility radiated by the textiles are juxtaposed by the piling amount of waste that the whole life cycle of a textile production and disposal entails. Waste happens in stages in a textile life cycle. It can be broadly categorised as pre-consumer and post-consumer waste. This research suggests suitable processes and techniques for channelizing post-industrial waste. It explores the scope of textile waste as a raw material for innovation and design. It discusses the role of designers in using waste to create useful and appealing designs. The paper examines the need of designers to create novel ideas to reuse textiles. This paper is based on secondary research. Most of the information used is taken from books and journals. The DEFRA report 2009 is also consulted for comprehensive data on textile waste percentage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
103
81405
Impact on Underprivileged People Practising Expressive Textile Arts: An Exploratory Study Applied to Ex-Offenders in Hong Kong
Authors:
Abstract:
This study aims to investigate the impact of practicing expressive textile arts on the underprivileged people namely, ex-offenders after taking a three-month textile arts and fashion creativity workshops from a service-learning subject, offered by the Hong Kong Polytechnic University in May 2016. In this service-learning subject, the subject lecturers, students and ex-offenders co-designed various expressive textile artworks together. During the creative process, the ex-offenders could enhance their self-confidence and rebuild a satisfactory identity through practicing expressive textile arts and fashion creativity. Ten textile arts prototypes in the format of fashion garments were presented in a mini fashion show and an exhibition, both at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University in July 2016. A quantitative research method was adopted and a questionnaire survey was conducted in this study. The research findings suggest that positive impacts are found on the ex-offenders’ perceptions of ‘feelings and thoughts before attending the workshops’, ‘feelings and thoughts during the workshops’, ‘attitude toward the textile arts materials’, and ‘attitude toward the expressive textile artworks’.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
102
79300
Bacterial Decontamination of Nurses' White Coats by Application of Antimicrobial Finish
Abstract:
New pathogenic strains of microbes are continually emerging and resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is growing. Hospitals in India have a high burden of infections in their intensive care units and general wards. Rising incidence of hospital infections is a matter of great concern in India. This growth is often attributed to the absence of effective infection control strategies in healthcare facilities. Government, therefore, is looking for cost effective strategies that are effective against HAIs. One possible method is by application of an antimicrobial finish on the uniform. But there are limited studies to show the effect of antimicrobial activity of antimicrobial finish treated nurses’ uniforms in a real hospital set up. This paper proposes a prospective non-destructive sampling technique, based on the use of a detachable fabric patch, to assess the effectiveness of silver based antimicrobial agent across five wards in a tertiary care government hospital in Delhi, India. Fabrics like polyester and polyester cotton blend fabric which are more prevalent for making coats were selected for the study. Polyester and polyester cotton blend fabric was treated with silver based antimicrobial (AM) finish. At the beginning of shift, a composite patch of untreated and treated fabric respectively was stitched on the abdominal region on the left and right side of the washed white coat of participating nurse. At the end of the shift, the patch was removed and taken for bacterial sampling on Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) plates. Microbial contamination on polyester and blend fabrics after 6 hours shift was compared in Brain Heart Infusion broth (BHI). All patches treated with silver based antimicrobial agent showed decreased bacterial counts. Percent reduction in the bacterial colonies after the antimicrobial treatment in both fabrics was 81.0 %. Antimicrobial finish was equally effective in reducing microbial adhesion on both fabric types. White coats of nurses become progressively contaminated during clinical care. Type of fabric used to make the coat can affect the extent of contamination which is higher on polyester cotton blend as compared to 100% polyester. The study highlights the importance of silver based antimicrobial finish in the area of uniform hygiene. Bacterial load can be reduced by using antimicrobial finish on hospital uniforms. Hospital staff uniforms endowed with antimicrobial properties may be of great help in reducing the occurrence and spread of infections.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
101
79183
The Impact of Direct and Indirect Pressure Measuring Systems on the Pressure Mapping for the Medical Compression Garments
Abstract:
While graduated compression is the foundation of treatment and management of many medical complications such as leg ulcer, varicose veins, and lymphedema, monitoring the interface pressure has been conducted using different sensors that operate based on diverse approaches. The variations existed from the pressure readings collected using different interface pressure measurement systems would cause difficulties in taking a decision regarding the compression therapy. It is crucial to acknowledge the differences existing between direct and indirect pressure measurement systems while considering the commercially available systems such as AMI, Picopress and OPM which are under direct measurements systems, and HATRA (BSI), HOSY (RAL-GZ) and FlexiForce which comes under the indirect measurement system. Furthermore, Piezo-resistive sensors (Flexiforce) can measure the changes in resistance corresponding to the applied force on the sensing area. Direct pressure measuring systems are capable of measuring interface pressure on the three-dimensional states, while the indirect pressure measuring systems stretch the fabric in the two-dimensional direction and extrapolate pressure from surface tension measured on the device and neglect the vital factor which is the radius of curvature. In this study, a leg mannequin of known dimensions is selected with a knitted class 3 compression stocking. It has been decided to evaluate the data collected from different available systems (AMI, PicoPress, FlexiForce, and HATRA) and compare the results. The results showed a discrepancy between Hatra, AMI, Picopress, and Flexiforce against the pressure standard used to generate class 3 compression stocking. As predicted a higher pressure value with direct interface measuring systems were monitored against HATRA due to the effect of the radius of curvature.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
100
79119
Design of an Active Compression System for Treating Vascular Disease Using a Series of Silicone Based Inflatable Mini Bladders
Abstract:
Venous disease of human lower limb could range from minor asymptomatic incompetence of venous valves to chronic venous ulceration. The sheer prevalence of varicose veins and its associated significant costs of treating late complications such as chronic ulcers contribute to a higher burden on health care resources. In most of western countries with developed health care systems, treatment costs associated with Venous disease accounts for a considerable portion of their total health care budget, and it has become a high-cost burden to National Health Service (NHS), UK. The established gold standard of treatment for the venous disease is the graduated compression, where the pressure at the ankle being highest and decreasing towards the knee and thigh. Currently, medical practitioners use two main methods to treat venous disease; i.e. compression bandaging and compression stockings. Both these systems have their own disadvantages which lead to the current programme of research. The aim of the present study is to revolutionize the compression therapy by using a novel active compression system to deliver a controllable and more accurate pressure profiles using a series of inflatable mini bladders. Two types of commercially available silicones were tested for the application. The mini bladders were designed with a special fabrication procedure to provide required pressure profiles, and a series of experiments were conducted to characterise the mini bladders. The inflation/deflation heights of these mini bladders were investigated experimentally and using a finite element model (FEM), and the experimental data were compared to the results obtained from FEM simulations, which showed 70-80% agreement. Finally, the mini bladders were tested for its pressure transmittance characteristics, and the results showed a 70-80% of inlet air pressure transmitted onto the treated surface.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
99
79095
Substantiate the Effects of Reactive Dyes and Aloe Vera on the Ultra Violet Protective Properties on Cotton Woven and Knitted Fabrics
Authors:
Abstract:
The incidence of skin cancer has been rising worldwide due to excessive exposure to sun light. Climatic changes and depletion of ozone layer allow the easy entry of UV rays on earth, resulting skin damages such as sunburn, premature skin ageing, allergies and skin cancer. Researches have suggested many modes for protection of human skin against ultraviolet radiation; avoidance to outdoor activities, using textiles for covering the skin, sunscreen and sun glasses. However, this paper gives an insight about how textile material specially woven and knitted cotton can be efficiently utilized for protecting human skin from the harmful ultraviolet radiations by combining reactive dyes with Aloe Vera. Selection of the fabric was based on their utility and suitability as per the climate condition of the country for the upper and lower garment. A standard dyeing process was used, and Aloe Vera molecules were applied by in-micro encapsulation technique. After combining vat dyes with Aloe Vera excellent UPF (Ultra violet Protective Factor) was observed. There is a significant change in the UPF of vat dyed cotton fabric after treatment with Aloe Vera.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
98
77249
A Bio-Inspired Approach to Produce Wettable Nylon Fabrics
Abstract:
Surface modifications are vital to accomplish the moisture management property in highly demanded synthetic fabrics. Biomimetic and bio-inspired surface modifications are identified as one of the fascinating areas of research. In this study, nature’s way of cooling elephants’ body temperature using mud bathing was mimicked to create a superior wettable nylon fabric with improved comfortability. For that, bentonite nanoclay was covalently grafted on nylon fabric using silane as a coupling agent. Fourier transform infrared spectra and Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the successful grafting of nanoclay on nylon. The superior wettability of surface modified nylon was proved by standard protocols. This fabric coating strongly withstands more than 50 cycles of laundry. It is expected that this bio-inspired wettable nylon fabric may break the barrier of using nylon in various hydrophilic textile applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
97
75945
Green Technologies and Sustainability in the Care and Maintenance of Protective Textiles
Abstract:
Protective textiles get soiled, stained and even worn during their use, which may not be usable after a certain period due to the loss of protective performance. They need regular cleaning and maintenance, which helps to extend the durability of the clothing, retains their useful properties and ensures that fresh clothing is ready to wear when needed. Generally, the cleaning processes used for various protective clothing include dry-cleaning (using solvents) or wet cleaning (using water). These cleaning processes can alter the fabric surface properties, dimensions, physical, mechanical and performance properties. The technology of laundering and dry-cleaning has undergone several changes. Sustainable methods and products are available for faster, safer and improved cleaning of protective textiles. We performed a comprehensive and systematic review of green technologies and eco-friendly products for sustainable cleaning of protective textiles. Special emphasis is given on the care and maintenance procedures of protective textiles for protection from fire, bullets, chemical and other types of protective clothing.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
96
75613
The Influence of Fashion Bloggers on the Pre-Purchase Decision for Online Fashion Products among Generation Y Female Malaysian Consumers
Abstract:
This study explores how fashion consumers are influenced by fashion bloggers towards pre-purchase decision for online fashion products in a non-Western context. Malaysians rank among the world’s most avid online shoppers, with apparel the third most popular purchase category. However, extant research on fashion blogging focuses on the developed Western market context. Numerous international fashion retailers have entered the Malaysian market from luxury to fast fashion segments of the market; however Malaysian fashion consumers must balance religious and social norms for modesty with their dress style and adoption of fashion trends. Consumers increasingly mix and match Islamic and Western elements of dress to create new styles enabling them to follow Western fashion trends whilst paying respect to social and religious norms. Social media have revolutionised the way that consumers can search for and find information about fashion products. For online fashion brands with no physical presence, social media provide a means of discovery for consumers. By allowing the creation and exchange of user-generated content (UGC) online, they provide a public forum that gives individual consumers their own voices, as well as access to product information that facilitates their purchase decisions. Social media empower consumers and brands have important roles in facilitating conversations among consumers and themselves, to help consumers connect with them and one another. Fashion blogs have become an important fashion information sources. By sharing their personal style and inspiring their followers with what they wear on popular social media platforms such as Instagram, fashion bloggers have become fashion opinion leaders. By creating UGC to spread useful information to their followers, they influence the pre-purchase decision. Hence, successful Western fashion bloggers such as Chiara Ferragni may earn millions of US dollars every year, and some have created their own fashion ranges and beauty products, become judges in fashion reality shows, won awards, and collaborated with high street and luxury brands. As fashion blogging has become more established worldwide, increasing numbers of fashion bloggers have emerged from non-Western backgrounds to promote Islamic fashion styles, such as Hassanah El-Yacoubi and Dian Pelangi. This study adopts a qualitative approach using netnographic content analysis of consumer comments on two famous Malaysian fashion bloggers’ Instagram accounts during January-March 2016 and qualitative interviews with 16 Malaysian Generation Y fashion consumers during September-October 2016. Netnography adapts ethnographic techniques to the study of online communities or computer-mediated communications. Template analysis of the data involved coding comments according to the theoretical framework, which was developed from the literature review. Initial data analysis shows the strong influence of Malaysian fashion bloggers on their followers in terms of lifestyle and morals as well as fashion style. Followers were guided towards the mix and match trend of dress with Western and Islamic elements, for example, showing how vivid colours or accessories could be worked into an outfit whilst still respecting social and religious norms. The blogger’s Instagram account is a form of online community where followers can communicate and gain guidance and support from other followers, as well as from the blogger.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
95
75464
Preparation and Analysis of Chitosan-Honey Films for Wound Dressing Application
Abstract:
Increase in antibiotic resistance bacteria leads to the development of active wound dressings, which absorb any bodily fluid, evaporation of moisture at a certain rate and can be easily removed after healing. Natural materials like chitosan, herbs, and honey have number of active materials present in them to accelerate wound healing and to arrest wound in infections. Hence with the advantages of biomaterials, a film was prepared using chitosan and honey. There are a lot of practical considerations with respect to honey. Honey exerts many beneficial actions on the wound surface only when it remains. The attempts to hold honey on the surface of the wound remain a question because honey becomes a very runny liquid when it comes to body temperature. Hence, this research was focused on development of a new form of wound dressing, by holding honey on the wound surface in different form and also which has a combined effect of manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) honey and chitosan. Chitosan-honey film was prepared using casting technique. Films were prepared in different variations; with acetic acid and with lactic acid; with and without honey. In summary, the film produced from 2% chitosan- 1% lactic acid as a solvent, with 10% honey shows optimum inclined values in all the tests, like thickness, folding endurance, weight, water vapor transmission, tensile strength, swelling ratio and antimicrobial activity, with specific reference to wound dressings. The film has water vapor transmission of 1680 g/m²/day, water absorption of 225%, tensile strength of 39.1N/mm² and elongation of 50.3%. There is a notable inhibition zone of 29 mm against S. aureus and 24 mm against E. coli in the case of chitosan-lactic acid-honey film. The film also arrests, microbes transmitting from the outside environment to wound bed, which can be used as an effective wound dressing material.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
94
74264
Contribution to the Development of a New Design of Dentist's Gowns: A Case Study of Using Infra-Red Technology and Pressure Sensors
Abstract:
During tooth extraction or implant surgery, dentists are in contact with numerous infectious germs from patients' saliva and blood. For that reason, dentist's clothes have to play their role of protection from contamination. In addition, dentist's apparels should be not only protective but also comfortable and breathable because dentists have to perform many operations and treatments on patients throughout the day with high concentration and intensity. However, this type of protective garments has not been studied scientifically, whereas dentists are facing new risks and eager for looking for a comfortable personal protective equipment. For that reason, we have proposed some new designs of dentist's gown. They were expected to diminish heat accumulation that are considered as an important factor in reducing the level of comfort experienced by users. Experiments using infra-red technology were carried out in order to compare the breathable properties between a traditional gown and a new design with open zones. Another experiment using pressure sensors was also carried out to study ergonomic aspects trough the flexibility of movements of sleeves. The sleeves-design which is considered comfortable and flexible will be chosen for the further step. The results from the two experiments provide valuable information for the development of a new design of dentists' gowns in order to achieve maximum levels of cooling and comfort for the human body.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
93
72993
Cotton Fabrics Functionalized with Green and Commercial Ag Nanoparticles
Abstract:
Cotton products are sensitive to microorganisms due to its ability to retain moisture, which might cause change into the coloration, mechanical properties reduction or foul odor generation; consequently, this represents risks to the health of users. Nowadays, have been carried out researches to give antibacterial properties to textiles using different strategies, which included the use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The antibacterial behavior can be affected by laundering process reducing its effectiveness. In the other way, the environmental impact generated for the synthetic antibacterial agents has motivated to seek new and more ecological ways for produce AgNPs. The aims of this work are to determine the antibacterial activity of cotton fabric functionalized with green (G) and commercial (C) AgNPs after twenty washing cycles, also to evaluate morphological and color changes. A plain weave cotton fabric suitable for dyeing and two AgNPs solutions were use. C a commercial product and G produced using an ecological method, both solutions with 0.5 mM concentration were impregnated on cotton fabric without stabilizer, at a liquor to fabric ratio of 1:20 in constant agitation during 30min and then dried at 70 °C by 10 min. After that the samples were subjected to twenty washing cycles using phosphate-free detergent simulated on agitated flask at 150 rpm, then were centrifuged and dried on a tumble. The samples were characterized using Kirby-Bauer test determine antibacterial activity against E. coli y S. aureus microorganisms, the results were registered by photographs establishing the inhibition halo before and after the washing cycles, the tests were conducted in triplicate. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the morphologies of cotton fabric and treated samples. The color changes of cotton fabrics in relation to the untreated samples were obtained by spectrophotometer analysis. The images, reveals the presence of inhibition halo in the samples treated with C and G AgNPs solutions, even after twenty washing cycles, which indicated a good antibacterial activity and washing durability, with a tendency to better results against to S. aureus bacteria. The presence of AgNPs on the surface of cotton fiber and morphological changes were observed through SEM, after and before washing cycles. The own color of the cotton fiber has been significantly altered with both antibacterial solutions. According to the colorimetric results, the samples treated with C lead to yellowing while the samples modified with G to red yellowing Cotton fabrics treated AgNPs C and G from 0.5 mM solutions exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against E. coli and S. aureus with good laundering durability effects. The surface of the cotton fibers was modified with the presence of AgNPs C and G due to the presence of NPs and its agglomerates. There are significant changes in the natural color of cotton fabric due to deposition of AgNPs C and G which were maintained after laundering process.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
92
72846
Carbon Coated Yarn Supercapacitors: Parametric Study of Performance Output
Abstract:
Evolution of textiles, from its orthodox to more interactive role has stirred the researchers to uncover its application in numerous arenas. The idea of using textile based materials for wearable energy harvesting and storage devices have gained immense popularity. This is mainly due to textile comfort and flexibility features. In this work, nano-carbonous materials were infused on cellulosic fibers using caustic soda treatment. This paper presents the complete procedure of yarn supercapacitors fabrication process through dip coating technique and its characterization method. The main objective is to study, the effect of varying caustic soda concentration on mass loading of activated carbon on yarns and the related capacitance output of the designed yarn supercapacitor. Polyvinyl alcohol and Phosphoric acid were used as electrolyte in a two-electrode cell assembly to measure device electrochemical performance. The results show a promising increase in capacitance value using this technique.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
91
72623
Structure and Properties of Meltblown Polyetherimide as High Temperature Filter Media
Abstract:
Polyetherimide (PEI), an engineering plastic with very high glass transition temperature and excellent chemical and thermal stability, has been processed into a controlled porosity filter media of varying pore size, performance, and surface characteristics. A special grade of the PEI was processed by melt blowing to produce microfiber nonwovens suitable as filter media. The resulting microfiber webs were characterized to evaluate their structure and properties. The fiber webs were further modified by hot pressing, a post processing technique, which reduces the pore size in order to improve the barrier properties of the resulting membranes. This ongoing research has shown that PEI can be a good candidate for filter media requiring high temperature and chemical resistance with good mechanical properties. Also, by selecting the appropriate processing conditions, it is possible to achieve desired filtration performance from this engineering plastic.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
90
72616
A Polyphonic Look at Trends
Abstract:
The reflection focuses on recording and explaining the considerations, conceptualizations and methodological approach with which from the University, that is to say, from the academic field, the study of Trends is addressed with the intention of training professionals in the area, an area that requires disciplinary boundaries and builds a polyphonic vision. When referring to the objective of our Laboratory the detection of aesthetic trends of consumption, we find ourselves in the requirement to define our object: trends, aesthetic trends of consumption, more specifically. The pages cover a conception of trends from a theoretical framework that incorporates contributions from linguistics, semiotics, sociology, cultural studies and project disciplines, in order to consolidate a polyphonic look. The text investigates in the pre-discursive aspect of the trends, in the circulation of the notion of style and in the dynamics of affirmation - denial as the constitutive dynamics of Fashion linked to any process of innovation. From such inquiry, it is presented to Fashion as a system that operates directly on the construction of socio-individual identities unfolding through the liquefaction of signs in trends.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
89
72364
Exploring Closed-Loop Business Systems Which Eliminates Solid Waste in the Textile and Fashion Industry: A Systematic Literature Review Covering the Developments Occurred in the Last Decade
Abstract:
Introduction: Over the last decade, a proliferation of literature related to textile and fashion business in the context of sustainable production and consumption has emerged. However, the economic and environmental benefits of solid waste recovery have not been comprehensively searched. Therefore at the end-of-life or end-of-use textile waste management remains a gap. Solid textile waste reuse and recycling principles of the circular economy need to be developed to close the disposal stage of the textile supply chain. The environmental problems associated with the over-production and –consumption of textile products arise. Together with growing population and fast fashion culture the share of solid textile waste in municipal waste is increasing. Focusing on post-consumer textile waste literature, this research explores the opportunities, obstacles and enablers or success factors associated with closed-loop textile business systems. Methodology: A systematic literature review was conducted in order to identify best practices and gaps from the existing body of knowledge related to closed-loop post-consumer textile waste initiatives over the last decade. Selected keywords namely: ‘cradle-to-cradle ‘, ‘circular* economy* ‘, ‘closed-loop* ‘, ‘end-of-life* ‘, ‘reverse* logistic* ‘, ‘take-back* ‘, ‘remanufacture* ‘, ‘upcycle* ‘ with the combination of (and) ‘fashion* ‘, ‘garment* ‘, ‘textile* ‘, ‘apparel* ‘, clothing* ‘ were used and the time frame of the review was set between 2005 to 2017. In order to obtain a broad coverage, Web of Knowledge and Science Direct databases were used, and peer-reviewed journal articles were chosen. The keyword search identified 299 number of papers which was further refined into 54 relevant papers that form the basis of the in-depth thematic analysis. Preliminary findings: A key finding was that the existing literature is predominantly conceptual rather than applied or empirical work. Moreover, the enablers or success factors, obstacles and opportunities to implement closed-loop systems in the textile industry were not clearly articulated and the following considerations were also largely overlooked in the literature. While the circular economy suggests multiple cycles of discarded products, components or materials, most research has to date tended to focus on a single cycle. Thus the calculations of environmental and economic benefits of closed-loop systems are limited to one cycle which does not adequately explore the feasibility or potential benefits of multiple cycles. Additionally, the time period textile products spend between point of sale, and end-of-use/end-of-life return is a crucial factor. Despite past efforts to study closed-loop textile systems a clear gap in the literature is the lack of a clear evaluation framework which enables manufacturers to clarify the reusability potential of textile products through consideration of indicators related too: quality, design, lifetime, length of time between manufacture and product return, volume of collected disposed products, material properties, and brand segment considerations (e.g. fast fashion versus luxury brands).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
88
71454
Identification of a Print Design Approach for the Application of Multicolour and Pattern Changing Effects
Abstract:
The main reason for printing coloured imageries, pattern or motif onto textiles is to enhance the visual appearance of the surface so that the final textile product would get the required attention from potential customers. Such colours and patterns are permanently applied onto the textiles using conventional static colourants, and we expect such decorations to be last for the entire lifecycle of the textile product. The focus of this research presentation is to discuss the ability to integrate multicolour and pattern changing aesthetics onto textiles with the application of water based photochromic colourants. By adopting a research through design approach, a number of iterative flatbed screen printing experiments were conducted to explore the process of printing water based photochromic colours on textile surfaces. The research resulted in several technical parameters that have to be considered during the process of screen printing. Moreover, a modified printing technique that could be used to apply decorative photographic imagery onto textile with multicolour changing effects was also identified. A number of product applications for such dynamic printed textiles were revealed, and appropriate visual evidence was referred to justify the finding.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
87
69828
Effect of Fast Fashion on Urban Indian Consumer
Abstract:
Purpose: Fast Fashion trend promotes consumption of low cost high fashion garments at a rapid rate. Frequent change in fashion trend results in higher disposability of Fast Fashion products. To cater for the Fast Fashion appetite of the present day consumer, fashion giants have ramped up production of garments, thus imposing a massive strain on the planet’s natural resources. Also, ethical issues related to cheaper methods of production are of concern. India being a large consumer base has a major role to play in proliferation of the Fast Fashion trend. This paper is an attempt to study the effect of fast fashion trends on the Indian consumer’s behaviour. It also attempts to ascertain the awareness of the consumer about the detrimental effect that the fast fashion trends manifest on the environment. Design /methodology/approach: The survey was conducted using a questionnaire targeted at a set of urban Indian consumers of varied age, profession and socio economic backgrounds. Trends regarding frequency of purchase, expenditure on clothing, disposal methods and awareness about environmental issues were analyzed using the obtained data. Findings: The result of the study indicates that urban Indian consumer has a strong affinity towards fast fashion trends, but is largely unaware of its detrimental effect on the environment and strain on natural resources. Research Limitation/implications: The sample size for survey was only of a hundred consumers, and the same could be expanded for a better estimate of trends. Also, the sample consumers were mostly urban. A big chunk of Indian fashion consumers reside in small towns and the same could be included in the survey. Practical implications: As the true cost of Fast Fashion in terms of environmental and ethical aspects is getting realized worldwide, a big market like India cannot remain isolated from this phenomenon. Globally there has been an increase in demand of ethically produced clothing. It is imperative that the Indian consumer be made aware about the unsustainable nature of Fast Fashion so that he can contribute towards conservation of natural resources and ethical production of garments. Originality/value The research attempts to ascertain consumption pattern of the Indian fashion consumer and also his awareness about the true cost and consequences of Fast Fashion. The inferences may be used by fashion giants to use ‘Green Marketing’ and ‘Social Marketing’ techniques to make the Indian consumer more aware about sustainable fashion and to market their own products as ‘Sustainable, Green and Ethical’.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
86
69674
Mesoporous Tussah Silk Fibroin Microspheres for Drug Delivery
Abstract:
Mesoporous Tussah silk fibroin (TSF) spheres were fabricated via the self-assembly of TSF molecules in aqueous solutions. The results showed that TSF particles were approximately three-dimensional spheres with the diameter ranging from 500nm to 6μm without adherence. More importantly, the surface morphology is mesoporous structure with nano-pores of 20nm - 200nm in size. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies demonstrated that mesoporous TSF spheres mainly contained beta-sheet conformation (44.1 %) as well as slight amounts of random coil (13.2 %). Drug release test was performed with 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) as a model drug and the result indicated the mesoporous TSF microspheres had a good capacity of sustained drug release. It is expected that these stable and high-crystallinity mesoporous TSF sphere produced without organic solvents, which have significantly improved drug release properties, is a very promising material for controlled gene medicines delivery.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
85
69401
An Investigation of Sustainability: Scope of Eco Denim Fashion
Abstract:
Denim presently is the most widely accepted textile product and shows its hold even in future with its growing popularity. Denim today is no longer restricted to only a pair of jeans but has diversified in all different product categories. Although denim is considered as an expression of youth and demonstrates durability and comfort, denim raises issues of sustainability. Through an exploratory research, the researcher aims at addressing the possibilities of denim fashion promoting environmental sustainability by means of creativity, awareness, recycle and artisan appreciation. It also touches on how eco conscious fashion brands involve in development in terms of ideation and modification of denim as a fabric or product into diversified sustainable fashion. In conclusion, it is shown that blue denim fashion continues to evolve and shows eventual transformation in becoming green denim in future, nurturing values of both quality and sustainability.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
84
68831
Effects of the Coagulation Bath and Reduction Process on SO2 Adsorption Capacity of Graphene Oxide Fiber
Abstract:
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a very toxic air pollutant gas and it causes the greenhouse effect, photochemical smog, and acid rain, which threaten human health severely. Thus, the capture of SO2 gas is very important for the environment. Graphene which is two-dimensional material has excellent mechanical, chemical, thermal properties, and many application areas such as energy storage devices, gas adsorption, sensing devices, and optical electronics. Further, graphene oxide (GO) is examined as a good adsorbent because of its important features such as functional groups (epoxy, carboxyl and hydroxyl) on the surface and layered structure. The SO2 adsorption properties of the fibers are usually investigated on carbon fibers. In this study, potential adsorption capacity of GO fibers was researched. GO dispersion was first obtained with Hummers’ method from graphite, and then GO fibers were obtained via wet spinning process. These fibers were converted into a disc shape, dried, and then subjected to SO2 gas adsorption test. The SO2 gas adsorption capacity of GO fiber discs was investigated in the fields of utilization of different coagulation baths and reduction by hydrazine hydrate. As coagulation baths, single and triple baths were used. In single bath, only ethanol and CaCl2 (calcium chloride) salt were added. In triple bath, each bath has a different concentration of water/ethanol and CaCl2 salt, and the disc obtained from triple bath has been called as reference disk. The fibers which were produced with single bath were flexible and rough, and the analyses show that they had higher SO2 adsorption capacity than triple bath fibers (reference disk). However, the reduction process did not increase the adsorption capacity, because the SEM images showed that the layers and uniform structure in the fiber form were damaged, and reduction decreased the functional groups which SO2 will be attached. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyzes were performed on the fibers and discs, and the effects on the results were interpreted. In the future applications of the study, it is aimed that subjects such as pH and additives will be examined.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
83
68101
Highly Stretchable, Intelligent and Conductive PEDOT/PU Nanofibers Based on Electrospinning and in situ Polymerization
Abstract:
A facile fabrication strategy via electrospinning and followed by in situ polymerization to fabricate a highly stretchable and conductive Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/Polyurethane (PEDOT/PU) nanofibrous membrane is reported. PU nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning and then PEDOT was coated on the plasma modified PU nanofiber surface via in-situ polymerization to form flexible PEDOT/PU composite nanofibers with conductivity. The results show PEDOT is successfully synthesized on the surface of PU nanofiber and PEDOT/PU composite nanofibers possess skin-core structure. Furthermore, the experiments indicate the optimal technological parameters of the polymerization process are as follow: The concentration of EDOT monomers is 50 mmol/L, the polymerization time is 24 h and the temperature is 25℃. The PEDOT/PU nanofibers exhibit excellent electrical conductivity ( 27.4 S/cm). In addition, flexible sensor made from conductive PEDOT/PU nanofibers shows highly sensitive response towards tensile strain and also can be used to detect finger motion. The results demonstrate promising application of the as-obtained nanofibrous membrane in flexible wearable electronic fields.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
82
68098
Electrospinning in situ Synthesis of Graphene-Doped Copper Indium Disulfide Composite Nanofibers for Efficient Counter Electrode in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Abstract:
In this paper, graphene-doped copper indium disulfide (rGO+CuInS2) composite nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning, in situ synthesis, and carbonization, using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), copper dichloride (CuCl2), indium trichloride (InCl3), thiourea (C2H5NS) and graphene oxide nanosheets (Go) as the precursor solution for electrospinning. The average diameter of rGO+CuInS2 nanofibers were about 100 nm, and graphene nanosheets anchored with chalcopyrite CuInS2 nanocrystals 8-15 nm in diameter were overlapped and embedded, aligning along the fiber axial direction. The DSSC with a rGO+CuInS2 counter electrode exhibits a power conversion efficiency of 5.93%; better than the corresponding values for a DSSC with a CuInS2 counter electrode, and comparable to that of a reference DSSC with a Pt counter electrode. The excellent photoelectric performance of the rGO+CuInS2 counter electrode was attributed to its high specific surface area, which facilitated permeation of the liquid electrolytes, promoted electron and ion transfer and provided numerous catalytically active sites for the oxidation reaction of the electrolytic (I- /I3-).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
81
67448
Sustainable Approach in Textile and Apparel Industry: Case Study Applied to a Medium Enterprise
Authors:
Abstract:
Previous research papers have suggested that enhancing the environmental performance in textiles and apparel industry would affect positively on the overall enterprise competitiveness. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding simplifying the available theory to get it practically implemented with more confidence of the expected results, especially for small and medium enterprises. The aim of this paper is to simplify and best use of the concerned international norms to produce a systematic approach that could be used as a guideline for practical application of the main sustainable principles in medium size textile business. The increasing in efficiency which has been resulted from the implementation of the suggested approach/model originated from reduction in raw materials usage, energy, and water savings, in addition to the risk reduction for the people and the environment. The practical case study has been implemented in a textile factory producing knitted fabrics, readymade garments, dyed and printed fabrics. The results were analyzed to examine the effect of the suggested change on the enterprise profitability.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
80
66969
Development and Characterization of Synthetic Non-Woven for Sound Absorption
Abstract:
Acoustics is the scientific study of sound which includes the effect of reflection, refraction, absorption, diffraction and interference. Sound can be considered as a wave phenomenon. A sound wave is a longitudinal wave where particles of the medium are temporarily displaced in a direction parallel to energy transport and then return to their original position. The vibration in a medium produces alternating waves of relatively dense and sparse particles –compression and rarefaction respectively. The resultant variation to normal ambient pressure is translated by the ear and perceived as sound. Today much importance is given to the acoustical environment. The noise sources are increased day by day and annoying level is strongly violated in different locations by traffic, sound systems, and industries. There is simple evidence showing that the high noise levels cause sleep disturbance, hearing loss, decrease in productivity, learning disability, lower scholastic performance and increase in stress related hormones and blood pressure. Therefore, achieving a pleasing and noise free environment is one of the endeavours of many a research groups. This can be obtained by using various techniques. One such technique is by using suitable materials with good sound absorbing properties. The conventionally used materials that possess sound absorbing properties are rock wool or glass wool. In this work, an attempt is made to use synthetic material in both fibrous and sheet form and use it for manufacturing of non-woven for sound absorption.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
79
65402
Fungal Pigments For Fabrics Dyeing: Initial Tests Using Industrial Dyeing Conditions
Abstract:
Natural pigments have been proposed as an eco-friendly alternative to artificial pigments. Among the diverse organisms able to synthesize natural pigments, several wood colonizing fungi produce extracellular pigments which have been tested to dye fabrics at laboratory conditions with good results. However, the dyeing conditions used at laboratory level not necessary meet the real conditions in which dyeing of fabrics is conducted at industrial level. In this work, yellow and red pigments from the fungi Penicillium murcianum and Talaromyces australis, respectively, were used to dye yarn and linen fabrics using dyeing processes optimized according to the standard conditions used at industrial level. After dyeing treatments, fabrics were tested for color fastness to wash and to wet and dry rubbing, but also to tensile strength tests. Satisfactory result was obtained with both yellow and red pigments in yarn and linen, when used alone or mixed to different proportions. According to these results, natural pigments synthesized by both wood colonizing fungi have a great potential to be used in dyeing processes at industrial level.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):