Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 48522

Fashion and Textile Engineering

119
83592
User-Controlled Color-Changing Textiles: From Prototype to Mass Production
Abstract:
Textiles and clothing have been a staple of human existence for millennia, yet the basic structure and functionality of textile fibers and yarns has remained unchanged. While color and appearance are essential characteristics of a textile, an advancement in the fabrication of yarns that allows for user-controlled dynamic changes to the color or appearance of a garment has been lacking. Touch-activated and photosensitive pigments have been used in textiles, but these technologies are passive and cannot be controlled by the user. The technology described here allows the owner to control both when and in what pattern the fabric color-change takes place. In addition, the manufacturing process is compatible with mass-producing the user-controlled, color-changing yarns. The yarn fabrication utilizes a fiber spinning system that can produce either monofilament or multifilament yarns. For products requiring a more robust fabric (backpacks, purses, upholstery, etc.), larger-diameter monofilament yarns with a coarser weave are suitable. Such yarns are produced using a thread-coater attachment to encapsulate a 38-40 AWG metal wire inside a polymer sheath impregnated with thermochromic pigment. Conversely, products such as shirts and pants requiring yarns that are more flexible and soft against the skin comprise multifilament yarns of much smaller-diameter individual fibers. Embedding a metal wire in a multifilament fiber spinning process has not been realized to date. This research has required collaboration with Hills, Inc., to design a liquid metal-injection system to be combined with fiber spinning. The new system injects molten tin into each of 19 filaments being spun simultaneously into a single yarn. The resulting yarn contains 19 filaments, each with a tin core surrounded by a polymer sheath impregnated with thermochromic pigment. The color change we demonstrate is distinct from garments containing LEDs that emit light in various colors. The pigment itself changes its optical absorption spectrum to appear a different color. The thermochromic color-change is induced by a temperature change in the inner metal wire within each filament when current is applied from a small battery pack. The temperature necessary to induce the color change is near body temperature and not noticeable by touch. The prototypes already developed either use a simple push button to activate the battery pack or are wirelessly activated via a smart-phone app over Wi-Fi. The app allows the user to choose from different activation patterns of stripes that appear in the fabric continuously. The power requirements are mitigated by a large hysteresis in the activation temperature of the pigment and the temperature at which there is full color return. This was made possible by a collaboration with Chameleon International to develop a new, customized pigment. This technology enables a never-before seen capability: user-controlled, dynamic color and pattern change in large-area woven and sewn textiles and fabrics with wide-ranging applications from clothing and accessories to furniture and fixed-installation housing and business décor. The ability to activate through Wi-Fi opens up possibilities for the textiles to be part of the ‘Internet of Things.’ Furthermore, this technology is scalable to mass-production levels for wide-scale market adoption.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
118
83450
Concept of Using an Indicator to Describe the Quality of Fit of Clothing to the Body Using a 3D Scanner and CAD System
Abstract:
The objective of this research is to develop an algorithm, taking into account material type and body type that will describe the fabric properties and quality of fit of a garment to the body. One of the objectives of this research is to develop a new algorithm to simulate cloth draping within CAD/CAM software. Existing virtual fitting does not accurately simulate fabric draping behaviour. Part of the research into virtual fitting will focus on the mechanical properties of fabrics. Material behaviour depends on many factors including fibre, yarn, manufacturing process, fabric weight, textile finish, etc. For this study, several different fabric types with very different mechanical properties will be selected and evaluated for all of the above fabric characteristics. These fabrics include woven thick cotton fabric which is stiff and non-bending, woven with elastic content, which is elastic and bends on the body. Within the virtual simulation, the following mechanical properties can be specified: shear, bending, weight, thickness, and friction. To help calculate these properties, the KES system (Kawabata) can be used. This system was originally developed to calculate the mechanical properties of fabric. In this research, the author will focus on three properties: bending, shear, and roughness. This study will consider current research using the KES system to understand and simulate fabric folding on the virtual body. Testing will help to determine which material properties have the largest impact on the fit of the garment. By developing an algorithm which factors in body type, material type, and clothing function, it will be possible to determine how a specific type of clothing made from a particular type of material will fit on a specific body shape and size. A fit indicator will display areas of stress on the garment such as shoulders, chest waist, hips. From this data, CAD/CAM software can be used to develop garments that fit with a very high degree of accuracy. This research, therefore, aims to provide an innovative solution for garment fitting which will aid in the manufacture of clothing. This research will help the clothing industry by cutting the cost of the clothing manufacturing process and also reduce the cost spent on fitting. The manufacturing process can be made more efficient by virtual fitting of the garment before the real clothing sample is made. Fitting software could be integrated into clothing retailer websites allowing customers to enter their biometric data and determine how the particular garment and material type would fit their body.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
117
83265
Explore Customers' Perceptions of U.K. Fast Fashion Retailers' Identities
Authors:
Abstract:
Corporate identity is an asset of a company that is unique, valuable and provides a source of competitive advantage. This research taking a holistic view to explore all dimensions of corporate identity and influence of each on customers’ shopping experience in the fast fashion retail sector in the U.K. Unfortunately these issues have not been explored sufficiently in the extant literature, especially in the area of the identity gap. To date, there is still a lack of empirical research on corporate identity, especially in the retail sector despite the importance of the concept to all organisations. Furthermore, although customer group is one of the essential audiences of organisations and the importance of customers in corporate identity management cannot be ignored, to date limited studies have been conducted in order to understand how customers interpret and perceive corporate identity (perceived identity). Therefore, this research investigates customers’ perceptions of corporate identity in the fast fashion retail sector. 1) To explore customers’ perceptions of fast fashion retailers’ corporate identities; 2) To uncover the important constructs of corporate identity which contribute to the U.K. fast fashion retail sector. 40 semi-structured interviews with the fast fashion consumers have been carried out to identify their perceptions of fast fashion retailers' corporate identities. Secondary research on retailers' websites and press releases have been evaluated to identify their desired corporate identities. The findings have revealed that there are significant gaps between how fast fashion retailers present their identities and how their consumers perceive them. This has posed customers' negative perceptions towards the retailers and their shopping experience as a whole. This study has studied how the corporate identity constructs could be applied in the fashion context and has helped retailers to shed lights on how to minimise the gap between desired and perceived identity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
116
82795
Fabrication and Characterization of Glass Nanofibers through Electrospinning of Silica Sol-Gel along with in situ Synthesis of Ag Nanoparticles
Abstract:
Nowadays, silica nanofibers are highly regarded among the inorganic nanofibers due to the high reactivity and availability of silicon compounds in nature. Sol-gel process is required for electrospinning of silica nanofibers in which a metal alkoxide is hydrolyzed, and the viscosity is increased. In this study, silica nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles were synthesized and electrospun from a mixture of silica sol with an easy spinnable polymer (PVA) as an additive. The silica sol contains tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), silver nitrate, distilled water, nitric acid, and ethanol. Nanofibers were formed through electrospinning setup. The nanofibers were calcinated to remove the solvent and additive polymer. Consequently, pure silica nanofibers were produced. FTIR analysis indicated entire removal of polyvinyl alcohol from the structure and formation of silan groups. The presence of silver, silica and oxygen was confirmed by EDX. Also, XRD patterns revealed the presence of silver nanoparticles with a mean crystal size of 18 nm. FESEM images showed that adding silver nitrate into the sol-gel, resulted in lower nanofibers diameter from 286 to 136 nm. Furthermore, the electrospun nanofibers were more resistance in acidic media than alkaline media.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
115
82693
Developing a Modular Architecture of Apparel Product
Abstract:
Apparel products (or apparel) with the sense of aesthetics, usability (ergonomics) and function are fundamental and varied in people’s daily life. The numerous apparel thus produced by apparel industry, have been triggered many issues, such as the waste of sources and the environmental pollutions. In this study, a hybrid architecture called modular architecture of apparel (MAA) has been proposed to deal with the variety of apparel, and thus to overcome the aforementioned issues. Generally, the establishment of MAA takes advantage of the modular design of a general product that a product is assembled with many modules through their modular interface connector. The development of MAA is to first analyze the structure of apparel in terms of the necessity to form an apparel and the aesthetics, ergonomics, and function of apparel; then to divide apparel into many segments (or module in product design) based on the structure of apparel; to develop modular interfaces and modular interface connectors in terms of the features of apparel’s modules. It is noted that in the general product design, modules of a product are only about the function and ergonomics, but in MAA, the module of aesthetics is developed. Further, an apparel design with employing the MAA is carried out to validate its usefulness and efficiency. There are three contributions out of this study, the first is to overcome the aforementioned issues (i.e. waste of source and environmental pollutions); the second is the improvement of the modular design for product by considering aesthetics; the third is to add the value in realizing the personalized mass production of apparel in the near future.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
114
82558
The Simulation of Superfine Animal Fibre Fractionation: The Strength Variation of Fibre
Authors:
Abstract:
This study investigates the contribution of individual Australian Superfine Merino Wool (ASFW) and Inner Mongolia Cashmere (IMC) fibres strength behaviour to the breaking force variation (CVBF) and minimum fibre diameter (CVₘFD) induced by actual single fibre lengths and the combination of length and diameter groups. Mid-side samples were selected for the ASFW (n = 919) and IMC (n = 691) since it is assumed to represent the average of the whole fleece. The average (LₘFD) varied for ASFW and IMC by 36.6 % and 33.3 % from shortest to longest actual single fibre length and -21.2 % and -21.7 % between longest-coarsest and shortest-finest groups, respectively. The tensile properties of single animal fibres were characterised using Single Fibre Analyser (SIFAN 4). After normalising for diversity in fibre diameter at the position of breakage, the parameters, which explain the strength behaviour within actual fibre lengths and combination of length-diameter groups, were the Intrinsic Fibre Strength (IFS) (MPa), Min IFS (MPa), Max IFS (MPa) and Breaking force (BF) (cN). The average strength of single fibres varied extensively within actual length groups and within a combination of length-diameter groups. IFS ranged for ASFW and IMC from 419 to 355 MPa (-15.2 % range) and 353 to 319 (-9.6 % range) and BF from 2.2 to 3.6 (63.6 % range) and 3.2 to 5.3 cN (65.6 % range) from shortest to longest groups, respectively. Single fibre properties showed no differences within actual length groups and within a combination of length-diameter groups, or was there a strong interaction between the strength of single fibre (P > 0.05) within remaining and removing length-diameter groups. Longer-coarser fibre fractionation had a significant effect on BF and IFS and all of the length groups showed a considerable variance in single fibre strength that is accounted for by diversity in the diameter variation along the fibre. There are many concepts for the improvement of the stress-strain properties of animal fibres as a means of raising a single fibre strength by simultaneous changes in fibre length and diameter. Fibre fractionation over a given length directly for single fibre strength or using the variation traits of fibre diameter is an important process used to increase the strength of the single fibre.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
113
82556
Random Analysis of Physical and Mechanical Characteristics of Superfine Animal Fibres
Authors:
Abstract:
The physical and mechanical property parameters, inter-relation of key dimensional and distribution profile of raw Australia Superfine Merino Wool (ASFW) and Inner Mongolia Cashmere (IMC) fibres have been studied. The relationship between the properties of these fibres is assessed using fit transformation functions obtained through correlation coefficient analysis. ASFW and IMC fibre properties are found to be both positively skewed and asymmetric in nature. Whilst fibre diameter varies along its length and both ends have a tapering shape. The basic physical features, namely linear density, true local diameter, true length and breaking load are positively correlated while their tenacity is negatively correlated. The tenacity and true length follow a second order polynomial while the true local diameter is linearly correlated. Assessment of the diameter and length is sufficient to estimate the evaluation of quality for commercial grade ASFW and IMC fibres.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
112
81928
A Narrative Inquiry of Identity Formation of Chinese Fashion Designers
Authors:
Abstract:
The contemporary fashion industry has witnessed the global rise of Chinese fashion designers. China plays more and more important role in this sector globally. One of the key debates in contemporary time is the conception of Chinese fashion. A close look at previous discussions on Chinese fashion reveals that most of them are explored through the lens of cultural knowledge and assumptions, using the dichotomous models of East and West. The results of these studies generate an essentialist and orientalist notion of Chinoiserie and Chinese fashion, which sees individual designers from China as undifferential collective members marked by a unique and fixed set of cultural scripts. This study challenges this essentialist conceptualization and brings fresh insights to the discussion of Chinese fashion identity against the backdrop of globalisation. Different from a culturalist approach to researching Chinese fashion, this paper presents an alternative position to address the research agenda through the mobilisation of Giddens’ (1991) theory of reflexive identity formation, privileging individuals’ agency and reflexivity. This approach to the discussion of identity formation not only challenges the traditional view seeing identity as the distinctive and essential characteristics belonging to any given individual or shared by all members of a particular social category or group but highlights fashion designers’ strategic agency and their role as fashion activist. This study draws evidence from a textual analysis of published stories of a group of established Chinese designers such as Guo Pei, Huishan Zhang, Masha Ma, Uma Wang, and Ma Ke. In line with Giddens’ concept of 'reflexive project of the self', this study uses a narrative methodology. Narratives are verbal accounts or stories relating to experiences of Chinese fashion designers. This approach offers the fashion designers a chance to 'speak' for themselves and show the depths and complexities of their experiences. It also emphasises the nuances of identity formation in fashion designers, whose experiences cannot be captured in neat typologies. Thematic analysis (Braun and Clarke, 2006) is adopted to identify and investigate common themes across the whole dataset. At the centre of the analysis is individuals’ self-articulation of their perceptions, experiences and themselves in relation to culture, fashion and identity. The finding indicates that identity is constructed around anchors such as agency, cultural hybridity, reflexivity and sustainability rather than traditional collective categories such as culture and ethnicity. Thus, the old East-West dichotomy is broken down, and essentialised social categories are challenged by the multiplicity and fragmentation of self and cultural hybridity created within designers’ 'small narratives'.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
111
81405
Impact on Underprivileged People Practising Expressive Textile Arts: An Exploratory Study Applied to Ex-Offenders in Hong Kong
Authors:
Abstract:
This study aims to investigate the impact of practicing expressive textile arts on the underprivileged people namely, ex-offenders after taking a three-month textile arts and fashion creativity workshops from a service-learning subject, offered by the Hong Kong Polytechnic University in May 2016. In this service-learning subject, the subject lecturers, students and ex-offenders co-designed various expressive textile artworks together. During the creative process, the ex-offenders could enhance their self-confidence and rebuild a satisfactory identity through practicing expressive textile arts and fashion creativity. Ten textile arts prototypes in the format of fashion garments were presented in a mini fashion show and an exhibition, both at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University in July 2016. A quantitative research method was adopted and a questionnaire survey was conducted in this study. The research findings suggest that positive impacts are found on the ex-offenders’ perceptions of ‘feelings and thoughts before attending the workshops’, ‘feelings and thoughts during the workshops’, ‘attitude toward the textile arts materials’, and ‘attitude toward the expressive textile artworks’.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
110
81108
Impact of Story-Telling through Indian Textiles: Mata Ni Pachedi and Pabuji Ki Phad
Abstract:
In the endeavour of connecting culture to stories, textile to narratives and people to material, authors analyse the impact of narratives in two popular Indian textiles namely - Mata Ni Pachedi and Pabuji Ki Phad. These textiles narrate people’s tale or folktale. Each textile has a style or format in which the story is told (and it is visual). Mata Ni Pachedi, when translated to English language literally means behind the mother goddess. Mata Ni Pachedi is an Indian textile from the province of Gujarat which constitutes an entire temple of the goddess with the idol herself in it. On the other hand, Pabuji ki Phad is scroll painting of folk deities of Rajasthan, narrated by Bhopas (the Priest singers of Rajasthan). These textiles are narrated stories of ordinary people with extraordinary courage, of social reform, and of people’s belief in the divine. Authors take to task their years of craft-cluster study conducted in the past and use existing literature to map their journey in the preliminary phase of research. And then carried out an ethnographic study by visiting the origins of these textiles in Rajasthan and Gujrat (in India), met artisans and their families who are still practising these dying art form, in order to understand the format and impact of textile story-telling. This research paper talks about the narrative in Indian textiles; the stories in them, artisans and their life as metaphorical representations of the People in Mata Ni Pachedi and Pabuji Ki Phad.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
109
81104
Shifting Paradigms: Aesthetic Values of Fashion and Textiles
Abstract:
The research paper aims to study the shifting paradigms in norms of perceived aesthetic value of fashion, which have altered the ways in which people consume and engage with fashion. As a generic norm, the expression of beauty entails perfection, elegance, and flawlessness. Breaking existing parameters of defining beauty in fashion which used to be perfect, precise and flawless, the world is moving towards a transitional phase wherein imperfection and rawness is cherished. The approach towards being unpretentious and appreciating beauty of aging is prevailing against stereotypical perceptions of fashion aesthetics. It redefines fashion aesthetics and appreciates beauty of all things imperfect, ephemeral, incomplete and fragmented. It is the beauty of things simple yet striking. It is the beauty of things unconventional. Fashion styling is playing an important role in defining fashion aesthetics and their perceived values. The domain thrives upon portrayal of simpler objects styled in multiple interesting ways. There is a prevalence of adopting simple fashion trends with effective styling rather appreciating complex designs. Designers involved in fashion styling are effectively communicating mundane as fashionable. The fashion patterns are shifting towards functionality driven designs. Designing itself is referred as a problem solving activity due to its existence to serve a purpose. Due to the fast paced lifestyle and engaging working patterns, people are inclined towards adopting minimal and multifunctional designs. Function prevails over the aesthetics in modern living resulting in functionality driven fashion. Designers are playing key role in setting fashion norms. They are working with other professionals including performing artists, scientists, engineers, architects, nutrition experts, academicians and many more in collaboration for holistic development of fashion goods. A distinctive approach towards striking balance between function and aesthetics of design is apparently prevailing in current scenario. With growing awareness, people are getting to understand the importance of sustainable practices in varied aspects of life, adapting ethical fashion trends and eco-friendly ways to their lifestyles. Ethical fashion refers to an approach which thrives to contribute in sustainable livelihood conception, minimizing and curbing environmental concerns. It embodies a gamut of issues including working conditions, exploitation, fair trade, sustainable production, the environment, and animal welfare.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
108
80979
Baby Bed Sheets with a Nanofiber Membrane
Abstract:
Nowadays there are countless kinds of bedsheets or mattress covers for little children which should stop any liquid getting into the mattress. It is quite easy to wash the cover of the mattress, but it is almost impossible to clean the body of a mattress which is made of latex foam, wool or synthetic materials. Children bedsheets or mattress covers are often made with plastic coating which is not steam or air permeable and therefore is not very hygienic. This is our goal: by laminating a nanofiber membrane to a suitable bedsheet textile material, we can create a bedsheet which is waterproof but at the same time steam permeable and also partially breathable, thanks to the membrane. For the same reason, nanofiber membranes are widely used in outdoor clothing. The comfort properties and durability of the new nano-membrane bedsheet were studied. The following comfort properties were investigated: steam permeability - measured in accordance with Standard ISO 11902 hydrostatic resistances - measured in accordance with Standard ISO 811 and air permeability - measured in accordance with Standard ISO 9237. The durability or more precisely the wash resistance of the nano-membrane bedsheet was also measured by submitting the sheet to 30 washing cycles. The result of our work is a children's bedsheet with a nano-membrane. The nano-membrane is made of polyurethane to keep maximum flexibility and elasticity which are essential for this product. The comfort properties of this new bedsheet are very good especially its steam permeability and hydrostatic resistance.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
107
80674
Experimental Analysis of Advanced Multi-Axial Preforms Conformability to Complex Contours
Abstract:
A degree of research has been undertaken in the determination of 3D textile preforms behaviour to compression with direct comparison to 2D counterparts. Multiscale simulations have been developed to try and accurately analyse the behaviour of varying architectures post-consolidation. However, further understanding is required to experimentally identify the mechanisms and deformations that exist upon conforming to a complex contour. Due to the complexity of 3D textile preforms, determination of yarn behaviour to a complex contour is assessed through consolidation by means of vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM), and the resulting mechanisms are investigated by micrograph analysis. Varying architectures; with known areal densities, pic density and thicknesses are assessed for a cohesive study. The resulting performance of each is assessed qualitatively as well as quantitatively from the perspective of material in terms of the change in representative unit cell (RVE) across the curved beam contour, in crimp percentage, tow angle, resin rich areas and binder distortion. A novel textile is developed from the resulting analysis to overcome the observed deformations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
106
80583
Development of Multifunctional Yarns and Fabrics for Interactive Textiles
Abstract:
The use of conductive materials in smart and interactive textiles is gaining significant importance for creating value addition, innovation, and functional product development. These products find their potential applications in health monitoring, military, protection, communication, sensing, monitoring, actuation, fashion, and lifestyles. The materials which are most commonly employed in such type of interactive textile include intrinsically conducting polymers, conductive inks, and metallic coating on textile fabrics and inherently conducting metallic fibre yarns. In this study, silver coated polyester filament yarn is explored for the development of multifunctional interactive gloves. The composite yarn was developed by covering the silver coated polyester filament around the polyester spun yarn using hollow spindle technique. The electrical and tensile properties of the yarn were studied. This novel yarn was used to manufacture a smart glove to explore the antibacterial, functional, and interactive properties of the yarn. The change in electrical resistance due to finger movement at different bending positions and antimicrobial properties were studied. This glove was also found useful as an interactive tool to operate the commonly used touch screen devices due to its conductive nature. The yarn can also be used to develop the sensing elements like stretch, strain, and piezoresistive sensors. Such sensor can be effectively used in medical and sports textile for performance monitoring, vital signs monitoring and development of antibacterial textile for healthcare and hygiene.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
105
79300
Bacterial Decontamination of Nurses' White Coats by Application of Antimicrobial Finish
Abstract:
New pathogenic strains of microbes are continually emerging and resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is growing. Hospitals in India have a high burden of infections in their intensive care units and general wards. Rising incidence of hospital infections is a matter of great concern in India. This growth is often attributed to the absence of effective infection control strategies in healthcare facilities. Government, therefore, is looking for cost effective strategies that are effective against HAIs. One possible method is by application of an antimicrobial finish on the uniform. But there are limited studies to show the effect of antimicrobial activity of antimicrobial finish treated nurses’ uniforms in a real hospital set up. This paper proposes a prospective non-destructive sampling technique, based on the use of a detachable fabric patch, to assess the effectiveness of silver based antimicrobial agent across five wards in a tertiary care government hospital in Delhi, India. Fabrics like polyester and polyester cotton blend fabric which are more prevalent for making coats were selected for the study. Polyester and polyester cotton blend fabric was treated with silver based antimicrobial (AM) finish. At the beginning of shift, a composite patch of untreated and treated fabric respectively was stitched on the abdominal region on the left and right side of the washed white coat of participating nurse. At the end of the shift, the patch was removed and taken for bacterial sampling on Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) plates. Microbial contamination on polyester and blend fabrics after 6 hours shift was compared in Brain Heart Infusion broth (BHI). All patches treated with silver based antimicrobial agent showed decreased bacterial counts. Percent reduction in the bacterial colonies after the antimicrobial treatment in both fabrics was 81.0 %. Antimicrobial finish was equally effective in reducing microbial adhesion on both fabric types. White coats of nurses become progressively contaminated during clinical care. Type of fabric used to make the coat can affect the extent of contamination which is higher on polyester cotton blend as compared to 100% polyester. The study highlights the importance of silver based antimicrobial finish in the area of uniform hygiene. Bacterial load can be reduced by using antimicrobial finish on hospital uniforms. Hospital staff uniforms endowed with antimicrobial properties may be of great help in reducing the occurrence and spread of infections.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
104
79183
The Impact of Direct and Indirect Pressure Measuring Systems on the Pressure Mapping for the Medical Compression Garments
Abstract:
While graduated compression is the foundation of treatment and management of many medical complications such as leg ulcer, varicose veins, and lymphedema, monitoring the interface pressure has been conducted using different sensors that operate based on diverse approaches. The variations existed from the pressure readings collected using different interface pressure measurement systems would cause difficulties in taking a decision regarding the compression therapy. It is crucial to acknowledge the differences existing between direct and indirect pressure measurement systems while considering the commercially available systems such as AMI, Picopress and OPM which are under direct measurements systems, and HATRA (BSI), HOSY (RAL-GZ) and FlexiForce which comes under the indirect measurement system. Furthermore, Piezo-resistive sensors (Flexiforce) can measure the changes in resistance corresponding to the applied force on the sensing area. Direct pressure measuring systems are capable of measuring interface pressure on the three-dimensional states, while the indirect pressure measuring systems stretch the fabric in the two-dimensional direction and extrapolate pressure from surface tension measured on the device and neglect the vital factor which is the radius of curvature. In this study, a leg mannequin of known dimensions is selected with a knitted class 3 compression stocking. It has been decided to evaluate the data collected from different available systems (AMI, PicoPress, FlexiForce, and HATRA) and compare the results. The results showed a discrepancy between Hatra, AMI, Picopress, and Flexiforce against the pressure standard used to generate class 3 compression stocking. As predicted a higher pressure value with direct interface measuring systems were monitored against HATRA due to the effect of the radius of curvature.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
103
79119
Design of an Active Compression System for Treating Vascular Disease Using a Series of Silicone Based Inflatable Mini Bladders
Abstract:
Venous disease of human lower limb could range from minor asymptomatic incompetence of venous valves to chronic venous ulceration. The sheer prevalence of varicose veins and its associated significant costs of treating late complications such as chronic ulcers contribute to a higher burden on health care resources. In most of western countries with developed health care systems, treatment costs associated with Venous disease accounts for a considerable portion of their total health care budget, and it has become a high-cost burden to National Health Service (NHS), UK. The established gold standard of treatment for the venous disease is the graduated compression, where the pressure at the ankle being highest and decreasing towards the knee and thigh. Currently, medical practitioners use two main methods to treat venous disease; i.e. compression bandaging and compression stockings. Both these systems have their own disadvantages which lead to the current programme of research. The aim of the present study is to revolutionize the compression therapy by using a novel active compression system to deliver a controllable and more accurate pressure profiles using a series of inflatable mini bladders. Two types of commercially available silicones were tested for the application. The mini bladders were designed with a special fabrication procedure to provide required pressure profiles, and a series of experiments were conducted to characterise the mini bladders. The inflation/deflation heights of these mini bladders were investigated experimentally and using a finite element model (FEM), and the experimental data were compared to the results obtained from FEM simulations, which showed 70-80% agreement. Finally, the mini bladders were tested for its pressure transmittance characteristics, and the results showed a 70-80% of inlet air pressure transmitted onto the treated surface.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
102
79095
Substantiate the Effects of Reactive Dyes and Aloe Vera on the Ultra Violet Protective Properties on Cotton Woven and Knitted Fabrics
Authors:
Abstract:
The incidence of skin cancer has been rising worldwide due to excessive exposure to sun light. Climatic changes and depletion of ozone layer allow the easy entry of UV rays on earth, resulting skin damages such as sunburn, premature skin ageing, allergies and skin cancer. Researches have suggested many modes for protection of human skin against ultraviolet radiation; avoidance to outdoor activities, using textiles for covering the skin, sunscreen and sun glasses. However, this paper gives an insight about how textile material specially woven and knitted cotton can be efficiently utilized for protecting human skin from the harmful ultraviolet radiations by combining reactive dyes with Aloe Vera. Selection of the fabric was based on their utility and suitability as per the climate condition of the country for the upper and lower garment. A standard dyeing process was used, and Aloe Vera molecules were applied by in-micro encapsulation technique. After combining vat dyes with Aloe Vera excellent UPF (Ultra violet Protective Factor) was observed. There is a significant change in the UPF of vat dyed cotton fabric after treatment with Aloe Vera.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
101
78666
Maintained Mechanical Properties of Viscose Fabrics with a UV Protection
Abstract:
These Viscose fibers are made of regenerated cellulose whose chemical structure is similar to that of cotton with different mechanical and physical properties. Fabrics made of this material and its blends are widely used in clothing industry to manufacture textile clothing and decorative fabric due to its excellent breathability hygroscopic, and comfort properties. However, viscose fabrics have been reported for serious drawbacks such as its poor mechanical properties in wet condition. Therefore, such fabric has some functional properties in need to be improved such as, tensile strength, UV protection, abrasion resistance, and microbial resistance with keeping the comfort properties. Therefore, seeking novel route to produce viscose fabrics with at least maintained mechanical properties and possess some functional properties such as UV-protection has become necessary. Knit fabric was made on Interlock machine with Ne 30/1 viscose yarns to apply the suggested treatment. Oxidized soluble starch was synthesized and used as cross-linker applied to the viscose fabric and fix zinc oxide nanoparticles via hemiacetal bond. UPF value of the treated sample with 4% w/v recorded 226 compared to 4.3 for the untreated samples. Systematic study was conducted to obtain the optimum conditions for the treatments. Moreover, sewn seams for these treated fabrics were produced to check its performance in terms of seam pucker and seam strength compared with the untreated ones.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
100
77783
Smart-Textile Containers for Urban Mobility
Abstract:
Green urban mobility in commercial and private contexts is one of the great challenges for the continuously growing cities all over the world. Bicycle based solutions are already and since a long time the key to success. Modern developments like e-bikes and high-end cargo-bikes complement the portfolio. Weight, aerodynamic drag, and security for the transported goods are the key factors for working solutions. Recent achievements in the field of smart-textiles allowed the creation of a totally new generation of intelligent textile cargo containers, which fulfill those demands. The fusion of technical textiles, design and electrical engineering made it possible to create an ecological solution which is very near to become a product. This paper shows all the details of this solution that includes an especially developed sensor textile for cut detection, a protective textile layer for intrusion prevention, an universal-charging-unit for energy harvesting from diverse sources and a low-energy alarm system with GSM/GPRS connection, GPS location and RFID interface.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
99
77249
A Bio-Inspired Approach to Produce Wettable Nylon Fabrics
Abstract:
Surface modifications are vital to accomplish the moisture management property in highly demanded synthetic fabrics. Biomimetic and bio-inspired surface modifications are identified as one of the fascinating areas of research. In this study, nature’s way of cooling elephants’ body temperature using mud bathing was mimicked to create a superior wettable nylon fabric with improved comfortability. For that, bentonite nanoclay was covalently grafted on nylon fabric using silane as a coupling agent. Fourier transform infrared spectra and Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the successful grafting of nanoclay on nylon. The superior wettability of surface modified nylon was proved by standard protocols. This fabric coating strongly withstands more than 50 cycles of laundry. It is expected that this bio-inspired wettable nylon fabric may break the barrier of using nylon in various hydrophilic textile applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
98
75945
Green Technologies and Sustainability in the Care and Maintenance of Protective Textiles
Abstract:
Protective textiles get soiled, stained and even worn during their use, which may not be usable after a certain period due to the loss of protective performance. They need regular cleaning and maintenance, which helps to extend the durability of the clothing, retains their useful properties and ensures that fresh clothing is ready to wear when needed. Generally, the cleaning processes used for various protective clothing include dry-cleaning (using solvents) or wet cleaning (using water). These cleaning processes can alter the fabric surface properties, dimensions, physical, mechanical and performance properties. The technology of laundering and dry-cleaning has undergone several changes. Sustainable methods and products are available for faster, safer and improved cleaning of protective textiles. We performed a comprehensive and systematic review of green technologies and eco-friendly products for sustainable cleaning of protective textiles. Special emphasis is given on the care and maintenance procedures of protective textiles for protection from fire, bullets, chemical and other types of protective clothing.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
97
75613
The Influence of Fashion Bloggers on the Pre-Purchase Decision for Online Fashion Products among Generation Y Female Malaysian Consumers
Abstract:
This study explores how fashion consumers are influenced by fashion bloggers towards pre-purchase decision for online fashion products in a non-Western context. Malaysians rank among the world’s most avid online shoppers, with apparel the third most popular purchase category. However, extant research on fashion blogging focuses on the developed Western market context. Numerous international fashion retailers have entered the Malaysian market from luxury to fast fashion segments of the market; however Malaysian fashion consumers must balance religious and social norms for modesty with their dress style and adoption of fashion trends. Consumers increasingly mix and match Islamic and Western elements of dress to create new styles enabling them to follow Western fashion trends whilst paying respect to social and religious norms. Social media have revolutionised the way that consumers can search for and find information about fashion products. For online fashion brands with no physical presence, social media provide a means of discovery for consumers. By allowing the creation and exchange of user-generated content (UGC) online, they provide a public forum that gives individual consumers their own voices, as well as access to product information that facilitates their purchase decisions. Social media empower consumers and brands have important roles in facilitating conversations among consumers and themselves, to help consumers connect with them and one another. Fashion blogs have become important fashion information sources. By sharing their personal style and inspiring their followers with what they wear on popular social media platforms such as Instagram, fashion bloggers have become fashion opinion leaders. By creating UGC to spread useful information to their followers, they influence the pre-purchase decision. Hence, successful Western fashion bloggers such as Chiara Ferragni may earn millions of US dollars every year, and some have created their own fashion ranges and beauty products, become judges in fashion reality shows, won awards, and collaborated with high street and luxury brands. As fashion blogging has become more established worldwide, increasing numbers of fashion bloggers have emerged from non-Western backgrounds to promote Islamic fashion styles, such as Hassanah El-Yacoubi and Dian Pelangi. The study adopts a qualitative approach using netnographic content analysis of consumer comments on 2 famous Malaysian fashion bloggers’ Instagram accounts during January-March 2016 and qualitative interviews with 16 Malaysian Generation Y fashion consumers during September-October 2016. Netnography adapts ethnographic techniques to the study of online communities or computer-mediated communications. Template analysis of the data involved coding comments according to the theoretical framework, which was developed from the literature review. Initial data analysis shows the strong influence of Malaysian fashion bloggers on their followers in terms of lifestyle and morals as well as fashion style. Followers were guided towards the mix and match trend of dress with Western and Islamic elements, for example, showing how vivid colours or accessories could be worked into an outfit whilst still respecting social and religious norms. The blogger’s Instagram account is a form of online community where followers can communicate and gain guidance and support from other followers, as well as from the blogger.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
96
75464
Preparation and Analysis of Chitosan-Honey Films for Wound Dressing Application
Abstract:
Increase in antibiotic resistance bacteria leads to the development of active wound dressings, which absorb any bodily fluid, evaporation of moisture at a certain rate and can be easily removed after healing. Natural materials like chitosan, herbs, and honey have number of active materials present in them to accelerate wound healing and to arrest wound in infections. Hence with the advantages of biomaterials, a film was prepared using chitosan and honey. There are a lot of practical considerations with respect to honey. Honey exerts many beneficial actions on the wound surface only when it remains. The attempts to hold honey on the surface of the wound remain a question because honey becomes a very runny liquid when it comes to body temperature. Hence, this research was focused on development of a new form of wound dressing, by holding honey on the wound surface in different form and also which has a combined effect of manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) honey and chitosan. Chitosan-honey film was prepared using casting technique. Films were prepared in different variations; with acetic acid and with lactic acid; with and without honey. In summary, the film produced from 2% chitosan- 1% lactic acid as a solvent, with 10% honey shows optimum inclined values in all the tests, like thickness, folding endurance, weight, water vapor transmission, tensile strength, swelling ratio and antimicrobial activity, with specific reference to wound dressings. The film has water vapor transmission of 1680 g/m²/day, water absorption of 225%, tensile strength of 39.1N/mm² and elongation of 50.3%. There is a notable inhibition zone of 29 mm against S. aureus and 24 mm against E. coli in the case of chitosan-lactic acid-honey film. The film also arrests, microbes transmitting from the outside environment to wound bed, which can be used as an effective wound dressing material.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
95
74264
Contribution to the Development of a New Design of Dentist's Gowns: A Case Study of Using Infra-Red Technology and Pressure Sensors
Abstract:
During tooth extraction or implant surgery, dentists are in contact with numerous infectious germs from patients' saliva and blood. For that reason, dentist's clothes have to play their role of protection from contamination. In addition, dentist's apparels should be not only protective but also comfortable and breathable because dentists have to perform many operations and treatments on patients throughout the day with high concentration and intensity. However, this type of protective garments has not been studied scientifically, whereas dentists are facing new risks and eager for looking for a comfortable personal protective equipment. For that reason, we have proposed some new designs of dentist's gown. They were expected to diminish heat accumulation that are considered as an important factor in reducing the level of comfort experienced by users. Experiments using infra-red technology were carried out in order to compare the breathable properties between a traditional gown and a new design with open zones. Another experiment using pressure sensors was also carried out to study ergonomic aspects trough the flexibility of movements of sleeves. The sleeves-design which is considered comfortable and flexible will be chosen for the further step. The results from the two experiments provide valuable information for the development of a new design of dentists' gowns in order to achieve maximum levels of cooling and comfort for the human body.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
94
72993
Cotton Fabrics Functionalized with Green and Commercial Ag Nanoparticles
Abstract:
Cotton products are sensitive to microorganisms due to its ability to retain moisture, which might cause change into the coloration, mechanical properties reduction or foul odor generation; consequently, this represents risks to the health of users. Nowadays, have been carried out researches to give antibacterial properties to textiles using different strategies, which included the use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The antibacterial behavior can be affected by laundering process reducing its effectiveness. In the other way, the environmental impact generated for the synthetic antibacterial agents has motivated to seek new and more ecological ways for produce AgNPs. The aims of this work are to determine the antibacterial activity of cotton fabric functionalized with green (G) and commercial (C) AgNPs after twenty washing cycles, also to evaluate morphological and color changes. A plain weave cotton fabric suitable for dyeing and two AgNPs solutions were use. C a commercial product and G produced using an ecological method, both solutions with 0.5 mM concentration were impregnated on cotton fabric without stabilizer, at a liquor to fabric ratio of 1:20 in constant agitation during 30min and then dried at 70 °C by 10 min. After that the samples were subjected to twenty washing cycles using phosphate-free detergent simulated on agitated flask at 150 rpm, then were centrifuged and dried on a tumble. The samples were characterized using Kirby-Bauer test determine antibacterial activity against E. coli y S. aureus microorganisms, the results were registered by photographs establishing the inhibition halo before and after the washing cycles, the tests were conducted in triplicate. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the morphologies of cotton fabric and treated samples. The color changes of cotton fabrics in relation to the untreated samples were obtained by spectrophotometer analysis. The images, reveals the presence of inhibition halo in the samples treated with C and G AgNPs solutions, even after twenty washing cycles, which indicated a good antibacterial activity and washing durability, with a tendency to better results against to S. aureus bacteria. The presence of AgNPs on the surface of cotton fiber and morphological changes were observed through SEM, after and before washing cycles. The own color of the cotton fiber has been significantly altered with both antibacterial solutions. According to the colorimetric results, the samples treated with C lead to yellowing while the samples modified with G to red yellowing Cotton fabrics treated AgNPs C and G from 0.5 mM solutions exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against E. coli and S. aureus with good laundering durability effects. The surface of the cotton fibers was modified with the presence of AgNPs C and G due to the presence of NPs and its agglomerates. There are significant changes in the natural color of cotton fabric due to deposition of AgNPs C and G which were maintained after laundering process.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
93
72846
Carbon Coated Yarn Supercapacitors: Parametric Study of Performance Output
Abstract:
Evolution of textiles, from its orthodox to more interactive role has stirred the researchers to uncover its application in numerous arenas. The idea of using textile based materials for wearable energy harvesting and storage devices have gained immense popularity. This is mainly due to textile comfort and flexibility features. In this work, nano-carbonous materials were infused on cellulosic fibers using caustic soda treatment. This paper presents the complete procedure of yarn supercapacitors fabrication process through dip coating technique and its characterization method. The main objective is to study, the effect of varying caustic soda concentration on mass loading of activated carbon on yarns and the related capacitance output of the designed yarn supercapacitor. Polyvinyl alcohol and Phosphoric acid were used as electrolyte in a two-electrode cell assembly to measure device electrochemical performance. The results show a promising increase in capacitance value using this technique.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
92
72623
Structure and Properties of Meltblown Polyetherimide as High Temperature Filter Media
Abstract:
Polyetherimide (PEI), an engineering plastic with very high glass transition temperature and excellent chemical and thermal stability, has been processed into a controlled porosity filter media of varying pore size, performance, and surface characteristics. A special grade of the PEI was processed by melt blowing to produce microfiber nonwovens suitable as filter media. The resulting microfiber webs were characterized to evaluate their structure and properties. The fiber webs were further modified by hot pressing, a post processing technique, which reduces the pore size in order to improve the barrier properties of the resulting membranes. This ongoing research has shown that PEI can be a good candidate for filter media requiring high temperature and chemical resistance with good mechanical properties. Also, by selecting the appropriate processing conditions, it is possible to achieve desired filtration performance from this engineering plastic.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
91
72616
A Polyphonic Look at Trends
Abstract:
The reflection focuses on recording and explaining the considerations, conceptualizations and methodological approach with which from the University, that is to say, from the academic field, the study of Trends is addressed with the intention of training professionals in the area, an area that requires disciplinary boundaries and builds a polyphonic vision. When referring to the objective of our Laboratory the detection of aesthetic trends of consumption, we find ourselves in the requirement to define our object: trends, aesthetic trends of consumption, more specifically. The pages cover a conception of trends from a theoretical framework that incorporates contributions from linguistics, semiotics, sociology, cultural studies and project disciplines, in order to consolidate a polyphonic look. The text investigates in the pre-discursive aspect of the trends, in the circulation of the notion of style and in the dynamics of affirmation - denial as the constitutive dynamics of Fashion linked to any process of innovation. From such inquiry, it is presented to Fashion as a system that operates directly on the construction of socio-individual identities unfolding through the liquefaction of signs in trends.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
90
72364
Exploring Closed-Loop Business Systems Which Eliminates Solid Waste in the Textile and Fashion Industry: A Systematic Literature Review Covering the Developments Occurred in the Last Decade
Abstract:
Introduction: Over the last decade, a proliferation of literature related to textile and fashion business in the context of sustainable production and consumption has emerged. However, the economic and environmental benefits of solid waste recovery have not been comprehensively searched. Therefore at the end-of-life or end-of-use textile waste management remains a gap. Solid textile waste reuse and recycling principles of the circular economy need to be developed to close the disposal stage of the textile supply chain. The environmental problems associated with the over-production and –consumption of textile products arise. Together with growing population and fast fashion culture the share of solid textile waste in municipal waste is increasing. Focusing on post-consumer textile waste literature, this research explores the opportunities, obstacles and enablers or success factors associated with closed-loop textile business systems. Methodology: A systematic literature review was conducted in order to identify best practices and gaps from the existing body of knowledge related to closed-loop post-consumer textile waste initiatives over the last decade. Selected keywords namely: ‘cradle-to-cradle ‘, ‘circular* economy* ‘, ‘closed-loop* ‘, ‘end-of-life* ‘, ‘reverse* logistic* ‘, ‘take-back* ‘, ‘remanufacture* ‘, ‘upcycle* ‘ with the combination of (and) ‘fashion* ‘, ‘garment* ‘, ‘textile* ‘, ‘apparel* ‘, clothing* ‘ were used and the time frame of the review was set between 2005 to 2017. In order to obtain a broad coverage, Web of Knowledge and Science Direct databases were used, and peer-reviewed journal articles were chosen. The keyword search identified 299 number of papers which was further refined into 54 relevant papers that form the basis of the in-depth thematic analysis. Preliminary findings: A key finding was that the existing literature is predominantly conceptual rather than applied or empirical work. Moreover, the enablers or success factors, obstacles and opportunities to implement closed-loop systems in the textile industry were not clearly articulated and the following considerations were also largely overlooked in the literature. While the circular economy suggests multiple cycles of discarded products, components or materials, most research has to date tended to focus on a single cycle. Thus the calculations of environmental and economic benefits of closed-loop systems are limited to one cycle which does not adequately explore the feasibility or potential benefits of multiple cycles. Additionally, the time period textile products spend between point of sale, and end-of-use/end-of-life return is a crucial factor. Despite past efforts to study closed-loop textile systems a clear gap in the literature is the lack of a clear evaluation framework which enables manufacturers to clarify the reusability potential of textile products through consideration of indicators related too: quality, design, lifetime, length of time between manufacture and product return, volume of collected disposed products, material properties, and brand segment considerations (e.g. fast fashion versus luxury brands).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):