Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 51925

Geological and Environmental Engineering

646
90355
Strategic Metals and Rare Earth Elements Exploration of Lithium Cesium Tantalum Type Pegmatites: A Case Study from Northwest Himalayas
Abstract:
The LCT (Li, Cs and Ta rich)-type pegmatites, genetically related to peraluminous S-type granites, are being mined for strategic metals (SMs) and rare earth elements (REEs) around the world. This study investigates the SMs and REEs potentials of pegmatites that are spatially associated with an S-type granitic suite of the Himalayan sequence, specifically Mansehra Granitic Complex (MGC), northwest Pakistan. Geochemical signatures of the pegmatites and some of their mineral extracts were analyzed using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) technique to explore and generate potential prospects (if any) for SMs and REEs. In general, the REE patterns of the studied whole-rock pegmatite samples show tetrad effect and possess low total REE abundances, strong positive Europium (Eu) anomalies, weak negative Cesium (Cs) anomalies and relative enrichment in heavy REE. Similar features have been observed on the REE patterns of the feldspar extracts. However, the REE patterns of the muscovite extracts reflect preferential enrichment and possess negative Eu anomalies. The trace element evaluation further suggests that the MGC pegmatites have undergone low levels of fractionation. Various trace elements concentrations (and their ratios) including Ta versus Cs, K/Rb (Potassium/Rubidium) versus Rb and Th/U (Thorium/Uranium) versus K/Cs, were used to analyze the economically viable mineral potential of the studied rocks. On most of the plots, concentrations fall below the dividing line and confer either barren or low-level mineralization potential of the studied rocks for both SMs and REEs. The results demonstrate paucity of the MGC pegmatites with respect to Ta-Nb (Tantalum-Niobium) mineralization, which is in sharp contrast to many Pan-African S-type granites around the world. The MGC pegmatites are classified as muscovite pegmatites based on their K/Rb versus Cs relationship. This classification is consistent with the occurrence of rare accessory minerals like garnet, biotite, tourmaline, and beryl. Furthermore, the classification corroborates with an earlier sorting of the MCG pegmatites into muscovite-bearing, biotite-bearing, and subordinate muscovite-biotite types. These types of pegmatites lack any significant SMs and REEs mineralization potentials. Field relations, such as close spatial association with parent granitic rocks and absence of internal zonation structure, also reflect the barren character and hence lack of any potential prospects of the MGC pegmatites.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
645
89900
Fuzzy Expert Approach for Risk Mitigation on Functional Urban Areas Affected by Anthropogenic Ground Movements
Abstract:
A number of European cities are strongly affected by ground movements caused by anthropogenic activities or post-anthropogenic metamorphosis. Those are mainly water pumping, current mining operation, the collapse of post-mining underground voids or mining-induced earthquakes. These activities lead to large and small-scale ground displacements and a ground ruptures. The ground movements occurring in urban areas could considerably affect stability and safety of structures and infrastructures. The complexity of the ground deformation phenomenon in relation to the structures and infrastructures vulnerability leads to considerable constraints in assessing the threat of those objects. However, the increase of access to the free software and satellite data could pave the way for developing new methods and strategies for environmental risk mitigation and management. Open source geographical information systems (OS GIS), may support data integration, management, and risk analysis. Lately, developed methods based on fuzzy logic and experts methods for buildings and infrastructure damage risk assessment could be integrated into OS GIS. Those methods were verified base on back analysis proving their accuracy. Moreover, those methods could be supported by ground displacement observation. Based on freely available data from European Space Agency and free software, ground deformation could be estimated. The main innovation presented in the paper is the application of open source software (OS GIS) for integration developed models and assessment of the threat of urban areas. Those approaches will be reinforced by analysis of ground movement based on free satellite data. Those data would support the verification of ground movement prediction models. Moreover, satellite data will enable our mapping of ground deformation in urbanized areas. Developed models and methods have been implemented in one of the urban areas hazarded by underground mining activity. Vulnerability maps supported by satellite ground movement observation would mitigate the hazards of land displacements in urban areas close to mines.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
644
89089
Lateral Heterogeneity of 1/Q in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia
Authors:
Abstract:
The Coda attenuation and frequency dependency of seismic wave are strongly dependent on the effective stresses structures within the upper crust. In this study, the data of three different stations were used to examine the lateral variation of stress. The tectonic structures of these three areas have been examined comparatively using lateral coda tomography. In the study using the single scatter method, the window length selected to be 20 second. Coda values 80 with 94 and frequency dependency values obtained between 0.69 and 1.21. The 1/QC values for the three regions ranged from 0.0012 to 0.017, highlighting the regional differences in the seismotectonic activity of the crust. The lowest absorption values obtained from Erzurum station when the highest absorption values obtained at the Kemaliye station. The low Qc and high frequency dependency values obtained Kemaliye, which indicates that it has highest tectonic activity than other two regions. The seismo-dynamics data obtained from the study found to be in agreement with the tectonic structure of the region.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
643
89043
The Study on Blast Effect of Polymer Gel by Trazul Lead Block Test and Concrete Block Test
Abstract:
In this study, the polymer gel was used as coupling material in a blasting hole and its comparison was made with other coupling materials like sand, water, and air. Trazul lead block test and AUTODYN numerical analysis were conducted to analyze the effects of the coupling materials on the intensity of the explosion, as well as the verification tests were conducted by using concrete block test. The emulsion explosives were used in decoupling conditions, sand, water, and polymer gel were used as the coupling materials. The lead block test and the numerical analysis showed that the expansion of the blast hole in the lead block was similar to that of the water and gelatin and followed by sand and air conditions. The validation of concrete block test result showed the similar result as Trazul lead block test and the explosion strength was measured at 0.8 for polymer gel, 0.7 for sand, and 0.6 for no coupling material, in comparison to the full charge (1.0) case.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
642
88938
Loss in Efficacy of Viscoelastic Ionic Liquid Surfactants under High Salinity during Surfactant Flooding
Abstract:
When selecting surfactants for surfactant flooding during enhanced oil recovery, the most important criteria is that the surfactant system should reduce the interfacial tension between water and oil to ultralow values. In the present study, a mixture of ionic liquid surfactant and commercially available binding agent sodium tosylate has been used as a surfactant mixture. Presence of wormlike micelles indicates the possibility of achieving ultralow interfacial tension. Surface tension measurements of the mixed surfactant system have been studied. The emulsion size distribution of the mixed surfactant system at varying salinities has been studied. It has been found that at high salinities the viscoelastic surfactant system loses their efficacy and degenerate. Hence the given system may find application in low salinity reservoirs, providing good mobility to the flood during tertiary oil recovery process.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
641
88911
Spatiotemporal Variability of Snow Cover and Snow Water Equivalent over Eurasia
Abstract:
Changes in the extent and amount of snow cover in Eurasia are of great interest because of their vital impacts on the global climate system and regional water resource management. This study investigated the spatial and temporal variability of the snow cover extent (SCE) and snow water equivalent (SWE) of continental Eurasia using the Northern Hemisphere Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid (EASE-Grid) Weekly SCE data for 1972–2006 and the Global Monthly EASE-Grid SWE data for 1979–2004. The results indicated that, in general, the spatial extent of snow cover significantly decreased during spring and summer, but varied little during autumn and winter over Eurasia in the study period. The date at which snow cover began to disappear in spring has significantly advanced, whereas the timing of snow cover onset in autumn did not vary significantly during 1972–2006. The snow cover persistence period declined significantly in the western Tibetan Plateau as well as the partial area of Central Asia and northwestern Russia but varied little in other parts of Eurasia. ‘Snow-free breaks’ (SFBs) with intermittent snow cover in the cold season were mainly observed in the Tibetan Plateau and Central Asia, causing a low sensitivity of snow cover persistence period to the timings of snow cover onset and disappearance over the areas with shallow snow. The averaged SFBs were 1–14 weeks in the Tibetan Plateau during 1972–2006 and the maximum intermittence could reach 25 weeks in some extreme years. At a seasonal scale, the SWE usually peaked in February or March but fell gradually since April across Eurasia. Both annual mean and annual maximum SWE decreased significantly during 1979–2004 in most parts of Eurasia except for eastern Siberia as well as northwestern and northeastern China.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
640
88591
Computation of Flood and Drought Years over the North-West Himalayan Region Using India Meteorological Department Rainfall Data
Abstract:
The climatic conditions of India have been defined by the monsoon as rainfall, temperature, etc. are influenced greatly by it. As a great physiographic divide the Himalayas affecting a large system of water and air circulation which helps to determine the climatic condition in the Indian subcontinent to the south and mid-Asian highlands to the north. It creates obstacles by defending chill continental air from north side into India in winter and also defends rain-bearing southwesterly monsoon to give up maximum precipitation in that area in monsoon season. India receives more than 75% of rainfall during southwest monsoon. Indian economy is highly dependent on agriculture. And according to this viewpoint, the presence of flood and drought years influenced the total cultivation system as well as the economy of the country as Indian agricultural systems are still now highly dependent on the monsoon rainfall. Now a day’s extreme weather conditions such as heavy precipitation, cloudburst, flash flood, landslide and extreme avalanches are the regular happening incidents in the region of North Western Himalayas (NWH) which is directly related to rainfall system. The present study has been planned to investigate the flood and drought years for that region from 1951 to 2014 by using area average IMD rainfall data. For this investigation, the normalized index (NI) has been utilized to find out whether the particular year is drought or flood. The data has been extracted for the NWH region states namely Uttarakhand (UK), Himachal Pradesh (HP) and Jammu and Kashmir (J and K) to find out the rainy season average rainfall for each year, climatological mean and the standard deviation. After calculation it has been plotted by the diagrams (or graphs) to show the results; some of the years associated with drought years, some are flood years, and rest are neutral. It can also be related with the El-Nino and La-Lina year to find out the fluctuation of monsoon rainfall and its underlying physical mechanism. Further discussions about this work will be done at the time of presentation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
639
87755
Preliminary Study of Sponge Spicule to Understand Paleobathymetry, Sentolo Formation, Kulon Progo, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta
Abstract:
The phylum Porifera, commonly known as sponges, is a group of primitive animals living since Paleozoic-recent, currently have over 8300 described species, where the majority lives in the marine environment and sessile or in situ. Sponge spicule is one part of the body that secreted by sponge; this spicule can be well preserved because it composed of silicate material. Sponge spicule was identified based on morphological form, which was classified into two main classes, Megasclere and Microsclere. Any form of spicule morphology will indicate a particular sponge species, and it also related to the sponge living environment. Therefore, understanding the paleobathymetry using spicules can be done and more detailed because of sponge living in situ. The methods used in this paper are stratigraphic measurement, continuous sampling, and sieve preparation to dissolve calcareous and siliciclastics materials. Then, each spicule was picked by picking method for every 100 grams of each sample and identified the morphological form to determine the order and abundance of spicule. 10 samples have analyzed, 1489 spicules were identified, there were two classes of Porifera, Demospongiae, and Hexactinellida. Five orders of Porifera also identified in the research area, Haplosclerida, Hadromerida, Agelasida, Lithistids, and Lyssacinosida. The results from descriptive analysis and spicule abundance can be understood that the paleobathymetry of research area was in intertidal zone. Furthermore, the variation and abundance of sponge spicule can be used to understand the paleobathymetry and depositional environment.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
638
87216
Preliminary Studies in the Determination of Deteriorations in Eflatunpınar Hitit Water Monument (Konya, Turkey) by Non-Destructive Tests
Abstract:
The building stones used in the construction of historical structures are exposed to atmospheric effects directly or indirectly. As a result of this process, building stones are partially or completely degraded. Historical buildings are important symbols of cultural heritage, so it is very significant to transfer to the future generations by protecting and repairing of these historical buildings. The Eflatunpınar Hitit Monument located near the Eflatunpınar cold water spring was constructed by using natural rock blocks during the Hittites Empire period. The monument has been protected without losing its function until today. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the deteriorations in the Eflatunpınar Hitit Monument and to detect the water chemistry of the Eflatunpınar spring located around the Beysehir County in the west of Konya. For this purpose, the petrographic and mechanical properties of the rocks used in this monument were determined, and the deteriorations in the monument were determined with the aid of non-destructive test methods including Schmidt hardness value, relative humidity measurement, thermal imaging. Additionally, the physical (electrical conductivity (EC), pH and temperature) and chemical characteristics (major anions and cations) of the Eflatunpınar cold water spring have been detected.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
637
85055
Palygorskite Bearing Calcic-Soils from Western Thar Desert: Implications for Late Quaternary Monsoonal Fluctuations
Abstract:
Main objective the present study is to investigate microscopic, sub-microscopic, clay mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of three calcic soil profiles from the western Thar Desert for the last 30 ka paleoclimatic information. Thin-sections of the soils show weakly to moderately developed pedofeatures dominated by powdery to well-indurated pedogenic calcium carbonate. Sub-microscopy of the representative calcretes show extensive growth of fibrous palygorskite in pore spaces of micritic and sparitic nodules. XRD of the total clay ( < 2 µm) and fine clay ( < 0.2 µm) fractions of the soils show dominance of smectite, palygorskite, chlorite, mica, kaolinite and small amounts of quartz and feldspar. Formation of the palygorskite is attributed to pedogenic processes associated with Bw, Bss and Bwk horizons during drier conditions over the last 30 ka. Formation of palygorskite was mainly favoured by strongly evaporating percolating water and precipitation of secondary calcite, high pH (9-10), high Mg, Si and low Al activities during pedogenesis. Age estimate and distribution of calcretes, palygorskite, and illuvial features indicate fluctuating monsoonal strength during MIS3-MIS1 stages. The pedogenic features in calcic soils of western Thar suggest relatively arid conditions during MIS3-MIS2 transition and LGM time that changed to relatively wetter conditions during post LGM time and again returned to dry conditions at ~4 ka in MIS1.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
636
84610
Assessing and Managing the Risk of Inland Acid Sulfate Soil Drainage via Column Leach Tests and 1D Modelling: A Case Study from South East Australia
Abstract:
The acidification and mobilisation of metals during the oxidation of acid sulfate soils exposed during lake bed drying is an increasingly common phenomenon under climate scenarios with reduced rainfall. In order to assess the risk of generating high concentrations of acidity and dissolved metals, chromium suite analysis are fundamental, but sometimes limited in characterising the potential risks they pose. This study combines such fundamental test work, along with incubation tests and 1D modelling to investigate the risks associated with the drying of Third Reedy Lake in South East Australia. Core samples were collected from a variable depth of 0.5 m below the lake bed, at 19 locations across the lake’s footprint, using a boat platform. Samples were subjected to a chromium suite of analysis, including titratable actual acidity, chromium reducible sulfur and acid neutralising capacity. Concentrations of reduced sulfur up to 0.08 %S and net acidities up to 0.15 %S indicate that acid sulfate soils have formed on the lake bed during permanent inundation over the last century. A further sub-set of samples were prepared in 7 columns and subject to accelerated heating, drying and wetting over a period of 64 days in laboratory. Results from the incubation trial indicate that while pyrite oxidation proceeded, minimal change to soil pH or the acidity of leachate occurred, suggesting that the internal buffering capacity of lake bed sediments was sufficient to neutralise a large proportion of the acidity produced. A 1D mass balance model was developed to assess potential changes in lake water quality during drying based on the results of chromium suite and incubation tests. Results from the above test work and modelling suggest that acid sulfate soils pose a moderate to low risk to the Third Reedy Lake system. Further, the risks can be effectively managed during the initial stages of lake drying via flushing with available mildly alkaline water. The study finds that while test work such as chromium suite analysis are fundamental in characterizing acid sulfate soil environments, they can the overestimate risks associated with the soils. Subsequent incubation test work may more accurately characterise such soils and lead to better-informed management strategies.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
635
84408
Shotcrete Performance Optimisation and Audit Using 3D Laser Scanning
Abstract:
In many underground mining operations, shotcrete is used for permanent rock support. Shotcrete thickness is a critical measure of the success of this process. 3D Laser Mapping, in conjunction with Jetcrete, has developed a 3D laser scanning system specifically for measuring the thickness of shotcrete. The system is mounted on the shotcrete spraying machine and measures the rock faces before and after spraying. The calculated difference between the two 3D surface models is measured as the thickness of the sprayed concrete. Typical work patterns for the shotcrete process required a rapid and automatic system. The scanning takes place immediately before and after the application of the shotcrete so no convergence takes place in the interval between scans. Automatic alignment of scans without targets was implemented which allows for the possibility of movement of the spraying machine between scans. Case studies are presented where accuracy tests are undertaken and automatic audit reports are calculated. The use of 3D imaging data for the calculation of shotcrete thickness is an important tool for geotechnical engineers and contract managers, and this could become the new state-of-the-art methodology for the mining industry.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
634
84059
Crustal Deformation Study across the Chite Fault Using GPS Measurements in North East India along the Indo Burmese Arc
Abstract:
North East India is seismically one of the six most active regions of the world. It is placed in Zone V, the highest zone in the seismic zonation of India. It lies at the junction of Himalayan arc to the north and the Burmese arc to the east. The region has witnessed at least 18 large earthquakes including two great earthquakes Shillong (1987, M=8.7) and the Assam Tibet border (1950, M=8.7).The prominent Chite fault lies at the heart of Aizawl, the capital of Mizoram state and this hilly city is the home to about 2 million people. Geologically the area is a part of the Indo-Burmese Wedge and is prone to natural and man-made disasters. Unplanned constructions and urban dwellings on a rapid scale have lead to numerous unsafe structures adversely affecting the ongoing development and welfare projects of the government and they pose a huge threat for earthquakes. Crustal deformation measurements using campaign mode GPS were undertaken across this fault. Campaign mode GPS data were acquired and were processed with GAMIT-GLOBK software. The study presents the current velocity estimates at all the sites in ITRF 2008 and also in the fixed Indian reference frame. The site motion showed that there appears to be no differential motion anywhere across the fault area, thus confirming presently the fault is neither accumulating strain nor slipping aseismically. From the geological and geomorphological evidence, supported by geodetic measurements, lack of historic earthquakes, the Chite fault favours aseismic behaviour in this part of the Indo Burmese Arc (IBA).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
633
83584
Modeling and Estimating Reserve of the Ali Javad Porphyry Copper-Gold Deposit, East Azerbaijan, Iran
Abstract:
The study area is located in East Azerbaijan province, north of Ahar city, and 1/100000 geological map of Varzgan. This region is located in the middle of Iran zone. Ali Javad Porphyry copper-gold ore deposit has been created in a magmatic complex containing intrusive masses, combining Granodiorite and quartz Monzonite that penetrates into the Eocene volcanic aggregate. The most important mineralization includes primary oxides minerals (magnetite), sulfide (pyrite, chalcopyrite, Molybdenite, Bornite, Chalcocite, Covollite), secondary oxide or hydroxide minerals (hematite, goethite, limonite), and carbonate (malachite and Azurite). The mineralization forms into the vein-veinlets and scattered system. The alterations observed in the region include intermediate Argillic, advanced Argillic, Phyllic, silica, Propylitic, chlorite and Potassic. The 3D model of mineralization of the Alijavad is provided by Data DATAMINE software and based on the study of 700 polished sections of 32 drilled boreholes in the region. This model is completely compatible with the model provided by Lowell and Gilbert for the mineralization of porphyry copper deposits of quartz Monzonite type. The estimated cumulative residual value of copper for Ali Javad deposit is 81.5 million tons with 0.75 percent of copper, and for gold is 8.37 million tons with 1.8 ppm.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
632
83119
Identification of Paleogeomorphology at Kedulan Temple, Sleman, Yogyakarta
Abstract:
Kedulan Temple is located in Dusun Kedulan, Sleman, Yogyakarta, Indonesia at coordinates S 07o 44’ 57’, E 110o 28’ 17’. Kedulan Temple is a trace of the relics of life in the 3 century AD. The Kedulan Temple including exhumed landforms, which the primordial landform is first surface topography, then buried under cover mass and exposed or re-inscribed. Recognized by the existence of ancient soil (paleosoil) and ancient objects. Seen from the type of soil that closes the temple, there are 13 layers of lava type, so it is estimated that the lava that buried the temple came from 13 times the eruption of Mount Merapi. The material that buries the base of this temple is the pyroclastic surge deposits in 3 layers, each of which is limited by a thin layer of paleosol, the sediments are 1445+/-50 yBP, 1175+/-50 yBP, and 1060+/-40 yBP. This temple is buried and dug again at 940+/-100 yBP. Furthermore, the temple affected by earthquake, so the floor and foundation becomes bumpy and most of the temple stone are thrown. The temple is left alone, until exposed to hot clouds at 1285 M (740+/-50yBP). Next, repeatedly buried lava in 4 periods, in 1587 M (360+/-50 yBP, 240+/-50 yBP, 200+/-50 yBP and unknown date). From studying this temple, can be known paleogeomorphology process that occurred in Yogyakarta, especially related to the volcanic activity of Mount Merapi. Until now, the water is still flowing around the temple so there is a fluvial process that began to take a role in the temple.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
631
82945
Paleobathymetry and Biostratigraphy of Sambipitu Formation and Its Relation with the Presence of Ichnofossil in Geoheritage Site Ngalang River Yogyakarta
Abstract:
The location of this research is a part of Geoheritage that located in Nglipar, Gunung Kidul Regency, Yogyakarta Special Region. Whereas in this location, the carbonate sandstone of Sambipitu Formation (early-middle Miocene) is well exposed along Ngalang River, also there are ichnofossil presence which causes this formation to be interesting. The determination of paleobathymetry is particularly important in determining paleoenvironment and paleogeographic. Paleobathymetry can be determined by identifying the presence of Foraminifera bentonik fossil and parasequence emerge. The methods that used in this study are spatial method of field observation with systematic sampling, descriptive method of paleontology, biostratigraphy analysis, geometrical analysis of Ichnofossil, and study literature. The result obtained that paleobathymetry of this location is bathyal zone with maximum regression known by Bulliminoides williamsonianus showing depth 17 fathoms at the age of N3-N5 (Oligocenne-Early Miocene) and the maximum transgression is known by Cibicides pseudoungarianus showing depth 862 fathoms at the age of N8-N9 (Early-Middle Miocene). Where the obtained paleobathymetry supported of the presence and formed the pattern of ichnofossil that found in the study area.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
630
82925
The History of Sambipitu Formation Temperature during the Early Miocene Epooch at Kali Ngalang, Nglipar, Gunung Kidul Regency
Abstract:
Understanding of temperatures in the past, present, and future temperatures can be possible to do by analysis abundance of fossil foraminifera. This research was conducted in Sambipitu Formation, Ngalang River, Nglipar, Gunung Kidul Regency. The research method is divided into 3 stages: 1) study of literature, research based on previous researchers, 2) spatial, observation and sampling every 5-10 meters, 3) descriptive, analyzing samples consisting of a 10-gram sample weight, washing sample using 30% peroxide, biostratigraphy analysis, paleotemperature analysis using abundance of fossil, diversity analysis using Simpson diversity index method, and comparing current temperature data. There are two phases based on the appearance of Globorotalia menardii and Pulleniatina obliqueculata pointed to Phase Tropical Area, and the appearance of fossil Globigerinoides ruber and Orbulina universa fossil shows the phase of Subtropical Area. Paleotemperatur based on the appearance of Globorotalia menardii, Globigerinoides trilobus, Globigerinoides ruber, Orbulina universa, and Pulleniatina obliqueculata pointed to Warm Water Area and Warm Water Area (average surface water approximate 25°C).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
629
82456
Comparative Morphometric Analysis of Yelganga-Shivbhadra and Kohilla River Sub-Basins in Aurangabad District Maharashtra India
Abstract:
Morphometric analysis is the first stage of any basin analysis. By using these morphometric parameters we give indirect information about the nature and relations of stream with other streams, Geology of the area, groundwater condition and tectonic history of the basin. In the present study, Yelganga, Shivbhadra and Kohilla rivers, tributaries of the Godavari River in Aurangabad district, Maharashtra, India are considered to compare and study their morphometric characters. The linear, areal and relief morphometric aspects of the sub-basins have been assessed and evaluated in GIS environment. For this study, ArcGIS 10.1 software has been used for delineating, digitizing and generating different thematic maps. The Survey of India (SOI) toposheets maps and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) on resolution 30 m downloaded from United States Geological Survey (USGS) have been used for preparation of map and data generation. Geologically, the study area is covered by Central Deccan Volcanic Province (CDVP). It mainly consists of ‘aa’ type of basaltic lava flows of Late (upper) Cretaceous to Early (lower) Eocene age. The total geographical area of Yelganga, Shivbhadra and Kohilla river sub-basins are 185.5 sq. km., 142.6 sq. km and 122.3 sq. km. respectively The stream ordering method as suggested by the Strahler has been employed for present study and found that all the sub-basins are of 5th order streams. The average bifurcation ratio value of the sub-basins is below 5, indicates that there appears to be no strong structural control on drainage development, homogeneous nature of lithology and drainage network is in well-developed stage of erosion. The drainage density of Yelganga, Shivbhadra and Kohilla Sub-basins is 1.79 km/km2, 1.48 km/km2 and 1.89 km/km2 respectively and stream frequency is 1.94 streams/km2, 1.19 streams/km2 and 1.68 streams/km2 respectively, indicating semi-permeable sub-surface. Based on textural ratio values it indicates that the sub-basins have coarse texture. Shape parameters such as form factor ratio, circularity ratio and elongation ratio values shows that all three sub- basins are elongated in shape.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
628
82273
Analysis of Microstructure around Opak River Pleret Area, Bantul Regency, Special Region of Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia, as a Result of Opak Fault Reactivation, Using Stereographic Method
Abstract:
Opak Fault is a large fault that extends from the northeast to the southwest of Yogyakarta Special Region. Opak Fault allegedly re-active after the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake, about eleven years ago. Opak Fault is a big fault, therefore the activation will bring up the microstructure around the Opak River. This microstructure will reveal a different direction of force from the Opak Fault because the trigger for the emergence of the microstructure is the reactivation of the Opak Fault. In other words, this microstructure is a potentially severe weak area during a tectonic disaster. This research was conducted to find out the impact from the reactivation of Opak Fault that triggered the emergence of microstructure around Opak River which is very useful for disaster mitigation information around research area. This research used the approach from literature study in the form of the journal of structural geology and field study. The method used is a laboratory analysis in the form of stereographic analysis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
627
81800
Numerical Modeling of Determination of in situ Rock Mass Deformation Modulus Using the Plate Load Test
Abstract:
Accurate determination of rock mass deformation modulus, as an important design parameter, is one of the most controversial issues in most engineering projects. A 3D numerical model of standard plate load test (PLT) using the FLAC3D code was carried on to investigate the mechanism governing the test process. Five objectives were the focus of this study. The first goal was to employ 3D modeling in the interpretation of plate load tests conducted at the Bazoft dam site, Iran. The second objective was to investigate the effect of displacements measuring depth from the loading plates on the calculated moduli. The magnitude of rock mass deformation modulus calculated from PLT depends on anchor depth, and in practice, this may be a cause of error in the selection of realistic deformation modulus for the rock mass. The third goal of the study was to investigate the effect of testing plate diameter on the calculated modulus. Moreover, a comparison of the calculated modulus from ISRM formula, numerical modeling and calculated modulus from the actual PLT carried out at the right abutment of the Bazoft dam site was another objective of the study. Finally, the effect of plastic strains on the calculated moduli in each of the loading-unloading cycles for three loading plates was investigated. The geometry, material properties and boundary conditions on the constructed 3D model were selected based on the in situ conditions of PLT at Bazoft dam site. A good agreement was achieved between numerical model results and the field tests results.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
626
81731
Iranian Refinery Vacuum Residue Upgrading Using Microwave Irradiation: Effects of Catalyst Type and Amount
Authors:
Abstract:
Microwave irradiation is an innovative technology in the petroleum industry. This kind of energy has been considered to convert vacuum residue of oil refineries into useful products. The advantages of microwaves energy are short time, fast heating, high energy efficiency, and precise process control. In this paper, the effects of catalyst type and amount have been investigated on upgrading of vacuum residue using microwave irradiation. The vacuum residue used in this research is from Tehran oil refinery, Iran. Additives include different catalysts, active carbon as sensitizer, and sodium borohydride as a solid hydrogen donor. Various catalysts contain iron, nickel, molybdenum disulfide, iron oxide and copper. The amount of catalysts in two cases of presence and absence of sodium borohydride have been evaluated. The objective parameters include temperature, asphaltene, viscosity, and API. The specifications of vacuum residue are API, 8.79, viscosity, 16391 cSt (60°C), asphaltene, 13.3 wt %. The results show that there is a significant difference between the effects of catalysts. Among the used catalysts, Fe powder is the best catalyst for upgrading vacuum residue using microwave irradiation and resulted in asphaltene reduction, 31.3 %; viscosity reduction, 76.43 %; and 23.43 % in API increase.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
625
81709
Treatment of Onshore Petroleum Drill Cuttings via Soil Washing Process: Characterization and Optimal Conditions
Abstract:
Drilling is a key activity in oil and gas exploration and production. Drilling always requires the use of drilling mud for lubricating the drill bit and controlling the subsurface pressure. As drilling proceeds, a considerable amount of cuttings or rock fragments is generated. In general, water or Water Based Mud (WBM) serves as drilling fluid for the top hole section. The cuttings generated from this section is non-hazardous and normally applied as fill materials. On the other hand, drilling the bottom hole to reservoir section uses Synthetic Based Mud (SBM) of which synthetic oils are composed. The bottom-hole cuttings, SBM cuttings, is regarded as a hazardous waste, in accordance with the government regulations, due to the presence of hydrocarbons. Currently, the SBM cuttings are disposed of as an alternative fuel and raw material in cement kiln. Instead of burning, this work aims to propose an alternative for drill cuttings management under two ultimate goals: (1) reduction of hazardous waste volume; and (2) making use of the cleaned cuttings. Soil washing was selected as the major treatment process. The physiochemical properties of drill cuttings were analyzed, such as size fraction, pH, moisture content, and hydrocarbons. The particle size of cuttings was analyzed via light scattering method. Oil present in cuttings was quantified in terms of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) through gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Other components were measured by the standard methods for soil analysis. Effects of different washing agents, liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, washing time, mixing speed, rinse-to-solid (R/S) ratio, and rinsing time were also evaluated. It was found that drill cuttings held the electrical conductivity of 3.84 dS/m, pH of 9.1, and moisture content of 7.5%. The TPH in cuttings existed in the diesel range with the concentration ranging from 20,000 to 30,000 mg/kg dry cuttings. A majority of cuttings particles held a mean diameter of 50 µm, which represented silt fraction. The results also suggested that a green solvent was considered most promising for cuttings treatment regarding occupational health, safety, and environmental benefits. The optimal washing conditions were obtained at L/S of 5, washing time of 15 min, mixing speed of 60 rpm, R/S of 10, and rinsing time of 1 min. After washing process, three fractions including clean cuttings, spent solvent, and wastewater were considered and provided with recommendations. The residual TPH less than 5,000 mg/kg was detected in clean cuttings. The treated cuttings can be then used for various purposes. The spent solvent held the calorific value of higher than 3,000 cal/g, which can be used as an alternative fuel. Otherwise, the recovery of the used solvent can be conducted using distillation or chromatography techniques. Finally, the generated wastewater can be combined with the produced water and simultaneously managed by re-injection into the reservoir.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
624
81593
Characterisation of the Physical Properties of Debris and Residual Soils Implications for the Possible Landslides Occurrence on Cililin West Java
Abstract:
Landslide occurence at Mukapayung, Cililin West Java with material movement downward slope as far as 500m and hit residential areas of the village Nagrog cause eighteen people died and ten homes were destroyed and twenty-three heads of families evacuated. In order to test the hypothesis that soil at the landslides area is prone to landslides, we do drilling and the following tests were taken: particle size distribution, atterberg limits, shear strength, density, shringkage limits and triaxial unconsolidated and consolidated undrained test. Factor of safety was calculated to find out the possibility of subsequent landslides. The value of FOS of three layers is 1,05 which means that the soil in a critical condition and would be imminent to slide if there is disruption from the outside.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
623
80785
Reactive Transport Modeling in Carbonate Rocks: A Single Pore Model
Abstract:
Calcite is the main mineral found in carbonate rocks, which form significant hydrocarbon reservoirs and subsurface repositories for CO2 sequestration. The injected CO2 mixes with the reservoir fluid and disturbs the geochemical equilibrium, triggering calcite dissolution. Different combinations of fluid chemistry and injection rate may therefore result in different evolution of porosity, permeability and dissolution patterns. To model the changes in porosity and permeability Kozeny-Carman equation K∝〖(∅)〗^n is used, where K is permeability and ∅ is porosity. The value of n is mostly based on experimental data or pore network models. In pore network models, this derivation is based on accuracy of relation used for conductivity and pore volume change. In fact, at a single pore scale, this relationship is the result of the pore shape development due to dissolution. We have prepared a new reactive transport model for a single pore which simulates the complex chemical reaction of carbonic-acid induced calcite dissolution and subsequent pore-geometry evolution at a single pore scale. We use COMSOL Multiphysics package 5.3 for the simulation. COMSOL utilizes the arbitary-Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method for the free-moving domain boundary. We examined the effect of flow rate on the evolution of single pore shape profiles due to calcite dissolution. We used three flow rates to cover diffusion dominated and advection-dominated transport regimes. The fluid in diffusion dominated flow (Pe number 0.037 and 0.37) becomes less reactive along the pore length and thus produced non-uniform pore shapes. However, for the advection-dominated flow (Pe number 3.75), the fast velocity of the fluid keeps the fluid relatively more reactive towards the end of the pore length, thus yielding uniform pore shape. Different pore shapes in terms of inlet opening vs overall pore opening will have an impact on the relation between changing volumes and conductivity. We have related the shape of pore with the Pe number which controls the transport regimes. For every Pe number, we have derived the relation between conductivity and porosity. These relations will be used in the pore network model to get the porosity and permeability variation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
622
80706
Horizontal Stress Magnitudes Using Poroelastic Model in Upper Assam Basin, India
Abstract:
Upper Assam sedimentary basin is one of the oldest commercially producing basins of India. Being in a tectonically active zone, estimation of tectonic strain and stress magnitudes has vast application in hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation. This East North East –West South West trending shelf-slope basin encompasses the Bramhaputra valley extending from Mikir Hills in the southwest to the Naga foothills in the northeast. Assam Shelf lying between the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and Naga Thrust area is comparatively free from thrust tectonics and depicts normal faulting mechanism. The study area is bounded by the MBT and Main Central Thrust in the northwest. The Belt of Schuppen in the southeast, is bordered by Naga and Disang thrust marking the lower limit of the study area. The entire Assam basin shows low-level seismicity compared to other regions of northeast India. Pore pressure (PP), vertical stress magnitude (SV) and horizontal stress magnitudes have been estimated from two wells - N1 and T1 located in Upper Assam. N1 is located in the Assam gap below the Bramhaputra river while T1, lies in the Belt of Schuppen. N1 penetrates geological formations from top Alluvial through Dhekiajuli, Girujan, Tipam, Barail, Kopili, Sylhet and Langpur to the granitic basement while T1 in trusted zone crosses through Girujan Suprathrust, Tipam Suprathrust, Barail Suprathrust to reach Naga Thrust. Normal compaction trend is drawn through shale points through both wells for estimation of PP using the conventional Eaton sonic equation with an exponent of 1.0 which is validated with Modular Dynamic Tester and mud weight. Observed pore pressure gradient ranges from 10.3 MPa/km to 11.1 MPa/km. The SV has a gradient from 22.20 to 23.80 MPa/km. Minimum and maximum horizontal principal stress (Sh and SH) magnitudes under isotropic conditions are determined using poroelastic model. This approach determines biaxial tectonic strain utilizing static Young’s Modulus, Poisson’s Ratio, SV, PP, leak off test (LOT) and SH derived from breakouts using prior information on unconfined compressive strength. Breakout derived SH information is used for obtaining tectonic strain due to lack of measured SH data from minifrac or hydrofracturing. Tectonic strain varies from 0.00055 to 0.00096 along x direction and from -0.0010 to 0.00042 along y direction. After obtaining tectonic strains at each well, the principal horizontal stress magnitudes are calculated from linear poroelastic model. The magnitude of Sh and SH gradient in normal faulting region are 12.5 and 16.0 MPa/km while in thrust faulted region the gradients are 17.4 and 20.2 MPa/km respectively. Model predicted Sh and SH matches well with the LOT data and breakout derived SH data in both wells. It is observed from this study that the stresses SV>SH>Sh prevailing in the shelf region while near the Naga foothills the regime changes to SH≈SV>Sh area corresponds to normal faulting regime. Hence this model is a reliable tool for predicting stress magnitudes from well logs under active tectonic regime in Upper Assam Basin.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
621
80705
Application of Multilinear Regression Analysis for Prediction of Synthetic Shear Wave Velocity Logs in Upper Assam Basin
Abstract:
Shear wave velocity (Vs) estimation is an important approach in the seismic exploration and characterization of a hydrocarbon reservoir. There are varying methods for prediction of S-wave velocity, if recorded S-wave log is not available. But all the available methods for Vs prediction are empirical mathematical models. Shear wave velocity can be estimated using P-wave velocity by applying Castagna’s equation, which is the most common approach. The constants used in Castagna’s equation vary for different lithologies and geological set-ups. In this study, multiple regression analysis has been used for estimation of S-wave velocity. The EMERGE module from Hampson-Russel software has been used here for generation of S-wave log. Both single attribute and multi attributes analysis have been carried out for generation of synthetic S-wave log in Upper Assam basin. Upper Assam basin situated in North Eastern India is one of the most important petroleum provinces of India. The present study was carried out using four wells of the study area. Out of these wells, S-wave velocity was available for three wells. The main objective of the present study is a prediction of shear wave velocities for wells where S-wave velocity information is not available. The three wells having S-wave velocity were first used to test the reliability of the method and the generated S-wave log was compared with actual S-wave log. Single attribute analysis has been carried out for these three wells within the depth range 1700-2100m, which corresponds to Barail group of Oligocene age. The Barail Group is the main target zone in this study, which is the primary producing reservoir of the basin. A system generated list of attributes with varying degrees of correlation appeared and the attribute with the highest correlation was concerned for the single attribute analysis. Crossplot between the attributes shows the variation of points from line of best fit. The final result of the analysis was compared with the available S-wave log, which shows a good visual fit with a correlation of 72%. Next multi-attribute analysis has been carried out for the same data using all the wells within the same analysis window. A high correlation of 85% has been observed between the output log from the analysis and the recorded S-wave. The almost perfect fit between the synthetic S-wave and the recorded S-wave log validates the reliability of the method. For further authentication, the generated S-wave data from the wells have been tied to the seismic and correlated them. Synthetic share wave log has been generated for the well M2 where S-wave is not available and it shows a good correlation with the seismic. Neutron porosity, density, AI and P-wave velocity are proved to be the most significant variables in this statistical method for S-wave generation. Multilinear regression method thus can be considered as a reliable technique for generation of shear wave velocity log in this study.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
620
80358
The Economic Geology of Ijero Ekiti, South Western Nigeria: A Need for Sustainable Mining for a Responsible Socio-Economic Growth and Development
Abstract:
The study area Ijero-Ekiti falls within the Ilesha-Ekiti Schist belt, originating from the long year of the Pan-Africa orogenic events and various cataclysmic tectonic activities in history. Ijero-Ekiti is situated within latitude 7 degree 45N and 7 Degree 55N. Ijero Ekiti is bordered between the Dahomean Basin and the southern Bida/Benue basin on the Geological map of Nigeria. This research work centers on majorly on investigating the chemical composition and as well as the mineralogical distribution of the various mineral-bearing rocks that composed the study area. This work is essentially carried out with a view to assessing and at the same time ascertaining the economic potentials and or the industrial significance of the area to Ekiti-south western region and the Nigeria nation as a whole. The mineralogical distribution pattern is of particular interest to us in this study. In this regard essential focus is put on the mostly the economic gemstones distributions within the various mineral bearing rocks in the zone, some of which includes the tourmaline formation, cassiterite deposit, tin-ore, tantalum columbite, smoky quartz, amethyst, polychrome and emerald variety beryl among others as they occurred within the older granite of the Precambrian rocks. To this end, samples of the major rock types were taken from various locations within the study area for detail scientific analysis as follows: The Igemo pegmatite of Ijero west, the epidiorite of Idaho, the biotitic hornblende gneiss of Ikoro-Ijero north and the beryl crystalline rock types to mention a few. The slides of the each rock from the aforementioned zones were later prepared and viewed under a cross Nichol petro graphic microscope with a particular focus on the light reflection ability of the constituent minerals in each rock samples. The results from the physical analysis viewed from the colour had it that the pegmatite samples ranges from pure milky white to fairly pinkish coloration. Other physical properties investigated include the streak, luster, form, specific gravity, cleavage/fracture pattern etc. The optical examination carried out centers on the refractive indices and pleochroism of the minerals present while the chemical analysis reveals from the tourmaline samples a differing correlation coefficient of the various oxides in each samples collected through which the mineral presence was established. In conclusion, it was inferred that the various minerals outlined above were in reasonable quantity within the Ijero area. With the above discoveries, therefore, we strongly recommend a detailed scientific investigation to be carried out such that will lead to a comprehensive mining of the area. Above all, it is our conclusion that a comprehensive mineralogical exploitation of this area will not only boost the socio-economic potential of the area but at the same time will go a long way contributing immensely to the socio-economic growth and development of the Nation-Nigeria at large.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
619
80215
Analysis of Rockfall Hazard along Himalayan Road Cut Slopes
Abstract:
With a vast area of India comprising of hilly terrain and road cut slopes, landslides and rockfalls are a common phenomenon. However, while landslide studies have received much attention in the past in India, very little literature and analysis is available regarding rockfall hazard of many rockfall prone areas, specifically in Uttarakhand Himalaya, India. The subsequent lack of knowledge and understanding of the rockfall phenomenon as well as frequent incidences of rockfall led fatalities urge the necessity of conducting site-specific rockfall studies to highlight the importance of addressing this issue as well as to provide data for safe design of preventive structures. The present study has been conducted across 10 rockfall prone road cut slopes for a distance of 15 km starting from Devprayag, India along National Highway 58 (NH-58). In order to make a qualitative assessment of Rockfall Hazard posed by these slopes, Rockfall Hazard Rating using standards for Indian Rockmass has been conducted at 10 locations under different slope conditions. Moreover, to accurately predict the characteristics of the possible rockfall phenomenon, numerical simulation was carried out to calculate the maximum bounce heights, total kinetic energies, translational velocities and trajectories of the falling rockmass blocks when simulated on each of these slopes according to real-life conditions. As it was observed that varying slope geometry had more fatal impacts on Rockfall hazard than size of rock masses, several optimizations have been suggested for each slope regarding location of barriers and modification of slope geometries in order to minimize damage by falling rocks. This study can be extremely useful in emphasizing the significance of rockfall studies and construction of mitigative barriers and structures along NH-58 around Devprayag.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
618
80121
Eco-Environmental Vulnerability Evaluation in Mountain Regions Using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System: A Case Study of Pasol Gad Watershed of Garhwal Himalaya, India
Abstract:
The Mid Himalaya of Garhwal Himalaya in Uttarakhand (India) has a complex Physiographic features withdiversified climatic conditions and therefore it is suspect to environmental vulnerability. Thenatural disasters and also anthropogenic activities accelerate the rate of environmental vulnerability. To analyse the environmental vulnerability, we have used geoinformatics technologies and numerical models and it is adoptedby using Spatial Principal Component Analysis (SPCA). The model consist of many factors such as slope, landuse/landcover, soil, forest fire risk, landslide susceptibility zone, human population density and vegetation index. From this model, the environmental vulnerability integrated index (EVSI) is calculated for Pasol Gad Watershed of Garhwal Himalaya for the years 1987, 2000, and 2013 and the Vulnerability is classified into five levelsi.e. Very low, low, medium, high and very highby means of cluster principle. The resultsforeco-environmental vulnerability distribution in study area shows that medium, high and very high levels are dominating in the area and it is mainly caused by the anthropogenic activities and natural disasters. Therefore, proper management forconservation of resources is utmost necessity of present century. It is strongly believed that participation at community level along with social worker, institutions and Non-governmental organization (NGOs) have become a must to conserve and protect the environment.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
617
79990
The Exploration Targets of the Nanpu Sag: Insight from Organic Geochemical Characteristics of Source Rocks and Oils
Abstract:
Organic geochemistry of source rocks and oils in the Nanpu Sag, Bohai Bay basin was studied on the basis of the results of Rock-Eval and biomarker. The possible source rocks consist of the third member (Es₃) and the first member (Es₁) of Shahejie formation and the third member of Dongying Formation (Ed₃) in the Nanpu Sag. The Es₃, Es₁, and Ed₃ source rock intervals in the Nanpu Sag all have high organic-matter richness and are at hydrocarbon generating stage, which are regarded as effective source rocks. The three possible source rock intervals have different biomarker associations and can be differentiated by gammacerane/αβ C₃₀ hopane, ETR ([C₂₈+C₂₉]/ [C₂₈+C₂₉+Ts]), C₂₇ diasterane/sterane and C₂₇/C₂₉ steranes, which suggests they deposited in different environments. Based on the oil-source rock correlation, the shallow oils mainly originated from the Es₃ and Es₁ source rocks in the Nanpu Sag. Through hydrocarbon generation and expulsion history of the source rocks, trap development history and accumulation history, the shallow oils mainly originated from paleo-reservoirs in the Es₃ and Es₁ during the period of Neotectonism, and the residual paleo-reservoirs in the Es₃ and Es₁ would be the focus targets in the Nanpu Sag; Bohai Bay Basin.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):