Approaches to Tsunami Mitigation and Prevention
Tsunami, as a natural disaster, is composed of waves that are usually caused by severe movements at the sea floor. Although tsunami and its consequences cannot be prevented in any way, by examining past tsunamis and extracting key points on how to deal with this incident and learning from it, a positive step can be taken to reduce the vulnerability of human settlements and reduce the risk of this phenomenon in architecture and urbanism. The method is reviewing and has examined the documents written and valid internet sites related to managing and reducing the vulnerability of human settlements in face of tsunami. This paper has explored the tsunamis in Indonesia (2004), Sri Lanka (2004) and Japan (2011), and of the study objectives has been understanding how they dealt with tsunami and extracting key points, and the lessons from them in terms of reduction of vulnerability of human settlements in dealing with the tsunami. Finally, strategies to prevent and reduce the vulnerability of communities at risk of tsunamis have been offered in terms of architecture and urban planning. According to what is obtained from the study of the recent tsunamis, the authorities' quality of dealing with them, how to manage the crisis and the manner of their construction, it can be concluded that to reduce the vulnerability of human settlements against tsunami, there are generally four ways that are: 1-Construction of tall buildings with opening on the first floor so that water can flow easily under and the direction of the building should be in a way that water passes easily from the side. 2- The construction of multi-purpose centers, which could be used as vertical evacuation during accidents. 3- Constructing buildings in core forms with diagonal orientation of the coastline, 4- Building physical barriers (natural and synthetic) such as water dams, mounds of earth, sea walls and creating forests
Seismic Frequency Approach to Pore Pressure Prediction
Pore fluid pressure in excess of the hydrostatic pressure pose significant threats to the safety and economic drilling operations, especially deepwater and near salt field drilling being the challenge. High percentage of the Non-productive Time is due to issues regarding unexpected pore pressure encountered during drilling. Prior to drilling, proper planning is a key to lowering costs and increasing safety hence the need a better practice approach to pore pressure prediction by seismic surveys. The seismic frequency based method has been suggested as a tool for pore pressure prediction. This method is influenced by formation grain-to-grain contacts that is controlled by effective stress. The frequency response of seismic signals in normal pressured formation and overpressured formation are discussed in this paper. The dependency on the grain-to-grain contact allows the application of seismic frequency based to be a promising approach compared to the formation properties dependent seismic interval velocities approach for pore pressure prediction.
Influence of Pile Radius on Inertial Response of Pile Group in Fundamental Frequency of Homogeneous Soil Medium
An efficient method is developed for response of a group of vertical, cylindrical fixed-head, finite length piles embedded in a homogeneous elastic stratum, subjected to harmonic force atop the pile group cap. The pile to pile interaction is represented through simplified beam-on-dynamic-Winkler-foundation (BDWF) with realistic frequency-dependent springs and dashpots. Pile group effect is considered through interaction factors. New closed-form expressions for interaction factors and curvature ratios atop the pile are extended by considering different boundary conditions at the tip of the piles (fixed, hinged). In order to investigate the fundamental characteristics of inertial bending strains in pile groups, inertial bending strains at the head of each pile are expressed in terms of slenderness ratio. The results of parametric study give valuable insight in understanding the behavior of fixed head pile groups in the fundamental natural frequency of soil stratum.
Strong Ground Motion Characteristics Revealed by Accelerograms in Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake
The ground motion characteristics, which are given by the analysis of acceleration records, underlie the formulation and revision of the seismic design code of structural engineering. China Digital Strong Motion Network had recorded a lot of accelerograms of main shock from 478 permanent seismic stations, during the Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake on 12th May, 2008. These accelerograms provided a large number of essential data for the analysis of ground motion characteristics of the event. The spatial distribution characteristics, rupture directivity effect, hanging-wall and footwall effect had been studied based on these acceleration records. The results showed that the contours of horizontal peak ground acceleration and peak velocity were approximately parallel to the seismogenic fault which demonstrated that the distribution of the ground motion intensity was obviously controlled by the spatial extension direction of the seismogenic fault. Compared with the peak ground acceleration (PGA) recorded on the sites away from which the front of the fault rupture propagates, the PGA recorded on the sites toward which the front of the fault rupture propagates had larger amplitude and shorter duration, which indicated a significant rupture directivity effect. With the similar fault distance, the PGA of the hanging-wall is apparently greater than that of the foot-wall, while the peak velocity fails to observe this rule. Taking account of the seismic intensity distribution of Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake, the shape of strong ground motion contours was significantly affected by the directional effect in the regions with Chinese seismic intensity level VI ~ VIII. However, in the regions whose Chinese seismic intensity level are equal or greater than VIII, the mutual positional relationship between the strong ground motion contours and the surface outcrop trace of the fault was evidently influenced by the hanging-wall and foot-wall effect.
Prediction of Strong Ground Motion Parameters Using Genetic Programming
This research has sought to see closer and comprehensive relationships for the all three strong ground motion parameters; peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV) and peak ground displacement (PGD). For this purpose, genetic programming (GP) approach has been applied in this research to predict these parameters. This approach is one of the methods and applies techniques of artificial intelligence which presents a computerized simple formula in the absence of the doubts and uncertainties of the attenuation relationships. In the parliamentary procedure of modeling, 3500 data were employed into earthquakes recorded from different regions of the world with magnitudes between 4.27 and 7.9. The obtained results represented the appropriate performance of the GP model in estimating strong ground motion parameters.
Participation of Titanium Influencing the Petrological Assemblage of Mafic Dyke: Salem, South India
The study of metamorphic reaction textures is important in contributing to our understanding of the evolution of metamorphic terranes. Where preserved, they provide information on changes in the P-T conditions during the metamorphic history of the rock, and thus allow us to speculate on the P-T-t evolution of the terrane. Mafic dykes have attracted the attention of petrologists because they act as window to mantle. This rock represents a mafic dyke of doleritic composition. It is fine to medium grained in which clinopyroxene are enclosed by the lath shaped plagioclase grains to form spectacular ophitic texture. At places, sub ophitic texture was also observed. Grains of pyroxene and plagioclase show very less deformation typically plagioclase showing deformed lamella along with plagioclase-clinopyroxene-phyric granoblastic fabric within a groundmass of feldspar microphenocrysts and Fe–Ti oxides. Both normal and reverse zoning were noted in the plagioclase laths. The clinopyroxene grains contain exsolved phases such as orthopyroxene, plagioclase, magnetite, ilmenite along the cleavage traces and the orthopyroxene lamella form granules in the periphery of the clinopyroxene grains. Garnet corona also develops preferentially around plagioclase at the contact of clinopyroxene, ilmenite or magnetite. Tiny quartz and K-fs grains showed symplectic intergrowth with garnet at a few places. The product quartz formed along with garnet rims the coronal garnet and the reacting clinopyroxene. Thin amphibole corona formed along the periphery of deformed plagioclase and clinopyroxene occur as patches over the magmatic minerals. The amphibole coronas cannot be assigned to a late magmatic stage and are interpreted as reactive being restricted to the contact between clinopyroxene and plagioclase, thus postdating the crystallization of both. The amphibole and garnet do not share grain boundary in the entire rock and is thus pointing towards simultaneous crystallization. Olivine is absent. Spectacular myrmekitic growth of orthoclase and quartz rimming the plagioclase is consistent with the potash metasomatic effects that is also found in other rocks of this region. These textural features are consistent with a phase of ﬂuid induced metamorphism (retrogression). But the appearance of coronal garnet and amphibole exclusive of each other reflects the participation if Ti as the prime reason. Presence of Ti as a reactant phase is a must for amphibole forming reactions whereas it is not so in case of garnet forming reactions although the reactants are the same plagioclase and clinopyroxene in both cases. These findings are well validated by petrographical and textural analysis. In order to obtain balanced chemical reactions that explain formation of amphibole and garnet in the maﬁc dyke rocks a matrix operation technique called Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) was adopted utilizing the measured chemical compositions of the minerals. The computer program C-Space was used for this purpose and the required compositional matrix. Data fed to C-Space was after doing cation-calculation of the oxide percentages obtained from EPMA analysis. The Garnet-Clinopyroxene geothermometer yielded a temperature of 650 degrees Celsius. The Garnet-Clinopyroxene-Plagioclase geobarometer and Al-in amphibole yielded roughly 7.5 kbar pressure.
Petrology, Geochemistry and Formation Conditions of Metaophiolites of the Loki Crystalline Massif (the Caucasus)
The Loki crystalline massif crops out in the Caucasian region and the geological retrospective represent the northern marginal part of the Baiburt-Sevanian terrain (island arc), bordering with the Paleotethys oceanic basin in the north. The pre-Alpine basement of the massif is built up of Lower-Middle Paleozoic metamorphic complex (metasedimentary and metabasite rocks), Upper Devonian quartz-diorites and Late Variscan granites. Earlier metamorphic complex was considered as an indivisible set including suites with different degree of metamorphism. Systematic geologic, petrologic and geochemical investigations of the massif’s rocks suggest the different conception on composition, structure and formation conditions of the massif. In particular, there are two main rock types in the Loki massif: the oldest autochthonous series of gneissic quartz-diorites and cutting them granites. The massif is flanked on its western side by a volcano-sedimentary sequence, metamorphosed to low-T facies. Petrologic, metamorphic and structural differences in this sequence prove the existence of a number of discrete units (overthrust sheets). One of them, the metabasic sheet represents the fragment of ophiolite complex. It comprises transition types of the second and third layers of the Paleooceanic crust: the upper noncumulated part of the third layer gabbro component and the following lowest part of the parallel diabase dykes of the second layer. The ophiolites are represented by metagabbros, metagabbro-diabases, metadiabases and amphibolite schists. According to the content of petrogenic components and additive elements in metabasites is stated that the protolith of metabasites belongs to petrochemical type of tholeiitic series of basalts. The parental magma of metaophiolites is of E-MORB composition, and by petrochemical parameters, it is very close to the composition of intraplate basalts. The dykes of hypabissal leucocratic siliceous and medium magmatic rocks associated with the metaophiolite sheet form the separate complex. They are granitoids with the extremely low content of CaO and quartz-diorite porphyries. According to various petrochemical parameters, these rocks have mixed characteristics. Their formation took place in spreading conditions or in the areas of manifestation of plumes most likely of island arc type. The metamorphism degree of the metaophiolites corresponds to a very low stage of green schist facies. The rocks of the metaophiolite complex are obducted from the Paleotethys Ocean. Geological and paleomagnetic data show that the primary location of the ocean is supposed to be to the north of the Loki crystalline massif.
Grain Size Statistics and Depositional Pattern of the Ecca Group Sandstones, Karoo Supergroup in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa
Grain size analysis is a vital sedimentological tool used to unravel the hydrodynamic conditions, mode of transportation and deposition of detrital sediments. In this study, detailed grain-size analysis was carried out on thirty-five sandstone samples from the Ecca Group in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Grain-size statistical parameters, bivariate analysis, linear discriminate functions, Passega diagrams and log-probability curves were used to reveal the depositional processes, sedimentation mechanisms, hydrodynamic energy conditions and to discriminate different depositional environments. The grain-size parameters show that most of the sandstones are very fine to fine grained, moderately well sorted, mostly near-symmetrical and mesokurtic in nature. The abundance of very fine to fine grained sandstones indicates the dominance of low energy environment. The bivariate plots that the samples are mostly grouped, except for the Prince Albert samples that show scattered trend, which is due to the either mixture of two modes in equal proportion in bimodal sediments or good sorting in unimodal sediments. The linear discriminant function (LDF) analysis is dominantly indicative of turbidity current deposits under shallow marine environments for samples from the Prince Albert, Collingham and Ripon Formations, while those samples from the Fort Brown Formation are fluvial (deltaic) deposits. The graphic mean value shows the dominance of fine sand-size particles, which point to relatively low energy conditions of deposition. In addition, the LDF results point to low energy conditions during the deposition of the Prince Albert, Collingham and part of the Ripon Formation (Pluto Vale and Wonderfontein Shale Members), whereas the Trumpeters Member of the Ripon Formation and the overlying Fort Brown Formation accumulated under high energy conditions. The CM pattern shows a clustered distribution of sediments in the PQ and QR segments, indicating that the sediments were deposited mostly by suspension and rolling/saltation, and graded suspension. Furthermore, the plots also show that the sediments are mainly deposited by turbidity currents. Visher diagrams show the variability of hydraulic depositional conditions for the Permian Ecca Group sandstones. Saltation is the major process of transportation, although suspension and traction also played some role during deposition of the sediments. The sediments were mainly in saltation and suspension before being deposited.
Benchmarking of Petroleum Tanker Discharge Operations at a Nigerian Coastal Terminal and Jetty Facilitates Optimization of the Ship–Shore Interface
Benchmarking has progressively become entrenched as a requisite activity for process improvement and enhancing service delivery at petroleum jetties and terminals, most especially during tanker discharge operations at the ship – shore interface, as avoidable delays result in extra operating costs, non-productive time, high demurrage payments and ultimate product scarcity. The jetty and terminal in focus had been operational for 3 and 8 years respectively, with proper operational and logistic records maintained to evaluate their progress over time in order to plan and implement modifications and review of procedures for greater technical and economic efficiency. Regular and emergency staff meetings were held on a team, departmental and company-wide basis to progressively address major challenges that were encountered during each operation. The process and outcome of the resultant collectively planned changes carried out within the past two years forms the basis of this paper, which mirrors the initiatives effected to enhance operational and maintenance excellence at the affected facilities. Operational modifications included a second cargo receipt line designated for gasoline, product loss control at jetty and shore ends, enhanced product recovery and quality control, and revival of terminal–jetty backloading operations. Logistic improvements were the incorporation of an internal logistics firm and shipping agency, fast tracking of discharge procedures for tankers, optimization of tank vessel selection process, and third party product receipt and throughput. Maintenance excellence was achieved through construction of two new lay barges and refurbishment of the existing one; revamping of existing booster pump and purchasing of a modern one as reserve capacity; extension of Phase 1 of the jetty to accommodate two vessels and construction of Phase 2 for two more vessels; regular inspection, draining, drying and replacement of cargo hoses; corrosion management program for all process facilities; and an improved, properly planned and documented maintenance culture. Safety, environmental and security compliance were enhanced by installing state-of-the-art fire fighting facilities and equipment, seawater intake line construction as backup for borehole at the terminal, remediation of the shoreline and marine structures, modern spill containment equipment, improved housekeeping and accident prevention practices, and installation of hi-technology security enhancements, among others. The end result has been observed over the past two years to include improved tanker turnaround time, higher turnover on product sales, consistent product availability, greater indigenous human capacity utilisation by way of direct hires and contracts, as well as customer loyalty. The lessons learnt from this exercise would, therefore, serve as a model to be adapted by other operators of similar facilities, contractors, academics and consultants in a bid to deliver greater sustainability and profitability of operations at the ship – shore interface to this strategic industry.
Geochemical Study of Claystone from Nunukan Island, North Kalimantan of Indonesia
Nunukan Island is located on North Kalimantan of Indonesia. The region is one of Indonesia’s cross-border with Malaysia. In conjunction with its strategic geographic location, its potential as the new oil and gas resources has brought many researchers to do their studies here. The research area consists of claystone which criss-crossed with quarts sandstone. There are also rocks claystone-grained which are the weathering product of basaltic volcanic rocks. In some places, there are argillic clays which are the hydrothermal-altered product of Sei Apok ancient volcano. Geochemical study was established to learn the origin of the claystones, whether it came from weathering, hydrothermal alteration, or both. The samples used in this research are fresh rock, weathering rocks, hydrothermally-altered rock, and claystones. Chemical compositions of each sample were determined and their relations was studied. The studies encompass major and minor elements analysis using X-Ray Fluoresence (XRF) method and trace elements analysis, specifically rare earth elements, using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. The results were plotted on certain graphics to learn about the trend and the relations of each sample and element. Any changes in chemical compositions, like increase and decrease of elements or species, was analysed to learn about geological phenomenon that happens during the formation of claystones. The result of this study shows that claystones of Nunukan Island have relation with volcanic rocks of its surrounding area. Its chemical composition profile corresponds to weathering product of volcanic rocks rather than hydrothermally-altered product. The general profile also resembles claystone minerals of illite or montmorillonite, especially in the existence of aluminum, iron, potassium, and magnesium. Both minerals are formed in basic condition and commonly happen to shales. It is consistent with the fact that claystone was found mixing with shales and silt to clay grained mudstones in field exploration. Even though the general profile is much alike, the amount of each elements is not precisely the same as theoretically claystone mineral compositions because the mineral have not formed completely yet.
Spectral Mapping of Hydrothermal Alteration Minerals for Geothermal Exploration Using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Short Wave Infrared Data
Exploiting geothermal resources for either power, home heating, Spa, greenhouses, industrial or tourism requires an initial identification of suitable areas. This can be done cost-effectively using remote sensing satellite imagery which has synoptic capabilities of covering large areas in real time and by identifying possible areas of hydrothermal alteration and minerals related to Geothermal systems. Earth features and minerals are known to have unique diagnostic spectral reflectance characteristics that can be used to discriminate them. The focus of this paper is to investigate the applicability of mapping hydrothermal alteration in relation to geothermal systems (thermal springs) at Yankari Park Northeastern Nigeria, using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite data for resource exploration. The ASTER Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands are used to highlight and discriminate alteration areas by employing sophisticated digital image processing techniques including image transformations and spectral mapping methods. Field verifications are conducted at the Yankari Park using hand held Global Positioning System (GPS) monterra to identify locations of hydrothermal alteration and rock samples obtained at the vicinity and surrounding areas of the ‘Mawulgo’ and ‘Wikki’ thermal springs. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) results of rock samples obtained from the field validated hydrothermal alteration by the presence of indicator minerals including; Dickite, Kaolinite, Hematite and Quart. The study indicated the applicability of mapping geothermal anomalies for resource exploration in unmapped sparsely vegetated savanna environment characterized by subtle surface manifestations such as thermal springs. The results could have implication for geothermal resource exploration especially at the prefeasibility stages by narrowing targets for comprehensive surveys and in unexplored savanna regions where expensive airborne surveys are unaffordable.
Identification the Determine Zone of Sliding Landslide by Using Georadar and Geoelectricity Method
A zone of sliding landslide which potentially creates ground motion in Bandar Baru, Lampung Barat, Indonesia has been investigated by both methods georadar and geoelectricity. This research uses radar reflection profiling configuration for georadar method and dipole-dipole configuration for geoelectricity method. For georadar data processing has been done with software reflexwave and for geoelectricity, data processing has been done with Earthimager 2DINV software to interpret subsurface section. Results of research by both methods georadar and geoelectricity shows the area of contact between the sandstone with resistivity value of 200 Ohm – 1449 Ohm and clay stone with resistivity value of 32 Ohm – 100 Ohm at the limit depth of 9 m as a potential zone of sliding landslides where the physical properties of clay stone easily derail massive material on it.
Structural Assessment of Hull Response Subjected to Dropped Objects on Offshore Units
Offshore structures are exposed to the risk of damage caused by various types of extreme and accidental events such as fire, explosion, collision, and dropped objects. These events cause such structural damage in the impact area includes yielding of materials, local buckling, and in some cases local failure and penetration. The present study attempts to evaluate FPSO hull response subjected to drop objects. This is carried out by investigating the critical energy absorption and localized deformation to penetration of the deck structure subjected to impact by a falling container and rigid equipment. To evaluate the strength against drop object events, non-linear finite element analyses have been carried out using an explicit nonlinear dynamic analysis software LS-DYNA code. In FPSO hull structure, main lay-down areas located on the poop deck, galley and infill deck and cargo deck are included for the strength assessments on structural members against drop object impact loads. The drop object impact analyses show that though some structural members were permanently deformed by drop loads, however, no failure occurred based on the plastic strain criteria defined by NORSOK Standard. For the neighboring structures aside from contact area, the resultant stress was less than the allowable stress as per the Classification Society Rules and the deformation of the structure did not lead to global collapse. The pillars supporting the main lay-down area were not suffered by buckling phenomenon from investigated reaction force at the pillar support. The results and insights derived from the present work will be informative in the safety design of offshore structures.
Sedimentological, Geochimicaland Mineralogical Studies of the Aptian Deposits in the Jebel Serdj Massif, North-Central Tunisia
The Aptian series in north-central Tunisia was studied in detail regarding to lithology, microfacies, and magnetic susceptibility to provide new insights into the paleoenvironmental evolution and sea level changes in the carbonate platform.
The study series is about 350 meters thick, and it consists of fives sequences of limestones, separated by four levels of marlstones and marly limestones. Petrographic study leads to the definition of 11 microfacies which are successively recorded along the Serdj section into the outer ramp, mid-ramp, inner ramp and coastal facies associations.
The magnetic susceptibility of all samples was measured and compared with the facies and microfacies. There is a clear link between facies and magnetic susceptibility; the distal facies show high values while the proximal areas show lower values. The magnetic susceptibility profile reflects stratigraphic variations in response to relative changes in sea level and input of detrital materials.
During the Aptian, kaolinite/illite intensity ratios show high values possibly indicating a warming trend followed then by decreasing values that may indicate a cooling trend. During the Albian, this cooling trend is reverted into humid/warming.
Fluid Inclusions Analysis of Fluorite from the Hammam Jedidi District, North-Eastern Tunisia
Hydrothermal vein-type deposits of the Hammam Jedidi F-Ba(Pb-Zn-Cu) are hosted in Lower Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary series, and located near a very important structural lineament (NE-SW) corresponding to the Hammam Jedidi Fault in the Tunisian Dorsale. The circulation of the ore forming fluid is triggered by a regional tectonic compressive phase which occurred during the miocène time. Mineralization occurs as stratabound and vein-type orebodies adjacent to the Triassic salt diapirs and within fault in Jurassic limestone. Fluid inclusions data show that two distinct fluids were involved in the mineralisation deposition: a warmer saline fluid (180°C, 20 wt % NaCl equivalent) and cooler less saline fluid (126°C, 5wt%NaCl equivalent). The contrasting salinities and halogen ratios suggest that this two fluid derived from one of the brine originated after the dissolution of halite as suggested by its high salinity. The other end member, as indicated by the low Cl/Br ratios, acquired its low salinity by dilution of Br enriched evaporated seawater. These results are compatible with Mississippi-Valley- type mineralization.
The Use of X-Ray Computed Microtomography in Petroleum Geology: A Case Study of Unconventional Reservoir Rocks in Poland
High-resolution X-ray computed microtomography (µCT) is a non-destructive technique commonly used to determine the internal structure of reservoir rock sample. This study concerns µCT analysis of Silurian and Ordovician shales and mudstones from a borehole in the Baltic Basin, north of Poland. The spatial resolution of the µCT images obtained was 27 µm, which enabled the authors to create accurate 3-D visualizations and to calculate the ratio of pores and fractures volume to the total sample volume. A total of 1024 µCT slices were used to create a 3-D volume of sample structure geometry. These µCT slices were processed to obtain a clearly visible image and the volume ratio. A copper X-ray source filter was used to reduce image artifacts. Due to accurate technical settings of µCT it was possible to obtain high-resolution 3-D µCT images of low X-ray transparency samples. The presented results confirm the utility of µCT implementations in geoscience and show that µCT has still promising applications for reservoir exploration and characterization.
Non-Destructing Testing of Sandstones from Unconventional Reservoir in Poland with Use of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Technique and X-Ray Computed Microtomography
This study concerns high-resolution X-ray computed microtomography (µCT) and ultrasonic pulse analysis of Cambrian sandstones from a borehole located in the Baltic Sea Coast of northern Poland. µCT and ultrasonic technique are non-destructive methods commonly used to determine the internal structure of reservoir rock sample. The spatial resolution of the µCT images obtained was 27 µm, which enabled the author to create accurate 3-D visualizations of structure geometry and to calculate the ratio of pores volume to the total sample volume. A copper X-ray source filter was used to reduce image artifacts. Furthermore, samples Young’s modulus and Poisson ratio were obtained with use of ultrasonic pulse technique. µCT and ultrasonic pulse technique provide complex information which can be used for explorations and characterization of reservoir rocks.
Gas Monitoring and Soil Control at the Natural Gas Storage Site (Minerbio, Italy)
Gas migration through wellbore failure, in particular from abandoned wells, is repeatedly identified as the highest risk mechanism. The vadose zone was subject to monitoring system close to the wellbore in Minerbio, methane storage site. The new technology has been well-developed and used with the purpose to provide reliable estimates of leakage parameters. Of these techniques, soil flux sampling at the soil surface, via the accumulation chamber method and soil flux sampling at the depths of 100cm below the ground surface, have been an important technique for characterizing the gas concentrations at the gas storage site. We present results of soil Radon Bq/m3, CO2%, CH4% and O2% concentration gases. Measurements have been taken for radon concentrations with an Durridge RAD7 Company, Inc., USA, instrument. We used for air and soil quality an Biogas ETG instrument monitoring system, with NDIR CO2, CH4 gas sensor and electrochemical O2 gas sensor. The measurements started in September-October 2015, where no outliers have been identified. The measurements have continued in March-April-July-August-September 2016, almost at the same time in the same place around the gas storage site, values measured 15 minutes for each sampling, to determine their concentration, their distribution and to understand the relationship among gases and atmospheric conditions. At a depth of 100 cm, the maximum soil radon gas concentrations were found to be 1770 ±±582 Bq/m3, the soil consists of 64.31% sand, 20.75% silt and 14.94% clay, and with 0.526 ppm of Uranium. The maximum concentration (September 2016), in soil at 100cm below the ground surface, with 83% sand, 8.96% silt and 7.89% clay, was about 0.06% CH4, and in atmosphere 0.06% CH4 at 40°C (T). In the other months the values have been on the range of 0.01% to 0.03% CH4. Since we did not have outliers in the gas storage site, soil-gas samples for isotopic analysis have not been done.
Streamlines: Paths of Fluid Flow through Sandstone Samples Based on Computed Microtomography
The study presents the use of the numerical calculations based on high-resolution computed microtomography in analysis of fluid flow through Miocene sandstones. Therefore, the permeability studies of rocks were performed. Miocene samples were taken from well S-3, located in the eastern part of the Carpathian Foredeep. For aforementioned analysis, two series of X-ray irradiation were performed. The first set of samples was selected to obtain the spatial distribution of grains and pores. At this stage of the study length of voxel side amounted 27 microns. The next set of X-ray irradation enabled recognition of microstructural components as well as petrophysical features. The length of voxel side in this stage was up to 2 µm. Based on this study, the samples were broken down into two distinct groups. The first one represents conventional reservoir deposits, in opposite to second one - unconventional type. Appropriate identification of petrophysical parameters such as porosity and permeability of the formation is a key element for optimization of the reservoir development.
Peak Floor Response for Buildings with Flexible Base
This paper explores the modifications on peak acceleration, velocity and displacement profiles over the structure due to dynamic soil-structure interaction (DSSI). A shear beam model is used for the structure. Soil-foundation flexibility (inertial interaction) is considered by a set of springs and dashpots at the structure base. Kinematic interaction is considered using transfer functions. Impedance functions are computed using simplified expressions for rigid foundations. The research studies the influence of the slenderness ratio on the value of the peak floor response. It is shown that the modifications of peak floor responses are not the same for acceleration, velocity, and displacement. This is opposite to the hypothesis used by methods included in several building codes. Results show that the relation of the acceleration amplification factors at top levels in buildings with different soil types are not equivalent to the change in spectral acceleration produced by the period shifting due to DSSI. Peak velocity amplification factors present similar behavior than acceleration. The rate of change on peak velocity amplification factor produced by DSSI is different that the rate of change produced by both spectral accelerations and peak floor acceleration. Peak floor displacement amplification factor shows a similar behavior.
Mapping the Intrinsic Vulnerability of the Quaternary Aquifer of the Eastern Mitidja (Northern Algeria)
The Neogene basin of the Eastern Mitidja, object of the study area, represents potential water resources and especially groundwater reserves. This water is an important economic; this resource is highly sensitive which need protection and preservation. Unfortunately, these waters are exposed to various forms of pollution, whether from urban, agricultural, industrial or merely accidental. This pollution is a permanent risk of limiting resource. In this context, the work aims to evaluate the intrinsic vulnerability of the aquifer to protect and preserve the quality of this resource. It will focus on the disposal of water and land managers a cartographic document accessible to locate the areas where the water has a high vulnerability.
Vulnerability mapping of the Easter Mitidja quaternary aquifer is performed by applying three methods (DRASTIC, DRIST, and GOD).
Comparison and validation results show that the DRASTIC method is the most suitable method for aquifer vulnerability of the study area.
Submarine Topography and Beach Survey of Gang-Neung Port in South Korea, Using Multi-Beam Echo Sounder and Shipborne Mobile Light Detection and Ranging System
We conducted submarine topography & beach survey from December 2015 and January 2016 using multi-beam echo sounder EM3001(Kongsberg corporation) & Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System. Our survey area were the Anmok beach in Gangneung, South Korea. We made Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System for these survey. Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System includes LiDAR (RIEGL LMS-420i), IMU ((Inertial Measurement Unit, MAGUS Inertial+) and RTKGNSS (Real Time Kinematic Global Navigation Satellite System, LEIAC GS 15 GS25) for beach's measurement, LiDAR's motion compensation & precise position. Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System scans beach on the movable vessel using the laser. We mounted Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System on the top of the vessel. Before beach survey, we conducted eight circles IMU calibration survey for stabilizing heading of IMU. This exploration should be as close as possible to the beach. But our vessel could not come closer to the beach because of latency objects in the water. At the same time, we conduct submarine topography survey using multi-beam echo sounder EM3001. A multi-beam echo sounder is a device observing and recording the submarine topography using sound wave. We mounted multi-beam echo sounder on left side of the vessel. We were equipped with a motion sensor, DGNSS (Differential Global Navigation Satellite System), and SV (Sound velocity) sensor for the vessel's motion compensation, vessel's position, and the velocity of sound of seawater. Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System was able to reduce the consuming time of beach survey rather than previous conventional methods of beach survey.
A Study on the Magnetic and Submarine Geology Structure of TA22 Seamount in Lau Basin, Tonga
We performed the marine magnetic, bathymetry and seismic survey at the TA22 seamount (in the Lau basin, SW Pacific) for finding the submarine hydrothermal deposits in October 2009. We acquired magnetic and bathymetry data sets by suing Overhouser Proton Magnetometer SeaSPY (Marine Magnetics Co.), Multi-beam Echo Sounder EM120 (Kongsberg Co.). We conducted the data processing to obtain detailed seabed topography, magnetic anomaly, reduction to the pole (RTP) and magnetization. Based on the magnetic properties result, we analyzed submarine geology structure of TA22 seamount with post-processed seismic profile. The detailed bathymetry of the TA22 seamount showed the left and right crest parts that have caldera features in each crest central part. The magnetic anomaly distribution of the TA22 seamount regionally displayed high magnetic anomalies in northern part and the low magnetic anomalies in southern part around the caldera features. The RTP magnetic anomaly distribution of the TA22 seamount presented commonly high magnetic anomalies in the each caldera central part. Also, it represented strong anomalies at the inside of caldera rather than outside flank of the caldera. The magnetization distribution of the TA22 seamount showed the low magnetization zone in the center of each caldera, high magnetization zone in the southern and northern east part. From analyzed the seismic profile map, The TA22 seamount area is showed for the inferred small mounds inside each caldera central part and it assumes to make possibility of sills by the magma in cases of the right caldera. Taking into account all results of this study (bathymetry, magnetic anomaly, RTP, magnetization, seismic profile) with rock samples at the left caldera area in 2009 survey, we suppose the possibility of hydrothermal deposits at mounds in each caldera central part and at outside flank of the caldera representing the low magnetization zone. We expect to have the better results by combined modeling from this study data with the other geological data (ex. detailed gravity, 3D seismic, petrologic study results and etc).
Regenerative City Regions: Exploring the Connections between Regenerative Development, Collaborative Governance and Progressive Regionalism
Territorial rescaling is a universal practice in the UK, following a logic of agglomeration and competition as the only chance for cities to thrive. Cardiff Capital Region is one of the latest examples, and its governance structures and developmental narratives are currently being shaped. Its evolution must be compatible with the Wellbeing of Future Generations Act, a Welsh legislation that requires public bodies to put sustainability at the core of all actions. Departing from this case study, the project follows the evolution of Cardiff Capital Region and assesses it based on a new a conceptual framework that connects the notions of regenerative development, collaborative governance, and progressive regionalism. The hypothetical synergies between these different theoretical perspectives are demonstrated, inferring that if regenerative development is aimed at, it must necessarily start with collaborative modes of governance. The objective is to explore (a) whether expanding the network of active stakeholders who get to intervene in the governance structure can contribute to a more progressive definition and development of the city region and (b) whether this can be considered a pathway towards regenerative development. The exploratory fieldwork conducted during the initial phase of the project used qualitative methods, which will be complemented next by different participatory research approaches, as well as a quantitative analysis. Despite being in its early days, the study is showing that a wider range of voices can indeed change priorities, reconcile and balance between the economic drivers and the wider social, economic, cultural and environmental aspects.
Dynamic Activity in Lagoons Gavkhouni Lagoon, South East Isfahan, Iran
Gavkhouni lagoon, in the South East of Isfahan (Iran), is one of the pluvial lakes and legacy of Quaternary era which has emerged during periods with more precipitation and less evaporation. Climate change, lack of water resources and dried freshwater of Zayandehrood resulted in increased entropy and activated a dynamic which in turn is converted to Playa. Based on topographic maps1/25000, in this field work research, 63 microforms are taken from wet zone soil, and 61 microforms are taken from sulfate soil of areas with sharper and more extended boundaries, the morphometry of which is evaluated by fractal model. After calculating the microforms’ area–perimeter fractal dimension, their turbulence level was analyzed. Fractal dimensions (DAP) obtained from the microforms’ analysis of wet zone and sulfate soils are 1/29-1/44 and 1/27-1/41, respectively, which is indicative of turbulence in these zones. Logarithmic graph drawn for each region also shows that there is a linear relationship between logarithm of the microforms’ area and perimeter so that correlation coefficient (R2) obtained for wet zone is larger than 0.96 and for sulfated zone is 0.9. Increased turbulence in this region suggests morphological transformation of the system and lagoon’s conversion to a new ecosystem which can be accompanied with serious risks.
Reconstructing the Trace of Mesozoic Subduction and Its Implication on Stratigraphy Correlation between Deep Marine Sediment and Granite: Case Study of Garba Complex, South Sumatera
Garba Hill, located in Tekana Village, South Sumatera Province is comprised to South Sumatra Basin and classified as back arc basin. This area is entered as an active margin of Sundaland which experiences subduction several times since Mesozoic to recent time. The traces of Mesozoic subduction in the southern part of Sumatra island are exposed in Garba Hill area. The aim of this investigation is to study the tectonic changes in the first phase in Mesozoic era at the active margin of Sundaland which causes the rocks assemblage in Garba hill consist of continental and oceanic plate rocks which the correlation between those rocks show indistinct relation. This investigation is conducted by field observation in Tekana village and Lubar Village, Muara Dua, South Sumatra along with laboratory analysis included fossil and geochemistry analysis of radiolarian chert, petrography analysis of granite and basalt, and structural modelling. Fossil and geochemistry analysis of radiolarian chert and geochemistry of granite rocks shown the relation between the two rocks and Mesozoic subduction of Woyla terrane on western margin of Sundaland. Petrography analysis from granite and basalt depict the tectonic affinity of rocks. Moreover, structural analysis showed the changes of lineation direction from N-S to WNW-ESE.
Analysis on the Feasibility of Landsat 8 Imagery for Water Quality Parameters Assessment in the Oligotrophic Trichonis Lake (Greece)
Lake water quality monitoring in combination with the use of earth observation products constitutes a major component in many water quality monitoring programs. Landsat 8 images of Trichonis Lake (Greece) acquired on 30/10/2013 and 30/08/2014 were used in order to explore the possibility of Landsat 8 to estimate water quality parameters and particularly CDOM absorption at specific wavelengths, chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations in this oligotrophic freshwater body, characterized by very low temporal and spatial variability of the above parameters. Water samples have been collected at 22 different stations, on late August of 2014 and the satellite image of the same date was used to statistically correlate the in-situ measurements with various combinations of Landsat 8 bands in order to develop algorithms that best describe those relationships and calculate accurately the aforementioned water quality components. Statistically, significant models were applied to the image of late October of 2013 and the validation of the results was conducted through their comparison with the respective available in-situ data of 2013. Initial results indicated the existence or not of the Landsat 8 ability to accurately estimate water quality components, according to the nature of each parameter. Ammonium concentrations were proved to be the most accurately estimated component (R2= 0.6), followed by the CDOM absorption at 420 nm (R2= 0.5) and chl-a concentration (R2= 0.5). In-situ nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and total nitrogen concentrations of 2014 were lower than the detection limit. Hence no statistical elaboration was conducted. On the other hand, multiple linear regression among reflectance measures and total phosphorus concentrations resulted in low and statistical insignificant correlations. Our results were in agreement with other studies in international literature, indicating that estimations for eutrophic and mesotrophic lakes are more accurate than oligotrophic, due to the lack of suspended particles that are detectable by satellite sensors. Nevertheless, although those predictive models, developed and applied to Trichonis oligotrophic lake are less accurate, may still be useful indicators for monitoring its water quality deterioration.
[Keynote Speech]: Experimental Study on the Effects of Water-In-Oil Emulsions to the Pressure Drop in Pipeline Flow
Emulsions are unavoidable in oil field production, and it causes a loss in chemical and production cost to the industry. The presence of stable emulsions also reduces the quality of crude oil and causes more problems in the downstream refinery operations, such as corrosion. The cost of excessive demulsifier, corrosion inhibitor, and oil deferment may cost an approximate 40% of profit for a 30% water cut W/O emulsions. Hence, it is important to know the effects of emulsions in the pipeline. Light crude oil was used for the continuous phase in the W/O emulsions where the emulsions pass through a flow loop to test the pressure drop across the pipeline. The results obtained shows that pressure drop increases as water cut is increased until it peaks at the phase inversion of the W/O emulsion between 30% to 40% water cut. Emulsions produced by gradual constructions show a lower stability as compared to sudden constrictions. Lower stability of emulsions in gradual constriction has the higher influence of pressure drop compared to a sudden sharp decrease in diameter in sudden constriction. Generally, sudden constriction experiences pressure drop of 0.013% to 0.067% higher than gradual constriction of the same ratio. In comparing the ratio, lower constriction ratio to the original size of the pipeline induces higher pressure drop ranging from 0.061% to 0.241%. Considering the higher profitability in lower emulsion stability and lower pressure drop at the developed flow region of different constructions, an optimum design of construction is found to be gradual constriction with a ratio of 0.5.
Experimental Study of the Infill Masonry Walls Response Subjected to out-of-Plane Static Loadings
Besides characterized as non-structural elements, infill masonry (IM) walls have an important contribute in the structural response of reinforced concrete structures as proved by the damages observed recent earthquakes. In particular, the out-of-plane (OOP) collapse has been one of the most observed failure mechanism. The aim of this research is to contribute to the increase of understanding regarding the OOP behaviour of full-scale infill panels considering different variables such as panel support width and axial load on the top of columns. For this, it was carried out in the Laboratory of Earthquake and Structural Engineering (LESE) an experimental campaign of five full-scale IM walls subjected to OOP distributed cyclic loadings. Specimens with different variables such as previous in-plane damage, support conditions, axial load on the top of the columns were studied. The results will be presented and discussed along the manuscript in terms of force-displacement hysteretic curves, cracking pattern, initial stiffness, stiffness degradation and accumulative energy dissipation.
Gas While Drilling (GWD) Classification in Betara Complex; An Effective Approachment to Optimize Future Candidate of Gumai Reservoir
Gumai Formation which acts as regional seal for Talang Akar Formation becomes one of the most prolific reservoir in South Sumatra Basin and the primary exploration target in this area. Marine conditions were eventually established during the continuation of transgression sequence leads an open marine facies deposition in Early Miocene. Marine clastic deposits where calcareous shales, claystone and siltstones interbedded with fine-grained calcareous and glauconitic sandstones are the domination of lithology which targeted as the hydrocarbon reservoir. All this time, the main objective of PetroChina’s exploration and production in Betara area is only from Lower Talang Akar Formation. Successful testing in some exploration wells which flowed gas & condensate from Gumai Formation, opened the opportunity to optimize new reservoir objective in Betara area. Limitation of conventional wireline logs data in Gumai interval is generating technical challenge in term of geological approach. A utilization of Gas While Drilling indicator initiated with the objective to determine the next Gumai reservoir candidate which capable to increase Jabung hydrocarbon discoveries. This paper describes how Gas While Drilling indicator is processed to generate potential and non-potential zone by cut-off analysis. Validation which performed by correlation and comparison with well logs, Drill Stem Test (DST), and Reservoir Performance Monitor (RPM) data succeed to observe Gumai reservoir in Betara Complex. After we integrated all of data, we are able to generate a Betara Complex potential map and overlaid with reservoir characterization distribution as a part of risk assessment in term of potential zone presence. Mud log utilization and geophysical data information successfully covered the geological challenges in this study.