Analysis on the Feasibility of Landsat 8 Imagery for Water Quality Parameters Assessment in an Oligotrophic Mediterranean Lake
Lake water quality monitoring in combination with the use of earth observation products constitutes a major component in many water quality monitoring programs. Landsat 8 images of Trichonis Lake (Greece) acquired on 30/10/2013 and 30/08/2014 were used in order to explore the possibility of Landsat 8 to estimate water quality parameters and particularly CDOM absorption at specific wavelengths, chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations in this oligotrophic freshwater body, characterized by inexistent quantitative, temporal and spatial variability. Water samples have been collected at 22 different stations, on late August of 2014 and the satellite image of the same date was used to statistically correlate the in-situ measurements with various combinations of Landsat 8 bands in order to develop algorithms that best describe those relationships and calculate accurately the aforementioned water quality components. Optimal models were applied to the image of late October of 2013 and the validation of the results was conducted through their comparison with the respective available in-situ data of 2013. Initial results indicated the existence or not of the Landsat 8 ability to accurately estimate water quality components, according to the nature of each parameter. As resulted by the validation process, ammonium concentrations were proved to be the most accurately estimated component (R= 0.7), followed by chl-a concentration (R= 0.5) and the CDOM absorption at 420 nm (R= 0.3). In-situ nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and total nitrogen concentrations of 2014 were measured as lower than the detection limit of the instrument used, hence no statistical elaboration was conducted. On the other hand, multiple linear regression among reflectance measures and total phosphorus concentrations resulted in low and statistical insignificant correlations. Our results were concurrent with other studies in international literature, indicating that estimations for eutrophic and mesotrophic lakes are more accurate than oligotrophic, owing to the lack of suspended particles that are detectable by satellite sensors. Nevertheless, although those predictive models, developed and applied to Trichonis oligotrophic lake are less accurate, may still be useful indicators of its water quality deterioration.
Real-Time Monitoring Approaches of Groundwater Conductivity and Level to Pre-Alert the Seawater Intrusion in Sand Coast of Liaodong Bay of China
At present, many coastal areas around the world suffer from seawater intrusion. Seawater intrusion is the superimposed result of two factors which are nature and human social economical activities in particular area. In recent years, due to excessive exploitation of groundwater, the seawater intrusion phenomenon aggravate in coastal zone of the Bohai and Huanghai seas in our country. Moreover, with sea-level rising, the original hydrodynamic equilibrium between saltwater and freshwater has been damaged to a certain extent, and it will further aggravate seawater intrusion in the land plains. In addition, overexploitation of groundwater declined groundwater level and increase saltwater intrusion in coastal areas. Therefore, in view of the sensitivity and vulnerability of the impact of sea-level rise in the future, the risk of sea-level rise in coastal zone should be considered, reasonable exploitation, utilization and management of coastal zone’s groundwater should be formulated. The response mechanism of sea-level rise should be studied to prevent and reduce the harm of seawater intrusion, which has important theoretical and realistic significances. In this paper, through the long-term monitoring of groundwater level and conductibility in the transition region of seawater intrusion for the sand coast area, realtimely master the situation of seawater intrusion. Combined with the seasonal exploitation station of groundwater and sea level variation, early alert the seawater intrusion to prevent and reduce the harm of seawater intrusion.
An Overview of the Wind and Wave Climate in the Romanian Nearshore
The goal of the proposed work is to provide a more comprehensive picture of the wind and wave climate in the Romanian nearshore, using the results provided by numerical models. The Romanian coastal environment is located in the western side of the Black Sea, the more energetic part of the sea, an area with heavy maritime traffic and various offshore operations. Information about the wind and wave climate in the Romanian waters is mainly based on observations at Gloria drilling platform (70 km from the coast). As regards the waves, the measurements of the wave characteristics are not so accurate due to the method used, being also available for a limited period. For this reason, the wave simulations that cover large temporal and spatial scales represent an option to describe better the wave climate. To assess the wind climate in the target area spanning 1992–2016, data provided by the NCEP-CFSR (U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction - Climate Forecast System Reanalysis) and consisting in wind fields at 10m above the sea level are used. The high spatial and temporal resolution of the wind fields is good enough to represent the wind variability over the area. For the same 25-year period, as considered for the wind climate, this study characterizes the wave climate from a wave hindcast data set that uses NCEP-CFSR winds as input for a model system SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) based. The wave simulation results with a two-level modelling scale have been validated against both in situ measurements and remotely sensed data. The second level of the system, with a higher resolution in the geographical space (0.02°×0.02°), is focused on the Romanian coastal environment. The main wave parameters simulated at this level are used to analyse the wave climate. The spatial distributions of the wind speed, wind direction and the mean significant wave height have been computed as the average of the total data. As resulted from the amount of data, the target area presents a generally moderate wave climate that is affected by the storm events developed in the Black Sea basin. Both wind and wave climate presents high seasonal variability. All the results are computed as maps that help to find the more dangerous areas. A local analysis has been also employed in some key locations corresponding to highly sensitive areas, as for example the main Romanian harbors.
Storms Dynamics in the Black Sea in the Context of the Climate Changes
The objective of the work proposed is to perform an analysis of the wave conditions in the Black Sea basin. This is especially focused on the spatial and temporal occurrences and on the dynamics of the most extreme storms in the context of the climate changes. A numerical modelling system, based on the spectral phase averaged wave model SWAN, has been implemented and validated against both in situ measurements and remotely sensed data, all along the sea. Moreover, a successive correction method for the assimilation of the satellite data has been associated with the wave modelling system. This is based on the optimal interpolation of the satellite data. Previous studies show that the process of data assimilation improves considerably the reliability of the results provided by the modelling system. This especially concerns the most sensitive cases from the point of view of the accuracy of the wave predictions, as the extreme storm situations are. Following this numerical approach, it has to be highlighted that the results provided by the wave modelling system above described are in general in line with those provided by some similar wave prediction systems implemented in enclosed or semi-enclosed sea basins. Simulations of this wave modelling system with data assimilation have been performed for the 30-year period 1987-2016. Considering this database, the next step was to analyze the intensity and the dynamics of the higher storms encountered in this period. According to the data resulted from the model simulations, the western side of the sea is considerably more energetic than the rest of the basin. In this western region, regular strong storms provide usually significant wave heights greater than 8m. This may lead to maximum wave heights even greater than 15m. Such regular strong storms may occur several times in one year, usually in the wintertime, or in late autumn, and it can be noticed that their frequency becomes higher in the last decade. As regards the case of the most extreme storms, significant wave heights greater than 10m and maximum wave heights close to 20m (and even greater) may occur. Such extreme storms, which in the past were noticed only once in four or five years, are more recent to be faced almost every year in the Black Sea, and this seems to be a consequence of the climate changes.
The analysis performed included also the dynamics of the monthly and annual significant wave height maxima as well as the identification of the most probable spatial and temporal occurrences of the extreme storm events. Finally, it can be concluded that the present work provides valuable information related to the characteristics of the storm conditions and on their dynamics in the Black Sea. This environment is currently subjected to high navigation traffic and intense offshore and nearshore activities and the strong storms that systematically occur may produce accidents with very serious consequences.
Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of High-K Calc-Alkaline Granitic Rocks of Song, Hawal Massif, N. E. Nigeria
The global downfall in fossil energy prices and dwindling oil reserves in Nigeria has ignited interest in the search for alternative sources of foreign income for the country. Solid minerals, particularly Uranium and other base metals like Lead and Zinc have been considered as potentially good options. Several occurrences of this mineral have been discovered in both the sedimentary and granitic rocks of the Hawal and Adamawa Massifs as well as in the adjoining Benue Trough in northeastern Nigeria. However, the paucity of geochemical data and consequent poor petrogenetic knowledge of the granitoids in this region has made exploration works difficult. Song, a small area within the Hawal Massif, was mapped and the collected samples chemically determined in Activation Laboratory, Canada through fusion dissolution technique of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Field mapping results show that the area is underlain by Granites, diorites with pockets of gneisses and pegmatites and that these rocks consists of microcline, quartz, plagioclase, biotite, hornblende, pyroxene and accessory apatite, zircon, sphene, magnetite and opaques in various proportions. Geochemical data show continous compositional variation from diorite to granites within silica range of 52.69 to 76.04 wt %. Plot of the data on various Harker variation diagrams show distinct evolutionary trends from diorites to granites indicated by decreasing CaO, Fe2O3, MnO, MgO, Ti2O, and increasing K2O with increasing silica. This pattern is reflected in trace elements data which, in general, decrease from diorite to the granites with rising Rb and K. Tectonic, triangular and other diagrams, indicate high-K calc-alkaline trends, syn-collisional granite signatures, I-type characteristics, with CNK/A of less than 1.1 (minimum of 0.58 and maximum of 0.94) and strong potassic character (K2O/Na2O˃1). However, only the granites are slightly peraluminous containing high silica percentage (68.46 to 76.04), K2O (2.71 to 6.16 wt %) with low CaO (1.88 on the average). Chondrite normalised rare earth elements trends indicate strongly fractionated REEs and enriched LREEs with slightly increasing negative Eu anomaly from the diorite to the granite. On the basis of field and geochemical data, the granitoids are interpreted to be high-K calc-alkaline, I-type, formed as a result of hybridization between mantle-derived magma and continental source materials (probably older meta-sediments) in a syn-collisional tectonic setting.
Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth and Correlation Analysis of PM2.5 Based on Gf-1 Wide Field of View Images
This paper proposes a method that can estimate PM2.5 by the images of GF-1 Satellite that called WFOV images (Wide Field of View). AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) over land surfaces was retrieved in Shanghai area based on DDV (Dark Dense Vegetation) method. PM2.5 information, gathered from ground monitoring stations hourly, was fitted with AOD using different polynomial coefficients, and then the correlation coefficient between them was calculated. The results showed that, the GF-1 WFOV images can meet the requirement of retrieving AOD, and the correlation coefficient between the retrieved AOD and PM2.5 was high. If more detailed and comprehensive data is provided, the accuracy could be improved and the parameters can be more precise in the future.
Aerial Photogrammetry-Based Techniques to Rebuild the 30-Years Landform Changes of a Landslide-Dominated Watershed in Taiwan
Taiwan is an island characterized by an active tectonics and high erosion rates. Monitoring the dynamic landscape of Taiwan is an important issue for disaster mitigation, geomorphological research, and watershed management. Long-term and high spatiotemporal landform data is essential for quantifying and simulating the geomorphological processes and developing warning systems. Recently, the advances in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and computational photogrammetry technology have provided an effective way to rebuild and monitor the topography changes in high spatio-temporal resolutions. This study rebuilds the 30-years landform change in the Aiyuzi watershed in 1986-2017 by using the aerial photogrammetry-based techniques. The Aiyuzi watershed, located in central Taiwan and has an area of 3.99 Km², is famous for its frequent landslide and debris flow disasters. This study took the aerial photos by using UAV and collected multi-temporal historical, stereo photographs, taken by the Aerial Survey Office of Taiwan’s Forestry Bureau. To rebuild the orthoimages and digital surface models (DSMs), Pix4DMapper, a photogrammetry software, was used. Furthermore, to control model accuracy, a set of ground control points was surveyed by using eGPS. The results show that the generated DSMs have the ground sampling distance (GSD) of ~10 cm and ~0.3 cm from the UAV’s and historical photographs, respectively, and vertical error of ~1 m. By comparing the DSMs, there are many deep-seated landslides (with depth over 20 m) occurred on the upstream in the Aiyuzi watershed. Even though a large amount of sediment is delivered from the landslides, the steep main channel has sufficient capacity to transport sediment from the channel and to erode the river bed to ~20 m in depth. Most sediments are transported to the outlet of watershed and deposits on the downstream channel. This case study shows that UAV and photogrammetry technology are useful for topography change monitoring effectively.
Balance Transfer of Heavy Metals in Marine Environments Subject to Natural and Anthropogenic Inputs: A Case Study on the Mejerda River Delta
Sedimentation rates and total fluxes of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and Cu) was measured in three different depths (10m, 20m and 40m) during March and August 2012, offshore of the Mejerda River outlet (Gulf of Tunis, Tunisia). The sedimentation rates are estimated from the fluxes of the suspended particulate matter at 7.32, 5.45 and 4.39 mm y⁻¹ respectively at 10m, 20m and 40m depth. Heavy metals sequestration in sediments was determined by chemical speciation and the total metal contents in each core collected from 10, 20 and 40m depth. Heavy metals intake to the sediment was measured also from the suspended particulate matter, while the fluxes from the sediment to the water column was determined using the benthic chambers technique and from the diffusive fluxes in the pore water. Results shown that iron is the only metal for which the balance transfer between intake/uptake (45 to 117 / 1.8 to 5.8 g m² y⁻¹) and sequestration (277 to 378 g m² y⁻¹) was negative, at the opposite of the Lead which intake fluxes (360 to 480 mg m² y⁻¹) are more than sequestration fluxes (50 to 92 mg m² y⁻¹). The balance transfer is neutral for Mn, Zn, and Cu. These clearly indicate that the contributions of Mejerda have consistently varied over time, probably due to the migration of the River mouth and to the changes in the mining activity in the Mejerda catchment and the recent human activities which affect the delta area.
Challenges Affecting the Livelihoods of Small-Scale, Aggregate Miners, Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa
The small-scale rock aggregate sector of the mining industry is a major source of employment for a significant number of people, particularly in remote rural areas, where alternative livelihoods are rare. It contributes to local economy by generating income and producing major and essential materials for the building, construction, and other industries. However, the sector is confronted with many challenges that hamper productivity and growth. The problems that confront this sector includes: health and safety, environmental impacts, low production and low adherence to mining legislations. This study investigated the challenges confronting selected small-scale rock aggregate mines in the Vhembe District of Limpopo province of South Africa, assesses the health, safety, low production and environmental impacts associated with aggregate production and to develop an integrated approach of addressing the multi-faceted challenges.
Estimation of Source Parameters Using Extreme Points of the Scaled Potential Field
The characterization of the sources of gravity anomaly in the Vindhyan basin is important to constrain the basement structure for hydrocarbon exploration. The Depth from Extreme Points (DEXP) is a recent method to delineate such problems. In this method, scaling function which is a function of altitude is used to characterize the scaling behavior of homogeneous field. It determines the depth to sources of bodies like sphere, cylinder, dike, sill, etc. using extreme points of the scaled potential field. The stability of method is checked by adding Gaussian noises to the magnetic anomaly related to a homogeneous sphere. It also determines structural index (shape) of the source independently. The method is tested on the synthetic gravity anomalies of the sphere and elongated prism. For these cases, the estimated depths and structural index are close to assumed one. The technique can be used for thickness estimation of sub surface sources. The method is also applied to a gravity data along a profile in Jabera-Damoh region, Vindhyan basin, central India. The results give information about the depths of shallower sources and deeper crystalline basement. The results show that the shallow features represent high-density material which is underlain by the combination of high and low-density material of crystalline basement along both sides. The results on synthetic and real gravity data are discussed to show the usefulness and applicability of the methodology.
Estimation of Small Hydropower Potential Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques in Pakistan
Energy demand has been increased manifold due to increasing population, urban sprawl and rapid socio-economic improvements. Low water capacity in dams for continuation of hydrological power, land cover and land use are the key parameters which are creating problems for more energy production. Overall installed hydropower capacity of Pakistan is more than 35000 MW whereas Pakistan is producing up to 17000 MW and the requirement is more than 22000 that is resulting shortfall of 5000 - 7000 MW. Therefore, there is a dire need to develop small hydropower to fulfill the up-coming requirements. In this regards, excessive rainfall, snow nurtured fast flowing perennial tributaries and streams in northern mountain regions of Pakistan offer a gigantic scope of hydropower potential throughout the year. Rivers flowing in KP (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) province, GB (Gilgit Baltistan) and AJK (Azad Jammu & Kashmir) possess sufficient water availability for rapid energy growth. In the backdrop of such scenario, small hydropower plants are believed very suitable measures for more green environment and power sustainable option for the development of such regions. Aim of this study is to estimate hydropower potential sites for small hydropower plants and stream distribution as per steam network available in the available basins in the study area. The proposed methodology will focus on features to meet the objectives i.e. site selection of maximum hydropower potential for hydroelectric generation using well emerging GIS tool SWAT as hydrological run-off model on the Neelum, Kunhar and the Dor Rivers’ basins. For validation of the results, NDWI will be computed to show water concentration in the study area while overlaying on geospatial enhanced DEM. This study will represent analysis of basins, watershed, stream links, and flow directions with slope elevation for hydropower potential to produce increasing demand of electricity by installing small hydropower stations. Later on, this study will be benefitted for other adjacent regions for further estimation of site selection for installation of such small power plants as well.
Petroleum Source Potential of Tertiary Carbonaceous Mudstones, Shales and Sandstones of Eastern Chenor, Onshore Penyu Basins, Pahang, Malaysia
Malaysia and Asian region have a number of petroleum-bearing sedimentary basins commonly associated with coal and carbonaceous mudstone, and shale. Mudrocks, in particular shales, are common source rocks of conventional petroleum resources whilst coal, although a source for conventional liquid hydrocarbons, are more widespread as unconventional resources, such as coal bed methane (CBM). These organic-rich sedimentary facies are known to act as petroleum source rocks within offshore Peninsular Malaysian basins, such as Malay Basin and Penyu Basin. In this study, carbonaceous mudstones, shales and sandstones in eastern Chenor, Pahang have been investigated using organic geochemical and petrological methods which also include Micro-CT (computed tomography) imaging to evaluate the petroleum source potential. The analysed Tertiary sediments of the eastern Chenor area are of low thermal maturity based on the pyrolysis Tmax (30 vol. %) such as sporinite, cutinite, amorphous organic matter and resinite thus indicating strong association with oil-prone Type I and Type II kerogens. In support, pyrolysis data also show a trend from predominant oil-prone Type I and II kerogens to a mixed oil and gas-prone Type II-III kerogens for the studied samples except for the sandstones samples which have low HI value indicating no potential for hydrocarbon generation. The EOM result shows that all the carbonaceous mudstone samples possess excellent values for the bitumen/EOM and hydrocarbon (HC) content. The studied shale samples have very good petroleum potential. However, the analysed sandstones show poor to fair petroleum potential based on the bitumen/EOM and hydrocarbon (HC) content. This is supported by the plots of TOC content versus extractable organic matter (EOM) and hydrocarbon yields versus TOC content commonly used in estimating the hydrocarbon generative potential of source rocks. Bulk kinetic experiments of the analysed carbonaceous mudstones indicate that the source rock facies were derived from heterogeneous organic matter assemblages. This spans broad distribution of activation energy (Ea) (from 44–68 kcal/mo) with associated frequency factors between 9.9056E+13/s and 1.0668E+15/s. Based on the discrete simulated model using 3.3 C/My heating rate, the average of predicted geological temperature is 0.62% Ro while the peak generation of 1.04% Ro. This is compatible with the heterogeneous Type I/II kerogen.
Sub-Pixel Mapping Based on New Mixed Interpolation
Due to the limited environmental parameters and the limited resolution of the sensor, the universal existence of the mixed pixels in the process of remote sensing images restricts the spatial resolution of the remote sensing images. Sub-pixel mapping technology can effectively improve the spatial resolution. As the bilinear interpolation algorithm inevitably produces the edge blur effect, which leads to the inaccurate sub-pixel mapping results. In order to avoid the edge blur effect that affects the sub-pixel mapping results in the interpolation process, this paper presents a new edge-directed interpolation algorithm which uses the covariance adaptive interpolation algorithm on the edge of the low-resolution image and uses bilinear interpolation algorithm in the low-resolution image smooth area. By using the edge-directed interpolation algorithm, the super-resolution of the image with low resolution is obtained, and we get the percentage of each sub-pixel under a certain type of high-resolution image. Then we rely on the probability value as a soft attribute estimate and carry out sub-pixel scale under the ‘hard classification’. Finally, we get the result of sub-pixel mapping. Through the experiment, we compare the algorithm and the bilinear algorithm given in this paper to the results of the sub-pixel mapping method. It is found that the sub-pixel mapping method based on the edge-directed interpolation algorithm has better edge effect and higher mapping accuracy. The results of the paper meet our original intention of the question. At the same time, the method does not require iterative computation and training of samples, making it easier to implement.
Seismic Random Noise Attenuation Based on Anisotropic Total Fractional Order Variation Model
In seismic data processing, attenuation of random noise is the basic step to improve quality of data for further application of seismic data in exploration and development in different gas and oil industries. The signal-to-noise ratio of the data also highly determines quality of seismic data. This factor affects the reliability as well as the accuracy of seismic signal during interpretation for different purposes in different companies. To use seismic data for further application and interpretation, we need to improve the signal-to-noise ration while attenuating random noise effectively. To improve the signal-to-noise ration and attenuating seismic random noise by preserving important features and information about seismic signals, we introduce the concept of anisotropic total fractional order denoising algorithm. The anisotropic total fractional order variation model defined in fractional order bounded variation is proposed as a regularization in seismic denoising. The split Bregman algorithm is employed to solve the minimization problem of the anisotropic total fractional order variation model and the corresponding denoising algorithm for the proposed method is derived. We test the effectiveness of the proposed method for synthetic and real seismic data sets, and the denoised result is compared with F-X deconvolution and non-local means denoising algorithm.
Applying Unmanned Aerial Vehicle on Agricultural Damage: A Case Study of the Meteorological Disaster on Taiwan Paddy Rice
Taiwan locates at the west of Pacific Ocean and intersects between continental and marine climate. Typhoons frequently strike Taiwan and come with meteorological disasters, i.e., heavy flooding, landslides, loss of life and properties, etc. Global climate change brings more extremely meteorological disasters. So, develop techniques to improve disaster prevention and mitigation is needed, to improve rescue processes and rehabilitations is important as well. In this study, UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) are applied to take instant images for improving the disaster investigation and rescue processes. Paddy rice fields in the central Taiwan are the study area. There have been attacked by heavy rain during the monsoon season in June 2016. UAV images provide the high ground resolution (3.5cm) with 3D Point Clouds to develop image discrimination techniques and digital surface model (DSM) on rice lodging. Firstly, image supervised classification with Maximum Likelihood Method (MLD) is used to delineate the area of rice lodging. Secondly, 3D point clouds generated by Pix4D Mapper are used to develop DSM for classifying the lodging levels of paddy rice. As results, discriminate accuracy of rice lodging is 85% by image supervised classification, and the classification accuracy of lodging level is 87% by DSM. Therefore, UAVs not only provide instant images of agricultural damage after the meteorological disaster, but the image discriminations on rice lodging also reach acceptable accuracy (>85%). In the future, technologies of UAVs and image discrimination will be applied to different crop fields. The results of image discrimination will be overlapped with administrative boundaries of paddy rice, to establish GIS-based assist system on agricultural damage discrimination. Therefore, the time and labor would be greatly reduced on damage detection and monitoring.
Rapid Flood Damage Assessment of Population and Crops Using Remotely Sensed Data
Pakistan, a flood-prone country, has experienced worst floods in the recent past which have caused extensive damage to the urban and rural areas by loss of lives, damage to infrastructure and agricultural fields. Poor flood management system in the country has projected the risks of damages as the increasing frequency and magnitude of floods are felt as a consequence of climate change; affecting national economy directly or indirectly. To combat the needs of flood emergency, this paper focuses on remotely sensed data based approach for rapid mapping and monitoring of flood extent and its damages so that fast dissemination of information can be done, from local to national level. In this research study, spatial extent of the flooding caused by heavy rains of 2014 has been mapped by using space borne data to assess the crop damages and affected population in sixteen districts of Punjab. For this purpose, moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to daily mark the flood extent by using Normalised Difference Water Index (NDWI). The highest flood value data was integrated with the LandScan 2014, 1km x 1km grid based population, to calculate the affected population in flood hazard zone. It was estimated that the floods covered an area of 16,870 square kilometers, with 3.0 million population affected. Moreover, to assess the flood damages, Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) aided with spectral signatures was applied on Landsat image to attain the thematic layers of healthy (0.54 million acre) and damaged crops (0.43 million acre). The study yields that the population of Jhang district (28% of 2.5 million population) was affected the most. Whereas, in terms of crops, Jhang and Muzzafargarh are the ‘highest damaged’ ranked district of floods 2014 in Punjab. This study was completed within 24 hours of the peak flood time, and proves to be an effective methodology for rapid assessment of damages due to flood hazard
Tornado Disaster Impacts and Management: Learning from the 2016 Tornado Catastrophe in Jiangsu Province, China
As a key component of disaster reduction management, disaster emergency relief and reconstruction is an important process. Based on disaster system theory, this study analyzed the Jiangsu tornado from the formation mechanism of disasters, through to the economic losses, loss of life, and social infrastructure losses along the tornado disaster chain. The study then assessed the emergency relief and reconstruction efforts, based on an analytic hierarchy process method. The results were as follows: (1) An unstable weather system was the root cause of the tornado. The potentially hazardous local environment, acting in concert with the terrain and the river network, was able to gather energy from the unstable atmosphere. The wind belt passed through a densely populated district, with vulnerable infrastructure and other hazard-prone elements, which led to an accumulative disaster situation and the triggering of a catastrophe. (2) The tornado was accompanied by a hailstorm, which is an important triggering factor for a tornado catastrophe chain reaction. (3) The evaluation index (EI) of the emergency relief and reconstruction effect for the ‘‘6.23’’ tornado disaster in Yancheng was 91.5. Compared to other relief work in areas affected by disasters of the same magnitude, there was a more successful response than has previously been experienced. The results provide new insights for studies of disaster systems and the recovery measures in response to tornado catastrophe in China.
Using Computational Fluid Dynamics to Model and Design a Preventative Application for Strong Wind
Typhoons are one of the major types of disasters that affect Taiwan each year and that cause severe damage to agriculture. Indeed, the damage exacted during a typical typhoon season can be up to $1 billion, and is responsible for nearly 75% of yearly agricultural losses. However, there is no consensus on how to reduce the damage caused by the strong winds and heavy precipitation engendered by typhoons. One suggestion is the use of windbreak nets, which are a low-cost and easy-to-use disaster mitigation strategy for crop production. In the present study, we conducted an evaluation to determine the optimal conditions of a windbreak net by using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. This model may be used as a reference for crop protection. The results showed that CFD simulation validated windbreak nets of different mesh sizes and heights in the experimental area; thus, CFD is an efficient tool for evaluating the effectiveness of windbreak nets. Specifically, the effective wind protection length and height were found to be 6 and 1.3 times the length and height of the windbreak net, respectively. During a real typhoon, maximum wind gusts of 18 m s-1 can be reduced to 4 m s-1 by using a windbreak net that has a 70% blocking rate. In short, windbreak nets are significantly effective in protecting typhoon-affected areas.
Potential Risks of Using Disconnected Composite Foundation Systems in Active Seismic Zones
Choosing the suitable infrastructure system is becoming more challenging with the increase in demand for heavier structures contemporarily. This is the case where piled raft foundations have been widely used around the world to support heavy structures without extensive settlement. In the latter system, piles are rigidly connected to the raft, and most of the load goes to the soil layer on which the piles are bearing. In spite of that, when soil profiles contain thicker soft clay layers near the surface, or at relatively shallow depths, it is unfavorable to use the rigid piled raft foundation system. Consequently, the disconnected piled raft system was introduced as an alternative approach for the rigidly connected system. In this system, piles are disconnected from the raft using a cushion of soil, mostly of a granular interlayer. The cushion is used to redistribute the stresses among the piles and the subsoil. Piles are also used to stiffen the subsoil, and by this way reduce the settlement without being rigidly connected to the raft. However, the seismic loading effect on such disconnected foundation systems remains a problem, since the soil profiles may include thick clay layers which raise risks of amplification of the dynamic earthquake loads. In this paper, the effects of seismic behavior on the connected and disconnected piled raft systems are studied through a numerical model using Midas GTS NX Software. The study concerns the soil-structure interaction and the expected behavior of the systems. Advantages and disadvantages of each foundation approach are studied, and a comparison between the results are presented to show the effects of using disconnected piled raft systems in highly seismic zones. This was done by showing the excitation amplification in each of the foundation systems.
4D Modelling of Low Visibility Underwater Archaeological Excavations Using Multi-Source Photogrammetry in the Bulgarian Black Sea
This paper introduces the applicability of underwater photogrammetric survey within challenging conditions as the main tool to enhance and enrich the process of documenting archaeological excavation through the creation of 4D models. The use of underwater photogrammetry in archaeology can be traced back as early as the 1980s, and today the production of traditional 3D models is becoming a common practice within the discipline. Photogrammetry underwater is more often implemented to record exposed underwater archaeological remains and less so as a dynamic interpretative tool. Therefore, it tends to be applied in bright environments and when underwater visibility is < 0.5m, reducing its implementation on submerged archaeological sites in more turbid conditions. Recent years have seen significant development of better digital photographic sensors and the improvement of optical technology, ideal for darker environments. Such developments, in tandem with powerful processing computing systems, have allowed underwater photogrammetry to be used by this research as a standard recording and interpretative tool. Using multi-source photogrammetry (5, 5K cameras), this paper presents the accumulation of daily (4D) underwater surveys carried out in the Late Prehistoric (5000 BC) to Late Ottoman (17th Century AD) archaeological site of Ropotamo in the Bulgarian Black Sea under challenging conditions ( > 0.5m visibility). It proves that underwater photogrammetry can and should be used as one of the main recording methods even in low light and poor underwater conditions as a way to better understand the complexity of the underwater archaeological record.
Sensitivity Assessment of Spectral Salinity Indices over Desert Sabkha of Western UAE
UAE typically lies in one of the aridest regions of the world and is thus home to geologic features common to such climatic conditions including vast open deserts, sand dunes, saline soils, inland Sabkha and coastal Sabkha. Sabkha are characteristic salt flats formed in arid environment due to deposition and precipitation of salt and silt over sand surface because of low laying water table and rates of evaporation exceeding rates of precipitation. The study area, which comprises of western UAE, is heavily concentrated with inland Sabkha. Remote sensing is conventionally used to study the soil salinity of agriculturally degraded lands but not so broadly for Sabkha. The focus of this study was to identify these highly saline Sabkha areas on remotely sensed data, using salinity indices. The existing salinity indices in the literature have been designed for agricultural soils and they have not frequently used the spectral response of short-wave infra-red (SWIR1 and SWIR2) parts of electromagnetic spectrum. Using Landsat 8 OLI data and field ground truthing, this study formulated indices utilizing NIR-SWIR parts of spectrum and compared the results with existing salinity indices. Most indices depict reasonably good relationship between salinity and spectral index up until a certain value of salinity after which the reflectance reaches a saturation point. This saturation point varies with index. However, the study findings suggest a role of incorporating near infra-red and short-wave infra-red in salinity index with a potential of showing a positive relationship between salinity and reflectance up to a higher salinity value, compared to rest.
Analysis of the Elastic Energy Released and Characterization of the Eruptive Episodes Intensity’s during 2014–2015 at El Reventador Volcano, Ecuador
The elastic energy released through Strombolian explosions has been quite studied; detailing various processes, sources and precursory events at several volcanoes. We realized an analysis based in the relative partitioning of the elastic energy radiated into the atmosphere and ground by Strombolian-type explosions recorded at El Reventador volcano, using infrasound and seismic signals at high and moderate seismicity episodes during intense eruptive stages of explosive and effusive activity. Our results show that considerable values of Volcano Acoustic-Seismic Ratio (VASR or η) are obtained at high seismicity stages. VASR is a physical diagnostic of explosive degassing which we used to compare eruption mechanisms at El Reventador volcano for two datasets of explosions recorded at a Broad-Band BB seismic and infrasonic station located to ~5 kilometers from the vent. We conclude that the Acoustic Energy EA released during explosive activity (VASR η = 0.47, standard deviation σ = 0.8) is higher than the EA released during effusive activity; therefore, producing the highest values of η. Furthermore, we realized the analysis and characterization of the eruptive intensity for two episodes at high seismicity; calculating a η three-time higher for an episode of effusive activity with an occasional explosive component (η = 0.32, and σ = 0.42), than a η for an episode of only effusive activity (η = 0.11, and σ = 0.18), but more energetic.
Application of UAV in Urban Rail Transit Intelligent Inspection
Current method of manual-style inspection can not fully meet the requirement of the urban rail transit security in China, and this traditional method has some problems like human-factor, inconvenient management, time-consuming, etc., especially in complex regional environment such as some mountain cities in China. In this paper, an intelligent inspection method using low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is utilized. A series of orthophoto of rail transit monitoring area is collected by UAV, image correction and registration have been done among multi-phase images, then the change detection have been posted on the multi-phase orthophoto to detect the difference occurred in the monitoring area, aiming at judging the engineering activities and human activities that may become potential threats to the security of urban rail. Not only qualitative judgment, but also quantitative judgment of changes in the security control area can be provided by this method, which improves the objectives and efficiency of the patrol results. Finally, The No.6 line of Chongqing Municipality was taken as an example to verify the validation of this method.
Microdiamond and Moissanite Inclusions in Garnets from Pohorje Mountains, Eastern Alps, Slovenia
Natural microdiamonds and moissanite (SiC) can form during the orogenic events under ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic conditions (UHP), when parts of Earth’s crust are subducted to extreme depths. So far, such processes were identified only in few places on the Earth, and therefore, represent unique opportunity to study the evolution of the Earth’s deep interior. An important discovery of microdiamonds and moissanite was reported from Pohorje, (Slovenia), where they occurred as single or polyphase inclusions in garnets. Metasedimentary rocks from Pohorje are predominantly gneisses representing parts of the Austroalpine metamorphic units of the Eastern Alps. During Cretaceous orogeny, (ca. 95–92 Ma) continental crustal rocks were deeply subducted to the mantle depths (below 100 km) and metamorphosed at pressures exceeding 3.5 GPa and temperatures between 800–850 °C. Microstructural and phase analysis of the inclusions as well as detailed elemental analysis of host garnets were carried out combining several analytical techniques: optical microscope in plane polarized transmitted light, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) with wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (WDS) and field-emission scanning microscope (FEG-SEM) with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Micro-Raman analysis revealed sharp, first order diamond bands sometimes accompanied by graphite bands implying that transformation of diamond back to graphite occurred. To study the chemical and crystallographic relationship between microdiamonds and co-inclusions, advanced techniques of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied, which included high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), combined with EDS and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). To prepare electron transparent TEM lamellae selectively a dual-beam Focused Ion Beam/SEM (FIB/SEM) was employed. Detailed study of TEM lamellae, which was cross-sectioned from the highly faceted inclusion body located within the host garnet crystal matrix, revealed rich and rather complex internal structure. Namely, the negative crystal facets of the main inclusion body were typically decorated with up to 1 μm thick amorphous layer, reflecting the general garnet composition with slight variations in Fe/Ca content. Within these layers, ELNES analysis revealed the presence of a 28–30 nm thick layer of amorphous carbon. The very last section of this layer corresponds to composition of SiO2. Within the inclusion, besides diamond and moissanite alumosilicate mineral with pronounced layered structure, iron sulfides and chlorine were identified under TEM and CO2 and CH4 using Raman. Moissanite is found as single crystal or composed from numerous highly textured nano-crystals with the average size of 10 nm. Moissanite inclusions were found embedded inside the amorphous crust implying that moissanite crystalized well before the deposition of the amorphous layer. From the microstructural, crystallographic and chemical observations so far we can deduce, that polyphase inclusions in diamond bearing garnets from Pohorje most probably crystallized from reduced supercritical fluids. Based on layered interface structure of the host mineral multiphase process of crystallization is possible. The presence of microdiamonds and moissanite in rocks from Pohorje demonstrates that these parts of the Eastern Alps were subducted to extreme depths, and were subsequently exhumed back to the Earth's surface without complete breakdown of UHP mineral phases, allowing a rear and exceptional opportunity to study them in-situ.
Nature of Forest Fragmentation Owing to Human Population along Elevation Gradient in Different Countries in Hindu Kush Himalaya Mountains
Large numbers of people living in and around the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH) region, depends on this diverse mountainous region for ecosystem services. Following the global trend, this region also experiencing rapid population growth, and demand for timber and agriculture land. The eight countries sharing the HKH region have different forest resources utilization and conservation policies that exert varying forces in the forest ecosystem. This created a variable spatial as well altitudinal gradient in rate of deforestation and corresponding forest patch fragmentation. The quantitative relationship between fragmentation and demography has not been established before for HKH vis-à-vis along elevation gradient. This current study was carried out to attribute the overall and different nature in landscape fragmentations along the altitudinal gradient with the demography of each sharing countries. We have used the tree canopy cover data derived from Landsat data to analyze the deforestation and afforestation rate, and corresponding landscape fragmentation observed during 2000 – 2010. Area-weighted mean radius of gyration (AMN radius of gyration) was computed owing to its advantage as spatial indicator of fragmentation over non-spatial fragmentation indices. Using the subtraction method, the change in fragmentation was computed during 2000 – 2010. Using the tree canopy cover data as a surrogate of forest cover, highest forest loss was observed in Myanmar followed by China, India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Bhutan, and Afghanistan. However, the sequence of fragmentation was different after the maximum fragmentation observed in Myanmar followed by India, China, Bangladesh, and Bhutan; whereas increase in fragmentation was seen following the sequence of as Nepal, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Using SRTM-derived DEM, we observed higher rate of fragmentation up to 2400m that corroborated with high human population for the year 2000 and 2010. To derive the nature of fragmentation along the altitudinal gradients, the Statistica software was used, where the user defined function was utilized for regression applying the Gauss-Newton estimation method with 50 iterations. We observed overall logarithmic decrease in fragmentation change (area-weighted mean radius of gyration), forest cover loss and population growth during 2000-2010 along the elevation gradient with very high R2 values (i.e., 0.889, 0.895, 0.944 respectively). The observed negative logarithmic function with the major contribution in the initial elevation gradients suggest to gap filling afforestation in the lower altitudes to enhance the forest patch connectivity. Our finding on the pattern of forest fragmentation and human population across the elevation gradient in HKH region will have policy level implication for different nations and would help in characterizing hotspots of change. Availability of free satellite derived data products on forest cover and DEM, grid-data on demography, and utility of geospatial tools helped in quick evaluation of the forest fragmentation vis-a-vis human impact pattern along the elevation gradient in HKH.
3D Numerical Modelling of a Pulsed Pumping Process of a Large Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Pool: In situ Pilot-Scale Case Study of Hexachlorobutadiene in a Keyed Enclosure
Remediation of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) represents a challenging issue because of their persistent behaviour in the environment. This pilot-scale study investigates, by means of in situ experiments and numerical modelling, the feasibility of the pulsed pumping process of a large amount of a DNAPL in an alluvial aquifer. The main compound of the DNAPL is hexachlorobutadiene, an emerging organic pollutant. A low-permeability keyed enclosure was built at the location of the DNAPL source zone in order to isolate a finite undisturbed volume of soil, and a 3-month pulsed pumping process was applied inside the enclosure to exclusively extract the DNAPL. The water/DNAPL interface elevation at both the pumping and observation wells and the cumulated pumped volume of DNAPL were also recorded. A total volume of about 20m³ of purely DNAPL was recovered since no water was extracted during the process. The three-dimensional and multiphase flow simulator TMVOC was used, and a conceptual model was elaborated and generated with the pre/post-processing tool mView. Numerical model consisted of 10 layers of variable thickness and 5060 grid cells. Numerical simulations reproduce the pulsed pumping process and show an excellent match between simulated, and field data of DNAPL cumulated pumped volume and a reasonable agreement between modelled and observed data for the evolution of the water/DNAPL interface elevations at the two wells. This study offers a new perspective in remediation since DNAPL pumping system optimisation may be performed where a large amount of DNAPL is encountered.
Hydrothermal Synthesis of Octahedral Molecular Sieve from Mn Oxide Residues
This work presents a low-cost Mn starting material to synthesis manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve with Mg²⁺ in the tunnel (Mg-OMS-1), based on the Mn residues from Carajás Mineral Province (Amazon, Brazil). After hydrothermal and cation exchange procedures, the Mn residues transformed to a single phase, Mg-OMS-1. The raw material and the synthesis processes were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The tunnel structure was synthesized hydrothermally at 180 °C for three days without impurities. According to the XRD analysis, the formation of crystalline Mg-OMS-1 was identified through reflections at 9.8º, 12º and 18º (2θ), as well as a thermal stability around 300 ºC. The SEM analysis indicated that the final product presents good crystallinity with a homogeneous size. In addition, an intense and diagnostic FTIR band was identified at 515 cm⁻¹ related to the MnO₆ octahedral stretching vibrations.
Effect of Wettability Alteration on Production Performance in Unconventional Tight Oil Reservoirs
In tight oil reservoirs, wettability alteration has generally been considered as an effective way to remove fracturing fluid retention on the surface of the fracture and consequently improved oil production. However, there is a lack of a reliable productivity prediction model to show the relationship between the wettability and oil production in tight oil well. In this paper, a new oil productivity prediction model of immiscible oil-water flow and miscible CO₂-oil flow accounting for wettability is developed. This mathematical model is established by considering two different length scales: nonporous network and propped fractures. CO₂ flow diffuses in the nonporous network and high velocity non-Darcy flow in propped fractures are considered by taking into account the effect of wettability alteration on capillary pressure and relative permeability. A laboratory experiment is also conducted here to validate this model. Laboratory experiments have been designed to compare the water saturation profiles for different contact angle, revealing the fluid retention in rock pores that affects capillary force and relative permeability. Four kinds of brines with different concentrations are selected here to create different contact angles. In water-wet porous media, as the system becomes more oil-wet, water saturation decreases. As a result, oil relative permeability increases. On the other hand, capillary pressure which is the resistance for the oil flow increases as well. The oil production change due to wettability alteration is the result of the comprehensive changes of oil relative permeability and capillary pressure. The results indicate that wettability is a key factor for fracturing fluid retention removal and oil enhancement in tight reservoirs. By incorporating laboratory test into a mathematical model, this work shows the relationship between wettability and oil production is not a simple linear pattern but a parabolic one. Additionally, it can be used for a better understanding of optimization design of fracturing fluids.
Regional Low Gravity Anomalies Influencing High Concentrations of Heavy Minerals on Placer Deposits
Regions of low gravity and gravity anomalies both influence heavy mineral concentrations on placer deposits. Economically imported heavy minerals are likely to have higher levels of deposition in low gravity regions of placer deposits. This can be found in coastal regions of Southern Asia, particularly in Sri Lanka and Peninsula India and areas located in the lowest gravity region of the world. About 70 kilometres of the east coast of Sri Lanka is covered by a high percentage of Ilmenite deposits, and the southwest coast of the island consists of Monazite placer deposit. These deposits are one of the largest placer deposits in the world. In India, the heavy mineral industry has a good market. On the other hand, based on the coastal placer deposits recorded, the high gravity region located around Papua New Guinea, has no such heavy mineral deposits. In low gravity regions, with the help of other depositional environmental factors, the grains have more time and space to float in the sea; this helps bring high concentrations of heavy mineral deposits to the coast. The effect of low and high gravity can be demonstrated by using heavy mineral separation devices. The Wilfley heavy mineral separating table is one of these; it is extensively used in industries and in laboratories for heavy mineral separation. The horizontally oscillating Wilfley table helps to separate heavy and light mineral grains in to deferent fractions, with the use of water. In this experiment, the low and high angle of the Wilfley table are representing low and high gravity respectively. A sample mixture of grain size < 0.85 mm of heavy and light mineral grains have been used for this experiment. The high and low angle of the table was 60 and 20 respectively for this experiment. The separated fractions from the table are again separated into heavy and light minerals, with the use of heavy liquid, which consists of a specific gravity of 2.85. The fractions of separated heavy and light minerals have been used for drawing the two-dimensional graphs. The graphs show that the low gravity stage has a high percentage of heavy minerals collected in the upper area of the table than in the high gravity stage. The results of the experiment can be used for the comparison of regional low gravity and high gravity levels of heavy minerals. If there are any heavy mineral deposits in the high gravity regions, these deposits will take place far away from the coast, within the continental shelf.
Investigation of Single Particle Breakage inside an Impact Mill
In current work, a numerical model based on the discrete element method (DEM) was developed which provided information about particle dynamic and impact event condition inside a laboratory scale impact mill (Fritsch). It showed that each particle mostly experiences three impacts inside the mill. While the first impact frequently happens at front surface of the rotor’s rib, the frequent location of the second impact is side surfaces of the rotor’s rib. It was also showed that while the first impact happens at small impact angle mostly varying around 35º, the second impact happens at around 70º which is close to normal impact condition. Also analyzing impact energy revealed that varying mill speed from 6000 to 14000 rpm, the ratio of first impact’s average impact energy and minimum required energy to break particle (Wₘᵢₙ) increased from 0.30 to 0.85. Moreover, it was seen that second impact poses intense impact energy on particle which can be considered as the main cause of particle splitting. Finally, obtained information from DEM simulation along with obtained data from conducted experiments was implemented in semi-empirical equations in order to find selection and breakage functions. Then, using a back-calculation approach, those parameters were used to predict the PSDs of ground particles under different impact energies. Results were compared with experiment results and showed reasonable accuracy and prediction ability.