Scholarly Research Excellence

Digital Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 56254

Geological and Environmental Engineering

Soil Degradati̇on Mapping Using Geographic Information System, Remote Sensing and Laboratory Analysis in the Oum Er Rbia High Basin, Middle Atlas, Morocco
Mapping of soil degradation is derived from field observations, laboratory measurements, and remote sensing data, integrated quantitative methods to map the spatial characteristics of soil properties at different spatial and temporal scales to provide up-to-date information on the field. Since soil salinity, texture and organic matter play a vital role in assessing topsoil characteristics and soil quality, remote sensing can be considered an effective method for studying these properties. The main objective of this research is to asses soil degradation by combining remote sensing data and laboratory analysis. In order to achieve this goal, the required study of soil samples was taken at 50 locations in the upper basin of Oum Er Rbia in the Middle Atlas in Morocco. These samples were dried, sieved to 2 mm and analyzed in the laboratory. Landsat 8 OLI imagery was analyzed using physical or empirical methods to derive soil properties. In addition, remote sensing can serve as a supporting data source. Deterministic potential (Spline and Inverse Distance weighting) and probabilistic interpolation methods (ordinary kriging and universal kriging) were used to produce maps of each grain size class and soil properties using GIS software. As a result, a correlation was found between soil texture and soil organic matter content. This approach developed in ongoing research will improve the prospects for the use of remote sensing data for mapping soil degradation in arid and semi-arid environments.
Modelling Rainfall-Induced Shallow Landslides in the Northern New South Wales
Rainfall-induced shallow landslides are more common in the northern New South Wales (NSW), Australia. From 2009 to 2017, around 105 rainfall-induced landslides occurred along the road corridors and caused temporary road closures in the northern NSW. Rainfall causing shallow landslides has different distributions of rainfall varying from uniform, normal, decreasing to increasing rainfall intensity. The duration of rainfall varied from one day to 18 days according to historical data. The objective of this research is to analyse slope instability of some of the sites in the northern NSW by varying cumulative rainfall using SLOPE/W and SEEP/W and compare with field data of rainfall causing shallow landslides. The rainfall data and topographical data from public authorities and soil data obtained from laboratory tests will be used for this modelling. There is a likelihood of shallow landslides if the cumulative rainfall is between 100 mm to 400 mm in accordance with field data.
Clastic Sequence Stratigraphy of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Formations of Jaisalmer Basin, Rajasthan
The Jaisalmer Basin is one of the parts of the Rajasthan basin in northwestern India. The presence of five major unconformities/hiatuses of varying span i.e. at the top of Archean basement, Cambrian, Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Eocene have created the foundation for constructing a sequence stratigraphic framework. Based on basin formative tectonic events and their impact on sedimentation processes three first-order sequences have been identified in Rajasthan Basin. These are Proterozoic-Early Cambrian rift sequence, Permian to Middle-Late Eocene shelf sequence and Pleistocene - Recent sequence related to Himalayan Orogeny. The Permian to Middle Eocene I order sequence is further subdivided into three-second order sequences i.e. Permian to Late Jurassic II order sequence, Early to Late Cretaceous II order sequence and Paleocene to Middle-Late Eocene II order sequence. In this study, Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous sequence was identified and log-based interpretation of smaller order T-R cycles have been carried out. A log profile from eastern margin to western margin (up to Shahgarh depression) has been taken. The depositional environment penetrated by the wells interpreted from log signatures gave three major facies association. The blocky and coarsening upward (funnel shape), the blocky and fining upward (bell shape) and the erratic (zig-zag) facies representing distributary mouth bar, distributary channel and marine mud facies respectively. Late Jurassic Formation (Baisakhi-Bhadasar) and Early Cretaceous Formation (Pariwar) shows a lesser number of T-R cycles in shallower and higher number of T-R cycles in deeper bathymetry. Shallowest well has 3 T-R cycles in Baisakhi-Bhadasar and 2 T-R cycles in Pariwar, whereas deeper well has 4 T-R cycles in Baisakhi-Bhadasar and 8 T-R cycles in Pariwar Formation. The Maximum Flooding surfaces observed from the stratigraphy analysis indicate major shale break (high shale content). The study area is dominated by the alternation of shale and sand lithologies, which occurs in an approximate ratio of 70:30. A seismo-geological cross section has been prepared to understand the stratigraphic thickness variation and structural disposition of the strata. The formations are quite thick to the west, the thickness of which reduces as we traverse towards the east. The folded and the faulted strata indicated the compressional tectonics followed by the extensional tectonics. Our interpretation is supported with seismic up to second order sequence indicates - Late Jurassic sequence is a Highstand Systems Tract (Baisakhi - Bhadasar formations), and the Early Cretaceous sequence is Regressive to Lowstand System Tract (Pariwar Formation).
Seismic Response of Structure Using a Three Degree of Freedom Shake Table
Earthquakes are the biggest threat to the civil engineering structures as every year it cost billions of dollars and thousands of deaths, around the world. There are various experimental techniques such as pseudo-dynamic tests – nonlinear structural dynamic technique, real time pseudo dynamic test and shaking table test method that can be employed to verify the seismic performance of structures. Shake table is a device that is used for shaking structural models or building components which are mounted on it. It is a device that simulates a seismic event using existing seismic data and nearly truly reproducing earthquake inputs. This paper deals with the use of shaking table test method to check the response of structure subjected to earthquake. The various types of shake table are vertical shake table, horizontal shake table, servo hydraulic shake table and servo electric shake table. The goal of this experiment is to perform seismic analysis of a civil engineering structure with the help of 3 degree of freedom (i.e. in X Y Z direction) shake table. Three (3) DOF shaking table is a useful experimental apparatus as it imitates a real time desired acceleration vibration signal for evaluating and assessing the seismic performance of structure. This study proceeds with the proper designing and erection of 3 DOF shake table by trial and error method. The table is designed to have a capacity up to 981 Newton. Further, to study the seismic response of a steel industrial building, a proportionately scaled down model is fabricated and tested on the shake table. The accelerometer is mounted on the model, which is used for recording the data. The experimental results obtained are further validated with the results obtained from software. It is found that model can be used to determine how the structure behaves in response to an applied earthquake motion, but the model cannot be used for direct numerical conclusions (such as of stiffness, deflection, etc.) as many uncertainties involved while scaling a small-scale model. The model shows modal forms and gives the rough deflection values. The experimental results demonstrate shake table as the most effective and the best of all methods available for seismic assessment of structure.
Diversification of Productivity of the Oxfordian Subtidal Carbonate Factory in the Holy Cross Mountains
The aim of the research was to verify lateral extent and thickness variability of individual limestone layers within early-Jurassic medium- and thick-bedded limestone interbedded with marlstones. Location: The main research area is located in the south-central part of Poland in the south-western part of Permo-Mesozoic margin of the Holy Cross Mountains. It includes outcroppings located on the line between Mieczyn and Wola Morawicka. The analyses were carried out on six profiles (Mieczyn, Gniezdziska, Tokarnia, Wola Morawicka, Morawica and Wolica) representing three early-Jurassic links: Jasna Gora layers, grey limestone, Morawica limestone. Additionally, an attempt was made to correlate the thickness sequence from the Holy Cross Mountains to the profile from the quarry in Zawodzie located 3 km east of Czestochowa. The distance between the outermost profiles is 122 km in a straight line. Methodology of research: The Callovian-Oxfordian border was taken as the reference point during the correlation. At the same time, ammonite-based stratigraphic studies were carried out, which allowed to identify individual packages in the remote outcroppings. The analysis of data collected during fieldwork was mainly devoted to the correlation of thickness sequences of limestone layers in subsequent profiles. In order to check the objectivity of the subsequent outcroppings, the profiles have been presented in the form of the thickness functions of the subsequent layers. The generated functions were auto-correlated, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated. The next step in the research was to statistically determine the percentage increment of the individual layers thickness in the subsequent profiles, and on this basis to plot the function of relative carbonate productivity. Results: The result of the above-mentioned procedures consists in illustrating the extent of 34 rock layers across the examined area in demonstrating the repeatability of their success in subsequent outcroppings. It can also be observed that the thickness of individual layers in the Holy Cross Mountains is increasing from north-west towards south-east. Despite changes in the thickness of the layers in the profiles, their relations within the sequence remain constant. The lowest matching ratio of thickness sequence calculated using the Pearson correlation coefficient formula is 0.67, while the highest is 0.84. The thickness of individual layers changes between 4% and 230% over the examined area. Interpretation: Layers in the outcroppings covered by the research show continuity throughout the examined area and it is possible to precisely correlate them, which means that the process determining the formation of the layers was regional and probably included both the fringe of the Holy Cross Mountains and the north-eastern part of the Krakow-Czestochowa Jura Upland. Local changes in the sedimentation environment affecting the productivity of the subtidal carbonate factory only cause the thickness of the layers to change without altering the thickness proportions of the profiles. Based on the percentage of changes in the thickness of individual layers in the subsequent profiles, it can be concluded that the local productivity of the subtidal carbonate factory is increasing logarithmically.
On the Application and Comparison of Two Geostatistics Methods in the Parameterisation Step to Calibrate Groundwater Model: Grid-Based Pilot Point and Head-Zonation Based Pilot Point Methods
Properly selecting the most suitable and effective geostatistics method in the parameterization step of groundwater modeling is critical to attain a satisfactory model. In this paper, two geostatistics methods, i.e., Grid-Based Pilot Point (GB-PP) and Head-Zonation Based Pilot Point (HZB-PP) methods, were applied in an eogenetic karst catchment and compared using as model performances and computation time the criteria. Overall, the results show that appropriate selection of method is substantial in the parameterization of physically-based groundwater models, as it influences both the accuracy and simulation times. It was found that GB-PP method performed comparably superior to HZB-PP method. However, reflecting its model performances, HZB-PP method is promising for further application in groundwater modeling.
Study of Sub-Surface Flow in an Unconfined Carbonate Aquifer in a Tropical Karst Area in Indonesia: A Modeling Approach Using Finite Difference Groundwater Model
Due to its porous nature, karst terrains – geomorphologically developed from dissolved formations, is vulnerable to water shortage and deteriorated water quality. Therefore, a solid comprehension on sub-surface flow of karst landscape is essential to assess the long-term availability of groundwater resources. In this paper, a single-continuum model using a finite difference model, MODLFOW, was constructed to represent an unconfined carbonate aquifer in a tropical karst island of Rote in Indonesia. The model, spatially discretized in 20 x 20 m grid cells, was calibrated and validated using available groundwater level and atmospheric variables. In the calibration and validation steps, Parameter Estimation (PEST) and geostatistical pilot point methods were employed to estimate hydraulic conductivity and specific yield values. The results show that the model is able to represent the sub-surface flow indicated by good model performances both in calibration and validation steps. The final model can be used as a robust representation of the system for future study on climate and land use scenarios.
High-Pressure CO₂ Adsorption Capacity of Selected Unusual Porous Materials and Rocks
CO₂ adsorption capacity of several materials - waste (power fly ash, slag, carbonized sewage sludge), rocks (Czech Silurian shale, black coal), and carbon (synthesized carbon, activated carbon as a reference material) - were measured on dry samples using a unique hand-made manometric sorption apparatus at a temperature of 45 °C and pressures of up to 7 MPa. The main aim was finding utilization of the waste materials and rocks for removal of the air or water pollutants caused by anthropogenic activities, as well as for the carbon dioxide storage. The equilibrium amount of the adsorbate depends on temperature, gas saturation pressure, porosity, surface area and volume of pores, and last but not least, on the composition of the adsorbents. Given experimental conditions can simulate in-situ situations in the rock bed and can be achieved just by a high-pressure apparatus. The CO₂ excess adsorption capacities ranged from 0.018 mmol/g (ash) to 13.55 mmol/g (synthesized carbon). The synthetized carbon had the highest adsorption capacity among all studied materials as well as the highest price. This material is usually used for the adsorption of specific pollutants. The excess adsorption capacity of activated carbon was 9.19 mmol/g. It is used for water and air cleaning. Ash can be used for chemisorption onto ash particle surfaces or capture of special pollutants. Shale is a potential material for enhanced gas recovery or CO₂ sequestration in-situ. Slag is a potential material for capture of gases with a possibility of the underground gas storage after the adsorption process. The carbonized sewage sludge is quite a good adsorbent for the removal and capture of pollutants, as well as shales or black coal which show an interesting relationship between the price and adsorption capacity.
Determination of Surface Deformations with Global Navigation Satellite System Time Series
The development of GNSS technology has led to increasingly widespread and successful applications of GNSS surveys for monitoring crustal movements. However, multi-period GPS survey solutions have not been applied in monitoring vertical surface deformation. This study uses long-term GNSS time series that are required to determine vertical deformations. In recent years, the surface deformations that are parallel and semi-parallel to Bolvadin fault have occurred in Western Anatolia. These surface deformations have continued to occur in Bolvadin settlement area that is located mostly on alluvium ground. Due to these surface deformations, a number of cracks in the buildings located in the residential areas and breaks in underground water and sewage systems have been observed. In order to determine the amount of vertical surface deformations, two continuous GNSS stations have been established in the region. The stations have been operating since 2015 and 2017, respectively. In this study, GNSS observations from the mentioned two GNSS stations were processed with GAMIT/GLOBK (GNSS Analysis Massachusetts Institute of Technology/GLOBal Kalman) program package to create a coordinate time series. With the time series analyses, the GNSS stations’ behavior models (linear, periodical, etc.), the causes of these behaviors, and mathematical models were determined. The study results from the time series analysis of these two 2 GNSS stations shows approximately 50-80 mm/yr vertical movement.
Comparison of Data Reduction Algorithms for Image-Based Point Cloud Derived Digital Terrain Models
Digital Terrain Model (DTM) is a digital numerical representation of the Earth's surface. DTM's have been applied to a diverse field of tasks, such as urban planning, military, glacier mapping, disaster management. In the expression of the Earth' surface as a mathematical model, an infinite number of point measurements are needed. Because of the impossibility of this case, the points at regular intervals are measured to characterize the Earth's surface and digital terrain model of the Earth is generated. Hitherto, the classical measurement techniques and Photogrammetry method have widespread use in the construction of digital terrain models. At present, RADAR, LiDAR, and stereo satellite images are also used for the construction of digital terrain models. In recent years, especially because of its superiorities, LiDAR has an increased use in DTM applications. A 3D point cloud is created with LiDAR technology by obtaining numerous point data. However recently, the development of image mapping methods, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for photogrammetric data acquisition has increased during image-based point cloud digital terrain model production is common. The accuracy of the digital terrain models depends on various factors such as the data collection method, the distribution of elevation points, the point density, the properties of the surface and interpolation methods. In this study, uniform and random data reduction methods are compared for DTMs generated from image-based point cloud data. The original image based point cloud dataset (100%) is reduced to a series of subsets by using uniform and random algorithms, representing the 75, 50, 25 and 5 percent of the original image based point cloud data set. Over the ANS campus of Afyon Kocatepe University as the test area, DTM constructed from the original image based point cloud data set is compared with DTMs interpolated from reduced data sets by Kriging interpolation method. The results show that uniform data reduction method can be used to reduce the image based point cloud datasets to 50% density level while still maintaining the quality of DTM.
The Evaluation of Gravity Anomalies Based on Global Models by Land Gravity Data
The Earth system generates different phenomena that are observable at the surface of the Earth such as mass deformations and displacements leading to plate tectonics, earthquakes, and volcanism. The dynamic processes associated with the interior, surface, and atmosphere of the Earth affect the three pillars of geodesy: shape of the Earth, its gravity field, and its rotation. Geodesy establishes a characteristic structure in order to define, monitor, and predict of the whole Earth system. The traditional and new instruments, observables, and techniques in geodesy are related to the gravity field. Therefore, the geodesy monitors the gravity field and its temporal variability in order to transform the geodetic observations made on the physical surface of the Earth into the geometrical surface in which positions are mathematically defined. In this paper, the main components of the gravity field modeling, (Free-air and Bouguer) gravity anomalies are calculated via recent global models (EGM2008, EIGEN6C4, and GECO) over a selected study area. The model-based gravity anomalies are compared with the corresponding terrestrial gravity data in terms of standard deviation (SD) and root mean square error (RMSE) for determining the best fit global model in the study area at a regional scale in Turkey. The least SD (13.63 mGal) and RMSE (15.71 mGal) were obtained by EGM2008 for the Free-air gravity anomaly residuals. For the Bouguer gravity anomaly residuals, EIGEN6C4 provides the least SD (8.05 mGal) and RMSE (8.12 mGal). The results indicated that EIGEN6C4 can be a useful tool for modeling the gravity field of the Earth over the study area.
An Insight into the Conformational Dynamics of Glycan through Molecular Dynamics Simulation
Glycan of glycolipids and glycoproteins is playing a significant role in living systems particularly in molecular recognition processes. Molecular recognition processes are attributed to their occurrence on the surface of the cell, sequential arrangement and type of sugar molecules present in the oligosaccharide structure and glyosidic linkage diversity (glycoinformatics) and conformational diversity (glycoconformatics). Molecular Dynamics Simulation study is a theoretical-cum-computational tool successfully utilized to establish glycoconformatics of glycan. The study on various oligosaccharides of glycan clearly indicates that oligosaccharides do exist in multiple conformational states and these conformational states arise due to the flexibility associated with a glycosidic torsional angle (φ,ψ) . As an example: a single disaccharide structure NeuNacα(2-3) Gal exists in three different conformational states due to the differences in the preferential value of glycosidic torsional angles (φ,ψ). Hence establishing three dimensional structural and conformational models for glycan (cartesian coordinates of every individual atoms of an oligosaccharide structure in a preferred conformation) is quite crucial to understand various molecular recognition processes such as glycan-toxin interaction and glycan-virus interaction. The gycoconformatics models obtained for various glycan through Molecular Dynamics Simulation stored in our 3DSDSCAR (3DSDSCAR.ORG) a public domain database and its utility value in understanding the molecular recognition processes and in drug design venture will be discussed.
An Insight into the Conformational Dynamics of Glycan through Molecular Dynamics Simulation
Glycan of glycolipids and glycoproteins is playing a significant role in living systems particularly in molecular recognition processes. Molecular recognition processes are attributed to their occurrence on the surface of the cell, sequential arrangement and type of sugar molecules present in the oligosaccharide structure and glyosidic linkage diversity (glycoinformatics) and conformational diversity (glycoconformatics). Molecular Dynamics Simulation study is a theoretical-cum-computational tool successfully utilized to establish glycoconformatics of glycan. The study on various oligosaccharides of glycan clearly indicates that oligosaccharides do exist in multiple conformational states and these conformational states arise due to the flexibility associated with a glycosidic torsional angle (φ,ψ) . As an example: a single disaccharide structure NeuNacα(2-3) Gal exists in three different conformational states due to the differences in the preferential value of glycosidic torsional angles (φ,ψ). Hence establishing three dimensional structural and conformational models for glycan (cartesian coordinates of every individual atoms of an oligosaccharide structure in a preferred conformation) is quite crucial to understand various molecular recognition processes such as glycan-toxin interaction and glycan-virus interaction. The gycoconformatics models obtained for various glycan through Molecular Dynamics Simulation stored in our 3DSDSCAR (3DSDSCAR.ORG) a public domain database and its utility value in understanding the molecular recognition processes and in drug design venture will be discussed.
Effects of Matrix Properties on Surfactant Enhanced Oil Recovery in Fractured Reservoirs
The properties of rocks have effects on efficiency of surfactant. One objective of this study is to analyze the effects of rock properties (permeability, porosity, initial water saturation) on surfactant spontaneous imbibition at laboratory scale. The other objective is to evaluate existing upscaling methods and establish a modified upscaling method. A core is put in a container that is full of surfactant solution. Assume there is no space between the bottom of the core and the container. The core is modelled as a cuboid matrix with a length of 3.5 cm, a width of 3.5 cm, and a height of 5 cm. The initial matrix, brine and oil properties are set as the properties of Ekofisk Field. The simulation results of matrix permeability show that the oil recovery rate has a strong positive linear relationship with matrix permeability. Higher oil recovery is obtained from the matrix with higher permeability. One existing upscaling method is verified by this model. The study on matrix porosity shows that the relationship between oil recovery rate and matrix porosity is a negative power function. However, the relationship between ultimate oil recovery and matrix porosity is a positive power function. The initial water saturation of matrix has negative linear relationships with ultimate oil recovery and enhanced oil recovery. However, the relationship between oil recovery and initial water saturation is more complicated with the imbibition time because of the transition of dominating force from capillary force to gravity force. Modified upscaling methods are established. The work here could be used as a reference for the surfactant application in fractured reservoirs. And the description of the relationships between properties of matrix and the oil recovery rate and ultimate oil recovery helps to improve upscaling methods.
The Sr-Nd Isotope Data of the Platreef Rocks from the Northern Limb of the Bushveld Igneous Complex: Evidence of Contrasting Magma Composition and Origin
The Platreef is a platinum group element (PGE) deposit in the northern limb of the Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) which was emplaced as a series of mafic and ultramafic sills between the Main Zone (MZ) and the country rocks. The PGE mineralisation in the Platreef is hosted in different rock types, and its distribution and style vary with depth and along strike. This study contributes towards understanding the processes involved in the genesis of the Platreef. Twenty-four Platreef (2 harzburgites, 4 olivine pyroxenites, 17 feldspathic pyroxenites and 1 gabbronorite) and few MZ (1 gabbronorite and 1 leucogabbronorite) quarter core samples were collected from four drill cores (e.g., TN754, TN200, SS339, and OY482) and analysed for whole-rock Sr-Nd isotope data. The results show positive ɛNd values (+3.53 to +7.51) for harzburgites suggesting their parental magmas derived from the depleted Mantle. The remaining Platreef rocks have negative ɛNd values (-2.91 to -22.88) and show significant variations in Sr-Nd isotopic compositions. The first group of Platreef samples has relatively high isotopic compositions (ɛNd= -2.91 to -5.68; ⁸⁷Sr/⁸⁶Sri= 0.709177 - 0.711998). The second group of Platreef samples has Sr ratios (⁸⁷Sr/⁸⁶Sri= 0.709816-0.712106) overlapping with samples of the first group but slightly lower ɛNd values (-7.44 to -8.39). Lastly, the third group of Platreef samples has low ɛNd values (-10.82 to -14.32) and low Sr ratios (⁸⁷Sr/⁸⁶Sri= 0.707545-0.710042) than those from samples of the two Platreef groups mentioned above. There is, however, a Platreef sample with ɛNd value (-5.26) in range with the Platreef samples of the first group, but its Sr ratio (0.707281) is the lowest even when compared to samples of the third Platreef group. There are also five other Platreef samples which have either anomalous ɛNd or Sr ratios which make it difficult to assess their isotopic compositions relative to other samples. These isotopic variations for the Platreef samples indicate both multiple sources and multiple magma chambers where varying crustal contamination styles have operated during the evolution of these magmas prior their emplacements into the Platreef setting as sills. Furthermore, the MZ rocks have different Sr-Nd isotopic compositions (For OY482 gabbronorite [ɛNd= +0.65; ⁸⁷Sr/⁸⁶Sri= 0.711746]; for TN754 leucogabbronorite [ɛNd= -7.44; ⁸⁷Sr/⁸⁶Sri= 0.709322]) which do not only indicate different MZ magma chambers, but also different magmas from those of the Platreef. Although the Platreef is still considered a single stratigraphic unit in the northern limb of the BIC, its genesis involved multiple magmatic processes which evolved independently from each other.
Litho-Structural Variations and Gold Mineralization around Wonaka Schist Belt, North West Nigeria
Schist belts in Nigeria occur prominently west of longitude 80 E and sporadic to the east, they are upper Proterozioc low-medium grade deformed metasediments and metavolcanics that were intruded by Pan-African granitoids. The Wonaka schist belt, though reportedly distinctive in composition and metamorphism, is the least understood; the host for primary gold were not defined, structures which may control primary enrichment have not been delineated. The aim of this work is to determine the relationship between litho-structures and the gold around Wonaka schist belt through geological field mapping, petrographic studies and structural data analysis via ArcGis 10.2, Surfer 11.0 and Stereopro 2.0. The results show that the major rock types are mica schist and migmatites, muscovites detected during microstructural analysis suggests low-grade metamorphism in the metapelites. The shear zones identified were trending North Northeast – South Southwest (NNE-SSW), fractures trend mostly Northeast-Southwest (NE-SW) perpendicular to planes of gneissic foliations, these conform to the late Pan-African deformational episode. Pegmatite lodes, net self-cross cutting quartz veins as well as the quartz stringers hosted by both migmatites and schist are delineated as targets for primary gold mineralization, while major confluences of the streams serve as zones for secondary (placer) gold targets since the streams are dendritic and intermittent.
Tree Species Classification Using Effective Features of Polarimetric SAR and Hyperspectral Images
Forest management organizations need information to perform their work effectively. Remote sensing is an effective method to acquire information from the Earth. Two datasets of remote sensing images were used to classify forested regions. Firstly, all of extractable features from hyperspectral and PolSAR images were extracted. The optical features were spectral indexes related to the chemical, water contents, structural indexes, effective bands and absorption features. Also, PolSAR features were the original data, target decomposition components, and SAR discriminators features. Secondly, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) and the genetic algorithms (GA) were applied to select optimization features. Furthermore, the support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used to classify the image. The results showed that the combination of PSO and SVM had higher overall accuracy than the other cases. This combination provided overall accuracy about 90.56%. The effective features were the spectral index, the bands in shortwave infrared (SWIR) and the visible ranges and certain PolSAR features.
Synthetic Aperture Radar Remote Sensing Classification Using the Bag of Visual Words Model to Land Cover Studies
Classification of high resolution polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) images plays an important role in land cover and land use management. Recently, classification algorithms based on Bag of Visual Words (BOVW) model have attracted significant interest among scholars and researchers in and out of the field of remote sensing. In this paper, BOVW model with pixel based low-level features has been implemented to classify a subset of San Francisco bay PolSAR image, acquired by RADARSAR 2 in C-band. We have used segment-based decision-making strategy and compared the result with the result of traditional Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. 90.95% overall accuracy of the classification with the proposed algorithm has shown that the proposed algorithm is comparable with the state-of-the-art methods. In addition to increase in the classification accuracy, the proposed method has decreased undesirable speckle effect of SAR images.
Optimization of Technical and Technological Solutions for the Development of Offshore Hydrocarbon Fields in the Kaliningrad Region
Currently, LLC «Lukoil-Kaliningradmorneft» is implementing a comprehensive program for the development of offshore fields of the Kaliningrad region. This is largely associated with the depletion of the resource base of land in the region, as well as the positive results of geological investigation surrounding the Baltic Sea area and the data on the volume of hydrocarbon recovery from a single offshore field are working on the Kaliningrad region – D-6 «Kravtsovskoye».The article analyzes the main stages of the LLC «Lukoil-Kaliningradmorneft»’s development program for the development of the hydrocarbon resources of the region's shelf and suggests an optimization algorithm that allows managing a multi-criteria process of development of shelf deposits. The algorithm is formed on the basis of the problem of sequential decision making, which is a section of dynamic programming. Application of the algorithm during the consolidation of the initial data, the elaboration of project documentation, the further exploration and development of offshore fields will allow to optimize the complex of technical and technological solutions and increase the economic efficiency of the field development project implemented by LLC «Lukoil-Kaliningradmorneft».
Geochemical Controls of Salinity in a Typical Acid Mine Drainage Neutralized Groundwater System
Although the dolomite and calcite carbonates can neutralize Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) and prevent leaching of metals, salinity still remains a huge problem. The study presents a conceptual discussion of geochemical controls of salinity in a typical calcite and dolomite AMD neutralised groundwater systems. Thereafter field evidence is presented to support the conceptual discussions. 1020 field data sets of from a groundwater system reported to be under circumneutral conditions from the neutralization effect of calcite and dolomite is analysed using correlation analysis and bivariate plots. Field evidence indicates that sulphate, calcium and magnesium are strongly and positively correlated to Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) which is used as measure of salinity. In this, a hydrogeochemical system, the dissolution of sulphate, calcium and magnesium form AMD neutralization process contributed 50%, 10% and 5% of the salinity.
Analyze Long-Term Shoreline Change at Yi-Lan Coast, Taiwan Using Multiple Sources
A shoreline is a line where a body of water and the shore meet. It provides economic and social security to coastal habitations. However, shorelines face multiple threats due to both natural processes and man-made effects because of disasters, rapid urbanization, industrialization, and sand deposition and erosion, etc. In this study, we analyzed multi-temporal satellite images of the Yilan coast, Taiwan from 1978 to 2016, using the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS), weather information (as rainfall records and typhoon routes), and man-made construction project data to explore the causes of shoreline changes. The results showed that the shoreline at Yilan coast is greatly influenced by typhoons and anthropogenic interventions.
Utilization of Process Mapping Tool to Enhance Production Drilling in Underground Metal Mining Operations
Underground mining is at the core of rapidly evolving metals and minerals sector due to the increasing mineral consumption globally. Even though the surface mines are still more abundant on earth, the scales of industry are slowly tipping towards underground mining due to rising depth and complexities of orebodies. Thus, the efficient and productive functioning of underground operations depends significantly on the synchronized performance of key elements such as operating site, mining equipment, manpower and mine services. Production drilling is the process of conducting long hole drilling for the purpose of charging and blasting these holes for the production of ore in underground metal mines. Thus, production drilling is the crucial segment in the underground metal mining value chain. This paper presents the process mapping tool to evaluate the production drilling process in the underground metal mining operation by dividing the given process into three segments namely Input, Process and Output. The three segments are further segregated into factors and sub-factors. As per the study, the major input factors crucial for the efficient functioning of production drilling process are power, drilling water, geotechnical support of the drilling site, skilled drilling operators, services installation crew, oils and drill accessories for drilling machine, survey markings at drill site, proper housekeeping, regular maintenance of drill machine, suitable transportation for reaching the drilling site and finally proper ventilation. The major outputs for the production drilling process are ore, waste as a result of dilution, timely reporting and investigation of unsafe practices, optimized process time and finally well fragmented blasted material within specifications set by the mining company. The paper also exhibits the drilling loss matrix, which is utilized to appraise the loss in planned production meters per day in a mine on account of availability loss in the machine due to breakdowns, underutilization of the machine and productivity loss in the machine measured in drilling meters per unit of percussion hour with respect to its planned productivity for the day. The given three losses would be essential to detect the bottlenecks in the process map of production drilling operation so as to instigate the action plan to suppress or prevent the causes leading to the operational performance deficiency. The given tool is beneficial to mine management to focus on the critical factors negatively impacting the production drilling operation and design necessary operational and maintenance strategies to mitigate them. 
Assessing Suitability of Earthbag Technology for Temporary Housing: Sustainability Challenge
In emergency situations, it is fundamental to provide with a safe shelter to the population affected. However, the lack of resources and short time often represent a barrier difficult to overcome. A sustainable, rapid and low-cost construction technique is earthbag construction. This technique has spread as an alternative to the construction of emergency shelter, social housing, and even ecovillages. The earthbag construction consists of introducing soil in degradable bags that are stacked to form adobe structures. The present study aims to assess characteristics of the earthbag construction technique based on sustainability requirements and features of other methods used for temporary housing. In this case, after defining the sustainability criteria and emergency situation necessities, this study compares earthbag construction with other types of prefabricated temporary housing. Finally, the most suitable conditions for applying this technique based on the particular local properties and second life scenarios of superadobe temporary housing. The results of the study contribute to promote the earthbag and superadobe techniques as sustainable alternatives for temporary housing. However, the sustainability index of this technology highly depends on affected local conditions and characteristics. Consequently, in order to achieve a high sustainability index, emergency managers need to decide about this technology based on the highlighted results of this study, attention to the importance of specific local conditions and next functions of temporary housing.
Sustainable Building Technologies for Post-Disaster Temporary Housing: Integrated Sustainability Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment
After natural disasters, displaced people (DP) require important numbers of housing units, which have to be erected quickly due to emergency pressures. These tight timeframes can cause the multiplication of the construction environmental impacts. These negative impacts worsen the already high-energy consumption and pollution caused by the building sector. Indeed, post-disaster housing, which is often carried out without pre-planning, usually causes high negative environmental impacts, beside other economic and social impacts. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a suitable strategy to deal with this problem which also takes into account the instability of its causes, like changing ratio between rural and urban population. To this end, this study aims to present a model that assists decision-makers to choose the most suitable building technology for post-disaster housing units. This model focuses on the alternatives sustainability and fulfilment of the stakeholders’ satisfactions. Four building technologies have been analysed to determine the most sustainable technology and to validate the presented model. In 2003, Bam earthquake DP had their temporary housing units (THUs) built using these four technologies: autoclaved aerated concrete blocks (AAC), concrete masonry unit (CMU), pressed reeds panel (PR), and 3D sandwich panel (3D). The results of this analysis confirm that PR and CMU obtain the highest sustainability indexes. However, the second life scenario of THUs could have considerable impacts on the results.
Alternative Acidizing Fluids and Their Impact on the Southern Algerian Shale Formations
Acidification is a technique used in oil reservoirs to improve annual production, reduce the skin and increase the pressure of an oil well while eliminating the formation damage that occurs during the drilling process, completion and, amongst others, to create new channels allowing the easy circulation of oil around a producing well. This is achieved by injecting an acidizing fluid at a relatively low pressure to prevent fracturing formation. The treatment fluid used depends on the type and nature of the reservoir rock traversed as well as its petrophysical properties. In order to understand the interaction mechanisms between the treatment fluids used for the reservoir rock acidizing, several candidate wells for stimulation were selected in the large Hassi Messaoud deposit in southern Algeria. The stimulation of these wells is completed using different fluids composed mainly of HCl acid with other additives such as corrosion inhibitors, clay stabilizers and iron controllers. These treatment fluids are injected over two phases, namely with clean tube (7.5% HCl) and matrix aidizing with HCl (15%). The stimulation results obtained are variable according to the type of rock traversed and its mineralogical composition. These results show that there has been an increase in production flow and head pressure respectively from 1.99 m3 / h to 3.56 m3 / h and from 13 Kgf / cm2 to 20 kgf / cm2 in the sands formation having good petrophysical properties of (porosity = 16%) and low amount of clay (Vsh = 6%).
Preliminary Analysis on Land Use-Land Cover Assessment of Post-Earthquake Geohazard: A Case Study in Kundasang, Sabah
The earthquake aftermath has become a major concern, especially in high seismicity region. In Kundasang, Sabah, the earthquake on 5th June 2015 resulted in several catastrophes; landslides, rockfalls, mudflows and major slopes affected regardless of the series of the aftershocks. Certainly, the consequences of earthquake generate and induce the episodic disaster, not only life-threatening but it also affects infrastructure and economic development. Therefore, a need for investigating the change in land use and land cover (LULC) of post-earthquake geohazard is essential for identifying the extent of disastrous effects towards the development in Kundasang. With the advancement of remote sensing technology, post-earthquake geohazards (landslides, mudflows, rockfalls, debris flows) assessment can be evaluated by the employment of object-based image analysis in investigating the LULC change which consists of settlements, public infrastructure and vegetation cover. Therefore, this paper discusses the preliminary results on post-earthquakes geohazards distribution in Kundasang and evaluates the LULC classification effect upon the occurrences of geohazards event. The result of this preliminary analysis will provide an overview to determine the extent of geohazard impact on LULC. This research also provides beneficial input to the local authority in Kundasang about the risk of future structural development on the geohazard area.
Rainstorm Characteristics over the Northeastern Region of Thailand: Weather Radar Analysis
Radar reflectivity data from Phimai weather radar station of DRRAA (Department of Royal Rainmaking and Agricultural Aviation) were used to analyzed the rainstorm characteristics via Thunderstorm Identification Tracking Analysis and Nowcasting (TITAN) algorithm. The Phimai weather radar station was situated at Nakhon Ratchasima province, northeastern Thailand. The data from 277 days of rainstorm events occurring from May 2016 to May 2017 were used to investigate temporal distribution characteristics of convective individual rainclouds. The important storm properties, structures, and their behaviors were analyzed by 9 variables as storm number, storm duration, storm volume, storm area, storm top, storm base, storm speed, storm orientation, and maximum storm reflectivity. The rainstorm characteristics were also examined by separating the data into two periods as wet and dry season followed by an announcement of TMD (Thai Meteorological Department), under the influence of southwest monsoon (SWM) and northeast monsoon (NEM). According to the characteristics of rainstorm results, it can be seen that rainstorms during the SWM influence were found to be the most potential rainstorms over northeastern region of Thailand. The SWM rainstorms are larger number of the storm (404, 140 no./day), storm area (34.09, 26.79 km²) and storm volume (95.43, 66.97 km³) than NEM rainstorms, respectively. For the storm duration, the average individual storm duration during the SWM and NEM was found a minor difference in both periods (47.6, 48.38 min) and almost all storm duration in both periods were less than 3 hours. The storm velocity was not exceeding 15 km/hr (13.34 km/hr for SWM and 10.67 km/hr for NEM). For the rainstorm reflectivity, it was found a little difference between wet and dry season (43.08 dBz for SWM and 43.72 dBz for NEM). It assumed that rainstorms occurred in both seasons have same raindrop size.
Identification of Suitable Sites for Rainwater Harvesting in Salt Water Intruded Area by Using Geospatial Techniques in Jafrabad, Amreli District, India
The sea water intrusion in the coastal aquifers has become one of the major environmental concerns. Although, it is a natural phenomenon but, it can be induced with anthropogenic activities like excessive exploitation of groundwater, seacoast mining, etc. The geological and hydrogeological conditions including groundwater heads and groundwater pumping pattern in the coastal areas also influence the magnitude of seawater intrusion. However, this problem can be remediated by taking some preventive measures like rainwater harvesting and artificial recharge. The present study is an attempt to identify suitable sites for rainwater harvesting in salt intrusion affected area near coastal aquifer of Jafrabad town, Amreli district, Gujrat, India. The physico-chemical water quality results show that out of 25 groundwater samples collected from the study area most of samples were found to contain high concentration of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with major fractions of Na and Cl ions. The Cl/HCO3 ratio was also found greater than 1 which indicates the salt water contamination in the study area. The geophysical survey was conducted at nine sites within the study area to explore the extent of contamination of sea water. From the inverted resistivity sections, low resistivity zone (
Rainfall Estimation Using Himawari-8 Meteorological Satellite Imagery in Central Taiwan
The objective of this study is to estimate the rainfall using the new generation Himawari-8 meteorological satellite with multi-band, high-bit format, and high spatiotemporal resolution, ground rainfall data at the Chen-Yu-Lan watershed of Joushuei River Basin (443.6 square kilometers) in Central Taiwan. Accurate and fine-scale rainfall information is essential for rugged terrain with high local variation for early warning of flood, landslide, and debris flow disasters. 10-minute and 2 km pixel-based rainfall of Typhoon Megi of 2016 and meiyu on June 1-4 of 2017 were tested to demonstrate the new generation Himawari-8 meteorological satellite can capture rainfall variation in the rugged mountainous area both at fine-scale and watershed scale. The results provide the valuable rainfall information for early warning of future disasters.
Establishing Sequence Stratigraphic Framework and Hydrocarbon Potential of the Late Cretaceous Strata: A Case Study from Central Indus Basin, Pakistan
The Late Cretaceous strata (Mughal Kot Formation) exposed in Central Indus Basin, Pakistan is evaluated for establishing sequence stratigraphic framework and potential of hydrocarbon accumulation. The petrographic studies and SEM analysis were carried out to infer the hydrocarbon potential of the rock unit. The petrographic details disclosed 4 microfacies including Pelagic Mudstone, OrbitoidalWackestone, Quartz Arenite, and Quartz Wacke. The lowermost part of the rock unit consists of OrbitoidalWackestone which shows deposition in the middle shelf environment. The Quartz Arenite and Quartz Wacke suggest deposition on the deep slope settings while the Pelagic Mudstone microfacies point toward deposition in the distal deep marine settings. Based on the facies stacking patterns and cyclicity in the chronostratigraphic context, the strata is divided into two 3rd order cycles. One complete sequence i.e Transgressive system tract (TST), Highstand system tract (HST) and Lowstand system tract (LST) are again replaced by another Transgressive system tract and Highstant system tract with no markers of sequence boundary. The LST sands are sandwiched between TST and HST shales but no potential porosity/permeability values have been determined. Microfacies and SEM studies revealed very fewer chances for hydrocarbon accumulation and overall reservoir potential is characterized as low.