The Research of Water Levels in the Zhinvali Water Reservoir and Results of Field Research on the Debris Flow Tributaries of the River Tetri Aragvi Flowing in It
In the article to research water levels in the Zhinvali water reservoirs by field and theoretical research and using GPS and GIS technologies has been established dynamic of water reservoirs changes in the suitable coordinates and has been made water reservoir maps and is lined in the 3D format. By using of GPS coordinates and digital maps has been established water horizons of Zhinvali water reservoir in the absolute marks and has been calculated water levels volume. To forecast the filling of the Zhinvali water reservoir by solid sediment in 2018 conducted field experimental researches in the catchment basin of river Tetri (White) Aragvi. It has been established main hydrological and hydraulic parameters of the active erosion-debris flow tributaries of river Tetri Aragvi. It has been calculated erosion coefficient considering the degradation of the slope. By calculation is determined, that in the river Tetri Aragvi catchment basin the value of 1% maximum discharge changes Q1% = 70,0 – 550,0 m3/sec, and erosion coefficient - E = 0,73 - 1,62, with suitable fifth class of erosion and intensity 50-100 tone/hectare in the year.
Effects of Climate Change on Floods of Pakistan, and Gap Analysis of Existing Policies with Vision 2025
The analysis of the climate change impact on flood frequency represents an important issue for water resource management and flood risk mitigation. This research was conducted to address the effects of climate change on flood incidents of Pakistan and find out gaps in existing policies to reducing the environmental aspects on floods and effects of global warming. The main objective of this research was to critically analyses the National Climate Change Policy (NCCP), National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), Federal Flood Commission (FFC) and Vision 2025, as an effective policy document which is not only hitting the target of a climate resilient Pakistan but provides room for efficient and flexible policy implementation. The methodology integrates projected changes in monsoon patterns (since last 20 years and overall change in rainfall pattern since 1901 to 2015 from Pakistan Metrological Department), glacier melting, decreasing dam capacity and lacks in existing policies by using SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities, Threats) model in order to explore the relative impacts of global warming on the system performance. Results indicate the impacts of climate change are significant, but probably not large enough to justify a major effort for adapting the physical infrastructure to expected climatic conditions in Vision 2025 which is our shared destination to progress, ultimate aspiration to see Pakistan among the ten largest economies of the world by 2047– the centennial year of our independence. The conclusion of this research was to adapt sustainable measures to reduce flood impacts and make policies as neighboring countries are adapting for their sustainability.
Laboratory Assessment of Electrical Vertical Drains in Composite Soils Using Kaolin and Bentonite Clays
As an alternative to stone column in fine grained soils, it is possible to create stiffened columns of soils using electroosmosis (electroosmotic piles). This program of this research is to establish the effectiveness and efficiency of the process in different soils. The aim of this study is to assess the capability of electroosmosis treatment in a range of composite soils. The combined electroosmotic and preloading equipment developed by Nizar and Clarke (2013) was used with an octagonal array of anodes surrounding a single cathode in a nominal 250mm diameter 300mm deep cylinder of soil and 80mm anode to cathode distance. Copper coiled springs were used as electrodes to allow the soil to consolidate either due to an external vertical applied load or electroosmosis. The equipment was modified to allow the temperature to be monitored during the test. Electroosmotic tests were performed on China Clay Grade E kaolin and calcium bentonite (Bentonex CB) mixed with sand fraction C (BS 1881 part 131) at different ratios by weight; (0, 23, 33, 50 and 67%) subjected to applied voltages (5, 10, 15 and 20). The soil slurry was prepared by mixing the dry soil with water to 1.5 times the liquid limit of the soil mixture. The mineralogical and geotechnical properties of the tested soils were measured before the electroosmosis treatment began. In the electroosmosis cell tests, the settlement, expelled water, variation of electrical current and applied voltage, and the generated heat was monitored during the test time for 24 osmotic tests. Water content was measured at the end of each test. The electroosmotic tests are divided into three phases. In Phase 1, 15 kPa was applied to simulate a working platform and produce a uniform soil which had been deposited as a slurry. 50 kPa was used in Phase 3 to simulate a surcharge load. The electroosmotic treatment was only performed during Phase 2 where a constant voltage was applied through the electrodes in addition to the 15 kPa pressure. This phase was stopped when no further water was expelled from the cell, indicating the electroosmotic process had stopped due to either the degradation of the anode or the flow due to the hydraulic gradient exactly balanced the electroosmotic flow resulting in no flow. Control tests for each soil mixture were carried out to assess the behaviour of the soil samples subjected to only an increase of vertical pressure, which is 15kPa in Phase 1 and 50kPa in Phase 3. Analysis of the experimental results from this study showed a significant dewatering effect on the soil slurries. The water discharged by the electroosmotic treatment process decreased as the sand content increased. Soil temperature increased significantly when electrical power was applied and drops when applied DC power turned off or when the electrode degraded. The highest increase in temperature was found in pure clays at higher applied voltage after about 8 hours of electroosmosis test.
Effect of Footing Shape on Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Closely Spaced Footings on Sandy Soil
The bearing capacity of closely spaced shallow footings alters with their spacing and the shape of footing. In this study, the bearing capacity and settlement of two adjacent footings constructed on a sand layer are investigated. The effect of different footing shapes including square, circular, ring and strip on sandy soil is captured in the calculations. The investigations are carried out numerically using PLAXIS-3D software and analytically employing conventional settlement equations. For this purpose, foundations are modelled in the program with practical dimensions and various spacing ratios ranging from 1 to 5. The spacing ratio is defined as the centre-to-centre distance to the width of foundations (S/B). Overall, 24 models are analyzed; and the results are compared and discussed in detail. It can be concluded that the presence of adjacent foundation leads to the reduction in bearing capacity for round shape footings while it can increase the bearing capacity of rectangular footings in some specific distances.
A Review of Current Knowledge on Assessment of Precast Structures Using Fragility Curves
Precast reinforced concrete (RC) structures are excellent alternatives for construction world all over the globe, thanks to their rapid erection phase, ease mounting process, better quality and reasonable prices. Such structures are rather popular for industrial buildings. For the sake of economic importance of such industrial buildings as well as significance of safety, like every other type of structures, performance assessment and structural risk analysis are important. Fragility curves are powerful tools for damage projection and assessment for any sort of building as well as precast structures. In this study, a comparative review of current knowledge on fragility analysis of industrial precast RC structures were presented and findings in previous studies were compiled. Effects of different structural variables, parameters and building geometries as well as soil conditions on fragility analysis of precast structures are reviewed. It was aimed to briefly present the information in the literature about the procedure of damage probability prediction including fragility curves for such industrial facilities. It is found that determination of the aforementioned structural parameters as well as selecting analysis procedure are critically important for damage prediction of industrial precast RC structures using fragility curves.
Establishment of Landslide Warning System Using Surface or Sub-Surface Sensors Data
The study illustrates the results of an integrated study done on Tangni landslide located on NH-58 at Chamoli, Uttarakhand. Geological, geo-morphological and geotechnical investigations were carried out to understand the mechanism of landslide and to plan further investigation and monitoring. At any rate, the movements were favored by continuous rainfall water infiltration from the zones where the phyllites/slates and Dolomites outcrop. The site investigations were carried out including the monitoring of landslide movements and of the water level fluctuations due to rainfall give us a better understanding of landslide dynamics that have been causing in time soil instability at Tangni landslide site. The Early Warning System (EWS) installed different types of sensors and all sensors were directly connected to data logger and raw data transfer to the Defence Terrain Research Laboratory (DTRL) server room with the help of File Transfer Protocol (FTP). The slip surfaces were found at depths ranging from 8 to 10 m from Geophysical survey and hence sensors were installed to the depth of 15m at various locations of landslide. Rainfall is the main triggering factor of landslide. In this study, the developed model of unsaturated soil slope stability is carried out. The analysis of sensors data available for one year, indicated the sliding surface of landslide at depth between 6 to 12m with total displacement up to 6cm per year recorded at the body of landslide. The aim of this study is to set the threshold and generate early warning. Local peoples already alert towards landslide, if they have any types of warning system.
Luxembourg Institute fo Science and Technology
Soil traces are useful as forensic evidence due to their potential to transfer and adhere to different types of surfaces on a range of objects or persons. The great variability expressed by soil physical, chemical, biological and mineralogical properties show soil traces as complex mixtures. Soils are continuous and variable, no two soil samples being indistinguishable, nevertheless, the complexity of soil characteristics can provide powerful evidence for comparative forensic purposes. This work aimed to establish a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for forensic soil analysis in Brazil. We carried out a simulated crime scene with double blind sampling to calibrate the sampling procedures. Samples were collected at a range of locations covering a range of soil types found in South of Brazil: Santa Candida and Boa Vista, neighbourhoods from Curitiba (State of Parana) and in Guarani and Guaraituba, neighbourhoods from Colombo (Curitiba Metropolitan Region). A previously validated sequential analyses of chemical, physical and mineralogical analyses was developed in around 2 g of soil. The suggested SOP and the sequential range of analyses were effective in grouping the samples from the same place and from the same parent material together, as well as successfully discriminated samples from different locations and originated from different rocks. In addition, modifications to the sample treatment and analytical protocol can be made depending on the context of the forensic work.
Displacement Fields in Footing-Sand Interactions under Cyclic Loading
Soils are subjected to cyclic loading in situ in situations such as during earthquakes and in the compaction of pavements. Investigations on the local scale measurement of the displacements of the grain and failure patterns within the soil bed under the cyclic loading conditions are rather limited. In this paper, using the digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), local scale displacement fields of a dense sand medium interacting with a rigid footing are measured under the plane-strain condition for two commonly used types of cyclic loading, and the quasi-static loading condition for the purposes of comparison. From the displacement measurements of the grains, the failure envelopes of the sand media are also presented. The results show that, the ultimate cyclic bearing capacity (qultcyc) occurred corresponding to a relatively higher settlement value when compared with that of under the quasi-static loading. For the sand media under the cyclic loading conditions considered here, the displacement fields in the soil media occurred more widely in the horizontal direction and less deeper along the vertical direction when compared with that of under the quasi-static loading. The 'dead zone' in the sand grains beneath the footing is identified for all types of the loading conditions studied here. These grain-scale characteristics have implications on the resulting bulk bearing capacity of the sand media in footing-sand interaction problems.
Effect of Confinement on the Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Spread Foundations
Allowable-bearing capacity is the competency of soil to safely carries the pressure from the superstructure without experiencing a shear failure with accompanying excessive settlements. Ensuring a safe bearing pressure with respect to failure does not tolerate settlement of the foundation will be within acceptable limits. Therefore, settlement analysis should always be performed since most structures are settlement sensitive. When visualising the movement of a soil wedge in the bearing capacity criterion, both vertically and horizontally, it becomes clear that by confining the soil surrounding the foundation, both the bearing capacity and settlement values improve. In this study, two sizes of spread foundation were considered; (2×4) m and (3×5) m. These represent two real problem case studies of an existing building. The foundations were analysed in terms of dimension as well as position with respect to a confining wall (i.e., sheet piles on both sides). Assuming B is the least foundation dimension, the study comprised the analyses of three distances; (0.1 B), (0.5 B), and (0.75 B) between the sheet piles and foundations alongside three depths of confinement (0.5 B), (1 B), and (1.5 B). Nonlinear three-dimensional finite element analysis (ANSYS) was adopted to perform an analytical investigation on the behaviour of the two foundations contained by the case study. Results showed that confinement of foundations reduced the overall stresses near the foundation by 65% and reduced the vertical displacement by 90%. Moreover, the most effective distance between the confinement wall and the foundation was found to be 0.5 B.
Evaluation of Geomechanical and Geometrical Parameters’ Effects on Hydro-Mechanical Estimation of Water Inflow into Underground Excavations
In general, mechanical and hydraulic processes are not independent of each other in jointed rock masses. Therefore, the study on hydro-mechanical coupling of geomaterials should be a center of attention in rock mechanics. Rocks in their nature contain discontinuities whose presence extremely influences mechanical and hydraulic characteristics of the medium. Assuming this effect, experimental investigations on intact rock cannot help to identify jointed rock mass behavior. Hence, numerical methods are being used for this purpose. In this paper, water inflow into a tunnel under significant water table has been estimated using hydro-mechanical discrete element method (HM-DEM). Besides, effects of geomechanical and geometrical parameters including constitutive model, friction angle, joint spacing, dip of joint sets, and stress factor on the estimated inflow rate have been studied. Results demonstrate that inflow rates are not identical for different constitutive models. Also, inflow rate reduces with increased spacing and stress factor.
Numerical Modelling of a Vacuum Consolidation Project in Vietnam
This paper introduces a matching scheme for selection of soil/drain properties in analytical solution and numerical modelling (axisymmetric and plane strain conditions) of a ground improvement project by using Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVD) in combination with vacuum and surcharge preloading. In-situ monitoring data from a case history of a road construction project in Vietnam was adopted in the back-analysis. Analytical solution and axisymmetric analysis can approximate well the field data meanwhile the horizontal permeability need to be adjusted in plane strain scenario to achieve good agreement. In addition, the influence zone of the ground treatment was examined. The residual settlement was investigated to justify the long-term settlement in compliance with the design code. Moreover, the degree of consolidation of non-PVD sub-layers was also studied by means of two different approaches.
Influence of Variable Calcium Content on Mechanical Properties of Geopolymer Synthesized at Different Temperature and Moisture Conditions
In search of a sustainable construction material, geopolymer has been investigated for past decades to evaluate its advantage over conventional products. Synthesis of geopolymer requires a source of aluminosilicate mixed with sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate at different proportions to maintain a Si/Al molar ratio of 1-3 and Na/Al molar ratio of unity. A comprehensive geopolymer study was performed with Metakaolin and Class C Fly ash as primary aluminosilicate sources. Synthesized geopolymer was analyzed for time-dependent viscosity, setting period and strength at varying initial moisture content, curing temperature and humidity. Different concentration of Ca(OH)₂ and CaSO₄.2H₂O were added to vary the amount of calcium contained in synthesized geopolymer. Influence of calcium content in unconfined compressive strength behavior of geopolymer were analyzed. Finally, Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was performed to investigate the hardened product. It was observed that fly ash based geopolymer had shortened setting time and faster increase in viscosity as compared to geopolymer synthesized from metakaolin. This was primarily attributed to higher calcium content resulting in formation of calcium silicate hydrates (CSH). SEM-EDS was performed to verify the presence of CSH phases. Spectral analysis of geopolymer prepared by addition of Ca(OH)₂ and CaSO₄.2H₂O indicated higher CSH phases at higher concentration. It was observed that lower concentration of added calcium favored strength gain in geopolymer. However, at higher calcium concentration, decrease in strength was observed. Strength variation was also observed with humidity at initial curing condition. At 100% humidity, geopolymer with added calcium presented higher strength compared to samples cured at ambient humidity condition (40%). Reduction in strength in these samples at lower humidity was primarily attributed to reduction in moisture content in specimen due to the formation of CSH phases and loss of moisture through evaporation. For low calcium content geopolymers, with increase in temperature, gain in strength was observed with maximum strength observed at 200 ˚C. However, samples with higher calcium content demonstrated severe cracking resulting in low strength at elevated temperatures.
A Case Study on the Long-Term Stability Monitoring of Underground Powerhouse Complex Using Geotechnical Instrumentation
Large cavern in Bhutan Himalayas is being monitored since the construction period. The behavior of the cavern is being monitored for last 16 years. Instrumentation includes measurement of convergence of high walls by geodetic monitoring, load on the support systems with load cells and instrumented bolts. Analysis of the results of instrumentation showed that during the construction period of the cavern, the convergence of the cavern varied from 181 - 233 mm in the unit bay area with maximum convergence rate of 2.80mm/day. Whereas during the operational period the total convergence observed was in the range of 21 to 45 mm during a period of 11.30 years with convergence rate of 0.005 to 0.011 mm/day. During the last five years, there were no instances of high tensile stress recorded by the instrumented bolts. Load on the rock bolts have shown stabilization trend at most of the locations. This paper discusses in detail the results of long-term monitoring using the geotechnical instruments and how the data is being used in 3D numerical model to confirm the stability of the cavern.
Global Modeling of Drill String Dragging and Buckling in 3D Curvilinear Bore-Holes
Enhancement of technology and techniques for drilling deep directed oil and gas bore-wells are of essential industrial significance because these wells make it possible to increase their productivity and output. Generally, they are used for drilling in hard and shale formations, that is why their drivage processes are followed by the emergency and failure effects. As is corroborated by practice, the principal drilling drawback occurring in drivage of long curvilinear bore-wells is conditioned by the need to obviate essential force hindrances caused by simultaneous action of the gravity, contact and friction forces. Primarily, these forces depend on the type of the technological regime, drill string stiffness, bore-hole tortuosity and its length. They can lead to the Eulerian buckling of the drill string and its sticking. To predict and exclude these states, special mathematic models and methods of computer simulation should play a dominant role. At the same time, one might note that these mechanical phenomena are very complex and only simplified approaches (‘soft string drag and torque models’) are used for their analysis. Taking into consideration that now the cost of directed wells increases essentially with complication of their geometry and enlargement of their lengths, it can be concluded that the price of mistakes of the drill string behavior simulation through the use of simplified approaches can be very high and so the problem of correct software elaboration is very urgent. This paper deals with the problem of simulating the regimes of drilling deep curvilinear bore-wells with prescribed imperfect geometrical trajectories of their axial lines. On the basis of the theory of curvilinear flexible elastic rods, methods of differential geometry, and numerical analysis methods, the 3D ‘stiff-string drag and torque model’ of the drill string bending and the appropriate software are elaborated for the simulation of the tripping in and out regimes and drilling operations. It is shown by the computer calculations that the contact and friction forces can be calculated and regulated, providing predesigned trouble-free modes of operation. The elaborated mathematic models and software can be used for the emergency situations prognostication and their exclusion at the stages of the drilling process design and realization.
Load-Settlement Behaviour of Geogrid-Reinforced Sand Bed over Granular Piles
Granular piles are a popular ground improvement technique in soft cohesive soils as well as for loose non-cohesive soils. The present experimental study has been carried out on granular piles in loose (Relative density = 30%) and medium dense (Relative density = 60%) sands with geogrid reinforcement within the sand bed over the granular piles. A group of five piles were installed in the sand at different spacing, s = 2d, 3d and 4d, d being the diameter of the pile. The length (L = 0.4 m) and diameter (d = 50 mm) of the piles were kept constant for all the series of experiments. The load-settlement behavior of reinforced sand bed and granular piles system was studied by applying the load on a square footing. The results show that the effect of reinforcement increases the load bearing capacity of the piles. It is also found that an increase in spacing between piles decreases the settlement for both loose and medium dense soil.
Numerical Investigation on Load Bearing Capacity of Pervious Concrete Piles as an Alternative to Granular Columns
Pervious concrete combines considerable permeability with adequate strength, which makes it very beneficial in pavement construction and also in ground improvement projects. In this paper, a single pervious concrete pile subjected to vertical and lateral loading is analysed using a verified three dimensional finite element code. A parametric study was carried out in order to investigate load bearing capacity of a single unreinforced pervious concrete pile in saturated soft soil and also gain insight into the failure mechanism of this rather new soil improvement technique. The results show that concrete damaged plasticity constitutive model can perfectly simulate the highly brittle nature of the pervious concrete material and considering the computed vertical and horizontal load bearing capacities, some suggestions have been made for ground improvement projects.
Numerical Investigation on the Effects of Deep Excavation on Adjacent Pile Groups Subjected to Inclined Loading
There is a growing demand for construction of high-rise buildings and infrastructures in large cities, which sometimes require deep excavations in the vicinity of pile foundations. In this study, a two-dimensional finite element analysis is used to gain insight into the response of pile groups adjacent to deep excavations in sand. The numerical code was verified by available experimental works, and a parametric study was performed on different working load combinations, excavation depth and supporting system. The results show that the simple two-dimensional plane strain model can accurately simulate the excavation induced changes on adjacent pile groups. It was found that further excavation than pile toe level and also inclined loading on adjacent pile group can severely affect the serviceability of the foundation.
Applications of Engineering Geology in Hydro Power Tunnel Projects in Himalayan Geological Regime
Tunnel construction in Himalayan rock is a challenging task due to fragile nature of the strata. Tunnel excavation carried out from lower Himalayas to high Himalayas in different metamorphic rock. Therefore application of engineering geology plays a vital role during various stage of the tunneling projects. Engineering geology is defined as application of geology to construction of civil structures through engineering practice. It is applied to the design, construction and performance aspects of engineering structure on the surface or sub-surface like dam, underground and surface power house, cut slopes, tunnels and underground storage cavern for nuclear material. But this paper emphasized mostly on underground structures like big caverns of Power house, desilting chambers, and tunnels of various sizes. Construction of these structures in the fragile rock conditions of Himalayan geology from Western Himalayas to Eastern Himalayas necessitated the application of the engineering geology on the micro-scale base for the stability, performance, and longevity of the civil structures. Number of hydropower projects have been constructed, some of them are under construction and under investigation stage. These projects are located in various parts of Himalayas under various seismic-tectonic zones. Tunneling works are involved in these projects. This paper represents the various engineering geological practices adopted in investigation and construction stage of various projects based on experiences gained during past construction histories in Himalayan geology of young mountains in very fragile geological conditions. Highlighting and sharing of use of these techniques on various platforms will definitely enhance the knowledge for carrying out the construction of various projects for the development of society. Construction of the tunnels, surface, and sub-surface caverns, dams, highway, metro, highway tunnels are all based on engineering geological parameters in combinations with other engineering considerations.
The Behavior of Ordinary and Encased Stone Columns in Soft Clay Soil of Egypt: A Finite Element Study
Soft to very soft soil deposits are widely speared in some areas of Egypt such as East Port Said, Damietta, Kafr El-Sheik, Alexandria, etc. The construction projects in these areas have faced the challenge of the presence of extended deep layers of soft and very soft clays which reach to depths of 40 to 60 m from the ground level. Stone columns are commonly used to support structures overlying soft ground soils and surcharged by embankment type loading. Therefore, this paper introduces a wide comparison numerical study between the ordinary stone columns (OSC) versus the geosynthetic encased stone columns (ESC) installed in soft clay soil deposit using finite element method (FEM). Parametric study of an embankment on soft soils reinforced with stone columns is performed using commercial computer program based on the finite element technique (PLAXIS 2D). The investigation will present the influence of the following parameters: diameter of stone columns, stiffness of geosynthetic encasement, embedded depth of stone column from ground level, and the length encasement of the stone column on the consolidation time, vertical settlement, and lateral displacement of soft clay soil formations.
Prediction of Pile-Raft Responses Induced by Adjacent Braced Excavation in Layered Soil
Considering excavations in urban areas, the soil deformation induced by the excavations usually causes damage to the surrounding structures. Displacement control becomes a critical indicator of foundation design in order to protect the surrounding structures. Evaluation, the damage potential of the surrounding structures induced by the excavations, usually depends on the finite element method (FEM) because of the complexity of the excavation and the variety of the surrounding structures. Besides, evaluation the influence of the excavation on surrounding structures is a three-dimensional problem. And it is now well recognized that small strain behaviour of the soil influences the responses of the excavation significantly. Three-dimensional FEM considering small strain behaviour of the soil is a very complex method, which is hard for engineers to use. Thus, it is important to obtain a simplified method for engineers to predict the influence of the excavations on the surrounding structures. Based on large-scale finite element calculation with small-strain based soil model coupling with inverse analysis, an empirical method is proposed to calculate the three-dimensional soil movement induced by braced excavation. The empirical method is able to capture the small-strain behaviour of the soil. And it is suitable to be used in layered soil. Then the free-field soil movement is applied to the pile to calculate the responses of the pile in both vertical and horizontal directions. The asymmetric solutions for problems in layered elastic half-space are employed to solve the interactions between soil points. Both vertical and horizontal pile responses are solved through finite difference method based on elastic theory. Interactions among the nodes along a single pile, pile-pile interactions, pile-soil-pile interaction action and soil-soil interactions are counted to improve the calculation accuracy of the method. For passive piles, the shadow effects are also calculated in the method. Finally, the restrictions of the raft on the piles and the soils are summarized as: (1) the summations of the internal forces between the elements of the raft and the elements of the foundation, including piles and soil surface elements, is equal to 0; (2) the deformations of pile heads or of the soil surface elements are the same as the deformations of the corresponding elements of the raft. Validations are carried out by comparing the results from the proposed method with the results from the model tests, FEM and other existing literatures. From the comparisons, it can be seen that the results from the proposed method fit with the results from other methods very well. The method proposed herein is suitable to predict the responses of the pile-raft foundation induced by braced excavation in layered soil in both vertical and horizontal directions when the deformation is small. However, more data is needed to verify the method before it can be used in practice.
Comparison of Accumulated Stress Based Pore Pressure Model and Plasticity Model in 1D Site Response Analysis
This paper presents the comparison of excess pore water pressure ratio (ru) predicted by using accumulated stress based pore pressure model and plasticity model. One dimensional effective stress site response analyses were performed on a 30 m deep sand column (consists of a liquefiable layer in between non-liquefiable layers) using accumulated stress based pore pressure model in Deepsoil and PDMY2 (PressureDependentMultiYield02) model in Opensees. Three Input motions with different peak ground acceleration (PGA) levels of 0.357 g, 0.124 g, and 0.11 g were used in this study. The developed excess pore pressure ratio predicted by the above two models were compared and analyzed along the depth. The time history of the ru at mid of the liquefiable layer and non-liquefiable layer were also compared. The comparisons show that the two models predict mostly similar ru values. The predicted ru is also consistent with the PGA level of the input motions.
Effect of Plastic Fines on Undrained Behavior of Clayey Sands
In recent years, the occurrence of several liquefactions in sandy soils containing various values of clay content has shown that in addition to silty sands, clayey sands are also susceptible to liquefaction. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the properties of these soil compositions and their behavioral characteristics. This paper presents the effect of clay fines on the undrained shear strength of sands at various confining pressures. For this purpose, a series of unconsolidated undrained triaxial shear tests were carried out on clean sand and sand mixed with 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 percent of clay fines. It was found that the presence of clay particle in sandy specimens change the dilative behavior to contraction. The result also showed that increasing the clay fines up to 10 percent causes to increase the potential for liquefaction, and decreases it at higher values fine content. These results reveal the important role of clay particles in changing the undrained strength of the sandy soil.
Comparing Field Displacement History with Numerical Results to Estimate Geotechnical Parameters: Case Study of Arash-Esfandiar-Niayesh under Passing Tunnel, 2.5 Traffic Lane Tunnel, Tehran, Iran
Underground structures are of those structures that have uncertainty in design procedures. That is due to the complexity of soil condition around. Under passing tunnels are also such affected structures. Despite geotechnical site investigations, lots of uncertainties exist in soil properties due to unknown events. As results, it possibly causes conflicting settlements in numerical analysis with recorded values in the project. This paper aims to report a case study on a specific under passing tunnel constructed by New Austrian Tunnelling Method in Iran. The intended tunnel has an overburden of about 11.3m, the height of 12.2m and, the width of 14.4m with 2.5 traffic lane. The numerical modeling was developed by a 2D finite element program (PLAXIS Version 8). Comparing displacement histories at the ground surface during the entire installation of initial lining, the estimated surface settlement was about four times the field recorded one, which indicates that some local unknown events affect that value. Also, the displacement ratios were in a big difference between the numerical and field data. Consequently, running several numerical back analyses using laboratory and field tests data, the geotechnical parameters were accurately revised to match with the obtained monitoring data. Finally, it was found that usually the values of soil parameters are conservatively low-estimated up to 40 percent by typical engineering judgment. Additionally, it could be attributed to inappropriate constitutive models applied for the specific soil condition.
Shaft Friction of Bored Pile Socketed in Weathered Limestone in Qatar
Socketing of bored piles in rock is always seen as a matter of debate on construction sites between consultants & contractors. The socketing depth normally depends on the type of rock, depth at which the rock is available below the pile cap and load carrying capacity of the pile. In this paper, the review of field load test data of drilled shaft socketed in weathered limestone conducted using conventional static pile load test and dynamic pile load test was made to evaluate a unit shaft friction for the bored piles socketed in weathered limestone (weak rock). The borehole drilling data was also reviewed in conjunction with the pile test result. In addition, the back-calculated unit shaft friction was reviewed against various empirical methods for bored piles socketed in weak rock. The paper concludes with an estimated ultimate unit shaft friction from the case study in Qatar for preliminary design.
Liquefaction Susceptibility of Tailing Storage Facility-Comparison of National Centre for Earthquake Engineering Research and Finite Element Methods
Upstream Tailings Storage Facilities (TSFs) may experience slope instabilities due to soil liquefaction, especially in regions known to be seismically active. In this study, liquefaction susceptibility of an upstream-raised TSF in Western Australia was assessed using two different approaches. The first approach assessed liquefaction susceptibility using Cone Penetration Tests with pore pressure measurement (CPTu) as described by the National Centre for Earthquake Engineering Research (NCEER). This assessment was based on the four CPTu tests that were conducted on the perimeter embankment of the TSF. The second approach used the Finite Element (FE) method with application of an equivalent linear model to predict the undrained cyclic behavior, the pore water pressure and the liquefaction of the materials. The tailings parameters were estimated from the CPTu profiles and from the laboratory tests. The cyclic parameters were estimated from the literature where test results of similar material were available. The results showed that there was a good agreement, in the liquefaction susceptibility of the tailings material, between the NCEER and FE methods with equivalent linear model.
A Challenge to Acquire Serious Victims’ Locations during Acute Period of Giant Disasters
In this paper, we report how to acquire serious victims’ locations in the Acute Stage of Large-scale Disasters, in an Emergency Information Network System designed by us. The background of our concept is based on the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11th, 2011. Through many experiences of national crises caused by earthquakes and tsunamis, we have established advanced communication systems and advanced disaster medical response systems. However, Japan was devastated by huge tsunamis swept a vast area of Tohoku causing a complete breakdown of all the infrastructures including telecommunications. Therefore, we noticed that we need interdisciplinary collaboration between science of disaster medicine, regional administrative sociology, satellite communication technology and systems engineering experts. Communication of emergency information was limited causing a serious delay in the initial rescue and medical operation. For the emergency rescue and medical operations, the most important thing is to identify the number of casualties, their locations and status and to dispatch doctors and rescue workers from multiple organizations. In the case of the Tohoku earthquake, the dispatching mechanism and/or decision support system did not exist to allocate the appropriate number of doctors and locate disaster victims. Even though the doctors and rescue workers from multiple government organizations have their own dedicated communication system, the systems are not interoperable.
An Investigation of the Effects of Gripping Systems in Geosynthetic Shear Testing
The use of geosynthetic materials in geotechnical engineering projects has rapidly increased over the past several years. These materials have resulted in improved performance and cost reduction of geotechnical structures as compared to the use of conventional materials. However, working with geosynthetics requires knowledge of interface parameters for design. These parameters are typically determined by the large direct shear device in accordance with ASTM-D5321 and ASTM-D6243 standards. Although these laboratory tests are standardized, the quality of the results can be largely affected by several factors that include; the shearing rate, applied normal stress, gripping mechanism, and type of the geosynthetic specimens tested. Amongst these factors, poor surface gripping of a specimen is the major source of the discrepancy. If the specimen is inadequately secured to the shearing blocks, it experiences progressive failure and shear strength that deviates from the true field performance of the tested material. This leads to inaccurate, unsafe, and cost ineffective designs of projects. Currently, the ASTM-D5321 and ASTM-D6243 standards do not provide a standardized gripping system for geosynthetic shear strength testing. Over the years, researchers have come up with different gripping systems that can be used such as; glue, metal textured surface, sandblasting, and sandpaper. However, these gripping systems are regularly not adequate to sufficiently secure the tested specimens to the shearing device. This has led to large variability in test results and difficulties in results interpretation. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the effects of gripping systems in geosynthetic interface shear strength testing using a 300 x 300 mm direct shear box. The results of the research will contribute to easy data interpretation and increase result accuracy and reproducibility.
Denoising of Magnetotelluric Signals by Filtering
In this paper, we present the advances corresponding to the denoising processing of magnetotelluric signals using several filters. In particular, we use the most common spatial domain filters such as median and mean, but we are also using the Fourier and wavelet transform for frequency domain filtering. We employ three datasets obtained at the different sampling rate (128, 4096 and 8192 bps) and evaluate the mean square error, signal-to-noise relation, and peak signal-to-noise relation to compare the kernels and determine the most suitable for each case. The magnetotelluric signals correspond to earth exploration when water is searched. The object is to find a denoising strategy different to the one included in the commercial equipment that is employed in this task.
Tree Resistance to Wind Storm: The Effects of Soil Saturation on Tree Anchorage of Young Pinus pinaster
Windstorm damage to European forests has ecological, social and economic consequences of major importance. Most trees during storms are uprooted. While a large amount of work has been done over the last decade on understanding the aerial tree response to turbulent wind flow, much less is known about the root-soil interface, and the impact of soil moisture and root-soil system fatiguing on tree uprooting. Anchorage strength is expected to be reduced by water-logging and heavy rain during storms due to soil strength decrease with soil water content. Our paper is focused on the maritime pine cultivated on sandy soil, as a representative species of the Forêt des Landes, the largest cultivated forest in Europe. This study aims at providing knowledge on the effects of soil saturation on root anchorage. Pulling experiments on trees were performed to characterize the resistance to wind by measuring the critical bending moment (Mc). Pulling tests were performed on 12 maritime pines of 13-years old for two unsaturated soil conditions that represent the soil conditions expected in winter when wind storms occur in France (w=11.46 to 23.34 % gg⁻¹). A magnetic field digitizing technique was used to characterize the three-dimensional architecture of root systems. The soil mechanical properties as function of soil water content were characterized by laboratory mechanical measurements as function of soil water content and soil porosity on remolded samples using direct shear tests at low confining pressure ( < 15 kPa). Remarkably Mc did not depend on w but mainly on the root system morphology. We suggested that the importance of soil water conditions on tree anchorage depends on the tree size. This study gives a new insight on young tree anchorage: roots may sustain by themselves anchorage, whereas adhesion between roots and surrounding soil may be negligible in sandy soil.
Plastic Deformation Behavior of a Pre-Bored Pile Filler Material Due to Lateral Cyclic Loading in Sandy Soil
The bridge structure is a building that has to be maintained, especially for the elastomeric bearing. The girder of the bridge needs to be lifted upward to maintain this elastomeric bearing, that needs high cost. Nowadays, integral abutment bridges are becoming popular. The integral abutment bridge is less costly because the elastomeric bearings are eliminated, which reduces the construction cost and maintenance costs. However, when this elastomeric bearing removed, the girder movement due to environmental thermal forces directly support by pile foundation, and it needs to be considered in the design. In case of pile foundation in a stiff soil, in the top area of the pile cannot move freely due to the fixed condition by soil stiffness. Pre-bored pile system can be used to increase the flexibility of pile foundation using a pre-bored hole that filled with elastic materials, but the behavior of soil-pile interaction and soil response due to this system is still rarely explained. In this paper, an experimental study using small-scale laboratory model test conducted in a half size model. Single flexible pile model embedded in sandy soil with the pre-bored ring, which filled with the filler material. The testing box made from an acrylic glass panel as observation area of the pile shaft to monitor the displacement of the pile during the lateral loading. The failure behavior of the soil inside the pre-bored ring and around the pile shaft was investigated to determine the point of pile rotation and the movement of this point due to the pre-bored ring system along the pile shaft. Digital images were used to capture the deformations of the soil and pile foundation during the loading from the acrylic glass on the side of the testing box. The results were presented in the form of lateral load resistance charts against the pile shaft displacement. The failure pattern result also established due to the cyclic lateral loading. The movement of the rotational point was measured due to the pre-bored system filled with appropriate filler material. Based on the findings, design considerations for pre-bored pile system due to cyclic lateral loading can be introduced.