Experimental Study on Stabilisation of a Soft Soil by Alkaline Activation of Industrial By-Products
Utilising waste materials, such as fly ash (FA) and slag (S) stockpiled in landfills, has drawn the attention of researchers and engineers in the recent years. There is a great potential for usage of these wastes in ground improvement projects, especially where deep deposits of soft compressible soils exist. This paper investigates the changes in the strength development of a high water content soft soil stabilised with alkaline activated FA and S, termed as geopolymer binder, to use in deep soil mixing technology. The strength improvement and the changes in the microstructure of the mixtures have been studied. The results show that using FA and S-based geopolymers can increases the strength significantly. Furthermore, utilising FA and S in ground improvement projects, where large amounts of binders are required, can be a solution to the disposal of these wastes.
Electromagnetically-Vibrated Solid-Phase Microextraction for Organic Compounds
A newly-developed electromagnetically vibrated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) device for extracting nonpolar organic compounds from aqueous matrices was evaluated in terms of sorption equilibrium time, precision, and detection level relative to three other more conventional extraction techniques involving SPME, viz., static, magnetic stirring, and fiber insertion/retraction. Electromagnetic vibration at 300~420 cycles/s was found to be the most efficient extraction technique in terms of reducing sorption equilibrium time and enhancing both precision and linearity. The increased efficiency for electromagnetic vibration was attributed to a greater reduction in the thickness of the stagnant-water layer that facilitated more rapid mass transport from the aqueous matrix to the SPME fiber. Electromagnetic vibration less than 500 cycles/s also did not detrimentally impact the sustainability of the extracting performance of the SPME fiber. Therefore, electromagnetically vibrated SPME may be a more powerful tool for rapid sampling and solvent-free sample preparation relative to other more conventional extraction techniques used with SPME.
The Use of Piezocone Penetration Test Data for the Assessment of Iron Ore Tailings Liquefaction Susceptibility
The Iron Ore Quadrangle, located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil is responsible for most of the country’s iron ore production. As a result, some of the biggest tailings dams in the country are located in this area. In recent years, several major failure events have happened in Tailings Storage Facilities (TSF) located in the Iron Ore Quadrangle. Some of these failures were found to be caused by liquefaction flowslides. This paper presents Piezocone Penetration Test (CPTu) data that was used, by applying Olson and Peterson methods, for the liquefaction susceptibility assessment of the iron ore tailings that are typically found in most TSF in the area. Piezocone data was also used to determine the steady-state strength of the tailings so as to allow for comparison with its drained strength. Results have shown great susceptibility for liquefaction to occur in the studied tailings and, more importantly, a large reduction in its strength. These results are key to understanding the failures that took place over the last few years.
The Failure and Energy Mechanism of Rock-Like Material with Single Flaw
This paper investigates the influence of flaw on failure process of rock-like material under uniaxial compression. In laboratory, the uniaxial compression tests of intact specimens and a series of specimens within single flaw were conducted. The inclination angle of flaws includes 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75° and 90°. Based on the laboratory tests, the corresponding models of numerical simulation were built and loaded in PFC2D. After analysing the crack initiation and failure modes, deformation field, and energy mechanism for both laboratory tests and numerical simulation, it can be concluded that the influence of flaws on the failure process is determined by its inclination. The characteristic stresses increase as flaw angle rising basically. The tensile cracks develop from gentle flaws (α ≤ 30°) and the shear cracks develop from other flaws. The propagation of cracks changes during failure process and the failure mode of a specimen corresponds to the orientation of the flaw. A flaw has significant influence on the transverse deformation field at the middle of the specimen, except the 75° and 90° flaw sample. The input energy, strain energy and dissipation energy of specimens show approximate increase trends with flaw angle rising and it presents large difference on the energy distribution.
Experimental Simulation of Soil Boundary Condition for Dynamic Studies
This paper studies the free-field response by adopting a flexible membrane container as soil boundary for experimental shaking table tests. The influence of the soil container boundary on the soil behaviour and dynamic soil properties under seismic effect were examined. A flexible container with 1/50 scale factor was adopted in the experimental tests, including construction, instrumentation and determining the results of dynamic tests on a shaking table. Horizontal face displacements and accelerations were analysed to determine the influence of the container boundary on the performance of the soil. The outputs results show that the flexible boundary container allows more displacement and larger accelerations. The soil in a rigid wall container cannot deform as similar as the soil in the real field does. Therefore, the response of flexible container tested is believed to be more reliable for soil boundary than that in the rigid container.
A Reusable Foundation Solution for Onshore Windmills
Wind farms repowering is a significant topic nowadays. Wind farms repowering means the complete dismantling of the existing turbine, tower and foundation at an existing site and replacing these units with taller and larger units. Modern wind turbines are designed to withstand approximately for 20~25 years. However, a very long design life of 100 years or more can be expected for high-quality concrete foundations. Based on that there are significant economic and environmental benefits of replacing the out-of-date wind turbine with a new turbine of better power generation capacity and reuse the foundation. The big difference in lifetime shows a potential for new foundation solution to allow wind farms to be updated with taller and larger units in order to increase the energy production. This also means a significant change in the design loads on the foundations. Therefore, the new foundation solution should be able to handle the additional overturning loads. A raft surrounded by an active stabilisation system is proposed in this study. The concept of an active stabilisation system is a novel idea using a movable load to stabilise against the overturning moment. The active stabilisation system consists of a water tank being divided into eight compartments. The system uses the water as a movable load by pumping it into two compartments to stabilise against the overturning moment. The position of the water will rely on the wind direction and a water movement system depending on a number of electric motors and pipes with electric valves is used. One of the advantages of this active foundation solution is that some cost-efficient adjustment could be done to make this foundation able to support larger and taller units. After the end of the first turbine lifetime, an option is presented here to reuse this foundation and make it able to support taller and larger units. This option is considered using extra water volume to fill four compartments instead of two compartments. This extra water volume will increase the stability moment by 41% compared to using water in two compartments. The geotechnical performance of the new foundation solution is investigated using two existing weak soil profiles in Egypt and Sweden. A comparative study of the new solution and a piled raft with long friction piles is performed using finite element simulations. The results show that using a raft surrounded by an active stabilisation system decreases the tilting compared to a piled raft with friction piles. Moreover, it is found that using a raft surrounded by an active stabilisation system decreases the foundation costs compared to a piled raft with friction piles. In term of the environmental impact, it is found that the new foundation has a beneficial impact on the CO2 emissions. It saves roughly from 296.1 tonnes-CO2 to 518.21 tonnes-CO2 from the manufacture of concrete if the new foundation solution is used for another turbine-lifetime.
Flow Characteristics of Fractured Granite under Various Hydrothermal Conditions: An Application for Geothermal Energy Extraction
By today, geothermal resources have been identified as renewable and environmental friendly energy resources. The present commercial scale geothermal resources are limited to conventional type geothermal resources however, a new field of geothermal systems are being explored which are known as Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). Such geothermal reservoirs are high temperature rock formations located at deep underground and therefore with ultra-low permeable characteristics. Therefore, natural and artificially created rock fractures provide major flow pathways for the reservoir fluid circulation process. Evolution of permeability through such rock fractures under potentially existing extreme geothermal conditions is quite important for an effective application of EGS systems, where laboratory experiments with ability to replicate the geothermal environment provide basic insights for the hydraulic performance of EGS systems. This study therefore discusses the experimental results of a series of flow experiments conducted on artificially fractured Australian Strathbogie granite under extreme pressure (from 1 MPa to 100 MPa) and temperature (from room temperature to 250 °C) conditions using a newly developed high temperature-high pressure rock triaxial test apparatus with capability of simulating environment of EGS reservoirs. The steady state flow rates through fractures found to linearly increases with increasing injection pressure under the considered confining pressures, injection pressures and temperatures with indicating the existed linear laminar Darcy flow behaviour through fractures under the all the test conditions. Permeability along rock fractures was therefore calculated with employing cubic law and relevant temperature and pressure dependent fluid properties. According to the experimental results, both stress level and the temperature have significant influences on fracture flow characteristics of the tested granite. Further, flow characteristics through fractures was found to be exponentially reduced with increasing normal stress decayed due to resulting fracture shrinkage. Increasing of temperature caused a significant non-linear increment in flow rate and permeability through fractures due to the thermally induced micro crack generation and this could be confirmed with conducting a microscopic analysis.
Shallow Foundation Bearing Capacity on Soft Estuarine Clay and Residual Soil
Operational undrained shear strength turns out to be the most important governing parameter in calculating of undrained bearing capacity of foundation. The most widely used laboratory tests to measure undrained shear strength of clays are triaxial compression and extension and direct simple shear. Also Cone Penetration Test (CPT) and Vane tests are popular to measure the same parameter in the field. However, in many cases, there is a huge difference between the results for undrained shear strength from different tests. This study is intended to extend the database of full scale footing experiments by conducting load tests in a soft estuarine clay site to investigate a guide line for finding the most appropriate undrained shear strength with regard to different tests. Two full scale in-situ tests carried out at Australia’s first National Soft Soil Field Testing Facility (NFTF), north of Ballina, New South Wales (NSW). The results from the field tests as well as laboratory tests alongside with FEM were examined to find undrained shear strength of clay. Putting all data together, we inferred that the reliability of predictions for the undrained bearing capacity of shallow foundations might be either far lower or higher than what is, in reality, depending on hired method or test in estimation of finding operational undrained shear strength. Therefore some recommendation and formulation were developed to extract the possible most accurate undrained shear strength of clay from different tests compatible with the operational one in the field.
Shield Tunnel Excavation Simulation of a Case Study Using a So-Called 'Stress Relaxation' Method
Ground surface settlement induced by shield tunneling is addressing increasing attention as shield tunneling becomes a popular construction technique for tunnels in urban areas. This paper discusses a 2D longitudinal FEM simulation of a tunneling case study in Japan (Tokyo Metro Yurakucho Line). Tunneling-induced field data was already collected and is used here for comparison and evaluating purposes. In this model, earth pressure, face pressure, backfilling grouting, elastic tunnel lining, and Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion for soil elements are considered. A method called ‘stress relaxation’ is also exploited to simulate the gradual tunneling excavation. Ground surface settlements obtained from numerical results using the introduced method are then compared with the measurement data.
Soft Ground Improved by Prefabricated Vertical Drains with Vacuum and Thermal Preloading
This study focuses on behaviors of improved soft clay using prefabricated vertical drain (PVD) combined with vacuum and electro-osmotic preloading. Large-scale consolidations of reconstituted soft Bangkok clay were conducted for PVD improvement with vacuum (vacuum-PVD), and vacuum combined with heat (vacuum-thermo-PVD). The research revealed that vacuum-thermo-PVD gives high efficiency of the consolidation rate compared to the vacuum-PVD. In addition, the magnitude of settlement of the specimen improved by the vacuum-thermo-PVD is higher than the vacuum-PVD because the assistance of heat causes the collapse of the clay structure. Particularly, to reach 90% degree of consolidation, the thermal-vacuum-PVD reduced about 58% consolidation time compared to the vacuum-PVD. The increase in consolidation rate is resulted from the increase in horizontal coefficient of consolidation, Ch, the reduction of the smear effect expressed by the ratio of the horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the undisturbed zone, kh, and the horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the smeared zone, ks. Furthermore, the shear strength, Su, increased about 100% when compared using the vacuum-thermal-PVD to the vacuum PVD. In addition, numerical simulations gave reasonable results compared to the laboratory data.
Geotechnical characterization of landslide in Dounia park (Algiers - Algeria)
Most landslides in Algiers take place in Piacenzian marls of the Sahel (port in Arabic) and cause severe damage to properties and infrastructures. The aim of this paper is to describe the results of experimental as well as theoretical analysis of landslides. In order to understand the process which caused this slope instabilities, the results of geotechnical investigation carried out by the laboratory of construction (LNHC) laboratory in the area of Dounia park were analyzed, including particle size distribution, Atterberg limits, shear strength, odometer and pressuremeter tests. The study shows that the soils exhibited a high capacity to swelling according to index plasticity and clay content. Highs limit liquidity (LL) (53.45%) means that the soils are susceptible to landslides. The stability analysis carried out using finite element method, shows that the slope is stable (Fs > 1) in dry condition and in static state. Despite this results, the stable site could be described as only conditionally stable because slope failure can occur under combined effect of different factors. In fact the safety factor obtained by applying load when the phreatic surface is at ground, less than 1.5.
An Experimental Study of the Influence of Particle Breakage on the Interface Friction Angle and Shear Strength of Carbonate Sands
Particle breakage occurs even in strong silica sand particles. There is compelling evidence that suggests that particle breakage causes changes in several properties such as permeability, peak strength, dilatancy and critical state friction angle. Current pile design methods that are based on soil properties do not account for particle breakage that occurs during driving or jacking of displacement piles. This may lead to significant overestimation of pile capacity in sands dominated by particles susceptible to breakage, such as carbonate sands. The objective of this paper is to study the influence of shear displacement on particle breakage and friction angle of carbonate sands, and to furthermore quantify the change in friction angle observed with different levels of particle breakage. To study the phenomenon of particle breakage, multiple ring shear tests have been performed at different levels of vertical confinement on a thoroughly characterized carbonate sand to find i) the shear displacement necessary to reach stable friction angles and ii) the effect of particle breakage on the mobilized friction angle of the tested sand. The findings of this study can potentially be used to update the current pile design methods by developing a friction angle which is a function of shear displacement and breakage characteristics of the sand instead of being a constant value.
Discrete Element Method Investigation of the Effect of Particle Shape on Creep Behavior of Rockfills
Rockfills are widely used in civil engineering, such as dams, railways, and airport foundations in mountain areas. A significant long-term post-construction settlement may affect the serviceability or even the safety of rockfill infrastructures. The creep behavior of rockfills is influenced by a number of factors, such as particle size, strength and shape, water condition and stress level. However, the effect of particle shape on rockfill creep still remains poorly understood, which deserves a careful investigation. Particle-based discrete element method (DEM) was used to simulate the creep behavior of rockfills under different boundary conditions. Both angular and rounded particles were considered in this numerical study, in order to investigate the influence of particle shape. The preliminary results showed that angular particles experience more breakages and larger creep strains under one-dimensional compression than rounded particles. In the direct shear test under a constant normal stress, both angular and rounded particles showed an increasing shear displacement with the applied shear stress. The normal displacement that indicates the shear-induced contraction or dilatancy, however, did not exhibit a similar trend for angular and rounded particles. The normal displacement of angular particles was nearly constant with increasing shear stress, while the normal displacement of rounded particles significantly increased with increasing shear stress. The mechanism responsible for this difference is that the possibility of the existence of key particle in rounded particles is higher than that in angular particles. The above simulations demonstrate that the influence of particle shape on the creep behavior of rockfills can be simulated by DEM properly. The method of DEM simulation may facilitate our understanding of deformation properties of rockfill materials.
Modeling of the Effect of Explosives, Geological and Geotechnical Parameters on the Stability of Rock Masses: Case Marrakech-Agadir Highway, Morocco
During the earthworks for the construction of Marrakech-Agadir highway in southern Morocco, which crosses mountainous areas of the High Western Atlas, the main problem faced is the stability of the slopes. Indeed, the use of explosives as a means of excavation associated with the geological structure of the terrain encountered can trigger major ruptures and cause damage which depends on the intrinsic characteristics of the rock mass. The study consists of a geological and geotechnical analysis of several unstable zones located along the route, mobilizing millions of cubic meters of rock, with deduction of the parameters influencing slope stability. From this analysis, a predictive model for rock mass stability is carried out, based on a statistic method of logistic regression, in order to predict the geomechanical behavior of the rock slopes constrained by earthworks.
Comparison of Equivalent Linear and Non-Linear Site Response Model Performance in Kathmandu Valley
Evaluation of ground response under earthquake shaking is crucial in geotechnical earthquake engineering. Damage due to seismic excitation is mainly correlated to local geological and geotechnical conditions. It is evident from the past earthquakes (e.g. 1906 San Francisco, USA, 1923 Kanto, Japan) that the local geology has strong influence on amplitude and duration of ground motions. Since then significant studies has been conducted on ground motion amplification revealing the importance of influence of local geology on ground. Observations from the damaging earthquakes (e.g. Nigata and San Francisco, 1964; Irpinia, 1980; Mexico, 1985; Kobe, 1995; L’Aquila, 2009) divulged that non-uniform damage pattern, particularly in soft fluvio-lacustrine deposit is due to the local amplification of seismic ground motion. Non-uniform damage patterns are also observed in Kathmandu Valley during 1934 Bihar Nepal earthquake and recent 2015 Gorkha earthquake seemingly due to the modification of earthquake ground motion parameters. In this study, site effects resulting from amplification of soft soil in Kathmandu are presented. A large amount of subsoil data was collected and used for defining the appropriate subsoil model for the Kathamandu valley. A comparative study of one-dimensional total-stress equivalent linear and non-linear site response is performed using four strong ground motions for six sites of Kathmandu valley. In general, one-dimensional (1D) site-response analysis involves the excitation of a soil profile using the horizontal component and calculating the response at individual soil layers. In the present study, both equivalent linear and non-linear site response analyses were conducted using the computer program DEEPSOIL. The results show that there is no significant deviation between equivalent linear and non-linear site response models until the maximum strain reaches to 0.06-0.1%. Overall, it is clearly observed from the results that non-linear site response model perform better as compared to equivalent linear model. However, the significant deviation between two models is resulted from other influencing factors such as assumptions made in 1D site response, lack of accurate values of shear wave velocity and nonlinear properties of the soil deposit. The results are also presented in terms of amplification factors which are predicted to be around four times more in case of non-linear analysis as compared to equivalent linear analysis. Hence, the nonlinear behavior of soil prevails the urgent need of study of dynamic characteristics of the soft soil deposit that can specifically represent the site-specific design spectra for the Kathmandu valley for building resilient structures from future damaging earthquakes.
Study of the Mega–Landslide at the Community of Ropoto, Central Greece, and of the Design of Mitigation and Early Warning System Using the Fiber Bragg Grating Technology
This paper refers to the world known mega - landslide induced at the community of Ropoto, belonging to the Municipality of Trikala, in the Central part of Greece. The landslide affected the debris as well as the colluvium mantle of the flysch, and makes up a special case of study in engineering geology and geotechnical engineering not only because of the size of the domain affected by the landslide (approximately 750m long), but also because of the geostructure’s global behavior. Due to the landslide, the whole community’s infrastructure massively collapsed and human lives were put in danger. After the complete simulation of the coupled Seepage - Deformation phenomenon due to the extreme rainfall, and by closely examining the slope’s global behavior, both the mitigation of the landslide, as well as, an advanced surveillance method (Fiber Bragg Grating) using fiber optics were further studied, in order both to retain the geostructure and to monitor its health by creating an early warning system, which would serve as a complete safety net for saving both the community’s infrastructure as well as the lives of its habitats.
Exploration for Magnetic Minerals Using Geophysical Logging Techniques in the Northwestern Part of Bangladesh
Geophysical logging technique was conducted in a borehole in the north-western part of Bangladesh. The main objectives of this study were to identify the subsurface lithology and the presence of magnetic minerals within the basement complex. In this survey, full waveform sonic, magnetic susceptibility and natural gamma logs were conducted up to the depth of 660 m. From sonic log, three distinct velocity zones were observed at depths ranging from 20 m to 81 m, 81m to 360 m and 420 m to 660 m having the average velocity of 1600 m/s indicating unconsolidated sediment, 2500 m/s indicating hard, compact and matured sediments and 6300 m/s indicating basement complex respectively. Some low-velocity zones within the basement were identified as fractures/fissures. Natural gamma log was carried out only in the basement complex. According to magnetic susceptibility log, broadly three important zones were identified which had good agreement with the natural gamma, sonic as well as geological logs. The zone at the depth from 460 m to 470 m had the average susceptibility value of 3445 cgs unit. The average natural gamma value and sonic velocity in this zone are 150 cps and 3000 m/s respectively. The zone at the depth from 571 m to 598 m had the average susceptibility value of 5158 cgs unit with the average natural gamma value and sonic velocity are 160 cps and 6000 m/s respectively. On the other hand, the zone at the depth from 598 m to 620 m had the average susceptibility value of 1998 cgs unit with the average natural gamma value and sonic velocity show 200 cps and 3000 m/s respectively. From the interpretation of geophysical logs the 1st and 3rd zones within the basement complex are considered to be less significant whereas the 2nd zone is described as the most significant for magnetic minerals. Therefore, more drill holes are recommended on the anomalous body to delineate the extent, thickness and reserve of the magnetic body and further research are needed to determine the quality of mineral resources.
Prediction of Fracture Aperture in Fragmented Rocks
In fractured rock masses open fractures tend to act as the main pathways of fluid flow. The permeability of a rock fracture depends on its aperture. The change of aperture with stress can cause a many-orders-of-magnitude change in the hydraulic conductivity at moderate compressive stress levels. In this study, the change of aperture in fragmented rocks is investigated using finite element analysis. A full 3D mechanical model of a simplified version of an outcrop analog is created and studied. A constant initial aperture value is applied to all fractures. Different far field stresses are applied and the change of aperture is monitored considering the block to block interaction. The fragmented rock layer is assumed to be sandwiched between softer layers. Frictional contact forces are defined at the layer boundaries as well as among contacting rock blocks. For a given in situ stress, the blocks slide and contact each other, resulting in new aperture distributions. A map of changed aperture is produced after applying the in situ stress and compared to the initial apertures. Subsequently, the permeability of the system before and after the stress application is compared.
Performance Analysis of Encased Sand Columns in Different Clayey Soils Using 3D Numerical Method
One of the most decent and low-cost options in soft clayey soil improvement is using stone columns to reduce the settlement and increase the bearing capacity which is used for different ways to do this in various projects with diverse conditions. In the current study, it is tried to evaluate this improvement method in 4 different weak soils with diverse properties like specific gravity, permeability coefficient, over consolidation ratio (OCR), poison’s ratio, internal friction angle and bulk modulus by using ABAQUS 3D finite element software. Increment and decrement impacts of each mentioned factor on settlement and lateral displacement of weak soil beds are analyzed. In analyzed models, the properties related to sand columns and geosynthetic cover are assumed to be constant with their optimum values, and just soft clayey soil parameters are considered to be variable. It’s also demonstrated that OCR value can play a determinant role in soil resistance.
Reliability Based Performance Evaluation of Stone Column Improved Soft Ground
The present study considers the effect of variation of different geotechnical random variables in the design of stone column-foundation systems for assessing the bearing capacity and consolidation settlement of highly compressible soil. The soil and stone column properties, spacing, diameter and arrangement of stone columns are considered as the random variables. Probability of failure (Pf) is computed for a target degree of consolidation and a target safe load by Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS). The study shows that the variation in coefficient of radial consolidation (cr) and cohesion of soil (cs) are two most important factors influencing Pf. If the coefficient of variation (COV) of cr exceeds 20%, Pf exceeds 0.001, which is unsafe following the guidelines of US Army Corps of Engineers. The bearing capacity also exceeds its safe value for COV of cs > 30%. It is also observed that as the spacing between the stone column increases, the probability of reaching a target degree of consolidation decreases. Accordingly, design guidelines, considering both consolidation and bearing capacity of improved ground, are proposed for different spacing and diameter of stone columns and geotechnical random variables.
An Experimental Investigation in Effect of Confining Stress and Matric Suction on the Mechanical Behavior of Sand with Different Fine Content
This paper presents the results that the soil volumetric strain and shear strength are closely related to the confining stress and initial matric suction under constant water content testing on the specimens of unsaturated sand with clay and silt fines contents. The silty sand approached critical state with a reduction in shear strength after the peak strength due to dilation. The post-peak drop in stress increased by an increment of the suction, while there is no peak strength for clayey sand specimens. The clayey sand shows compressibility and possesses ductile stress-strain behaviour. Shear strength increased nonlinearly with respect to matric suction for both soil types. When suction exceeds a certain range, the effect of suction on shear strength increment weakens gradually. Under the same confining stress, the dilatant tendencies in the silty sand increased under lower values of suction and decreased for higher suction values under the same confining stress, while contraction increases with an increasing initial suction for clayey sand specimens.
Experimental Study on Gravity Anchor for Optimum Design of Shear Key
The purpose of a gravity anchor is to moor the installation barge affected by the environmental condition during installation at the offshore site. It is important to obtain the sufficient holding capacity to prevent the anchor dragging. There are methods to enhance the holding capacity such as increasing its self-weight or attaching the shear key at the bottom of the gravity anchor. However, increasing the self-weight of gravity anchor is a constrained approach due to the limitation of handling equipment capacity. Therefore, it is necessary that the shear key design should be optimized to maximize the holding capacity under limited handling equipment. In this paper, reduced scale model tests simulating rock condition mixed by sand, cement, and water are performed. The actual offshore mooring condition is simulated by using towing carriage. Five types of gravity anchor models which have different shear key are assessed to examine what type of the shear key is the optimum design. The optimum shape and the number of shear key for maximizing the holding capacity are assessed through this study. The results of this study can be utilized to design the shear key of gravity anchor.
Application of 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomographic Imaging Technique to Study Climate Induced Landslide and Slope Stability through the Analysis of Factor of Safety: A Case Study in Ooty Area, Tamil Nadu, India
Landslide is one of the major natural disasters in South Asian countries. Applying 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomographic Imaging estimation of geometry, thickness, and depth of failure zone of the landslide can be made. Landslide is a pertinent problem in Nilgris plateau next to Himalaya. Nilgris range consists of hard Archean metamorphic rocks. Intense weathering prevailed during the Pre-Cambrian time had deformed the rocks up to 45m depth. The landslides are dominant in the southern and eastern part of plateau of is comparatively smaller than the northern drainage basins, as it has low density of drainage; coarse texture permitted the more of infiltration of rainwater, whereas in the northern part of the plateau entombed with high density of drainage pattern and fine texture with less infiltration than run off, and low to the susceptible to landslide. To get comprehensive information about the landslide zone 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomographic imaging study with CRM 500 Resistivity meter are used in Coonoor– Mettupalyam sector of Nilgiris plateau. To calculate Factor of Safety the infinite slope model of Brunsden and Prior is used. Factor of Safety can be expressed (FS) as the ratio of resisting forces to disturbing forces. If FS < 1 disturbing forces are larger than resisting forces and failure may occur.
The geotechnical parameters of soil samples are calculated on the basis upon the apparent resistivity values for litho units of measured from 2D ERT image of the landslide zone. Relationship between friction angles for various soil properties is established by simple regression analysis from apparent resistivity data. Increase of water content in slide zone reduces the effectiveness of the shearing resistance and increase the sliding movement. Time-lapse resistivity changes to slope failure is determined through geophysical Factor of Safety which depends on resistivity and site topography. This ERT technique infers soil property at variable depths in wider areas. This approach to retrieve the soil property and overcomes the limit of the point of information provided by rain gauges and porous probes. Monitoring of slope stability without altering soil structure through the ERT technique is non-invasive with low cost. In landslide prone area an automated Electrical Resistivity Tomographic Imaging system should be installed permanently with electrode networks to monitor the hydraulic precursors to monitor landslide movement.
Application of Continuum Damage Concept to Simulation of the Interaction between Hydraulic Fractures and Natural Fractures
The continuum damage concept is used to study the interaction between hydraulic fractures and natural fractures, the objective is representing the path and relation among this two fractures types and predict its complex behavior without the need to pre-define their direction as occurs in other finite element applications, providing results more consistent with the physical behavior of the phenomenon. The approach uses finite element simulations through Abaqus software to model damage fracturing, the fracturing process by damage propagation in a rock. The modeling the phenomenon develops in two dimensional (2D) so that the fracture will be represented by a line and the crack front by a point. It considers nonlinear constitutive behavior, finite strain, time-dependent deformation, complex boundary conditions, strain hardening and softening, and strain based damage evolution in compression and tension. The complete governing equations are provided and the method is described in detail to permit readers to replicate all results. The model is compared to models that are published and available. Comparisons are focused in five interactions between natural fractures (NF) and hydraulic fractures: Fractured arrested at NF, crossing NF with or without offset, branching at intersecting NFs, branching at end of NF and NF dilation due to shear slippage. The most significant new finding is, that is not necessary to use pre-defined addresses propagation and stress condition can be evaluated as a dominant factor in the process. This is important because it can model in a more real way the generated complex hydraulic fractures, and be a valuable tool to predict potential problems and different geometries of the fracture network in the process of fracturing due to fluid injection.
Soil Arching Effect in Columnar Embankments: A Numerical Study
Column-supported embankments provide a practical and efficient solution for construction on soft soil due to the low cost and short construction times. In the recent years, geosynthetic have been used in combination with column systems to support embankments. The load transfer mechanism in these systems is a combination of soil arching effect, which occurs between columns and membrane effect of the geosynthetic. This paper aims at the study of soil arching effect on columnar embankments using finite element software, ABAQUS. An axisymmetric finite element model is generated and using this model, parametric studies are carried out. Thus the effects of various factors such as height of embankment fill, elastic modulus of pile and tensile stiffness of geosynthetic, on soil arching have been studied. The development of negative skin friction along the pile-soil interface have also been studied and the results obtained from this study are compared with the current design methods.
Numerical Analysis of Prefabricated Horizontal Drain Induced Consolidation Using ABAQUS
This paper deals with the numerical analysis of Prefabricated Horizontal Drain (PHD) induced consolidation of clayey deposits, using ABAQUS. PHDs are much like Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVDs) installed in horizontal layers, used mainly for enhancing the consolidation of clayey fill embankments, and dredged mud deposits. The efficiency of the system depends mainly on the spacing and layout of the drain. Hence, two spacing related parameters are defined, namely WH (width to horizontal spacing ratio) and VH (vertical to horizontal spacing ratio), and the finite element models are developed based on plane strain unit cell conditions under various combinations of these parameters. The analysis results, in terms of degree of consolidation (U), are compared with the established theories. Based on the analysis, a set of equations are proposed to analyse the PHD induced consolidation. The proposed method is found to be reasonably accurate. Further, the effect of PHDs at different spacing ratios, in accelerating consolidation of a clayey embankment fill is analysed in terms of pore pressure dissipation rate, and settlement. The PHD is found to accelerate the rate of pore pressure dissipation by more than 50%, thus reducing the time for final settlement significantly.
Stabilisation of a Soft Soil by Alkaline Activation
This paper investigates the changes in the strength development of a high water content soft soil stabilised with alkaline activation of fly ash (FA) to use in deep soil mixing (DSM) technology. The content of FA was 20% by dry mass of soil, and the alkaline activator was sodium silicate (Na2SiO3). Samples were cured for 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days to evaluate the effect of curing time on strength development. To study the effect of adding slag (S) to the mixture on the strength development, 5% S was replaced with FA. In addition, the effect of the initial unit weight of samples on strength development was studied by preparing specimens with two different static compaction stresses. This was to replicate the field conditions where during implementing the DSM technique, the pressure on the soil while being mixed, increases with depth. Unconfined compression strength (UCS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) tests were conducted on the specimens. The results show that adding S to the FA based geopolymer activated by Na2SiO3 decreases the strength. Furthermore, samples prepared at a higher unit weight demonstrate greater strengths. Moreover, samples prepared at lower unit weight reached their final strength at about 14 days of curing, whereas the strength development continues to 56 days for specimens prepared at a higher unit weight.
Performance of Pilot Test of Geotextile Tube Filled with Lightly Cemented Clay
In recent years, geotextile tube has been widely used in the hydraulic engineering and dewatering industry. To construct a stable containment bund with geotextile tubes, the sand slurry is always the preference infilling material. However, the shortage of sand supply posts a problem in Singapore to adopt this construction method in the actual construction of long containment bund. Hence, utilizing the soft dredged clay or the excavated soft clay as the infilling material of geotextile tubes has a great economic benefit. There are any technical issues with using this soft clayey material as infilling material, especially on the excessive settlement and stability concerns. To minimize the shape deformation and settlement of geotextile tube associated with the use of this soft clay infilling material, a modified innovative infilling material is proposed – lightly cemented soft clay. The preliminary laboratory studies have shown that the dewatering mechanism via geotextile material of the tube skin, and the introduction of cementitious chemical action of the lightly cemented soft clay will accelerate the consolidation and improve the shear strength of infill material. This study aims to extend the study by conducting a pilot test of the geotextile tube filled with lightly cemented clay. This study consists of testing on a series of miniature geo-tubes and two full-size geotextile tube. In the miniature geo-tube tests, a number of small scaled-down size of geotextile tubes were filled with cemented clay (at water content of 150%) with cement content of 0% to 8% (by weight). The shear strength development of the lightly cemented clay under dewatering mechanism was evaluated using a modified in-situ Cone Penetration Test (CPT) at 0 days, 3 days, 7 days and 28 days after the infilling. The undisturbed soil samples of lightly cemented infilled clay were also extracted at 3-days and 7-days for triaxial tests and evaluation of final water content. The results suggested that the geotextile tubes filled with un-cemented soft clay experienced very significant shape change over the days (as control test). However, geotextile mini-tubes filled with lightly cemented clay experienced only marginal shape changed, even that the strength development of this lightly cemented clay inside the tube may not show significant strength gain at the early stage. The shape stability is believed to be due to the confinement effect of the geotextile tube with clay at non-slurry state. Subsequently, a full-scale instrumented geotextile tube filled with lightly cemented clay was performed. The extensive results of strain gauges and pressure transducers installed on this full-size geotextile tube demonstrated a substantial mobilization of tensile forces on the geotextile skin corresponding to the filling activity and the subsequent dewatering stage. Shape change and the in-fill material strength development was also monitored. In summary, the construction of containment bund with geotextile tube filled with lightly cemented clay is found to be technically feasible and stable with the use of the sufficiently strong (i.e. adequate tensile strength) geotextile tube, the adequate control on the dosage of cement content, and suitable water content of infilling soft clay material.
Experimental Studies on Stress Strain Behavior of Expanded Polystyrene Beads-Sand Mixture
Lightweight fills are a viable alternative where weak soils such as soft clay, peat, and loose silt are encountered. Materials such as Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) geo-foam, plastics, tire wastes, rubber wastes have been used along with soil in order to obtain a lightweight fill. Out of these, Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) geo-foam has gained wide popularity in civil engineering over the past years due to its wide variety of applications. It is extremely lightweight, durable and is available in various densities to meet the strength requirements. It can be used as backfill behind retaining walls to reduce lateral load, as a fill over soft clay or weak soils to prevent the excessive settlements and to reduce seismic forces. Geo-foam is available in block form as well as beads form. In this project Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) beads of various diameters and varying densities were mixed along with sand to study their lightweight as well as strength properties. Four types of EPS beads were used 1mm, 2mm, 3-7 mm and a mix of 1-7 mm. In this project, EPS beads were varied at .25%, .5%, .75% and 1% by weight of sand. A water content of 10% by weight of sand was added to prevent segregation of the mixture. Unconsolidated Unconfined (UU) tri-axial test was conducted at 100kPa, 200 kPa and 300 kPa and angle of internal friction, and cohesion was obtained. Unit weight of the mix was obtained for a relative density of 65%. The results showed that by increasing the EPS content by weight, maximum deviator stress, unit weight, angle of internal friction and initial elastic modulus decreased. An optimum EPS bead content was arrived at by considering the strength as well as the unit weight. The stress-strain behaviour of the mix was found to be dependent on type of bead, bead content and density of the beads. Finally, regression equations were developed to predict the initial elastic modulus of the mix.
An Elasto-Viscoplastic Constitutive Model for Unsaturated Soils: Numerical Implementation and Validation
Mechanics of unsaturated soils has been an active field of research in the last decades. Efficient constitutive models that take into account the partial saturation of soil are necessary to solve a number of engineering problems e.g. instability of slopes and cuts due to heavy rainfalls.
A large number of constitutive models can now be found in the literature that considers fundamental issues associated with the unsaturated soil behaviour, like the volume change and shear strength behaviour with suction or saturation changes. Partially saturated soils may either expand or collapse upon wetting depending on the stress level, and it is also possible that a soil might experience a reversal in the volumetric behaviour during wetting. Shear strength of soils also changes dramatically with changes in the degree of saturation, and a related engineering problem is slope failures caused by rainfall. There are several states of the art reviews over the last years for studying the topic, usually providing a thorough discussion of the stress state, the advantages, and disadvantages of specific constitutive models as well as the latest developments in the area of unsaturated soil modelling.
However, only a few studies focused on the coupling between partial saturation states and time effects on the behaviour of geomaterials. Rate dependency is experimentally observed in the mechanical response of granular materials, and a viscoplastic constitutive model is capable of reproducing creep and relaxation processes.
Therefore, in this work an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model for unsaturated soils is proposed and validated on the basis of experimental data. The model constitutes an extension of an existing elastoplastic strain-hardening constitutive model capable of capturing the behaviour of variably saturated soils, based on energy conjugated stress variables in the framework of superposed continua. The purpose was to develop a model able to deal with possible mechanical instabilities within a consistent energy framework. The model shares the same conceptual structure of the elastoplastic laws proposed to deal with bonded geomaterials subject to weathering or diagenesis and is capable of modelling several kinds of instabilities induced by the loss of hydraulic bonding contributions. The novelty of the proposed formulation is enhanced with the incorporation of density dependent stiffness and hardening coefficients in order to allow the modeling of the pycnotropy behaviour of granular materials with a single set of material constants.
The model has been implemented in the commercial FE platform PLAXIS, widely used in Europe for advanced geotechnical design. The algorithmic strategies adopted for the stress-point algorithm had to be revised to take into account the different approach adopted by PLAXIS developers in the solution of the discrete non-linear equilibrium equations. An extensive comparison between models with a series of experimental data reported by different authors is presented to validate the model and illustrate the capability of the newly developed model.
After the validation, the effectiveness of the viscoplastic model is displayed by numerical simulations of a partially saturated slope failure of the laboratory scale and the effect of viscosity and degree of saturation on slope’s stability is discussed.