Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 50781

Geotechnical and Geological Engineering

327
90336
The Use of Geographic Information System Technologies for Geotechnical Monitoring of Pipeline Systems
Abstract:
Issues of obtaining unbiased data on the status of pipeline systems of oil- and oil product transportation become especially important when laying and operating pipelines under severe nature and climatic conditions. The essential attention is paid here to researching exogenous processes and their impact on linear facilities of the pipeline system. Reliable operation of pipelines under severe nature and climatic conditions, timely planning and implementation of compensating measures are only possible if operation conditions of pipeline systems are regularly monitored, and changes of permafrost soil and hydrological operation conditions are accounted for. One of the main reasons for emergency situations to appear is the geodynamic factor. Emergency situations are proved by the experience to occur within areas characterized by certain conditions of the environment and to develop according to similar scenarios depending on active processes. The analysis of natural and technical systems of main pipelines at different stages of monitoring gives a possibility of making a forecast of the change dynamics. The integration of GIS technologies, traditional means of geotechnical monitoring (in-line inspection, geodetic methods, field observations), and remote methods (aero-visual inspection, aero photo shooting, air and ground laser scanning) provides the most efficient solution of the problem. The united environment of geo information system (GIS) is a comfortable way to implement the monitoring system on the main pipelines since it provides means to describe a complex natural and technical system and every element thereof with any set of parameters. Such GIS enables a comfortable simulation of main pipelines (both in 2D and 3D), the analysis of situations and selection of recommendations to prevent negative natural or man-made processes and to mitigate their consequences. The specifics of such systems include: a multi-dimensions simulation of facilities in the pipeline system, math modelling of the processes to be observed, and the use of efficient numeric algorithms and software packets for forecasting and analyzing. We see one of the most interesting possibilities of using the monitoring results as generating of up-to-date 3D models of a facility and the surrounding area on the basis of aero laser scanning, data of aerophotoshooting, and data of in-line inspection and instrument measurements. The resulting 3D model shall be the basis of the information system providing means to store and process data of geotechnical observations with references to the facilities of the main pipeline; to plan compensating measures, and to control their implementation. The use of GISs for geotechnical monitoring of pipeline systems is aimed at improving the reliability of their operation, reducing the probability of negative events (accidents and disasters), and at mitigation of consequences thereof if they still are to occur.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
326
88148
Impact of Interface Soil Layer on Groundwater Aquifer Behaviour
Abstract:
The geological environment where the groundwater is collected represents the most important element that affects the behaviour of groundwater aquifer. As groundwater is a worldwide vital resource, it requires knowing the parameters that affect this source accurately so that the conceptualized mathematical models would be acceptable to the broadest ranges. Therefore, groundwater models have recently become an effective and efficient tool to investigate groundwater aquifer behaviours. Groundwater aquifer may contain aquitards, aquicludes, or interfaces within its geological formations. Aquitards and aquicludes have geological formations that forced the modellers to include those formations within the conceptualized groundwater models, while interfaces are commonly neglected from the conceptualization process because the modellers believe that the interface has no effect on aquifer behaviour. The current research highlights the impact of an interface existing in a real unconfined groundwater aquifer called Dibdibba, located in Al-Najaf City, Iraq where it has a river called the Euphrates River that passes through the eastern part of this city. Dibdibba groundwater aquifer consists of two types of soil layers separated by an interface soil layer. A groundwater model is built for Al-Najaf City to explore the impact of this interface. Calibration process is done using PEST 'Parameter ESTimation' approach and the best Dibdibba groundwater model is obtained. When the soil interface is conceptualized, results show that the groundwater tables are significantly affected by that interface through appearing dry areas of 56.24 km² and 6.16 km² in the upper and lower layers of the aquifer, respectively. The Euphrates River will also leak water into the groundwater aquifer of 7359 m³/day. While these results are changed when the soil interface is neglected where the dry area became 0.16 km², the Euphrates River leakage became 6334 m³/day. In addition, the conceptualized models (with and without interface) reveal different responses for the change in the recharge rates applied on the aquifer through the uncertainty analysis test. The aquifer of Dibdibba in Al-Najaf City shows a slight deficit in the amount of water supplied by the current pumping scheme and also notices that the Euphrates River suffers from stresses applied to the aquifer. Ultimately, this study shows a crucial need to represent the interface soil layer in model conceptualization to be the intended and future predicted behaviours more reliable for consideration purposes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
325
87926
Evaluation of Properties of Alkali Activated Slag Concrete Blended with Polypropylene Shredding and Admixture
Abstract:
The Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is a major constituent of concrete, which is being used extensively since last half century. The production of cement is impacting not only environment alone, but depleting natural materials. During the past 3 decades, the scholars have carried out studies and researches to explore the supplementary cementatious materials such as Ground granulated Blast furnace slag (GGBFS), silica fumes (SF), metakaolin or fly ash (FA). This has contributed towards improved cementatious materials which are being used in construction, but not the way it is supposed to be. The alkali activated slag concrete is another innovation which has constituents of cementatious materials like Ground Granuled Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS), Fly Ash (FA), Silica Fumes (SF) or Metakaolin. Alkaline activators like Sodium Silicate (Na₂SiO₃) and Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) is utilized. In view of evaluating properties of alkali activated slag concrete blended with polypropylene shredding and accelerator, research study is being carried out. This research study is proposed to evaluate the effect of polypropylene shredding and accelerating admixture on mechanical properties of alkali-activated slag concrete. The mechanical properties include the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and workability. The outcomes of this research are matched with the hypothesis and it is found that 27% of cement can be replaced with the ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and for split tensile strength 20% replacement is achieved. Overall it is found that 20% of cement can be replaced with ground granulated blast furnace slag. The tests conducted in the laboratory for evaluating properties such as compressive strength test, split tensile strength test, and slump cone test. On the aspect of cost, it is substantially benefitted.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
324
87227
Inversion of the Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves Dispersion Curves through the Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm
Abstract:
In this investigation, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to perform the inversion of the dispersion curves in the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) method. This inverse problem usually presents complicated solution spaces with many local minima that make difficult the convergence to the correct solution. PSO is a metaheuristic method that was originally designed to simulate social behavior but has demonstrated powerful capabilities to solve inverse problems with complex space solution and a high number of variables. The dispersion curve of the synthetic soils is constructed by the vertical flexibility coefficient method, which is especially convenient for soils where the stiffness does not increase gradually with depth. The reason is that these types of soil profiles are not normally dispersive since the dominant mode of Rayleigh waves is usually not coincident with the fundamental mode. Multiple synthetic soil profiles have been tested to show the characteristics of the convergence process and assess the accuracy of the final soil profile. In addition, the inversion procedure is applied to multiple real soils and the final profile compared with the available information. The combination of the vertical flexibility coefficient method to obtain the dispersion curve and the PSO algorithm to carry out the inversion process proves to be a robust procedure that is able to provide good solutions for complex soil profiles even with scarce prior information.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
323
86343
Comparison between Ultra-High-Performance Concrete and Ultra-High-Performance-Glass Concrete
Abstract:
The finely ground waste glass has successfully used by the authors to develop and patent an ecological ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC), which was named as ultra-high-performance-glass concrete (UHPGC). After the successful development in laboratory, the current research presents a comparison between traditional UHPC and UHPGC produced using large-scale pilot plant mixer, in terms of rheology, mechanical, and durability properties. The rheology of the UHPGCs was improved due to the non-absorptive nature of the glass particles. The mechanical performance of UHPGC was comparable and very close to the traditional UHPC due to the pozzolan reactivity of the amorphous waste glass. The UHPGC has also shown excellent durability: negligible permeability (chloride-ion ≈ 20 Coulombs from the RCPT test), high abrasion resistance (volume loss index less than 1.3), and almost no freeze-thaw deterioration even after 1000 freeze-thaw cycles. The enhancement in the strength and rigidity of the UHPGC mixture can be referred to the inclusions of the glass particles that have very high strength and elastic modulus.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
322
84962
Shear Strength and Consolidation Behavior of Clayey Soil with Vertical and Radial Drainage
Abstract:
Soft clay deposits having low strength and high compressibility are found all over the world. Preloading with vertical drains is a widely used method for improving such type of soils. The coefficient of consolidation, irrespective of the drainage type, plays an important role in the design of vertical drains and it controls accurate prediction of the rate of consolidation of soil. Also, the increase in shear strength of soil with consolidation is another important factor considered in preloading or staged construction. To our best knowledge no clear guidelines are available to estimate the increase in shear strength for a particular degree of consolidation (U) at various stages during the construction. Various methods are available for finding out the consolidation coefficient. This study mainly focuses on the variation of, consolidation coefficient which was found out using different methods and shear strength with pressure intensity. The variation of shear strength with the degree of consolidation was also studied. The consolidation test was done using two types of highly compressible clays with vertical, radial and a few with combined drainage. The test was carried out at different pressures intensities and for each pressure intensity, once the target degree of consolidation is achieved, vane shear test was done at different locations in the sample, in order to determine the shear strength. The shear strength of clayey soils under the application of vertical stress with vertical and radial drainage with target U value of 70% and 90% was studied. It was found that there is not much variation in cv or cr value beyond 80kPa pressure intensity. Correlations were developed between shear strength ratio and consolidation pressure based on laboratory testing under controlled condition. It was observed that the shear strength of sample with target U value of 90% is about 1.4 to 2 times than that of 70% consolidated sample. Settlement analysis was done using Asaoka’s and hyperbolic method. The variation of strength with respect to the depth of sample was also studied, using large-scale consolidation test. It was found, based on the present study that the gain in strength is more on the top half of the clay layer, and also the shear strength of the sample ensuring radial drainage is slightly higher than that of the vertical drainage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
321
84705
A Solution to Analyze the Geosynthetic Reinforced Piled Embankments Considering Pile-Soil Interaction
Abstract:
A pile-supported embankment with geosynthetic-reinforced mat (PSGR embankment) has been considered as an effective solution to reduce the total and differential settlement of the embankment constructed over soft soil. In this paper, a new simplified method proposed firstly incorporates the load transfer between piles and surrounding soil and the settlement of pile, and also considers arching effect in embankment fill, membrane effect of geosynthetic reinforcement, and subsoil resistance, to evaluate the behavior of PSGR embankment. Subsoil settlement is assumed to consist of two parts:(1) the settlement of subsoil surface between piles equivalent to that of pile caps assuming the geosynthetic reinforcement without deformation yet; (2) the subsoil subsiding along with the geosynthetic deforming, and the deflected geosynthetic being considered as centenary. The force equilibrium, including loads acting on the upper surface of geosynthetic, subsoil resistance, as well as the stress-strain relationship of the geosynthetic reinforcement at the edge of pile cap, is established, thus the expression of subsoil resistance is deduced, and subsequently the tension of geosynthetic and stress concentration ratio between piles can be calculated. The proposed method is validated through observed data from three field tests and also compared with other eight analytical solutions available in the literature. In addition, a sensitive analysis is provided to demonstrate the influence of with/without considering pile-soil interaction for evaluating the performance of PSGR embankment.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
320
84252
Centrifuge Modeling of Monopiles Subjected to Lateral Monotonic Loading
Abstract:
The type of foundation commonly used today for berthing dolphins is a set of tubular steel piles with large diameters, which are known as monopiles. The design of these monopiles is based on the theories related with laterally loaded piles. One of the most common methods to analyze and design the piles subjected to lateral loads is the p-y curves. In the present study, centrifuge tests are conducted in order to obtain the p-y curves. Series of tests were designed in order to investigate the scaling laws in the centrifuge for monotonic loading. Also, two important parameters, the embedded depth L of the pile in the soil and free length e of the pile, as well as their ratios were studied via five experimental tests. Finally, the p-y curves of API are presented to be compared with the curves obtained from the tests so that the differences could be demonstrated. The results show that the p-y curves proposed by API highly overestimate the lateral load bearing capacity. It suggests that these curves need correction and modification for each site as the soil conditions change.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
319
84081
The Behavior of Dam Foundation Reinforced by Stone Columns: Case of Kissir Dam-Jijel
Abstract:
This work presents a 2D numerical simulation of an earth dam to assess the behavior of its foundation after a treatment by stone columns. This treatment aims to improve the bearing capacity, to increase the mechanical properties of the soil, to accelerate the consolidation, to reduce the settlements and to eliminate the liquefaction phenomenon in case of seismic excitation. For the evaluation of the pore pressures; the position of the phreatic line and the flow network was defined, and a seepage analysis was performed with the software MIDAS Soil Works. The consolidation calculation is performed through a simulation of the actual construction stages of the dam. These analyzes were performed using the Mohr-Coulomb soil model, and the results are compared with the actual measurements of settlement gauges implanted in the dam. An analysis of the bearing capacity was conducted to show the role of stone columns in improving the bearing capacity of the foundation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
318
83943
Experimental Investigation on the Efficiency of Expanded Polystyrene Geofoam Post and Beam System in Protecting Lifelines
Abstract:
Expanded polystyrene (EPS) geofoam is a cellular geosynthetic material that can be used to protect lifelines (e.g. pipelines, electricity cables, etc.) below ground. Post and beam system is the most recent configuration of EPS blocks which can be implemented for this purpose. It provides a void space atop lifelines which allows settlement of the loading surface with imposing no pressure on the lifelines system. This paper investigates the efficiency of the configuration of post-beam system subjected to static loading. To evaluate the soil surface settlement, beam deformation and transferred pressure over the beam, laboratory tests using two different densities for EPS blocks are conducted. The effect of geogrid-reinforcing the cover soil on system response is also investigated. The experimental results show favorable performance of EPS post and beam configuration in protecting underground lifelines. 
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
317
83696
An Analytical Formulation of Pure Shear Boundary Condition for Assessing the Response of Some Typical Sites in Mumbai
Abstract:
An earthquake event, associated with a typical fault rupture, initiates at the source, propagates through a rock or soil medium and finally daylights at a surface which might be a populous city. The detrimental effects of an earthquake are often quantified in terms of the responses of superstructures resting on the soil. Hence, there is a need for the estimation of amplification of the bedrock motions due to the influence of local site conditions. In the present study, field borehole log data of Mangalwadi and Walkeswar sites in Mumbai city are considered. The data consists of variation of SPT N-value with the depth of soil. A correlation between shear wave velocity (Vₛ) and SPT N value for various soil profiles of Mumbai city has been developed using various existing correlations which is used further for site response analysis. MATLAB program is developed for studying the ground response analysis by performing two dimensional linear and equivalent linear analysis for some of the typical Mumbai soil sites using pure shear (Multi Point Constraint) boundary condition. The model is validated in linear elastic and equivalent linear domain using the popular commercial program, DEEPSOIL. Three actual earthquake motions are selected based on their frequency contents and durations and scaled to a PGA of 0.16g for the present ground response analyses. The results are presented in terms of peak acceleration time history with depth, peak shear strain time history with depth, Fourier amplitude versus frequency, response spectrum at the surface etc. The peak ground acceleration amplification factors are found to be about 2.374, 3.239 and 2.4245 for Mangalwadi site and 3.42, 3.39, 3.83 for Walkeswar site using 1979 Imperial Valley Earthquake, 1989 Loma Gilroy Earthquake and 1987 Whitter Narrows Earthquake, respectively. In the absence of any site-specific response spectrum for the chosen sites in Mumbai, the generated spectrum at the surface may be utilized for the design of any superstructure at these locations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
316
83024
Experimental Investigations on Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Soft Soil Improved by a Group of End-Bearing Column
Abstract:
The in-situ deep mixing is an effective ground improvement technique which involves columnar inclusion into soft ground to increase its bearing capacity and reduce settlement. The first part of the study presents the results of unconfined compression on cement-admixed clay prepared at different cement content and subjected to varying curing periods. It is found that cement content is a prime factor controlling the strength of the cement-admixed clay. Besides cement content, curing period is important parameter that adds to the strength of cement-admixed clay. Increase in cement content leads to significant increase in Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) values especially at cement contents greater than 8%. The second part of the study investigated the bearing capacity of the clay ground improved by a group of end-bearing column using model tests under plain-strain condition. This study mainly focus to examine the effect of cement contents on the ultimate bearing capacity and failure stress of the improved clay ground. The study shows that the bearing capacity of the improved ground increases significantly with increase in cement contents of the soil-cement columns. A considerable increase in the stiffness of the model ground and failure stress was observed with increase in cement contents.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
315
82092
Experimental Investigation on Physical and Mechanical Behavior of Cemented Clays
Abstract:
Most suitable and commonly used method for ground improvement in built-up area is chemical stabilization using cement. It is fast process, and cement is relatively cheap, abundant and efficient. This research is focused on study of improvement on physical and mechanical properties of cement mixed clay. Three clay samples from Kathmandu, Nepal, Wuhan, China and Marine clay China are taken for the laboratory investigations. These soil samples are reconstituted by using Ordinary Portland Cement of 5%, 10%, and 15% by its mass and other parameters are kept constant during sample preparation. The study revealed that cementation changes the physical and mechanical properties of soil. The specific gravity of all sample linearly varies with cement content. Similarly, the liquid limit and plastic limit of all soils are increased with increased cement content. However, hydraulic conductivity of the soils is decreased with the increases in cement content i.e reduction is almost 7.5 times when cement increased from 5% to 15%. Finally, shear strength parameters of soil are improved; for Kathmandu clay and Marine clay, cohesion component is improved on the other hand for Wuhan clay, friction component is improved.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
314
81877
Development of the Accelerator Applied to an Early Stage High-Strength Shotcrete
Abstract:
Domestic demand for the construction of tunnels has been increasing in recent years in Japan. To meet this demand, various construction materials and construction methods have been developed to attain higher strength, reduction of negative impact on the environment and improvement for working conditions. In this report, we would like to introduce the newly developed shotcrete with superior hardening properties which were tested through the actual machine scale and its workability and strength development were evaluated. As a result, this new tunnel construction method was found to achieve higher workability and quicker strength development in only a couple of minutes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
313
81842
Environmental Sustainability in Retaining Wall Construction with Geosynthetics
Abstract:
This paper seeks to present a research study on sustainability in construction of retaining wall using geosynthetics. Sustainable construction is a way for the building and infrastructure industry to move towards achieving sustainable development, taking into account environmental, socioeconomic and cultural issues. Geotechnical engineering, being very resource intensive, warrants an environmental sustainability study, but a quantitative framework for assessing the sustainability of geotechnical practices, particularly at the planning and design stages, does not exist. In geotechnical projects, major economic issues to be addressed are in the design and construction of stable slopes and retaining structures within space constraints. In this paper, quantitative indicators for assessing the environmental sustainability of retaining wall with geosynthetics are compared with conventional concrete retaining wall through life cycle assessment (LCA). Geosynthetics can make a real difference in sustainable construction techniques and contribute to development in developing countries in particular. Their imaginative application can result in considerable cost savings over the use of conventional designs and materials. The acceptance of geosynthetics in reinforced retaining wall construction has been triggered by a number of factors, including aesthetics, reliability, simple construction techniques, good seismic performance, and the ability to tolerate large deformations without structural distress. Reinforced retaining wall with geosynthetics is the best cost-effective and eco-friendly solution as compared with traditional concrete retaining wall construction. This paper presents an analysis of the theme of sustainability applied to the design and construction of traditional concrete retaining wall and presenting a cost-effective and environmental solution using geosynthetics.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
312
81659
The Evaluation of Current Pile Driving Prediction Methods for Driven Monopile Foundations in London Clay
Abstract:
The current industry approach to pile driving predictions consists of developing a model of the hammer-pile-soil system which simulates the relationship between soil resistance to driving (SRD) and blow counts (or pile penetration per blow). The SRD methods traditionally used are broadly based on static pile capacity calculations. The SRD is used in combination with the one-dimensional wave equation model to indicate the anticipated blowcounts with depth for specific hammer energy settings. This approach has predominantly been calibrated on relatively long slender piles used in the oil and gas industry but is now being extended to allow calculations to be undertaken for relatively short rigid large diameter monopile foundations. This paper evaluates the accuracy of current industry practice when applied to a site where large diameter monopiles were installed in predominantly stiff fissured clay. Actual geotechnical and pile installation data, including pile driving records and signal matching analysis (based upon pile driving monitoring techniques), were used for the assessment on the case study site.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
311
81170
Training of Sensors for Early Warning System of Rainfall Induced Landslides
Abstract:
Changes in the Earth’s climate are likely to increase natural hazards such as drought, floods, earthquakes, landslides, etc. The present study focusing on to early warning systems (EWS) of landslides, major issues in Himalayan region without prominence to deforestation, encroachments and un-engineered cutting of slopes and reforming for infrastructural purposes. EWS can be depicted by conducting a series of flume tests using micro-electro mechanical systems sensors data after reaching threshold values under controlled laboratory conditions. Based on the threshold value database, an alert will be sent via SMS.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
310
80943
Proposing a Failure Criterion for Cohesionless Media Considering Cyclic Fabric Anisotropy
Abstract:
The present paper is focused on a generalized failure criterion for geomaterials with cross-anisotropy. The cyclic behavior of granular material primarily depends on the nature and arrangement of constituent particles, particle size, and shape that affect fabric anisotropy. To account for the influence of loading directions on strength variations, an anisotropic variable in terms of the invariants of the stress tensor and fabric into the failure criterion is proposed. In an extension to original CANAsand constitutive model two concepts namely critical state and compact state play paramount roles as all of the moduli and coefficients are related to these states. The applicability of the present model is evaluated through comparisons between the predicted and the measured results. All simulations have demonstrated that the proposed constitutive model is capable of modeling the cyclic behavior of sand with inherent anisotropy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
309
80777
Stress Analysis of Buried Pipes from Soil and Traffic Loads
Abstract:
Often design standards do not provide guidance or formulae for the calculation of stresses on buried pipelines caused by external loads. Frequently engineers rely on other methods and published sources of information to calculate such imposed stresses and a variety of methods can be used. This paper reviews three current approaches to soil pipeline interaction modelling to predict stresses on buried pipelines subjected to soil overburden and traffic loading. The traditional approach to use empirical stress formulas to calculate circumferential bending stresses on pipelines. The alternative approaches considered are the use of a finite element package to compute an estimate of circumferential bending stress and a proprietary stress analysis system (SURFLOAD) to estimate the circumferential bending stress. The results from analysis using the methods are presented and compared to experimental results in terms of predicted and measured circumferential stresses. This study shows that the approach used to assess externally generated stress is important and can lead to an over-conservative analysis. Using FE analysis either through SURFLOAD or a general FE package to predict circumferential stress is the most accurate way to undertake stress analysis due to traffic and soil loads. Although conservative, classical empirical methods will continue to be applied to the analysis of buried pipelines, an opportunity exists, therefore, in many circumstances, to use applied numerical techniques, made possible by advances in finite element analysis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
308
80613
Geospatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation to Predict Landslide Hazard Potential in the Catchment of Lake Naivasha, Kenya
Abstract:
This paper describes a multi-criteria geospatial model for prediction of landslide hazard zonation (LHZ) for Lake Naivasha catchment (Kenya), based on spatial analysis of integrated datasets of location intrinsic parameters (slope stability factors) and external landslides triggering factors (natural and man-made factors). The intrinsic dataset included: lithology, geometry of slope (slope inclination, aspect, elevation, and curvature) and land use/land cover. The landslides triggering factors included: rainfall as the climatic factor, in addition to the destructive effects reflected by proximity of roads and drainage network to areas that are susceptible to landslides. No published study on landslides has been obtained for this area. Thus, digital datasets of the above spatial parameters were conveniently acquired, stored, manipulated and analyzed in a Geographical Information System (GIS) using a multi-criteria grid overlay technique (in ArcGIS 10.2.2 environment). Deduction of landslide hazard zonation is done by applying weights based on relative contribution of each parameter to the slope instability, and finally, the weighted parameters grids were overlaid together to generate a map of the potential landslide hazard zonation (LHZ) for the lake catchment. From the total surface of 3200 km² of the lake catchment, most of the region (78.7 %; 2518.4 km²) is susceptible to moderate landslide hazards, whilst about 13% (416 km²) is occurring under high hazards. Only 1.0% (32 km²) of the catchment is displaying very high landslide hazards, and the remaining area (7.3 %; 233.6 km²) displays low probability of landslide hazards. This result confirms the importance of steep slope angles, lithology, vegetation land cover and slope orientation (aspect) as the major determining factors of slope failures. The information provided by the produced map of landslide hazard zonation (LHZ) could lay the basis for decision making as well as mitigation and applications in avoiding potential losses caused by landslides in the Lake Naivasha catchment in the Kenya Highlands.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
307
80602
Role of Matric Suction in Mechanics behind Swelling Characteristics of Expansive Soils
Abstract:
Expansive soils in the unsaturated state are part of vadose zone and encountered in several arid and semi-arid parts of the world. Influence of high temperature, low precipitation and alternate cycles of wetting and drying are responsible for the chemical weathering of rocks, which results in the formation of expansive soils. Shrinkage-swelling (expansive) soils cover a substantial portion of area in India. Damages caused by expansive soils to various geotechnical structures are alarming. Matric suction develops in unsaturated soil due to capillarity and surface tension phenomena. Matric suction influences the geometric arrangement of soil skeleton, which induces the volume change behaviour of expansive soil. In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the role of matric suction in the mechanism behind swelling characteristics of expansive soil. Four different soils have been collected from different parts of India for the current research. Soil sample S1, S2, S3 and S4 were collected from Nagpur, Bharuch, Bharuch-Dahej highway and Ahmedabad respectively. DFSI (Differential Free Swell Index) of these soils samples; S1, S2, S3, and S4; were determined to be 134%, 104%, 70% and 30% respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis of samples exhibited that percentage of Montmorillonite mineral present in the soils reduced with the decrease in DFSI. A series of constant volume swell pressure tests and in-contact filter paper tests were performed to evaluate swelling pressure and matric suction of all four soils at 30% saturation and 1.46 g/cc dry density. Results indicated that soils possessing higher DFSI exhibited higher matric suction as compared to lower DFSI expansive soils. Significant influence of matric suction on swelling pressure of expansive soils was observed with varying DFSI values. Higher matric suction of soil might govern the water uptake in the interlayer spaces of Montmorillonite mineral present in expansive soil leading to crystalline swelling.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
306
80574
Influence of Water Retention Characteristics of Bentonites on Unsaturated Seepage Modeling
Abstract:
Seepage analysis in unsaturated soil is essential to study the movement of water in geotechnical and geoenvironmental problems like the design of dams, slope stability analysis, the design of waste containment liners/ covers and groundwater contamination, etc. Therefore, it is mandatory to obtain the water retention characteristic curve (WRCC) and its influence on the seepage modeling results. The determination of WRCC involves the measurement of suction and water content, whereas seepage modeling involves the solution of a partial differential equation (PDE) under a given set of boundary conditions, initial soil condition and soil properties, etc. In this study, WRCC of four types of commercially available bentonites were determined in the laboratory and fitting parameters were obtained for each bentonite. Transient seepage analysis was then carried out in a two-dimensional cylindrical column using a finite element method based software SEEP/W, under a specified total head (H) boundary condition. The WRCC fitting parameters thus obtained were used as an input parameter in the software and the results of pore water pressure (PWP) and volumetric water content (VWC) with time were studied for the different cases.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
305
80527
Estimation of Shear Wave Velocity from Cone Penetration Test for Structured Busan Clays
Abstract:
The degree of structuration of Busan clays at the mouth of Nakdong River mouth was highly influenced by the depositional environment, i.e., flow of the river stream, marine regression, and transgression during the sedimentation process. As a result, the geotechnical properties also varies along the depth with change in degree of structuration. Thus, the in-situ tests such as cone penetration test (CPT) could not be used to predict various geotechnical properties properly by using the conventional empirical methods. In this paper, the shear wave velocity (Vs) was measured from the field using the seismic dilatometer. The Vs was also measured in the laboratory from high quality undisturbed and remolded samples using bender element method to evaluate the degree of structuration. The degree of structuration was quantitatively defined by the modulus ratio of undisturbed to remolded soil samples which is found well correlated with the normalized void ratio (e0/eL) where eL is the void ratio at the liquid limit. It is revealed that the empirical method based on laboratory results incorporating e0/eL can predict Vs from the field more accurately. Thereafter, the CPT based empirical method was developed to estimate the shear wave velocity taking the effect of structuration in the consideration. The developed method was found to predict shear wave velocity reasonably for Busan clays.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
304
80505
Hydro-Mechanical Characterization of PolyChlorinated Biphenyls Polluted Sediments in Interaction with Geomaterials for Landfilling
Abstract:
This paper focuses on the hydro-mechanical behavior of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) polluted sediments when stored in landfills and the interaction between PCBs and geosynthetic clay liners (GCL) with respect to hydraulic performance of the liner and the overall performance and stability of landfills. A European decree, adopted in the French regulation forbids the reintroducing of contaminated dredged sediments containing more than 0,64mg/kg Σ 7 PCBs to rivers. At these concentrations, sediments are considered hazardous and a remediation process must be adopted to prevent the release of PCBs into the environment. Dredging and landfilling polluted sediments is considered an eco-environmental remediation solution. French regulations authorize the storage of PCBs contaminated components with less than 50mg/kg in municipal solid waste facilities. Contaminant migration via leachate may be possible. The interactions between PCBs contaminated sediments and the GCL barrier present in the bottom of a landfill for security confinement are not known. Moreover, the hydro-mechanical behavior of stored sediments may affect the performance and the stability of the landfill. In this article, hydro-mechanical characterization of the polluted sediment is presented. This characterization led to predict the behavior of the sediment at the storage site. Chemical testing showed that the concentration of PCBs in sediment samples is between 1.7 and 2,0 mg/kg. Physical characterization showed that the sediment is organic silty sand soil (%Silt=65, %Sand=27, %OM=8) characterized by a high plasticity index (Ip=37%). Permeability tests using permeameter and filter press showed that sediment permeability is in the order of 10-9 m/s. Compressibility tests showed that the sediment is a very compressible soil with Cc=0,53 and Cα =0,0086. In addition, effects of PCB on the swelling behavior of bentonite were studied and the hydraulic performance of the GCL in interaction with PCBs was examined. Swelling tests showed that PCBs don’t affect the swelling behavior of bentonite. Permeability tests were conducted on a 1.0 m pilot scale experiment, simulating a storage facility. PCBs contaminated sediments were directly placed over a passive barrier containing GCL to study the influence of the direct contact of polluted sediment leachate with the GCL. An automatic water system has been designed to simulate precipitation. Effluent quantity and quality have been examined. The sediment settlements and the water level in the sediment have been monitored. The results showed that desiccation affected the behavior of the sediment in the pilot test and that laboratory tests alone are not sufficient to predict the behavior of the sediment in landfill facility. Furthermore, the concentration of PCB in the sediment leachate was very low ( < 0,013 µg/l) and that the permeability of the GCL was affected by other components present in the sediment leachate. Desiccation and cracks were the main parameters that affected the hydro-mechanical behavior of the sediment in the pilot test. In order to reduce these infects, the polluted sediment should be stored at a water content inferior to its shrinkage limit (w=39%). We also propose to conduct other pilot tests with the maximum concentration of PCBs allowed in municipal solid waste facility of 50 mg/kg.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
303
80378
Generalized Model Estimating Strength of Bauxite Residue-Lime Mix
Abstract:
The present work investigates the effect of multiple parameters on the unconfined compressive strength of the bauxite residue-lime mix. A number of unconfined compressive strength tests considering various curing time, lime content, dry density and moisture content were carried out. The results show that an empirical correlation may be successfully developed using volumetric lime content, porosity, moisture content, curing time unconfined compressive strength for the range of the bauxite residue-lime mix studied. The proposed empirical correlations efficiently predict the strength of bauxite residue-lime mix, and it can be used as a generalized empirical equation to estimate unconfined compressive strength.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
302
79866
Considerations for Effectively Using Probability of Failure as a Means of Slope Design Appraisal for Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Rock Masses
Abstract:
Probability of failure (PF) often appears alongside factor of safety (FS) in design acceptance criteria for rock slope, underground excavation and open pit mine designs. However, the design acceptance criteria generally provide no guidance relating to how PF should be calculated for homogeneous and heterogeneous rock masses, or what qualifies a &lsquo;reasonable&rsquo; PF assessment for a given slope design. Observational and kinematic methods were widely used in the 1990s until advances in computing permitted the routine use of numerical modelling. In the 2000s and early 2010s, PF in numerical models was generally calculated using the point estimate method. More recently, some limit equilibrium analysis software offer statistical parameter inputs along with Monte-Carlo or Latin-Hypercube sampling methods to automatically calculate PF. Factors including rock type and density, weathering and alteration, intact rock strength, rock mass quality and shear strength, the location and orientation of geologic structure, shear strength of geologic structure and groundwater pore pressure influence the stability of rock slopes. Significant engineering and geological judgment, interpretation and data interpolation is usually applied in determining these factors and amalgamating them into a geotechnical model which can then be analysed. Most factors are estimated &lsquo;approximately&rsquo; or with allowances for some variability rather than &lsquo;exactly&rsquo;. When it comes to numerical modelling, some of these factors are then treated deterministically (i.e. as exact values), while others have probabilistic inputs based on the user&rsquo;s discretion and understanding of the problem being analysed. This paper discusses the importance of understanding the key aspects of slope design for homogeneous and heterogeneous rock masses and how they can be translated into reasonable PF assessments where the data permits. A case study from a large open pit gold mine in a complex geological setting in Western Australia is presented to illustrate how PF can be calculated using different methods and obtain markedly different results. Ultimately sound engineering judgement and logic is often required to decipher the true meaning and significance (if any) of some PF results.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
301
79525
Case Study: Geomat Installation against Slope Erosion
Abstract:
Erosion (soil erosion) is a phenomenon in which the soil on the slope surface is exposed to natural influences such as wind, rainfall, etc. in open areas. The most natural solution to prevent erosion is to plant surfaces exposed to erosion. However, proper ground and natural conditions must be provided in order for planting to occur. Erosion is prevented in a fast and natural way and the loss of soil is reduced mostly. Lead to allowing plants to hold onto the soil with its three-dimensional and hollow structure are as follows: The types of geomat called MacMat that is used in a case study in Turkey in order to prevent water carry over due to rainfall. The geosynthetic combined with double twisted steel wire mesh. That consists of 95% Zn–5% Al alloy coated double twisted steel wire based that is a reinforced MacMat (geosynthetic three-dimensional erosion control mat) obtained by a polypropylene consisted (mesh type 8x10-Wire diam. 2.70 mm–95% Zn–5% Al alloy coated). That is developed by the progress of the technology. When using reinforced MacMat on top clay liners, fixing pins should not be used as they will rupture the mats. Mats are simply anchored (J Type) in the top trench and, if necessary, in intermediate berm trenches. If the slope angle greater than 20°, it is necessary to use additional rebar depending soil properties also. These applications may have specific technical and installation requirements. In that project, the main purpose is erosion control after that is greening. There is a slope area around the factory which is located in Gebze, İstanbul.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
300
79453
3D Numerical Analysis of Stone Columns Reinforced with Horizontal and Vertical Geosynthetic Materials
Abstract:
Improvement and reinforcement of soils with poor strength and engineering properties for constructing low height structures or structures such as liquid storage tanks, bridge columns, and heavy structures have necessitated applying particular techniques. Stone columns are among the well-known methods applied in such soils. This method provides an economically justified way for improving engineering properties of soft clay and loose sandy soils. Stone column implementation in these soils increases their bearing capacity and reduces the settlement of foundation build on them. In the present study, the finite difference based FLAC3D software was used to investigate the performance and effect of soil reinforcement through stone columns without lining and those with geosynthetic lining with different levels of stiffness in horizontal and vertical modes in clayey soils. The results showed that soil improvement using stone columns with lining in vertical and horizontal modes results in improvement of bearing capacity and foundation settlement.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
299
79280
Stability of Pump Station Cavern in Chagrin Shale with Time
Abstract:
An assessment of the long-term stability of a cavern in Chagrin shale excavated by the sequential excavation method was performed during and after construction. During the excavation of the cavern, deformations of rock mass were measured at the surface of excavation and within the rock mass by surface and deep measurement instruments. Rock deformations were measured during construction which appeared to result from the as-built excavation sequence that had potentially disturbed the rock and its behavior. Also some additional time dependent rock deformations were observed during and post excavation. Several opinions have been expressed to explain this time dependent deformation including stress changes induced by excavation, strain softening (or creep) in the beddings with and without clay and creep of the shaley rock under compressive stresses. In order to analyze and replicate rock behavior observed during excavation, including current and post excavation elastic, plastic, and time dependent deformation, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was performed. The analysis was also intended to estimate long term deformation of the rock mass around the excavation. Rock mass behavior including time dependent deformation was measured by means of rock surface convergence points, MPBXs, extended creep testing on the long anchors, and load history data from load cells attached to several long anchors. Direct creep testing of Chagrin Shale was performed on core samples from the wall of the Pump Room. Results of these measurements were used to calibrate the FEA of the excavation. These analyses incorporate time dependent constitutive modeling for the rock to evaluate the potential long term movement in the roof, walls, and invert of the cavern. The modeling was performed due to the concerns regarding the unanticipated behavior of the rock mass as well as the forecast of long term deformation and stability of rock around the excavation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
298
79269
Shear Strength Envelope Characteristics of LimeTreated Clays
Abstract:
The effectiveness of lime treatment of soils has been commonly evaluated in terms of improved workability and increased undrained unconfined compressive strength in connection to road and airfield construction. The most common method of strength measurement has been the unconfined compression test. However, if the objective of lime treatment is to improve long-term stability of first-time or reactivated landslides in stiff clays and shales, permanent changes in the size and shape of clay particles must be realized to increase drained frictional resistance. Lime-soil interactions that may produce less platy and larger soil particles begin and continue with time under the highly alkaline pH environment. In this research, pH measurements are used to monitor chemical environment and progress of reactions. Atterberg limits are measured to identify changes in particle size and shape indirectly. Also, fully softened and residual strength measurements are used to examine an improvement in frictional resistance due to lime-soil interactions. The main variables are soil plasticity and mineralogy, lime content, water content, and curing period. Lime effect on frictional resistance is examined using samples of clays with different mineralogy and characteristics which may react with lime to various extents. Drained direct shear tests on reconstituted lime-treated clay specimens with various properties have been performed to measure fully softened shear strength. To measure residual shear strength, drained multiple reversal direct shear tests on precut specimens were conducted. This way, soil particles are oriented along the direction of shearing to the maximum possible extent and provide minimum frictional resistance. This is applicable to reactivated and part of first-time landslides. The Brenna clay, which is the highly plastic lacustrine clay of Lake Agassiz causing slope instability along the banks of the Red River, is one of the soil samples used in this study. The Brenna Formation characterized as a uniform, soft to firm, dark grey, glaciolacustrine clay with little or no visible stratification, is full of slickensided surfaces. The major source of sediment for the Brenna Formation was the highly plastic montmorillonitic Pierre Shale bedrock. The other soil used in this study is one of the main sources of slope instability in Harris County Flood Control District (HCFCD), i.e. the Beaumont clay. The shear strengths of untreated and treated clays were obtained under various normal pressures to evaluate the shear envelope nonlinearity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):