A Review of Current Knowledge on Assessment of Precast Structures Using Fragility Curves
Precast reinforced concrete (RC) structures are excellent alternatives for construction world all over the globe, thanks to their rapid erection phase, ease mounting process, better quality and reasonable prices. Such structures are rather popular for industrial buildings. For the sake of economic importance of such industrial buildings as well as significance of safety, like every other type of structures, performance assessment and structural risk analysis are important. Fragility curves are powerful tools for damage projection and assessment for any sort of building as well as precast structures. In this study, a comparative review of current knowledge on fragility analysis of industrial precast RC structures were presented and findings in previous studies were compiled. Effects of different structural variables, parameters and building geometries as well as soil conditions on fragility analysis of precast structures are reviewed. It was aimed to briefly present the information in the literature about the procedure of damage probability prediction including fragility curves for such industrial facilities. It is found that determination of the aforementioned structural parameters as well as selecting analysis procedure are critically important for damage prediction of industrial precast RC structures using fragility curves.
[Keynote Talk]: A Standard Operating Procedure for Forensic Soil Analysis: Tested Using a Simulated Crime Scene
Soil traces are useful as forensic evidence due to their potential to transfer and adhere to different types of surfaces on a range of objects or persons. The great variability expressed by soil physical, chemical, biological and mineralogical properties show soil traces as complex mixtures. Soils are continuous and variable, no two soil samples being indistinguishable, nevertheless, the complexity of soil characteristics can provide powerful evidence for comparative forensic purposes. This work aimed to establish a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for forensic soil analysis in Brazil. We carried out a simulated crime scene with double blind sampling to calibrate the sampling procedures. Samples were collected at a range of locations covering a range of soil types found in South of Brazil: Santa Candida and Boa Vista, neighbourhoods from Curitiba (State of Parana) and in Guarani and Guaraituba, neighbourhoods from Colombo (Curitiba Metropolitan Region). A previously validated sequential analyses of chemical, physical and mineralogical analyses was developed in around 2 g of soil. The suggested SOP and the sequential range of analyses were effective in grouping the samples from the same place and from the same parent material together, as well as successfully discriminated samples from different locations and originated from different rocks. In addition, modifications to the sample treatment and analytical protocol can be made depending on the context of the forensic work.
Numerical Modelling of a Vacuum Consolidation Project in Vietnam
This paper introduces a matching scheme for selection of soil/drain properties in analytical solution and numerical modelling (axisymmetric and plane strain conditions) of a ground improvement project by using Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVD) in combination with vacuum and surcharge preloading. In-situ monitoring data from a case history of a road construction project in Vietnam was adopted in the back-analysis. Analytical solution and axisymmetric analysis can approximate well the field data meanwhile the horizontal permeability need to be adjusted in plane strain scenario to achieve good agreement. In addition, the influence zone of the ground treatment was examined. The residual settlement was investigated to justify the long-term settlement in compliance with the design code. Moreover, the degree of consolidation of non-PVD sub-layers was also studied by means of two different approaches.
A Case Study on the Long-Term Stability Monitoring of Underground Powerhouse Complex Using Geotechnical Instrumentation
Large cavern in Bhutan Himalayas is being monitored since the construction period. The behavior of the cavern is being monitored for last 16 years. Instrumentation includes measurement of convergence of high walls by geodetic monitoring, load on the support systems with load cells and instrumented bolts. Analysis of the results of instrumentation showed that during the construction period of the cavern, the convergence of the cavern varied from 181 - 233 mm in the unit bay area with maximum convergence rate of 2.80mm/day. Whereas during the operational period the total convergence observed was in the range of 21 to 45 mm during a period of 11.30 years with convergence rate of 0.005 to 0.011 mm/day. During the last five years, there were no instances of high tensile stress recorded by the instrumented bolts. Load on the rock bolts have shown stabilization trend at most of the locations. This paper discusses in detail the results of long-term monitoring using the geotechnical instruments and how the data is being used in 3D numerical model to confirm the stability of the cavern.
Load-Settlement Behaviour of Geogrid-Reinforced Sand Bed over Granular Piles
Granular piles are a popular ground improvement technique in soft cohesive soils as well as for loose non-cohesive soils. The present experimental study has been carried out on granular piles in loose (Relative density = 30%) and medium dense (Relative density = 60%) sands with geogrid reinforcement within the sand bed over the granular piles. A group of five piles were installed in the sand at different spacing, s = 2d, 3d and 4d, d being the diameter of the pile. The length (L = 0.4 m) and diameter (d = 50 mm) of the piles were kept constant for all the series of experiments. The load-settlement behavior of reinforced sand bed and granular piles system was studied by applying the load on a square footing. The results show that the effect of reinforcement increases the load bearing capacity of the piles. It is also found that an increase in spacing between piles decreases the settlement for both loose and medium dense soil.
Numerical Investigation on Load Bearing Capacity of Pervious Concrete Piles as an Alternative to Granular Columns
Pervious concrete combines considerable permeability with adequate strength, which makes it very beneficial in pavement construction and also in ground improvement projects. In this paper, a single pervious concrete pile subjected to vertical and lateral loading is analysed using a verified three dimensional finite element code. A parametric study was carried out in order to investigate load bearing capacity of a single unreinforced pervious concrete pile in saturated soft soil and also gain insight into the failure mechanism of this rather new soil improvement technique. The results show that concrete damaged plasticity constitutive model can perfectly simulate the highly brittle nature of the pervious concrete material and considering the computed vertical and horizontal load bearing capacities, some suggestions have been made for ground improvement projects.
Numerical Investigation on the Effects of Deep Excavation on Adjacent Pile Groups Subjected to Inclined Loading
There is a growing demand for construction of high-rise buildings and infrastructures in large cities, which sometimes require deep excavations in the vicinity of pile foundations. In this study, a two-dimensional finite element analysis is used to gain insight into the response of pile groups adjacent to deep excavations in sand. The numerical code was verified by available experimental works, and a parametric study was performed on different working load combinations, excavation depth and supporting system. The results show that the simple two-dimensional plane strain model can accurately simulate the excavation induced changes on adjacent pile groups. It was found that further excavation than pile toe level and also inclined loading on adjacent pile group can severely affect the serviceability of the foundation.
Applications of Engineering Geology in Hydro Power Tunnel Projects in Himalayan Geological Regime
Tunnel construction in Himalayan rock is a challenging task due to fragile nature of the strata. Tunnel excavation carried out from lower Himalayas to high Himalayas in different metamorphic rock. Therefore application of engineering geology plays a vital role during various stage of the tunneling projects. Engineering geology is defined as application of geology to construction of civil structures through engineering practice. It is applied to the design, construction and performance aspects of engineering structure on the surface or sub-surface like dam, underground and surface power house, cut slopes, tunnels and underground storage cavern for nuclear material. But this paper emphasized mostly on underground structures like big caverns of Power house, desilting chambers, and tunnels of various sizes. Construction of these structures in the fragile rock conditions of Himalayan geology from Western Himalayas to Eastern Himalayas necessitated the application of the engineering geology on the micro-scale base for the stability, performance, and longevity of the civil structures. Number of hydropower projects have been constructed, some of them are under construction and under investigation stage. These projects are located in various parts of Himalayas under various seismic-tectonic zones. Tunneling works are involved in these projects. This paper represents the various engineering geological practices adopted in investigation and construction stage of various projects based on experiences gained during past construction histories in Himalayan geology of young mountains in very fragile geological conditions. Highlighting and sharing of use of these techniques on various platforms will definitely enhance the knowledge for carrying out the construction of various projects for the development of society. Construction of the tunnels, surface, and sub-surface caverns, dams, highway, metro, highway tunnels are all based on engineering geological parameters in combinations with other engineering considerations.
Prediction of Pile-Raft Responses Induced by Adjacent Braced Excavation in Layered Soil
Considering excavations in urban areas, the soil deformation induced by the excavations usually causes damage to the surrounding structures. Displacement control becomes a critical indicator of foundation design in order to protect the surrounding structures. Evaluation, the damage potential of the surrounding structures induced by the excavations, usually depends on the finite element method (FEM) because of the complexity of the excavation and the variety of the surrounding structures. Besides, evaluation the influence of the excavation on surrounding structures is a three-dimensional problem. And it is now well recognized that small strain behaviour of the soil influences the responses of the excavation significantly. Three-dimensional FEM considering small strain behaviour of the soil is a very complex method, which is hard for engineers to use. Thus, it is important to obtain a simplified method for engineers to predict the influence of the excavations on the surrounding structures. Based on large-scale finite element calculation with small-strain based soil model coupling with inverse analysis, an empirical method is proposed to calculate the three-dimensional soil movement induced by braced excavation. The empirical method is able to capture the small-strain behaviour of the soil. And it is suitable to be used in layered soil. Then the free-field soil movement is applied to the pile to calculate the responses of the pile in both vertical and horizontal directions. The asymmetric solutions for problems in layered elastic half-space are employed to solve the interactions between soil points. Both vertical and horizontal pile responses are solved through finite difference method based on elastic theory. Interactions among the nodes along a single pile, pile-pile interactions, pile-soil-pile interaction action and soil-soil interactions are counted to improve the calculation accuracy of the method. For passive piles, the shadow effects are also calculated in the method. Finally, the restrictions of the raft on the piles and the soils are summarized as: (1) the summations of the internal forces between the elements of the raft and the elements of the foundation, including piles and soil surface elements, is equal to 0; (2) the deformations of pile heads or of the soil surface elements are the same as the deformations of the corresponding elements of the raft. Validations are carried out by comparing the results from the proposed method with the results from the model tests, FEM and other existing literatures. From the comparisons, it can be seen that the results from the proposed method fit with the results from other methods very well. The method proposed herein is suitable to predict the responses of the pile-raft foundation induced by braced excavation in layered soil in both vertical and horizontal directions when the deformation is small. However, more data is needed to verify the method before it can be used in practice.
Comparison of Accumulated Stress Based Pore Pressure Model and Plasticity Model in 1D Site Response Analysis
This paper presents the comparison of excess pore water pressure ratio (ru) predicted by using accumulated stress based pore pressure model and plasticity model. One dimensional effective stress site response analyses were performed on a 30 m deep sand column (consists of a liquefiable layer in between non-liquefiable layers) using accumulated stress based pore pressure model in Deepsoil and PDMY2 (PressureDependentMultiYield02) model in Opensees. Three Input motions with different peak ground acceleration (PGA) levels of 0.357 g, 0.124 g, and 0.11 g were used in this study. The developed excess pore pressure ratio predicted by the above two models were compared and analyzed along the depth. The time history of the ru at mid of the liquefiable layer and non-liquefiable layer were also compared. The comparisons show that the two models predict mostly similar ru values. The predicted ru is also consistent with the PGA level of the input motions.
Effect of Plastic Fines on Undrained Behavior of Clayey Sands
In recent years, the occurrence of several liquefactions in sandy soils containing various values of clay content has shown that in addition to silty sands, clayey sands are also susceptible to liquefaction. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the properties of these soil compositions and their behavioral characteristics. This paper presents the effect of clay fines on the undrained shear strength of sands at various confining pressures. For this purpose, a series of unconsolidated undrained triaxial shear tests were carried out on clean sand and sand mixed with 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 percent of clay fines. It was found that the presence of clay particle in sandy specimens change the dilative behavior to contraction. The result also showed that increasing the clay fines up to 10 percent causes to increase the potential for liquefaction, and decreases it at higher values fine content. These results reveal the important role of clay particles in changing the undrained strength of the sandy soil.
Comparing Field Displacement History with Numerical Results to Estimate Geotechnical Parameters: Case Study of Arash-Esfandiar-Niayesh under Passing Tunnel, 2.5 Traffic Lane Tunnel, Tehran, Iran
Underground structures are of those structures that have uncertainty in design procedures. That is due to the complexity of soil condition around. Under passing tunnels are also such affected structures. Despite geotechnical site investigations, lots of uncertainties exist in soil properties due to unknown events. As results, it possibly causes conflicting settlements in numerical analysis with recorded values in the project. This paper aims to report a case study on a specific under passing tunnel constructed by New Austrian Tunnelling Method in Iran. The intended tunnel has an overburden of about 11.3m, the height of 12.2m and, the width of 14.4m with 2.5 traffic lane. The numerical modeling was developed by a 2D finite element program (PLAXIS Version 8). Comparing displacement histories at the ground surface during the entire installation of initial lining, the estimated surface settlement was about four times the field recorded one, which indicates that some local unknown events affect that value. Also, the displacement ratios were in a big difference between the numerical and field data. Consequently, running several numerical back analyses using laboratory and field tests data, the geotechnical parameters were accurately revised to match with the obtained monitoring data. Finally, it was found that usually the values of soil parameters are conservatively low-estimated up to 40 percent by typical engineering judgment. Additionally, it could be attributed to inappropriate constitutive models applied for the specific soil condition.
Liquefaction Susceptibility of Tailing Storage Facility-Comparison of National Centre for Earthquake Engineering Research and Finite Element Methods
Upstream Tailings Storage Facilities (TSFs) may experience slope instabilities due to soil liquefaction, especially in regions known to be seismically active. In this study, liquefaction susceptibility of an upstream-raised TSF in Western Australia was assessed using two different approaches. The first approach assessed liquefaction susceptibility using Cone Penetration Tests with pore pressure measurement (CPTu) as described by the National Centre for Earthquake Engineering Research (NCEER). This assessment was based on the four CPTu tests that were conducted on the perimeter embankment of the TSF. The second approach used the Finite Element (FE) method with application of an equivalent linear model to predict the undrained cyclic behavior, the pore water pressure and the liquefaction of the materials. The tailings parameters were estimated from the CPTu profiles and from the laboratory tests. The cyclic parameters were estimated from the literature where test results of similar material were available. The results showed that there was a good agreement, in the liquefaction susceptibility of the tailings material, between the NCEER and FE methods with equivalent linear model.
A Challenge to Acquire Serious Victims’ Locations during Acute Period of Giant Disasters
In this paper, we report how to acquire serious victims’ locations in the Acute Stage of Large-scale Disasters, in an Emergency Information Network System designed by us. The background of our concept is based on the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11th, 2011. Through many experiences of national crises caused by earthquakes and tsunamis, we have established advanced communication systems and advanced disaster medical response systems. However, Japan was devastated by huge tsunamis swept a vast area of Tohoku causing a complete breakdown of all the infrastructures including telecommunications. Therefore, we noticed that we need interdisciplinary collaboration between science of disaster medicine, regional administrative sociology, satellite communication technology and systems engineering experts. Communication of emergency information was limited causing a serious delay in the initial rescue and medical operation. For the emergency rescue and medical operations, the most important thing is to identify the number of casualties, their locations and status and to dispatch doctors and rescue workers from multiple organizations. In the case of the Tohoku earthquake, the dispatching mechanism and/or decision support system did not exist to allocate the appropriate number of doctors and locate disaster victims. Even though the doctors and rescue workers from multiple government organizations have their own dedicated communication system, the systems are not interoperable.
An Investigation of the Effects of Gripping Systems in Geosynthetic Shear Testing
The use of geosynthetic materials in geotechnical engineering projects has rapidly increased over the past several years. These materials have resulted in improved performance and cost reduction of geotechnical structures as compared to the use of conventional materials. However, working with geosynthetics requires knowledge of interface parameters for design. These parameters are typically determined by the large direct shear device in accordance with ASTM-D5321 and ASTM-D6243 standards. Although these laboratory tests are standardized, the quality of the results can be largely affected by several factors that include; the shearing rate, applied normal stress, gripping mechanism, and type of the geosynthetic specimens tested. Amongst these factors, poor surface gripping of a specimen is the major source of the discrepancy. If the specimen is inadequately secured to the shearing blocks, it experiences progressive failure and shear strength that deviates from the true field performance of the tested material. This leads to inaccurate, unsafe, and cost ineffective designs of projects. Currently, the ASTM-D5321 and ASTM-D6243 standards do not provide a standardized gripping system for geosynthetic shear strength testing. Over the years, researchers have come up with different gripping systems that can be used such as; glue, metal textured surface, sandblasting, and sandpaper. However, these gripping systems are regularly not adequate to sufficiently secure the tested specimens to the shearing device. This has led to large variability in test results and difficulties in results interpretation. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the effects of gripping systems in geosynthetic interface shear strength testing using a 300 x 300 mm direct shear box. The results of the research will contribute to easy data interpretation and increase result accuracy and reproducibility.
Denoising of Magnetotelluric Signals by Filtering
In this paper, we present the advances corresponding to the denoising processing of magnetotelluric signals using several filters. In particular, we use the most common spatial domain filters such as median and mean, but we are also using the Fourier and wavelet transform for frequency domain filtering. We employ three datasets obtained at the different sampling rate (128, 4096 and 8192 bps) and evaluate the mean square error, signal-to-noise relation, and peak signal-to-noise relation to compare the kernels and determine the most suitable for each case. The magnetotelluric signals correspond to earth exploration when water is searched. The object is to find a denoising strategy different to the one included in the commercial equipment that is employed in this task.
Tree Resistance to Wind Storm: The Effects of Soil Saturation on Tree Anchorage of Young Pinus pinaster
Windstorm damage to European forests has ecological, social and economic consequences of major importance. Most trees during storms are uprooted. While a large amount of work has been done over the last decade on understanding the aerial tree response to turbulent wind flow, much less is known about the root-soil interface, and the impact of soil moisture and root-soil system fatiguing on tree uprooting. Anchorage strength is expected to be reduced by water-logging and heavy rain during storms due to soil strength decrease with soil water content. Our paper is focused on the maritime pine cultivated on sandy soil, as a representative species of the Forêt des Landes, the largest cultivated forest in Europe. This study aims at providing knowledge on the effects of soil saturation on root anchorage. Pulling experiments on trees were performed to characterize the resistance to wind by measuring the critical bending moment (Mc). Pulling tests were performed on 12 maritime pines of 13-years old for two unsaturated soil conditions that represent the soil conditions expected in winter when wind storms occur in France (w=11.46 to 23.34 % gg⁻¹). A magnetic field digitizing technique was used to characterize the three-dimensional architecture of root systems. The soil mechanical properties as function of soil water content were characterized by laboratory mechanical measurements as function of soil water content and soil porosity on remolded samples using direct shear tests at low confining pressure ( < 15 kPa). Remarkably Mc did not depend on w but mainly on the root system morphology. We suggested that the importance of soil water conditions on tree anchorage depends on the tree size. This study gives a new insight on young tree anchorage: roots may sustain by themselves anchorage, whereas adhesion between roots and surrounding soil may be negligible in sandy soil.
Plastic Deformation Behavior of a Pre-Bored Pile Filler Material Due to Lateral Cyclic Loading in Sandy Soil
The bridge structure is a building that has to be maintained, especially for the elastomeric bearing. The girder of the bridge needs to be lifted upward to maintain this elastomeric bearing, that needs high cost. Nowadays, integral abutment bridges are becoming popular. The integral abutment bridge is less costly because the elastomeric bearings are eliminated, which reduces the construction cost and maintenance costs. However, when this elastomeric bearing removed, the girder movement due to environmental thermal forces directly support by pile foundation, and it needs to be considered in the design. In case of pile foundation in a stiff soil, in the top area of the pile cannot move freely due to the fixed condition by soil stiffness. Pre-bored pile system can be used to increase the flexibility of pile foundation using a pre-bored hole that filled with elastic materials, but the behavior of soil-pile interaction and soil response due to this system is still rarely explained. In this paper, an experimental study using small-scale laboratory model test conducted in a half size model. Single flexible pile model embedded in sandy soil with the pre-bored ring, which filled with the filler material. The testing box made from an acrylic glass panel as observation area of the pile shaft to monitor the displacement of the pile during the lateral loading. The failure behavior of the soil inside the pre-bored ring and around the pile shaft was investigated to determine the point of pile rotation and the movement of this point due to the pre-bored ring system along the pile shaft. Digital images were used to capture the deformations of the soil and pile foundation during the loading from the acrylic glass on the side of the testing box. The results were presented in the form of lateral load resistance charts against the pile shaft displacement. The failure pattern result also established due to the cyclic lateral loading. The movement of the rotational point was measured due to the pre-bored system filled with appropriate filler material. Based on the findings, design considerations for pre-bored pile system due to cyclic lateral loading can be introduced.
Finite Element Simulation of an Offshore Monopile Subjected to Cyclic Loading Using Hypoplasticity with Intergranular Strain Anisotropy (ISA) for the Soil
Numerical simulations of offshore wind turbines (OWTs) in shallow waters demand sophisticated models considering the cyclic nature of the environmental loads. For the case of an OWT founded on sands, rapid loading may cause a reduction of the effective stress of the soil surrounding the structure. This eventually leads to its settlement, tilting, or other issues affecting its serviceability. In this work, a 3D FE model of an OWT founded on sand is constructed and analyzed. Cyclic loading with different histories is applied at certain points of the tower to simulate some environmental forces. The mechanical behavior of the soil is simulated through the recently proposed ISA-hypoplastic model for sands. The Intergranular Strain Anisotropy ISA can be interpreted as an enhancement of the intergranular strain theory, often used to extend hypoplastic formulations for the simulation of cyclic loading. In contrast to previous formulations, the proposed constitutive model introduces an elastic range for small strain amplitudes, includes the cyclic mobility effect and is able to capture the cyclic behavior of sands under a larger number of cycles. The model performance is carefully evaluated on the FE dynamic analysis of the OWT.
A Preliminary Study of Economic Dimension of Underground Rock Caverns for Water Storage at Singapore
Due to scarce land resources in Singapore, it is imperative to increase water storage capacities to meet the increasing demand of water to secure a sustainable development, which can be achieved in the underground by rock caverns. In this paper, a preliminary study on the effects of cavern span, height and radius on the cavern stability is presented to provide a guidance on the cavern construction in the context of Singapore. It is found that the radius of caverns should be around half of the span width (i.e., B/R=2) to reduce vertical displacement at the crown of cavern. The smaller the rock cover, the smaller displacement. The minimum rock thickness should be at least the same as the cavern span to eliminate excessive yielded element. Finally, rock support system is introduced to maintain the profile of caverns.
Investigation of Static Stability of Soil Slopes Using Numerical Modeling
Static stability of soil slopes using numerical simulation by a finite element code, ABAQUS, has been investigated, and safety factors of the slopes achieved in the case of static load of a 10-storey building. The embankments have the same soil condition but different loading distance from the slope heel. The numerical method for estimating safety factors is 'Strength Reduction Method' (SRM). Mohr-Coulomb criterion used in the numerical simulations. Two steps used for measuring the safety factors of the slopes: first is under gravity loading, and the second is under static loading of a building near the slope heel. These safety factors measured from SRM, are compared with the values from Limit Equilibrium Method, LEM. Results show that there is good agreement between SRM and LEM. Also, it is seen that by increasing the distance from slope heel, safety factors increases.
Determine of Design Variables and Target Reliability Indexes of Underground Structure
In Korea, a study on Limit State Design (LSD) for underground structures is being conducted in order to perform more effective design. In this study, as a result of MCS (Monte-Carlo Simulation) technique, failure probabilities of the structure during normal and earthquake are estimated in reliability analysis. Target reliability indexes are determined depending on load combinations for underground structure, and then, design variables such as load and material factors in LSD are decided. As a result, through the research in order to determine more reliable design variables, a specification of LSD for underground structures is able to be developed.
The Use of Geographic Information System Technologies for Geotechnical Monitoring of Pipeline Systems
Issues of obtaining unbiased data on the status of pipeline systems of oil- and oil product transportation become especially important when laying and operating pipelines under severe nature and climatic conditions. The essential attention is paid here to researching exogenous processes and their impact on linear facilities of the pipeline system. Reliable operation of pipelines under severe nature and climatic conditions, timely planning and implementation of compensating measures are only possible if operation conditions of pipeline systems are regularly monitored, and changes of permafrost soil and hydrological operation conditions are accounted for. One of the main reasons for emergency situations to appear is the geodynamic factor. Emergency situations are proved by the experience to occur within areas characterized by certain conditions of the environment and to develop according to similar scenarios depending on active processes. The analysis of natural and technical systems of main pipelines at different stages of monitoring gives a possibility of making a forecast of the change dynamics. The integration of GIS technologies, traditional means of geotechnical monitoring (in-line inspection, geodetic methods, field observations), and remote methods (aero-visual inspection, aero photo shooting, air and ground laser scanning) provides the most efficient solution of the problem. The united environment of geo information system (GIS) is a comfortable way to implement the monitoring system on the main pipelines since it provides means to describe a complex natural and technical system and every element thereof with any set of parameters. Such GIS enables a comfortable simulation of main pipelines (both in 2D and 3D), the analysis of situations and selection of recommendations to prevent negative natural or man-made processes and to mitigate their consequences. The specifics of such systems include: a multi-dimensions simulation of facilities in the pipeline system, math modelling of the processes to be observed, and the use of efficient numeric algorithms and software packets for forecasting and analyzing. We see one of the most interesting possibilities of using the monitoring results as generating of up-to-date 3D models of a facility and the surrounding area on the basis of aero laser scanning, data of aerophotoshooting, and data of in-line inspection and instrument measurements. The resulting 3D model shall be the basis of the information system providing means to store and process data of geotechnical observations with references to the facilities of the main pipeline; to plan compensating measures, and to control their implementation. The use of GISs for geotechnical monitoring of pipeline systems is aimed at improving the reliability of their operation, reducing the probability of negative events (accidents and disasters), and at mitigation of consequences thereof if they still are to occur.
An Analytical Approach to Calculate Thermo-Mechanical Stresses in Integral Abutment Bridge Piles
Integral abutment bridges are bridges that do not have joints. If these bridges are subject to large seasonal and daily temperature variations, the expansion and contraction of the bridge slab is transferred to the piles. Since the piles are deep into the soil, displacement induced by slab can cause bending and stresses in piles. These stresses cause fatigue and failure of piles. A complex mechanical interaction exists between the slab, pile, soil and abutment. This complex interaction needs to be understood in order to calculate the stresses in piles. This paper uses a mechanical approach in developing analytical equations for the complex structure to determine the stresses in piles. The solution to these analytical solutions is developed and compared with finite element analysis results and experimental data. Our comparison shows that using analytical approach can accurately predict the displacement in piles. This approach offers a simplified technique that can be utilized without the need for computationally extensive finite element model.
Determining G-γ Degradation Curve in Cohesive Soils by Dilatometer and in situ Seismic Tests
This article discusses the possibility of using dilatometer tests (DMT) together with in situ seismic tests (MASW) in order to get the shape of G-g degradation curve in cohesive soils (clay, silty clay, silt, clayey silt and sandy silt). MASW test provides the small soil stiffness (Go from vs) at very small strains and DMT provides the stiffness of the soil at ‘work strains’ (MDMT). At different test locations, dilatometer shear stiffness of the soil has been determined by the theory of elasticity. Dilatometer shear stiffness has been compared with the theoretical G-g degradation curve in order to determine the typical range of shear deformation for different types of cohesive soil. The analysis also includes factors that influence the shape of the degradation curve (G-g) and dilatometer modulus (MDMT), such as the overconsolidation ratio (OCR), plasticity index (IP) and the vertical effective stress in the soil (svo'). Parametric study in this article defines the range of shear strain gDMT and GDMT/Go relation depending on the classification of a cohesive soil (clay, silty clay, clayey silt, silt and sandy silt), function of density (loose, medium dense and dense) and the stiffness of the soil (soft, medium hard and hard). The article illustrates the potential of using MASW and DMT to obtain G-g degradation curve in cohesive soils.
A Resource Survey of Lateritic Soils and Impact Evaluation toward Community Members Living Nearby the Excavation Pits
The objectives of the research are to find the basic engineering properties of lateritic soil and to predict the impact on community members who live nearby the excavation pits in the area of Amphur Pak Thor, Ratchaburi Province in the western area of Thailand. The research was conducted by collecting soil samples from four excavation pits for basic engineering properties, testing and collecting questionnaire data from 120 community members who live nearby the excavation pits, and applying statistical analysis. The results found that the basic engineering properties of lateritic soil can be classified into silt soil type which is cohesionless as the loess or collapsible soil which is not suitable to be used for a pavement structure for commuting highway because it could lead to structural and functional failure in the long run. In terms of opinion from community members toward the impact, the highest impact was on the dust from excavation activities. The prediction from the logistic regression in terms of impact on community members was at 84.32 which can be adapted and applied onto other areas with the same context as a guideline for risk prevention and risk communication since it could impact the infrastructures and also impact the health of community members.
Optimal Mitigation of Slopes by Probabilistic Methods
A probabilistic formulation to assess the slopes safety under the hazard of strong storms is presented and illustrated through a slope in Mexico. The formulation is based on the classical safety factor (SF) used in practice to appraise the slope stability, but it is introduced the treatment of uncertainties, and the slope failure probability is calculated as the probability that SF<1. As the main hazard is the rainfall on the area, statistics of rainfall intensity and duration are considered and modeled with an exponential distribution. The expected life-cycle cost is assessed by considering a monetary value on the slope failure consequences. Alternative mitigation measures are simulated, and the formulation is used to get the measures driving to the optimal one (minimum life-cycle costs). For the example, the optimal mitigation measure is the reduction on the slope inclination angle.
Influence of Infinite Elements in Vibration Analysis of High-Speed Railway Track
The idea of increasing the existing train speeds and introduction of the high-speed trains in India as a part of Vision-2020 is really challenging from both economic viability and technical feasibility. More than economic viability, technical feasibility has to be thoroughly checked for safe operation and execution. Trains moving at high speeds need a well-established firm and safe track thoroughly tested against vibration effects. With increased speeds of trains, the track structure and layered soil-structure interaction have to be critically assessed for vibration and displacements. Physical establishment of track, testing and experimentation is a costly and time taking process. Software-based modelling and simulation give relatively reliable, cost-effective means of testing effects of critical parameters like sleeper design and density, properties of track and sub-grade, etc. The present paper reports the applicability of infinite elements in reducing the unrealistic stress-wave reflections from so-called soil-structure interface. The influence of the infinite elements is quantified in terms of the displacement time histories of adjoining soil and the deformation pattern in general. In addition, the railhead response histories at various locations show that the numerical model is realistic without any aberrations at the boundaries. The numerical model is quite promising in its ability to simulate the critical parameters of track design.
Impact of Interface Soil Layer on Groundwater Aquifer Behaviour
The geological environment where the groundwater is collected represents the most important element that affects the behaviour of groundwater aquifer. As groundwater is a worldwide vital resource, it requires knowing the parameters that affect this source accurately so that the conceptualized mathematical models would be acceptable to the broadest ranges. Therefore, groundwater models have recently become an effective and efficient tool to investigate groundwater aquifer behaviours. Groundwater aquifer may contain aquitards, aquicludes, or interfaces within its geological formations. Aquitards and aquicludes have geological formations that forced the modellers to include those formations within the conceptualized groundwater models, while interfaces are commonly neglected from the conceptualization process because the modellers believe that the interface has no effect on aquifer behaviour. The current research highlights the impact of an interface existing in a real unconfined groundwater aquifer called Dibdibba, located in Al-Najaf City, Iraq where it has a river called the Euphrates River that passes through the eastern part of this city. Dibdibba groundwater aquifer consists of two types of soil layers separated by an interface soil layer. A groundwater model is built for Al-Najaf City to explore the impact of this interface. Calibration process is done using PEST 'Parameter ESTimation' approach and the best Dibdibba groundwater model is obtained. When the soil interface is conceptualized, results show that the groundwater tables are significantly affected by that interface through appearing dry areas of 56.24 km² and 6.16 km² in the upper and lower layers of the aquifer, respectively. The Euphrates River will also leak water into the groundwater aquifer of 7359 m³/day. While these results are changed when the soil interface is neglected where the dry area became 0.16 km², the Euphrates River leakage became 6334 m³/day. In addition, the conceptualized models (with and without interface) reveal different responses for the change in the recharge rates applied on the aquifer through the uncertainty analysis test. The aquifer of Dibdibba in Al-Najaf City shows a slight deficit in the amount of water supplied by the current pumping scheme and also notices that the Euphrates River suffers from stresses applied to the aquifer. Ultimately, this study shows a crucial need to represent the interface soil layer in model conceptualization to be the intended and future predicted behaviours more reliable for consideration purposes.
An Automated Approach to the Nozzle Configuration of Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Drill Bits for Effective Cuttings Removal
Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drill bits are extensively used in the oil and gas industry as well as the mining industry. Industry engineers continually improve upon PDC drill bit designs and hydraulic conditions. Optimized injection nozzles play a key role in improving the drilling performance and efficiency of these ever changing PDC drill bits. In the first part of this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling is performed to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of drilling fluid flow around the PDC drill bit. An Open-source CFD software – OpenFOAM simulates the flow around the drill bit, based on the field input data. A specifically developed console application integrates the entire CFD process including, domain extraction, meshing, and solving governing equations and post-processing. The results from the OpenFOAM solver are then compared with that of the ANSYS Fluent software. The data from both software programs agree. The second part of the paper describes the parametric study of the PDC drill bit nozzle to determine the effect of parameters such as number of nozzles, nozzle velocity, nozzle radial position and orientations on the flow field characteristics and bit washing patterns. After analyzing a series of nozzle configurations, the best configuration is identified and recommendations are made for modifying the PDC bit design.