Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 45197

Health and Medical Engineering

Mobile Health Approaches in the Management of Breast Cancer: A Qualitative Content Analysis
mHealth, which encompasses mobile health technologies and interventions, is rapidly evolving in various medical specialties, and its impact is evident in oncology. This review describes current trends in research addressing the integration of mHealth into the management of breast cancer by examining evaluations of mHealth and its contributions across the cancer care continuum. Mobile technologies are perceived as effective in prevention and as feasible for managing breast cancer, but the diagnostic accuracy of these tools remains in doubt. Not all phases of breast cancer treatment involve mHealth, and not all have been addressed by research. These drawbacks in the application of mHealth to breast cancer management call for intensified research to strengthen its role in breast cancer care.
The Intention to Use Telecare in People of Fall Experience: Application of Fuzzy Neural Network
This study examined their willingness to use telecare for people who have had experience falling in the last three months in Taiwan. This study adopted convenience sampling and a structural questionnaire to collect data. It was based on the definition and the constructs related to the Health Belief Model (HBM). HBM is comprised of seven constructs: perceived benefits (PBs), perceived disease threat (PDT), perceived barriers of taking action (PBTA), external cues to action (ECUE), internal cues to action (ICUE), attitude toward using (ATT), and behavioral intention to use (BI). This study adopted Fuzzy Neural Network (FNN) to put forward an effective method. It shows the dependence of ATT on PB, PDT, PBTA, ECUE, and ICUE. The training and testing data RMSE (root mean square error) are 0.028 and 0.166 in the FNN, respectively. The training and testing data RMSE are 0.828 and 0.578 in the regression model, respectively. On the other hand, as to the dependence of ATT on BI, as presented in the FNN, the training and testing data RMSE are 0.050 and 0.109, respectively. The training and testing data RMSE are 0.529 and 0.571 in the regression model, respectively. The results show that the FNN method is better than the regression analysis. It is an effective and viable good way.
Using Artificial Intelligence Method to Explore the Important Factors in the Reuse of Telecare by the Elderly
This research used artificial intelligence method to explore elderly’s opinions on the reuse of telecare, its effect on their service quality, satisfaction and the relationship between customer perceived value and intention to reuse. This study conducted a questionnaire survey on the elderly. A total of 124 valid copies of a questionnaire were obtained. It adopted Backpropagation Network (BPN) to propose an effective and feasible analysis method, which is different from the traditional method. Two third of the total samples (82 samples) were taken as the training data, and the one third of the samples (42 samples) were taken as the testing data. The training and testing data RMSE (root mean square error) are 0.022 and 0.009 in the BPN, respectively. As shown, the errors are acceptable. On the other hand, the training and testing data RMSE are 0.100 and 0.099 in the regression model, respectively. In addition, the results showed the service quality has the greatest effects on the intention to reuse, followed by the satisfaction, and perceived value. This result of the Backpropagation Network method is better than the regression analysis. This result can be used as a reference for future research.
A Comparative Study on the Use of Learning Resources in Learning Biochemistry by MBBS Students at Ras Al Khaimah Medical and Health Sciences University, UAE
The undergraduate medical curriculum is oriented towards training the students to undertake the responsibilities of a physician. During the training period, adequate emphasis is placed on inculcating logical and scientific habits of thought; clarity of expression and independence of judgment; and ability to collect and analyze information and to correlate them. At Ras Al Khaimah Medical and Health Sciences University (RAKMHSU), Biochemistry a basic medical science subject is taught in the 1st year of 5 years medical course with vertical interdisciplinary interaction with all subjects, which needs to be taught and learned adequately by the students to be related to clinical case or clinical problem in medicine and future diagnostics so that they can practice confidently and skillfully in the community. Based on these facts study was done to know the extent of usage of library resources by the students and the impact of study materials on their preparation for examination. It was a comparative cross sectional study included 100 and 80 1st and 2nd-year students who had successfully completed Biochemistry course. The purpose of the study was explained to all students [participants]. Information was collected on a pre-designed, pre-tested and self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was validated by the senior faculties and pre tested on students who were not involved in the study. The study results showed that 80.30% and 93.15% of 1st and 2nd year students have the clear idea of course outline given in course handout or study guide. We also found a statistically significant number of students agreed that they were benefited from the practical session and writing notes in the class hour. A high percentage of students [50% and 62.02%] disagreed that that reading only the handouts is enough for their examination as compared to other students. The study also showed that only 35% and 41% of students visited the library on daily basis for the learning process, around 65% of students were using lecture notes and text books as a tool for learning and to understand the subject and 45% and 53% of students used the library resources (recommended text books) compared to online sources before the examinations. The results presented here show that students perceived that e-learning resources like power point presentations along with text book reading using SQ4R technique had made a positive impact on various aspects of their learning in Biochemistry. The use of library by students has overall positive impact on learning process especially in medical field enhances the outcome, and medical students are better equipped to treat the patient. But it’s also true that use of library use has been in decline which will impact the knowledge aspects and outcome. In conclusion, a student has to be taught how to use the library as learning tool apart from lecture handouts.
Analyzing the Readiness of Resuscitation Team during Cardiac Arrest
Introduction: A successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation during a sudden cardiac arrest can be delayed by different components including new hospital setting, lack of adequate training, lack of pre-established resuscitation team and ineffective communication and lead to an unexpected outcome which is death. The main objective of the study was to assess the readiness of resuscitation teams during cardiac arrest and the organizational approaches that would best support their functioning in a new hospital facility, and to detect any factor that may have contributed to responses. This study analyses the readiness of Resuscitation Team (RT) during cardiac arrest. —Material and methods: A prospective Analytic design was carried out at a newly established United Nations level 2 hospital facility, on four RTM (resuscitation team member). A semi structured questionnaire was used to collect data. —Results: This study highlights indicate that the response time during cardiac arrest simulation meet both American heart association (AHA) and European resuscitation council guidelines. The study offers useful evidence about the impact of a new facility on RTM performance and provides an exposure of staff to emergency events within the Work setting.
Applied Transdisciplinary Undergraduate Research in Costa Rica: Five Weeks Faculty-Led Study Abroad Model
This session explains the process and lessons learned as Central College (USA) faculty and staff developed undergraduate research opportunities within the model of a short-term faculty-led study abroad program in Costa Rica. The program in Costa Rica increases access to research opportunities across the disciplines and was developed by faculty from English, Biology, and Exercise Science. Session attendees will benefit from learning how faculty and staff navigated the program proposal process at a small liberal arts college and, in particular, how the program was built to be inclusive of departments with lower enrollment, like those currently seen in the humanities. Vital to this last point, presenters will explain how they negotiated issues of research supervision and disciplinary authority in such a way that the program is open to students from multiple disciplines without forcing the program budget to absorb costs for multiple faculty supervisors traveling and living in-country. Additionally, session attendees will learn how scouting laid the groundwork for mutually beneficial relationships between the program and the communities with which it collaborates. Presenters will explain how they built a coalition of students, faculty advisors, study abroad staff and local research hosts to support the development of research questions that are of value not just to the students, but to the community in which the research will take place. This program also incorporates principles of fair-trade learning by intentionally reporting research findings to local community members, as well as encouraging students to proactively share their research as a way to connect with local people.
Classification Method for Turnover While Sleeping Using Multi-Point Unconstrained Sensing Devices
Elderly population in the world is increasing, and consequently, their nursing burden is also increasing. In such situations, monitoring and evaluating their daily action facilitates efficient nursing care. Especially, we focus on an unconscious activity during sleep, i.e. turnover. Monitoring turnover during sleep is essential to evaluate various conditions related to sleep. Bedsores are considered as one of the monitoring conditions. Changing patient’s posture every two hours is required for caregivers to prevent bedsore. Herein, we attempt to develop an unconstrained nocturnal monitoring system using a sensing device based on piezoelectric ceramics that can detect the vibrations owing to human body movement on the bed. In the proposed method, in order to construct a multi-points sensing, we placed two sensing devices under the right and left legs at the head-side of an ordinary bed. Using this equipment, when a subject lies on the bed, feature is calculated from the output voltages of the sensing devices. In order to evaluate our proposed method, we conducted an experiment with six healthy male subjects. Consequently, the period during which turnover occurs can be correctly classified as the turnover period with 100% accuracy.
The Happy Workplace Program Promoting Health Literate Workplace in Thai Garment Industry
This action research on the happy workplace program (HWP) promoting health literate workplace (HLW) in Thai Garment Industry Companies aimed to categorize activities promoting HLW and results of HWP in the Thai garment industry. Thirteen program reports purposely selected from sampled companies. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t-test and content analysis. The results showed that the end of the program, the significant higher levels of work skills, life skills, and factors promoting happy workplace were found compared to before the program in all 13 companies. The activities and results of the HWP could be categorized in five steps of implementing an HWP, compared with the attributes of HLW were composed of 1) Leadership promotion; 2) Preparing workforce; 3) Planning, evaluating, and improving; 4) Communicating effectively; and 5) Designing easy to use materials and ensuring easy access.
The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care and Swaddling Method on Venipuncture Pain in Premature Infant: Randomized Clinical Trials
Objective: The hospitalized premature babies often undergo various painful procedures such as venous sampling. The Kangaroo mother care (KMC) method is one of the pain reduction methods, but as mother’s presence is not always possible, this research was done to compare the effect of swaddling and KMC method on venous sampling pain on premature neonates. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial 90 premature infants selected and randomly alocated into three groups; Group A (swaddling), Group B (the kangaroo care), and group C (the control). From 10 minutes before blood sampling to 2 minutes after that in group A, the infant was wrapped in a thin sheet, and in group B, the infant was under Kangaroo care. In all three groups, the heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation in time intervals of 30 seconds before, during, 30-60-90, and 120 seconds after sampling were measured and recorded. The infant’s face was video recorded since sampling till 2 minutes and the videos were checked by a researcher who was unaware of the kind of intervention and the pain assessment tools for infants (PIPP) for time intervals of 30 seconds were completed. Data analyzed by t-test, Q square, Repeated Measure ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Post-hoc and Bonferroni test. Results: Findings revealed that the pain was reduced to a great extent in swaddling and kangaroo method compared to that in control group. But there was not a significant difference between kangaroo and swaddling care method (P ≥ 0.05). In addition, the findings showed that the heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation was low and stable in swaddling and Kangaroo care method and returned to base status faster, whereas, the changes were severe in control group and did not return to base status even after 120 seconds. Discussion: The results of this study showed that there was not a meaningful difference between swaddling and kangaroo care method on physiological indexes and pain in infants. Therefore, swaddling method can be a good substitute for kangaroo care method in this regard.
The Right to Receive Alternative Health Care as a Part of the Right to Health
The right to health care – usually known as the right to health – is recognized in many national laws and Constitutions, as well as in international human rights documents. The kind of health care that citizens are entitled to receive, especially in the framework of the National Health Service, is usually identified with conventional medicine. However, since ancient times that a different form of medicine – alternative, traditional or nonconventional medicine – exists. In recent times it is attracting increasing interest, as it is demonstrated by the use of its specific knowledge either by pharmaceutical companies either by modern health technologies. Alternative medicine refers to a holistic approach to body and mind using herbal products, animal parts and minerals instead of technology and pharmaceutical drugs. These notes contributed to a sense of distrust towards it, accusing alternative medicine of being based on superstition and ignorance. However, and without denying that some particular practices lack indeed any kind of evidence or scientific grounds, the fact is that a substantial part of alternative medicine can actually produce satisfactory results. The paper will not advocate the substitution of conventional medicine by alternative medicine, but the complementation between the two and their specific knowledge. In terms of the right to health, as a fundamental right and a human right, this thesis leads to the implementation of a wider range of therapeutic choices for patients, who should be entitled to receive different forms of health care that complement one another, both in public and private health facilities. This scenario would demand a proper regulation for alternative medicine, which nowadays does not exist in most countries, but it is essential to protect patients and public health in general and to reinforce confidence in alternative medicine.
Integrated Approach to Reduce Intimate Partner Violence and Improve Mental Health among Pregnant Women: Mixed-Method Study from Nepal
Background: Violence during pregnancy is global public health problem incurring huge amount of social, economic and human costs. It is of particular concern as it affects health of mother, neonates and also disrupt family functioning. Mental illness is one of its commonest consequences affecting both mother and baby and likely to be chronic if left unattended. Past decade has seen advances in knowledge about different forms of violence, its health impacts and intervention/s helping to confront the violence. However, limited range and lack of consistency in measurable outcomes undermine overall effect of interventions, and available evidence are largely slanted towards high-income countries. Despite recognition of integrating screening and counselling for abused pregnant women in health settings, there is a dearth of evidence on its effectiveness from developing countries limiting its applicability and feasibility. This study intends to summarise the high-quality evidence on intimate partner violence interventions in reducing violence and improving mental health and implement the promising intervention in our context. Methods: Quantitative systematic review will be done using PRISMA statement and based on its finding; randomised controlled intervention will be carried out. The study will be conducted among women attending ANC clinic of Dhulikhel Hospital, Nepal. Being the pilot study, samples just adequate to draw the inferences i.e. not less than 30 in each arm will be taken. Phenomological approach will be used to explore the strengths and weaknesses of tested intervention and recommendations for better planning in future. Conclusion: This study intends to provide concrete evidence on what works best in our context and will assist policymakers, programme planners, donors in informed decision making.
Technology Transfer of Indigenous Technologies: Emerging Aid to Indian Health Sector
India is battling with the issues of accessibility, affordability and availability of quality health to the masses. Indian medical heritage which dated back to 3000 BC unveils the rich knowledge pool which has undergone a perceptible change over years, such as eradication of many communicable diseases, increasing individual awareness of quality health and import driven medical device market etc. Despite a slew of initiatives the holistic slogan of ‘health for all’ remains elusive and a concern for the nation. The 21st-century projects a myriad of challenges like cultural diversity, large population, demographic dividend and geographical segmentation leading to varied needs of people as per their regional conditions of climate, disease prevalence, nutrition and sanitation. But these challenges are also opportunities for the development of indigenous, low cost and accessible technologies to tackle them. This requires reinforcing the potential of indigenous technologies in coordination with prevailing health issues in various regions of country. This paper emphasis on the strategy for exploring the indigenous technologies with entrusted up-scaling to meet the diverse needs of the people. This review proposes to adopt technology transfer as a strategy to establish a vibrant ecosystem for identifying and up-scaling the indigenous medical technologies with diligent hand-holding for public health.
The Impact of Inpatient New Boarding Policy on Emergency Department Overcrowding: A Discrete Event Simulation Study
In this study, we investigate the effect of a new boarding policy - short stay, on the overcrowding efficiency in emergency department (ED). The decision variables are no. of short stay beds for least acuity ED patients. The performance measurements used are national emergency department overcrowding score (NEDOCS) and ED retention rate (the percentage that patients stay in ED over than 48 hours in one month). Discrete event simulation (DES) is used as an analysis tool to evaluate the strategy. Also, common random number (CRN) technique is applied to enhance the simulation precision. The DES model was based on a census of 6 months' patients who were treated in the ED of the National Taiwan University Hospital Yunlin Branch. Our results show that the new short-stay boarding significantly impacts both the NEDOCS and ED retention rate when the no. of short stay beds is more than three.
The Effect of Smartphones on Human Health Relative to User’s Addiction: A Study on a Wide Range of Audiences in Jordan
The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the excessive use of smartphones. Smartphones have enormous effects on the human body in that some musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and health problems might evolve. These days, there is a wide use of the smartphones among all age groups of society, thus, the focus on smartphone effects on human behavior and health, especially on the young and elderly people, becomes a crucial issue. This study was conducted in Jordan on smartphone users for different genders and ages, by conducting a survey to collect data related to the symptoms and MSDs that are resulted from the excessive use of smartphones. A total of 357 responses were used in the analysis. The main related symptoms were numbness, fingers pain, and pain in arm, all linked to age and gender for comparative reasons. A statistical analysis was performed to find the effects of extensive usage of a smartphone for long periods of time on the human body. Results show that the significant variables were the vision problems and the time spent when using the smartphone that cause vision problems. Other variables including age of user and ear problems due to the use of the headsets were found to be a border line significant.
The Bioequivalent: A Medical Drug Search Tool Based on a Collaborative Database
During the last couple of years, the Ministry of Health have been developing new health policies in order to regulate and improve in benefit of the patient the pharmaceutical system in our country. However, there are still some deficiencies in how medicines have been accessed, distributed, and sold. Therefore, it is necessary to empower the patient by offering new instances to improve access to drug information. This work introduces ‘the bioequivalent’ a medical drug search tool created to increase both diffusion and getting information about the therapeutic equivalence of medicines for the patient. The development of the search tool started with a study on the availability of sources of drug information accessible to the patient where advantages and disadvantages were analyzed. The information obtained was used to feed the functional design of the new tool. The design of the new tool shows an external interface that includes a header, body, sidebar and footer. The header has a menu containing ‘Home,’ ‘Who we are,’ and ‘Mission and vision.’ The Body contains the medical drug search tool, and the Sidebar is for the user logging in. It could be anonym, registered user, as well as, administrator. Anonym user could only use the tool. Registered users could add some information on existing medicines in the database; however, adding information will be restricted and limited to specific items and subject to administrator approval because the information added must be endorsed by the Chilean Public Health Institute. On the other hand, the administrator will have all the privileges, including creating or deleting drugs or information about them. The Bioequivalent was tested on different mobile devices, and no fails have been found. Moreover, a small survey was answered by ten people who tested the tool, and all of them agree that the tool was useful to get information about bioequivalent drugs, and they would recommend the tool to others. Nevertheless, an 80% of people who tested the tool says it was easy to use, and a 70% indicates that additional help is not required. These results are evidence that ‘the Bioequivalent’ may contribute to the knowledge about the therapeutic bioequivalence and bioequivalent drugs existing in Chile. As future work, the tool will be developed to make it available to the public for a first testing stage in a more massive scenario.
Incorporating Information Gain in Regular Expressions Based Classifiers
A regular expression consists of sequence characters which allow describing a text path. Usually, in clinical research, regular expressions are manually created by programmers together with domain experts. Lately, there have been several efforts to investigate how to generate them automatically. This article presents a text classification algorithm based on regexes. The algorithm named REX was designed, and then, implemented as a simplified method to create regexes to classify Spanish text automatically. In order to classify ambiguous cases, such as, when multiple labels are assigned to a testing example, REX includes an information gain method Two sets of data were used to evaluate the algorithm’s effectiveness in clinical text classification tasks. The results indicate that the regular expression based classifier proposed in this work performs statically better regarding accuracy and F-measure than Support Vector Machine and Naïve Bayes for both datasets.
A Case Study of Clinicians’ Perceptions of Enterprise Content Management at Tygerberg Hospital
Healthcare is a human right. The sensitivity of health issues has necessitated the introduction of Enterprise Content Management (ECM) at district hospitals in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The objective is understanding clinicians’ perception of ECM at their workplace. It is a descriptive case study design of constructivist paradigm. It employed a phenomenological data analysis method using a pattern matching deductive based analytical procedure. Purposive and s4nowball sampling techniques were applied in selecting participants. Clinicians expressed concerns and frustrations using ECM such as, non-integration with other hospital systems. Inadequate access points to ECM. Incorrect labelling of notes and bar-coding causes more time wasted in finding information. System features and/or functions (such as search and edit) are not possible. Hospital management and clinicians are not constantly interacting and discussing. Information turnaround time is unacceptably lengthy. Resolving these problems would involve a positive working relationship between hospital management and clinicians. In addition, prioritising the problems faced by clinicians in relation to relevance can ensure problem-solving in order to meet clinicians’ expectations and hospitals’ objective. Clinicians’ perception should invoke attention from hospital management with regards technology use. The study’s results can be generalised across clinician groupings exposed to ECM at various district hospitals because of professional and hospital homogeneity.
Ethical Decision-Making by Healthcare Professionals during Disasters: Izmir Province Case
Disasters could result in many deaths and injuries. In these difficult times, accessible resources are limited, demand and supply balance is distorted, and there is a need to make urgent interventions. Disproportionateness between accessible resources and intervention capacity makes triage a necessity in every stage of disaster response. Healthcare professionals, who are in charge of triage, have to evaluate swiftly and make ethical decisions about which patients need priority and urgent intervention given the limited available resources. For such critical times in disaster triage, 'doing the greatest good for the greatest number of casualties' is adopted as a code of practice. But there is no guide for healthcare professionals about ethical decision-making during disasters, and this study is expected to use as a source in the preparation of the guide. This study aimed to examine whether the qualities healthcare professionals in Izmir related to disaster triage were adequate and whether these qualities influence their capacity to make ethical decisions. The researcher used a survey developed for data collection. The survey included two parts. In part one, 14 questions solicited information about socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge levels of the respondents on ethical principles of disaster triage and allocation of scarce resources. Part two included four disaster scenarios adopted from existing literature and respondents were asked to make ethical decisions in triage based on the provided scenarios. The survey was completed by 215 healthcare professional working in Emergency-Medical Stations, National Medical Rescue Teams and Search-Rescue-Health Teams in Izmir. The data was analyzed with SPSS software. Chi-Square Test, Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal-Wallis Test and Linear Regression Analysis were utilized. According to results, it was determined that 51.2% of the participants had inadequate knowledge level of ethical principles of disaster triage and allocation of scarce resources. It was also found that participants did not tend to make ethical decisions on four disaster scenarios which included ethical dilemmas. They stayed in ethical dilemmas that perform cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, manage limited resources and make decisions to die. Results also showed that participants who had more experience in disaster triage teams, were more likely to make ethical decisions on disaster triage than those with little or no experience in disaster triage teams(p < 0.01). Moreover, as their knowledge level of ethical principles of disaster triage and allocation of scarce resources increased, their tendency to make ethical decisions also increased(p < 0.001). In conclusion, having inadequate knowledge level of ethical principles and being inexperienced affect their ethical decision-making during disasters. So results of this study suggest that more training on disaster triage should be provided on the areas of the pre-impact phase of disaster. In addition, ethical dimension of disaster triage should be included in the syllabi of the ethics classes in the vocational training for healthcare professionals. Drill, simulations, and board exercises can be used to improve ethical decision making abilities of healthcare professionals. Disaster scenarios where ethical dilemmas are faced should be prepared for such applied training programs.
Iot-Based Interactive Patient Identification and Safety Management System
We believe that it is possible to provide a solution to reduce patient safety accidents by displaying correct medical records and prescription information through interactive patient identification. Our system is based on the use of smart bands worn by patients and these bands communicate with the hybrid gateways which understand both BLE and Wifi communication protocols. Through the convergence of low-power Bluetooth (BLE) and hybrid gateway technology, which is one of short-range wireless communication technologies, we implement ‘Intelligent Patient Identification and Location Tracking System’ to prevent medical malfunction frequently occurring in medical institutions. Based on big data and IOT technology using MongoDB, smart band (BLE, NFC function) and hybrid gateway, we develop a system to enable two-way communication between medical staff and hospitalized patients as well as to store locational information of the patients in minutes. Based on the precise information provided using big data systems, such as location tracking and movement of in-hospital patients wearing smart bands, our findings include the fact that a patient-specific location tracking algorithm can more efficiently operate HIS (Hospital Information System) and other related systems. Through the system, we can always correctly identify patients using identification tags. In addition, the system automatically determines whether the patient is a scheduled for medical service by the system in use at the medical institution, and displays the appropriateness of the medical treatment and the medical information (medical record and prescription information) on the screen and voice. This work was supported in part by the Korea Technology and Information Promotion Agency for SMEs (TIPA) grant funded by the Korean Small and Medium Business Administration (No. S2410390).
A Multicenter Assessment on Psychological Well-Being Status among Medical Residents in the United Arab Emirates
Objective: Healthcare transformation from traditional to modern in the country recently prompted the need to address career choices, accreditation perception and satisfaction among medical residents. However, a concerted nationwide study to understand and address burnout in the medical residency program has not been conducted in the UAE and the region. Methods: A nationwide, multicenter, cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate professional burnout and depression among medical residents in order to address the gap. Results: Our results indicate that 75.5% (216/286) of UAE medical residents had moderate to high emotional exhaustion, 84% (249/298) had high depersonalization, and 74% (216/291) had a low sense of personal accomplishment. In aggregate, 70% (212/302) of medical residents were considered to be experiencing at least one symptom of burnout based on a high emotional exhaustion score or a high depersonalization score. Depression ranging from 6-22%, depending on the specialty was also striking given the fact the Arab culture lays high emphasis on family bonding. Interestingly 83% (40/48) of medical residents who had high scores for depression also reported burnout. Conclusion: Our data indicate that burnout and depression among medical residents is epidemic. There is an immediate need to address burnout through effective interventions at both the individual and institutional levels. It is imperative to reconfigure the approach to medical training for the well-being of the next generation of physicians in the Arab world.
Synthesis of Beetosan's Hydrogels with Yellow Tea
The aim of the study was to select the best conditions for the synthesis of Beetosan's hydrogels with yellow tea. The study determined recipe hydrogel matrix by selecting the appropriate ratio of substrates and to investigate the effect of yellow tea, on the structure and properties of the hydrogel materials. The scope of the research included both to obtain of raw materials required for the synthesis of hydrogel materials, as well as an assessment of their properties. In the first stage of research Beetosan (chitosan derived from bees), and extract the yellow tea China Kekecha was obtained. The second stage was synthesis hydrogels modified by yellow tea. The synthesis of polymeric matrix was preparation under UV radiation. Obtained hydrogel materials were investigated extensively using incubation investigations, absorption capacity, and spectroscopic (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. Moreover, there was also performed the surface wettability test and a photomicrograph of the structure using scanning electron microscope. Analysis of the obtained results confirms that presence of yellow tea does not significantly affect the behavior of the hydrogels in the incubation fluids. The results show that hydrogel materials exhibit compatibility with the incubatory solutions and they also retain the stability in the tested liquids. Hydrogels obtained in this method might be applied in the cosmetics industry and in the field of medicine. This is possible due to the many interesting properties of tea and biocompatibility and non-toxicity hydrogel materials. The authors would like to thank the The National Centre for Research and Development (Grant no: LIDER/033/697/L-5/13/NCBR/2014) for providing financial support to this project.
Effect of Goat Milk Kefir and Soy Milk Kefir on IL-6 in Diabetes Mellitus Wistar Mice Models Induced by Streptozotocin and Nicotinamide
Hyperglycemia in Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is an important factor in cellular and vascular damage, which is caused by activation of C Protein Kinase, polyol and hexosamine track, and production of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGE). Those mentioned before causes the accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Oxidative stress increases the expression of proinflammatory factors IL-6 as one of many signs of endothelial disfunction. Genistein in soy milk has a high immunomodulator potential. Goat milk contains amino acids which have antioxidative potential. Fermented kefir has an anti-inflammatory activity which believed will also contribute in potentiating goat milk and soy milk. This study is a quasi-experimental posttest-only research to 30 Wistar mice. This study compared the levels of IL-6 between healthy Wistar mice group (G1) and 4 DM Wistar mice with intervention and grouped as follows: mice without treatment (G2), mice treated with 100% goat milk kefir (G3), mice treated with combination of 50% goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir (G4), and mice treated with 100% soy milk kefir (G5). DM animal models were induced with Streptozotocin & Nicotinamide to achieve hyperglycemic condition. Goat milk kefir and soy milk kefir are given at a dose of 2 mL/kg body weight/day for four weeks to intervention groups. Blood glucose was analyzed by the GOD-POD principle. IL-6 was analyzed by enzyme-linked sandwich ELISA. The level of IL-6 in DM untreated control group (G2) showed a significant difference from the group treated with the combination of 50% goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir (G3) (p=0,006) and the group treated with 100% soy milk kefir (G5) (p=0,009). Whereas the difference of IL-6 in group treated with 100% goat milk kefir (G3) was not significant (p=0,131). There is also synergism between glucose level and IL-6 in intervention groups treated with combination of 50% goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir (G3) and the group treated with 100% soy milk kefir (G5). Combination of 50 % goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir and administration of 100% soy milk kefir alone can control the level of IL-6 remained low in DM Wistar mice induced with streptozocin and nicotinamide.
Sexual Quality of Life in Women with Gynecological Cancer
The aim of this study is to investigate sexual quality of life in women with gynecological cancer. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 37 women with gynecological cancer and 39 control women (in menopausal term) at the Gynecooncology and Menopause Clinics of Trakya University Medical Faculty between January and July 2015. Women who had sexual active and willing to participate in the study filled an information form inquiring socio-demographic characteristics and Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire-Female (SQLQ-F). Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney-U test and Kruskal-Wallis test. The average age of the women was 52.7 ± 7.6 (51.2 ± 8.7 in women with gynecological cancer, 54.3 ± 6.0 in controls). The SQOL-F scores in women with gynecologic cancer (60.8 ± 22.4) was lower than controls (63.5 ± 20.7), however, there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.759). Women with gynecological cancer who had vaginal dryness and pain during sexual intercourse (45.7 ± 21.3) were lower SQOL-F total score than control group (66.0 ± 21.7) (p = 0.014). The SQOL-F scores in women who took chemotherapy treatment (55.7 ± 17.8) were lower than in women who had not chemotherapy treatment (86.8 ± 16.6) (p = 0.005). In conclusion, taking chemotherapy treatment and occurring vaginal dryness and pain complaints during sexual intercourse in women with gynecological cancer reduces sexual quality of life. Therefore, sexual quality of life in women with gynecological cancer should be evaluated, and they should be supported in order to improve their sexual quality of life.
Using the Smith-Waterman Algorithm to Extract Features in the Classification of Obesity Status
Text categorization is the problem of assigning a new document to a set of predetermined categories, on the basis of a training set of free-text data that contains documents whose category membership is known. To train a classification model, it is necessary to extract characteristics in the form of tokens that facilitate the learning and classification process. In text categorization, the feature extraction process involves the use of word sequences also known as N-grams. In general, it is expected that documents belonging to the same category share similar features. The Smith-Waterman (SW) algorithm is a dynamic programming algorithm that performs a local sequence alignment in order to determine similar regions between two strings or protein sequences. This work explores the use of SW algorithm as an alternative to feature extraction in text categorization. The dataset used for this purpose, contains 2,610 annotated documents with the classes Obese/Non-Obese. This dataset was represented in a matrix form using the Bag of Word approach. The score selected to represent the occurrence of the tokens in each document was the term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF). In order to extract features for classification, four experiments were conducted: the first experiment used SW to extract features, the second one used unigrams (single word), the third one used bigrams (two word sequence) and the last experiment used a combination of unigrams and bigrams to extract features for classification. To test the effectiveness of the extracted feature set for the four experiments, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier was tuned using 20% of the dataset. The remaining 80% of the dataset together with 5-Fold Cross Validation were used to evaluate and compare the performance of the four experiments of feature extraction. Results from the tuning process suggest that SW performs better than the N-gram based feature extraction. These results were confirmed by using the remaining 80% of the dataset, where SW performed the best (accuracy = 97.10%, weighted average F-measure = 97.07%). The second best was obtained by the combination of unigrams-bigrams (accuracy = 96.04, weighted average F-measure = 95.97) closely followed by the bigrams (accuracy = 94.56%, weighted average F-measure = 94.46%) and finally unigrams (accuracy = 92.96%, weighted average F-measure = 92.90%).
Fast and Accurate Model to Detect Ictal Waveforms in Electroencephalogram Signals
Visual inspection of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to detect epileptic signals is very challenging and time-consuming task even for any expert neurophysiologist. This problem is most challenging in under-developed and developing countries due to shortage of skilled neurophysiologists. In the past, notable research efforts have gone in trying to automate the seizure detection process. However, due to high false alarm detections and complexity of the models developed so far, have vastly delimited their practical implementation. In this paper, we present a novel scheme for epileptic seizure detection using empirical mode decomposition technique. The intrinsic mode functions obtained were then used to calculate the standard deviations. This was followed by probability density based classifier to discriminate between non-ictal and ictal patterns in EEG signals. The model presented here demonstrated very high classification rates ( > 97%) without compromising the statistical performance. The computation timings for each testing phase were also very low ( < 0.029 s) which makes this model ideal for practical applications.
Cultural Collisions, Ethics and HIV: On Local Values in a Globalized Medical World
In 1988, parts of the scientific community still heralded findings to support that AIDS was likely to remain largely a ‘gay disease’. The value-ladden terminology of some of the articles suggested that rectum and fragile urethra are not sufficiently robust to provide a barrier against infectious fluids, especially body fluids contaminated with HIV while the female vagina, would provide natural protection against injuries and trauma facilitating HIV-infection. Anal sexual intercourse was constituted not only as dangerous but also as unnatural practice, while penile-vaginal intercourse would follow natural design and thus be relatively safe practice minimizing the risk of HIV. Statements like the latter were not uncommon in the early times of HIV/AIDS and contributed to captious certainties and an underestimation of heterosexual risks. Pseudo-scientific discourses on the origin of HIV were linked to local and global health politics in the 1980ies. The pathways of infection were related to normative concepts like deviant, subcultural behavior, cultural otherness, and guilt used to target, tag and separate specific groups at risk from the ‘normal’ population. Controlling populations at risk became the top item on the agenda rather than controlling modes of transmission and the virus. Hence, the Thai strategy to cope with HIV/AIDS by acknowledging social and sexual practices as they were – not as they were imagined – has become a role model for successful prevention in the highly scandalized realm of sexually transmitted disease. By accepting the globalized character of local HIV-risk and projecting the risk onto populations which are neither particularly vocal groups nor vested with the means to strive for health and justice Thailand managed to culturally implement knowledge-based tools of prevention. This paper argues, that pertinent cultural collisions regarding our strategies to cope with HIV/AIDS are deeply rooted in misconceptions, misreadings and scandalizations brought about in the early history of HIV in the 1980ties. The Thai strategy is used to demonstrate how local values can be balanced against globalized health risk and used to effectuated prevention by which knowledge and norms are translated into local practices. Issues of global health and injustice will be addressed in the final part of the paper dealing with the achievability of health as a human right.
Analyses of Adverse Drug Reactions Reported of Hospital in Taiwan
Background: An adverse drug reaction (ADR) reported is an injury which caused by taking medicines. Sometimes the severity of ADR reported may be minor, but sometimes it could be a life-threatening situation. In order to provide healthcare professionals as a better reference in clinical practice, we do data collection and analysis from our hospital. Methods: This was a retrospective study of ADRs reported performed from 2014 to 2015 in our hospital in Taiwan. We collected assessment items of ADRs reported, which contain gender and age, occurring sources, Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification of suspected drugs, types of adverse reactions, Naranjo score calculated by Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale and so on. Results: The investigation included two hundred and seven ADRs reported. Most of ADRs reported were occurring in outpatient department (92%). The average age of ADRs reported was 65.3 years. Less than 65 years of age were in the majority in this study (54%). Majority of all ADRs reported were males (51%). According to ATC classification system, the major classification of suspected drugs were Cardiovascular system (19%) and Antiinfectives for systemic use (18%) respectively. Among the adverse reactions, Dermatologic Effects (35%) were the major type of ADRs. Also, the major Naranjo scores of all ADRs reported ranged from 1 to 4 points (91%), which represents a possible correlation between ADRs reported and suspected drugs. Conclusions: Definitely, ADRs reported is still an extremely important information for healthcare professionals. For that reason, we put all information of ADRs reported into our hospital's computer system and it will improve the safety of medication use. By hospital's computer system, it can remind prescribers to think of information about patient's ADRs reported. No drug is administered without risk. Therefore, all healthcare professionals should have a responsibility to their patients, whom are becoming more aware of problems associated with drug therapy.
Exploring the Spatial Characteristics of Mortality Map: A Statistical Area Perspective
The analysis of geographic inequality heavily relies on the use of location-enabled statistical data and quantitative measures to present the spatial patterns of the selected phenomena and analyze their differences. To protect the privacy of individual instance and link to administrative units, point-based datasets are spatially aggregated to area-based statistical datasets, where only the overall status for the selected levels of spatial units is used for decision making. The partition of the spatial units thus has dominant influence on the outcomes of the analyzed results, well known as the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP). A new spatial reference framework, the Taiwan Geographical Statistical Classification (TGSC), was recently introduced in Taiwan based on the spatial partition principles of homogeneous consideration of the number of population and households. Comparing to the outcomes of the traditional township units, TGSC provides additional levels of spatial units with finer granularity for presenting spatial phenomena and enables domain experts to select appropriate dissemination level for publishing statistical data. This paper compares the results of respectively using TGSC and township unit on the mortality data and examines the spatial characteristics of their outcomes. For the mortality data between the period of January 1st, 2008 and December 31st, 2010 of the Taitung County, the all-cause age-standardized death rate (ASDR) ranges from 571 to 1757 per 100,000 persons, whereas the 2nd dissemination area (TGSC) shows greater variation, ranged from 0 to 2222 per 100,000. The finer granularity of spatial units of TGSC clearly provides better outcomes for identifying and evaluating the geographic inequality and can be further analyzed with the statistical measures from other perspectives (e.g., population, area, environment.). The management and analysis of the statistical data referring to the TGSC in this research is strongly supported by the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. An integrated workflow that consists of the tasks of the processing of death certificates, the geocoding of street address, the quality assurance of geocoded results, the automatic calculation of statistic measures, the standardized encoding of measures and the geo-visualization of statistical outcomes is developed. This paper also introduces a set of auxiliary measures from a geographic distribution perspective to further examine the hidden spatial characteristics of mortality data and justify the analyzed results. With the common statistical area framework like TGSC, the preliminary results demonstrate promising potential for developing a web-based statistical service that can effectively access domain statistical data and present the analyzed outcomes in meaningful ways to avoid wrong decision making.
Spectrum of Dry Eye Disease in Computer Users of Manipur India
Computer and video display users might complain about Asthenopia, burning, dry eyes etc. Dry eye disease is a disease of ocular surface attributing to disturbances of the natural function and protective mechanisms of the external eye leading to an unstable tear film during open eye state. It is one of the most frequently encountered diseases in any ophthalmic practice. The management is often not in the lines of the severity of the disease. Following systematic evaluation and grading, dry eye disease is one condition that can be practiced at all levels of ophthalmic care. In these work the different spectrum causing dry eye and prevalence of dry eye disease in computer users of Manipur, India is determined with 600 individuals (300 cases and 300 control). Individuals between 15-50 years who used computers for more than 3 hrs a day since 1 year was included in the present study. Tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer’s test was conducted. It shows 33(20.4%) out of 164 male and 47(30.3%) out of 136 female have dry eye. Possible explanation for the observed result is being discussed. As the use of computer had become universal in higher institutions, subject of prevention of computer vision syndrome and associated discomfort should be worked out of the curriculum in higher institutions.
A Comparison of Implant Stability between Implant Placed without Bone Graft versus with Bone Graft Using Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) Technique: A Resonance Frequency Analysis
This prospective clinical study determined the insertion torque (IT) value and monitored the changes in implant stability quotient (ISQ) values during the 12 weeks healing period from implant placement without bone graft (control group) and with bone graft using the guided bone regeneration (GBR) technique (study group). The relationship between the IT and ISQ values of the implants was also assessed. The control and study groups each consisted of 6 patients with 8 implants per group. The ASTRA TECH Implant System™ EV 4.2 mm in diameter was placed in the posterior mandibular region. In the control group, implants were placed in bone without bone graft, whereas in the study group implants were placed simultaneously with the GBR technique at favorable bone defect. IT (Ncm) of each implant was recorded when fully inserted. ISQ values were obtained from the Osstell® ISQ at the time of implant placement, and at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. No difference in IT was found between groups (P = 0.320). The ISQ values in the control group were significantly higher than in the study group at the time of implant placement and at 4 weeks. There was no significant association between IT and ISQ values either at baseline or after the 12 weeks. At 12 weeks of healing, the control and study groups displayed different trends. Mean ISQ values for the control group decreased over the first 2 weeks and then started to increase. ISQ value increases were statistically significant at 8 weeks and later, whereas mean ISQ values in the study group decreased over the first 4 weeks and then started to increase, with statistical significance after 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, all implants achieved osseointegration with mean ISQ values over the threshold value (ISQ>70). These results indicated that implants, in which guided bone regeneration technique was performed during implant placement for treating favorable bone defects, were as predictable as implants placed without bone graft. However, loading in implants placed with the GBR technique for correcting favorable bone defects should be performed after 12 weeks of healing to ensure implant stability and osseointegration.