Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 54358

Health and Medical Engineering

123
97848
Android Based Game Intervention for Enhancing the Face Reputation Abilities in Youngsters with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Abstract:
Multimedia devices have received repute in the special desires community. The wide display screen makes it appealing and easy to use, specifically for the ones who've susceptible pleasant motor skill. This paper highlights how an Android-based game named as 'KIDDY' can be used to enhance confront face perceiving capacities in adults with autism and aid the children to develop social interaction capabilities. This game improved concentration and imagination via repetitive movement and visual commentary. Four students with autism, diverse in the historic period, social behavior and communiqué ability had been enrolled in the program and provided an opportunity to recognize new faces thrilling way. This paper offers resultant role based on 'Social Skills Rating System' that shows how cellular generation used as an academician intervention to decorate studying and communiqué among children with autism and additionally proven the tremendous behavior toward cell primarily based game.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
122
97745
Analyzing Medical Workflows Using Market Basket Analysis
Abstract:
Healthcare domain, with the emergence of Electronic Medical Record (EMR), collects a lot of data which have been attracting Data Mining expert’s interest. In the past, doctors have relied on their intuition while making critical clinical decisions. This paper presents the means to analyze the Medical workflows to get business insights out of huge dumped medical databases. Market Basket Analysis (MBA) which is a special data mining technique, has been widely used in marketing and e-commerce field to discover the association between products bought together by customers. It helps businesses in increasing their sales by analyzing the purchasing behavior of customers and pitching the right customer with the right product. This paper is an attempt to demonstrate Market Basket Analysis applications in healthcare. In particular, it discusses the Market Basket Analysis Algorithm ‘Apriori’ applications within healthcare in major areas such as analyzing the workflow of diagnostic procedures, Up-selling and Cross-selling of Healthcare Systems, designing healthcare systems more user-friendly. In the paper, we have demonstrated the MBA applications using Angiography Systems, but can be extrapolated to other modalities as well.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
121
96699
Design and Implementation of a Wireless Heart Health Monitoring System for Stroke Risk Mitigation
Abstract:
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained heartbeat disorder in adults. AF changes the blood flow dynamics, and these changes can cause stroke. Even for stroke survivors, the quality of life is reduced through mental and physical disability. That impacts negatively upon care givers and loved ones. Stroke prevalence is predicted to increase. AF diagnosis and long term monitoring can help to establish and mitigate stroke risk. However, in the past, it was difficult and in many cases very intrusive to monitor a patient’s heartbeat. That difficulty came from the absence of wireless-health technology that covers wide geographical areas. Today, we are in a position to address the heartbeat measurement problem with a wireless-heart rate monitoring system. The proposed system is based on the internet of things technology and advanced artificial intelligence. The purpose of utilising wireless networks is to establish continuous long-term monitoring for an AF affected subject in a cost-effective way. The proposed system is based on commercial heart rate sensors connected to Android devices. MATLAB thingspeak is employed to collect and store heart rate data from the Android devices. Deep learning analyses that data in real-time. The analysis' results can be disseminated via Twitter. The proposed system has the potential to open up a wide range of application scenarios. For example, the Twitter messages can warn AF patients when the stroke risk increases. Based on the heart rate measurements, the physician can monitor and adjust treatment. To sum up, the proposed wireless heart health monitoring system will benefit both patients and medical practitioners by detecting AF beats through alerting, continuous monitoring, diagnosis support, and unintrusive patient led data acquisition.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
120
96289
Detection of Patient Roll-Over Using High-Sensitivity Pressure Sensors
Abstract:
Recent advances in medical technology have served to enhance average life expectancy. However, the total time for which the patients are prescribed complete bedrest has also increased. With patients being required to maintain a constant lying posture- also called bedsore- development of a system to detect patient roll-over becomes imperative. For this purpose, extant studies have proposed the use of cameras, and favorable results have been reported. Continuous on-camera monitoring, however, tends to violate patient privacy. We have proposed unconstrained bio-signal measurement system that could detect body-motion during sleep and does not violate patient’s privacy. Therefore, in this study, we propose a roll-over detection method by the date obtained from the bi-signal measurement system. Signals recorded by the sensor were assumed to comprise respiration, pulse, body motion, and noise components. Compared the body-motion and respiration, pulse component, the body-motion, during roll-over, generate large vibration. Thus, analysis of the body-motion component facilitates detection of the roll-over tendency. The large vibration associated with the roll-over motion has a great effect on the Root Mean Square (RMS) value of time series of the body motion component calculated during short 10 s segments. After calculation, the RMS value during each segment was compared to a threshold value set in advance. If RMS value in any segment exceeded the threshold, corresponding data were considered to indicate occurrence of a roll-over. In order to validate the proposed method, we conducted experiment. A bi-directional microphone was adopted as a high-sensitivity pressure sensor and was placed between the mattress and bedframe. Recorded signals passed through an analog Band-pass Filter (BPF) operating over the 0.16-16 Hz bandwidth. BPF allowed the respiration, pulse, and body-motion to pass whilst removing the noise component. Output from BPF was A/D converted with the sampling frequency 100Hz, and the measurement time was 480 seconds. The number of subjects and data corresponded to 5 and 10, respectively. Subjects laid on a mattress in the supine position. During data measurement, subjects—upon the investigator's instruction—were asked to roll over into four different positions—supine to left lateral, left lateral to prone, prone to right lateral, and right lateral to supine. Recorded data was divided into 48 segments with 10 s intervals, and the corresponding RMS value for each segment was calculated. The system was evaluated by the accuracy between the investigator’s instruction and the detected segment. As the result, an accuracy of 100% was achieved. While reviewing the time series of recorded data, segments indicating roll-over tendencies were observed to demonstrate a large amplitude. However, clear differences between decubitus and the roll-over motion could not be confirmed. Extant researches possessed a disadvantage in terms of patient privacy. The proposed study, however, demonstrates more precise detection of patient roll-over tendencies without violating their privacy. As a future prospect, decubitus estimation before and after roll-over could be attempted. Since in this paper, we could not confirm the clear differences between decubitus and the roll-over motion, future studies could be based on utilization of the respiration and pulse components.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
119
95159
Assessment of Impact of Physiological and Biochemical Risk Factors on Type 2 Diabetes
Abstract:
Introduction: Non-communicable diseases are emerging diseases in India. Government of India launched National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cardiovascular Diseases, Cancer and Stroke (NPCDCS) during the year 2008. The aim of the programme was to reduce the burden of non communicable diseases by health promotion and prompt treatment. Objective: The present study was intended to assess the impact of National Program for prevention and control of Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes, Cancer and Stroke Programme on biochemical and physiological factors influencing Type 2 diabetes in Kalaburagi District. Material and Method: NCD Clinic was established at District Hospital during April 2016. All the patients attending District Hospital Kalaburagi above the age of 30 years are screened for Non Communicable Diseases under NPCDCS Programme. A total sample of 7447 patients attending NCD Clinic situated at Kalaburagi district was assessed in this study. Pre structured and pretested schedule seeking information was obtained from all the patients by the counselor working under NPCDCS programme. All the Patients attending District Hospital were screened for Diabetes using Glucometer at NCD clinic. The suspected cases were further confirmed through Biochemical investigations like Fasting Blood glucose, HBA1c, Urine Glucose, Kidney Function test. SPSS 20 version was used for analysis of data. Chi square test, P values and odds ratio was used to study the association of factors. Results: A Total of 7447 patients attended NCD clinic during the year 2017-18 were analyzed, Diabetes was seen among 3028 individuals were as comorbidities along with Hypertension was seen among 757 individuals. The mean age of the population was 50 ± 2.84. 3440(46.2%) were males whereas Female constituted 4007(53.8%) of population. The incidence and prevalence of Diabetes being 8.6 and 12.8 respectively. Diabetes was more commonly seen during the age group of 40 to 69 years. Diabetes was significantly associated with Age group 40 to 69 years, obesity and female gender (p < 0.05). The risk of developing Hypertension and comorbidity conditions of hypertension and Diabetes was 1.224 and 1.305 times higher among males, whereas the risk of diabetes was 1.127 higher among females as compared to males. Conclusion: The screening for NCD has significantly increased after launching of NPCDCS programme. NCD was significantly associated with obesity, female gender, increased age as well as comorbid conditions like hypertension and tuberculosis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
118
95139
A Biometric Template Security Approach to Fingerprints Based on Polynomial Transformations
Authors:
Abstract:
The use of biometric identifiers in the field of information security, access control to resources, authentication in ATMs and banking among others, are of great concern because of the safety of biometric data. In the general architecture of a biometric system have been detected eight vulnerabilities, six of them allow obtaining minutiae template in plain text. The main consequence of obtaining minutia templates is the loss of biometric identifier for life. To mitigate these vulnerabilities several models to protect minutiae templates have been proposed. Several vulnerabilities in the cryptographic security of these models allow to obtain biometric data in plain text. In order to increase the cryptographic security and ease of reversibility, a minutiae templates protection model is proposed. The model aims to make the cryptographic protection and facilitate the reversibility of data using two levels of security. The first level of security is the data transformation level. In this level generates invariant data to rotation and translation, further transformation is irreversible. The second level of security is the evaluation level, where the encryption key is generated and data is evaluated using a defined evaluation function. The model is aimed at mitigating known vulnerabilities of the proposed models, basing its security on the impossibility of the polynomial reconstruction.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
117
95032
The Cost of Healthcare among Malaysian Community-Dwelling Elderly with Dementia
Abstract:
An ageing population has huge implications for virtually every aspect of Malaysian societies. The elderly consume a greater volume of healthcare facilities not because they are older, but because of they are sick. The chronic comorbidities and deterioration of cognitive ability would lead the elderly’s health to become worst. This study aims to provide a comprehensive estimate of the direct and indirect costs of health care used in a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling elderly with dementia and as well as the determinants of healthcare cost. A survey using multi-stage random sampling techniques recruited a final sample of 2274 elderly people (60 years and above) in the state of Johor, Perak, Selangor and Kelantan. Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was used to measure the cognitive capability among the elderly. Only the elderly with a score less than 19 marks were selected for further analysis and were classified as dementia. By using a two-part model findings also indicate household income and education level are variables that strongly significantly influence the healthcare cost among elderly with dementia. A number of visits and admission are also significantly affect healthcare expenditure. The comorbidity that highly influences healthcare cost is cancer and seeking the treatment in private facilities is also significantly affected the healthcare cost among the demented elderly. The level of dementia severity is not significant in determining the cost. This study is expected to attract the government's attention and act as a wake-up call for them to be more concerned about the elderly who are at high risk of having chronic comorbidities and cognitive problems by providing more appropriate health and social care facilities. The comorbidities are one of the factor that could cause dementia among elderly. It is hoped that this study will promote the issues of dementia as a priority in public health and social care in Malaysia.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
116
94753
Artificial Intelligence Based Online Monitoring System for Cardiac Patient
Abstract:
Cardiovascular Diseases(CVD's) are the major cause of death in the world. The main reason for these deaths is the unavailability of first aid for heart failure. In many cases, patients die before reaching the hospital. We in this paper are presenting innovative online health service for Cardiac Patients. The proposed online health system has two ends. Users through device developed by us can communicate with their doctor through a mobile application. This interface provides them with first aid.Also by using this service, they have an easy interface with their doctors for attaining medical advice. According to the proposed system, we developed a device called Cardiac Care. Cardiac Care is a portable device which a patient can use at their home for monitoring heart condition. When a patient checks his/her heart condition, Electrocardiogram (ECG), Blood Pressure(BP), Temperature are sent to the central database. The severity of patients condition is checked using Artificial Intelligence Algorithm at the database. If the patient is suffering from the minor problem, our algorithm will suggest a prescription for patients. But if patient's condition is severe, patients record is sent to doctor through the mobile Android application. Doctor after reviewing patients condition suggests next step. If a doctor identifies the patient condition as critical, then the message is sent to the central database for sending an ambulance for the patient. Ambulance starts moving towards patient for bringing him/her to hospital. We have implemented this model at prototype level. This model will be life-saving for millions of people around the globe. According to this proposed model patients will be in contact with their doctors all the time.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
115
94409
Estimation of Human Absorbed Dose Using Compartmental Model
Abstract:
Dosimetry is an indispensable and precious factor in patient treatment planning to minimize the absorbed dose in vital tissues. In this study, compartmental model was used in order to estimate the human absorbed dose of 177Lu-DOTATOC from the biodistribution data in wild type rats. For this purpose, 177Lu-DOTATOC was prepared under optimized conditions and its biodistribution was studied in male Syrian rats up to 168 h. Compartmental model was applied to mathematical description of the drug behaviour in tissue at different times. Dosimetric estimation of the complex was performed using radiation absorbed dose assessment resource (RADAR). The biodistribution data showed high accumulation in the adrenal and pancreas as the major expression sites for somatostatin receptor (SSTR). While kidneys as the major route of excretion receive 0.037 mSv/MBq, pancreas and adrenal also obtain 0.039 and 0.028 mSv/MBq. Due to the usage of this method, the points of accumulated activity data were enhanced, and further information of tissues uptake was collected that it will be followed by high (or improved) precision in dosimetric calculations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
114
93828
Patient Understanding of Health Information: Implications for Organizational Health Literacy in Germany
Abstract:
Introduction: The quality of patient-doctor communication and of written health information is central to organizational health literacy (HL). Whether patients understand their doctors’ explanations and textual material on health, however, is understudied. This study identifies the overall levels of patient understanding of health information and its associations with patients’ social characteristics in outpatient health care in Germany. Materials & Methods: This analysis draws on data collected via a 2017 national health survey with a sample of 6,105 adults. Quality of communication was measured for consultations with general practitioners (GPs) and specialists (SPs) via the Ask Me 3 program questions, and through a question on written health material. Correlations with social characteristics were explored employing bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: Over 90% of all respondents reported that they had understood their doctors’ explanations during the last consultation. Failed understanding was strongly correlated with patients’ very poor health (Odds Ratio [OR]: 5.19; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.23–12.10; ref. excellent/very good health), current health problem (OR: 6.54, CI: 1.70–25.12; ref. preventive examination) and age 65 years and above (OR: 2.97, CI: 1.10–8.00; ref. 18 to 34 years). Fewer patients answered they understood written material well (86.7% for las visit at GP, 89.7% at SP). Understanding written material poorly was highly associated with basic education (OR: 4.20, CI: 2.76–6.39; ref. higher education) and 65 years old and above (OR: 2.66, CI: 1.43–4.96). Discussion: Overall ratings of oral patient-doctor communication and written communication of health information are high. Yet, a considerable share of patients reports not-understanding their doctors and poor understanding of the written health-related material. Interventions that can contribute to improving organizational HL in outpatient care in Germany include HL training for doctors, reducing system barriers to easily-accessible health information for patients and combining oral and written health communication means. Conclusion: This work adds to the study of organizational HL in Germany. To increase patient understanding of health-relevant information and thereby possibly reduce health disparities, meeting the communication needs especially of persons in different age groups, with basic education and in very poor health is suggested.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
113
92788
Application of WHO's Guideline to Evaluating Apps for Smoking Cessation
Abstract:
Background: The use of mobile apps for smoking cessation has grown exponentially in recent years. Yet, there were limited researches which evaluated the quality of smoking cessation apps to our knowledge. In most cases, a clinical practice guideline which is focused on clinical physician was used as an evaluation tool. Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a user-centered measure for quality of mobile smoking cessation apps. Methods: A literature search was conducted to identify articles containing explicit smoking cessation guideline for smoker published until January 2018. WHO’s guide for tobacco users to quit was adopted for evaluation tool which assesses smoker-oriented contents of smoking cessation apps. Compared to the clinical practice guideline, WHO guideline was designed for smokers (non-specialist). On the basis of existing criteria which was developed based on 2008 clinical practice guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence, evaluation tool was modified and developed by an expert panel. Results: There were five broad categories of criteria that were identified including five objective quality scales: enhancing motivation, assistance with a planning and making quit attempts, preparation for relapse, self-efficacy, connection to smoking. Enhancing motivation and assistance with planning and making quit attempts were similar to contents of clinical practice guideline, but preparation for relapse, self-efficacy and connection to smoking (environment or habit which reminds of smoking) only existed on WHO guideline. WHO guideline had more user-centered elements than clinical guideline. Especially, self-efficacy is the most important determinant of behavior change in accordance with many health behavior change models. With the WHO guideline, it is now possible to analyze the content of the app in the light of a health participant, not a provider. Conclusion: The WHO guideline evaluation tool is a simple, reliable and smoker-centered tool for assessing the quality of mobile smoking cessation apps. It can also be used to provide a checklist for the development of new high-quality smoking cessation apps.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
112
91728
Comparison of Parametric and Bayesian Survival Regression Models in Simulated and HIV Patient Antiretroviral Therapy Data: Case Study of Alamata Hospital, North Ethiopia
Abstract:
Background: HIV/AIDS remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia and heavily affecting people of productive and reproductive age. We aimed to compare the performance of Parametric Survival Analysis and Bayesian Survival Analysis using simulations and in a real dataset application focused on determining predictors of HIV patient survival. Methods: A Parametric Survival Models - Exponential, Weibull, Log-normal, Log-logistic, Gompertz and Generalized gamma distributions were considered. Simulation study was carried out with two different algorithms that were informative and noninformative priors. A retrospective cohort study was implemented for HIV infected patients under Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Alamata General Hospital, North Ethiopia. Results: A total of 320 HIV patients were included in the study where 52.19% females and 47.81% males. According to Kaplan-Meier survival estimates for the two sex groups, females has shown better survival time in comparison with their male counterparts. The median survival time of HIV patients was 79 months. During the follow-up period 89 (27.81%) deaths and 231 (72.19%) censored individuals registered. The average baseline cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cells count for HIV/AIDS patients were 126.01 but after a three-year antiretroviral therapy follow-up the average cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cells counts were 305.74, which was quite encouraging. Age, functional status, tuberculosis screen, past opportunistic infection, baseline cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cells, World Health Organization clinical stage, sex, marital status, employment status, occupation type, baseline weight were found statistically significant factors for longer survival of HIV patients. The standard error of all covariate in Bayesian log-normal survival model is less than the classical one. Hence, Bayesian survival analysis showed better performance than classical parametric survival analysis, when subjective data analysis was performed by considering expert opinions and historical knowledge about the parameters. Conclusions: Thus, HIV/AIDS patient mortality rate could be reduced through timely antiretroviral therapy with special care on the potential factors. Moreover, Bayesian log-normal survival model was preferable than the classical log-normal survival model for determining predictors of HIV patients survival.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
111
91668
Nutrition and Physical Activity Intervention on Health Screening Outcomes for Singaporean Employees: A Worksite Based Randomised Controlled Trial
Authors:
Abstract:
This research protocol aims to explore and justify the need for nutrition and physical activity intervention to improve health outcomes among SME (Small Medium Enterprise) employees. It was found that the worksite is an ideal and convenient setting for employees to take charge of their health thru active participation in health programmes since they spent a great deal of time at their workplace. This study will examine the impact of both general or/and targeted health interventions in both SME and non-SME companies utilizing the Workplace Health Promotion (WHP) grant over a 12 months period and assessed the improvement in chronic health disease outcomes in Singapore. Random sampling of both non-SME and SME companies will be conducted to undergo health intervention and statistical packages such as Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 25 will be used to examine the impact of both general and targeted interventions on employees who participate and those who do not participate in the intervention and their effects on blood glucose (BG), blood lipid, blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage. Using focus groups and interviews, the data results will be transcribed to investigate enablers and barriers to workplace health intervention revealed by employees and WHP coordinators that could explain the variation in the health screening results across the organisations. Dietary habits and physical activity levels of the employees participating and not participating in the intervention will be collected before and after intervention to assess any changes in their lifestyle practices. It makes economic sense to study the impact of these interventions on health screening outcomes across various organizations that are existing grant recipients to justify the sustainability of these programmes by the local government. Healthcare policy makers and employers can then tailor appropriate and relevant programmes to manage these escalating chronic health disease conditions which is integral to the competitiveness and productivity of the nation’s workforce.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
110
91350
Calculating Ventricle’s Area Based on Clinical Dementia Rating Values on Coronal MRI Image
Abstract:
Alzheimer is one type of disease in the elderly that may occur in the world. The severity of the Alzheimer can be measured using a scale called Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) based on a doctor's diagnosis of the patient's condition. Currently, diagnosis of Alzheimer often uses MRI machine, to know the condition of part of the brain called Hippocampus and Ventricle. MRI image itself consists of 3 slices, namely Coronal, Sagittal and Axial. In this paper, we discussed the measurement of the area of the ventricle especially in the Coronal slice based on the severity level referring to the CDR value. We use Active Contour method to segment the ventricle’s region, therefore that ventricle’s area can be calculated automatically. The results show that this method can be used for further development in the automatic diagnosis of Alzheimer.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
109
91188
Psychological Alarm among Individuals Suffering from Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Abstract:
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional bowel disorder characterized by abdominal discomfort or pain and associated with alteration in frequency and/or form of bowel habit among other symptoms. This diagnosis is associated with increased levels of psychological distress, maladaptive coping, genetic risk factors, abnormal small and colonic intestine transit, change in stool frequency or form and abdominal discomfort or pain. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess psychological alarm among individuals suffering from Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Methods: A cross-sectional correlational research design was used to conduct the current study. A convenience sample of 504 participants was included in the present study. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. The questionnaire included socio-demographic data, ROME III to identify Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Psychological Alarm Questionnaire. Results: Out of 504 participants who reported abdominal discomfort, 297 (58.9 %) participants met the diagnostic criteria of IBS. The mean age of the IBS participants was 30.16 years, females composed 75.1% of the IBS participants, and 55.2% did not seek medical help. Psychological alarms such as feeling anxious, feeling depressed, having suicidal ideations, bodily pain, having impaired functioning due to pain and feeling unable to cope with pain were significantly high among IBS individuals when compared to individuals not suffering from IBS. Psychological alarms such as feeling anxious, feeling depressed, having suicidal ideations, bodily pain, having impaired functioning due to pain and feeling unable to cope with pain were significantly high among IBS individuals compared to individuals not suffering from IBS. Conclusion: IBS is highly associated with significant psychological alarms including depression, anxiety and suicidal ideas.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
108
91053
Health Inequalities in the Global South: Identification of Poor People with Disabilities in Cambodia to Generate Access to Healthcare
Abstract:
In the context of rapidly changing social and economic circumstances in the developing world, this paper analyses access to public healthcare for poor people with disabilities in Cambodia. Like other countries of South East Asia, Cambodia is developing at rapid pace. The historical past of Cambodia, however, has set former social policy structures to zero. This past forces Cambodia and its citizens to implement new public health policies to align with the needs of social care, healthcare, and urban planning. In this context, the role of people with disabilities (PwDs) is crucial as new developments should and can take into consideration their specific needs from the beginning onwards. This paper is based on qualitative research with expert interviews and focus group discussions in Cambodia. During the field work it became clear that the identification tool for the poorest households (HHs) does not count disability as a financial risk to fall into poverty neither when becoming sick nor because of higher health expenditures and/or lower income because of the disability. The social risk group of poor PwDs faces several barriers in accessing public healthcare. The urbanization, the socio-economic health status, and opportunities for education; all influence social status and have an impact on the health situation of these individuals. Cambodia has various difficulties with providing access to people with disabilities, mostly due to barriers regarding finances, geography, quality of care, poor knowledge about their rights and negative social and cultural beliefs. Shortened budgets and the lack of prioritizations lead to the need for reorientation of local communities, international and national non-governmental organizations and social policy. The poorest HHs are identified with a questionnaire, the IDPoor program, for which the Ministry of Planning is responsible. The identified HHs receive an ‘Equity Card’ which provides access free of charge to public healthcare centers and hospitals among other benefits. The dataset usually does not include information about the disability status. Four focus group discussions (FGD) with 28 participants showed various barriers in accessing public healthcare. These barriers go far beyond a missing ramp to access the healthcare center. The contents of the FGDs were ratified and repeated during the expert interviews with the local Ministries, NGOs, international organizations and private persons working in the field. The participants of the FGDs faced and continue to face high discrimination, low capacity to work and earn an own income, dependency on others and less social competence in their lives. When discussing their health situation, we identified, a huge difference between those who are identified and hold an Equity Card and those who do not. Participants reported high costs without IDPoor identification, positive experiences when going to the health center in terms of attitude and treatment, low satisfaction with specific capacities for treatments, negative rumors, and discrimination with the consequence of fear to seek treatment in many cases. The problem of accessing public healthcare by risk groups can be adapted to situations in other countries.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
107
90705
Prediction of Coronary Artery Stenosis Severity Based on Machine Learning Algorithms
Abstract:
Coronary artery is the major supplier of myocardial blood flow. When fat and cholesterol are deposit in the coronary arterial wall, narrowing and stenosis of the artery occurs, which may lead to myocardial ischemia and eventually infarction. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), estimated 740 million people have died of coronary heart disease in 2015. According to Statistics from Ministry of Health and Welfare in Taiwan, heart disease (except for hypertensive diseases) ranked the second among the top 10 causes of death from 2013 to 2016, and it still shows a growing trend. According to American Heart Association (AHA), the risk factors for coronary heart disease including: age (> 65 years), sex (men to women with 2:1 ratio), obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, family history, lack of exercise and more. We have collected a dataset of 421 patients from a hospital located in northern Taiwan who received coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography. There were 300 males (71.26%) and 121 females (28.74%), with age ranging from 24 to 92 years, and a mean age of 56.3 years. Prior to coronary CT angiography, basic data of the patients, including age, gender, obesity index (BMI), diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, family history of coronary heart disease and exercise habits, were collected and used as input variables. The output variable of the prediction module is the degree of coronary artery stenosis. The output variable of the prediction module is the narrow constriction of the coronary artery. In this study, the dataset was randomly divided into 80% as training set and 20% as test set. Four machine learning algorithms, including logistic regression, stepwise regression, neural network and decision tree, were incorporated to generate prediction results. We used area under curve (AUC) / accuracy (Acc.) to compare the four models, the best model is neural network, followed by stepwise logistic regression, decision tree, and logistic regression, with 0.68 / 79 %, 0.68 / 74%, 0.65 / 78%, and 0.65 / 74%, respectively. Sensitivity of neural network was 27.3%, specificity was 90.8%, stepwise Logistic regression sensitivity was 18.2%, specificity was 92.3%, decision tree sensitivity was 13.6%, specificity was 100%, logistic regression sensitivity was 27.3%, specificity 89.2%. From the result of this study, we hope to improve the accuracy by improving the module parameters or other methods in the future and we hope to solve the problem of low sensitivity by adjusting the imbalanced proportion of positive and negative data.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
106
90587
Procedure to Use Quantitative Bone-Specific SPECT/CT in North Karelia Central Hospital
Abstract:
This study aimed to describe procedures that we developed to use in the quantitative, bone-specific SPECT/CT at our hospital. Our procedures included the following questions for choosing imaging protocols, which were based on a clinical doctor's referral: (1) Is she/he a cancer patient or not? (2) Are there any indications of inflammatory rheumatoid arthritis? We performed about 1,106 skeletal scintigraphies over two years. About 394 patients were studied with quantitative bone-specific single-photon emission computed tomography/computerized tomography (SPECT/CT) (i.e., about 36% of all bone scintigraphies). Approximately 64% of the patients were studied using the conventional Anterior-Posterior/Posterior-Anterior imaging. Our procedure has improved efficiency and decreased cycle times.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
105
90406
Pentax Airway Scope Video Laryngoscope for Orotracheal Intubation in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Abstract:
Background: Pentax airway scope (AWS) is a recently developed video laryngoscope for use in both normal and difficult airways, providing a good laryngeal view. The purpose of this randomized noninferior study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Pentax-AWS regarding intubation time, laryngeal view and ease of intubation in pediatric patients with normal airway, compared to Macintosh laryngoscope. Method: A total of 136 pediatric patients aged 1 to 10 with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II undergoing general anesthesia required orotracheal intubation were randomly allocated into two groups: Macintosh laryngoscope (n =68) and Pentax AWS (n=68). Anesthesia was induced with propofol, rocuronium, and sevoflurane. The primary outcome was intubation time. Cormack-Lehane laryngeal view grade, application of optimal laryngeal external manipulation (OELM), intubation difficulty scale (IDS), intubation failure rate and adverse events were also measured. Result: No significant difference was observed between the two groups regarding intubation time (Macintosh; 23[22-26] sec vs. Pentax; 23.5[22-27.75] sec, p=0.713). As for the laryngeal view grade, the Pentax group showed less number of grade 2a or higher grade cases compared to the Macintosh group (1/2a/2b/3; 52.9%/41.2%/4.4%/1.5% vs. 98.5%/1.5%/0%/0%, p=0.000). No optimal laryngeal external manipulation application was required in the Pentax group (38.2% vs. 0%, p=0.000). Intubation difficulty scale resulted in lower values for Pentax group (0 [0-2] vs. 0 [0-0.55], p=0.001). Failure rate was not different between the two groups (1.5% vs. 4.4%, p=0.619). Adverse event-wise, slightly higher incidence of bleeding (1.5% vs. 5.9%, p=0.172) and teeth injury (0% vs. 5.9%, p=0.042) occurred in the Pentax group. Conclusion: In conclusion, Pentax-AWS provided better laryngeal view, similar intubation time and similar success rate compared with Macintosh laryngoscope in children with normal airway. However, the risk of teeth injury might increase and warrant special attention.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
104
89479
Perception of Quality of Life and Self-Assessed Health in Patients Undergoing Haemodialysis
Abstract:
Introduction: Despite the development of technologies and improvements in the interior of dialysis stations, dialysis remains an unpleasant procedure, difficult to accept by the patients (who undergo it 2 to 3 times a week, a single treatment lasting several hours). Haemodialysis is one of the renal replacement therapies, in Poland most commonly used in patients with chronic or acute kidney failure. Purpose: An attempt was made to evaluate the quality of life in haemodialysed patients using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Material and methods: The study covered 422 patients (200 women and 222 men, aged 60.5 ± 12.9 years) undergoing dialysis at three selected stations in Poland. The patients were divided into 2 groups, depending on the duration of their dialysis treatment. The evaluation was conducted with the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire containing 26 questions analysing 4 areas of life, as well as the perception of the quality of life and health self-assessment. A 5-point scale is used to answer them. The maximum score in each area is 20 points. The results in individual areas have a positive direction. Results: In patients undergoing dialysis for more than 3 years, a reduction in the quality of life was found in the physical area and in their environment versus a group of patients undergoing dialysis for less than 3 years, where a reduced quality of life was found in the areas of social relations and mental well-being (p < 0.05). A significant correlation (p < 0.01) between the two groups was found in self-perceived general health, while no significant differences were observed in the general perception of the quality of life (p > 0.05). Conclusions: The study confirmed that in patients undergoing dialysis for more than three years, the quality of life is especially reduced in their environment (access to and quality of healthcare, financial resources, and mental and physical safety). The assessment of the quality of life should form a part of the therapeutic process, in which the role of the patient in chronic renal care should be emphasised, reflected in the quality of services provided by dialysis stations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
103
89428
National Health Insurance: An Exploratory Study of Patient Satisfaction
Abstract:
This study seeks to understand what factors might influence a patient’s perception of health care under national health insurance in early implementation. In Indonesia, National Health Insurance was first implemented in 2014 and planned to achieve universal health coverage by 2019. However, the little understanding of this new policy lead to increase of complaint in hospital as a health care provider. This is a observational descriptive study with cross sectional design method. Data was collected through in-depth interview with 96 patient from Jemursari Islamic Hospital of Surabaya (Rumah Sakit Islam Jemursari Surabaya) who participate in National Health Insurance. Subject was selected by simple random sampling. The findings demonstrated that from five categories, 82,3% patient was satisfied in reliability aspect and 85,4% in assurance aspect, while in tangible, responsiveness and empathy aspect > 90% patient was satisfied. Meanwhile, in Indonesia, the minimum service standard of healthcare of patient satisfaction is 90%.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
102
89170
Probabilistic Approach to the Spatial Identification of the Environmental Sources behind Mortality Rates in Europe
Abstract:
In line with a rapid increase in pollution sources and enforcement of stricter air pollution regulation, which lowers pollution levels, it becomes more difficult to identify actual risk sources behind the observed morbidity patterns, and new approaches are required to identify potential risks and take preventive actions. In the present study, we discuss a probabilistic approach to the spatial identification of a priori unidentified environmental health hazards. The underlying assumption behind the tested approach is that the observed adverse health patterns (morbidity, mortality) can become a source of information on the geographic location of environmental risk factors that stand behind them. Using this approach, we analyzed sources of environmental exposure using data on mortality rates available for the year 2015 for NUTS 3 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) subdivisions of the European Union. We identified several areas in the southwestern part of Europe as primary risk sources for the observed mortality patterns. Multivariate regressions, controlled by geographical location, climate conditions, GDP (gross domestic product) per capita, dependency ratios, population density, and the level of road freight revealed that mortality rates decline as a function of distance from the identified hazard location. We recommend the proposed approach an exploratory analysis tool for initial investigation of regional patterns of population morbidity patterns and factors behind it.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
101
88546
Effect of Smartphone Applications on Patients' Knowledge of Surgery-Related Adverse Events during Hospitalization
Authors:
Abstract:
Background: As the number of surgeries increases, the incidence of adverse events is likely to become more prevalent. Patients who are somewhat knowledgeable about surgery-related adverse events are more likely to engage in safety initiatives to prevent them. Objectives: To evaluate the impact of a smartphone application developed during the study to enhance patients’ knowledge of surgery-related adverse events during hospitalization. Design: Non-randomized, one group, measured pre- and post-intervention. Participants: Thirty-six hospitalized patients admitted to the orthopedics unit of a general hospital in South Korea. Methods. First, a smartphone application to enhance patients’ knowledge of surgery-related adverse events was developed through an iterative process, which included a literature review, expert consultation, and pilot testing. The application was installed on participants’ smartphones, and research assistants taught the participants to use it. Twenty-five true/false questions were used to assess patients’ knowledge of preoperative precautions (eight items), surgical site infection (five items), Foley catheter management (four items), drainage management (four items), and anesthesia-related complications (four items). Results: Overall, the percentage of correct answers increased significantly, from 57.02% to 73.82%, although answers related to a few specific topics did not increase that much. Although the patients’ understanding of drainage management and the Foley catheter did increase substantially after they used the smartphone application, it was still relatively low. Conclusions: The smartphone application developed during this study enhanced the patients’ knowledge of surgery-related adverse events during hospitalization. However, nurses must make an additional effort to help patients to understand certain topics, including drainage and Foley catheter management. Relevance to clinical practice: Insufficient patient knowledge increases the risk of adverse events during hospitalization. Nurses should take active steps to enhance patients’ knowledge of a range of safety issues during hospitalization, in order to decrease the number of surgery-related adverse events.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
100
88408
Spatial Analysis of the Perception of Family Planning among Teenage Mothers in Nigeria
Abstract:
Teenage pregnancy is a major health concern because of its association with high morbidity and mortality for both mother and child. In 2013, 23% of women in Nigeria, aged 15 - 19 yr have begun childbearing: 17% have had a child and 5% are pregnant with their first child. Reported differences across locations have been attributed to factors such as educational attainment and exposure to mass media. This study therefore seeks to determine the difference in the level of exposure among teenage mothers and older women of reproductive age in Nigeria. Over 12,000 women of reproductive age (18 – 49 yr) were interviewed across 8 states from the Northern and Southern region of Nigeria. The women were further segregated into two groups of 0 (women aged 18 – 20 yr who had children of their own) and 1 (women of reproductive age excluding teenage mothers). Data was collected via structured questionnaires on mobile devices using the open data kit platform. Initial data formatting and recoding was done using STATA 13 package. Initial analysis was also conducted using SPSS version 21 and the data points were mapped on QuantumGIS package. From the results of analyzed data obtained from the studied states, there were various mean ages of first births across the supported states. Though Akwa Ibom had one of the oldest mean ages (21.2 yr) at first birth and the lowest fertility rate of 3.9 births/woman according to the National Demographic Health Survey 2013, Akwa Ibom had the highest rate of teenage pregnancy (18.2%) across the respondents. Based on education, the respondents that had completed secondary school education (56.9%) made up the greatest cohorts of the teenage parents. This is counter indicative of the initial thinking that there is an inverse relationship between level of education and teenage pregnancy. Akwa Ibom, Bauchi and Delta states are states where respondents felt that contraceptive use is dangerous to health and they were the top 4 states that had a large proportion of teenage mothers. Similarly, across the states examined, all the women of reproductive age felt they could convince their spouses to use contraceptives, as using family planning does not cause women to be promiscuous. This study thus reveals that across the states studied, there was no marked variation in the perception of family planning between teenage parents and women of reproductive age. The study also highlights the need for future planning and exposure to family planning messages at secondary school level.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
99
88284
Comparing Measurements of UV Radiation in Winter and Summer in Finland
Abstract:
The objective of our study is to investigate UV exposure in Finland through sample measurements as a typical case study in summer and winter. We measured UV-BC weighted radiation and calculated a daily dose, which is about 100&ndash;150 times the Finnish exposure limit value in summer and 1&ndash;6 times in winter. The measured ultraviolet indices varied from 0 to 7 (scale 0&ndash;18), which is less than the values obtained in countries that are located farther south from Tampere latitude of 61 degrees. In wintertime, the UV exposure was modest compared to summertime, 50&ndash;150 mW/m2 and about 1&ndash;5 mW/m2 in summer and winter, respectively. However, technical means to manage UV exposure in Scandinavia are also needed in summer- and springtime.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
98
87390
Euthanasia Reconsidered: Voting and Multicriteria Decision-Making in Medical Ethics
Authors:
Abstract:
Discussion on euthanasia is a continuous process. Euthanasia is defined as 'deliberately ending a patient's life by administering life-ending drugs at the patient's explicit request'. With few exceptions, worldwide in most countries human societies have not been able to agree on some fundamental issues concerning ultimate decisions of life and death. Outranking methods in voting oriented social choice theory and multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) can be applied to issues in medical ethics. There is a wide range of voting methods, and using different methods the same group of voters can end up with different outcomes. In the MCDM context, decision alternatives can be substituted for candidates, and criteria for voters. The view chosen here is that of a single decision-maker. Initially, three alternatives and three criteria are chosen. Pairwise and basic positional voting rules - plurality, anti-plurality and the Borda count - are applied. In the MCDM solution, criteria are put weights by giving them the more 'votes'; the more important the decision-maker ranks them. A hypothetical example on evaluating properties of euthanasia consists of three alternatives A, B, and C, which are ranked according to three criteria - the patient’s willingness to cooperate, general action orientation (active/passive), and cost-effectiveness - the criteria having weights 7, 5, and 4, respectively. Using the plurality rule and the weights given to criteria, A is the best alternative, B and C thereafter. In pairwise comparisons, both B and C defeat A with weight scores 7 to 9. On the other hand, B is defeated by C with weights 11 to 5. Thus, C (i.e. the so-called Condorcet winner) defeats both A and B. The best alternative using the plurality principle is not necessarily the best in the pairwise sense, the conflict remaining unsolved with or without additional weights. Positional rules are sensitive to variations in alternative sets. In the example above, the plurality rule gives the rank ABC. If we leave out C, the plurality ranking between A and B results in BA. Withdrawing B or A the ranking is CA and CB, respectively. In pairwise comparisons an analogous problem emerges when the number of criteria is varied. Cyclic preferences may lead to a total tie, and no (rational) choice between the alternatives can be made. In conclusion, the choice of the best commitment to re-evaluate euthanasia, with criteria left unchanged, depends entirely on the evaluation method used. The right strategies matter, too. Future studies might concern the problem of an abstention - a situation where voters do not vote - and still their best candidate may win. Or vice versa, actively giving the ballot to their first rank choice might lead to a total loss. In MCDM terms, a decision might occur where some central criteria are not actively involved in the best choice made.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
97
86562
Assessing the Informed Consent Practices during Normal Vaginal Delivery Process and Immediate Postpartum Care in Tertiary Level Hospitals of Bangladesh
Abstract:
Informed consent is one of the basic human and ethical rights for childbearing women. It plays a central role in promoting informed decision making between patients and service providers during the labor process. It gives mothers rights to accept or reject any examination and/or procedure, increases the respect and dignity of the mother during pregnancy, delivery and postpartum care. To assess the practices of this right during normal vaginal delivery and immediate postpartum care in tertiary level hospital setting in Bangladesh, a quantitative study with cross-sectional design was conducted in Dhaka Medical College & Hospital (DMCH) and Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital (SSMCH) in Dhaka in November 2015. A prevalence-based sample size of 190 was calculated where prevalence, confidence interval and level of significance were at 9.7%, 98% and 5% respectively. The respondents were the mothers who gave normal vaginal childbirth within past 24 hours and received postpartum care there. They were selected through systematic random sampling technique and their face-to-face interview of 190 mothers was done using a structured questionnaire. Data were entered into the spreadsheet (MS Excel 2013 version) and descriptive analysis of findings was done. The result shows the complete absence of informed consent practices and mostly absence of consented care such as right to information, respect for choices of preferences for examination and/or procedure of childbearing women. Although 95% of the mothers were informed that they were being proceeded with normal vaginal delivery, their choice of preference was absent during the process. Only consent (not informed consent) was taken from 50%-72% mothers for examination (except breast examination ‘0%’) and 8%-83% for any procedures during postpartum care. Only one-ninth (11%) of the mothers could ask service providers regarding the services they received. No consent was taken from 3% of the mothers- neither in the labor process nor in postpartum care. This current practice doesn’t comply with the Respectful Maternity Care (RMC) Charter 2011. The issue is not even clarified in the current Standard Clinical Management Protocols of the country. So, improvement of the existing protocol and increased awareness are essential to address this right of child-bearing women and to practice it during normal vaginal delivery and postpartum care.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
96
85696
Mobile Microscope for the Detection of Pathogenic Cells Using Image Processing
Abstract:
One of the most basic and powerful tools in all of science and medicine is the light microscope, the fundamental device for laboratory as well as research purposes. With the improving technology, the need for portable, economic and user-friendly instruments is in high demand. The conventional microscope fails to live up to the emerging trend. Also, adequate access to healthcare is not widely available, especially in developing countries. The most basic step towards the curing of a malady is the diagnosis of the disease itself. The main aim of this paper is to diagnose Malaria with the most common device, cell phones, which prove to be the immediate solution for most of the modern day needs with the development of wireless infrastructure allowing to compute and communicate on the move. This opened up the opportunity to develop novel imaging, sensing, and diagnostics platforms using mobile phones as an underlying platform to address the global demand for accurate, sensitive, cost-effective, and field-portable measurement devices for use in remote and resource-limited settings around the world.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
95
85156
Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Socio-Demographic Factors Affecting High Risk Sex among Unmarried Youths in Nigeria
Abstract:
This study assesses the levels of knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among unmarried youths in Nigeria; examines the pattern of high risk sex among unmarried youths in Nigeria; investigate the socio-demographic factors (age, place of residence, religion, level of education, wealth index and employment status) affecting the practice of high-risk sexual behaviour and ascertain the relationships between knowledge of sexually transmitted infections and practice of high risk sex. The goal of the study is to identify the factors associated with the practice of high risk sex among youth. These were with a view to identifying critical actions needed to reduce high risk sexual behaviour among youths. The study employed secondary data. The data for the study were extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). The 2013 NDHS collected information from 38,948 Women ages 15-49 years and 17,359 men ages 15-49. A total of 7,744 female and 6,027 male respondents were utilized in the study. In order to adjust for the effect of oversampling of the population, the weighting factor provided by Measure DHS was applied. The data were analysed using frequency distribution and logistic regression. The results show that both male (92.2%) and female (93.6%) have accurate knowledge of sexually transmitted infections. The study also revealed that prevalence of high risk sexual behavior is high among Nigerian youths; this is evident as 77.7% (female) and 78.4% (male) are engaging in high risk sexual behavior. The bivariate analysis shows that age of respondent (χ2=294.2; p < 0.05), religion (χ2=136.64; p < 0.05), wealth index (χ2=17.38; p < 0.05), level of education (χ2=34.73; p < 0.05) and employment status (χ2=94.54; p < 0.05) were individual factors significantly associated with high risk sexual behaviour among male while age of respondent (χ2=327.07; p < 0.05), place of residence (χ2=6.71; p < 0.05), religion (χ2=81.04; p < 0.05), wealth index (χ2=7.41; p < 0.05), level of education (χ2=18.12; p < 0.05) and employment status (χ2=51.02; p < 0.05) were individual factors significantly associated with high risk sexual behaviour among female. Furthermore, the study shows that there is a relationship between knowledge of sexually transmitted infections and high risk sex among male (χ2=38.32; p < 0.05) and female (χ2=18.37; p < 0.05). At multivariate level, the study revealed that individual characteristics such as age, religion, place of residence, wealth index, levels of education and employment status were statistically significantly related with high risk sexual behaviour among male and female (p < 0.05). Lastly, the study shows that knowledge of sexually transmitted infection was significantly related to high risk sexual behaviour among youths (p < 0.05). The study concludes that there is a high level of knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among unmarried youths in Nigeria. The practice of high risk sex is high among unmarried youths but higher among male youths. The prevalence of high risk sexual activity is higher for males when they are at disadvantage and higher for females when they are at advantage. Socio-demographic factors like age of respondents, religion, wealth index, place of residence, employment status and highest level of education are factors influencing high risk sexual behaviour among youths.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
94
84785
Medical Ethics in the Hospital: Towards Quality Ethics Consultation
Abstract:
During the past few decades, the healthcare system has undergone profound changes in their healthcare decision-making competencies and moral aptitudes due to the vast advancement in technology, clinical skills, and scientific knowledge. Healthcare decision-making deals with morally contentious dilemmas ranging from illness, life and death judgments that require sensitivity and awareness towards the patient’s preferences while taking into consideration medicine’s abilities and boundaries. As the ever-evolving field of medicine continues to become more scientifically and morally multifarious; physicians and the hospital administrators increasingly rely on ethics committees to resolve problems that arise in everyday patient care. The role and latitude of responsibilities of ethics committees which includes being dispute intermediaries, moral analysts, policy educators, counselors, advocates, and reviewers; suggest the importance and effectiveness of a fully integrated committee. Despite achievements on Integrated Ethics and progress in standards and competencies, there is an imminent necessity for further improvement in quality within ethics consultation services in areas of credentialing, professionalism and standards of quality, as well as the quality of healthcare throughout the system. These concerns can be resolved first by collecting data about particular quality gaps and comprehend the level to which ethics committees are consistent with newly published ASBH quality standards. Policymakers should pursue improvement strategies that target both academic bioethics community and major stakeholders at hospitals, who directly influence ethics committees. This broader approach oriented towards education and intervention outcome in conjunction with preventive ethics to address disparities in quality on a systematic level. Adopting tools for improving competencies and processes within ethics consultation by implementing a credentialing process, upholding normative significance for the ASBH core competencies, advocating for professional Code of Ethics, and further clarifying the internal structures will improve productivity, patient satisfaction, and institutional integrity. This cannot be systemically achieved without a written certification exam for HCEC practitioners, credentialing and privileging HCEC practitioners at the hospital level, and accrediting HCEC services at the institutional level.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):