Effect of Goat Milk Kefir and Soy Milk Kefir on IL-6 in Diabetes Mellitus Wistar Mice Models Induced by Streptozotocin and Nicotinamide
Hyperglycemia in Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is an important factor in cellular and vascular damage, which is caused by activation of C Protein Kinase, polyol and hexosamine track, and production of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGE). Those mentioned before causes the accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Oxidative stress increases the expression of proinflammatory factors IL-6 as one of many signs of endothelial disfunction. Genistein in soy milk has a high immunomodulator potential. Goat milk contains amino acids which have antioxidative potential. Fermented kefir has an anti-inflammatory activity which believed will also contribute in potentiating goat milk and soy milk. This study is a quasi-experimental posttest-only research to 30 Wistar mice. This study compared the levels of IL-6 between healthy Wistar mice group (G1) and 4 DM Wistar mice with intervention and grouped as follows: mice without treatment (G2), mice treated with 100% goat milk kefir (G3), mice treated with combination of 50% goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir (G4), and mice treated with 100% soy milk kefir (G5). DM animal models were induced with Streptozotocin & Nicotinamide to achieve hyperglycemic condition. Goat milk kefir and soy milk kefir are given at a dose of 2 mL/kg body weight/day for four weeks to intervention groups. Blood glucose was analyzed by the GOD-POD principle. IL-6 was analyzed by enzyme-linked sandwich ELISA. The level of IL-6 in DM untreated control group (G2) showed a significant difference from the group treated with the combination of 50% goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir (G3) (p=0,006) and the group treated with 100% soy milk kefir (G5) (p=0,009). Whereas the difference of IL-6 in group treated with 100% goat milk kefir (G3) was not significant (p=0,131). There is also synergism between glucose level and IL-6 in intervention groups treated with combination of 50% goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir (G3) and the group treated with 100% soy milk kefir (G5). Combination of 50 % goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir and administration of 100% soy milk kefir alone can control the level of IL-6 remained low in DM Wistar mice induced with streptozocin and nicotinamide.
Sexual Quality of Life in Women with Gynecological Cancer
The aim of this study is to investigate sexual quality of life in women with gynecological cancer. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 37 women with gynecological cancer and 39 control women (in menopausal term) at the Gynecooncology and Menopause Clinics of Trakya University Medical Faculty between January and July 2015. Women who had sexual active and willing to participate in the study filled an information form inquiring socio-demographic characteristics and Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire-Female (SQLQ-F). Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney-U test and Kruskal-Wallis test. The average age of the women was 52.7 ± 7.6 (51.2 ± 8.7 in women with gynecological cancer, 54.3 ± 6.0 in controls). The SQOL-F scores in women with gynecologic cancer (60.8 ± 22.4) was lower than controls (63.5 ± 20.7), however, there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.759). Women with gynecological cancer who had vaginal dryness and pain during sexual intercourse (45.7 ± 21.3) were lower SQOL-F total score than control group (66.0 ± 21.7) (p = 0.014). The SQOL-F scores in women who took chemotherapy treatment (55.7 ± 17.8) were lower than in women who had not chemotherapy treatment (86.8 ± 16.6) (p = 0.005). In conclusion, taking chemotherapy treatment and occurring vaginal dryness and pain complaints during sexual intercourse in women with gynecological cancer reduces sexual quality of life. Therefore, sexual quality of life in women with gynecological cancer should be evaluated, and they should be supported in order to improve their sexual quality of life.
Effect of Aromatherapy Massage on Pain in Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Meta-Analysis
There are several independent randomized controlled studies that investigate whether aromatherapy massage with essential oils for primary dysmenorrhea is effective or not. The aim of this meta-analysis is to investigate the effect of aromatherapy massage with essential oils on pain in primary dysmenorrhea. Randomized controlled trials in Pubmed, ISI Web of Sciences, and Google Scholar were searched according to the keywords. As a result, a total of 53 studies were found. Next, reference lists and bibliographies of these studies were manually searched to determine other potential studies, and as a result of this, six new studies were identified. Fifty-three studies were excluded for various reasons (33 duplications, one animal experiment, one review, one unpublished master thesis, four different methodologies, ten inappropriate main outcomes, one Persian duplication, and two non-randomized clinical trials). Six randomized controlled trials that included 362 participants with primary dysmenorrhea, comparing abdominal aromatherapy massage (n = 184) with massage with placebo oils (n = 178), were analyzed in the meta-analysis. The change in the visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score from the first menstruation cycle to the second cycle at the first menstruation day was used as the primary outcome. Aromatherapy massage was superior to massage with placebo oils (standardized mean difference = -1.06 [95% CI: -1.55 to -0.55]). Abdominal aromatherapy massage with essential oils is an effective complementary method to pain relieve in primary dysmenorrhea. Therefore, it can be used for pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea.
Using the Smith-Waterman Algorithm to Extract Features in the Classification of Obesity Status
Text categorization is the problem of assigning a new document to a set of predetermined categories, on the basis of a training set of free-text data that containing documents whose category membership is known. To train a classification model, it is necessary to extract characteristics in the form of tokens that facilitate the learning and classification process. In text categorization, the feature extraction process involves the use of word sequences also known as N-grams. In general, it is expected that documents belonging to the same category share similar features. The Smith-Waterman (SW) algorithm is a dynamic programming algorithm that performs local sequence alignment in order to determine similar regions between two strings or protein sequences. This work explores the use of SW algorithm as an alternative to feature extraction in text categorization. The dataset used for this purpose contains 2,610 annotated documents with the classes Obese/Non Obese. This dataset was represented in a matrix form using the Bag of Word approach. The score selected to represent the occurrence of the token in the document was the term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF). In order to extract features for classification, four experiments were conducted: the first experiment used SW to extract features, the second one used unigrams (single word), the third one used bigram (two-word sequence) and the last experiment used a combination of unigrams and bigrams to extract features for classification. To test the effectiveness of the extracted feature set for the four experiments, a SVM classifier was tuned using 20% of the dataset. The remaining 80% of the dataset together with 5-fold CV were used to evaluate and compare performance among the four experiments of feature extraction. Results from the tuning process suggest that SW performs better than the N-gram-based feature extraction. These results were confirmed by using the remaining 80% of the dataset, where SW performed the best (accuracy = 97.12%, F-measure weighted = 97.08%). The second best was bigram method (accuracy = 96.21%, F-measure weighted = 95.92%) closely followed by the combination unigrams- bigrams (accuracy = 96.21%, F-measure weighted = 95.88%) and finally unigrams (accuracy = 94.68%, F-measure weighted = 94.23%).
Fast and Accurate Model to Detect Ictal Waveforms in Electroencephalogram Signals
Visual inspection of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to detect epileptic signals is very challenging and time-consuming task even for any expert neurophysiologist. This problem is most challenging in under-developed and developing countries due to shortage of skilled neurophysiologists. In the past, notable research efforts have gone in trying to automate the seizure detection process. However, due to high false alarm detections and complexity of the models developed so far, have vastly delimited their practical implementation. In this paper, we present a novel scheme for epileptic seizure detection using empirical mode decomposition technique. The intrinsic mode functions obtained were then used to calculate the standard deviations. This was followed by probability density based classifier to discriminate between non-ictal and ictal patterns in EEG signals. The model presented here demonstrated very high classification rates (>97%) without compromising the statistical performance. The computation timings for each testing phase were also very low (< 0.029 s) which makes this model ideal for practical applications.
Cultural Collisions, Ethics and HIV: On Local Values in a Globalized Medical World
In 1988, parts of the scientific community still heralded findings to support that AIDS was likely to remain largely a ‘gay disease’. The value-ladden terminology of some of the articles suggested that rectum and fragile urethra are not sufficiently robust to provide a barrier against infectious fluids, especially body fluids contaminated with HIV while the female vagina, would provide natural protection against injuries and trauma facilitating HIV-infection. Anal sexual intercourse was constituted not only as dangerous but also as unnatural practice, while penile-vaginal intercourse would follow natural design and thus be relatively safe practice minimizing the risk of HIV. Statements like the latter were not uncommon in the early times of HIV/AIDS and contributed to captious certainties and an underestimation of heterosexual risks. Pseudo-scientific discourses on the origin of HIV were linked to local and global health politics in the 1980ies. The pathways of infection were related to normative concepts like deviant, subcultural behavior, cultural otherness, and guilt used to target, tag and separate specific groups at risk from the ‘normal’ population. Controlling populations at risk became the top item on the agenda rather than controlling modes of transmission and the virus. Hence, the Thai strategy to cope with HIV/AIDS by acknowledging social and sexual practices as they were – not as they were imagined – has become a role model for successful prevention in the highly scandalized realm of sexually transmitted disease. By accepting the globalized character of local HIV-risk and projecting the risk onto populations which are neither particularly vocal groups nor vested with the means to strive for health and justice Thailand managed to culturally implement knowledge-based tools of prevention. This paper argues, that pertinent cultural collisions regarding our strategies to cope with HIV/AIDS are deeply rooted in misconceptions, misreadings and scandalizations brought about in the early history of HIV in the 1980ties. The Thai strategy is used to demonstrate how local values can be balanced against globalized health risk and used to effectuated prevention by which knowledge and norms are translated into local practices. Issues of global health and injustice will be addressed in the final part of the paper dealing with the achievability of health as a human right.
Evaluation of Adverse Drug Reactions of Hospital in Taiwan
Background: An adverse drug reaction (ADR) reported is an injury which caused by taking medicines. Sometimes the severity of ADR reported may be minor, but sometimes it could be a life-threatening situation. In order to provide healthcare professionals as a better reference in clinical practice, we do data collection and analysis from our hospital. Methods: This was a retrospective study of ADRs reported performed from 2014 to 2015 in our hospital in Taiwan. We collected assessment items of ADRs reported, which contain gender and age, occurring sources, Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification of suspected drugs, types of adverse reactions, Naranjo score calculating by Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale and so on. Results: The investigation included two hundred and seven ADRs reported. Most of ADRs reported were occurring in outpatient department (94%). The average age of ADRs reported was 65.3 years. Less than 65 years of age were in the majority in this study (54%). Majority of all ADRs reported were males (51%). According to ATC classification system, the major classification of suspected drugs were Cardiovascular system (19%) and Antiinfectives for systemic use (18%) respectively. Among the adverse reactions, Dermatologic Effects (35%) were the major type of ADRs. Also, the major Naranjo scores of all ADRs reported ranged from 1 to 4 points (98%), which represents a possible correlation between ADRs reported and suspected drugs. Conclusions: Definitely, ADRs reported is still an extremely important information for healthcare professionals. For that reason, we put all information of ADRs reported into our hospital's computer system, and it will improve the safety of medication use. By hospital's computer system, it can remind prescribers to think of information about patient's ADRs reported. No drug is administered without risk. Therefore, all healthcare professionals should have a responsibility to their patients, who themselves are becoming more aware of problems associated with drug therapy.
Exploring the Spatial Characteristics of Mortality Map: A Statistical Area Perspective
The analysis of geographic inequality nowadays heavily depends on the location-enabled digital statistical data and various indicators to present the spatial status of selected domains. To protect privacy, point-based data are often aggregated to area-based statistical data, where only an overall status of the selected level of spatial units are shown. The partition of the spatial units thus has dominant influence on the outcomes of the final results. This is well known as the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP). A spatial reference framework, the Taiwan Geographical Statistical Classification (TGSC), was developed mainly based on the homogeneous consideration of the number of population and households. Comparing to the traditional township units, TGSC provides finer levels of granularity for presenting spatial phenomena and enables domain experts to select appropriate level of dissemination units for publishing statistical data. This paper aims to firstly compare the results of respectively using TGSC and township unit on the mortality data in the county of Taitung. The geocoded street address data for people died between January 1st, 2006 and December 31st, 2010 were generated and two datasets based on the township units and 2nd dissemination area of TGSC were created. While the all-cause age-standardized death rate (ASDR) for the Taitung city was 742 per 100,000 persons during the research period, the ASDR value for the 2nd dissemination area showed greater variation, ranged from 537 to 1198 in different regions. For rural townships, the variation of ASDR according to the 2nd dissemination area was less prominent. The smaller units of TGSC clearly provides better outcomes for identifying and evaluating the spatial patterns of hot spots, which can then be integrated with other domain of GIS data for further analysis. This research additionally introduced a set of auxiliary indicators, including geocoding successful match rate, centroid, density, spatial dispersion, kernel density, hot spot analysis, on both the location of death and population data to examine the hidden spatial characteristics of mortality data and justify the evaluation results. The value of indicators showed great variation of spatial patterns in urban, suburb and mountain area, which also indicated that the larger dissemination units in choropleth maps have strong visual impact and may to a certain degree distort the correct visual interpretation of the mortality maps. The visual design of auxiliary indicators then provided useful clues for users’ decision reference. This research successfully demonstrated the feasibility of improving the interpretation and decision making of mortality data via innovated integration of geocoding, TGSC, auxiliary indicators and visual designs. This triggers a motivation for designing a knowledge-based web statistical service that can consume domain statistical data and present the analyzed outcomes in meaningful ways to avoid wrong decision making. As a new system, more tests on the common and unique characteristics of TGSC are still necessary in the future.
Spectrum of Dry Eye Disease in Computer Users of Manipur India
Computer and video display users might complain about Asthenopia, burning, dry eyes etc. Dry eye disease is a disease of ocular surface attributing to disturbances of the natural function and protective mechanisms of the external eye leading to an unstable tear film during open eye state. It is one of the most frequently encountered diseases in any ophthalmic practice. The management is often not in the lines of the severity of the disease. Following systematic evaluation and grading, dry eye disease is one condition that can be practiced at all levels of ophthalmic care. In these work the different spectrum causing dry eye and prevalence of dry eye disease in computer users of Manipur, India is determined with 600 individuals (300 cases and 300 control). Individuals between 15-50 years who used computers for more than 3 hrs a day since 1 year was included in the present study. Tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer’s test was conducted. It shows 33(20.4%) out of 164 male and 47(30.3%) out of 136 female have dry eye. Possible explanation for the observed result is being discussed. As the use of computer had become universal in higher institutions, subject of prevention of computer vision syndrome and associated discomfort should be worked out of the curriculum in higher institutions.
A Comparison of Implant Stability between Implant Placed without Bone Graft versus with Bone Graft Using Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) Technique: A Resonance Frequency Analysis
This prospective clinical study determined the insertion torque (IT) value and monitored the changes in implant stability quotient (ISQ) values during the 12 weeks healing period from implant placement without bone graft (control group) and with bone graft using the guided bone regeneration (GBR) technique (study group). The relationship between the IT and ISQ values of the implants was also assessed. The control and study groups each consisted of 6 patients with 8 implants per group. The ASTRA TECH Implant System™ EV 4.2 mm in diameter was placed in the posterior mandibular region. In the control group, implants were placed in bone without bone graft, whereas in the study group implants were placed simultaneously with the GBR technique at favorable bone defect. IT (Ncm) of each implant was recorded when fully inserted. ISQ values were obtained from the Osstell® ISQ at the time of implant placement, and at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. No difference in IT was found between groups (P = 0.320). The ISQ values in the control group were significantly higher than in the study group at the time of implant placement and at 4 weeks. There was no significant association between IT and ISQ values either at baseline or after the 12 weeks. At 12 weeks of healing, the control and study groups displayed different trends. Mean ISQ values for the control group decreased over the first 2 weeks and then started to increase. ISQ value increases were statistically significant at 8 weeks and later, whereas mean ISQ values in the study group decreased over the first 4 weeks and then started to increase, with statistical significance after 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, all implants achieved osseointegration with mean ISQ values over the threshold value (ISQ>70). These results indicated that implants, in which guided bone regeneration technique was performed during implant placement for treating favorable bone defects, were as predictable as implants placed without bone graft. However, loading in implants placed with the GBR technique for correcting favorable bone defects should be performed after 12 weeks of healing to ensure implant stability and osseointegration.
Assessing the Accessibility to Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Background: Ensuring patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) access to hospitals that could perform percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in time is an important concern of healthcare managers. One commonly used the method to assess the coverage of population access to PCI hospital is the use GIS-estimated linear distance (crow's fly distance) between the district centroid and the nearest PCI hospital. If the distance is within a given distance (such as 20 km), the entire population of that district is considered to have appropriate access to PCI. The premise of using district centroid to estimate the coverage of population resident in that district is that the people live in the district are evenly distributed. In reality, the population density is not evenly distributed within the administrative district, especially in rural districts. Fortunately, the Taiwan government released basic statistical area (on average 450 population within the area) recently, which provide us an opportunity to estimate the coverage of population access to PCI services more accurate. Objectives: We aimed in this study to compare the population covered by a give PCI hospital according to traditional administrative district versus basic statistical area. We further examined if the differences between two geographic units used would be larger in a rural area than in urban area. Method: We selected two hospitals in Tainan City for this analysis. Hospital A is in urban area, hospital B is in rural area. The population in each traditional administrative district and basic statistical area are obtained from Taiwan National Geographic Information System, Ministry of Internal Affairs. Results: Estimated population live within 20 km of hospital A and B was 1,515,846 and 323,472 according to traditional administrative district and was 1,506,325 and 428,556 according to basic statistical area. Conclusion: In urban area, the estimated access population to PCI services was similar between two geographic units. However, in rural areas, the access population would be overestimated.
Rural to Urban Migration and Mental Health Consequences in Urbanizing China
The mass rural-urban migrants in China associated with the urbanization processes bear significant implications on public health, which is an important yet under-researched area. Urban social and built environment, such as noise, air pollution, high population density, and social segregation, has the potential to contribute to mental illness. In China, rural-urban migrants are also faced with institutional discrimination tied to the hukou (household registration) system, through which they are denied of full citizenship to basic social welfare and services, which may elevate the stress of urban living and exacerbate the risks to mental illness. This paper aims to link the sociospatial exclusion, everyday life experiences and its mental health consequences on rural to urban migrants living in the mega-city of Shanghai. More specifically, it asks what the daily experience of being a migrant in Shanghai is actually like, particularly regarding sources of stress from housing, displacement, service accessibility, and cultural conflict, and whether these stresses affect mental health? Secondary data from literature review on migration, urban studies, and epidemiology research, as well as primary data from preliminary field trip observations and interviews are used in the analysis.
Bringing the Confidence Intervals into Choropleth Mortality Map
Background: Choropleth mortality map is commonly used to identify areas with higher mortality risk. However, the use of choropleth map alone might result in the misinterpretation of differences in mortality rates between areas. Two areas with different color shades might not actually have a significant difference in mortality rates. The mortality rates estimated for an area with a small population would be less stable. We suggest of bringing the 95% confidence intervals (CI) into the choropleth mortality map to help users interpret the areal mortality rate difference more properly. Method: In the first choropleth mortality map, we used only three color to indicate standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for each district in Tainan, Taiwan. The red color denotes that the SMR of that district was significantly higher than the Tainan average; on the contrary, the green color suggests that the SMR of that district was significantly lower than the Tainan average. The yellow color indicates that the SMR of that district was not statistically significantly different from the Tainan average. In the second choropleth mortality map, we used traditional sequential color scheme (color ramp) for different SMR in 37 districts in Tainan City with bar chart of each SMR with 95% CI in which the users could examine if the line of 95% CI of SMR of two districts overlapped (nonsignificant difference). Results: The all-causes SMR of each district in Tainan for 2008 to 2013 ranged from 0.77 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.80) in East District to 1.39 Beimen (95% CI 1.25 to 1.52). In the first choropleth mortality map, only 16 of 37 districts had red color and 8 districts had green color. For different causes of death, the number of districts with red color differed. In the first choropleth mortality map we added a bar chart with line of 95% CI of SMR in each district, in which the users could visualize the SMR differences between districts. Conclusion: Through the use of 95% CI the users could interpret the aral mortality differences more properly.
Integrating Geographic Information into Diabetes Disease Management
Background: Traditional chronic disease management did not pay attention to effects of ‘geographic’ factors on the adherence of treatment regime, which resulted in huge geographic inequality in outcomes of chronic disease management. We aimed in this study to examine the geographic distribution and clustering of quality indicators of diabetes care. Method: We first extract address, demographic characteristics and quality of care information (number of visits, department of visit, comorbidity, complication, and laboratory results) of patients with diabetes for the year 2014 from medical information system in a medical center in Tainan. The address of the patient was transformed into least statistical unit through Taiwan Geospatial One-Stop system (TGOS system). We then compared the differences of geographic distribution and clustering of quality of care indicators between those based on township unit and those based on second statistical units. Results: A total of 23,468 patients with diabetes were extracted from the hospital medical information system; however, only 17,475 patients (74%), in which the recorded addresses could be transformed into latitude and longitude and then the smallest statistical geocodes. With regard to the indicator of regular treatment (at least four or above visits per year), using second statistical unit could provide more diverse distribution of the indicator by area. West side of Shinse, southern side of Yensuei, northern side of Chianchun, and southern side of Danei all showed relatively low value of regular visits. Overall, number of areas with high regular visits among women was higher than their counterpart men. For complication rate among regular visitors, Danei had highest rate and second statistical unit revealed southeastern side had higher rate. Conclusion: We conclude the use of smaller statistical unit to illustrate geographic inequality of quality of diabetes care could provide more information to identify hot spots. This information is useful for case managers or community nurses to further explore the possible physical (such as transportation problem) or social (incorrect disease treatment notions) factors behind the hot spots. More efforts are needed to promote the accuracy of address record and using prescription of lab examinations and results to provide better information on geographic inequality of healthcare.
Computer Aided Diagnostic System for Detection and Classification of Brain Tumor through MRI Using Level Set Based Segmentation Technique and ANN Classifier
Due to the acquisition of huge amount of brain tumor magnetic resonance images (MRI) in the clinics, it is very difficult for the radiologists to manually interpret and segment these images within a reasonable span of time. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems can enhance the diagnostic capabilities of radiologists and reduce the time required for accurate diagnosis. An intelligent computer-aided technique for automatic detection of brain tumor through magnetic resonance images is proposed in this paper. The proposed technique uses following computational methods; the Level Set for segmentation of brain tumor from other brain parts, extraction of features from this segmented tumor portion using gray level co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), and the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to classify brain tumor images according to their respective types. The whole work is carried out on 50 images having five types of brain tumor. The overall classification accuracy using this method is found to be 98% which is significantly good.
RV Car Clinic as Cost-Effective Health Care
Healthcare in remote areas is one of the major concerns in Indonesia. Building hospitals in a nation of 18.000 islands with a larger-than-life bureaucracy and problems with corruption, a critical shortage of qualified medical professionals and well-heeled patients resigned to traveling abroad for health care is a hard feat to accomplish. To assuring that all populations have access to appropriate and cost-effective care, a new solution to tackle this problem is with the presence of RV Car Clinic. This car has a concept such as a walking hospital that provides health facilities inside it. All of the health professionals who work in RV Car Clinic will do the rotation for a year in order to the equitable distribution of health workers. We need to advocate the policy makers to help realize RV Car Clinic in remote areas. Health services can be disseminated by the present of RV Car Clinic. Summarily, the local communities can get cost effectively because RV Car Clinic will come to their place and serve the health services.
Role of Moderate Intensity Exercises in the Amelioration of Oxidant-Antioxidant Status and the Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients
Cytokines and reactive species play an important role in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was done to determine the levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), inflammatory cytokines and the markers of protein, DNA and lipid oxidation in the blood of RA patients, with the aim to study the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory role of moderate intensity exercises in the management of RA. RA patients were subdivided into two groups- first group (n=30) received treatment with conventional RA drugs while the second group (n=30) received moderate exercise therapy along with the conventional drugs for a period of 12 weeks. The levels of ROS, RNS, inflammatory cytokines and markers of biomolecule oxidation were monitored before and after 12 weeks of treatment. RA patients showed a marked increase in the levels of ROS, RNS, inflammatory cytokines, lipid, protein and DNA oxidation as compared to the healthy controls. These parameters were ameliorated after treatment with drugs alone and exercise combined with drugs, with the amelioration being more significant in patients given drugs along with the moderate intensity exercise treatment. In conclusion, the role of ROS, RNS and inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of RA has been confirmed by this study. These may also serve as potential biomarker for assessing the disease severity. Finally, the addition of moderate intensity exercises in the management of RA may be of great value.
Optimization of Polymerase Chain Reaction Condition to Amplify Exon 9 of PIK3CA Gene in Preventing False Positive Detection Caused by Pseudogene Existence in Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is a regulated by many genes. Defect in PIK3CA gene especially at position of exon 9 (E542K and E545K), called hot spot mutation induce early transformation of breast cells. The early detection of breast cancer based on mutation profile of this hot spot region would be hampered by the existence of pseudogene, marked by its substitution mutation at base 1658 (E545A) and deletion at 1659 that have been previously proven in several cancers. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, until recently no studies have been reported about pseudogene phenomenon in breast cancer. Here, we reported PCR optimization to to obtain true exon 9 of PIK3CA gene from its pseudogene hence increasing the validity of data. Material and methods: two genomic DNA with Dev and En code were used in this experiment. Two pairs of primer were design for Standard PCR method. The size of PCR products for each primer is 200bp and 400bp. While other primer was designed for Nested-PCR followed with DNA sequencing method. For Nested-PCR, we optimized the annealing temperature in first and second run of PCR, and the PCR cycle for first run PCR (15x versus 25x). Result: standard PCR using both primer pairs designed is failed to detect the true PIK3CA gene, appearing a substitution mutation at 1658 and deletion at 1659 of PCR product in sequence chromatogram indicated pseudogene. Meanwhile, Nested-PCR with optimum condition (annealing temperature for the first round at 55oC, annealing temperatung for the second round at 60,7oC with 15x PCR cycles) and could detect the true PIK3CA gene. Dev sample were identified as WT while En sample contain one substitution mutation at position 545 of exon 9, indicating amino acid changing from E to K. For the conclusion, pseudogene also exists in breast cancer and the apllication of optimazed Nested-PCR in this study could detect the true exon 9 of PIK3CA gene.
Analysis of Stress and Strain in Head Based Control of Cooperative Robots through Tetraplegics
Industrial robots as part of highly automated manufacturing are recently developed to cooperative (light-weight) robots. This offers the opportunity of using them as assistance robots and to improve the participation in professional life of disabled or handicapped people such as tetraplegics. Robots under development are located within a cooperation area together with the working person at the same workplace. This cooperation area is an area where the robot and the working person can perform tasks at the same time. Thus, working people and robots are operating in the immediate proximity. Considering the physical restrictions and the limited mobility of tetraplegics, a hands-free robot control could be an appropriate approach for a cooperative assistance robot. To meet these requirements, the research project MeRoSy (human-robot synergy) develops methods for cooperative assistance robots based on the measurement of head movements of the working person. One research objective is to improve the participation in professional life of people with disabilities and, in particular, mobility impaired persons (e.g. wheelchair users or tetraplegics), whose participation in a self-determined working life is denied. This raises the research question, how a human-robot cooperation workplace can be designed for hands-free robot control. Here, the example of a library scenario is demonstrated. In this paper, an empirical study that focuses on the impact of head movement related stress is presented. 12 test subjects with tetraplegia participated in the study. Tetraplegia also known as quadriplegia is the worst type of spinal cord injury. In the experiment, three various basic head movements were examined. Data of the head posture were collected by a motion capture system; muscle activity was measured via surface electromyography and the subjective mental stress was assessed via a mental effort questionnaire. The muscle activity was measured for the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), the upper trapezius (UT) or trapezius pars descendens, and the splenius capitis (SPL) muscle. For this purpose, six non-invasive surface electromyography sensors were mounted on the head and neck area. An analysis of variance shows differentiated muscular strains depending on the type of head movement. Systematically investigating the influence of different basic head movements on the resulting strain is an important issue to relate the research results to other scenarios. At the end of this paper, a conclusion will be drawn and an outlook of future work will be presented.
Hypertension and Its Association with Oral Health Status in Adults: A Pilot Study in Padusunan Adults Community
The association between general and oral health is clearly important, particularly in adults with medical conditions. Many of the medical systemic conditions are either caused or aggravated by poor oral hygiene and vice versa. Hypertension is one of common medical systemic problem which has been a public health concern worldwide due to its known consequences. Those consequences must be related to oral health status as well, whether it may cause or worsen the oral health conditions. The objective of this study was to find out the association between hypertension and oral health status in adults. This study was an analytical observational study by using cross-sectional method. A total of 42 adults both male and female in Padusunan Village, Pariaman, West Sumatra, Indonesia were selected as subjects by using purposive sampling. Manual sphygmomanometer was used to measure blood pressure and dental examination was performed to calculate the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) scores in order to represent oral health status. The data obtained was analyzed statistically using One Way ANOVA to determine the association between hypertensive adults and their oral health status. The result showed that majority age of the subjects was ranging from 51-70 years (40.5%). Based on blood pressure examination, 57.1% of subjects were classified to prehypertension. Overall, the mean of DMFT score calculated in normal, prehypertension and hypertension group was not considered statistically significant. There was no significant association (p>0.05) between hypertension and oral health status in adults.
Nursing System Development in Patients Undergoing Operation in 3C Ward: Early Ambulation in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer
Background: Srinagarind Hospital Ward 3C has about 180 cases of patients with head and neck cancer per year. Almost all of these patients suffer with pain, fatigue, low self image, swallowing problem and when the tumor is larger they will have breathing problem. Many of them have complication after operation such as pressure sore, pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis. Nursing activity is very important to prevent the complication especially promoting patients early ambulation. The objective of this study was to develop early ambulation protocol for patients with head and neck cancer undergoing operation. Method: this study is one part of nursing system development in patients undergoing operation in Ward 3C. It is a participation action research divided into 3 phases Phase 1 Situation review: In this phase we review the clinical outcomes, process of care, from document such as nurses note and interview nurses, patients and family about early ambulation. Phase 2 Searching nursing intervention about early ambulation from previous study then establish protocol . This phase we have picture package of early ambulation. Phase 3 implementation and evaluation. Result: Patients with head and neck cancer after operation can follow early ambulation protocol 100%, 85 % of patients can follow protocol within 2 days after operation and 100% can follow protocol within 3 days. No complications occur. Patients satisfaction in very good level is 58% and in good level is 42% Length of hospital stay is 6 days in patients with wide excision and 16 day in patients with flap coverage. Conclusion: The early ambulation protocol is appropriate for patients with head and neck cancer who undergo operation. This can restore physical health, reduce complication and increase patients satisfaction.
Automated Ultrasound Carotid Artery Image Segmentation Using Curvelet Threshold Decomposition
In this paper, we propose denoising Common Carotid Artery (CCA) B mode ultrasound images by a decomposition approach to curvelet thresholding and automatic segmentation of the intima media thickness and adventitia boundary. By decomposition, the local geometry of the image, its direction of gradients are well preserved. The components are combined into a single vector valued function, thus removes noise patches. Double threshold is applied to inherently remove speckle noise in the image. The denoised image is segmented by active contour without specifying seed points. Combined with level set theory, they provide sub regions with continuous boundaries. The deformable contours match to the shapes and motion of objects in the images. A curve or a surface under constraints is developed from the image with the goal that it is pulled into the necessary features of the image. Region based and boundary based information are integrated to achieve the contour. The method treats the multiplicative speckle noise in objective and subjective quality measurements and thus leads to better-segmented results. The proposed denoising method gives better performance metrics compared with other state of art denoising algorithms.
Adaptive Training Methods Designed to Improve a Shorter Resident Curriculum in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Background: In France, the resident curriculum (RC) in Obstetrics and Gynecology (OBGYN) takes five years. In the course of the last 15 years, this RC has undergone major changes, characterized mainly by successive reductions of work hours. The program used to comprise long and frequent shifts, huge workload, poor supervision and erratic theoretical teaching. A decade ago, the French Ministry of Heath recommended a limitation of shift duration up to 24 hours and a minimum of 11 hours off duty between shifts. Last year, in order to comply with European Union directives, new recommendations have further limited residents’ work hours to 48 hours per week. Methods: Assessment of the residency program adjustments recently made to accommodate the recommendations while improving the training quality in resorting to new methods. Results: The challenge facing program directors was to provide an all-encompassing curriculum to OBGYN residents despite fewer work hours. Program has been dramatically redesigned, and several measures have been put in place: -The resident rotation system has been redesigned. Residents used to make 6-month rotations between 10-12 Departments of OBGYN or Surgery. Fewer Departments, those providing the best teaching, have been kept in the new RC. -Extensive inhouse supervision has been implemented for all kinds of clinical activities. Effectual supervision of residents has proved to be an effective tool to improve the quality of training. -The tutorship system, with academic members individually overseeing residents during their curriculum, has been perfected. It allows a better follow-up of residents’ progresses during the 5-year program. -The set up of an extensive program of lectures encompassing all maters in Obstetrics & Gynecology. These mandatory lectures are available online in a dedicated website. Therefore, face-to-face lectures have been limited in order to fit in the 48-hour limit. -The use of simulation has been significantly increased in obstetrics, materno-fetal medicine and surgery (stressing especially laparoscopic training). -Residents’ feedback has been taken into account in the setup of the new RC. Conclusion: This extensive overhaul of the Obstetrics and Gynecology RC has been in place since last year only. Nevertheless, the new program seems to adequately take into account the new recommendations while providing a better and more consistent teaching to the OBGYN residents.
The Quantitative SWOT-Analysis of Service Blood Activity of Kazakhstan
Situation analysis of Blood Service revealed that the strengths dominated over the weak 1.4 times. The possibilities dominate over the threats by 1.1 times. It follows that by using timely the possibility the Service, it is possible to strengthen its strengths and avoid threats. Priority directions of the resulting analysis are the use of subjective factors, such as personal management capacity managers of the Blood Center in the field of possibilities of legal activity of administrative decisions and the mobilization of stable staff in general market conditions. We have studied for the period 2011-2015 retrospectively indicators of Blood Service of Kazakhstan. Strengths of Blood Service of RK(Ps4,5): 1) indicators of donations for 1000 people is higher than in some countries of the CIS (in Russia 14, Kazakhstan - 17); 2) the functioning science centre of transfusiology; 3) the legal possibility of additional financing blood centers in the form of paid services; 4) the absence of competitors; 5) training on specialty Transfusiology; 6) the stable management staff of blood centers, a high level of competence; 7) increase in the incidence requiring transfusion therapy (oncohematology); 8) equipment upgrades; 9) the opening of a reference laboratory; 10) growth of the proportion of issued high-quality blood components; 11) governmental organization 'Drop of Life'; 12) the functioning bone marrow register; 13) equipped with modern equipment HLA-laboratory; 14) High categorization of average medical workers; 15) availability of own specialized scientific journal; 16) vivarium. The weaknesses (Ps = 3.5): 1) the incomplete equipping of blood centers and blood transfusion cabinets according to standards; 2) low specific weight of paid services of the CC; 3) low categorization of doctors; 4) high staff turnover; 5) the low scientific potential of industrial and clinical of transfusiology; 6) the low wages paid; 7) slight growth of harvested donor blood; 8) the weak continuity with offices blood transfusion; 9) lack of agitation work; 10) the formally functioning of Transfusion Association; 11) the absence of scientific laboratories; 12) high standard deviation from the average for donations in the republic. The possibilities (Ps = 2,7): 1): international grants; 2) organization of international seminars on clinical of transfusiology; 3) cross-sectoral cooperation; 4) to increase scientific research in the field of clinical of transfusiology; 5) reduce the share of donation unsuitable for transfusion and processing; 6) strengthening marketing management in the development of fee-based services; 7) advertising paid services; 8) strengthening the publishing of teaching aids; 9) team-building staff. The threats (Ps = 2.1): 1) an increase of staff turnover; 2) the risk of litigation; 3) reduction gemoprodukts based on evidence-based medicine; 4) regression of scientific capacity; 5) organization of marketing; 6) transfusiologist marketing; 7) reduction in the quality of the evidence base transfusions.
Parathyroid Hormone Receptor 1 as a Prognostic Indicator in Canine Osteosarcoma
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common type of malignant primary bone tumour in dogs. In addition to their critical roles in bone formation and remodeling, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and its receptor (PTHR1) are involved in progression and metastasis of many types of tumours in humans. The aims of this study were to determine the localisation and expression levels of PTHrP and PTHR1 in canine OS tissues using immunohistochemistry and to investigate if this expression is correlated with survival time. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 44 dogs with known survival time that had been diagnosed with primary osteosarcoma were analysed for localisation of PTHrP and PTHR1. Findings showed that both PTHrP and PTHR1 were present in all OS samples. The dogs with high level of PTHR1 protein (16%) had decreased survival time (P< 0.05) compared to dogs with less PTHR1 protein. PTHrP levels did not correlate with survival time (P>0.05). The results of this study indicate that the PTHR1 is expressed differently in canine OS tissues and this may be correlated with poor prognosis. This may mean that PTHR1 may be useful as a prognostic indicator in canine OS and could represent a good therapeutic target in OS.
Multimodal Integration of EEG, fMRI and Positron Emission Tomography Data Using Principal Component Analysis for Prognosis in Coma Patients
, Daniel Golkowski
, Mathias Lukas
, Katharina Merz
, Caroline Mlynarcik
, Max Maurer
, Valentin Riedl
, Stefan Foerster
, Eberhard F. Kochs
, Andreas Bender
, Ruediger Ilg
Introduction: So far, clinical assessments that rely on behavioral responses to differentiate coma states or even predict outcome in coma patients are unreliable, e.g. because of some patients’ motor disabilities. The present study was aimed to provide prognosis in coma patients using markers from electroencephalogram (EEG), blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Unsuperwised principal component analysis (PCA) was used for multimodal integration of markers. Methods: Approved by the local ethics committee of the Technical University of Munich (Germany) 20 patients (aged 18-89) with severe brain damage were acquired through intensive care units at the Klinikum rechts der Isar in Munich and at the Therapiezentrum Burgau (Germany). At the day of EEG/fMRI/PET measurement (date I) patients (
Implementation of a Web-Based Clinical Outcomes Monitoring and Reporting Platform across the Fortis Network
Background: Clinical Outcomes are the globally agreed upon, evidence-based measurable changes in health or quality of life resulting from the patient care. Reporting of outcomes and its continuous monitoring provides an opportunity for both assessing and improving the quality of patient care. In 2012, International Consortium Of HealthCare Outcome Measurement (ICHOM) was founded which has defined global Standard Sets for measuring the outcome of various treatments. Method: Monitoring of Clinical Outcomes was identified as a pillar of Fortis’ core value of Patient Centricity. The project was started as an in-house developed Clinical Outcomes Reporting Portal by the Fortis Medical IT team. Standard sets of Outcome measurement developed by ICHOM were used. A pilot was run at Fortis Escorts Heart Institute from Aug’13 – Dec’13.Starting Jan’14, it was implemented across 11 hospitals of the group. The scope was hospital-wide and major clinical specialties: Cardiac Sciences, Orthopedics & Joint Replacement were covered. The internally developed portal had its limitations of report generation and also capturing of Patient related outcomes was restricted. A year later, the company provisioned for an ICHOM Certified Software product which could provide a platform for data capturing and reporting to ensure compliance with all ICHOM requirements. Post a year of the launch of the software; Fortis Healthcare has become the 1st Healthcare Provider in Asia to publish Clinical Outcomes data for the Coronary Artery Disease Standard Set comprising of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft and Percutaneous Coronary Interventions) in the public domain. (Jan 2016). Results: This project has helped in firmly establishing a culture of monitoring and reporting Clinical Outcomes across Fortis Hospitals. Given the diverse nature of the healthcare delivery model at Fortis Network, which comprises of hospitals of varying size and specialty-mix and practically covering the entire span of the country, standardization of data collection and reporting methodology is a huge achievement in itself. 95% case reporting was achieved with more than 90% data completion at the end of Phase 1 (March 2016). Post implementation the group now has one year of data from its own hospitals. This has helped identify the gaps and plan towards ways to bridge them and also establish internal benchmarks for continual improvement. Besides the value created for the group includes: 1. Entire Fortis community has been sensitized on the importance of Clinical Outcomes monitoring for patient centric care. Initial skepticism and cynicism has been countered by effective stakeholder engagement and automation of processes. 2. Measuring quality is the first step in improving quality. Data analysis has helped compare clinical results with best-in-class hospitals and identify improvement opportunities. 3. Clinical fraternity is extremely pleased to be part of this initiative and has taken ownership of the project. Conclusion: Fortis Healthcare is the pioneer in the monitoring of Clinical Outcomes. Implementation of ICHOM standards has helped Fortis Clinical Excellence Program in improving patient engagement and strengthening its commitment to its core value of Patient Centricity. Validation and certification of the Clinical Outcomes data by an ICHOM Certified Supplier adds confidence to its claim of being leaders in this space.
National Accreditation Board for Hospitals and Healthcare Reaccreditation, the Challenges and Advantages: A Qualitative Case Study
Background: The National Accreditation Board for Hospitals & Healthcare Providers (NABH) is India’s apex standard setting accrediting body in health care which evaluates and accredits healthcare organizations. NABH requires accredited organizations to become reaccredited every three years. It is often though that once the initial accreditation is complete, the foundation is set and reaccreditation is a much simpler process. Fortis Hospital, Shalimar Bagh, a part of the Fortis Healthcare group is a 262 bed, multi-specialty tertiary care hospital. The hospital was successfully accredited in the year 2012. On completion of its first cycle, the hospital underwent a reaccreditation assessment in the year 2015. This paper aims to gain a better understanding of the challenges that accredited hospitals face when preparing for a renewal of their accreditations. Methods: The study was conducted using a cross-sectional mixed methods approach; semi-structured interviews were conducted with senior leadership team and staff members including doctors and nurses. Documents collated by the QA team while preparing for the re-assessment like the data on quality indicators: the method of collection, analysis, trending, continual incremental improvements made over time, minutes of the meetings, amendments made to the existing policies and new policies drafted was reviewed to understand the challenges. Results: The senior leadership had a concern about the cost of accreditation and its impact on the quality of health care services considering the staff effort and time consumed it. The management was however in favor of continuing with the accreditation since it offered competitive advantage, strengthened community confidence besides better pay rates from the payors. The clinicians regarded it as an increased non-clinical workload. Doctors felt accountable within a professional framework, to themselves, the patient and family, their peers and to their profession; but not to accreditation bodies and raised concerns on how the quality indicators were measured. The departmental leaders had a positive perception of accreditation. They agreed that it ensured high standards of care and improved management of their functional areas. However, they were reluctant in sparing people for the QA activities due to staffing issues. With staff turnover, a lot of work was lost as sticky knowledge and had to be redone. Listing the continual quality improvement initiatives over the last 3 years was a challenge in itself. Conclusion: The success of any quality assurance reaccreditation program depends almost entirely on the commitment and interest of the administrators, nurses, paramedical staff, and clinicians. The leader of the Quality Movement is critical in propelling and building momentum. Leaders need to recognize skepticism and resistance and consider ways in which staff can become positively engaged. Involvement of all the functional owners is the start point towards building ownership and accountability for standards compliance. Creativity plays a very valuable role. Communication by Mail Series, WhatsApp groups, Quizzes, Events, and any and every form helps. Leaders must be able to generate interest and commitment without burdening clinical and administrative staff with an activity they neither understand nor believe in.
SPARK: An Open-Source Knowledge Discovery Platform That Leverages Non-Relational Databases and Massively Parallel Computational Power for Heterogeneous Genomic Datasets
Data are the primary asset of biomedical researchers, and the engine for both discovery and research translation. As the volume and complexity of research datasets increase, especially with new technologies such as large single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips, so too does the requirement for software to manage, process and analyze the data. Researchers often need to execute complicated queries and conduct complex analyzes of large-scale datasets. Existing tools to analyze such data, and other types of high-dimensional data, unfortunately suffer from one or more major problems. They typically require a high level of computing expertise, are too simplistic (i.e., do not fit realistic models that allow for complex interactions), are limited by computing power, do not exploit the computing power of large-scale parallel architectures (e.g. supercomputers, GPU clusters etc.), or are limited in the types of analysis available, compounded by the fact that integrating new analysis methods is not straightforward. Solutions to these problems, such as those developed and implemented on parallel architectures, are currently available to only a relatively small portion of medical researchers with access and know-how. The past decade has seen a rapid expansion of data management systems for the medical domain. Much attention has been given to systems that manage phenotype datasets generated by medical studies. The introduction of heterogeneous genomic data for research subjects that reside in these systems has highlighted the need for substantial improvements in software architecture. To address this problem, we have developed SPARK, an enabling and translational system for medical research, leveraging existing high performance computing resources, and analysis techniques currently available or being developed. It builds these into The Ark, an open-source web-based system designed to manage medical data. SPARK provides a next-generation biomedical data management solution that is based upon a novel Micro-Service architecture and Big Data technologies. The system serves to demonstrate the applicability of Micro-Service architectures for the development of high performance computing applications. When applied to high-dimensional medical datasets such as genomic data, relational data management approaches with normalized data structures suffer from unfeasibly high execution times for basic operations such as insert (i.e. importing a GWAS dataset) and the queries that are typical of the genomics research domain. SPARK resolves these problems by incorporating non-relational NoSQL databases that have been driven by the emergence of Big Data. SPARK provides researchers across the world with user-friendly access to state-of-the-art data management and analysis tools while eliminating the need for high-level informatics and programming skills. The system will benefit health and medical research by eliminating the burden of large-scale data management, querying, cleaning, and analysis. SPARK represents a major advancement in genome research technologies, vastly reducing the burden of working with genomic datasets, and enabling cutting edge analysis approaches that have previously been out of reach for many medical researchers.
A Review on the Re-Usage of Single-Use Medical Devices
Reprocessing single-use device has attracted interesting on the medical environment over the last decades. The reprocessing technique was sought in order to reduce the cost of purchasing the new medical device, which can achieve almost double of the price of the reprocessed product. In this manuscript, we have done a literature review, aiming the reuse of medical device that was firstly designed for single use only, but has become, more and more, effective on its reprocessing procedure. We also show the regulation, the countries which allows this procedure, the classification of these device and also the most important issue concerning the re-utilization of medical device, how to minimizing the risk of gram positive and negative bacteria, avoid cross-contamination, hepatitis B (HBV), and C (HCV) virus, and also human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).