Designing for Experience-Based Tourism: A Virtual Tour in Tehran
As one of the most significant phenomena of industrialized societies, tourism plays a key role in encouraging regional developments and enhancing higher standards of living for local communities in particular. Traveling is a formative experience endowed with lessons on various aspects of life. It allows us learning how to enhance the social position as well as the social relationships. However, people forget the need to travel and gain first-hand experiences as they have to cope with the ever-increasing rate of stress created by the disorders and routines of the urban dwelling style. In this paper, various spaces of such experiences were explored through a virtual tour with two underlying aims: 1) encouraging, informing, and educating the community in terms of tourism development, and 2) introducing a temporary release from the routines. This study enjoyed a practical-qualitative research methodology, and the required data were collected through observation and using a multiple-response questionnaire. The participants (19-48 years old) included 41 citizens of both genders (63.4% male and 36.6% female) from two regions in Tehran, selected by cluster-probability sampling. The results led to development of a spatial design for a virtual tour experience in Tehran where different areas are explored to both raise people’s awareness and educate them on their cultural heritage.
Local Identities to Global in the Centre of Isan, Thailand: Promoting Local Development and Community Participation
Originating from a multifaceted research project beginning with the opening of the Green Market at Ban Laow sub-district, Kosum Phisai, Mahasarakham with the support of Kosum Phisai Governor. The project involves key stakeholders related to villagers who have become involved with linking local identity to a more global identity to help ameliorate falling agricultural incomes and casualised work. There have been fifteen formal meetings involving local government stakeholders that took place at the local university, local schools, a public meeting at Ban-Don-Toom and Village meeting shelters. These events hosted 176 local stakeholders consisting of the District Governor, 7 Chairpersons/Heads of the District Development Council, a Health Promotion group, District retired government staff, 4 sub-district local government members, the City Development Council, 2 representatives from Mahasarakham Provincial Culture Council, 4 principles of all local schools, 11 village heads, 15 scholars form local and national universities, 132 villagers and 4 staff from public relation units. The goal of the project was to initiate a variety of local projects including promotion of Local healthy food, farm/homestay accommodation, local uniqueness, Travel guides (in book form and guide youths) and the proposed development of community tourism with the aim to utilise local people and activities to tap into the growing alternative tourism market. This paper aims to document the progress thus far, and the challenges presented working with local communities that have lacked expertise in linking to the global economy to derive economic benefits for their communities.
Tourism as Benefactor to Peace amidst the Structural Conflict: An Exploratory Case Study of Nepal
While peace is dividend to tourism, tourism can also be a vital force for world peace. The existing body of knowledge on a tripartite complex nexus between tourism, peace and conflict reveals that tourism is benefactor to peace and sensitive to conflict. By contextualizing the ongoing sporadic structural conflict in the transitional phase in the aftermath of a decade long (1996-2006), Maoist armed conflict in Nepal, the purpose of this study is to explore the potentials of tourism in peace-building. The outcomes of this research paper is based on the mixed methods of research (qualitative and quantitative). Though the armed conflict ended with the comprehensive peace agreement in 2006 but there is constant manifestations of non-violent structural conflicts, which continue to threaten the sustainability of tourism industry. With the persistent application of coping strategies, tourism is found resilient during the ongoing structural political conflict. The strong coping abilities of the private sector of tourism industry have also intersected with peace-building efforts with more reactive and less proactive (pro-peace) engagements. This paper ascertains about the application of the ‘theory of tourism security’ by Nepalese tourism industry while coping with conflict and reviving, and sustaining. It reveals that the multiple verities of tourism at present has heterogeneous degree of peace potentials. The opportunities of ‘peace through tourism’ can be promoted subject to its molding with responsible, sustainable and participatory characteristics. This paper comes out with pragmatic policy recommendations for strengthening the position of tourism as a true peace-builder: (a) a broad shift from mainstream conventional tourism to the community based rural with local participation and ownership to fulfill Nepal’s potentials for peace, and (b) building and applications of the managerial and operational codes of conducts for owners and workers (labor unions) at all tourism enterprises and strengthen their practices.
Sustainability of Ecotourism Related Activities in the Town of Yercaud: A Modeling Study
Tourism related activities are getting popular day by day and tourism has become an integral part of everyone’s life. Ecotourism initiatives have grown enormously in the past decade, and the concept of ecotourism has shown to bring great benefits in terms of environment conservation and to improve the livelihood of local people. However, the potential of ecotourism to sustain improving the livelihood of the local population in the remote future is a topic of active debate. A primary challenge that exists in this regard is the enormous costs of limiting the impacts of tourism related activities on the environment. Here we employed systems modeling approach using computer simulations to determine if ecotourism activities in the small hill town of Yercaud (Tamil Nadu, India) can be sustained over years in improving the livelihood of the local population. Increasing damage to the natural environment as a result of tourism-related activities have plagued the pristine hill station of Yercaud. Though ecotourism efforts can help conserve the environment and enrich local population, questions remain if this can be sustained in the distant future. The vital state variables in the model are the existing tourism foundation (labor, services available to tourists, etc.,) in the town of Yercaud and its natural environment (water, flora and fauna). Another state variable is the textile industry that drives the local economy. Our results would help to understand if environment conservation efforts are sustainable in Yercaud and would also offer suggestions to make it sustainable over the course of several years.
Visitor Management in the National Parks: Recreational Carrying Capacity Assessment of Cirali Coast, Turkey
National parks, which are rich in natural and cultural resources values are protected in the context of the idea to develop sustainability, are among the most important recreated areas demanding with each passing day. Increasing recreational use or unplanned use forms negatively affect the resource values and visitor satisfaction. The intent of national parks management is to protect the natural and cultural resource values and to provide the visitors with a quality of recreational experience, as well. In this context, the current studies to improve the appropriate tourism and recreation planning and visitor management, approach have focused on recreational carrying capacity analysis. The aim of this study is to analyze recreational carrying capacity of Çıralı Coast in the Bey Mountains Coastal National Park to compare the analyze results with the current usage format and to develop alternative management strategies. In the first phase of the study, the annual and daily visitations, geographic, bio-physical, and managerial characteristics of the park and the type of recreational usage and the recreational areas were analyzed. In addition to these, ecological observations were carried out in order to determine recreational-based pressures on the ecosystems. On-site questionnaires were administrated to a sample of 284 respondents in the August 2015 - 2016 to collect data concerning the demographics and visit characteristics. The second phase of the study, the coastal area separated into four different usage zones and the methodology proposed by Cifuentes (1992) was used for capacity analyses. This method supplies the calculation of physical, real and effective carrying capacities by using environmental, ecological, climatic and managerial parameters in a formulation. Expected numbers which estimated three levels of carrying capacities were compared to current numbers of national parks’ visitors. In the study, it was determined that the current recreational uses in the north of the beach were caused by ecological pressures, and the current numbers in the south of beach much more than estimated numbers of visitors. Based on these results management strategies were defined and the appropriate management tools were developed in accordance with these strategies. Acknowledgement— The authors are grateful for the financial support of this project by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (No: 114O344).
Applying Importance-Performance Analysis and Wilserv in Measuring Visitor Satisfaction at Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre
Tourism based on interaction with wildlife has been increasing and demanded worldwide. Studies on service quality in the tourism field is plentiful. However, studies on visitor’s satisfaction in wildlife attractions, especially on semi-captured wildlife tourism is still limited. Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre (SORC) in Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia is an example of semi-captured wildlife attraction. SORC is a renowned attraction in Sabah. Although SORC attracts many visitors, they do get complaints from their visitors regarding their facilities and services. Thus, this study is aimed at evaluating visitors’ satisfaction level at SORC through the use of a modified SERVQUAL, referred to as WIL-SERV and Importance Performance Analysis. A survey questionnaire was devised and used to collect primary data at SORC. The study reveals, staff willingness to assist visitor, visible action taken when a problem arises, security measures and staff uniform were the visitors’ main concern.
A Research on Tourism Market Forecast and Its Evaluation
The traditional prediction methods of the forecast for tourism market are paid more attention to the accuracy of the forecasts, ignoring the results of the feasibility of forecasting and predicting operability, which had made it difficult to predict the results of scientific testing. With the application of Linear Regression Model, this paper attempts to construct a scientific evaluation system for predictive value, both to ensure the accuracy, stability of the predicted value, and to ensure the feasibility of forecasting and predicting the results of operation. The findings show is that a scientific evaluation system can implement the scientific concept of development, the harmonious development of man and nature co-ordinate.
Determinants of Free Independent Traveler Tourist Expenditures in Israel: Quantile Regression Model
Tourism, one of the world's largest and fastest growing industries, exerts a major economic influence. The number of international tourists is growing every year, and the relative portion of independent (FIT) tourists is growing as well. The characteristics of independent tourists differ from those of tourists who travel in organized trips. The purpose of the research is to identify the factors that affect the individual tourist's expenses in Israel: total expenses, expenses per day, expenses per tourist, expenses per day per tourist, accommodation expenses, dining expenses and transportation expenses. Most of the research analyzed the total expenses using OLS regression. The determinants influencing expenses were divided into four groups: budget constraints, socio-demographic data, psychological characteristics and travel-related characteristics. Since the effect of each variable may change over different levels of total expenses the quantile regression (QR) theory will be applied. The current research will use data collected by the Israeli Ministry of Tourism in 2015 from individual independent tourists at the end of their visit to Israel. Preliminary results show that: At lower levels of expense, only income has a (positive) effect on total expenses, while at higher levels of expense, both income and length of stay have (positive) effects. -The effect of income on total expenses is higher for higher levels of expenses than for lower level of expenses. -The number of sites visited during the trip has a (negative) effect on tourist accommodation expenses only for tourists with a high level of total expenses. Due to the increasing share of independent tourism in Israel and around the world and due to the importance of tourism to Israel, it is very important to understand the factors that influence the expenses and behavior of independent tourists. Understanding the factors that affect independent tourists' expenses in Israel can help Israeli policymakers in their promotional efforts to attract tourism to Israel.
Implementation of Environmental Sustainability into Event Management
The World population is rapidly growing. The last few decades, environmental protection and climate change have been remarked as a global concern. All events have their own ecological footprint. Therefore, all participants who take part in the events, from event organizer to audience should be responsible for reducing carbon emissions. Currently, there is a literature gap which investigates the relationship between events and environment. Hence, this study is conducted to investigate how to implement environmental sustainability in the event management. To do so, a wide literature and also UK festivals database have been reviewed. Finally, environmental effects and the solution of reducing impacts at events were discussed.
An Analysis on Community Based Heritage Tourism: A Resource for a Small Community in Rural County Clare, Ireland
The aim of this paper is to identify the factors of success in community based heritage tourism initiatives. Heritage and community are central to many tourism initiatives with heritage tourism having the potential to act as a catalyst for community development. This paper presents the findings of research that examined the relationship between heritage tourism and community development. The findings recognised that heritage tourism had economic, social and cultural benefits for a community as well as a role in strengthening concepts such as sense of identity, place, and authenticity. In addition, this paper proposes an assessment framework for sustainable community based heritage tourism to identify factors and contextual influences involved in their success or failure. In evaluating the sustainability of such initiatives, a number of issues are investigated including the continued role of stakeholders, the role of funding, the influence of collaboration and the changing role of rural development and its impact on community engagement. The research is descriptive, evaluative and explanatory research, exploring and analysing issues such as the development of community structures in community based heritage tourism. Thus, it will contribute to the development of potential tourism and community development policies and strategies at a local, national and international level. An interpretative and inductive approach is utilised, and a mixed method approach followed as it encapsulates the best of quantitative and qualitative research methods. The case studies focus on social enterprises in relation to tourism and community based tourism cooperatives as there are limited study and knowledge of these. Consequently, this research will contribute to the discourse on community based heritage tourism as an aspect of community development.
A Comparative Study to Employees' Work Stress of the Casino Hotels and Non-Casino Hotels
Since Macau opened its door to international gambling firms in 2002, Macau casino hotel industry has been booming. Casino hotels are different from the non-casino hotels in the main profit source and services. The paper aims to analyze differences in employees’ work stress and job satisfaction across the casino hotels and the non-casino hotels. Through questionnaires, the paper investigates 200 employees from casino hotels and 200 employees from non-casino hotels. Work stress and job satisfaction of employees in casino hotels and non-casino hotels are compared. Statistic techniques such as descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) are applied. The paper tries to achieve the below aims: Firstly, explore and compare the impact of gender, job position, marital status and fertility status on employees’ work stress and job satisfaction. Secondly, explore the perception of work stress and job satisfaction across casino hotel and non-casino hotel employees. Thirdly, explore the relationship between work stress and job satisfaction. The result indicates there are not significant differences in employees’ work stress and job satisfaction perception between different genders, positions, marital situations and fertility situations. The result confirms there are significant differences in employees’ work stress and job satisfaction perception between casino and non-casino employees. Moreover, Work stress negatively influences job satisfaction.
Monitoring and Evaluation in Community-Based Tourism: An Analysis and Model
A developmental state should use community engagement to facilitate socio-economic development for disadvantaged groups and individual members of society through empowerment, social justice, sustainability, and self-reliance. In this regard, community-based tourism (CBT) as a growing market should be an indigenous effort aided by external facilitation. Since this form of tourism presents its own preconditions, characteristics, and challenges, it could be guided by higher education institutions engagement. In particular, the facilitation should not only serve to assist the community members to reach their own goals; but rather also focus on learning through knowledge creation and sharing with the engagement of higher education institutions. While the increased relevance of CBT has produced various CBT manuals (or handbooks/guidelines) documents aimed to ‘teach’ and assist various entities in CBT development, this research aims to analyse the current monitoring & evaluation (M&E) manuals and thereafter, propose an M&E model for CBT. It is important to mention that all too often effective monitoring is seldom carried out thus risking the long-term sustainability and improvement of the CBT ventures. Therefore, the proposed model will also consider some inputs external to the tourism field, but in relation to local economic development (LED) matters from the previously proposed development monitoring and evaluation system framework. M&E should be seen as fundamental components of any CBT initiative, and the whole CBT intervention should be evaluated. In this context, M&E in CBT should go beyond strict ‘numerical’ economic matters and should be understood in a holistic development. In addition, M&E in CBT should not consider issues in various ‘compartments’ such as tourists, tourism attractions, CBT owners/participants, and stakeholder engagement but as interdependent components of a macro-ecosystem. Finally, the external facilitation process should be structured in a way to promote community self-reliance in both the intervention and the M&E process. The research will attempt to propose an M&E model for CBT so as to enhance the CBT possibilities of long-term growth and success through effective collaborations with key stakeholders.
Understanding Tourism Innovation through Fuzzy Measures
The tourism sector is constantly evolving and the market demands rapid changes and updates of the tourism industry. In recent decades, the hypercompetition of the economic scenario, has implicated the maturity of many businesses, attributing a central role to innovative processes and their dissemination in the economy of company management. At the same time, it has defined the need of monitoring the application of innovations, in order to govern and improve the performance of companies and destinations. The study aims to analyze and define the innovation in tourism sector. The research actions have concerned, on the one hand, some in-depth interviews with experts, identifying innovation in terms of process and product, digitalization, sustainability policies and, on the other hand, to evaluate the interaction between these factors, in terms of substitutability and complementarity in management scenarios, in order to identify which one is essential to be competitive in the global scenario. In order to capture and model potential interactions (ranging from redundancies to synergies) that—according to experts’ preferences—may exist among indicators, our methodology utilizes Fuzzy Measures (or non additive measures) and the Choquet Integral. This is a brilliant approach able to relax the preferential independence among indicators assumption (common to many composite indices) and to model consequently many preference’s structures. Given that fuzzy measures are difficult to be interpreted, several behavioral indices have been proposed to summarize and describe them. The indices reported in this paper are the two most popular ones: the Shapley value and the Interaction index. The Shapley value is a measure (on the [0, 100] scale) of the relative importance of a criterion, taking into account the interactions that may exist with the other criteria too. The interaction index of two criteria (represented on the [-100, +100] scale) is the degree of substitutability (-1) or complementarity (+1) between them. The results of the survey are the following: in terms of Shapley values, Experts assert that Innovation is the most important factor (32.32), followed by digitalization (31.86), Network (20.57) and Sustainability (15.25). In terms of Interaction indices, given the low degree of consensus among experts, the interaction between couples of criteria on average could be ignored; however, it is worth to note that the factors innovations and digitalization are those in which experts express the highest degree of interaction. However for some of them, these factors have moderate level of complementarity (with a pick of 57.14), and others consider them moderately substitutes (with a pick of -39.58). Another example, although outlier is the interaction between network and digitalization, in which an expert consider them markedly substitutes (-77.08).
Community Participation and Place Identity as Mediators on the Impact of Resident Social Capital on Support Intention for Festival Tourism
Cultural festival tourism is now seen by many as an opportunity to facilitate community development because it has significant influences on the economic, social, cultural, and political aspects of local communities. The potential for tourist attraction has been recognized as a useful tool to strengthen local economies from governments. However, most community festivals in Taiwan are short-lived, often only lasting for a few years or occasionally not making it past a one-off event. Researchers suggested that most governments and other stakeholders do not recognize the importance of building a partnership with residents when developing community tourism. Thus, the sustainable community tourism development still remains a key issue in the existing literature. The success of community tourism is related to the attitudes and lifestyles of local residents. In order to maintain sustainable tourism, residents need to be seen as development partners. Residents’ support intention for tourism development not only helps to increase awareness of local culture, history, the natural environment, and infrastructure, but also improves the interactive relationship between the host community and tourists. Furthermore, researchers have identified the social capital theory as the core of sustainable community tourism development. The social capital of residents has been seen as a good way to solve issues of tourism governance, forecast the participation behavior and improve support intention of residents. In addition, previous studies have pointed out the role of community participation and place identity in increasing resident support intention for tourism development. A lack of place identity is one of the main reasons that community tourism has become a mere formality and is not sustainable. It refers to how much residents participate during tourism development and is mainly influenced by individual interest. Scholars believed that the place identity of residents is the soul of community festivals. It shows the community spirit to visitors and has significant impacts on tourism benefits and support intention of residents in community tourism development. Although the importance of community participation and place identity have been confirmed by both governmental and non-governmental organizations, real-life execution still needs to be improved. This study aimed to use social capital theory to investigate the social structure between community residents, participation levels in festival tourism, degrees of place identity, and resident support intention for future community tourism development, and the causal relationship that these factors have with cultural festival tourism. A quantitative research approach was employed to examine the proposed model. Structural equation model was used to test and verify the proposed hypotheses. This was a case study of the Kaohsiung Zuoying Wannian Folklore Festival. The festival was located in the Zuoying District of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. The target population of this study was residents who attended the festival. The results reveal significant correlations among social capital, community participation, place identity and support intention. The results also confirm that impacts of social capital on support intention were significantly mediated by community participation and place identity. Practical suggestions were provided for tourism operators and policy makers. This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan, Republic of China, under the grant MOST-105-2410-H-328-013.
Rurality in Flux: A Perspective on Changing Face of Rural Tourism Enterprise
This paper presents case insights from India and Mexico to illustrate how tourism can work as a tool for bringing about peace and prosperity in disadvantaged communities living in peripheral rural localities. A reordering of rural space, given the slow but definite shift from production-oriented activities towards more complex and contested blends of production, consumption and protection indicates clearly that rurality is in flux. Whilst on one hand, there is a predominance of urban interests in the countryside, on the other rurality is boxed and presented for consumption in urban localities. Qualitative data, collected using semi-structured interviews and participant observation, is used in illustrating how creative enterprise is bringing about innovative use of rural ethos and space in response to consumer demands. Overall, this work seeks to contribute to debates on how rurality no longer represents a fixed space of tradition, but is packaged and promoted in a multi-faceted manner to creatively perform for and access tourism markets.
The Influence of Firm Characteristics on Profitability: Evidence from Italian Hospitality Industry
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate the factors influencing profitability in the Italian hospitality industry during the period 2008-2016. Design/methodology/approach: This study examines the profitability and its determinants using a sample of 2366 Italian hotel firms. First, we use a multidimensional measure of profitability including attributes as return on equity, return on assets and occupancy rate. Second, we examine variables that are potentially related with performance and we sort these into five categories: market variables, business model, ownership structure, management education and control variables. Findings: The results show that financial crisis, business model and ownership structure influence profitability of hotel firms. Specific factors such as the internationalization, location, firm’s declaring accommodation as their primary activity and chain affiliation are associated positively with profitability. We also find that larger hotel firms have higher performance rankings, while hotels with higher operating cash flow volatility, greater sales volatility and a higher occurrence of losses have lower profitability. Research limitations/implications: Findings suggest the importance of considering firm specific factors to evaluate the profitability of a hotel firm. Results also provide evidence for academics to critically evaluate factors that would ensure profitability of hotels in developed countries such as Italy. Practical implications: This investigation offers valuable information and strategic implications for government, tourism policymakers, tourist hotel owners, hoteliers and tourism managers in their decision-making. Originality/value: This paper provides interesting insights into the characteristics and practices of profitable hotels in Italy. Few econometric studies empirically explored the determinants of performance in the European hospitality field so far. Therefore, this paper tries to close an important gap in the existing literature improving the understanding of profitability in the Italian hospitality industry.
Ecotourism Sites in Central Visayas, Philippines:
A Green Business Profile
Alongside inadequate implementation of ecotourism standards and other pressing issues on sustainable development is the lack of business plans and formal business structures of various ecotourism sites in the Central Visayas, Philippines, and other parts of the country. Addressing these issues plays a key role to boost ecotourism which is a sustainability tool to the country’s economic development. A three-phase research is designed to investigate the green business practices of selected ecotourism sites in the region in order to propose a business model for ecotourism destinations in the region and outside. This paper reports the initial phase of the study which described the sites’ profile as well as operators of the following selected destinations: Cebu City Protected Landscape and Olango Island Wildlife Bird Sanctuary in Cebu, Rajah Sikatuna Protected Landscape in Bohol. Interview, Self-Administered Questionnaire with key informants and Data Mining were employed in the data collection. Findings highlighted similarities and differences in terms of eco-tourism products, type and number of visitors, manpower composition, cultural and natural resources, complementary services and products, awards and accreditation, peak and off peak seasons, among others. Recommendations based from common issues initially identified in this study are also highlighted.
Labour Productivity Measurement and Control Standards for Hotels
Improving labour productivity is one of the most enthralling and challenging aspects of managing hotels and restaurant business. The demand to secure countless productivity became an increasingly pivotal role of managers to survive and sustain the business. Besides making business profitable, they are in the doom to make every resource to become productive and effective towards achieving company goal while maximizing the value of organization.
This paper examines what productivity means to the services industry, in particular, to the hotel industry. This is underpinned by an investigation of the extent of practice of respondent hotels to the labour productivity aspect in the areas of materials management, human resource management and leadership management and in a way, computing the labour productivity ratios using the hotel simple ratios of productivity in order to find a suitable measurement and control standards for hotels with SBMA, Olongapo City as the locale of the study.
The finding shows that hotels labour productivity ratings are not perfect with some practices that are far below particularly on strategic and operational decisions in improving performance and productivity of its human resources. It further proves of the no significant difference ratings among the respondent’s type in all areas which indicated that they are having similar perception of the weak implementation of some of the indicators in the labour productivity practices.
Furthermore, the results in the computation of labour productivity efficiency ratios resulted relationship of employees versus labour productivity practices are inversely proportional.
This study provides a potential measurement and control standards for the enhancement of hotels labour productivity. These standards should also contain labour productivity customized for standard hotels in Subic Bay Freeport Zone to assist hotel owners in increasing the labour productivity while meeting company goals and objectives effectively.
Effects of Destination Image, Perceived Value, Tourist Satisfaction and Service Quality on Destination Loyalty
Worldwide, tourism sustained growth and remained to be one of the fast-growing sectors. Malaysia tourism industry experienced an unstable and declining pattern of international tourist arrival’s growth rate. The situation suggested that the industry was competitive and denoted the need to study factors that influence tourist loyalty. The primary purpose of this study was to develop a model that examined how destination image, perceived value, service quality and tourist satisfaction affect destination loyalty. The study was conducted at the Kuala Lumpur International Airport and Kota Kinabalu International Airport. The respondents were international tourists from United Kingdom and Australia and they were selected using simple random sampling method. A total of 337 respondents were subjected to data analysis using structural equation modelling. The study uncovered that perceived value and destination image was highly correlated and the model suggested that these constructs should be treated as one construct. The construct was labelled as overall destination image. Overall image had significant direct effect on service quality, satisfaction and loyalty. Service quality had a significant indirect effect on loyalty through satisfaction as a moderating variable. However, satisfaction had no mediating effect on the relationship between overall destination image and loyalty. The study suggested that more efforts should be focused on portraying the image of experiencing joy with many interesting natural scenic places to see whilst on a holiday to Malaysia. In addition, the destination management office should promote tourist visiting to Malaysia would enjoy quality service related to accommodation, information facilities, health, and shopping. Tourist satisfaction empirically proved to be an important construct that influenced destination loyalty. This study contributed to the extended knowledge that postulated overall image of a destination was measured by perceived value and destination image.
Investigation of Tourism and Development in Santo Domingo City
Founded from 1496 to 1502, Santo Domingo is the oldest European settlement in the Americas, inhabited without any discontinuity and was the first seat of Spanish power in the new world. Capital of the country since 1932.In this text, we discover Santo Domingo as an international tourist center, Urban Structure, Eco-tourism, Contamination and other issues related to tourism and development of this city. Founded from 1496 to 1502, Santo Domingo is the oldest European settlement in the Americas, inhabited without any discontinuity and was the first seat of Spanish power in the new world. Capital of the country since 1932. Encouraged by the United Nations and the World Bank, many Caribbean governments have encouraged tourism from the 1950s to boost their Third World economies. In this text, we discover Santo Domingo as an international tourist center, Urban Structure, Eco-tourism, Contamination and challenges of the first tourist destination in the Caribbean.
Journeys of Healing for Military Veterans: A Pilot Study
Military personnel encounter a number of challenges when separating from military service to include career uncertainty, relational/family dynamics, trauma as a result of military experiences, reconceptualization of identity, and existential issues related to purpose, meaning making and framing of the military experience(s). Embedded within military culture are well-defined rites of passage and a significant sense of belonging. Consequently, transition out of the military can result in the loss of such rites of passage and belongingness. However, a pilgrimage journey can provide the time and space to engage in a new rite of passage, to construct a new pilgrim identity, and a to develop deep social relationships that lead to a sense of belongingness to a particular pilgrim community as well as to the global community of pilgrims across numerous types of pilgrimage journeys. The aims of the current paper are to demonstrate the rationale for why pilgrimage journeys are particularly significant for military veterans, provide an overview of an innovative program that facilitates the Camino de Santiago pilgrimage for military veterans, and discusses the lessons learned from the initial pilot project of a recently established program. Veterans on the Camino (VOC) is an emerging nongovernmental organization in the USA. Founded by a military veteran, after leaving his military career, the primary objective of the organization is to facilitate healing for veterans via the Camino de Santiago pilgrimage journey. As part of the program, participants complete a semi-structured interview at three time points – pre, during, and post journey. The interview items are based on ongoing research by the principal investigator and address such constructs as meaning-making, wellbeing, therapeutic benefits and transformation. In addition, program participants complete The Sources of Meaning and Meaning in Life Questionnaire (SoMe). The pilot program occurred in the spring of 2017. Five participants were selected after an extensive application process and review by a three-person selection board. The selection criteria included demonstrated compatibility with the program objectives (i.e., prior military experience, availability for a 40 day journey, and awareness of the need for a transformational intervention). The participants were connected as a group through a private Facebook site and interacted with one another for several months prior to the pilgrimage. Additionally, the participants were interviewed prior to beginning the pilgrimage, at one point during the pilgrimage and immediately following the conclusion of the pilgrimage journey. The interviews yielded themes related to loss, meaning construction, renewed hope in humanity, and a commitment to future goals. The lessons learned from this pilot project included a confirmation of the need for such a program, a need for greater focus on logistical details, and the recognition that the pilgrimage experience needs to continue in some manner once the veterans return home.
Development of Tourism Infrastructure and Cultural Heritage: Case of Gobustan Preserve
Located in the eastern part of the Republic of Azerbaijan and on the western shore of the Caspian Sea, Gobustan National Reserve was inscribed as Gobustan Rock Art Cultural Landscape into the World Heritage List in 2007. Gobustan is an outstanding rock art landscape, where over 6000 rock engravings were found and registered, since the end of Upper Paleolithic up to the Middle Ages. Being a rock art center, the Gobustan seeks to stimulate public awareness and disseminate knowledge of prehistoric art to enrich educational, cultural and artistic communities regionally, nationally and internationally. Due to the Decree of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan and the “Action Plan” , planned actions started to realize. Some of them implemented before of stipulated date. For the attraction of visitors and improvement of service quality in the museum-reserve, various activities are organized. The building of a new museum center at the foot of the Beyukdash Mountain has been completed in 2011. Main aims of the new museum building and exhibition was to provide better understanding of the importance of this monument for local community, Azerbaijanian culture and the world. In the Petroglyph Museum at Gobustan, digital and traditional media are closely integrated to reveal the complexity of historical, cultural and artistic meaning of prehistoric rock carvings of Gobustan. Alongside with electronic devices, the visitor gets opportunity of direct contact with artifacts and ancient rock carvings.
Crowdsensing Project in the Brazilian Municipality of Florianópolis for the Number of Visitors Measurement
The seasonal population fluctuation presents a challenge to touristic cities since the number of inhabitants can double according to the season. The aim of this work is to develop a model that correlates the waste collected with the population of the city and also allow cooperation between the inhabitants and the local government. The model allows public managers to evaluate the impact of the seasonal population fluctuation on waste generation and also to improve planning resource utilization throughout the year. The study uses data from the company that collects the garbage in Florianópolis, a Brazilian city that presents the profile of a city that attracts tourists due to numerous beaches and warm weather. The fluctuations are caused by the number of people that come to the city throughout the year for holidays, summer time vacations or business events. Crowdsensing will be accomplished through smartphones with access to an app for data collection, with voluntary participation of the population. Crowdsensing participants can access information collected in waves for this portal. Crowdsensing represents an innovative and participatory approach which involves the population in gathering information to improve the quality of life. The management of crowdsensing solutions plays an essential role given the complexity to foster collaboration, establish available sensors and collect and process the collected data. Practical implications of this tool described in this paper refer, for example, to the management of seasonal tourism in a large municipality, whose public services are impacted by the floating of the population. Crowdsensing and big data support managers in predicting the arrival, permanence, and movement of people in a given urban area. Also, by linking crowdsourced data to databases from other public service providers - e.g., water, garbage collection, electricity, public transport, telecommunications - it is possible to estimate the floating of the population of an urban area affected by seasonal tourism. This approach supports the municipality in increasing the effectiveness of resource allocation while, at the same time, increasing the quality of the service as perceived by citizens and tourists.
A Literature Review on the Success Indicators for Sabah's Ecotourism Sites
Sabah, one of the thirteen Malaysian states, is located in the northern part of Malaysian Borneo. It is a melting pot of many different cultures and traditions, being home to about 2.9 million people with more than 30 ethic groups. It is also known as one of the twelve mega-diversity sites in the world with its rich living heritage; ethnic makes it ideal for the ecotourism industry. Sabah enjoys a steady flow of eco tourists from domestic and international markets with a gradual increase in the number of visitor arrival each year. Sabah’s ecotourism is categorized by its natural attraction, wildlife and wilderness habitats. This paper sets out to interpret and develop the indicators for success ecotourism sites in Sabah and measures its development stage. The long-term viability of tourism can be assured only when the limitations and favorable opportunities of the overall environment for tourism development are understood and ways to measure changes induced by tourism are identified and applied. This is a literature review of ecotourism site success indicators, and the outcome of this review is the identification of existing clusters and categorization of indicators and charting the way forward to develop a better understanding in ecotourism site success.
A Preliminary Study on the Tagal Eco-Tourism and Empowerment for Local Community
The study addresses tagal as an ecotourism product that is uniquely for Sabah. It is a community based tourism venture that is influenced by the Dusun ethic’s traditional law. The traditional principle of tagal is focused primarily on individual exploitation of riverine resources and it was transformed into a community participation in the riverine conservation to foster the growth or survival of ecotourism. It manages a river into a sustainable manner. A smart partnership system between the community and the authority particularly the Department of Fisheries Sabah, tagal has successfully become an instrument to protect, revive and manage the river fish resources. In 2015, Sabah Fisheries Department added 536 tagal sites. Most tagal sites were turned into a community based tourism venture. They generate income through jobs creation for the purpose of uplifting the local’s economic level. Tagal ecotourism sites also increase environmental awareness of the local people to love their culture, tradition and environment. This venture also promotes the sustainability of the eco-tourism. The objective of this study is to explore the issues and contexts of empowerment of the local people in managing a successful tagal ecotourism. This study further explains how community capacity building is the major influence of empowerment of the local community. The methodology approach used is qualitative where interview is chosen as the data collection method. This is a literature review of exploring empowerment of the local community through various community capacity building initiatives that would motivate the local people to be actively involved in the tagal.
A Preliminary Study of Local Customers' Perception towards the Image of the Spa and Their Intention to Visit
There is a potential of growth in the spa industry due to the influx of domestic and international tourist coming to Sabah, Malaysia. It is a good opportunity to venture into this industry for the country’s economic future growth, and therefore, it is essential for this area to be researched. Being one of the fastest growing industries in the world, has led to enormous challenges, which need to be addressed. Malaysia is also riding with this phenomenon. The President of the Malaysian Association of Wellness and Spa stated that the misconception about the Spa industry’s image, especially amongst the elderly is the biggest challenge faced by the industry, as they perceived the spa industry is equivalent to a prostitution center. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore the issue by analyzing whether image can be added in the theory of planned behavior to better understand the consumer’s intention to visit, in the spa context. The Theory of Planned Behavior by Ajzen, a theory or model in predicting intention, has three constructs; such as Attitude as the first construct, the second construct is Subjective Norm and the third construct is Perceived Behavioral Control. Qualitative research is used as this is an exploratory research. The site of study will be at Jari Jari Spa, located in Kota Kinabalu, the only spa in Sabah that was awarded as the Center of Excellence (CoE) by the Ministry of Tourism and Culture in Malaysia. The findings propose to provide useful information to the relevant stakeholders on ways to approach local customers to convince them to visit the spa and for spa marketers to help them develop and design effective marketing strategies. Future investigation should consider more on the perception and loyalty of the local customers.
The Success of Local Community Participation in Ecotourism Site: A Case Study of Sukau
Ecotourism has been the signature tourism activity for Sabah since the 90s, and it has become a model of sustainable tourism development for Malaysia due to its ability to enhance conservation activities and local community development. This paper outlines the experience in developing indicators for the success of the local community participation of an ecotourism site, Sukau, in Sabah. The research was qualitative in nature and employed case study as its methodology. The outcome of this research suggested that Sukau has a mixed success with local community participation for the ecotourism activity. The community is in need of coaching and capacity building to intensify the ecotourism activity However, the ecotourism has successfully promoted conservation at its surrounding area.
Human Resources Management Practices in Hospitality Companies
The recovery of fine activated carbon with adsorbed gold in the cyanidation tailings of a small-scale gold plant was investigated due to the high amount of gold present. In the study, collectors that were used are kerosene and diesel. Emulsification of the oils was done to improve its collecting property, thus also the recovery. It was found out that the best hydrophile lypophile balance (HLB) of emulsified diesel and kerosene oil is 13 and 12 respectively. The amount of surfactants (SPAN 20 and TWEEN 20) for the best stability of the emulsified oils was found to be 10% in both kerosene and diesel. Optical microscopy showed that the oil dispersion in the water forms spherical droplets like features. The higher the stability, the smaller the droplets and their number were increasing. The smaller droplets indicate better dispersion of oil in the water. Consequently, it will have a greater chance of oil and activated carbon particle interaction during flotation. Due to the interaction of dispersed oil phase with carbon, the hydrophobicity of the carbon will be improved and will be attached to the bubble. Thus, flotation recovery will be increased. Results showed that the recovery of the fine activated carbon using emulsified diesel or kerosene is three times more effective than using pure diesel or kerosene.
A Study of the Relationship among the Hotel Staff's Work Stress, Perceived Organizational Support, and Work Efficacy: A Case Study of Macao
Work pressure is an emerging research of organizational behavior. Many factors associated with this study also attracted the interest of scholars. Macao is surrounding by open micro-capitalist economy which has a high internationalization level and Mature operation system. And there is no doubt that tourism and hotel service industry is the pillar of the Macao economy with the developing of the mainland individual tourist visa. More and more cities are willing to inclusive culture diversity which lead to the amount of inbound tourists present high-speed up trend cause the hotel industry has a strong customer base and development space. At the same time, the hotel staff is an important role in the service. However, affected by some adverse factors, the hotel staff face a variety of pressures. This study combs the concept and theory of pressures relevant influencing factors and puts forward the purpose of this research. The focus of this study will be organizational supported by work efficiency and work pressure, using qualitative and quantitative research methods. Through questionnaires and interviews, 10 hotels in Macao were selected and 500 questionnaires were distributed to the employees. Statistical analysis software SPSS was used for descriptive statistics. By exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, effect. And the relevant practitioners on behalf of the interview content analysis. The innovation of this research lies in the empirical study of the relationship between the working pressure, organizational support and working efficiency of Macau hotel practitioners, and constructs and validates the structural model of the relationship among them. This model will be helpful for people to use more research methods to study hotel practitioners pressure in the future. At the same time, we can draw the following conclusions: 1. There is a significant negative correlation between salary level and job stress; 2. There is a significant negative correlation between job stress and performance; 3. Different organizational support can interfere the relationship between job stress and performance; 4. Put forward the strategy of relevance adjustment, which provides a reference value for the hotel industry in human resource management. It would be helpful to improve their service standard by training their practitioners more scientifically and rationally.
The Effect of Physical Evidence of Themed Casino Hotels on Customer Value and Satisfaction
Physical evidence has emerged as an important concept for understanding customers' behavior in the service industry. While it is still not clear about the effect of physical evidence of themed casino hotels on customer value and satisfaction. After deciding on the research context, the processes of this research started with a review of literature in three subject areas: physical evidence, customer value, and customer satisfactions. Insights from the literature review and pilot interviews are important input that informs the development of the specific research questions. Data collection for this research will be done for two studies: a photo elicitation study and an in-depth interview study.