The Impact of Mergers and Acquisitions on Financial Deepening in the Nigerian Banking Sector
Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) have been proposed as a mechanism through which, problems associated with inefficiency or poor performance in financial institution could be addressed. The aim of this study is to examine the proposition that recapitalization of banks, which encouraged Mergers and Acquisitions in Nigeria banking system, would strengthen the domestic banks, improve financial deepening and the confidence of depositors. Hence, this study examines the impact of the 2005 M&A in the Nigerian-banking sector on financial deepening using mixed method (quantitative and qualitative approach). The quantitative process of this study utilised annual time series for financial deepening indicator for the period of 1997 to 2012. While, the qualitative aspect adopted semi-structured interview to collate data from three merged banks and three stand-alone banks to explore, understand and complement the quantitative results. Furthermore, a framework thematic analysis is employed to analyse the themes developed using NVivo 11 software. Using the quantitative approach, findings from the equality of mean test (EMT) used suggests that M&A have significant impact on financial deepening. However, this method is not robust enough given its weak validity as it does not control for other potential factors that may determine financial deepening. Thus, to control for other factors that may affect the level of financial deepening, a Multiple Regression Model (MRM) and Interrupted Times Series Analysis (ITSA) were applied. The coefficient for M&A dummy turned negative and insignificant using MRM. In addition, the estimated linear trend of the post intervention when ITSA was applied suggests that after M&A, the level of financial deepening decreased annually; however, this was statistically insignificant. Similarly, using the qualitative approach, the results from the interview supported the quantitative results from ITSA and MRM. The result suggests that interest rate should fall when capital base is increased to improve financial deepening. Hence, this study contributes to the existing literature the importance of other factors that may affect financial deepening and the economy when policies that will enhance bank performance and the economy are made. In addition, this study will enable the use of valuable policy instruments relevant to monetary authorities when formulating policies that will strengthen the Nigerian banking sector and the economy.
Applying Importance-Performance Analysis in the Tourist Friendly Destination of Sun Moon Lake National Scenic Area in Taiwan
When facing the decline in the number of tourists who visit Taiwan, how to allocate limited resources to further deepen the tourism friendly level of Sun Moon Lake National Scenic Area is the foremost fundamental way to cope with such situation. This study uses Importance-Performance Analysis to explore the degree of importance and performance of tourists in different friendly tourism factors so as to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of the tourist destination in friendly tourism. The results show that the Important-Performance analysis method is simplified, effective, and easy to understand and use. The results also show that more items fall in the first quadrant and the second quadrant, which means that Sun Moon lake National scenic area is more like a tourist friendly destination. The results are useful for practical applications to scholars and government, and put the limited resources into the most needed items to improve.
A Value Proposition for Portuguese Heritage in the United Arab Emirates
One of the major issues on managing built heritage has to do with combining abstract guidelines and daily practice. Archaeologists, museum practitioners, politicians, and the broader tourism industry are all forced to make selective choices affecting the conservation of a site in often irreversible ways. At present, this may have a fairly limited but still relevant application to Portuguese historical remains in the Arabian Gulf, as they have not yet been commodified and do not fully integrate any coherent tourism product. Focusing the United Arab Emirates, in particular, Portuguese archaeological structures have been analyzed from the perspective of authenticity in both research and tourism. By and large, it is possible to value and market them in a sustainable process, yet one needs to consider the specificity of the UAE cultural and economic landscape, as well as investment criteria linked to profitability. This paper seeks first to look at the potential return on investment, and then to assess the wider ramifications in the cultural economy.
Correlates of Tourism and Power Alleviation: A Case Study of Osun Osogbo
This research work focuses on tourism and poverty alleviation in Osun State, it delves in the tourism resources of the state and strategic framework that has been put in place to manage the cultural base tourism that is most prominent in the state. The major instrument used for data collection was questionnaire which were designed for the area and data collected were analyzed using statistical table and chi square analysis. The result revealed that tourism is under development in Osun State and the tourism potential of the state is yet to be exploited, this is due to lack of appropriate policy to master the development and management of tourism resources, poor publicity, awareness and lack of adequate basic infrastructure. The research work therefore recommended, that, there should be proper and appropriate policy, and that the government should take a leading step to develop tourism in Osun State by creating a workable environment to the private sector and given a substantial budgetary allocation to the tourism in the state.
Visitor Management in the National Parks: Recreational Carrying Capacity Assessment of Çıralı Coast, Turkey
National parks, which are rich in natural and cultural resources values are protected in the context of the idea to develop sustainability, are among the most important recreated areas demanding with each passing day. Increasing recreational use or unplanned use forms negatively affect the resource values and visitor satisfaction. The intent of national parks management is to protect the natural and cultural resource values and to provide the visitors with a quality of recreational experience, as well. In this context, the current studies to improve the appropriate tourism and recreation planning and visitor management, approach have focused on recreational carrying capacity analysis. The aim of this study is to analyze recreational carrying capacity of Çıralı Coast in the Bey Mountains Coastal National Park to compare the analyze results with the current usage format and to develop alternative management strategies. In the first phase of the study, the annual and daily visitations, geographic, bio-physical, and managerial characteristics of the park and the type of recreational usage and the recreational areas were analyzed. In addition to these, ecological observations were carried out in order to determine recreational-based pressures on the ecosystems. On-site questionnaires were administrated to a sample of 284 respondents in the August 2015 - 2016 to collect data concerning the demographics and visit characteristics. The second phase of the study, the coastal area separated into four different usage zones and the methodology proposed by Cifuentes (1992) was used for capacity analyses. This method supplies the calculation of physical, real and effective carrying capacities by using environmental, ecological, climatic and managerial parameters in a formulation. Expected numbers which estimated three levels of carrying capacities were compared to current numbers of national parks’ visitors. In the study, it was determined that the current recreational uses in the north of the beach were caused by ecological pressures, and the current numbers in the south of beach much more than estimated numbers of visitors. Based on these results management strategies were defined and the appropriate management tools were developed in accordance with these strategies. The authors are grateful for the financial support of this project by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (No: 114O344)
Authenticity from the Perspective of Locals: What Prince Edward Islanders Had to Say about Authentic Tourism Experiences
Authenticity has grown to be ubiquitous within the tourism vernacular. Yet, agreement regarding what authenticity means in relation to tourism remains nebulous. In its simplest form, authenticity in tourism refers to products and experiences that provide insights into the social, cultural, economic, natural, historical, and political life of a place. But this definition is unwieldy in its scope and may not help industry leaders nor tourist in identifying that which is authentic. Much of what is projected as authentic is a carefully curated and crafted message developed by marketers to appeal to visitors and bears little resemblance to the everyday lives of locals. So perhaps one way to identify authentic tourism experiences is to ask locals themselves. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of locals with respect to what constituted an authentic tourism experience in Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada. Over 600 volunteers in a tourism research panel were sent a survey asking them to describe authentic PEI experiences within ten sub-categories relevant to the local tourism industry. To make participation more manageable, each respondent was asked their perspectives on any three of the tourism sub-categories. Over 400 individuals responded, providing 1391 unique responses. The responses were grouped thematically using interpretive phenomenological analysis whereby the participants’ responses were clustered into higher order groups to extract meaning. Two interesting thematic observations emerged: first, that respondents tended to clearly articulate and differentiate between intra- versus interpersonal experiences as a means of authentically experiencing PEI; and second, while respondents explicitly valued unstaged experiences over staged, several exceptions to this general rule were expressed. Responses could clearly be grouped into those that emphasized “going off the beaten path,” “exploring pristine and untouched corners,” “lesser known,” “hidden”, “going solo,” and taking the opportunity to “slow down.” Each of these responses was “self” centered, and focused on the visitor discovering and exploring in search of greater self-awareness and inner peace. In contrast, other responses encouraged the interaction of visitors with locals as a means of experiencing the authentic place. Respondents sited “going deep-sea fishing” to learn about local fishers and their communities, stopping by “local farm stands” and speaking with farmers who worked the land for generations,” patronizing “local restaurants, pubs, and b&bs”, and partaking in performances or exhibits by local artists. These kinds of experiences, the respondents claimed, provide an authentic glimpse into a place’s character. The second set of observations focused on the distinction between staged and unstaged experiences, with respondents overwhelmingly advocating for unstaged. Responses were clear in shunning “touristy,” “packaged,” and “fake” offerings for being inauthentic and misrepresenting the place as locals view it. Yet many respondents made exceptions for certain “staged” experiences, including (quite literally) the stage production of Anne of Green Gables based on the novel of the same name, the theatrical re-enactment of the founding of Canada, and visits to PEI’s many provincial and national parks, all of which respondents considered both staged and authentic at the same time.
Ecotourism Adaptation Practices to Climate Change in the Context of Sustainable Management in Dana Biosphere Reserve, Jordan
In spite of the influence of climate change on tourism destinations, particularly those rely heavily on natural resources, little attention paid to study the appropriate adaptation efforts to cope with, moderate and benefit from the impacts of climate change. The existing literature indicated that the research of climate change adaptation in the tourism and outdoor recreation field is at least 5-7 years behind other sectors such as water resources and agriculture. In Jordan, there are many observed changes in climate patterns such as higher temperatures, decreased precipitation and increased severity and frequency of drought. Dana Biosphere Reserve (DBR), the largest protected area and the major eco-tourism destination in Jordan, is facing climate change, which gradually degrading environment, shifting tourism seasons and changing livelihood and lifestyle of local communities. This study aims to assess climate change adaptation practices and policies used in DBR to cope with climate change related-risks. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with key informants in DBR to assess climate change adaptation practices. Direct content analysis (or a priori content analysis) was used to determine the components and indicators of climate change adaptation. The results found that DBR has implemented a wide range of adaptation practices, including infrastructure development, diversification of tourism products, environmentally-friendly practices, visitor management, land use management, rainwater collection, environmental monitoring and research, environmental education and collaboration with stakeholders. These diverse practices implicitly and explicitly play an important role in coping with the social, economic and environmental impacts caused by climate change. Finally, this study demonstrated that climate change adaptation is closely related to sustainable management of eco-tourism.
The German Air Passenger Tax: An Empirical Analysis of Tourism Outflows
In Europe, some countries recently abolished air passenger taxes (APT), while others issued or consider issuing an APT. From a fiscal perspective, APT can benefit the environment, while generating a vast amount of tax revenue with relatively low administration costs. However, they may have significant negative effects on the economy. Focusing on the German air passenger tax issued 2011, this work estimates the elasticity of tourism outflows using data on passenger departures from German airports between 2010 and 2016 aggregated by destination country. The results are obtained by estimating a model of the demand for outbound tourism. In line with theory, the regression results indicate a negative relationship between taxes and departures from Germany. Furthermore, on average, an increase of the air passenger tax rate results in a relatively higher decrease of passenger departures. The elasticity of tourism outflows can be used to estimate tax revenue changes and hence evaluate possible policy actions. Neglecting environmental reasons, the results suggest that tax revenue might be maximized by reducing the air passenger tax rate. Besides Germany, this work is also important for countries which have or consider implementing APT.
Heritage Tourism Balance between Historic Culture and Marketing Innovation: The Case Study of Taiwan
This paper explores the A Li Shan hotel of Taiwan during the Japanese occupation period, after over a hundred years of time, it has been handed over to the hotel managing enterprise to retain the historic building and the culture. Applying the innovative marketing strategies, coordinate the local government traveling policy then combined local tea agriculture and forestry specialty integrated marketing, to create the special hotel located in the Alishan National Scenic Area with the characteristics of landscape, innovative marketing and history, to attract domestic tourism and visitors around the world. This study interview the hotel owner, managers, employees and guests, in addition to collected message feedback from reservation website, to apply Ambidexterity Marketing Theory and Resource Base Theory to analyze the main impact factors. The conclusion showed that the integration of several key factors and make good use of resource strength generate heterogeneous product characteristics to attracting wider range of visitors.
Activity-Based Costing in Hospitality Industry: A Case Study in a Hotel
The purpose of this study is to provide some empirical evidence about implementing the Activity-Based Costing (ABC) in the hospitality industry in Iran. For this purpose, we consider the Tabriz International Hotel as our sample hotel and then gather the relevant data from its cost accounting system in 2012. Then, we use Activity-Based Costing (ABC) as our costing method and compare the cost of each service unit with that cost which had been extracted for the traditional costing method. The results show different cost per unit for two methods. Also, because of its more precise and detailed provided information, an Activity-Based Costing (ABC) system facilitates the decision making process for the managers, decisions related to profitability analysis, budgeting, pricing, and so on.
Opportunities of an Industrial City in the Leisure Tourism
The aim of the research is to investigate the forms of the demands of leisure tourism in a West-Hungarian industrial city, Győr. Today, Győr is still a traditional industrial city, its industry is mainly based on vehicle industry, but the role of tourism is increasing in the life of the city as well. Because of the industrial nature and the strong economy of the city, the ratio of business tourists is high. It can be stated that MICE tourism is dominating in Győr. Developments of the last decade can help the city with new tourism products to increase the leisure tourism. The new types of tourism – besides business tourism – can help the providers to increase the occupancy rates and the demand at the weekends. The research demonstrates the theoretical background of the topic, and it shows the present situation of the tourism in Győr with secondary data. The secondary research contains statistical data from the Hungarian Statistical Office and the city council, and it is based on the providers’ data. The next part of the paper shows the potential types of leisure tourism with the help of primary research. The primary research contains the results of an online questionnaire with a sample of 1000 potential customers. It is completed with 10 in-depth interviews with tourism experts, who explained their opinions about the opportunities of leisure tourism in Győr from the providers’ side. The online questionnaire was filled out in spring 2017 by customers, who have already stayed in Győr or plan to visit the city. At the same time in-depth interviews were made with hotel managers, head of touristic institutions and employees at the council. Based on the research it can be stated that the touristic supply of Győr allows the increase of the leisure tourism ratio in the city. Primarily, the cultural and health tourism show potential development, but the supply side of touristic services can be developed in order to increase the number of guest nights. The tourism marketing needs to be strengthened in the city, and a distinctive marketing activity - from other cities - is needed as well. To conclude, although Győr is an industrial city, it has a transforming industrial part, and tourism is also strongly present in its economy. Beside the leading role of business tourism, different types of leisure tourism have the opportunity to take place in the city.
Assessment Proposal to Establish the First Geo-Park in Egypt at Abu-Roash Area, Cairo
Egypt is known as cradle of civilization due to its ancient history and archeological sites, but Egypt possess also a cradle of Geo-sites, which qualify it to be listed as one of the most important Geo-heritage sites all over the country. Geology and landscape in Abu-Roash area is considered as one of the most important geological places (geo-sites) inside Cairo which help us to know and understand geology and geologic processes, so the area is used mainly for geological education purposes, also the area contain an archeological sites; pyramid complex, tombs, and Coptic monastery which give the area unique importance. Abu-Roash area is located inside Cairo 9 km north of the Giza Pyramids, which make the accessibility to the area easy and safe, the geology of Abu-Roash constitutes a complex Cretaceous sedimentary succession mass with showing outstanding tectonic features (Syrian Arc system event), these features are considered as a Geo-heritage, which will be the main designation of ‘Geo-parks’ establishing. The research is dealing with the numerous geo-sites found in the area, and its geologic and archeological importance, the relation between geo-sites and archeology, also the research proposed a detailed maps for these sites depicting Geo-routes and the hazardous places surrounding Abu-Roash area. The research is proposing a new proposal not applied in Egypt before, establishing a Geo-park, to promote this unique geo-heritage from hazardous factors and anthropogenic effects, also it will offer geo-educational opportunities to the general public and to the scientific community, enhancement of Geo-tourism which will be linked easily with the Ancient Egyptian tourism, it will also provide a significant economic benefit to Abu-Roash residential area. Finally, the research recommends that The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizations promote conservation of geological and geo-morphological heritage to list this area for its importance under the umbrella of geo-parks.
New Strategies and Process Innovation in Event Tourism
This paper describes the market trends of event tourism and investments that companies make in this direction and the importance of business model and process innovation. Particularly the innovation of a sales process: From simple sales of products to sale an exclusive service for aspirational and shared luxury service in line with market and industry trends. Event tourism is growing strongly during this years in terms of exclusive and corporate events (like team building, etc.). In line with market trends, greater investment by companies in promotional or exclusive events, there is new innovative strategy for event development focused on exclusive and innovative service. An empirical analysis is also introduced to validate some conclusions.
The Impact of Locations on the Perception of the Same Product: An Application to Motor Industry
The study aims to demonstrate how different locations, where the same product is unveiled and tested, can provide a different result in terms of perception by the same kind of people. The experiment was done in occasion of the presentation of a new bike. A group of dealers has been invited in Lloret de Mar, two persons from the headquarter were present to run the presentation, together with an outsourced trainer. Half day dedicated to the theoretical presentation and half day to the test of the new bike on the road, including the test of its direct competitors. The same presentation, organized in the same way, has been delivered in Italy, in 4 locations often used to run business meetings with dealers. In the end of all days of the presentation, dealers had to fill a questionnaire regarding the evaluation of the different bikes tested. The result of the questionnaire showed how the group invited in Spain rated much higher the new bike compared with the dealers testing the bike in locations already known and close to their home. So, in terms of business strategy, it is important to take into account how the location and the way of presenting any product or service can have a favourable impact on the people we want to convince. The next step of the experiment will be to cross check the sales of that bike with the dealers and measure if there is a relation between the top sellers and the one that appreciated the bike the most, in Spain. It would mean that they were able to transfer to customers the same good feelings and impressions they had in Spain.
Security as the Key Factor in Contemporary Tourism: Specificities Identified from the Analysis of Responders' Attitudes
The paper represents a product of mentor-graduate student cooperation, developed at the graduate study of Business Economics, major Tourism. The analysis was made through the anonymous questionnaire filled by the respondents from Croatia. Following the latest threatening events and having in mind those yet to come, it can be concluded that no country can benefit from the tourism industry if at the same time does not develop its security system as an integral part of the standard tourist offer. Analyzing the trends in contemporary tourism, the safety and security issues became the decisive factors for the choice of a certain destination. Consequently, countries must not perceive security systems and measures as an unnecessary expense but as an essential element in organizing their tourist services. All hotels and respectable tourist agencies should have a crisis management, with detailed, thoroughly elaborated procedures for emergency situations. Tourists should be timely informed about the potential dangers and risks and the measures taken to prevent them, as well as on procedures for emergency situations. Additionally, it would be good to have mobile applications that would enable tourists to make direct emergency calls with instructions on behavior in crisis situations. It is also essential to implement and put into effect sophisticated security measures such as using surveillance cameras, controlling access to buildings, information exchange with colleagues and neighbors, reporting the suspicious occurrences to the security services, and training staff for crisis management. The security issue is definitely one of the crucial factors in the development of tourism in a certain country.
Activity-Based Costing in the Hospitality Industry: A Case Study in a Hotel
The purpose of this study is to provide some empirical evidence about implementing Activity-Based Costing (ABC) in the hospitality industry in Iran. For this purpose, we consider the Tabriz International Hotel as our sample hotel and then gather the relevant data from its cost accounting system in 2012. Then, we use ABC as our costing method and compare the cost of each service unit with that cost which had been extracted for the traditional costing method. The results show a different cost per unit for two methods. Also, because of its more precise and detailed provided information, an ABC system facilitates the decision-making process for managers on decisions related to profitability analysis, budgeting, pricing, and so on.
Concept and Implementation of Religious Tourism as a City Icon; Case Study: Golden Dome Mosque in Depok, Indonesia
Dian Al Mahri Mosque or more known as Golden Dome Mosque is one of the biggest mosques in Southeast Asia which located in Depok, West Java Province, Indonesia. Instead of a place for praying, this beautiful Mosque is also becoming an icon of Depok for religious tourism destination. The purpose of this study is to understand the concept and objective of religious tourism, also how to be implemented as an icon of the city. As a qualitative method, the data was collected by direct interview with three of the most influential persons: K. H. Amirudin Said S. Q. MA as a Manager of the Mosque, K. H. Dr. Mohammad Idris, MA as a Major of Depok, and Mulyamto as a Head of Tourism Department of Depok. As a result, Golden Dome Mosque involves three integrated aspects (social, economic, and cultural) which can be implemented to evaluate their daily activities and services in order to define themselves as a religious tourism destination.
Community Based Tourism and Development in Third World Countries: The Case of the Bamiléké Region of Cameroon
Community based tourism, a sustainable tourism approach, has been adopted as a tool for development amongst the local communities in third world countries with income generation as the main driver. However, an analysis of community based tourism and development brings to light another driving force which is paramount to development strategies in the difficult conditions of third world countries; this driving force is 'place revitalization'. This paper seeks to assess the relevance of 'place revitalization' to the enhancement of development within the challenging context of developing countries. The research provides a community based tourism model to development in third world countries through a three-step process based on awareness, mentoring and empowerment at the local level. It also tries to examine how effective this model can address the development problems faced by the local communities of third world countries. The case study for this research is the Bamiléké region of Cameroon, the breeding ground of community based tourism initiatives and a region facing the difficulties of third world countries that are great impediments to community based tourism.
A Study on Exploring Employees' Well-Being in Gaming Workplaces Prior to and after the Chinese Government Crackdowns on Corruption
The aim of this article intends to explore the differences of well-being of employees in casino hotels before and after the Chinese government began to fight corruption. This researcher also attempted to find out the relationship between work pressure and well-being of employees in gambling workplaces before and after the Chinese government crackdowns the corruption. The category of well-being including life well-being, workplace well-being, and psychological well-being was included for analyzing well-being of employees in gaming workplaces. In addition, the psychological pressure classification was applied into this study and the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) would be adopted on investigating employees’ work pressure in terms of decision latitude, psychological demands, and workplace support. This study is a quantitative approach research and was conducted in March 2017. A purposive sampling was used in this study. A total of valid 339 responses were collected and the participants were casino hotel employees. The findings showed that decision latitude was significantly different prior to and after Chinese government crackdowns on corruption. Moreover, workplace support was strongly significantly related to employees’ well-being before Chinese government crackdowns. Decision latitude was strongly significantly related to employees’ well-being after Chinese government crackdowns. The findings suggest that employees’ work pressure affects their well being. In particular, because of workplace supports, it may alleviate employees’ work pressure and affect their perceptions of well-being but only prior to fighting the crackdowns. Importantly, decision latitude has become an essential factor affecting their well-being after the crackdown. It is finally hoped that the findings of this study provide suggestion to the managerial levels of hospitality industries. It is important to enhance employees’ decision latitude. Offering training courses to equip employees’ skills could be a possible way to reduce work pressure. In addition, establishing career path for the employees to pursuit is essential for their self-development and the improvement of well being. This would be crucial for casino hotels’ sustainable development and strengthening their competitiveness.
Designing for Experience-Based Tourism: A Virtual Tour in Tehran
As one of the most significant phenomena of industrialized societies, tourism plays a key role in encouraging regional developments and enhancing higher standards of living for local communities in particular. Traveling is a formative experience endowed with lessons on various aspects of life. It allows us learning how to enhance the social position as well as the social relationships. However, people forget the need to travel and gain first-hand experiences as they have to cope with the ever-increasing rate of stress created by the disorders and routines of the urban dwelling style. In this paper, various spaces of such experiences were explored through a virtual tour with two underlying aims: 1) encouraging, informing, and educating the community in terms of tourism development, and 2) introducing a temporary release from the routines. This study enjoyed a practical-qualitative research methodology, and the required data were collected through observation and using a multiple-response questionnaire. The participants (19-48 years old) included 41 citizens of both genders (63.4% male and 36.6% female) from two regions in Tehran, selected by cluster-probability sampling. The results led to development of a spatial design for a virtual tour experience in Tehran where different areas are explored to both raise people’s awareness and educate them on their cultural heritage.
Local Identities to Global in the Centre of Isan, Thailand: Promoting Local Development and Community Participation
Originating from a multifaceted research project beginning with the opening of the Green Market at Ban Laow sub-district, Kosum Phisai, Mahasarakham with the support of Kosum Phisai Governor. The project involves key stakeholders related to villagers who have become involved with linking local identity to a more global identity to help ameliorate falling agricultural incomes and casualised work. There have been fifteen formal meetings involving local government stakeholders that took place at the local university, local schools, a public meeting at Ban-Don-Toom and Village meeting shelters. These events hosted 176 local stakeholders consisting of the District Governor, 7 Chairpersons/Heads of the District Development Council, a Health Promotion group, District retired government staff, 4 sub-district local government members, the City Development Council, 2 representatives from Mahasarakham Provincial Culture Council, 4 principles of all local schools, 11 village heads, 15 scholars form local and national universities, 132 villagers and 4 staff from public relation units. The goal of the project was to initiate a variety of local projects including promotion of Local healthy food, farm/homestay accommodation, local uniqueness, Travel guides (in book form and guide youths) and the proposed development of community tourism with the aim to utilise local people and activities to tap into the growing alternative tourism market. This paper aims to document the progress thus far, and the challenges presented working with local communities that have lacked expertise in linking to the global economy to derive economic benefits for their communities.
Tourism as Benefactor to Peace amidst the Structural Conflict: An Exploratory Case Study of Nepal
While peace is dividend to tourism, tourism can also be a vital force for world peace. The existing body of knowledge on a tripartite complex nexus between tourism, peace and conflict reveals that tourism is benefactor to peace and sensitive to conflict. By contextualizing the ongoing sporadic structural conflict in the transitional phase in the aftermath of a decade long (1996-2006), Maoist armed conflict in Nepal, the purpose of this study is to explore the potentials of tourism in peace-building. The outcomes of this research paper is based on the mixed methods of research (qualitative and quantitative). Though the armed conflict ended with the comprehensive peace agreement in 2006 but there is constant manifestations of non-violent structural conflicts, which continue to threaten the sustainability of tourism industry. With the persistent application of coping strategies, tourism is found resilient during the ongoing structural political conflict. The strong coping abilities of the private sector of tourism industry have also intersected with peace-building efforts with more reactive and less proactive (pro-peace) engagements. This paper ascertains about the application of the ‘theory of tourism security’ by Nepalese tourism industry while coping with conflict and reviving, and sustaining. It reveals that the multiple verities of tourism at present has heterogeneous degree of peace potentials. The opportunities of ‘peace through tourism’ can be promoted subject to its molding with responsible, sustainable and participatory characteristics. This paper comes out with pragmatic policy recommendations for strengthening the position of tourism as a true peace-builder: (a) a broad shift from mainstream conventional tourism to the community based rural with local participation and ownership to fulfill Nepal’s potentials for peace, and (b) building and applications of the managerial and operational codes of conducts for owners and workers (labor unions) at all tourism enterprises and strengthen their practices.
Sustainability of Ecotourism Related Activities in the Town of Yercaud: A Modeling Study
Tourism related activities are getting popular day by day and tourism has become an integral part of everyone’s life. Ecotourism initiatives have grown enormously in the past decade, and the concept of ecotourism has shown to bring great benefits in terms of environment conservation and to improve the livelihood of local people. However, the potential of ecotourism to sustain improving the livelihood of the local population in the remote future is a topic of active debate. A primary challenge that exists in this regard is the enormous costs of limiting the impacts of tourism related activities on the environment. Here we employed systems modeling approach using computer simulations to determine if ecotourism activities in the small hill town of Yercaud (Tamil Nadu, India) can be sustained over years in improving the livelihood of the local population. Increasing damage to the natural environment as a result of tourism-related activities have plagued the pristine hill station of Yercaud. Though ecotourism efforts can help conserve the environment and enrich local population, questions remain if this can be sustained in the distant future. The vital state variables in the model are the existing tourism foundation (labor, services available to tourists, etc.,) in the town of Yercaud and its natural environment (water, flora and fauna). Another state variable is the textile industry that drives the local economy. Our results would help to understand if environment conservation efforts are sustainable in Yercaud and would also offer suggestions to make it sustainable over the course of several years.
Applying WILSERV in Measuring Visitor Satisfaction at Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre
Tourism based on interaction with wildlife has been increasing and demanded worldwide. Studies on service quality in the tourism field is plentiful. However, studies on visitor’s satisfaction in wildlife attractions, especially on semi-captured wildlife tourism is still limited. Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre (SORC) in Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia is an example of semi-captured wildlife attraction. SORC is a renowned attraction in Sabah. Although SORC attracts many visitors, they do get complaints from their visitors regarding their facilities and services. Thus, this study is aimed at evaluating visitors’ satisfaction level at SORC through the use of a modified SERVQUAL, referred to as WIL-SERV. A survey questionnaire was devised and used to collect primary data at SORC. The study reveals, out-of-dated visual material; visible action is taken when problem arises, staff willingness to assist visitor was the visitors’ main concern.
A Research on Tourism Market Forecast and Its Evaluation
The traditional prediction methods of the forecast for tourism market are paid more attention to the accuracy of the forecasts, ignoring the results of the feasibility of forecasting and predicting operability, which had made it difficult to predict the results of scientific testing. With the application of Linear Regression Model, this paper attempts to construct a scientific evaluation system for predictive value, both to ensure the accuracy, stability of the predicted value, and to ensure the feasibility of forecasting and predicting the results of operation. The findings show is that a scientific evaluation system can implement the scientific concept of development, the harmonious development of man and nature co-ordinate.
Determinants of Free Independent Traveler Tourist Expenditures in Israel: Quantile Regression Model
Tourism, one of the world's largest and fastest growing industries, exerts a major economic influence. The number of international tourists is growing every year, and the relative portion of independent (FIT) tourists is growing as well. The characteristics of independent tourists differ from those of tourists who travel in organized trips. The purpose of the research is to identify the factors that affect the individual tourist's expenses in Israel: total expenses, expenses per day, expenses per tourist, expenses per day per tourist, accommodation expenses, dining expenses and transportation expenses. Most of the research analyzed the total expenses using OLS regression. The determinants influencing expenses were divided into four groups: budget constraints, socio-demographic data, psychological characteristics and travel-related characteristics. Since the effect of each variable may change over different levels of total expenses the quantile regression (QR) theory will be applied. The current research will use data collected by the Israeli Ministry of Tourism in 2015 from individual independent tourists at the end of their visit to Israel. Preliminary results show that: At lower levels of expense, only income has a (positive) effect on total expenses, while at higher levels of expense, both income and length of stay have (positive) effects. -The effect of income on total expenses is higher for higher levels of expenses than for lower level of expenses. -The number of sites visited during the trip has a (negative) effect on tourist accommodation expenses only for tourists with a high level of total expenses. Due to the increasing share of independent tourism in Israel and around the world and due to the importance of tourism to Israel, it is very important to understand the factors that influence the expenses and behavior of independent tourists. Understanding the factors that affect independent tourists' expenses in Israel can help Israeli policymakers in their promotional efforts to attract tourism to Israel.
Implementation of Environmental Sustainability into Event Management
The World population is rapidly growing. The last few decades, environmental protection and climate change have been remarked as a global concern. All events have their own ecological footprint. Therefore, all participants who take part in the events, from event organizer to audience should be responsible for reducing carbon emissions. Currently, there is a literature gap which investigates the relationship between events and environment. Hence, this study is conducted to investigate how to implement environmental sustainability in the event management. To do so, a wide literature and also UK festivals database have been reviewed. Finally, environmental effects and the solution of reducing impacts at events were discussed.
An Analysis on Community Based Heritage Tourism: A Resource for a Small Community in Rural County Clare, Ireland
The aim of this paper is to identify the factors of success in community based heritage tourism initiatives. Heritage and community are central to many tourism initiatives with heritage tourism having the potential to act as a catalyst for community development. This paper presents the findings of research that examined the relationship between heritage tourism and community development. The findings recognised that heritage tourism had economic, social and cultural benefits for a community as well as a role in strengthening concepts such as sense of identity, place, and authenticity. In addition, this paper proposes an assessment framework for sustainable community based heritage tourism to identify factors and contextual influences involved in their success or failure. In evaluating the sustainability of such initiatives, a number of issues are investigated including the continued role of stakeholders, the role of funding, the influence of collaboration and the changing role of rural development and its impact on community engagement. The research is descriptive, evaluative and explanatory research, exploring and analysing issues such as the development of community structures in community based heritage tourism. Thus, it will contribute to the development of potential tourism and community development policies and strategies at a local, national and international level. An interpretative and inductive approach is utilised, and a mixed method approach followed as it encapsulates the best of quantitative and qualitative research methods. The case studies focus on social enterprises in relation to tourism and community based tourism cooperatives as there are limited study and knowledge of these. Consequently, this research will contribute to the discourse on community based heritage tourism as an aspect of community development.
A Comparative Study to Employees' Work Stress of the Casino Hotels and Non-Casino Hotels
Since Macau opened its door to international gambling firms in 2002, Macau casino hotel industry has been booming. Casino hotels are different from the non-casino hotels in the main profit source and services. The paper aims to analyze differences in employees’ work stress and job satisfaction across the casino hotels and the non-casino hotels. Through questionnaires, the paper investigates 200 employees from casino hotels and 200 employees from non-casino hotels. Work stress and job satisfaction of employees in casino hotels and non-casino hotels are compared. Statistic techniques such as descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) are applied. The paper tries to achieve the below aims: Firstly, explore and compare the impact of gender, job position, marital status and fertility status on employees’ work stress and job satisfaction. Secondly, explore the perception of work stress and job satisfaction across casino hotel and non-casino hotel employees. Thirdly, explore the relationship between work stress and job satisfaction. The result indicates there are not significant differences in employees’ work stress and job satisfaction perception between different genders, positions, marital situations and fertility situations. The result confirms there are significant differences in employees’ work stress and job satisfaction perception between casino and non-casino employees. Moreover, Work stress negatively influences job satisfaction.
Monitoring and Evaluation in Community-Based Tourism: An Analysis and Model
A developmental state should use community engagement to facilitate socio-economic development for disadvantaged groups and individual members of society through empowerment, social justice, sustainability, and self-reliance. In this regard, community-based tourism (CBT) as a growing market should be an indigenous effort aided by external facilitation. Since this form of tourism presents its own preconditions, characteristics, and challenges, it could be guided by higher education institutions engagement. In particular, the facilitation should not only serve to assist the community members to reach their own goals; but rather also focus on learning through knowledge creation and sharing with the engagement of higher education institutions. While the increased relevance of CBT has produced various CBT manuals (or handbooks/guidelines) documents aimed to ‘teach’ and assist various entities in CBT development, this research aims to analyse the current monitoring & evaluation (M&E) manuals and thereafter, propose an M&E model for CBT. It is important to mention that all too often effective monitoring is seldom carried out thus risking the long-term sustainability and improvement of the CBT ventures. Therefore, the proposed model will also consider some inputs external to the tourism field, but in relation to local economic development (LED) matters from the previously proposed development monitoring and evaluation system framework. M&E should be seen as fundamental components of any CBT initiative, and the whole CBT intervention should be evaluated. In this context, M&E in CBT should go beyond strict ‘numerical’ economic matters and should be understood in a holistic development. In addition, M&E in CBT should not consider issues in various ‘compartments’ such as tourists, tourism attractions, CBT owners/participants, and stakeholder engagement but as interdependent components of a macro-ecosystem. Finally, the external facilitation process should be structured in a way to promote community self-reliance in both the intervention and the M&E process. The research will attempt to propose an M&E model for CBT so as to enhance the CBT possibilities of long-term growth and success through effective collaborations with key stakeholders.