Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 50781

Humanities and Social Sciences

2948
90186
Participation, Network, Women’s Competency, and Government Policy Affecting on Community Development
Abstract:
The purposes of this research paper were to study the current situations of community development, women’s potentials, women’s participation, network, and government policy as well as to study the factors influencing women’s potentials, women’s participation, network, and government policy that have on the community development. The population included the women age of 18 years old who were living in the communities of Bangkok areas. This study was a mix research method of quantitative and qualitative method. A simple random sampling method was utilized to obtain 400 sample groups from 50 districts of Bangkok and to perform data collection by using questionnaire. Also, a purposive sampling method was utilized to obtain 12 informants for an in-depth interview to gain an in-sight information for quantitative method.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2947
89881
Factors Affecting the Effective Management of the Employee Welfare Fund at the Department of Labour Protection and Welfare
Abstract:
The purposes of this research were to study the current problems of the management of welfare fund at the department of labor protection and welfare, to study important factors affecting the management of welfare fund at the department of labor protection and welfare, to study major influences of the management of welfare fund at the department of labor protection and welfare, and finally to propose the proper guidelines for the management of welfare fund at the department of labor protection and welfare. This research study utilized the information from document, laws, rules, and regulations of the government, handbook for welfare, and government policy in the past. Moreover, the qualitative research was conducted by retrieving insight information from key informants, 15 persons for the committee of welfare employees, and 10 persons from a high level of management in the welfare area, academics, and experts. In terms of quantitative method, the study covers all 76 provinces and 10 areas of Bangkok. Independent variables included strategy, structure, shared value, system, whereas the dependent variables included the management factors such as speed, punctuation, and quality of work.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2946
88673
Religion, Education, and Nation: Anticlerical Principle of France and Private School Law of South Korea
Authors:
Abstract:
The education plays an important role of political socialization in politics. In Korean and in France, religion in education is situated in an important place, but religious education in school is dealt differently in two countries. In this article, the author tries to reveal the reason why in France private Catholic schools can keep their religious discipline, but in Korea, private Christian schools cannot insist Christianism to their students. This is because of the different situation of their budget. In Korea, even though private schools are named ‘private’, they cannot be managed without government subsidy but in France, private Catholic schools are owned by private foundation and their budget is based on their own resource. That’s why French private schools do not need to follow governmental guidance but not in Korean case.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2945
88261
The Prevailing Practice of Night Hunting in Central Bhutan: Traditional Practice of Courtship as a Sexual Coercion to Women
Abstract:
A popular and entrenched custom as a form of courtship has been practicing in Bhutan from long time back. This custom is widely being practiced in the villages of eastern and central Bhutan. This long-practiced custom is known by different terms in Bhutan, but it is popularly known to the foreigners as ‘night hunting’. This unique form of courtship custom involves the boy visiting the girl’s house stealthily under the cover of darkness without any pre-appointment. It is still perceived as a serving norms of courtship in the villages in central Bhutan. For many years this practice of night hunting has been in the spotlight of debate as a harmless culture but as sexual violence against women. However, this study examined the changing perception on the night hunting as a form of courtship custom or sexual coercion to women by employing the in-depth interview with 42 participants (21 females and 9 males from 3 different villages, 5 females and 7 males from urban areas) in central Bhutan. Moreover, the study investigated the gender inequality linked with the practice of night hunting in the rural areas of central Bhutan. The study revealed the changing perception on night hunting as more of sexual coercion taking place during night hunting than merely tolerating it as traditional form of practice of courtship. The finding of this study revealed unlike the past; this practice serves minimal social purpose in the society as the social changes with the development of socioeconomic of the people. However, the practice of night hunting is still prevalent at the villages, and it is known that the social power, single and widow women, valuing of village endogamy practices and the popular notion of pride of promiscuous amongst the men have attributed in sexual coercion and in ultimate victimization of the women. Furthermore, the study revealed the gender inequality linked with night hunting thus significantly increasing the vulnerability of rural women to other forms of violence in the society.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2944
87749
Civic E-Participation in Central and Eastern Europe: A Comparative Analysis
Authors:
Abstract:
Civic participation is an important aspect of democracy. The contemporary model of democracy is based on citizens' participation in political decision-making (deliberative democracy, participatory democracy). This participation takes many forms of activities like display of slogans and symbols, voting, social consultations, political demonstrations, membership in political parties or organizing civil disobedience. The countries of Central and Eastern Europe after 1989 are characterized by great social, economic and political diversity. Civil society is also part of the process of democratization. Funded by the rule of law, civil rights, such as freedom of speech and association and private ownership, civil society was to play a central role in the development of liberal democracy. Among the many interpretations of concepts, defining the concept of contemporary democracy, one can assume that the terms civil society and democracy, although different in meaning, nowadays overlap. In the post-communist countries, the process of shaping and maturing societies took place in the context of a struggle with a state often alien to power. State fraud or repudiation of the institution is a representative state, which in the past was the only way to manifest and defend its identity, but after the breakthrough became one of the main obstacles to the development of civil society. In Central and Eastern Europe, there are many obstacles to the development of civil society, for example, the elimination of economic poverty, the implementation of educational campaigns, consciousness-related obstacles, the formation of social capital and the deficit of social activity. Obviously, civil society does not only entail an electoral turnout but a broader participation in the decision-making process, which is impossible without direct and participative democratic institutions. This article considers such broad forms of civic participation and their characteristics in Central and Eastern Europe. The paper is an attempt to critically analyse the functioning of electronic forms of civic participation in Central and Eastern European states. This is not accompanied by any kind of referendum or a referendum initiative, and other forms of political participation, such as public consultations, participative budgets, or eGovernment, are not the subject of the present analysis. However, this paper will broadly present electronic administration tools, the application of which results from both legal regulations and increasingly common practice in state and city management. In the comparative analysis, the experiences of post-communist bloc countries will be summed up to indicate the challenges and possible goals for further development of this form of citizen participation in the political process. The author argues that for to function efficiently and effectively, states need to involve their citizens in the political decision-making process, especially with the use of electronic tools.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2943
86872
Collaboration versus Cooperation: Grassroots Activism in Divided Cities and Communication Networks
Authors:
Abstract:
Peace-building organisations act as a network of information for communities. Through fieldwork, it was highlighted that grassroots organisations and activists may cooperate with each other in their actions of peace-building; however, they would not collaborate. Within two divided societies; Nicosia in Cyprus and Jerusalem in Israel, there is a distinction made by organisations and activists with regards to activities being more ‘co-operative’ than ‘collaborative’. This theme became apparent when having informal conversations and semi-structured interviews with various members of the activist communities. This idea needs further exploration as these distinctions could impact upon the efficiency of peacebuilding activities within divided societies. Civil societies within divided landscapes, both physically and socially, play an important role in conflict resolution. How organisations and activists interact with each other has the possibility to be very influential with regards to peacebuilding activities. Working together sets a positive example for divided communities. Cooperation may be considered a primary level of interaction between CSOs. Therefore, at the beginning of a working relationship, organisations cooperate over basic agendas, parallel power structures and focus, which led to the same objective. Over time, in some instances, due to varying factors such as funding, more trust and understanding within the relationship, it could be seen that processes progressed to more collaborative ways. It is evident to see that NGOs and activist groups are highly independent and focus on their own agendas before coming together over shared issues. At this time, there appears to be more collaboration in Nicosia among CSOs and activists than Jerusalem. The aims and objectives of agendas also influence how organisations work together. In recent years, Nicosia, and Cyprus in general, have perhaps changed their focus from peace-building initiatives to more environmental issues which have become new-age reconciliation topics. Civil society does not automatically indicate like-minded organisations however solidarity within social groups can create ties that bring people and resources together. In unequal societies, such as those in Nicosia and Jerusalem, it is these ties that cut across groups and are essential for social cohesion. Societies are a collection of social groups; individuals who have come together over common beliefs. These groups in turn shape the identities and determine the values and structures within societies. At many different levels and stages, social groups work together through cooperation and collaboration. These structures in turn have the capabilities to open up networks to less powerful or excluded groups, with the aim to produce social cohesion which may contribute social stability and economic welfare over any extended period.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2942
86482
Migration and Human Security: An Analysis of a Neglected Ethnic Rohingya's Exodus in Myanmar and Its Regional Security Implications
Abstract:
The Burmese ethnic known as Rohingya is one of the world’s most persecuted ethnic minorities on earth. They have been massacred, discriminated, humiliated, gang-raped, trafficked, abused and neglected. More than one million Rohingyas have been displaced internally and overseas. Currently, Rohingya asylum seekers can be found in India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. This forced migration is unacceptable since the Rohingya are stateless although they have been part of Myanmar for more than one century. Why the Rohingyas crisis is important to be analyse from human security perspectives? Understanding the human security of the Rohingya is important because the crisis may have implication on the regional stability in South and South-East Asia. The objectives of the research are to provide an explanation to the current human security situation in Myanmar, to analyse the regional implication of the Rohingya’s crisis and to recommend the workable solution that may help to reduce the tension. To analyze and demonstrate the case, the research has adopted the BAGHUS or Bangi Human Security Approach, a Southeast Asian human security model, designed to protect the weakest and the vital core of human life across national borders. Based on a qualitative research, and a review of literature from secondary sources of books, reports and academic journals, the research has conducted interviews with 1) Rohingya respondents in Cox’s Baza in February 2017; 2) experts and scholars in the field in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Malaysia. Preliminary findings suggest that conflicts lead to displacement and migration across borders, human insecurity is an issue where the implementation of human rights is too slow to take place even in sovereign state like Myanmar. The political and economic interests of many extraregional powers have further contributed to the current crisis. Human security perspectives is suggested as the workable solution for stability and peace in the region.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2941
86260
A Descriptive Study of Self-Compassion in Polytechnic Students in Indonesia
Abstract:
This article reports the descriptive analysis of self-compassion in polytechnic students. It has been long believed that self-compassion can improve students’ motivation in completing their studies. This research was conducted with the aim to see the degree of self-compassion in polytechnic students in Indonesia by using Neff's Self-Compassion Scale (short form) measurement tool consisting of 12 items. The research method used was descriptive study with survey technique on 255 students. The results showed that 78% of students had low self-compassion and 22% had high self-compassion. This revealed that polytechnic students still criticize themselves harshly, make a poor judgment and bad self-appraisal, and they also cannot accept their imperfection and consider it as a self-judgment. The students also tend to think that they are the only ones that experience failure and suffering. This can lead to a sense of isolation (self-isolation). Furthermore, the students are often too concerned with aspects that are not liked both in themselves and in life (over-identification). Improving the students’ level of self-compassion can be done by building an educational climate that not only criticizes the students but provides feedback as well. This should focus on the students’ real behavior rather than the students’ general character.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2940
86243
Populism and the Democratic Crisis: Comparative Study of Four Countries
Authors:
Abstract:
In 2017, many signs of populism occurred around the world. This paper suggests that populism is not a sudden phenomenon, but a manifestation of common people’s will. By analyzing previous research, this paper proposes three factors related to populism: Inequality, experience of economic crisis, and rapid cultural change. With these three elements, four cases will be investigated in this article; two countries experienced populism, and the other two countries did not experience it. Comparing four cases by using three elements will give a fruitful foundation for further analysis regarding populism. In sum, aforementioned three elements are highly related to the occurrence of populism. However, there is one hidden factor: dissatisfaction with established politics. Thus, populism is not a temporal phenomenon. It is a red alert for democratic crisis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2939
85991
Revisiting the Link between Corporate Social Performance and Corporate Financial Performance Post 2008 Global Economic Crisis
Abstract:
Following the global economic crisis in 2008, businesses and more especially the big multinational conglomerates were increasingly viewed by the people world over as one of the major causes of the economic problems faced by millions globally, in terms of job loss and lifetime savings being wiped out as banks and pension funds went bankrupt and people stared at an insecure financial future. This caused a lot of resentment in the public against big businesses and fueled several protest movements by the people such as “Occupy Wall Street” in different parts of the world. This forced the big businesses to respond to the challenge by adopting more people-centric policies and initiatives for local communities in societies where they operate as part of their corporate social responsibility (CSR), in order to regain their social acceptance among the people whilst earning their ‘social license to operate’. The current paper studies many of such large MNCs across the United States of America, India and South Africa, which changed the way they did business earlier, following the global economic crisis in 2008, by incorporating capacity building initiatives for local communities as part of their CSR strategy and explores whether it has contributed to improving their financial performance. It is a conceptual research paper using secondary source data. The findings reveal that there is a positive correlation between the companies’ corporate social performance and corporate financial performance. In addition, the findings also bring to light that the MNCs examined as part of the current paper have improved their image in the eyes of their stakeholders following the change in their CSR strategy and initiatives.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2938
85946
CSR Health Programs: A Supplementary Tool of a Government’s Role in a Developing Nation
Abstract:
In a context of a developing nation, how important is the role of Corporate Social Responsibility health programs? Is there a possibility that this will render a large impact in a society where health benefits are insufficient? The Philippine government has been in an unceasing battle to provide its citizens competitive health benefits through launching various health programs. As the efforts are being claimed by the government, the numbers just show that all the health benefits being offered such as PhilHealth health cards, medical missions and other subsidized government health benefits are not effective and sufficient at the minimum level. This is a major characteristic of a developing nation which the Philippine government is focusing on addressing as it becomes a national concern under the effects of poverty. Industrial companies, through Corporate Social Responsibility, are playing an important role in the aspiration to resolve this problem on health programs as supposed to be basic services to citizens of the Philippine government. The rise of commitment by these industrial companies to render health programs to communities as part of their corporate citizenship has covered a large portion of the basic health services that the Filipino citizens are supposed to be receiving. This is the most salient subject that a developing nation should focus on determining the important contribution of industrial companies present in their country as part of the citizens’ access to basic health services. The use of survey forms containing quantitative and qualitative questions which aim to give numerical figures and support answers as to the role of CSR Health programs in helping the communities receive the basic health services they need was the methodological procedure followed in this research. A sample population in a community where the largest industrial company in a province of the Philippines was taken through simple random sampling. The assumption is that this sample population which represents the whole of the community has the highest opportunities to access both the government health services and the CSR health program services of the industrial company located in their community. Results of the research have shown a significant level of participation by industrial companies through their CSR health programs in the attainment of basic health services that should be rendered by the Philippine government to its citizens as part of the state’s health benefits. In a context of a developing nation such as the Philippines, the role of Corporate Social Responsibility is beyond the expectation of initiating to resolve environmental and social issues. It is moving deeper in the concept of the corporate industries being a pillar of the government in catering the support needed by the individuals in the community for its development. As such, the concept of the presence of an industrial company in a community is said to be a parallel progress: by which when an industrial company expands because it is becoming more profitable, so is the community gaining the same step of progress in terms of socioeconomic development.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2937
85877
An Investigation of Sentiment and Themes from Twitter for Brexit in 2016
Abstract:
Observing debate and discussion over social media has been found to be a promising tool to investigate different types of opinion. On 23 June 2016, Brexit voters in the UK decided to depart from the EU, with 51.9% voting to leave. On Twitter, there had been a massive debate in this context, and the hashtag Brexit was allocated as number six of the most tweeted hashtags across the globe in 2016. The study aimed to investigate the sentiment and themes expressed in a sample of tweets during a political event (Brexit) in 2016. A sentiment and thematic analysis was conducted on 1304 randomly selected tweets tagged with the hashtag Brexit in Twitter for the period from 10 June 2016 to 7 July 2016. The data were coded manually into two code frames, sentiment and thematic, and the reliability of coding was assessed for both codes. The sentiment analysis of the selected sample found that 45.63% of tweets conveyed negative emotions while there were only 10.43% conveyed positive emotions. It also surprisingly resulted that 29.37% were factual tweets, where the tweeter expressed no sentiment and the tweet conveyed a fact. For the thematic analysis, the economic theme dominated by 23.41%, and almost half of its discussion was related to business within the UK and the UK and global stock markets. The study reported that the current UK government and relation to campaign themes were the most negative themes. Both sentiment and thematic analyses found that tweets with more than one opinion or theme were rare, 8.29% and 6.13%, respectively.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2936
85826
The Determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure Extent and Quality: The Case of Jordan
Abstract:
This study focuses on investigating the determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure (CSRD) extent and quality in Jordan. The study examines factors that influence CSR disclosure extent and quality, such as corporate characteristics (size, gearing, firm’s age, and industry type), corporate governance (board size, number of meetings, non-executive directors, female directors in the board, family directors in the board, foreign members, audit committee, type of external auditors, and CEO duality) and ownership structure (government ownership, institutional ownership, and ownership concentration). Legitimacy theory is utilised as the main theory for our theoretical framework. A quantitative approach is adopted for this research and content analysis technique is used to gather CSR disclosure extent and quality from the annual reports. The sample is withdrawn from the annual reports of 118 Jordanian companies over the period of 2010-2015. A CSRD index is constructed, and includes the disclosures of the following categories; environmental, human resources, product and consumers, and community involvement. A 7 point-scale measurement was developed to examine the quality of disclosure, were 0= No Disclosures, 1= General disclosures, (Non-monetary), 2= General disclosures, (Non-monetary) with pictures, charts, and graphs 3= Descriptive/ qualitative disclosures, specific details (Non-monetary), 4= Descriptive/ qualitative disclosures, specific details with pictures, charts, and graphs, 5= Numeric disclosures, full descriptions with supporting numbers, 6= Numeric disclosures, full descriptions with supporting numbers, pictures, and Charts. This study fills the gap in the literature regarding CSRD in Jordan, and the fact that all the previous studies have ignored a clear categorisation as a measurement of quality. The result shows that the extent of CSRD is higher than the quality in Jordan. Regarding the determinants of CSR disclosures, the followings were found to have a significant relationship with both extent and quality of CSRD except non-executives, were the significant relationship was found just with the extent of CSRD: board size, non-executive directors, firm’s age, foreign members on the board, number of boards meetings, the presence of audit committees, big 4, government ownership, firm’s size, industry type.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2935
85714
The Late School of Alexandria and Its Influence on Islamic Philosophy
Abstract:
This research aims at studying the late Alexandrian school of philosophy in the 6th century AD, the adaptation of its methodologies by the Islamic world, and its impact on Muslim philosophical thought. The Alexandrian school has been underestimated by many scholars who regard its production at the end of the classical age as mere interpretations of previous writings and delimit its achievement to the preservation of ancient philosophical heritage. The research reviews the leading figures of the Alexandrian school and its production of philosophical commentaries studying ancient Greek philosophy in its entirety. It also traces the transmission of its heritage to the Islamic world through direct translations into Syriac first and then into Arabic. The research highlights the impact of the Alexandrian commentaries on Muslim recognition of Plato and Aristotle as well as its philosophical teaching methodology starting with the study of Aristotle’s Categories as introductory to understand Plato’s philosophy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2934
85347
European Refugee Camps and the Right to an Adequate Standard of Living: Advancing Accountability under International Human Rights Law
Abstract:
Since the onset of the 2015 ‘refugee crisis’ in the European Union (EU), migrant deaths have overwhelmingly occurred in the Mediterranean Sea. However, far less attention has been paid to the startling number of injuries, deaths, and allegations of systematic human rights violations occurring within European refugee camps. Most troubling is the assertion that injuries and deaths in EU refugee camps have occurred as a result of negligent management and poor access to healthcare, food, water and sanitation, and other elements that comprise an adequate standard of living under international human rights law. Using available evidence and documentation, this paper will conduct a thorough examination of the causes of death and injury in EU refugee camps, with a specific focus on Greece, in order to identify instances of negligence or conditions that amount to potential breaches of human rights law. Based on its analysis, this paper will subsequently explore potential legal avenues to achieving justice and accountability under international human rights law in order to effectively address and remedy inadequate standards of living causing wrongful death or injury in European refugee camps.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2933
85164
The Quest for Identity among African Americans: Life History of Imahkus Nzinga
Abstract:
Identity formation remains central to diaspora populations as they are known to have multiple attachments to places, including the 'ancestral homeland.' This paper emphasizes the potency of the ancestral homeland in the imagination of diaspora populations and a 'yearning' for an eventual return. This has led to the repatriation and visits of many Diasporan Africans to Africa. What have also been highlighted are the motivations, experiences, and challenges associated with the return of African Americans to Africa, as well as some of the idealistic expectations that Diasporan Africans have regarding the ancestral homeland. When Diasporan Africans visit Africa, they are faced with different kinds of situations that are challenging. Yet, the number of visits to Africa by Diasporan Africans, particularly, African Americans, keep increasing. This paper draws on the life history of Imahkus Nzinga, an African American who repatriated to Ghana in the 1990s, as a case study of African Americans’ relentless quest to pursue the ancestral homeland, despite the challenges involved. The paper argues that the quest for identity construction remains the overriding motivation for African Americans in their decision to repatriate to Africa, and discusses how in this case, Imahkus Nzinga attempts to reconcile what is called in this paper 'identity struggle.'
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2932
85113
The Role of Temporary Migration as Coping Mechanism of Weather Shock: Evidence from Selected Semi-Arid Tropic Villages in India
Abstract:
In this study, we investigate does weather variation determine temporary labour migration using 210 sample households from six Semi-Arid Tropic (SAT) villages for the period of 2005-2014 in India. The study has made an attempt to examine how households use temporary labour migration as a coping mechanism to minimise the risk rather than maximize the utility of the households. The study employs panel Logit regression model to predict the probability of household having at least one temporary labour migrant. As per as econometrics result, it is found that along with demographic and socioeconomic factors; weather variation plays an important role to determine the decision of migration at household level. In order to capture the weather variation, the study uses mean crop yield deviation over the study periods. Based on the random effect logit regression result, the study found that there is a concave relationship between weather variation and decision of temporary labour migration. This argument supports the theory of New Economics of Labour Migration (NELM), which highlights the decision of labour migration not only maximise the households’ utility but it helps to minimise the risks.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2931
85034
Good Banks, Bad Banks, and Public Scrutiny: The Determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility in Times of Financial Volatility
Abstract:
This article examines the relationship between the global financial crisis and corporate social responsibility activities of financial services firms. It challenges the general consensus in existing studies that firms, when faced with economic hardship, tend to jettison CSR commitments. Instead, and building on recent insights into the institutional determinants of CSR, it is argued that firms are constrained in their ability to abandon CSR by the extent to which they are subject to intense public scrutiny by regulators and the news media. This argument is tested in the context of the European sovereign debt crisis drawing on a unique dataset of 170 firms in 15 different countries over a six-year period. Controlling for a battery of alternative explanations and comparing financial service providers to firms operating in other economic sectors, results indicate considerable evidence supporting the main argument. Rather than abandoning CSR during times of economic hardship, financial industry firms ramp up their CSR commitments in order to manage their public image and foster public trust in light of intense public scrutiny.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2930
85031
Private Decisions, Public Results: German Business Action in Response to the Refugee Crisis
Abstract:
This article examines how large German companies have responded to the 2014 refugee crisis. It challenges the assumption that the historical legacy of implicit CSR in Germany would lead to low levels of business response through CSR channels. Instead, and building on institutional CSR and the converging forces of globalization, this article argues that the urgency of a humanitarian crisis creates incentives, in the absence of formal institutional arrangement, for explicit CSR responses. This explorative research encompasses the 53 German companies presented on 2015 Forbes2000. A qualitative content analysis of corporate websites was supplemented with inquiry e-mails. Results indicate considerable evidence for the main hypothesis, showing a vast majority of companies responding to the refugee crisis. Levels of engagement varied, depending on the phase of the crisis, from core-business activities to non-integrated action. The high level of partnerships with the state and other non-state actors indicates a quest for enhanced legitimacy in the face of an absent democratic mandate.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2929
84879
Dark Heritage Tourism and Visitor Behaviour: The Case of Elmina Castle, Ghana
Abstract:
Current research on dark tourism largely follows residents’ perspectives with limited evaluations of tourists’ experiences. Unravelling the case of a dark heritage site in Elmina, Ghana, this paper develops a theoretical model to understand the relationships among four constructs namely, motivation, tourism impacts, place attachment, and satisfaction. Based on a sample of 414 domestic tourists, PLS-SEM confirmed several relationships and inter-relationships among the four constructs. For example, motivation had a positive relationship with perceptions of positive and negative tourism impacts suggesting that the more tourists were motivated to visit the site for cultural/learning experiences, the more positive and negative tourism impacts they perceived. Implications for dark tourism and heritage site management are offered.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2928
84857
Longitudinal Study of the Phenomenon of Acting White in Hungarian Elementary Schools Analysed by Fixed and Random Effects Models
Abstract:
Popularity is affected by a variety of factors in the primary school such as academic achievement and ethnicity. The main goal of our study was to analyse whether acting white exists in Hungarian elementary schools. In other words, we observed whether Roma students penalize those in-group members who obtain the high academic achievement. Furthermore, to show how popularity is influenced by changes in academic achievement in inter-ethnic relations. The empirical basis of our research was the 'competition and negative networks' longitudinal dataset, which was collected by the MTA TK 'Lendület' RECENS research group. This research followed 11 and 12-year old students for a two-year period. The survey was analysed using fixed and random effect models. Overall, we found a positive correlation between grades and popularity, but no evidence for the acting white effect. However, better grades were more positively evaluated within the majority group than within the minority group, which may further increase inequalities.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2927
84685
Ecological Concerns in Food Systems: An Ethnographical Approach on Vegan Impact in Governmentality
Abstract:
Veganism, along with different types of vegetarianism, consists in the abstinence of animal products. Far from being only an alimentary regulation, it stands as a political posture against the food industry generating itself a set of beliefs, prohibitions, and attitudes that compel the individual to a reevaluation of his obligations towards the environment. Veganism defends animal rights and at the same time reinforces a different conception of natural resources embodying it in alimentary restrictions. These practices emerge in the context of alimentary modernity, which is characterized by bringing new concerns to the consumer. An increased skepticism towards the government ability to protect food supply; a notable distrust toward the market guaranties on providing safe food with sustainable techniques and the desire to react to the neoliberal forms of exploitation are some of its consequences of this phenomenon. This study aims to approach the concept of governmentality as a coproduced system of legitimized practices and knowledge, formed by the interaction of the different actors that are involved. In a scenario where the State seems to retreat from centralized regulation of food production giving up importance to citizens, dietary consultants, farmers, and stockbreeders, veganism plays its role on the conformation of distinctive forms of environmentalism, nature rights and responses to ecological crisis. The ethnographic method allows observing the mechanisms of interaction of consumers and discourses with the mainstream food system, providing evidence about the means of generation of new conceptions about nature and the environment. The paper focuses on how the dietary restrictions, consumption patterns and public discourses of vegans in Barcelona impact local consumption, demonstrating its relevance as a mechanism that associates particular concerns about food with political economy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2926
84621
State Coercion and Social Movements: Legacy of Authoritarian Regime
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper aims to examine the meaning of ‘state’ as a monopoly of violence, in regard with South Korean democratic transition. Since institutional democratization in 1987, it is conventionally known that governmental authority has exercised its power through law and police force, rather than inclusive or private violence. In other words, 1987 pro-democracy movement has been a critical juncture for a step towards democratic consolidation. However, state coercion may continually be exerted despite institutional specification by law in South Korean context. Explicit case would be amendment of ‘the Law on Assembly and Demonstration’ which determines citizens’ right to take collective action mostly against government actions. This paper investigates amendment process of the law along with social reality since 1987 until 2015 to see how effectively institutionalization has progressed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2925
84528
Vicarious Cues in Portraying Emotion: Musicians' Self-Appraisal
Abstract:
This present study seeks to discover attitudinal commonalities and differences within a musician population relative to the communication of emotion via music. We hypothesized that instrument type, as well as age and gender, would bear significantly on musicians’ opinions. A survey was administered to 178 participants; 152 were current music majors (mean age 20.3 years, 62 female) and 26 were adult participants in a community choir (mean age 54.0 years, 12 female). The adult participants were all vocalists, while student participants represented the full range of orchestral instruments. The students were grouped by degree program, (performance, music education, or other) and instrument type (voice, brass, woodwinds, strings, percussion). The survey asked 'How important are each of the following areas to you for portraying emotion in music?' Participants were asked to rate each of 15 items on a scale of 1 (not at all important) to 10 (very important). Participants were also instructed to leave blank any item that they did not understand. The 15 items were: dynamic contrast, overall volume, phrasing, facial expression, staging (placement), pitch accuracy, tempo changes, bodily movement, your mood, your attitude, vibrato, rubato, stage/room lighting, clothing type, and clothing color. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was no overall effect of gender or age, and neither did any single response item show a significant difference due to these subject parameters. Among the student participants, however, one-way ANOVA revealed a significant effect of degree program on the rated importance of four items: dynamic contrast, tempo changes, vibrato, and rubato. Significant effects of instrument type were found in the responses to eight items: facial expression, staging, body movement, vibrato, rubato, lighting, clothing type, and clothing color. Post hoc comparisons (Tukey) show that some variation follows from obvious differences between instrument types (e.g. string players are more concerned with vibrato than everyone but woodwind players; vocalists are significantly more concerned with facial expression than everyone but string players), but other differences could point to communal mindsets toward vicarious cues within instrument type. These mindsets could be global (e.g. brass players deeming body movement significantly less important than string players, being less often featured as soloists and appearing less often at the front of the stage) or local (e.g. string players being significantly more concerned than all other groups about both clothing color and type, perhaps due to the strongly-expressed opinions of specific teachers). Future work will attempt to identify the source of these self-appraisals, whether enculturated via explicit pedagogy, or whether absorbed from individuals' observations and performance experience.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2924
84470
World Peace and Conflict Resolution: A Solution from a Buddhist Point of View
Abstract:
The peace will not be established until the self-consciousness would reveal in the human beings. In this nuclear age, the establishment of a lasting peace on the earth represents the primary condition for the preservation of human civilization and survival of human beings. Nothing perhaps is so important and indispensable as the achievement and maintenance of peace in the modern world today. Peace in today’s world implies much more than the mere absence of war and violence. In the interdependent world of today the United Nations needs to be representative of the modern world and democratic in its functioning because it came into existence to save the generations from the scourge of war and conflict. Buddhism is the religion of peaceful co-existence and philosophy of enlightenment. Violence and conflict from the perspective of the Buddhist theory of interdependent origination (Paṭiccasamuppāda) are same with everything else in the world a product of causes and conditions. Buddhism is totally compatible with the congenial and peaceful global order. The canonical literature, doctrines, and philosophy of Buddhism are the best suited for inter-faith dialogue, harmony, and universal peace. Even today Buddhism can resurrect the universal brotherhood, peaceful co-existence and harmonious surroundings in the comity of nations. With its increasing vitality in regions around the world, many people today turn to Buddhism for relief and guidance at the time when peace seems to be a deferred dream more than ever. From a Buddhist point of view the roots of all unwholesome actions (Conflict) i. e. greed, hatred and delusion are viewed as the root cause of all human conflicts. Conflict often emanates from attachment to material things: pleasures, property, territory, wealth, economic dominance or political superiority. Buddhism has some particularly rich resources for deployment in dissolving conflict. Buddhism addresses the Buddhist perspective on the causes of conflict and ways to resolve conflict to realize world peace. The world has enough to satisfy every body’s needs but not every body’s greed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2923
84396
Support for and Participation in 'Spontaneous' Mass Protest in Iceland: The Moderating Effects of Biographical Availability, Critical Mass, and Social Embeddedness
Abstract:
The present study addresses a topic that is fundamental to social movement theory, namely, the contingent link between movement support and movement participation. Usually, only a small fraction of those who agree with the cause of a social movement is mobilized into participating in it (a pattern sometimes referred to as 'the collective action problem'). However, historical moments sometimes emerge when many supporters become mobilized to participate in the movement, greatly enhancing the chance of movement success. By studying a case in point, this paper addresses the limited work on how support and participation are related at such critical moments. Specifically, the paper examines the association between supporting and participating in a huge 'pro-democracy' protest in Iceland in April 2016, in the wake of the global Panama Papers scandal. Organized via social media by only a handful of activists, but supported by a majority of Icelanders, the protest attracted about a fourth of the urban population, leading to a snap election and government change. Surveying Iceland’s urban population, this paper tests hypotheses about the processes mobilizing supporters to participate in the protest. The findings reveal how variables derived from the theories of biographical availability (males vs. females, working class vs. professionals), critical mass (expectations, prior protest success), and social embeddedness (close ties with protesters) moderate the association between protest support and participation. The study helps to account for one of the largest protests in Iceland’s history while contributing to the theory about how historical contexts shape the behavior of movement supporters.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2922
84366
Food Insecurity and Quality of Life among the Poor Elderly in South Korea
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Abstract:
Poverty has become a social problem in South Korea, given that seven out of ten elderly experience multidimensional poverty. As quality of life is a major social welfare measure of a society, verifying the major factors affecting the quality of life among the elderly in poverty can be used as baseline data for the promotion of welfare. This study aims to investigate the longitudinal relationships between food insecurity and quality of life among the elderly in poverty. In this study, panel regression analysis using 5-year longitudinal panel data were derived from Korea Welfare Panel Study (KWPS, 2011-2015) were used to identify the research question. A total of 1,327 elderly people aged 65 or older with less than 60% of median income was analyzed. The main results of the study are as follows; first, the level of quality of life of the poor elderly was on average of 5, and repeated the increase and decrease over time. Second, food insecurity and quality of life of the elderly in poverty had a longitudinal causal relationship. Furthermore, the statistical significance of food insecurity was the highest despite controlling for major variables affecting the quality of life among the poor elderly. Therefore, political and practical approaches are strongly suggested and considered regarding the food insecurity for the quality of life among the elderly in poverty. In practical intervention, it is necessary to pay attention to food insecurity when assessing the poor elderly. Also, there is a need to build a new delivery system that incorporates segmented health and nutrition-related services. This study has an academic significance in that it brought out the issue of food insecurity of the poor elderly and confirmed the longitudinal relationship between food insecurity and quality of life.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2921
83904
Corporate Social Responsibility: A Comparative Study of Two Largest Banks in India
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Abstract:
Corporate Social Responsibility is the process through which the organizations execute their philanthropic visions for social welfare. This paper considers the data of one Public Sector Bank–State Bank of India (SBI) and one Private Sector Bank-Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India (ICICI) from the year 2008 to 2016. The study is based on descriptive research design, and secondary data collected from the annual report of respective bank from website and different literature are reviewed. Least Square Method is used for estimating CSR spending for the financial year 2017-18. The analysis shows that these banks are making efforts for the implementation of CSR, but are not spending their 2% share of profits on CSR. There is a need for better CSR activities by the banks, which is possible by concentrating more on the prevailing social issues. The finding reveals that the percentage of profit after tax spends for CSR by SBI is more compare to ICICI. The estimated Spending for CSR for 2017-18 is also more in SBI as compared to ICICI.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2920
83823
The Nexus between Socio-Economic Inequalities and the Talibanization in Pakistan’s Federally Administrated Tribal Areas
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Abstract:
Since September 2001, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) have become a hotbed of Talibanization. The eruption of Talibanization has caused a catastrophic human and socio-economic cost on Pakistan ever since. The vast majority of extant studies have tended to focus on assessing the current disparaging and destructive condition of FATA as a product of the notorious 'Global War on Terrorism' and its consequences in the form of the Afghan war and the rising socio-political unrest in the region. This, however, is not the case. This study argues that the Talibanization has not happened overnight, the magma of current militant volcanic outburst has been stockpiled since the inception of Pakistan in 1947. The study claims that the Talibanization is the expression of the conflict between the privileged and the underprivileged. The prevailing situation in FATA warrants an in-depth analysis of the problem. By using a qualitative and quantitative research principle, this paper attempts to critically examine 'How is Talibanization in Pakistan connected with the political, social, and economic conditions in FATA?' The critical analyses of this study would assist to policymakers in order to formulate all-encompassing anti-radicalization policies to effectively root out Talibanization in FATA. This research intends to explore the undiscovered root causes of the problem and to suggest remedial measures.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2919
83699
A CDA-Driven Study of World English Series Published by Cengage Heinle
Abstract:
English Language Teaching (ELT) is widely promoted across the world. ELT textbooks play pivotal roles in the mentioned process. Since biases of authors have been an issue of continuing interest to analysts over the past few years, the present study seeks to analyze an ELT textbook using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). To obtain the goal of the study, the listening section of a book called World English 3 (new edition) has been analyzed in terms of the cultures and countries mentioned in the listening section of the book using content-based analysis. The analysis indicates biases towards certain cultures. Moreover, some countries are shown as rich and powerful countries, while some others have been shown as poor ones without considering the history behind them.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):