Rabih Alameddine's Appropriation of Shakespeare's The Tempest
This paper explores how Arab American novelist Rabih Alameddine's recent novel The Angel of History (2016) appropriates certain motifs, tropes, and themes from Shakespeare's The Tempest. In particular, Alameddine's novel re-tells the story of Caliban and his mother from the perspective of a Yemeni bastard whose mis/fortunes take him to the US shores in the eighties of the previous century. The novel, specifically, re-writes the scene in which Caliban is gazed at by European travelers like Stephano and Trinculo whose first reaction to seeing him is to consider how to sell him or give him as a gift when they safely return to Europe. The novel contests Shakespeare's representation of Caliban as 'marketable' through depicting his daily experiences in modern day America.
Sustainable Development Goals: The Effect of a Board Structure on the Sustainability Performance
This study empirically analyzes whether the composition of the board of directors (BoD) enhances sustainability performance, in order to understand how the BoD contribute to the integration of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in their businesses. Hypotheses are developed based on the agency theory and stakeholder theory. Using a system generalized method of the moment (SGMM) two-step estimator, with data from Sustainalytics and Compustat databases for 362 firms in six regions, we find that firms with more diversity on the board and a separation of chair and CEO roles have higher sustainability performance. Moreover, our findings provide that a higher number of independent directors is negatively associated with sustainability performance. This study contributes to the literature on corporate governance and the firm’s performance by demonstrating that the composition of the board of directors contributes to a better sustainability performance: by the implementation of a particular corporate governance mechanism, it is possible to integrate SDGs in the corporate strategy.
Transformation of the Institutionality of International Cooperation in Ecuador from 2007 to 2017: 2017: A Case of State Identity Affirmation through Role Performance
As part of an intended radical policy change compared to former administrations in Ecuador, the transformation of the institutionality of international cooperation during the period of President Rafael Correa was considered as a key element for the construction of the state of 'Good Living'. This intention led to several regulatory changes in the reception of cooperation for development, and even the departure of some foreign cooperation agencies. Moreover, Ecuador launched the initiative to become a donor of cooperation towards other developing countries through the ‘South-South Cooperation’ approach. All these changes were institutionalized through the Ecuadorian System of International Cooperation as a new framework to establish rules and policies that guarantee a sovereign management of foreign aid. Therefore, this research project has been guided by two questions: What were the factors that motivated the transformation of the institutionality of international cooperation in Ecuador from 2007 to 2017? and, what were the implications of this transformation in terms of the international role of the country?
This paper seeks to answer these questions through Role Theory within a Constructivist meta-theoretical perspective, considering that in this case, changes at the institutional level in the field of cooperation, responded not only to material motivations but also to interests built on the basis of a specific state identity. The latter was only possible to affirm through specific roles such as ‘sovereign recipient of cooperation’ as well as ‘donor of international cooperation’. However, the performance of these roles was problematic as they were not easily accepted by the other actors in the international arena or in the domestic level. In terms of methodology, these dynamics are analyzed in a qualitative way mainly through interpretive analysis of the discourse of high-level decision-makers from Ecuador and other cooperation actors. Complementary to this, document-based research of relevant information as well as interviews have been conducted.
Finally, it is concluded that even if material factors such as infrastructure needs, trade and investment interests, as well as reinforcement of state control and monitoring of cooperation flows, motivated the institutional transformation of international cooperation in Ecuador; the essential basis of these changes was the search for a new identity for the country to be projected in the international arena. This identity started to be built but continues to be unstable. Therefore, it is important to potentiate the achievements of the new international cooperation policies, and review their weaknesses, so that non-reimbursable cooperation funds received as well as ‘South-South cooperation’ actions, contribute effectively to national objectives.
Edward Bond's Questioning of Existence in His Play 'Have I None?'
21st-century theatre has been shaped by lots of world-changing forces devastating human psychology and existence. Accepted as the greatest living English playwright, it is post-war British dramatist Edward Bond who uses a late-21st-century apocalyptic landscape as a weapon to question the human existence in his play 'Have I None?'. In this play, he tries to underline the degenerating and destructive effects of the society and environment on a couple whose lives are changed by an unexpected and annoying stranger. As victim of the society and the cultural corruption, the three vulnerable Bondian characters struggle for their expectations to find a place in this fictional world by sacrificing their own lives. Set in the 2077’s world, the play depicts that rigidly formed rules of the system/authority eliminates the existence of humans. According to Bond, the fascist practices of the governments/systems make people paralyzed in any way, so they choose to deny all realities by becoming biological beings or they gather to commit to suicide as troops. Our main aim is to underscore the questioning of the human existence by drawing the socio-political framework of the era, the capitalist system’s dehumanized individuals and their defence to survive, and what reality is in the 21st century, by focusing on Bond’s hallucinatory and tragic vision of the future in 'Have I None?'.
Innovation and Employment in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Uganda Microdata
This paper analyses the relationship between innovation and employment at firm level with the objective of understanding the contribution of the different innovation strategies in fostering employment growth in Uganda. We use National Innovation Survey (micro-data of 705 Ugandan firms) for the period 2011-2014 and follow closely Harrison et al. (2014) structured approach, and relate employment growth to process innovations and to the growth of sales separately due to innovative and unchanged products. We find positive effects of product innovation on employment at firm level, while process innovation has no discernable impact on employment. Although there is evidence to suggest displacement of labour in some cases where firms only introduce new process, this effect is compensated by growth in employment from new products, which for most firms are introduced simultaneously with new process. Results suggest that source of innovation as well as size of innovating firms or end users of innovation matter for job growth. Innovation that develops from within the firm itself (user) and involving larger firms has greater impact on employment than that developed from outside or coming from within smaller firms. In addition, innovative firms are one and half times more likely to survive in the innovation driven economy environment than those that do not innovate. These results have important implications for policymakers and stakeholders in innovation ecosystem. Supporting policies need to be correctly tailored since the impacts depend on the innovation strategy (type) and characteristics and sector of the innovative firms (small, large, industry, etc.). Policies to spur investment, particularly in innovative sectors and firms with high growth potential would have long lasting effects on job creation. JEL Classification: D24, J0, J20, L20, O30.
Unscrupulous Intermediaries in International Labour Migration of Nepal
Foreign employment serves to be the strongest pillar in engendering employment options for a large number of the young Nepali population. Nepali workers are forced to leave the comfort of their homes and are exposed to precarious conditions while on a journey to earn enough money to live better their lives. The exponential rise in foreign labour migration has produced a snowball effect on the economy of the nation. The dramatic variation in the economic development of the state has proved to establish the fact that migration is increasingly significant for livelihood, economic development, political stability, academic discourse and policy planning in Nepal. The foreign employment practice in Nepal largely incorporates the role of individual agents in the entire process of migration. With the fraudulent acts and false promises of these agents, the problems associated with every Nepali migrant worker starts at home. The workers encounter tremendous pre-departure malpractice and exploitation at home by different individual agents during different stages of processing. Although these epidemic and repetitive ill activities of intermediaries are dominant and deeply rooted, the agents have been allowed to walk free in the absence of proper laws to curb their wrongdoings and misconduct. It has been found that the existing regulatory mechanisms have not been utilised to their full efficacy and often fall short in addressing the actual concerns of the workers because of the complex legal and judicial procedures. Structural changes in the judicial setting will help bring perpetrators under the law and victims towards access to justice. Thus, a qualitative improvement of the overall situation of Nepali migrant workers calls for a proper 'regulatory' arrangement vis-à-vis these brokers. Hence, the author aims to carry out a doctrinal study using reports and scholarly articles as a major source of data collection. Various reports published by different non-governmental and governmental organizations working in the field of labour migration will be examined and the research will focus on the inductive and deductive data analysis. Hence, the real challenge of establishing a pro-migrant worker regime in recent times is to bring the agents under the jurisdiction of the court in Nepal. The Gulf Visit Study Report, 2017 prepared and launched by the International Relation and Labour Committee of Legislature-Parliament of Nepal finds that solving the problems at home solves 80 percent of the problems concerning migrant workers in Nepal. Against this backdrop, this research study is intended to determine the ways and measures to curb the role of agents in the foreign employment and labour migration process of Nepal. It will further dig deeper into the regulatory mechanisms of Nepal and map out essential determinant behind the impunity of agents.
WhatsApp Application and Challenges of Radio Broadcasting in Northern Nigeria: Special Interest on FRCN Kaduna
This study analyzed the emergence of WhatsApp and how employees at the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria, Kaduna defined the concept base on their vast broadcasting experiences for over five decades and application of the phenomenon to the radio station. It also analyzed the nature, patterns, dimensions, features, challenges as well as the effects of WhatsApp as a social networking site with specific interest on the radio outlet. Also, the study identified how the radio organization responded to the challenges in an attempt to adapt to the new pattern of broadcasting characterized by many technological transformations. The study further explained in details such skills journalists need to function optimally using WhatsApp as well as the impacts of the WhatsApp on radio broadcasting. It used a combination of published materials, focus group discussion, in depth interviews and participant observation on the activities of the radio stations to address the research questions. The data generated provided insight to better understand the challenges posed to FRCN Kaduna as a result of WhatsApp application and how FRCN Kaduna responded to the challenges. It also provided information on the skills journalists need to function optimally in using WhatsApp application in the radio station. The interview and focus group discussion’s transcripts and the published materials were analyzed along thematic pattern related to the research questions in the study. The dominant response relied heavily on change in the radio station’s organizational and technical integration of newsrooms, the use of a multiskilled workforce, application of a flexible and user-friendly technology in all aspects of production, expansion of the station’s services in to new media such as internet and mobile phones as well as sharing of ideas across different units in the radio outfit.
Demand of Media and Information for the Public Relation Media for Local Learning Resource Salaya, Nakhon Pathom
This research aims to study the media and information demand for public relations in Salaya, Nakhonpathom. The research objectives are: 1. to research on conflicts of communication and seeking solutions and improvements of media information in Salaya, Nakhonpathom; 2. to study about opinions and demand for media information to reach out the improvements of people communications among Salaya, Nakhonpathom; 3. to explore the factors related to relationship and behaviors on obtaining media information for public relations among Salaya, Nakhonpathom. The research is conducted by questionnaire which is interpreted by statistical analysis concluding with analysis, frequency, percentage, average and standard deviations. The research results demonstrate: 1. The conflicts of communications among Salaya, Nakhonpathom are lacking equipment and technological knowledge and public relations. 2. Most people have demand on media improvements for vastly broadcasting public relations in order to nourish the social values. This research intentionally is to create the infographic media which are easily accessible, uncomplicated and popular, in the present.
Heritage Tourism and the Changing Rural Landscape: Case Study of Cultural Landscape of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces
The World Heritage Site of Honghe Hani rice terrace, also a marginal rural region in Southern China, is undergoing rapid change because of urbanization and heritage tourism. Influenced by out-migration and changing ways of living in the urbanization process, the place sees a tendency of losing its rice terrace landscape, traditional housings and other forms of cultural traditions. However, heritage tourism tends to keep the past, valorize them for tourism purposes and diversifies rural livelihood strategies. The place stands at this development trajectories, where the same resources are subjected to different uses by different actors. The research seeks to answer the questions of how the site is transformed and co-constructed by different institutions, practices and actors, and the how heritage tourism affects local livelihood. The research aims to describe the transformation of villages, rice terraces, and cultural traditions, analyze the place-making process, and assess the role of heritage tourism in local livelihood transition. The research uses a mixed of methods including direct observation, participant observation, interviews; collects various data of images, words, narratives, and statistics, and analyze them qualitatively and qualitatively. Theoretically, it is hoped that the research would reexamine the concept of heritage, the world heritage practice from UNESCO, reveal the conflicts it entails in development and brings more thoughts from a functional perspective on heritage in relation to rural development. Practically, it is also anticipated that the research could access the linkage between heritage tourism and local livelihood, and generate concrete suggestions on how tourism could engage locals and improve their livelihood.
A Theoretical Framework: The Influence of Luxury Companies' Corporate Social Activities on Consumer Purchase Intention
This paper discusses the theoretical framework suggesting the dependencies between luxury brands’ CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) variables and the purchase intention of luxury shoppers. The framework is based on a literature review and in-depth individual interviews with a sample of luxury users and buyers. The measures of the model are based on existing research and the authors' qualitative research results. The model suggests that purchase intention in the luxury segment is dependent on the luxury values (symbolic, experiential, functional and social), individual sustainable dimension (composed of societal, environmental and economic variables) and awareness of the brand’s CSR, the last two relationships being potentially moderated by certain conditions such as demographics and general attitudes towards CSR and sustainability. The model’s output is in the formulation of several hypotheses, to be tested in an upcoming quantitative study. The qualitative phase indicated that the perceived symbolic, functional and experiential value dimensions of luxury brands were stronger drivers of purchase intention compared to the sustainable dimension. The contribution of the research consists of highlighting CSR’s impact on customer purchase intent as a potential implication for luxury brand management due to two aspects: (i) consumer awareness of the existing CSR activities of luxury brands is low, and this might be challenged by the demands of Gen Z entrants into the lux industry as they are known for their positive approach to CSR; (ii) the UN’s SDGs will bring CSR to the attention of all industries, including currently 'CSR silent' segments represented by luxury. Our research should contribute to incorporation of strategic CSR into the policies and strategies of the luxury segment by providing evidence that luxury customers do care.
The Last National Anthem of the Ottoman
Empire: Musical Code, Sociopolitical Control
and Historical Realities
19th century was the era of changes and transformations for the Ottoman Empire. The first sultan of this century, Mahmud II (1808-1839), was the architect of Ottoman modernization and fundamental changes. The most radical of these was abolishing the Janissary corps and the traditional Ottoman military band, Mehteran. Mahmud II introduced modernized military corps as well as western style royal and military music. Mahmut II invited the Italian composer Giuseppe Donizetti to establish a modern military band for the new army and to compose the Sultan’s royal anthem. In 1828, Donizetti composed the first western-style Ottoman anthem, Mahmudiyye anthem. During the 19th and early 20th century, four other western style Ottoman anthems (Aziziyye, Mecidiyye, Hamidiyye, and Resadiyye) were composed but the last anthem adopted in the reign of Mehmet VI (r. 1918-1922) was again Mahmudiyye anthem. This paper aims to analyze the Mahmudiyye anthem composed as royal anthem in 1828 but adopted as national anthem in 1918. Research questions of this paper are as follows: What were the characteristics of the Mahmudiyye anthem making it the best choice of the last sultan for the last national anthem? Are there specific reasons of the last sultan to adopt Mahmudiyye anthem or not to adopt any of the other four anthems? The musical characteristics of the anthem are analyzed based on the Cerulo’s empirical research. Cerulo examined the musical structures of 124 western style anthems from 150 countries in the 1580-1976 period. Cerulo’s research categorizes musical codes of the anthems as basic and embellished related with the level of sociopolitical control. Musical analysis of the anthem indicates that the basic musical code of the anthem implies a high level of socio-political control during the reign of both Mahmut II and Mehmet VI. Historical analysis of each sultans’ reign shows that both sultans were autocratic. Mahmut II designed authoritarian government policies to suppress possible reactions against his reforms. On the other hand, authoritarian policies of Mehmet VI are related with the domestic and international political conditions following the World War I. Historical analysis of the research questions show that compared to the other western style Ottoman anthems, Mahmudiyye anthem remained the only neutral anthem symbolizing modernization and westernization of the empire. Other anthems were all the symbols of failed ideologies such as Ottomanism, pan-Islamism, and pan-Turkism. In the early 20th century, there were a few common things remained among the diverse communities of the Ottoman Empire: The land they shared as homeland and the idea of modernization to save the homeland. For this reason, the last sultan Mehmet VI adopted Mahmudiyye anthem as the memory of a unified empire under the rule of a powerful and modernist sultan. The last sultan’s reign lasted just for four years, and the Ottoman Empire disintegrated in 1922, but his adaptation of the Mahmudiyye anthem indicates his unifying policies, his attitudes to save the empire and the caliphate.
Job in Modern Arabic Poetry: A Semantic and Comparative Approach to Two Poems Referring to the Poet Al-Sayyab
The use of legendary, folkloric and religious symbols is one of the most important phenomena in modern Arabic poetry. Interestingly enough, most of the modern Arabic poetry’s pioneers were so fascinated by the biblical symbols and they managed to use many modern techniques to make these symbols adequate for their personal life from one side and fit to their Islamic beliefs from the other. One of the most famous poets to do so was al-Sayya:b. The way he employed one of these symbols ‘job’, the new features he adds to this character and the link between this character and his personal life will be discussed in this study. Besides, the study will examine the influence of al-Sayya:b on another modern poet Saadi Yusuf, who, following al-Sayya:b, used the character of Job in a special way, by mixing its features with al-Sayya:b’s personal features and in this way creating a new mixed character. A semantic, cultural and comparative analysis of the poems written by al-Sayya:b himself and the other poets who evoked the mixed image of al-Sayya:b-Job, can reveal the changes Arab poets made to the original biblical figure of Job to bring it closer to Islamic culture. The paper will make an intensive use of intertextuality idioms in order to shed light on the network of relations between three kinds of texts (indeed three ‘palimpsests’: 1- biblical- the primary text; 2- poetic- al-Syya:b’s secondary version; 3- re-poetic- Sa’di Yusuf’s tertiary version). The bottom line in this paper is that that al-Sayya:b was directly influenced by the dramatic biblical story of Job more than the brief Quranic version of the story. In fact, the ‘new’ character of Job designed by al-Sayya:b himself differs from the original one in many aspects that we can safely say it is the Sayyabian-Job that cannot be found in the poems of any other poets, unless they are evoking the own tragedy of al-Sayya:b himself, like what Saadi Yusuf did.
Pre- and Post-Brexit Experiences of the Bulgarian Working Class Migrants: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches
Bulgarian working class immigrants are increasingly concerned with UK’s recent immigration policies in the context of Brexit. The new ID system would exclude many people currently working in Britain and would break the usual immigrant travel patterns. Post-Brexit Britain would aim to repeal seasonal immigrants. Measures for keeping long-term and life-long immigrants have been implemented and migrants that aim to remain in Britain and establish a household there would be more privileged than temporary or seasonal workers. The results of such regulating mechanisms come at the expense of migrants’ longings for a ‘normal’ existence, especially for those coming from Central and Eastern Europe. Based on in-depth interviews with Bulgarian working class immigrants, the study found out that their major concerns following the decision of the UK to leave the EU are related with the freedom to travel, reside and work in the UK. Furthermore, many of the interviewed women are concerned that they could lose some of the EU's fundamental rights, such as maternity and protection of pregnant women from unlawful dismissal. The soar of commodity prices and university fees and the limited access to public services, healthcare and social benefits in the UK, are also subject to discussion in the paper. The most serious problem, according to the interview, is that the attitude towards Bulgarians and other immigrants in the UK is deteriorating. Both traditional and social media in the UK often portray the migrants negatively by claiming that they take British job positions while simultaneously abuse the welfare system. As a result, the Bulgarian migrants often face social exclusion, which might have negative influence on their health and welfare. In this sense, some of the interviewed stress on the fact that the most important changes after Brexit must take place in British society itself. The aim of the proposed study is to provide a better understanding of the Bulgarian migrants’ economic, health and sociocultural experience in the context of Brexit. Methodologically, the proposed paper leans on: 1. Analysing ethnographic materials dedicated to the pre- and post-migratory experiences of Bulgarian working class migrants, using SPSS. 2. Semi-structured interviews are conducted with more than 50 Bulgarian working class migrants [N > 50] in the UK, between 18 and 65 years. The communication with the interviewees was possible via Viber/Skype or face-to-face interaction. 3. The analysis is guided by theoretical frameworks. The paper has been developed within the framework of the research projects of the National Scientific Fund of Bulgaria: DCOST 01/25-20.02.2017 supporting COST Action CA16111 ‘International Ethnic and Immigrant Minorities Survey Data Network’.
Impact of Traditional Male Circumcision Mishaps Towards Newly Initiated Men's Advancement in Education in South Africa
The aim of this article is to explore whether a relationship exists between traditional male circumcision mishaps and level of education in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, exemplified by an empirical case study. The study used qualitative paradigm; was exploratory in nature and used case study design that was descriptive and exploratory; and entailed interviewing twenty-eight (28) research participants comprising of eleven (11) newly initiated men and their families on one-on-one in-depth interviews, twelve (12) traditional nurses and community members in focus group discussions; and five (5) society key informants on key informant method. An interview guide served as a data collection instrument for focus group discussions, key informant method and in-depth interviews with unstructured open-ended questions. Findings indicated an array of traditional male circumcision (TMC) gaps, some of which were indicative of a relationship between the mishaps and level of education: the phenomenon of schooling became secondary in newly initiated men’s lives; TMC mishaps became a drawback towards the newly initiated men’s education progression; the newly initiated men are sacrificed at the altar of culture, and TMC mishaps ushered in socioeconomic setback to the newly initiated men. The study suggested that: TMC be developmental; TMC as a cultural endeavor be educational and human rights friendly; and the need to identify and integrate all other players with diverse specialties.
The Textual Criticism on the Age of ‘Wan Li’ Shipwreck Porcelain and Its Comparison with ‘Whitte Leeuw’ and Hatcher Shipwreck Porcelain
After the Wan li shipwreck was discovered 60 miles off the east coast of Tan jong Jara in Malaysia, numerous marvelous ceramic shards have been salvaged from the seabed. Remarkable pieces of Jing dezhen blue-and-white porcelain recovered from the site represent the essential part of the fascinating research. The porcelain cargo of Wan li shipwreck is significant to the studies on exported porcelains and Jing dezhen porcelain manufacture industry of Late-Ming dynasty. Using the ceramic shards categorization and the study of the Chinese and Western historical documents as a research strategy, the paper wants to shed new light on the Wan li shipwreck wares classification with Jingdezhen kiln ceramic as its main focus. The article is also discussing Jing dezhen blue-and-white porcelains from the perspective of domestic versus export markets and further proceeding to the systematization and analyses of Wan li shipwreck porcelain which bears witness to the forms, styles, and types of decoration that were being traded in this period. The porcelain data from two other shipwrecked projects -White Leeuw and Hatcher- were chosen as comparative case studies and Wan li shipwreck Jing dezhen blue-and-white porcelain is being reinterpreted in the context of art history and archeology of the region. The marine archaeologist Sten Sjostrand named the ship ‘Wanli shipwreck’ because its porcelain cargoes are typical of those made during the reign of Emperor Wan li of Ming dynasty. Though some scholars question the appropriateness of the name, the final verdict of the history is still to be made. Based on previous historical argumentation, the article uses a comparative approach to review the Wan li shipwreck blue-and-white porcelains on the grounds of the porcelains unearthed from the tomb or abandoned in the towns and carrying the time-specific reign mark. All these materials provide a very strong evidence which suggests that the porcelain recovered from Wan li ship can be dated to as early as the second year of Tianqi era (1622) and early Chongzhen reign. Lastly, some blue-and-white porcelain intended for the domestic market and some bowls of blue-and-white porcelain from Jing dezhen kilns recovered from the Wan li shipwreck all carry at the bottom the specific residue from the firing process. The author makes the corresponding analysis for these two interesting phenomena.
Understanding the Construction of Social Enterprises in India: Through Identity and Context of Social Entrepreneurs
India is one of the largest democracies in the global south, which demonstrates the highest social enterprise activities in the subcontinent. Although there has been a meteoric rise in social enterprise activities, it is not a new phenomenon, as it dates back to Vinoba Bhave's Land Gift movement in 1950. India also has a rich history of a welfare mix where non-governmental organisations played a significant role in the public welfare provision. Lately, the government’s impetus on entrepreneurship has contributed to a burgeoning social enterprise sector in the country; however, there is a lack in understanding of how social enterprises are constructed in India. Social entrepreneurship as practice has been conceptualised as a multi-dimensional concept, which is predominantly explained through the characteristics of a social entrepreneur. Social enterprise organisation, which is a component of social entrepreneurship practice are also classified through the role of the social entrepreneur; thus making social entrepreneur a vital unit shaping organisation and practice. Hence, individual identity of the social entrepreneur acts as a steering agent for defining organisation and practice. Individual identity does not operate in a vacuum and different isomorphic pressures (resource-rich actors/institutions) leads to negotiation in these identities. Dey and Teasdale's work investigated this identity work of non-profit practitioners within the practice of social enterprises in England. Furthermore, the construction of social enterprises is predominantly understood through two approaches i.e. an institutional logic perspective emerging from Europe and process and outcome perspective derived from the United States. These two approaches explain social enterprise as an inevitable institutional outcome in a linear and simplistic manner. Such linear institutional transition is inferred from structural policy reforms and austerity measures adopted by the government, which led to heightened competition for funds in the non-profit sector. These political and economic challenges were specific to the global north, which is different from transitions experienced in the global south, thus further investigation would help understand social enterprise activities as a contextual phenomenon. There is a growing interest in understanding the role of the context within the entrepreneurship literature, additionally, there is growing recognition in entrepreneurship research that economic behaviour is realised far better within its historical, temporal, institutional, spatial and social context, as these contexts provide boundaries to individuals in terms of opportunities and actions. Social enterprise phenomenon too is realised as contextual phenomenon though it differs from traditional entrepreneurship in terms of its dual mission (social and economic), however, the understanding of the role of context in social entrepreneurship has been limited. Hence, this work in progress study integrates identity work of social entrepreneur and the role of context. It investigates the identities of social entrepreneur and its negotiation within its context. Further, how this negotiated identity transcends into organisational practice in turn shaping how social enterprises are constructed in a specific region. The study employs a qualitative inquiry of semi-structured interviews and ethnographic institutionalism. Interviews were analysed using critical discourse analysis and the preliminary outcomes are currently a work in progress.
The Disease That 'Has a Woman Face': Feminization of HIV/AIDS in Nagaland, North-East India
Unlike the cases of cases of homosexuals, haemophilic and or drug users in USA, France, Africa and other countries, in India the first case of HIV/AIDS was detected in heterosexual female sex workers (FSW) in Chennai in 1986. This image played an important role in understanding HIV/AIDS scenario in the country. Similar to popular and dominant metaphors on HIV/AIDS such as ‘gay plague’, ‘new cancer’, ‘lethal disease’, ‘slim disease’, ‘foreign disease’, ‘junkie disease’, etc. around the world, the social construction of the virus was largely attributed to women in India. It was established that women particularly sex workers are ‘carrier’ and ‘transmitter’ of virus and were categorised as High Risk Groups (HRG’s) alongside homosexuals, transgenders and injecting drug users. Recent literature reveals growing rate of HIV infection among housewives since 1997 which revolutionised public health scenario in India. This means shift from high risk group to general public through ‘bridge population’ encompassing long distance truckers and migrant labours who at the expense of their nature of work and mobility comes in contact with HRG’s and transmit the virus to the general public especially women who are confined to the domestic space. As HIV epidemic expands, married women in monogamous relationship/marriage stand highly susceptible to infection with limited control, right and access over their sexual and reproductive health and planning. In context of Nagaland, a small state in North-eastern part of India HIV/AIDS transmission through injecting drug use dominated the early scene of the epidemic. However, paradigm shift occurred with declining trend of HIV prevalence among injecting drug users (IDU’s) over the past years with the introduction of Opioid Substitution Therapy (OST) and easy access/availability of syringes and injecting needles. Reflection on statistical data reveals that out of 36 states and union territories in India, the position of Nagaland in HIV prevalence among IDU’s has significantly dropped down from 6th position in 2003 to 16th position in 2017. The present face of virus in Nagaland is defined by (hetero) sexual mode of transmission which accounts for about 91% of as reported by Nagaland state AIDS control society (NSACS) in 2016 wherein young and married woman were found to be most affected leading to feminization of HIV/AIDS epidemic in the state. Thus, not only is HIV epidemic feminised but emerged victim to domestic violence which is more often accepted as normal part of heterosexual relationship.
In the backdrop of these understanding, the present paper based on ethnographic fieldwork explores the plight, lived experiences and images of HIV+ve women with regard to sexual and reproductive rights against the backdrop of patriarchal system in Nagaland.
A Theory-Based Analysis on Implications of Democracy in Cambodia
Democracy has been categorically accepted and used as foreign and domestic policy agendas for the hope of peace, economic growth and prosperity for more than 25 years in Cambodia. However, the country is now in the grip of dictatorship, human rights violations, and prospective economic sanctions. This paper examines different perceptions and experiences of democratic assistance. In this study, the author employs discourse theory, idealism, and realism as a theory-based method for debating and assessing the implications of democratization. Discourse theory is used to establish a platform for understanding discursive formations, body of knowledge and the games of truth of democracy. Idealist approaches give rational arguments for adopting key tenets that work well on the ground. In contrast, realism allows for some sweeping critiques of utopian ideal and offers particular views on why Western hegemonic missions do not work well. From idealist views, the research finds that Cambodian people still believe that democracy is a prima facie universality for peace, growth, and prosperity. From realism, democratization is on the brink of death for three reasons. Firstly, there are tensions between Western and local discourses about democratic values and norms. Secondly, democratic tenets have been undermined by the ruling party-controlled courts, corruption, structural oppression and political patronage-based institutions. The third pitfall is partly associated with foreign aid dependency and geopolitical power struggles in the region. Finally, the study offers a precise mosaic of democratic principles that may be used to avoid a future geopolitical and economic crisis.
, democratic principles
, discourse theory
, discursive formations
, foreign aid dependency
, games of truth
, geopolitical and economic crisis
, geopolitical power struggle
, hegemonic mission
, utopian ideal
Patterns of Positive Feedback Formation in the System of Online Action
The purpose of this study is an attempt to describe an online action as a system that combines disjointed events and behavioral chains into a whole. The research focuses on patterns of naturally-formed chains of actions united by an orientation towards the online environment. A key characteristic of the system of online action is that it acts as an attractor for separate actions and chains of behavioral repertoire accumulating time and efforts made by users. The article demonstrates how the chains of online-offline actions are combined into a single pattern due to a simple identifiable mechanism, a positive feedback system. Using methods of digital ethnography and analyzing the content of the Instagram application and media blogs, the research reveals how through the positive feedback mechanism the entire system of online action acquires stability and can expand involving new spheres of human activity.
Modeling the International Economic Relations Development: The Prospects for Regional and Global Economic Integration
The interstate economic interaction phenomenon is complex. ‘Economic integration’, as one of its types, can be explored through the prism of international law, the theories of the world economy, politics and international relations. The most objective study of the phenomenon requires a comprehensive multifactoral approach. In new geopolitical realities, the problems of coexistence and possible interconnection of various mechanisms of interstate economic interaction are actively discussed. Currently, the Eurasian continent states support the direction to economic integration. At the same time, the existing international economic law fragmentation in Eurasia is seen as the important problem. The Eurasian space is characterized by a various types of interstate relations: international agreements (multilateral and bilateral), and a large number of cooperation formats (from discussion platforms to organizations aimed at deep integration). For their harmonization, it is necessary to have a clear vision to the phased international economic relations regulation options. In the conditions of rapid development of international economic relations, the modeling (including prognostic) can be optimally used as the main scientific method for presenting the phenomenon. On the basis of this method, it is possible to form the current situation vision and the best options for further action. In order to determine the most objective version of the integration development, the combination of several approaches were used. The normative legal approach- the descriptive method of legal modeling- was taken as the basis for the analysis. A set of legal methods was supplemented by the international relations science prognostic methods. The key elements of the model are the international economic organizations and states' associations existing in the Eurasian space (the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), the European Union (EU), the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), Chinese project ‘One belt-one road’ (OBOR), the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), BRICS, etc.). A general term for the elements of the model is proposed - the interstate interaction mechanisms (IIM). The aim of building a model of current and future Eurasian economic integration is to show optimal options for joint economic development of the states and IIMs. The long-term goal of this development is the new economic and political space, so-called the ‘Great Eurasian Community’. The process of achievement this long-term goal consists of successive steps. Modeling the integration architecture and dividing the interaction into stages led us to the following conclusion: the SCO is able to transform Eurasia into a single economic space. Gradual implementation of the complex phased model, in which the SCO+ plays a key role, will allow building an effective economic integration for all its participants, to create an economically strong community. The model can have practical value for politicians, lawyers, economists and other participants involved in the economic integration process. A clear, systematic structure can serve as a basis for further governmental action.
The Securitization of the European Migrant Crisis (2015-2016): Applying the Insights of the Copenhagen School of Security Studies to a Comparative Analysis of Refugee Policies in Bulgaria and Hungary
The migrant crisis, which peaked in 2015-2016, posed an unprecedented challenge to the European Union’s (EU) newest member states, including Bulgaria and Hungary. Their governments had to formulate sound migration policies with expediency and sensitivity to the needs of millions of people fleeing violent conflicts in the Middle East and failed states in North Africa. Political leaders in post-communist countries had to carefully coordinate with other EU member states on joint policies and solutions while minimizing the risk of alienating their increasingly anti-migrant domestic constituents. Post-communist member states’ governments chose distinct policy responses to the crisis, which were dictated by factors such as their governments’ partisan stances on migration, their views of the European Union, and the decision to frame the crisis as a security or a humanitarian issue. This paper explores how two Bulgarian governments (Boyko Borisov’s second and third government formed during the 43rd and 44th Bulgarian National Assembly, respectively) navigated the processes of EU migration policy making and managing the expectations of their electorates. Based on a comparative analysis of refugee policies in Bulgaria and Hungary during the height of the crisis (2015-2016) and a temporal analysis of refugee policies in Bulgaria (2015-2018), the paper advances the following conclusions. Drawing on insights of the Copenhagen school of security studies, the paper argues that cultural concerns dominated domestic debates in both Bulgaria and Hungary; both governments framed the issue predominantly as a matter of security rather than humanitarian disaster. Regardless of the similarities in issue framing, however, the two governments sought different paths of tackling the crisis. While the Bulgarian government demonstrated its willingness to comply with EU decisions (such as the proposal for mandatory quotas for refugee relocation), the Hungarian government defied EU directives and became a leading voice of dissent inside the EU. The current Bulgarian government (April 2017 - present) appears to be committed to complying with EU decisions and accepts the strategy of EU burden-sharing, while the Hungarian government has continually snubbed the EU’s appeals for cooperation despite the risk of hefty financial penalties. Hungary’s refugee policies have been influenced by the parliamentary representation of the far right-wing party Movement for a Better Hungary (Jobbik), which has encouraged the majority party (FIDESZ) to adopt harsher anti-migrant rhetoric and more hostile policies toward refugees. Bulgaria’s current government is a coalition of the center-right Citizens for a European Development of Bulgaria (GERB) and its far right-wing junior partners – the United Patriots (comprised of three nationalist political parties). The parliamentary presence of Jobbik in Hungary’s parliament has magnified the anti-migrant stance, rhetoric, and policies of Mr. Orbán’s Civic Alliance; we have yet to observe a substantial increase in the anti-migrant rhetoric and policies in Bulgaria’s case. Analyzing responses to the migrant/refugee crisis is a critical opportunity to understand how issues of cultural identity and belonging, inclusion and exclusion, regional integration and disintegration are debated and molded into policy in Europe’s youngest member states in the broader EU context.
The Nation as Brand: Postcolonial Construction of National Identity in Late 20th/21st Century Qatar
Despite its relatively short history as an independent state, Qatar has emerged as a highly regarded Gulf state and global power. Since its independence in September 1971, the state has employed deliberate policy initiatives designed to put Qatar on the map and distinguish it from other Gulf states. Because Qatar and its neighbors are resource-poor apart from energy, whoever is first to introduce a unique aspect of branding not only takes the lead but assumes what is often an insurmountable advantage. This study examines three specific modes of branding undertaken by Qatar: (1) energy policies to utilize its natural gas to become a dominant supplier; (2) the deliberate construction of a distinct cultural brand utilizing sports, architecture, museums, and media; and (3) ‘niche diplomacy’ to serve as a mediator in regional and intra-national conflicts, especially as interlocutor between the United States and Arab regimes and Muslim groups. Gleaning data from a range of sources, this study analyzes the effectiveness and significance of Qatar’s place branding on the global stage, as well as potential disadvantages and limits in this branding, including problems encountered before and after the ‘Qatar crisis.’
Ethical Leadership: A Theological and Ethical Alternative to the Culture of Greed in South African Government
Introductory Statement: The effect of corruption in South Africa has seriously constrained development of the national economy and has significantly inhibited good governance in the country. The significance of this paper is a demonstration that Corruption in a South African government is greatly influenced by the culture of greed by leaders in government. Many leaders in government are not satisfied with what they receive on monthly basis in the form of salaries and allowances. Thus, the quest to accumulate, as many material possessions by cabinet ministers and public servants is what is crippling the annual budget and disadvantaging the poor masses of our people including women, children and the elderly. Basic Methodology: In order to deal with this dilemma, this paper proposes ethical leadership as a theological and ethical alternative and antidote to the culture of greed in government. Research Findings: Ethical leadership is proposed because unlike the culture of greed, it is a leadership that is based on respect for ethical principles and standards and for the dignity and privileges of others. Ethical leadership is synonymous with principles like trust, morality, consideration, equality, and justice. Conclusion: The conclusion is that ethical leadership is one of the solutions that can assist the South African government to deal with the root causes of corruption, that is, the culture of greed.
Cultural Intelligence for the Managers of Tomorrow: A Data-Based Analysis of the Antecedents and Training Needs of Today’s Business School Students
The growing importance of cross- or intercultural competencies (used here interchangeably) for the business and management professionals is now a commonplace in both academic and professional literature. This reflects two parallel developments. On the one hand, it is a consequence of the increased attention paid to a whole range of 'soft skills', now seen as fundamental in both individuals' and corporate success. On the other hand, and more specifically, the increasing demand for interculturally competent professionals is a corollary of ongoing processes of globalization, which multiply and intensify encounters between individuals and companies from different cultural backgrounds. Business schools have, for some decades, responded to the needs of the job market and their own students by providing students with training in intercultural skills, as they are encouraged to do so by the major accreditation agencies on both sides of the Atlantic. Adapting Early and Ang's (2003) formulation of Cultural Intelligence (CQ), this paper aims to help fill the lagunae in the current literature on intercultural training in three main ways. First, it offers an in-depth analysis of the CQ of a little studied group: contemporary Millenial and 'Generation Z' Business School students. The level of analysis distinguishes between the four different dimensions of CQ, cognition, metacognition, motivation and behaviour, and thereby provides a detailed picture of the strengths and weaknesses in CQ of the group as a whole, as well as of different sub-groups and profiles of students. Secondly, by crossing these individual-level findings with respondents' socio-cultural and educational data, this paper also proposes and tests hypotheses regarding the relative impact and importance of four possible antecedents of intercultural skills identified in the literature: prior international experience; intercultural training, foreign language proficiency, and experience of cultural diversity in habitual country of residence. Third, we use this analysis to suggest data-based intercultural training priorities for today's management students. These conclusions are based on the statistical analysis of individual responses of some 300 Bachelor or Masters students in a major European Business School provided to two on-line surveys: Ang, Van Dyne, et al's (2007) standard 20-question self-reporting CQ Scale, and an original questionnaire designed by the authors to collate information on respondent's socio-demographic and educational profile relevant to our four hypotheses and explanatory variables. The data from both instruments was crossed in both descriptive statistical analysis and regression analysis. This research shows that there is no statistically significant and positive relationship between the four antecedents analyzed and overall CQ level. The exception in this respect is the statistically significant correlation between international experience, and the cognitive dimension of CQ. In contrast, the results show that the combination of international experience and foreign language skills acting together, does have a strong overall impact on CQ levels. These results suggest that selecting and/or training students with strong foreign language skills and providing them with international experience (through multinational programmes, academic exchanges or international internships) constitutes one effective way of training culturally intelligent managers of tomorrow.
Assessing Two Protocols for Positive Reinforcement Training in Captive Olive Baboons (Papio anubis)
Positive Reinforcement Training is a well-known methodology which has been reported frequently to be used in captive non-human primates. As a matter of fact, it is an invaluable tool for different purposes related with animal welfare, such as primate husbandry and environmental enrichment. It is also essential to perform some cognitive experiments. The main propose of this pilot study was to establish an efficient protocol to train captive olive baboons (Papio anubis). This protocol seems to be vital in the context of a larger research program in which it will be necessary to train a complete population of around 40 baboons.
Baboons were studied at the Veterinary Research Farm of the University of Murcia. Temporally isolated animals were trained to perform three basic tasks. Firstly, they were required to take food prices directly from the researchers’ hands. Then a clicker sound or bridge stimulus was added each time the animal acceded to the reinforcement. Finally, they were trained to touch a target, consisted of a whip with a red ball in its end, with their hands or their nose. When the subject completed correctly this task, it was also exposed to the bridge stimulus and awarded with a food price, such as a portion of banana, orange, apple, peach or a raisin. Two protocols were tested during this experiment. In both of them, there were 6 series of 2min training periods each day. However, in the first protocol, the series consisted in 3 trials, whereas in the second one, in each series there were 5 trials. A reliable performance was obtained with only 6 days of training in the case of the 5-trials protocol. However, with the 3-trials one, 26 days of training were needed. As a result, the 5-trials protocol seems to be more effective than the 3-trials one, in order to teach these three basic tasks to olive baboons. In consequence, it will be used to train the rest of the colony.
Beyond the 'Human Rights and Development' Discourse: A Quest for a Right to Sustainable Development in International Human Rights Law
The intersection between development and human rights has been the point of scholarly debate for a long time. Consequently, a number of principles, which extend from the right to development to the human rights-based approach to development, have been adopted to understand the dynamics between the two concepts. Despite these attempts, the exact relationship between development and human rights has not been fully discovered yet. However, the inevitable interdependence between the two notions and the idea that development efforts must be undertaken by giving due regard to human rights guarantees has gained momentum in recent years. On the other hand, the emergence of sustainable development as a widely accepted approach in development goals and policies makes this unsettled convergence even more complicated. The place of sustainable development in human rights law discourse and the role of the latter in ensuring the sustainability of development programs call for a systematic study. Hence, this article seeks to explore the relationship between development and human rights, particularly focusing on the place given to sustainable development principles in international human right law. It will further quest whether there is a right to sustainable development recognized therein. Accordingly, the article asserts that the principles of sustainable development are directly or indirectly recognized in various human rights instruments, which provides an affirmative response to the question raised hereinabove. This work, therefore, will make expeditions through international and regional human rights instruments as well as case laws and interpretative guidelines of human rights bodies to prove this hypothesis.
Rhetoric and Renarrative Structure of Digital Images in Trans-Media
The misreading theory of Harold Bloom provides a new diachronic perspective as an approach to the consistency between rhetoric of digital technology, dynamic movement of digital images and uncertain meaning of text. Reinterpreting the diachroneity of 'intertextuality' in the context of misreading theory extended the range of the 'intermediality' of transmedia to the intense tension between digital images and symbolic images throughout history of images. With the analogy between six categories of revisionary ratios and six steps of digital transformation, digital rhetoric might be illustrated as a linear process reflecting dynamic, intensive relations between digital moving images and original static images. Finally, it was concluded that two-way framework of the rhetoric of transformation of digital images and reversed served as a renarrative structure to revive static images by reconnecting them with digital moving images.
Leadership Lessons from Female Executives in the South African Oil Industry
In this article, observations are drawn from a number of interviews conducted with female executives in the South African Oil Industry in 2017. Globally, the oil industry represents one of the most male-dominated organisational structures as well as cultures in the business world. Some of the remarkable women, who hold upper management positions, have not only emerged from the science and finance spheres (equally gendered organisations) but also navigated their way through an aggressive, patriarchal atmosphere of rivalry and competition. We examine various mythology associated with the industry, such as the cowboy myth, the frontier ideology and the queen bee syndrome directed at female executives. One of the themes to emerge from my interviews was the almost unanimous rejection of the ‘glass ceiling’ metaphor favoured by some Feminists. The women of the oil industry rather affirmed a picture of their rise to leadership positions through a strategic labyrinth of challenges and obstacles both in terms of gender and race. This article aims to share the insights of women leaders in a complex industry through both their reflections and a theoretical Feminist lens. The study is located within the South African context and given our historical legacy, it was optimal to use an intersectional approach which would allow issues of race, gender, ethnicity and language to emerge. A qualitative research methodological approach was employed as well as a thematic interpretative analysis to analyse and interpret the data. This research methodology was used precisely because it encourages and acknowledged the experiences women have and places these experiences at the centre of the research. Multiple methods of recruitment of the research participants was utilised. The initial method of recruitment was snowballing sampling, the second method used was purposive sampling. In addition to this, semi-structured interviews gave the participants an opportunity to ask questions, add information and have discussions on issues or aspects of the research area which was of interest to them. One of the key objectives of the study was to investigate if there was a difference in the leadership styles of men and women. Findings show that despite the wealth of literature on the topic, to the contrary some women do not perceive a significant difference in men and women’s leadership style. However other respondents felt that there were some important differences in the experiences of men and women superiors although they hesitated to generalise from these experiences Further findings suggest that although the oil industry provides unique challenges to women as a gendered organization, it also incorporates various progressive initiatives for their advancement.
Towards a Critical Disentanglement of the ‘Religion’ Nexus in the Global East
‘Religion’ as a term is not native to the Global East. The concept ‘religion’ is both understood in its meaning of ‘religious traditions’, commonly referring to the ‘World Religions’ and in its adjective meaning ‘the religious’ or ‘religiosity’ as a separate domain of human culture, commonly contrasted to the secular. Though neither of these understandings are native to the historical worldviews of East Asia, their development in modern Western scholarship has had an enormous impact on the self-understanding of cultural diversity in the Global East as well. One example is the identification and therefore elevation to the status of World Religion of ‘Buddhism’ which connected formerly dispersed religious practices throughout the Global East and subsumed them under this powerful label. On the other hand, we see how popular religiosity, shamanism and hybrid cultural expressions have become excluded from genuine religion; this had an immense impact on the sense of legitimacy of these practices, which became sometimes labeled as superstition are rejected as magic. Our theoretical frameworks on religion in the Global East do not always consider the complex power dynamics between religious actors, both elites and lay expressions of religion in everyday life, governments and religious studies scholars. In order to get a clear image of how religiosity functions in the context of the Global East, we have to take into account these power dynamics. What is important in particular is the issue of religious identity or absence of religious identity. The self-understanding of religious actors in the Global East is often very different from what scholars of religion observe. Religious practice, from an etic perspective, is often unrelated to religious identification from an emic perspective. But we also witness the rise of Christian churches in the Global East, in which religious identity and belonging does play a pivotal role. Finally, religion in the Global East has since the beginning of the 20th Century been conceptualized as the ‘other’ or republicanism or Marxist-Maoist ideology. It is important not to deny the key role of colonial thinking in the process of religion formation in the Global East. In this paper, it is argued that religious realities constituted emerging as a result from our theory of religion, and that these religious realities in turn inform our theory. Therefore, the relationship between phenomenology of religion and theory of religion can never be disentangled. In fact, we have to acknowledge that our conceptualizations of religious diversity are always already influenced by our valuation of those cultural expressions that we have come to call ‘religious’.
Gender Differences in E-Society: The Case of Slovenia
The ever-increasing presence and use of information and communication technology (ICT) influences the different social relationships of today's society. Gender differences are especially important from the viewpoint of modern society since ICT can either deepen the existing inequalities or diminish them. In a developed Western world, gender equality has been a well-focused area for decades in many parts of society including education, employment or politics and has led to a decrease in the inequality of women and men in these and other areas. The area of digital equality, or inequality for that matter, is one of the areas where gender differences still exist in many countries of the world. The research presented in this paper focuses on Slovenia, one of the smallest EU member states, being an average achiever in the area of e-society according to the many different European benchmarking indexes. On the other hand, Slovenia is working in an alignment with many European gender equality guidelines and showing good results. The results of our research are based on the analysis of survey data from 2014 to 2017 dealing with Slovenian citizens and their households and the use of ICT. Considering gender issues, the synthesis showed that cultural differences influence some measured ICT indicators but on the other hand the differences are low and only sometimes statistically significant.