Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 53145

Humanities and Social Sciences

3007
95480
Development of a Journal over 20 Years: Citation Analysis
Abstract:
This study analyzes the development of a communication journal, the Journal of Advertising Education (JAE) over the past 20 years by examining citations of all research articles there. The purpose of a journal is to offer a stable and transparent forum for the presentation, scrutiny, and discussion of research in a targeted domain. This study asks whether JAE has fulfilled this purpose. The authors and readers who are involved in a journal need to have common research topics of their interest. In the case of the discipline of communication, scholars have a variety of backgrounds beyond communication itself since the social scientific study of communication is a relatively recent development, one that emerged after World War II, and the discipline has been heavily indebted to other social sciences, such as psychology, sociology, social psychology, and political science. When authors impart their findings and knowledge to others, their work is not done in isolation. They have to stand on previous studies, which are listed as sources in the bibliography. Since communication has heavily piggybacked on other disciplines, cited sources should be as diverse as the resources it taps into. This paper analyzes 4,244 articles that were cited by JAE articles in the past 36 issues. Since journal article authors reveal their intellectual linkage by using bibliographic citations, the analysis of citations in journal articles will reveal various networks of relationships among authors, journal types, and fields in an objective and quantitative manner. The study found that an easier access to information sources because of the development of electronic databases and the growing competition among scholars for publication seemed to influence authors to increase the number of articles cited even though some variations existed during the examined period. The types of articles cited have also changed. Authors have more often cited journal articles, periodicals (most of them available online), and web site sources, while decreased their dependence on books, conference papers, and reports. To provide a forum for discussion, a journal needs a common topic or theme. This can be realized when an author writes an article about a topic, and that article is cited and discussed in another article. Thus, the citation of articles in the same journal is vital for a journal to form a forum for discussion. JAE has gradually increased the citations of in-house articles with a few fluctuations over the years. The study also examines not only specific articles that are often cited, but also specific authors often cited. The analysis of citations in journal articles shows how JAE has developed into a full academic journal while offering a communal forum even though the speed of its formation is not as fast as desired probably because of its interdisciplinary nature.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
3006
95094
The Psychological Impact of War Trauma on Refugees
Abstract:
The safety and health care needs of refugees have become an increasingly important issue all over the world especially during last few decades. Wars are the primary reason for refugees to leave their countries. Moreover, refugees are frequently exposed to a variety of stressors such as socioeconomic disadvantages, poverty, changes in family structure and functioning, losing social support, difficulty to access education, living in very crowded places, experiencing racism and isolation. This systematic review included research studies published between 2007-2017 from the search databases Medline, Scopus, Cinahl and PubMed, with keywords 'war survivors', 'war trauma', 'psychiatric disorders', 'refugees'. In order to meet the purpose of the systematic review, further research for complementary studies was conducted into the literature references of the research articles included in this study that would meet the criteria. Overall, 14 studies were reviewed and evaluated. The majority of them demonstrated that the most common psychiatric disorders observed among war refugees are post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety and multiple somatic complaints. Moreover, significant relationship was shown between the number of traumatic events experienced by the refugees and sociodemographic features such as gender, age and previous family history of any psychological disorder. War violence is highly traumatic, causing multiple, long-term negative outcomes such as the aforementioned psychiatric disorders. The number of the studies reviewed in this systematic review is not representative of the problem and its significance. The need for care of the survivors and their families is vital. Further research is necessary in order to clarify the role of predictive factors in the development and maintenance of post-traumatic stress and the rest psychiatric disorders following war trauma. In conclusion, it is necessary to have large multicenter studies in the future in order to be able to draw reliable conclusions about the effects of war.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
3005
94633
Diversity and Equality in Four Finnish and Italian Energy Companies' Open Access Material
Abstract:
A frame analysis of the work done by various energy multinational companies concerning diversity issues and gender equality is presented. Documents of four multinational companies - two from Finland and two from Italy - have been studied. The array of companies’ documents includes data from their websites, policies and so on. The Finnish and Italian contexts have been chosen as a sample of North and South Europe, of 'advanced' and 'less advanced'. The aim of the analysis is to understand if and how human resource and diversity management in Finnish and Italian multinational energy companies communicate their activity towards the employees. Attention is given on how employees are reacting in their role and on the consequences of its social positioning. The findings of this essay are crucially important. They show how the companies in object tend to focus on the HR and DM positive actions towards female employees’ struggles since the industry is characterized by multinationals with male-dominated employees. In this way, other categories, which are also depicted as sensitive such as young and elderly people or foreigners, do not receive the same amount of attention. Consequently, power hierarchies can be found: 'women' as a social category are given more importance and space in the companies’ data than others. Consequently, the present work analysis reflects on possible struggles that such companies might be facing concerning gender biases and further diverse issues.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
3004
94455
Social Media and Political Expression: Examining Affordances and Spiral of Silence Theories
Authors:
Abstract:
This study compares how do people express their opinions on the Facebook versus on Twitter. It was sought to understand whether people were more willing to express their opinions on some social media channels than others. It was assumed that fear of isolation and affordances may influence users’ opinion expression behaviors on social media websites. Thus two most popular social media websites, Twitter and Facebook, were compared. This study aims to provide the comprehensive understanding of political expression on social media platforms. An online survey (N=535) was conducted to understand respondents’ opinion expression behaviors. Overall, the results suggested that people were more likely to express their opinion on Twitter than Facebook when they think the majority does not support their opinion. The study concluded that people operate differently on Facebook versus Twitter.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
3003
94379
Assessing How Liberal Arts Colleges Can Teach Undergraduate Students about Key Issues in Migration, Immigration, and Human Rights
Authors:
Abstract:
INTRODUCTION: The Association of American Colleges and Universities (AACU) recommends the development of ‘high-impact practices,’ in an effort to increase rates of student retention and student engagement at undergraduate institutions. To achieve these goals, the Scripps College Humanities Institute and HI Fellows Seminar not only featured distinguished academics presenting their scholarship about current immigration policy and its consequences in the USA and around the world but integrated socially significant community leaders and creative activists/artivists in public talks, student workshops and collaborative art events. Students participated in experiential learning that involved guest personal presentations and discussions, oral history interviews that applied standard oral history methodologies, detailed cultural documentation, collaborative artistic interventions, and weekly posts in Internet Digital Learning Environment Sakai collaborative course forums and regular responses to other students’ comments. Our teaching pedagogies addressed the four learning styles outlined in Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory. PROJECT DESCRIPTION: Over the academic year 2017-18, the Scripps College Humanities Institute and HI Fellows Seminar presented a Fall 2017 topic, ‘The World at Our Doorsteps: Immigration and Deportation in Los Angeles’. Our purpose was to address how current federal government anti-immigration measures have affected many students of color, some of whom are immigrants, many of whom are related to and are friends with people who are impacted by the attitudes as well as the practices of the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. In Spring 2018, we followed with the topic, ‘Exclusive Nationalisms: Global Migration and Immigration’. This addresses the rise of white supremacists who have ascended to position of power worldwide, in America, Europe, Russia, and xenophobic nationalisms in China, Myanmar and the Philippines. Recent scholarship has suggested the existence of categories of refugees beyond the political or social, who fit into the more inclusive category of migrants. ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGIES: Assessment methodologies not only included qualitative student interviews and quantitative student evaluations in standard rubric format, but also Outcome Assessments, Formative Evaluations, and Outside Guest Teacher feedback. These indicated that the most effective educational practices involved collaborative inquiry in undergraduate research, community-based learning, and capstone projects. Assessments of E-portfolios, written and oral coursework, and final creative projects with associated 10-12 page analytic paper revealed that students developed their understanding of how government and social organizations work; they developed communication skills that enhanced working with others from different backgrounds; they developed their ability to thoughtfully evaluate their course performance by adopting reflective practices; they gained analytic and interpretive skills that encouraged self-confidence and self- initiative not only academically, but also with regards to independent projects. CONCLUSION: Most importantly, the Scripps Humanities Institute experiential learning project spurred on real-world actions by our students, such as a public symposium on how to cope with bigots, a student tutoring program for immigrant staff children, student negotiations with the administration to establish meaningful, sustainable diversity and inclusion programs on-campus. Activism is not only to be taught to and for our students– it has to be enacted by our students.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
3002
94347
Effective Student Engaging Strategies to Enhance Academic Learning in Middle Eastern Classrooms: An Action Research Approach
Authors:
Abstract:
The curriculum at General Sciences department in Prince Sultan University includes ‘Physical science’ for Computer Science, Information Technology and Business courses. Students are apathetic towards Physical Science and question, as to, ‘How this course is related to their majors?’ English is not a native language for the students and also for many instructors. More than sixty percent of the students come from institutions where English is not the medium of instruction, which makes student learning and academic achievement challenging. After observing the less enthusiastic student cohort for two consecutive semesters, the instructor was keen to find effective strategies to enhance learning and further encourage deep learning by engaging students in different tasks to empower them with necessary skills and motivate them. This study is participatory action research, in which instructor designs effective tasks to engage students in their learning. The study is conducted through two semesters with a total of 200 students. The effectiveness of this approach is studied using questionnaire at the end of each semester and teacher observation. Major outcomes of this study were overall improvement in students attitude towards science learning, enhancement of multiple skills like note taking, problem solving, language proficiency and also fortifying confidence. This process transformed instructor into engaging and reflecting practitioner. Also, these strategies were implemented by other instructors teaching the course and proved effective in opening a path to changes in related areas of the course curriculum. However, refinement in the strategies could be done based on student evaluation and instructors observation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
3001
94051
Rethinking Flâneur: Strolling Spectators in Harlem in Toni Morrison's Jazz
Authors:
Abstract:
The concept of flâneur means a walking observer with subjectivity in the urban city and at the same time, an idiomatic and unnamed existence in public. In the modern city, an individual, flâneur walking on the street, observes the street and collects the memories of the past, during which process the individual comes to understand what the past means. However, the concept tends to be narrowly applied to the white middle-class males, thereby excluding females and other marginalized groups. This paper expands the concept to examine black immigrants and black women, who traditionally fall outside the scope of the flâneur. Placing the black immigrants on the trajectory of literary figure of flâneur by reading Tony Morrison's Jazz, this essay revisits the relationship between street and characters in Jazz. In particular, this essay focuses on characters strolling on the street as well as their surroundings. Based on the traditional characteristics of the flâneur, this essay explicates how the black characters in Jazz are reinvented as the flâneur and moving observers with their autonomy to stroll around the city, while the city, which used to be an observer watching and predicting what happens to the characters, takes a position as a mere onlooker. This paper concludes with illustrating the black characters stroll on the street in Harlem and thereby recreating ordinary people living in Harlem as flâneur.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
3000
93683
Peer Bullying and Mentalization from the Perspective of Pupils
Authors:
Abstract:
Bullying among peers is not uncommon; however, adults can notice only a fragment of the cases of harassment during everyday life. The systemic approaches of bullying investigation put the whole school community in the focus of attention and propose that the solution should emerge from the culture of the school. Bystanders are essential in the prevention and intervention processes as an active agent rather than passive. For combating exclusion, stigmatization and harassment, it is important that the bystanders have to realize they have the power to take action. To prevent the escalation of violence, victims must believe that students and teachers will help them and their environment is able to provide safety. The study based on scientific narrative psychological approach, and focuses on the examination of the different perspectives of students, how peers are mentalizing with each other in case of bullying. The data collection contained responses of students (N = 138) from three schools in Hungary, and from three different area of the country (Budapest, Martfű and Barcs). The test battery include Bullying Prevalence Questionnaire, Interpersonal Reactivity Index and an instruction to get narratives about bullying, which effectiveness was tested during a pilot test. The obtained results are in line with the findings of previous bullying research: the victims are mentalizing less with their peers and experience greater personal distress when they are in identity threatening situations, thus focusing on their own difficulties rather than social signals. This isolation is an adaptive response in short-term although it seems to lead to a deficit in social skills later in life and makes it difficult for students to become socially integrated to society. In addition the results also show that students use more mental state attribution when they report verbal bullying than in case of physical abuse. Those who witness physical harassment also witness concrete answers to the problem from teachers, in contrast verbal abuse often stays without consequences. According to the results students mentalizing more in these stories because they have less normative explanation to what happened. To expanding bullying literature, this research helps to find ways to reduce school violence through community development.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2999
93672
Social Media's Roles in the Change of Vietnamese Society: Emerging Public Sphere for Citizens
Abstract:
The Internet in Vietnam has developed significantly over the last 20 years and made impressive advances, permeating into every part of daily life, changing people's habits as well as the way people's communication. Under this situation, social media have become useful tools for the citizen to get and share information. About 10 years ago, most Vietnamese people got the information through state media, but thanks to the development of the Internet, nowadays, social media have been giving them rich sources of information at any area of society. By using case study research methods, documentary research method and in-depth interviews conducted with social media users, NGO activists, and Vietnamese scholars in 2017, the paper found that social media has been bringing a cyber public sphere to whom wish to discuss social and political issues. And, more importantly, it gives them a chance to connect with the government and policy makers quickly and effectively. Moreover, people use social media to supervise activities in society to prevent social evils and corruption in Vietnam. However, besides these positive points, people also have to cope with the rising situation of fake news which causing consequences for the society, such as pulling off crimes or cheating money and others. The paper concluded that social media plays important roles in the change of Vietnamese society, giving citizens a cyber public sphere unrestrictedly to discuss social and political issues but also bringing many bad risks to citizens.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2998
93285
Media Coverage of the Turkish Armenian Journalist Hrant Dink Assassination: The Analysis of Media News in the Aftermath of the Assassination
Abstract:
Hrant Dink, a prominent Turkish-Armenian journalist, and editor-in-chief of the bilingual Turkish-Armenian newspaper Agos, was assassinated in Istanbul on January 19th, 2007 by a nationalist extremist, Ogun Samast. Dink had been voicing the atrocities against the Armenians between 1915 and 1922 during the Ottoman rule, and his comments on the issue appeared in the Turkish media many times before his assassination. Despite intensive media coverage of his assassination, there is not enough research analyzing how national and international media presented Dink’s assassination. In this research, a content analysis of national and international news articles (N= 139) is conducted to identify whether there is a significant difference in national and international media’s coverage of the assassination. The content of the newspaper articles is categorized and coded according to the topics covered. The findings of this research suggested that Dink’s assassination wounded Turkey’s image as a democratic country. It has also been found that the Turkish media focused on security forces and their responsibility in Dink’s assassination, whereas international media focused more on the Article 301 of the Turkish penal code, freedom of expression, and atrocities against the Armenians during the Ottoman rule.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2997
93134
The Concept of Dharma under Hindu, Buddhist and Sikh Religions: A Comparative Analysis
Abstract:
The term ‘Dharma’ is complex and ubiquitous. It has no equivalent word in English Initially applied to Aryans. In Rig Veda, it appears in a number of places with different meanings. The word Dharma comes from the roots word ‘dhr’ (Dhri-Dharayatetiiti Dharmaha). Principles of Dharma are all pervading. The closest synonyms for Dharma in English is ‘Righteousness.’ In a holy book Mahabharata, it is mentioned that Dharma destroys those who destroy it, Dharma Protects those who protect it. Also, Dharma might be shadowed, now and then by evil forces, but at the end, Dharma always triumphs. This line embodies the eternal victory of good over evil. In Mahabharata, Lord Krishna says Dharma upholds both, this worldly and other worldly affairs. Rig Veda says, ‘O Indra! Lead us on the path of Rta, on the right path over all evils.’ For Buddhists, Dharma most often means the body of teachings expounded by the Buddha. The Dharma is one of the three Jewels (Tri Ratnas) of Buddhism under which the followers take refuge. They are: the ‘Buddha’ meaning the minds perfection or enlightenment, the Dharma, meaning the teachings and the methods of the Buddha, and the Sangha meaning those awakened people who provide guidance and support followers. Buddha denies a separate permanent ‘I.’ Buddha Accepts Suffering (Dukka). Change / impermanence (Anicca) and not– self (Annatta) Dharma in the Buddhist scriptures has a variety of meanings including ‘phenomenon’ and ‘nature’ or ‘characteristic.’ For Sikhs, the word ‘Dharma’ means the ‘path’ of righteousness’ The Sikh scriptures attempt to answer the exposition of Dharma. The main Holy Scripture of the Sikh religion is called the Guru Granth Sahib. The faithful people are fully bound to do whatever the Dharma wants them to do. Such is the name of the Immaculate Lord. Only one who has faith comes to know such a state of mind. The righteous judge of Dharma, by the Hukam of God’s Command, sits and Administers true justice. From Dharma flow wealth and pleasure. The study indicates that in Sikh religion, the Dharma is the path of righteousness; In Buddhism, the mind’s perfection of enlightenment, and in Hinduism, it is non-violence, purity, truth, control of senses, not coveting the property of others. The comparative study implies that all religions dealt with Dharma for welfare of the mankind. The methodology adapted is theoretical, analytical and comparative. The present study indicates how far Indian philosophical systems influenced the present circumstances and how far the present system is not compatible with Ancient philosophical systems. A tentative generalization would be that the present system which is mostly influenced by the British Governance may not totally reflect the ancient norms. However, the mental make-up continues to be influenced by Ancient philosophical systems.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2996
92961
Women Academics' Insecure Identity at Work: A Millennials Phenomenon
Abstract:
Purpose: The research focuses on women academics’ insecure identity at work and examines its link with generational identity. The aim is to enrich understanding of identities at work as a crucial attribute of managing academics in the context of the proliferation of managerialist controls of audit, accountability, monitoring, and performativity. Methodology: Positivist quantitative methodology was utilized. Data were collected from the Scientific Women's Academic Network (SWAN) Charter. Responses from 155 women academics based in the British Higher Education system were analysed. Findings: Analysis showed high prevalence of strong imposter feelings among participants, suggesting high insecurity at work among women academics in the United Kingdom. Generational identity was related to imposter feelings. In particular, Millennials scored significantly higher than the other generational groups. Research implications: The study shows that imposter feelings are variously manifested among the prevalent generations of women academics, while generational identity is a significant antecedent of such feelings. Research limitations: Caution should be exercised in generalizing the findings to national cultural contexts beyond the United Kingdom. Practical and social implications: Contrary to popular depictions of Millennials as self-centered, narcissistic, materialistic and demanding, women academics who are members of this generational group appear significantly more insecure than the preceding generations. Value: The study provides insightful understandings into women academics’ identity at work as a function of generational identity, and provides a fruitful avenue for further research within and beyond this gender group and profession.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2995
92934
Ethical Challenges for Journalists in Times of Fake News and Hate Speech: A Survey with German Journalists
Abstract:
Journalists worldwide have been confronted with a variety of ethical challenges over the last years. Because of massive changes in media technology and the public sphere, especially online journalism has trouble to uphold the fundamental values of journalism. In particular, the increasing amount of fake news and hate speech puts journalists under more and more pressure. In order to understand better how journalists judge this development and how they adapt in their daily work, a survey with journalists in Germany was carried out. 303 professional journalists participated in an online questionnaire. Results show that 65% underline that economic pressure grows and nearly the same number describe a change in the role of journalists in society. Furthermore, 61% agree that they put more time into research to secure their work against accusations of fabricating fake news. Interestingly, over 60% see a change in the role of journalists in society. The majority (85%) confirms that print journalism has to give way for online platforms and that the influence of social media for journalism grows (75%). Half of the surveyed advocate for more personalized public activism on part of journalists, such as appearance in talk shows and public talks. The results of the study will be discussed in light of the ongoing debate on ethical standards as a condition for a sustainable and trustworthy digital public sphere.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2994
92889
Hermeneutics: Comparative Study of Shri Guru Granth Sahib's Schools of Interpretation
Authors:
Abstract:
All religions enlighten truth which provides spiritual tranquility. But, the language of these holy books is not easy to understand because these have divine language. That's why hermeneutical Study is necessary to understand these Scriptures. There is a separate theoretical framework to study all the disciplines of language, literature, religion etc. Similarly the discipline of interpretation has its own theoretical framework known as hermeneutics. It is a science of interpretation that put forward the best ways and methods of interpretation. But in this modern world, hermeneutics is considered as a theoretical-cum-philosophical discipline. It is vast study of understanding texts. Hermeneutics is especially related to the study of religious scriptures like the Bible, the Qur'an, the Vedas and the Shri Guru Granth Sahib and many more. It is mainly the Western concept which has a great old tradition because it used the Bible as the foremost holy scripture for definition and interpretation. The Discipline of the Indian hermeneutics was led by Mimamsa School. The reference of the word hermeneutics in works of Ancient Greek philosophers indicates towards the antiquity of this word. Shri Guru Granth Sahib's schools of interpretation like Udasi, Nirmala, Sevapanthi and Gyani came into existence to interpret the discourse of Shri Guru Granth Sahib. These are sects of Sikhism and have great contribution to interpret and preach Guru Granth Sahib's revelation. This research paper will represent the comparative study of these sects methods, tools and styles of interpreting the meaning of this holy book. Interpretation is basically textual based process. So, all these schools have chosen Guru Granth Sahib for textual study. Some of the schools have done a whole interpretation of Guru Granth Sahib. But, some of them have done only interpretation of prominent banies i.e Japuji Sahib, Anand Sahib, Assa-di-war etc. This study will also throw lights on sect's historical background and contribution. At last conclusion of this paper is that all the schools have done gurbani interpretation according to their own philosophical and theological point of view. These schools have many similarities and differences among their way of interpretation. It will be discussed briefly.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2993
92755
Some Observations on the Analysis of Four Performances of the Allemande from J.S. Bach's Partita for Solo Flute (BWV 1013) in Terms of Zipf's Law
Abstract:
The Allemande from J. S. Bach's Partita for solo flute (BWV 1013) presents many unique challenges for any flautist, especially in terms of segmentation analysis required to select breathing places in the first half. Without claiming to identify a 'correct' solution to this problem, this paper analyzes the section in terms of a set of techniques based around a statistical property commonly (if not ubiquitously) found in music, namely Zipf’s law. Specifically, the paper considers violations of this expected profile at various levels of analysis, an approach which has yielded interesting insights in previous studies. The investigation is then grounded by considering four actual solutions to the problem found in recordings made by different flautists, which opens up the possibility of expanding Zipfian analysis to include a consideration of inter-onset-intervals (IOIs). It is found that significant deviations from the expected Zipfian distributions can reveal and highlight stylistic choices made by different performers.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2992
92644
Body of Dialectics: Exploring a Dynamic-Adaptational Model of Physical Self-Integrity and the Pursuit of Happiness in a Hostile World
Abstract:
People with physical disabilities constitute a very large and simultaneously a diverse group of general population, as the term physical disabilities is extensive and covers a wide range of disabilities. Therefore, individuals with physical disabilities are often faced with a new, threatening and stressful reality leading possibly to a multi-crisis in their lives due to the great changes they experience in somatic, socio-economic, occupational and psychological level. The current study seeks to advance understanding of the complex adaptation to physical disabilities by expanding the dynamic-adaptational model of the pursuit of happiness in a hostile world with a new conception of physical self-integrity. Physical self-integrity incorporates an objective dimension, namely physical self-functioning (PSF), and a subjective dimension, namely physical self-concept (PSC). Both of these dimensions constitute an experience of wholeness in the individual’s identification with her or his physical body. The model guiding this work is dialectical in nature and depicts two systems in the individual’s sense of happiness: subjective well-being (SWB) and meaning in life (MIL). Both systems serve as self-adaptive agents that moderate the complementary system of the hostile-world scenario (HWS), which integrates one’s perceived threats to one’s integrity. Thus, in situations of increased HWS, the moderation may take a form of joint activity in which SWB and MIL are amplified or a form of compensation in which one system produces a stronger effect while the other system produces a weaker effect. The current study investigated PSC in relations to SWB and MIL through pleasantness and meanings that are physically or metaphorically grounded in one’s body. In parallel, PSC also relates to HWS by activating representations of inappropriateness, deformation and vulnerability. In view of possibly dialectical positions of opposing and complementary forces within the current model, the current field study that aims to explore PSC as appearing in an independent, cross-sectional, design addressing the model’s variables in a focal group of people with physical disabilities. This study delineated the participation of the PSC in the adaptational functions of SWB and MIL vis-à-vis HWS-related life adversities. The findings showed that PSC could fully complement the main variables of the pursuit of happiness in a hostile world model. The assumed dialectics in the form of a stronger relationship between SWB and MIL in the face of physical disabilities was not supported. However, it was found that when HWS increased, PSC and MIL were strongly linked, whereas PSC and SWB were weakly linked. This highlights the compensatory role of MIL. From a conceptual viewpoint, the current investigation may clarify the role of PSC as an adaptational agent of the individual’s positive health in complementary senses of bodily wholeness. Methodologically, the advantage of the current investigation is the application of an integrative, model-based approach within a specially focused design with a particular relevance to PSC. Moreover, from an applicative viewpoint, the current investigation may suggest how an innovative model may be translated to therapeutic interventions used by clinicians, counselors and practitioners in improving wellness and psychological well-being, particularly among people with physical disabilities.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2991
92640
Uni … Mihi ('to Me Only'): Patterns of Uniqueness in Statius' Thebaid and Silius' Punica
Abstract:
There is a rich and frequent representation of uniqueness in Statius’ poem called Thebaid. This topos interweave with a psychoanalytical study about groups and individual but is also a literary device. This paper will analyze all the passages in the 'Thebaid' referred to uniqueness and exceptionality. Antigone, Adrastus and other characters are, in fact, often characterized as the only ones to behave in a specific way or to do something. Also, the insomniac characters are often the only ones who do not sleep. The material of such a tòpos is very rich throughout the 'Thebaid'. The methodology will be text-oriented. Conclusions will enlighten Statius’ specific use of this tòpos, as related to his models, and will be interdisciplinary. In concluding, this is a study linking philology and psychoanalysis and focused on a topic which deserves a specific analysis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2990
92462
An Analysis of Socio-Demographics, Living Conditions, and Physical and Emotional Child Abuse Patterns in the Context of the 2010 Haiti Earthquake
Abstract:
Objective: The aim of this study is to i) investigate the socio-demographics and living conditions of households in Haiti pre- and post 2010 earthquake, ii) determine the household prevalence of emotional and physical abuse in children (aged 2-14) after the earthquake, and iii) explore the association between earthquake-related loss and experience of emotional and physical child abuse in the household while considering potential confounding variables and the interactive effects of a number of social, economic, and demographic factors. Methods: A nationally representative sample of Haitian households from the 2005/6 and 2012 phases of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) was used. Descriptive analysis was summarized using frequencies and measures of central tendency. Chi-squared and independent t-tests were used to compare data that was available pre-earthquake and post-earthquake. The association between experiences of earthquake-related loss and emotional and physical child abuse was assessed using log-binomial regression models. Results: Comparing pre-post-earthquake, noteworthy improvements were observed in the educational attainment of the household head (9.1% decrease in “no education” category) and in possession of the following household items: electricity, television, mobile-phone, and radio post-earthquake. Approximately 77.0% of children aged 2-14 experienced at least one form of physical abuse and 78.5% of children experienced at least one form of emotional abuse one month prior to the 2012 survey period. Analysis regarding the third objective (association between experiences of earthquake-related loss and emotional and physical child abuse) is in progress. Conclusions: The extremely high prevalence of emotional and physical child abuse in Haiti indicates an immediate need for improvements in the enforcement of existing policies and interventions aimed at decreasing child abuse in the household.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2989
92373
A Challenge of the 3ʳᵈ Millenium: The Emotional Intelligence Development
Abstract:
The analysis of the positive and negative effects of technology use and abuse in Generation Z comes as a necessity in order to understand their ever-changing emotional development needs. The article quantitatively analyzes the findings of a sociological questionnaire on a group of students in social sciences. It aimed to identify the changes generated by the use of digital resources in the emotional intelligence development. Among the outcomes of our study we include a predilection for IT related activities – be they social, learning, entertainment, etc. which undermines the manifestation of emotional intelligence, especially the reluctance to face-to-face interaction. In this context, the issue of emotional intelligence development comes into focus as a solution to compensate for the undesirable effects that contact with technology has on this generation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2988
92321
From Service to Ritual: Preliminary Development on Conceptual Framework for Designing Ritual
Authors:
Abstract:
Prior to the development of ritual design tool and framework, this paper establishes a systematic review on the studies related to ritual and ritual design across anthropology, consumer culture, marketing, and design. It is found that following symbolic anthropologists, the ethnographic approach was adapted by consumer culture researchers to study modern rituals and marketers to enhance consumption. In the domain of design, although there are already designers aware of the importance of ritualistic dimension of human interaction, there are little frameworks for conceptualizing and developing rituals. The conceptualized framework and developing tools is proposed and suggestions of applying it is made in the end of the paper.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2987
92320
Challenges in Creating Social Capital: A Perspective of Muslim Female Managers in Malaysia
Abstract:
In view of cross cultural career experiences, to the author’s best knowledge, the crucial role of culture and religious traditions in Asia remains understudied. Drawing on the notion of social capital as an invaluable resource needed for manager’s to progress, the purpose of this study is to probe the contextual experiences of Muslim women to elucidate unique challenges associated with social capital and career progress. Twenty-three in-depth interviews with top level Malay managers were conducted to probe experiences of upward career mobility and inequities in the workplace. Interpretive phenomenology was used to surface unique challenges and processes of creating and leveraging social capital. The study uncovers the unique challenges of Muslim women in Malaysia. Narratives of participants highlight not only generic forms of gender discrimination, but also culturally specific stereotypes and social expectations limiting their advancement. Interestingly, the findings identify a gender-religion handicap in the form of perceived inequality and restrictions rooted from the women manager’s gender and religion. The analysis also reveals how these Muslim women managers’ negotiate their challenges, especially how they access social capital and progress their careers. The research offers a unique perspective on the career experiences of Malay women managers’ in top management. The research provides insight into the unique processes of developing social capital utilized by this group of women for career success.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2986
92303
Exploring the Process of Cultivating Tolerance: The Case of a Pakistani University
Abstract:
As more and more people fall victim to the intolerance that has become a plague globally, academicians are faced with the herculean task of sowing the roots for more tolerant individuals. Being the multilayered task that it is, promoting an acceptance of diversity and pushing an agenda to push back hate requires efforts on multiple levels. Not only does the curriculum need to be in line with such goals, but teachers also need to be trained to cater to the sensitivities surrounding conversations of tolerance and diversity. In addition, institutional support needs to be there to provide conducive conditions for a diversity driven learning process to take place. In reality, teachers have to struggle with forwarding ideas about diversity and tolerance which do not sound particularly risky to be shared but given the current socio-political and religious milieu, can put the teacher in a difficult position and can make the task exponentially challenging. This paper is based on an auto-ethnographic account of teaching undergraduate and graduate courses at a private university in Pakistan. These courses were aimed at teaching tolerance to adult learners through classes focused on key notions pertaining to religion, culture, gender, and society. Authors’ classroom experiences with the students in these courses indicate a marked heightening of religious sensitivities that can potentially threaten a teacher’s life chances and become a hindrance in deep, meaningful conversations, thus lending a superficiality to the whole endeavor. The paper will discuss in detail the challenges that this teacher dealt with in the process, how those were addressed, and locate them in the larger picture of how tolerance can be materialized in current times in the universities in Pakistan and in similar contexts elsewhere.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2985
92279
The Impact of Human Resources Management on the Job Security of Self-Initiated Expatriates after the Brexit
Abstract:
Recently, with BREXIT taking place, organizations and employees have been affected in the way of job and employment security. Career-oriented human resources management (HRM) practices are likely to facilitate self-initiated expatriates’ adjustment to the host country. This was related to the career security (job security and employment security), which were missing in their home country and seemed to be important elements to adjust to the host country. The aim of this study is to assess whether the perception of career security by Frances self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) have changed in the wake of the referendum result. Quantitative research method will be used, and the data will be collected through electronic questionnaires. Data will be analyzed through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The study variables will include an adjustment to the host country, HRM practices, employability, and job security. Predicted results consist that career-oriented HRM practices are positively related to the adjustment to the host country, employability, and job security. However, with Brexit, there might be a negative relationship between career-oriented HRM practices and job security.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2984
92232
Walls against Legal Identity: A Qualitative Study on Children of Refugees without Birth Registration in Malaysia
Abstract:
Malaysia is not a signatory to the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol despite receiving the largest share of refugee inflows in Southeast Asia aside from Thailand. In Peninsular Malaysia, the majority of refugees and asylum seekers are from Myanmar, with Rohingya refugees recording the highest number compared to all other ethnicities. In the eastern state of Sabah, the presence of refugees who have long established themselves in the state is connected to those who escaped military persecution in southern Philippines in the 1970’s and 1980’s. A combination of legal and non-legal factors has created and sustained an adverse atmosphere of deprivation of legal identity for children of migrants including refugees born in Malaysia. This paper aims to qualitatively analyse the barriers to birth registration as the cornerstone of every person’s legal identity for children of refugees born in this country, together with the associated human rights implications. Data obtained through semi-structured interviews with refugees in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah and Rohingya refugees in Peninsular Malaysia shall be studied alongside secondary sources. Results show that births out of medical facilities, suspension of birth records, illiteracy, lack of awareness on the importance and procedures of birth registration, inability to meet documentary requirements, as well as fear of immigration enforcement, are the key factors hindering birth registration. These challenges exist against the backdrop of restrictive integration policy to avoid destabilising demographic and racial balance, political sentiment stirring xenophobic prejudices, as well as other economic and national security considerations. With no proof of their legal identity, the affected children grow up in a legal limbo, facing multiple human rights violations across generations. This research concludes that the country’s framework and practice concerning birth registration is in need of serious reform and improvement to reflect equality and universality of access to its birth registration system. Such would contribute significantly towards meeting its commitments to the post-2015 sustainable development agenda that pledges to 'Leave no one behind', as well as its recently announced National Human Rights Action Plan.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2983
92126
Analysis of Legal System of Land Use in Archaeological Sites
Authors:
Abstract:
It is important to actively adjust the legal system of land use in archaeological sites and the reward system to meet the needs of modern society and to solve the dilemma of government management. Under the principle of administration according to law and the principle of the clarity of law, human rights, legal orders and legitimate expectation shall be regulated. The Cultural Heritage Preservation Act has many norms related to archaeological sites in Taiwan. However, in practice, the preservation of archaeological sites still encounters many challenges. For instance, some archaeological sites have ‘management and maintenance plans’. The restrictions of land uses are not clearly defined making it difficult to determine how planting types and cultivation methods will impact the underground relics. In addition, there are questions as follows. How to coordinate the ‘site preservation plan’ with the Regional Planning Act and the Urban Planning Act? How to define preservation of land, preservation area and other uses of land or area? How to define land use in practice? How to control land use? After selecting three sites for the case investigation, this study will analyze the site’s land use status and propose the direction of land use and control methods. This study suggests that the prerequisite to limit the use of land is to determine the public interest in the preservation of the site. Another prerequisite is to establish a mechanism for permitting the use of the site and for setting the site preservation and zoning maintenance practices according to the Regional Planning Act, Urban Planning Act and other relevant rules, such as, land use zoning, land use control, land management, land maintenance, regional development and management and etc.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2982
92034
Impact of New Media Technologies to News, Social Interactions, and Traditional Media
Abstract:
The new media revolution, which encompasses a wide variety of new media technologies like blogs, social networking, visual worlds, wikis, have had a great influence on communications, traditional media and across other disciplines. This paper gives a review of the impact of new media technologies on the news, social interactions and traditional media in developing and developed countries. The study points to the fact that there is a significant impact of new media technologies on the news, social interactions and the traditional media in developing and developed countries, albeit both positively and negatively. Social interactions have been significantly affected, as well as in news production and reporting. It is reiterated that despite the pervasiveness of new media technologies, it would not bring to a total decline of traditional media. This paper contributes to the theoretical framework on the new media and will help to assess the extent of the impact of the new media in different locations.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2981
92021
A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Construction of Artists' Reputation by Online Art Magazines
Abstract:
The construction of artistic reputation has been examined within sociology, philosophy, and economics but, baring a few noteworthy exceptions its discursive aspect has been largely ignored. This is particularly surprising given that contemporary artworks primarily rely on discourse to construct their ontological status. This paper contributes a discourse analytical perspective to the broad body of literature on artistic reputation by providing an understanding of how it is discursively constructed within the institutional context of online contemporary art magazines. This paper uses corpora compiled from the websites of e-flux and ARTnews, two leading online contemporary art magazines, to examine how these organisations discursively construct the reputation of artists. By constructing word-sketches of the term 'Artist', the paper identified the most significant modifiers attributed to artists and the most significant verbs which have 'artist' as an object or subject. The most significant results were analysed through concordances and demonstrated a somewhat surprising lack of evaluative representation. To examine this feature more closely, the paper then analysed three announcement texts from e-flux’s site and three review texts from ARTnews' site, comparing the use of modifiers and verbs in the representation of artists, artworks, and institutions. The results of this analysis support the corpus findings, suggesting that artists are rarely represented in evaluative terms. Based on the relatively high frequency of evaluation in the representation of artworks and institutions, these results suggest that there may be discursive norms at work in the field of online contemporary art magazines which regulate the use of verbs and modifiers in the evaluation of artists.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2980
91524
Quantitative Evaluation on Community Perceptions of Sanitation and Hygiene in Rural Guatemala
Abstract:
Background: The high prevalence of diarrheal diseases in the village of Tzununá, Guatemala is linked to lack of sanitation facilities and handwashing practices. Diarrheal diseases are preventable and improved access to latrines, hygiene education and clean water may improve sanitation by reducing the spread of disease. Objective: Between May 2015-January 2017, the University of Pennsylvania Chapter of Engineers Without Border (PennEWB) and local partners designed an intervention to reduce diarrheal disease by building pour flush latrines in 50 individual households and providing education on the importance of handwashing practice. Design/Methods: Through convenient sampling, we surveyed 45 households to evaluate the community’s knowledge of diarrheal disease, handwashing practices, and maintenance of the latrines. Results: 92% of the study participants experienced decrease of new cases of diarrheal disease after receiving a latrine. Only 11% washed their hands after defecating in the latrine. There was gap in understanding the health outcome of latrine sanitation and handwashing education. The respondents did not connect the reduction of diarrheal disease with latrine use and maintenance. Instead, they associated their motivation for latrine use with aesthetics, proximity to their home, ease and comfort, and reduction of shame. We recommend that PennEWB adopt UNICEF or WHO education on hand washing practice. Conclusion: Social interaction and social pressure drove the household use of latrines. The latrines are being valued and cleaned. The education that the residents received did not target norms and behaviors. Latrines could be used to create a new social norm that supports behavioral change.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2979
91522
An Inquiry into the Usage of Complex Systems Models to Examine the Effects of the Agent Interaction in a Political Economic Environment
Abstract:
Group theory is a powerful tool that researchers can use to provide a structural foundation for their Agent Based Models. These Agent Based models are argued by this paper to be the future of the Social Science Disciplines. More specifically, researchers can use them to apply evolutionary theory to the study of complex social systems. This paper illustrates one such example of how theoretically an Agent Based Model can be formulated from the application of Group Theory, Systems Dynamics, and Evolutionary Biology to analyze the strategies pursued by states to mitigate risk and maximize usage of resources to achieve the objective of economic growth. This example can be applied to other social phenomena and this makes group theory so useful to the analysis of complex systems, because the theory provides the mathematical formulaic proof for validating the complex system models that researchers build and this will be discussed by the paper. The aim of this research, is to also provide researchers with a framework that can be used to model political entities such as states on a 3-dimensional plane. The x-axis representing resources (tangible and intangible) available to them, y the risks, and z the objective. There also exist other states with different constraints pursuing different strategies to climb the mountain. This mountain’s environment is made up of risks the state faces and resource endowments. This mountain is also layered in the sense that it has multiple peaks that must be overcome to reach the tallest peak. A state that sticks to a single strategy or pursues a strategy that is not conducive to the climbing of that specific peak it has reached is not able to continue advancement. To overcome the obstacle in the state’s path, it must innovate. Based on the definition of a group, we can categorize each state as being its own group. Each state is a closed system, one which is made up of micro level agents who have their own vectors and pursue strategies (actions) to achieve some sub objectives. The state also has an identity, the inverse being anarchy and/or inaction. Finally, the agents making up a state interact with each other through competition and collaboration to mitigate risks and achieve sub objectives that fall within the primary objective. Thus, researchers can categorize the state as an organism that reflects the sum of the output of the interactions pursued by agents at the micro level. When states compete, they employ a strategy and that state which has the better strategy (reflected by the strategies pursued by her parts) is able to out-compete her counterpart to acquire some resource, mitigate some risk or fulfil some objective. This paper will attempt to illustrate how group theory combined with evolutionary theory and systems dynamics can allow researchers to model the long run development, evolution, and growth of political entities through the use of a bottom up approach.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
2978
91396
Women as Victims of Land Grabbing: Implications for Household Food Security and Livelihoods in Cameroon
Authors:
Abstract:
This multi-sited research will make use of primary and secondary data to understand the multiple implications of land grabbing for local food production and rural livelihoods in Cameroon. Amidst restricted access to land and forest resources, this study will demonstrate how land previously accessed by communities to grow crops and to harvest forest resources is being acquired and transformed into commercial oil palm plantations by Herakles Farms, a US-based company, with Sithe Global Sustainable Oils Cameroon as its local subsidiary. Focusing on selected land grabbing communities in Cameroon, the study uses a feminist political ecology lens to examine the gendered nature in resources access and its impacts for women’s food production in particular, and rural livelihoods in general. The paper will argue that the change in land use particularly erodes women’s rights to access land and forest resources, and in turn negatively affects local food production and rural livelihood in the region. It will show how women in the region play instrumental and dominant roles in ensuring local food production through subsistence and semi-subsistence agriculture but are unfortunately the main losers of territory that the state considers as ‘empty’ or underutilized - and is subjected to appropriation. The paper will conclude that, rural women’s active participation in the decision-making processes concerning the use of and/or allotment of land to foreign investors is indispensable to guarantee local, national and global food security, but also to ensure that alternative livelihood options are provided, particularly to those rural women facing dispossession or at risk of being dispossessed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):