Leadership Lessons from Female Executives in the South African Oil Industry
In this article, observations are drawn from a number of interviews conducted with female executives in the South African Oil Industry in 2017. Globally, the oil industry represents one of the most male-dominated organisational structures as well as cultures in the business world. Some of the remarkable women, who hold upper management positions, have not only emerged from the science and finance spheres (equally gendered organisations) but also navigated their way through an aggressive, patriarchal atmosphere of rivalry and competition. We examine various mythology associated with the industry, such as the cowboy myth, the frontier ideology and the queen bee syndrome directed at female executives. One of the themes to emerge from my interviews was the almost unanimous rejection of the ‘glass ceiling’ metaphor favoured by some Feminists. The women of the oil industry rather affirmed a picture of their rise to leadership positions through a strategic labyrinth of challenges and obstacles both in terms of gender and race. This article aims to share the insights of women leaders in a complex industry through both their reflections and a theoretical Feminist lens. The study is located within the South African context and given our historical legacy, it was optimal to use an intersectional approach which would allow issues of race, gender, ethnicity and language to emerge. A qualitative research methodological approach was employed as well as a thematic interpretative analysis to analyse and interpret the data. This research methodology was used precisely because it encourages and acknowledged the experiences women have and places these experiences at the centre of the research. Multiple methods of recruitment of the research participants was utilised. The initial method of recruitment was snowballing sampling, the second method used was purposive sampling. In addition to this, semi-structured interviews gave the participants an opportunity to ask questions, add information and have discussions on issues or aspects of the research area which was of interest to them. One of the key objectives of the study was to investigate if there was a difference in the leadership styles of men and women. Findings show that despite the wealth of literature on the topic, to the contrary some women do not perceive a significant difference in men and women’s leadership style. However other respondents felt that there were some important differences in the experiences of men and women superiors although they hesitated to generalise from these experiences Further findings suggest that although the oil industry provides unique challenges to women as a gendered organization, it also incorporates various progressive initiatives for their advancement.
Gender Differences in E-Society: The Case of Slovenia
The ever-increasing presence and use of information and communication technology (ICT) influences the different social relationships of today's society. Gender differences are especially important from the viewpoint of modern society since ICT can either deepen the existing inequalities or diminish them. In a developed Western world, gender equality has been a well-focused area for decades in many parts of society including education, employment or politics and has led to a decrease in the inequality of women and men in these and other areas. The area of digital equality, or inequality for that matter, is one of the areas where gender differences still exist in many countries of the world. The research presented in this paper focuses on Slovenia, one of the smallest EU member states, being an average achiever in the area of e-society according to the many different European benchmarking indexes. On the other hand, Slovenia is working in an alignment with many European gender equality guidelines and showing good results. The results of our research are based on the analysis of survey data from 2014 to 2017 dealing with Slovenian citizens and their households and the use of ICT. Considering gender issues, the synthesis showed that cultural differences influence some measured ICT indicators but on the other hand the differences are low and only sometimes statistically significant.
The Development of Chinese-English Homophonic Word Pairs Databases for English Teaching and Learning
Homophonic words are common in Mandarin Chinese which belongs to the tonal language family. Using homophonic cues to study foreign languages is one of the learning techniques of mnemonics that can aid the retention and retrieval of information in the human memory. When learning difficult foreign words, some learners transpose them with words in a language they are familiar with to build an association and strengthen working memory. These phonological clues are beneficial means for novice language learners. In the classroom, if mnemonic skills are used at the appropriate time in the instructional sequence, it may achieve their maximum effectiveness. For Chinese-speaking students, proper use of Chinese-English homophonic word pairs may help them learn difficult vocabulary. In this study, a database program is developed by employing Visual Basic. The database contains two corpora, one with Chinese lexical items and the other with English ones. The Chinese corpus contains 59,053 Chinese words that were collected by a web crawler. The pronunciations of this group of words are compared with words in an English corpus based on WordNet, a lexical database for the English language. Words in both databases with similar pronunciation chunks and batches are detected. A total of approximately 1,000 Chinese lexical items are located in the preliminary comparison. These homophonic word pairs can serve as a valuable tool to assist Chinese-speaking students in learning and memorizing new English vocabulary.
Effect of Underwater Antiquities as a Hidden Competitive Advantage of Hotels on Their Financial Performance: An Exploratory Study
Every hotel works in the hospitality market tends to have its own merit and character in its products marketing in order to maintain both its brand's identity and image among guests. According to the growth of global competition in the hospitality industry; the concept of competitive advantage is becoming increasingly important in hotels' marketing world as it examines reasons for outweighing hotels in their dimensions of strategic and marketing plans. In fact, Egypt is the land of appeared and submerged secrets as a result of its ancient civilization ongoing explorations. Although underwater antiquities represent ambiguous treasures, they have auspicious future in it, particularly in Alexandria. The study aims at examining to what extent underwater antiquities represent a competitive advantage of four and five-star hotels in Alexandria. For achieving this aim, an exploratory study conducted by currying out the investigation and comparison of the closest and most popular landmarks mentioned on both hotels' official websites and on common used reservations' websites. In addition to that, two different questionnaire forms designed; one for both revenue and sales and marketing hotels' managers while the other for their guests. The results indicate that both official hotels' websites and the most common used reservations' websites totally ignore mentioning underwater antiquities as attractive landmarks surrounding Alexandria hotels. Furthermore, most managers expect that underwater antiquities can furnish distinguished competitive advantage to their hotels. Also, they can help exceeding guests' expectations during their accommodation as long as they included on both official hotels' and reservations' websites as the most surrounding famous landmarks. Moreover, most managers foresee that high awareness of underwater antiquities can enhance the guests' accommodation frequencies and improve the financial performance of their hotels.
Combating the Practice of Open Defecation through Appropriate Communication Strategies in Rural India
Lack of awareness on the consequences of open defecation and myths and misconceptions related to use of toilets have led to the continued practice of open defecation in India. Government of India initiated a multi-pronged intensive communication campaign against the practice of open defecation in the last few years. The primary vision of this communication campaign was to provide increased demand for toilets and to ensure that all have access to safe sanitation. The campaign strategy included the use of mass media, group and folk media, and interpersonal communication to expedite achieving its objectives. The campaign included the use of various media such as posters, wall writings, slides in cinema theatres, kiosks, pamphlets, newsletters, flip charts and folk media to bring behavioural changes in the communities. The author did a concurrent monitoring and process documentation of the campaigns initiated by the state of Tamilnandu, India between 2013 and 2016 commissioned by UNICEF India. The study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of the communication campaigns in combating the practice of open defecation and promote construction of toilets in the state of Tamilnadu, India. Initial findings revealed the gap in understanding the audience and the use of appropriate media. The first phase of the communication campaign by name as Chi Chi Chollapa (bringing shame concept) also revealed that use of interpersonal communication, group and community media were the most effective strategy in reaching the rural masses. The failure of various other media used especially the print media (poster, handbills, newsletter, kiosks) provides insights as to where the government needs to invest its resources in bringing health-seeking behaviour in the community. The findings shared with the government enabled to strengthen the campaign resulting in improved response. Taking cues from the study, the government understood the potency of the women, school children, youth and community leaders as the effective carriers of the message. The government narrowed down its focus and invested on the voluntary workers (village poverty reduction committee workers VPRCs) in the community. The effectiveness of interpersonal communication and peer education by the credible community worker threw light on the need for localising the content and communicator. From this study, we could derive that only community and group media are preferred by the people in the rural community. Children, youth, women, and credible local leaders are proved to be ambassadors in behaviour change communication. This study discloses the lacunae involved in the communication campaign and points out that the state should have carried out a proper communication need analysis and piloting. The study used a survey method with random sampling. The study used both quantitative and qualitative tools such as interview schedules, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions in rural areas of Tamilnadu in phases. The findings of the study would provide directions to future campaigns to any campaign concerning health and rural development.
Impact of Agricultural Infrastructure on Diffusion of Technology of the Sample Farmers in North 24 Parganas District, West Bengal
The Agriculture sector plays an important role in the rural economy of India. It is the backbone of our Indian economy and is the dominant sector in terms of employment and livelihood. Agriculture still contributes significantly to export earnings and is an important source of raw materials as well as of demand for many industrial products particularly fertilizers, pesticides, agricultural implements and a variety of consumer goods, etc. The performance of the agricultural sector influences the growth of Indian economy. According to the 2011 Agricultural Census of India, an estimated 61.5 percentage of rural populations are dependent on agriculture. Proper Agricultural infrastructure has the potential to transform the existing traditional agriculture into a most modern, commercial and dynamic farming system in India through its diffusion of technology. The rate of adoption of modern technology reflects the progress of development in agricultural sector. The adoption of any improved agricultural technology is also dependent on the development of road infrastructure or road network. The present study was consisting of 300 sample farmers out which 150 samples was taken from the developed area and rest 150 samples was taken from underdeveloped area. The samples farmers under develop and underdeveloped areas were collected by using Multistage Random Sampling procedure. In the first stage, North 24 Parganas District have been selected purposively. Then from the district, one developed and one underdeveloped block was selected randomly. In the third phase, 10 villages have been selected randomly from each block. Finally, from each village 15 sample farmers was selected randomly. The extents of adoption of technology in different areas were calculated through various parameters. These are percentage area under High Yielding Variety Cereals, percentage area under High Yielding Variety pulses, area under hybrids vegetables, irrigated area, mechanically operated area, amount spent on fertilizer and pesticides, etc. in both developed and underdeveloped areas of North 24 Parganas District, West Bengal. The percentage area under High Yielding Variety Cereals in the developed and underdeveloped areas was 34.86 and 22.59. 42.07 percentages and 31.46 percentages for High Yielding Variety pulses respectively. In the case the area under irrigation it was 57.66 and 35.71 percent while for the mechanically operated area it was 10.60 and 3.13 percent respectively in developed and underdeveloped areas of North 24 Parganas district, West Bengal. It clearly showed that the extent of adoption of technology was significantly higher in the developed area over underdeveloped area. Better road network system helps the farmers in increasing his farm income, farm assets, cropping intensity, marketed surplus and the rate of adoption of new technology. With this background, an attempt is made in this paper to study the impact of Agricultural Infrastructure on the adoption of modern technology in agriculture in North 24 Parganas District, West Bengal.
The International Field Placement: Experience in Vietnam Social Work International Placement Programme
The demand for developing international social work field education is on the rise. Global foreign universities have considered international collaboration and cross-cultural perspective as an essential part of their social work training curriculum. International placement program at Faculty of Social Work (FSW), Hanoi National University of Education (HNUE) has met the need of international social work students, as well as the institutions involved in achieving social work professional social work knowledge in the Vietnamese context. This program has also lead to a long-term collaboration between HNUE and several global institutions in developing social work education, research and practice skill. This paper focuses on the benefits and challenges of students who involved in the global placement programme at Faculty of Social Work (FSW), Hanoi National University of Education (HNUE) and content of international field education provided to the international students based on the experience of the authors. Study results indicated that the participants have opportunity them to explore a new culture and social work system abroad especially in the Vietnamese context. However, there are still difficulties that international students have to face during different phases of the exchange process such as language and communication barriers, cultural value differences, insufficient support and supervision during placement. Basing on these results, the authors intend to propose some recommendations to enhance the programme activities such as pre-departure orientation, support and supervision during placement, cultural exchange and follow-up activities.
A Three Step Approach Analysis of the Portrayal of Images of Women in Three Ghanaian Newspapers: Newsone, Ebony and the Mirror
Media portrayal of women in traditional stereotypical roles such as mothers, or seductress has been the norm for years. However, the changing socioeconomic and political environment and advancement of women in today’s society have given rise to questions on the appropriate portrayal of women in the media today. The purpose of the study is to analyze the portrayal of women in Ghanaian newspapers and find women’s perception on the issue. The study uses a three step approach in gathering data for analysis. Using the stratified sampling method, it analyzes front page images of women from 210 issues of the selected newspapers. Further, it administers questionnaires to 100 female students to find out how they relate to the images of women in the selected newspapers. Finally, editors of the newspapers are interviewed to find their rational for portraying women as seen on their front pages. The findings suggest that the newspapers portray women for varied reasons such as promoting sales and influencing the public agenda. Further, the female students claim that in spite of women’s vast contribution to the growth of society, the media continue to marginalize them. They add that such portrayals promote and reinforce social construct, however, refuse to see themselves through the male gaze concept. The study concludes that the stereotyped portrayal of women is likely to continue if the government, regulatory bodies, the media and society do not make a conscious effort to address this problem.
A Sociological Exploration of How Chinese Highly Educated Women Respond to the Gender Stereotype in China
In this study, Chinese highly educated women referred to those women who are currently doing their Ph.D. studies, and those who have already had Ph.D. degrees. In ancient Chinese society, women were subordinated to men. The only gender role of women was to be a wife and a mother. With the rapid development of China, women are encouraged to pursue higher education. As a result of this, the number of highly educated women is growing very quickly. However, people, especially men, believe that highly educated women are challenging the traditional image of Chinese women. It is thus believed that highly educated women are very different with the traditional women. They are demonstrating an image of independent and confident women with promising careers. Plus, with the reinforcement of mass media, highly educated women are regarded as non-traditional women. People stigmatize them as the 'third gender' on the basis of male and female. Now, the 'third gender' has become a gender stereotype of highly educated women. In this study, 20 participants were interviewed to explore their perceptions of self and how these highly educated women respond to the stereotype. The study finds that Chinese highly educated women are facing a variety of problems and difficulties in their daily life, and they believe that one of the leading causes is the contradiction between patriarchal values and the views of gender equality in contemporary China. This study gives rich qualitative data in the research of Chinese women and will help to extend the current Chinese gender studies.
Audience Perceptions and Attitudes Towards the Representation of Tribal South African Culture in Drama Series
Commercial media entertainment offerings especially mainstream soap operas, in South Africa, are progressively infusing dominant social values and ideas which are alien to South African tribal societies. In most of the commodified television drama series, people who hold tight to traditional beliefs and values are often characterised as traditionalists, while those who have imbibed the western defined dicta and ideology of modernity are seen as progressives. This study, therefore, sought to ascertain how South African tribal language, traditional institutions, values, social norms and ancestral beliefs are portrayed through the television drama, Generations: The Legacy, and what the viewers think about those constructions and the implication for cultural identity. The mixed methods approach was employed involving the administration of questionnaire to 350 participants selected through random sampling and a content analysis of 20 episodes of Generations: The Legacy. The findings further showed that the values and traditions represented in generation do not significantly reflect the South African tribal tradition and values (p-value > 0.05). In most instances where traditional values are represented they tend to be portrayed as old fashioned (p-value > 0.05), and inferior and backward (p-value > 0.05). In addition, the findings indicate that Generations: The legacy is a vehicle for promoting dominant culture.
Culture as an Intervening Variable While Assessing Japanese Influence on Vietnam: 1991-2018
The significance of political and economic factors have barely been neglected while assessing bilateral relations, but the significance of culture as a soft power in Japan-Vietnam relations has largely been understated. While the close ties had their birth ever since the 14th century, this paper sets out with an inductive lens to analyze the role of culture as a variable in bilateral relations. Vietnam, which then had a history of war devastation had taken refuge in Japan and later sought inspiration from Japan’s economy with the simultaneous influence of culture since Japan was a developed nation, and Vietnam a third world country. Evidencing facts with illustrations, the paper shows how the twenty-first century has brought a growing bond as well as the onset of stronger ties between the two states based, primarily, on an emerging convergence of interests and culture. The cultural influence of Japan may be seen much in the Vietnamese cities, through evidences like the growing numbers of Japanese items on sale. The variety in cultural influence may be seen through the acceptance of Japanese fashion trends, mange comic, pop music, cuisine, tourism, Japanese studies and language, the translations of Japanese literature which are very much popular at Vietnam. Using secondary sources as well as assessing travel accounts and official websites, this research work will try to find out how much Japanese culture has influenced Vietnam and whether such influences will be strong enough to qualify culture as an intervening variable in the bilateral relations.
A Semiotic Approach to the Construction of Classical Identity in Indian Classical Music Videos
Indian classical (Karnatik) music videos across various media platforms have followed an audio-visual pattern that conforms to its socio-cultural and quasi-religious identity. The present paper analyzes the semiotic variations between ‘pure Karnatik music videos’ and ‘independent/contemporary-collaborative music videos’ posted on social media by young professional Karnatik musicians. The paper analyzes these media texts by comparing their various structural sememes namely, the title, artists, music, narrative schemata, visuals, lighting, sound, and costumes. The paper argues that the pure Karnatik music videos are marked by the presence of certain recurring mythological or third level signifiers and that these signifiers and codes are marked by their conspicuous absence in the independent music videos produced by the same musicians. While the music and the musical instruments used in both these sets of music videos remain similar, the meaning that is abducted by the beholder in each case is entirely different. The paper also attempts to study the identity conflicts that are projected through these music videos and the extent to which the cultural connotations of Karnatik music govern the production of its music videos.
Transformation and Integration: Iranian Women Migrants and the Use of Social Media in Australia
Although there is a growing interest in Iranian female migration and gender roles, little attention has been paid to how Iranian migrant women in Australia access and sustain social networks, both locally and spatially dispersed over time. Social network theories have much to offer an analysis of migrant’s social ties and interpersonal relationships. Thus, it is important to note that social media are not only new communication channels in a migration network but also that they actively transform the nature of these networks and thereby facilitate migration for migrants. Drawing on that, this article will focus on Iranian women migrants and the use of social media in migration in Australia. Based on the case of main social networks such as Facebook and Instagram; this paper will investigate that how women migrants use these networks to facilitate the process of migration and integration. In addition, with the use of social networks, they could promote their home business and as a result become more engaged economically in Australian society. This paper will focus on three main Iranian pages in Instagram and Facebook, they will contend that compared to men, women are more active in these social networks. Consequently, as this article will discuss with the use of these social media Iranian migrant women can become more engaged and overcome post migration hardships, thus, gender plays a key role in using social media in migrant communities. Based on these findings from these social media pages, this paper will conclude that social media are transforming migration networks and thereby lowering the threshold for migration. It also will be demonstrated that these networks boost Iranian women’s confidence and lead them to become more visible in Iranian migrant communities comparing to men.
The Relationship among Lifestyles, Accompany Forms, and Children’s Capability to Solve Problems of Modern Families
The percentage of dual-earner couples has become higher and higher each year. Family lifestyles in Taiwan have also been changing. This fact reflects the importance of family communication and parent-child relationship. This study aimed to explore the influences of family lifestyles and accompany forms on children’s capability to solve problems. The research process included two phases: (1) literature review, to explore the characteristics of children’s capability to solve problems and methods to measure this capability; and (2) questionnaire analyses, to explore the influences of lifestyles and accompany time and forms of modern families on their children’s capability to solve problems. The questionnaires were issued in October and November, 2016. A total of 300 questionnaires were retrieved, among which 250 were valid. The findings are summarized below: -The linguistic performances of the children from families of the busy and haggling lifestyle or the intermittent childcare lifestyle were rather good. Besides being interested in learning, these children could solve problems or difficulties independently. -The capability to ‘analyze problems’ of children from families with accompanying time during 19:00-19:30 (family dinner time) or 22:00-23:30 (before bedtime) was good. When facing a complex problem, these children could identify the most important factor in the problem. When seeing a problem, they would first look for the cause. If they encountered a bottleneck while solving a problem, they would review the context of the problem and related conditions to come up with another solution. -According to the literature, learning toys with numbers and symbols to learn to read can help develop children’s logic thinking, which is helpful to solve problems. Interestingly, some study suggested that children playing with fluid constructive toys are less likely to give up what they are doing and more likely to identify problems in their daily life. Some of them can even come up with creative and effective solutions.
Radical Web Text Classification Using a Composite-Based Approach
The widespread of terrorism and extremism activities on the internet has become a major threat to the government and national securities due to their potential dangers which have necessitated the need for intelligence gathering via web and real-time monitoring of potential websites for extremist activities. However, the manual classification for such contents is practically difficult or time-consuming. In response to this challenge, an automated classification system called composite technique was developed. This is a computational framework that explores the combination of both semantics and syntactic features of textual contents of a web. We implemented the framework on a set of extremist webpages dataset that has been subjected to the manual classification process. Therein, we developed a classification model on the data using J48 decision algorithm, this is to generate a measure of how well each page can be classified into their appropriate classes. The classification result obtained from our method when compared with other states of arts, indicated a 96% success rate in classifying overall webpages when matched against the manual classification.
The Relationship between Violence against Women and Levels of Self-Esteem in Urban Informal Settlements of Mumbai, India: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background: This study aims to investigate the relationship between experiences of violence against women in the family, and levels of self-esteem in women residing in informal settlement (slum) areas of Mumbai, India. The authors hypothesise that violence against women in Indian households extends beyond that of intimate partner violence (IPV), to include other members of the family and that experiences of violence are associated with lower levels of self-esteem. Methods: Experiences of violence were assessed through a cross-sectional survey of 598 women, including questions about specific acts of emotional, economic, physical and sexual violence across different time points, and the main perpetrator of each. Self-esteem was assessed using the Rosenberg self-esteem questionnaire. A global score for self-esteem was calculated and the relationship between violence in the past year and Rosenberg self-esteem score was assessed using multivariable linear regression models, adjusted for years of education completed, and clustering using robust standard errors. Results: 482 (81%) women consented to interview. On average, they were 28.5 years old, had completed 6 years of education and had been married 9.5 years. 88% were Muslim and 46% lived in joint families. 44% of women had experienced at least one act of violence in their lifetime (33% emotional, 22% economic, 24% physical, 12% sexual). Of the women who experienced violence after marriage, 70% cited a perpetrator other than the husband for at least one of the acts. 5% had low self-esteem (Rosenberg score < 15). For women who experienced emotional violence in the past year, the Rosenberg score was 2.6 points lower (p < 0.001). It was 1.2 points lower (p = 0.03) for women who experienced economic violence. For physical or sexual violence in the past year, no statistically significant relationship with Rosenberg score was seen. However, for a one-unit increase in the number of different acts of each type of violence experienced in the past year, a decrease in Rosenberg score was seen (-0.62 for emotional, -0.76 for economic, -0.53 for physical and -0.47 for sexual; p < 0.05 for all). Discussion: The high prevalence of violence experiences across the lifetime was likely due to the detailed assessment of violence and the inclusion of perpetrators within the family other than the husband. Experiences of emotional or economic violence in the past year were associated with lower Rosenberg scores and therefore lower self-esteem, but no relationship was seen between experiences of physical or sexual violence and Rosenberg score overall. For all types of violence in the past year, a greater number of different acts were associated with a decrease in Rosenberg score. Emotional violence showed the strongest relationship with self-esteem, but for all types of violence the more complex the pattern of perpetration with different methods used, the lower the levels of self-esteem. Due to the cross-sectional nature of the study causal directionality cannot be attributed. Further work to investigate the relationship between severity of violence and self-esteem and whether self-esteem mediates relationships between violence and poorer mental health would be beneficial.
Emotional Analysis for Text Search Queries on Internet
The goal of this study is to analyze if search queries carried out in search engines such as Google, can offer emotional information about the user that performs them. Knowing the emotional state in which the Internet user is located can be a key to achieve the maximum personalization of content and the detection of worrying behaviors. For this, two studies were carried out using tools with advanced natural language processing techniques. The first study determines if a query can be classified as positive, negative or neutral, while the second study extracts emotional content from words and applies the categorical and dimensional models for the representation of emotions. In addition, we use search queries in Spanish and English to establish similarities and differences between two languages. The results revealed that text search queries performed by users on the Internet can be classified emotionally. This allows us to better understand the emotional state of the user at the time of the search, which could involve adapting the technology and personalizing the responses to different emotional states.
Understanding the ‘Third Gender’: A Qualitative Study of the Perception of Being a Leftover Woman among Chinese Female Ph.D. Students
In recent years, a growing number of Chinese women choose to pursue Ph.D. education. Except for the male and female, women with PhD degrees are stigmatized as the ‘third gender’ in Chinese society. People, especially most men, believe that female PhD students challenge the traditional image and gender role of Chinese women. This gender stereotype causes a range of difficulties in finding partners in marriage market for Chinese female PhD students. In this study, the author conducted in-depth interviews with 15 participants who are currently doing their PhD studies in Chinese universities to explore their perceptions of being leftover women on the basis of their experience. All the participants are single. Based on the analysis of qualitative data, this study found that the ‘leftover women’ phenomenon among Chinese female PhD students is the result of the contradictions generated between Chinese patriarchal society and them. Although Chinese female PhD students is an attention-attracting group, the studies about them are very limited in China. This study could not only contribute to the understanding of the ‘third gender’ phenomenon and the ‘leftover women’ studies in China, but also, in practical level, could give some guidance for governments to resolve the social problems of female PhD students.
The Arab Spring Rebellion or Revolution: An Analysis of the Text
This paper will analyse the classical Islamic text in order to determine whether the Arab spring was a rebellion or a revolution. Commencing in 2010, we saw a series of revolutions or what some would call rebellions throughout the Arab peninsula. Many of the religious clergies came out emphatically in support of the people who wanted to overthrow the leaders. This brought forth the important question about the acceptability of rebelling against unjust leaders in Islamic theological texts. The paper will look to analyse the Islamic legal and theological position on the permissibility of rebelling, whether there is scholarly consensus on the issue, and how the texts are analysed in order to come to the current position we have today. The position of the clergy who supported the Arab spring will also be analysed in order to deduce if their position falls within the religious framework. An inquiry will be about to determine the ideology of those who joined the rebellion after the inception and whether these ideas can be found in classical Islamic texts. The nuances of these positions will be analysed in order to determine whether what we witnessed was a rebellion or a revolution.
Pragmatic Discourse Functions of Locative Enclitics: A Descriptive Study of Luganda Locative Enclitics
This paper examines the pragmatic inferences of locative enclitics in Luganda (JE 15). Locative enclitics are words which cannot stand alone but are attached to a verb to make meaning. Their status is ambiguous between free word and affix, hence motivating their analysis as enclitics. The enclitics are attached on the post-final position of their hosts. Although the locative enclitics occur regularly in some Bantu languages (Luganda, Runyankore-Rukiga, Runyoro-Rutooro, Lunda, Ikizu, Fwe, Chichewa, Kinyarwanda among others), they have not been widely studied in the literature. The paper looks at verbal locative enclitics only but the locative enclitics also appear in other word categories in Luganda. This study is descriptive, with a qualitative approach. The data used in this study was collected through reviewing documents in Luganda - novels and plays and also the spoken discourses. In this study, the enclitic in Luganda serves many non-locative discourse-pragmatic functions which include showing urgency, politeness, showing the idea of ‘instead of’ and also emphasis. It has also been observed that enclitics are widely used in the urban youth languages (‘Luyaaye’) but this was not the focus of the current study. The results from the study offer explanations of key areas of syntax, morphology, and pragmatics relating to the form and functions of locative enclitics and the whole system of locative marking in Luganda and other Bantu languages.
When Muslims Wear Kanthis: An Analysis of Hindu Reformers and Their Appeal to the Ummah
While Hinduism and Islam have fundamentally different ethics, cosmologies, and salvific precepts, individual Muslims have historically been attracted to the charisma and philosophies of Hindu reformers and gurus. While orthodox Muslims have often deemed such individuals kafirs, this does not provide a useful explanation for such an attraction. This paper analyzes this phenomenon through three case studies and develops a framework for understanding these interactions in light of contemporary interreligious conflict. These case studies demonstrate that Muslim-Hindu relations can be improved on an ideological level and that such cooperation has a history spanning much of India’s pre and post-colonial history. The first case study details the presence of Khoja Muslims in the entourage of Swaminarayan, a Hindu reformer active in the early 19th century. Swaminarayan explicitly claimed to be Parabrahma, the ultimate ontological entity in Hindu thought, personified. Despite the immediate connotations of shirk, many Muslims became Swaminarayan’s disciples due to his charisma. The author argues this charisma, paired with Swaminarayan’s moral rigor, paralleled that of Sufi shaykhs and was attractive to the Khoja community. The author then analyzes the influence of Ram Manmohan Roy on Muslim reformers who pledged themselves to his ideals and to a rational, scientific Islam. While not a guru in the traditional sense, Roy’s polemics against his perception of Islam inspired Muslims such as Syed Ahmed Khan to embrace the Muʿtazila tradition in their political discourse. Roy’s influence on Indian nationalism provided a cohesive front for both Muslims and Hindus to work for sovereignty against the British regime. Finally, the author explores the relationship between the late Pramukh Swami, a spiritual successor of Swaminarayan and significant proponent of Hindu-Muslim cooperation, and the late Abdul Kalam, former President of India. A Muslim, Kalam explicitly names Pramukh Swami as his guru in his spiritual autobiography. Kalam places Pramukh Swami amongst the larger pantheon of Sufi shaykhs, representative of the mystical tradition that has simultaneously shaped the orthodoxy and innovative aspects of Muslim thought and identity. The author argues that such influences are not an effect of pluralism or secularization, but rather reflects an innate attraction to charisma present in the Islamic tradition, which Muslims categorize through the concepts of allamahs, imams, ayatollahs, and shaykhs, representing the need for a unified leadership of the umma and the larger issue of authority present in all religious traditions. The author compares Muslim and Hindu theologies, especially those found in Sufism, to offer a theological explanation underpinning the aforementioned relationships. By understanding these relationships between Hindus and Muslims, scholars and policy formers can help buffer the extremist factions of the current Hindutva movement and allay conflicts in pluralistic societies in Asia as a whole.
Prevalence of Obesity in Kuwait: A Case Study among Kuwait University Students
This study seeks to understand the relationship between the effect of geography and obesity prevalence among Kuwait University students. The sample involved 735 participants, 231 male, and 504 females, where there is a high percentage of them are overweight and obese. The percentage of overweight is 21% (BMI >25 - 30) while the percentage of obesity is 13.7% (BMI > 30). Both overweight and obese people account for 34.7%. In the study area, there are 327 fast food restaurants located in different places of in the urban area. This study uses the Geographic Information System to analyze the distribution of obesity and fast food restaurants. The study found that within half kilometers of fast food outlets, there are 33% of normal weight (BMI < 25), 30% of overweight while for the obese people there are 43 %, which shows that obesity is linked to the location of fast food restaurants. One of the significant tools that were used in this study hot and cold spots. The study found that areas of hot spots of fast food restaurants tend to be located in areas of hot spots of obese people. In conclusion, studying the prevalence of obesity from geographical perspective help to understand this public health issue and its relation to the effect of geography.
Analyzing the Permissibility of Demonstration in Islamic Perspective: Case Study of Former Governor of Jakarta Basuki Tjahaja Purnama
This paper analyzes the permissibility of demonstrations against a leader's decision, policies, as well as statements against Islamic values from an Islamic point of view. Recorded at the end of 2016, a large demonstration in Jakarta involving many people, mostly from Muslim society against the former Governor of Jakarta, Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, was considered a form of harm to the value of harmony and the unity of religious communities in Indonesia. Hence, this paper aims to answer the question that became a tough discussion and a long debate among Indonesian Muslims after an immense demonstration known as the 212 movements, ‘how exactly Islam sees such act of demonstration?’. Is there any particular historical source in Islamic history that mention information related to demonstration? A phenomenological qualitative method was implemented throughout the process of this research to study the perspective of various Muslims scholars by reviewing, and comparing their opinions through the classical source of Islamic history and Hadith literature. One of the main roots of this extensive debate is due to the extremist group, which bans all forms of demonstration, assuming that such acts had come from the West and unknown culture in the Islamic history. In addition, they also claim that all the demonstrators are Bughat. While some other groups, freely declare that demonstration can be done anytime and anywhere, without specific terms and regulations associated. The findings of this research illustrate that the protests which we now know of today, in terms of demonstration had existed since ancient times, even from the time of the prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). This paper reveals that there is a strong evidence that demonstration is justified in Islamic law and has a historical root. This can, therefore, be a proposition of such permissibility. However, there are still a number of things one has to be aware of when it comes to the demonstration, and clearly, not all demonstrations are legal from the Islamic perspective.
Transfer of Business Anti-Corruption Norms in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Vietnam
During the 1990s, an alliance of international intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations proposed a set of regulatory norms designed to reduce corruption. Many governments in developing countries, such as Vietnam, enacted these global anti-corruption norms into their domestic law. This article draws on empirical research to understand why these anti-corruption norms have failed to reduce corruption in Vietnam and many other developing countries. Rather than investigating state compliance with global anti-corruption provisions, a topic that has already attracted considerable attention, this article aims to explore the comparatively under-researched area of business compliance. Based on data collected from semi-structured interviews with business managers in Vietnam and archival research, this article examines how businesses in Vietnam interpret and comply with global anti-corruption norms. It investigates why different types of companies in Vietnam engage with and respond to these norms in different ways. This article suggests that global anti-corruption norms have not been effective in reducing corruption in Vietnam because there is fragmentation in the way companies in Vietnam interpret and respond to these norms. This fragmentation results from differences in the epistemic (or interpretive) communities that companies draw upon to interpret global anti-corruption norms. This article uses discourse analysis to understand how the communities interpret global anti-corruption norms. This investigation aims to generate some predictive insights into how companies are likely to respond to anti-corruption regimes based on global anti-corruption norms.
The Role of Development in Settling Migration Crisis: The Preventive Approach of the European Union in Relations with Sub-Saharan African States
The world faces now one of the largest migration crisis and the European Union meets challenges in accepting the flow of migrants that could not be handled finally at this step. This crisis is complicated with many factors, such as military conflict in the Middle East; absence of the appropriate conditions in the refugees’ camps; but also with the complicity of the migration flow consisting of the Sub-Saharan migrants. This type of migrants leave their homelands for many reasons including poverty, not appropriate level of social and economic conditions, absence of infrastructure and access to the education and medical care. In practice, when the restrictive approach directed to limit the flow of illicit migration and to send illicit migrants back to their homelands is not always working, the approach directed to the root causes of the migration crisis can be more effective in settling the crisis. The Cotonou Agreement and the following treaties concluded between the European Union, and Sub-Saharan states show that the European Union considers the development of human rights and appropriate social and economic conditions in the Sub-Saharan states as one of the most important factors addressing the migration crisis. The preventive approach as the efforts of the European Union to develop appropriate social and economic conditions in Sub-Saharan states is considered in this article, as well as its evolution and current condition. This article also considers pros and cons of this approach and the obstacles that this approach faces. The research methods include review of literature and documents, analytical and descriptive methods.
A Critical Discourse Analysis: Embedded Inequalities in the UK Disability Social Security System
In 2006, the UK Labour government published a Green Paper introducing Employment and Support Allowance (ESA) as a replacement for Incapacity Benefit (IB), as well as a new Work Capability Assessment (WCA); signalling a controversial political and economic shift in disability welfare policy. In 2016, the Conservative government published Improving Lives: The Work, Health, and Disability Green Paper, as part of their social reform agenda, evidently to address the ‘injustice’ of the ‘disability employment gap’. This paper contextualises ESA in the wider ideology and rhetoric of ‘welfare to work’, ‘dependency’ and ‘responsibility’. Using the British ‘social model of disability’ as a theoretical framework, the study engages in a critical discourse analysis of these two Green Papers. By uncovering the medicalised conceptions embedded in the texts, the analysis has revealed ESA is linked with late capitalisms concern with the ‘disability category’.
An Occupational Analysis on Chikankari Industry Workers in Lucknow City, India
India is a land of craftsmen and a hub of many popular embroidery clusters. Chikankari is the name given to the delicate art of hand embroidery, traditionally practiced in the city of Lucknow and its environs. Chikankari not only provide employment to 250,000 artisans of different crafts but people from non-craft base also earn their livelihood by associating themselves with this craft. People working in this sector are exploited in term of working hours, low and irregular income, unsatisfactory work conditions, no legal protection and exposed to occupational health hazards. The present paper is an attempt to analyse occupational profile of workers engaged in Chikan embroidery industry. Being an empirical study, the entire work is based upon primary sources of data which have collected through field survey. Purposive random sampling has used for selection of data. Total 150 workers have surveyed through questionnaire technique in Lucknow city during October-November, 2017. For analysis of data Z-score, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation techniques are used. The result of present study indicates that artisans are exploited by the middle man and face the problem of late payment and long working hours because they are not directly associated with the manufacturers. Work conditions of the workers are quite poor such as improper ventilation, poor light and unhygienic conditions that adversely affect the health of workers.
Fiqh Challenge in Production of Halal Pharmaceutical Products
Nowadays, the pharmaceutical products are produced through the mixing of active and complex ingredient, naturally or synthetically; and involve extensive use of prohibited animal products. This article studies the challenges faced from fiqh perspective in the production of halal pharmaceutical products which frequently contain impure elements or prohibited animal derivatives according to Islamic law. This study is qualitative which adopts library research as well as field research by conducting series of interviews with the several related parties. The gathered data is analyzed from Sharia perspective by using some instruments especially the principle of Maqasid of Sharia. This study shows that the halal status of pharmaceutical products depends on the three basic elements: the sources of the basic ingredient; the processes involved in three phases of production, i.e., before, during and after; and the possible effects of the products. Various fiqh challenges need to be traversed in producing halal pharmaceutical products including the sources of the ingredients, the logistic process, the tools used, and the procedures of productions. Thus, the whole supply chain of production of pharmaceutical products must be well managed in accordance to the halal standard.
A Correlation Analysis of an Effective Music Education with Students’ Mathematical Performance
Though music education can broaden one’s capacity for mathematical performance, many countries lag behind in music education. Little empirical evidence is found to identify the connection between math and music. Therefore, this research was set out to explore what music-related variables are associated with mathematical performance. The result of our analysis is as follows: A Pearson's Correlation analysis revealed that PISA math score is strongly correlated with students' Intelligence Quotient (IQ). This lays the foundation for further research as to what factors in students’ IQ lead to a better performance in math.
Nonverbal Signs in Television Advertisements: A Semiotics Perspective
Semiotics is the study of signs and symbols as significations in a communication process. Television advertisement combines verbal and nonverbal signs to apprise consumers of products’ deliverables. This makes the language of television advertisement an important area of semiotic research. This paper focuses on nonverbal signs in television advertisement in purposively selected advertisements of two Nivea beauty products television advertisements: New Nivea Natural Fairness and Nivea Natural Fairness Lotion in Nigeria to investigate signs in meaning construction. It studies the interpretative realities of the signification of the nonverbal signs in television advertisements in Nigeria; examining signs in relation to the embedded and contextual meanings they are capable of exhuming vis-a-vis, viewers’ social and cultural senses extrapolated to draw inferences. The paper anchors its research on visual rhetorics and concludes that signs, as nonverbal elements in television advertisements, form part of the entire linguistic system of meaning transmission, noting that interpretations do not rely, solely, on the intrinsic properties of signs as signifiers, but on the imbued sociocultural elements that suggest meaning to viewers.