A Comparative Analysis of Settlements of Disputes in the Context of Islamic Sharia Economics in Indonesia and Egypt
The development of sharia business activities at present has solidified its societal mark and has crossed influence between several nations . However, the very practice of sharia economics unequivocally makes itself vulnerable to disputes, breaches and other forms of conflict. In the meantime, alternative settlements of disputes are utilized differently between nations in the context of their political, social, economic, legal and infrastructural (technology and transportation) scope. Besides the various conditions, there is a common driving factor, which is a consequence of the need for businesses to settle conflicts in an efficient and cost-efficient manner. This factor is paired symbiotically with the limitations of the court and legal processes. Knowing this, Indonesia and Egypt represent countries that have similar social, political, economic and legal conditions. This academic research establishes a normative analysis that looks and compares the rules that regulate the prospects and challenges in the regards of dispute settlements in reference to sharia economics in Indonesia and Egypt. This work recommends that dispute settlements in regards to Sharia economics in Indonesia and Egypt require legal codification that follows Islamic law since the practice would not be isolated in a singular nation.
Evaluating Problems Arose Due to Adoption of Dual Legal Framework in Regulating the Transactions under Islamic Capital Market with Special Reference to Malaysia
Almost all the major religions of the world condemn the transactions based on interest which promotes self-centered and materialistic thinking. Still, it is amazing to note that it has become the tradition of transaction at world level hence it is called traditional financial system. The main feature of this system is that it considers economic aspects of the transaction only. This system supports the economic development and not the welfare of humankind. However, it is worth mentioning the fact that, except Islamic financial system no other financial system stood in front of it as a viable alternative system. Although many countries have tried to create financial infrastructure and system, still the Malaysian Islamic financial system has got its own peculiarity. It has made tremendous progress in creating sound Islamic Financial system. However, the historical aspect of this country which has passed through Islamic and traditional financial system has got its own advantages and disadvantages. The advantageous factor is that, despite having mix and heterogeneous culture, it has succeeded in creating Islamic Financial System based on the dual legal system to satisfy the needs of multi-cultural factors. This fact has proved that Islamic Financial System does not need purely Muslim population. However, due to adoption of the dual legal system, several legal issues have been taken place. According to this system, the application of Islamic Law has been limited only up to some family and religious matters. The rest of the matters are being dealt with under the traditional laws, the principles and practices of which are different from that of the Islamic Legal System. The matter becomes all the more complicated when the cases are partially or simultaneously concerned with traditional vis-à-vis Islamic Laws as it requires expertise in both the legal systems. However, the educational principles and systems are different in respect of both the systems. To face this problem, Shariah Advisory Council has been established. But the Multiplicity of Shariah authorities without judicial power has created confusion at various levels. Therefore, some experts have stressed the need for improving, empowering the Islamic financial, legal system to make it more integrated and holistic. In view of the above, an endeavor has been made in this paper to throw some light on the matters related to the adoption of the dual legal system. The paper is conceptual in nature and the method adopted is the intensive survey of literature thereby all the information has been gathered from the secondary sources.
Effects of Starvation, Glucose Treatment and Metformin on Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells
Chemotherapy is widely used for the treatment of cancer. Doxorubicin is an anti-cancer chemotherapy drug that is classified as an anthracycline antibiotic. Antitumor antibiotics consist of natural products produced by species of the soil fungus Streptomyces. These drugs act in multiple phases of the cell cycle and are known cell-cycle specific. Although DOX is a precious clinical antineoplastic agent, resistance is also a problem that limits its utility besides cardiotoxicity problem. The drug resistance of cancer cells results from multiple factors including individual variation, genetic heterogeneity within a tumor, and cellular evolution. The mechanism of resistance is thought to involve, in particular, ABCB1 (MDR1, Pgp) and ABCC1 (MRP1) as well as other transporters. Several studies on DOX-resistant cell lines have shown that resistance can be overcome by an inhibition of ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCC2. This study attempts to understand the effects of different concentration levels of glucose treatment and starvation on the proliferation of Doxorubicin resistant cancer cells lines. To understand the effect of starvation, K562/Dox and K562 cell lines were treated with 0, 5 nM, 50 nM, 500 nM, 5 uM and 50 uM Dox concentrations in both starvation and normal medium conditions. In addition to this, to interpret the effect of glucose treatment, different concentrations (0, 1 mM, 5 mM, 25 mM) of glucose were applied to Dox-treated (with 0, 5 nM, 50 nM, 500 nM, 5 uM and 50 uM) K562/Dox and K652 cell lines. All results show significant decreasing in the cell count of K562/Dox, when cells were starved. However, while proliferation of K562/Dox lines decrease is associated with the increasingly applied Dox concentration, K562/Dox starved ones remain at the same proliferation level. Thus, the results imply that an amount of K562/Dox lines gain starvation resistance and remain resistant. Furthermore, for K562/Dox, there is no clear effect of glucose treatment in terms of cell proliferation. In the presence of a moderate level of glucose (5 mM), proliferation increases compared to other concentration of glucose for each different Dox application. On the other hand, a significant increase in cell proliferation in moderate level of glucose is only observed in 5 uM Dox concentration. The moderate concentration level of Dox can be examined in further studies. For the high amount of glucose (25 mM), cell proliferation levels are lower than moderate glucose application. The reason could be high amount of glucose may not be absorbable by cells. Also, in the presence of low amount of glucose, proliferation is decreasing in an orderly manner of increase in Dox concentration. This situation can be explained by the glucose depletion -Warburg effect- in the literature.
Impact of Direct Cash Transfer in Lieu of Public Distribution System: A Policy Review of Chandigarh, India
Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) scheme has started in Chandigarh (U.T.) in lieu of Public Distribution System (PDS). Its main purpose is to overcome the deficiencies of PDS. The success of this new scheme crucially depends upon the extent of financial inclusion, financial literacy, and physical accessibility of food grains throughout the length and breadth of the country. The present study tries to report the satisfaction level of beneficiaries in Chandigarh from DBT scheme. The objective of this study is to find the gaps that why citizens are not accepting this project. It also aims to evaluate the impact of scheme on women dependency. The paper is based on the primary data collected from the various areas of Chandigarh. Perception survey method has been used to explain the views of the respondents. Three sets of respondents have been interviewed and their perceptions have been recorded. Those are Beneficiaries of DBT scheme, Depot Holder and Governmental Officials. The responses of the households indicate that efforts are needed to meet the pre-requisites of successful implementation of DBT. The research found that more than 52 percent respondents are neither getting cash nor they are getting DBT. 18 percent are still not registered with the scheme. The amount which citizens are receiving is not at all sufficient. 20 percent of the people have received cash in initial months and later on they didn’t receive. While an interaction with Depot walas, they stated that, after DBT scheme they become unemployed. A ‘Signature Abhiyaan’ has been conducted along with the help of citizens of Chandigarh to stop the scheme but nothing has been done so far. Overall, the study concludes that at implementation level, there still exists scope for improvement. Also, improvement in financial awareness can indirectly help in successful implementation of this scheme.
The Roles of Muslims Scholars in Minifying Religious Extremism for Religious Tolerance and Peace Building in Nigeria
Insurgency, religious extremism and other related religious crises become hydra-headed in Nigeria, which caused destruction of human lives and properties worth of billions naira. As result, millions people were displaced and million children were out of school most of whom from Muslims community. The wrong teaching and misinterpretation of Islam by some Muslim community fuel the spread of extremist ideology hatred among Muslim sects, non-Muslims and emergency of extremist groups, like Boko Haram. A multi-religious country like Nigeria to realise its development in all human aspects, there must be unity and religious tolerance. Many agreed that changing the ideologies of insurgents and religious extremism will require intellectual role with vigorous campaign. Muslim scholars can play a vital role in promoting social reform and peaceful coexistence. This paper discusses the importance of unity among Muslim community and religious tolerance in light of the Qur’an and the Hadith. The paper also reviews the relationship between Muslims and non Muslims during the life time the Prophet (S.A.W.) in order to serve as exemplary model. Contemporary issues such as religious extremism, sectarians, intolerance and their consequences were examined. To minify religious intolerance and extremism,the paper identifies the roles to be played by Muslim scholars with references from Qur’an and Sunnah. The paper concludes that to realise overall human development and eternal salvation, Muslim should shun away from any religious crises and embrace unity and religious tolerance. Finally the paper recommends among others that only pious and learned scholars should be allowed to preach in any religious gathering, Muslim should exercise patience, tolerance in dealing with Muslims and non Muslims. Muslims should leave by example from the teaching of Qur’an and Sunnah of the Prophet (S.A.W.).
Becoming a Shakti: An Analysis of Western Women's Experiences of Tantra Practices
Research over the last decade suggests that there have been distinct changes in both women’s sexual behaviour and attitudes towards female sexuality in the UK. Areas such as discussing sex, participating in sexual activity outside of traditional monogamous relationships, and engaging in boudoir photography have all been explored by researchers. Women’s participation in tantric practices, however, is a relatively unexplored area of sexuality, despite an increasing number of Tantra schools opening in the UK. Tantra is a practice in which women are considered to have a higher consciousness than men, where the sexual role of women is deemed to be very different to a traditional Western sexually passive role. This research looks at this area, and is based on in-depth, semi-structured, thematically analysed interviews with women who have participated in tantric workshops and/or retreats across the country. The interviews investigate why women engage with such practices, what they feel they gain from the experience, and how shifting notions of appropriate sexual roles for women impact on their sexuality and life generally. While Tantra is still a minority activity in the UK, the findings shed light on not only these areas but also on women’s constructions of their sexuality, their relationships with their bodies and sexualities, and ways in which they express and engage with changing notions of female sexuality.
The Experiences of Hong Kong Chinese Divorced Wives in Facing Cancer Death of Their Ex-Husbands
With the surge of divorce rate and male cancer onset/death rates, the phenomenon of divorced wives in facing cancer death of their ex-husbands is not uncommon in Hong Kong. Yet, there is a dearth of study on the experiences of bereaved-divorced wives in Hong Kong cultural context. This project fills the knowledge gap by conducting a qualitative study for having interviewed four bereaved ex-wives, who returned to ex-husbands’ end-of-life caregiving and eventually grieved for the ex-spousal death. From the perspectives of attachment theory and disenfranchised grief in Hong Kong cultural context, a 'double-loss' experience is found in which interviewees suffer from the first loss of divorce and the second loss of ex-husbands’ death. Traumatic childhood experiences, attachment needs, role ambiguity, unresolved emotions and unrecognized grief are found significant in their lived experiences which alert the 'double-loss' is worthy of attention. Extending a family-centered end-of-life and bereavement care services to divorced couples is called for, in which validation on the attachment needs, ex-couple reconciliation, and acknowledgement on the disenfranchised grief are essential for social work practice on this group of clienteles specifically in Hong Kong cultural context.
An Analysis of Social Media Use regarding Foodways by University Students: The Case of Sakarya University
In the last quarter of the 20th century, Food Studies was emerged as an interdisciplinary program. It seeks to develop a critical perspective on sociocultural meanings of food. The notion of food has been related with certain social and cultural values throughout history. In today’s society, with the rise of new media technologies, cultural structure have been digitized. Food culture in this main, is also endowed with digital codes. In particular, social media has been integrated into foodways. This study attempts to examine the gratifications that individuals obtain from social media use on foodways. In the first part of study, the relationship between food culture and digital culture is examined. Secondly, theoretical framework and research method of the study are explained. In order to achieve the particular aim of study, Uses and Gratifications Theory is adopted as conceptual framework. Conventional gratification categories are redefined in new media terms. After that, the relation between redefined categories and foodways is uncovered. Due to its peculiar context, this study follows a quantitative research method. By conducting pre-interviews and factor analysis, a peculiar survey is developed. The sample of study is chosen among 405 undergraduate communication faculty students of Sakarya University by proportionate stratification sampling method. In the analysis of the collected data, statistical methods One-Way ANOVA, Independent Samples T-test, and Tuckey Honest Significant Difference Test, Post Hoc Test are used.
An Analysis of Twitter Use of Slow Food Movement in the Context of Online Activism
With the developments of information and communication technologies, the forms of molding public opinion have changed. In the presence of Internet, the notion of activism has been endowed with digital codes. Activists have engaged the use of Internet into their campaigns and the process of creating collective identity. Activist movements have been incorporating the relevance of new communication technologies for their goals and opposition. Creating and managing activism through Internet is called Online Activism. In this main, Slow Food Movement which was emerged within the philosophy of defending regional, fair and sustainable food has been engaging Internet into their activist campaign. This movement supports the idea that a new food system which allows strong connections between plate and planet is possible. In order to make their voices heard, it has utilized social networks and develop particular skills in the framework online activism. This study analyzes online activist skills of Slow Food Movement (SFM) develop and attempts to measure its effectiveness. To achieve this aim, it adopts the model proposed by Sivitandies and Shah and conduct both qualitiative and quantiative content analysis on social network use of Slow Food Movement. In this regard, the sample is chosen as the official profile and analyzed between in a three month period respectively March-May 2017. It was found that SFM develops particular techniques that appeal to the model of Sivitandies and Shah. The prominent skill in this regard was found as hyperlink abbreviation and use of multimedia elements. On the other hand, there are inadequacies in hashtag and interactivity use. The importance of this study is that it highlights and discusses how online activism can be engaged into a social movement. It also reveals current online activism skills of SFM and their effectiveness. Furthermore, it makes suggestions to enhance the related abilities and strengthen its voice on social networks.
Language and the Politics of Feminism through the Lens of Ba’s ‘So Long a Letter’ and Alkali’s ‘The Stillborn’
The Sapir-Whorfian hypothesis postulates that the structure of a language determines the way in which species of that language view the world. It also states that the culture of a people finds reflection in their language. Consequently language becomes a vehicle of thought; a channel through which negative stereotypes of women is created and also one through which such images are dispelled. Women are generally portrayed as weaker vessels and inferior to men; a position which draws a counter reaction from women through their writings. In their writings, they attempt to reinvent womanhood and liberate the woman from the hitherto negative light they were portrayed. This position best describes the term feminism which argues that women be given equal rights in all spheres of life as men. This paper attempts to evaluate Ba’s ‘So Long a Letter’ and Alkali’s ‘The Stillborn’ with the view to identify the relationship between language and feminism. In evaluating this relationship, the paper concludes that there are several factors responsible for the variation in the speech pattern of male and female. All of these factors favour the male gender and further condemns the woman to oppression. Although the writers come from two different cultural backgrounds, the works amplify feminism and captured them as apostles of feminism.
Language as an Instrument of Manipulation and Political Control in Nigeria: The 2015 Presidential Election in Perspective
This study is premised on the assumption that language, particularly, English plays a significant role in the acquisition of power in Nigeria. This is against the backdrop of the fact that for the first time in the political history of Nigeria, an opposition party succeeded in dethroning an incumbent President and ruling political party in an election. Therefore the main objective was to investigate the role of language, particularly English in the acquisition of political power in Nigeria. The corpus generated for this study consisted of excerpts from the media exchange between the spokespersons of the two dominant political parties at the time of the elections in 2015; Olisa Metuh of the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) and Lai Mohammed of the All Progressive Party (APC). The excerpts were analysed using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as a research tool. The findings revealed the acceptance of the first proposition that English facilitates the acquisition of political power in Nigeria and the rejection of the second proposition that English is an instrument for the exclusion of the populist from political events in Nigeria. The study, therefore, concluded that language, particularly English played a significant role in the acquisition of political power in Nigeria.
Language and Political Manipulation: A Critical Analysis of Okediran's Tenants of the House
Language is a veritable tool in the hands of politicians. They use it to shape social realities; create new meanings and ultimately to acquire, exercise and sustain power in the society. Language and politics both share a symbiotic relationship. The former is the medium through which members of the society communicate and cohabitate while the later is used to gain and exercise power in the society. Language therefore is the epicenter of every human activity and politicians explore, deploy and manipulate it to advance their personal interests. This paper examines the ideological use of language in Okediran’s Tenants of the House. The study further shows that language is used as an instrument of political domination and manipulation through the display of emotiveness. The study concludes that politicians do not innocently use language but deliberately employ them to foreground their ideological position.
Creativity and Expressive Interpretation of Musical Drama in Children with Special Needs (Down Syndrome) in Special Schools Yayasan Pendidikan Anak Cacat, Medan, North Sumatera
Children with special needs, especially those with disability in mental, physical or social/emotional interactions, are marginalized. Many people still view them as troublesome, inconvenience, having learning difficulties, unproductive and burdensome to society. This study intends to investigate; how musical drama can develop the ability to control the coordination of mental functions; how musical dramas can assist children to work together; how musical dramas can assist to maintain the child's emotional and physical health; how musical dramas can improve children creativity. The objectives of the research are: To know whether musical drama can control the coordination of mental function of children; to know whether musical drama can improve communication ability and expression of children; to know whether musical drama can help children work with people around them; to find out if musical dramas can develop the child's emotional and physical health; to find out if musical drama can improve children's creativity. The study employed a qualitative research approach. Data was collecting by listening, observing in depth through public hearings that select the key informants who were teachers and principals, parents and children. The data obtained from each public hearing was then processed (reduced), conclusion drawing/verification, presentation of data (data display). Furthermore, the model obtained was implementing for musical performance, where the benefits of the show are: musical drama can improve language skills; musical dramas are capable of developing memory and storage of information; developing communication skills and express themselves; helping children work together; assisting emotional and physical health; enhancing creativity.
Acculturation Profiles of Syrian Refugees in Turkey
Immigrants who came to a new country experience some socio-cultural difficulties which are different from theirs. The study aims to investigate how Syrian Refugees manage their life in Turkey and the relationship between acculturation profiles and demographic background of Syrian refugees who came to Turkey after civil war has intensified in Syria. Data are collected from 280 adult Syrian refugees who were born in Syria. The study adopts bi-dimensional acculturation approach stating that both heritage and dominant host cultures can live together. Results suggest that demographic backgrounds, religion, and religiosity are significantly linked to both heritage and dominant host culture. Syrian refugees who are not affiliated with Islam are found to significantly preserve their ethnic/heritage culture. Generally, Syrian refugees are more willing to integrate Turkish society but not to assimilate. The results also confirmed acculturation process as a bi-dimensional, not a zero-sum game since we found a significant positive correlation between the heritage and the dominant host cultures which assume the independence and orthogonal of involvements in the dominant host and heritage cultures.
Asymmetric Warfare: Exploratory Study of the Implicit Defense Strategy of the People's Republic of China in 2012-2016
According to different theories, the hegemonic war between the United States and the People's Republic of China seems to be imminent. However, nowadays, it is clear that China's conventional military capacity is inferior to that of the United States. Nevertheless, the conditions that in the past were considered to be an indicator of validity in a symmetrical warfare, at present, in a possible asymmetric war scenario, are no longer considered to be taken as such. The military capacity is not the only concept that represents the main indicator of victory. The organisation and the use of forces are also an essential part of it. The present paper aims to analyze the Chinese Defense Strategy in relation to the concept of asymmetric warfare in the face of a possible war with the United States. The starting point will be developed on the basis of application of the theory which corresponds to the concept aforementioned making focus on recent developments of the People’s Republic of China in the field of non-conventional defense. A comparative analysis of the conventional forces of both powers/countries will also be carried out.
Examining the Teaching and Learning Needs of Science and Mathematics Educators in South Africa
There has been increasing pressure on education researchers and practitioners at higher education institutions to focus on the development of South Africa’s rural and peri-urban communities and improving their quality of life. Many tertiary institutions are obliged to review their outreach interventions in schools. To ensure that the support provided to schools is still relevant, a systemic evaluation of science educator needs is central to this process. These prioritised needs will serve as guide not only for the outreach projects of tertiary institutions, but also to service providers in general so that the process of addressing educators needs become coordinated, organised and delivered in a systemic manner. This paper describes one area of a broader needs assessment exercise to collect data regarding the needs of educators in a district of 45 secondary schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. This research focuses on the needs and challenges faced by science educators at these schools as articulated by the relevant stakeholders. The objectives of this investigation are two-fold: (1) to create a data base that will capture the needs and challenges identified by science educators of the selected secondary schools; and (2) to develop a needs profile for each of the participating secondary schools that will serve as a strategic asset to be shared with the various service providers as part of a community of practice whose core business is to support science educators and science education at large. The data was collected by a means of a needs assessment questionnaire (NAQ) which was developed in both actual and preferred versions. An open-ended questionnaire was also administered which allowed teachers to express their views. The categories of the questionnaire were predetermined by participating researchers, educators and education department officials. Group interviews were also held with the science teachers at each of the schools. An analysis of the data revealed important trends in terms of science educator needs and identified schools that can be clustered around priority needs, logistic reasoning and educator profiles. The needs database also provides opportunity for the community of practice to strategise and coordinate their interventions.
Effect of Crude Flowers Extract of Citrus reticulata Blanco Flowers on Physico-Chemical and Nutritional Properties of Cheddar Cheese
Citrus reticulata Blanco crude flowers extract (CFE) at different level (1, 2, 3 and 4%) were used as natural milk coagulant instead of rennet to develop the Cheddar cheese. The Cheddar cheeses were compared with one controlled cheese made with rennet of 0.002%. Physico-chemical results of Cheddar cheese showed that cheese made with 1% and 2% of CFE had a longer and slightly softer texture while cheeses containing 3 and 4% CFE had semi-hard textural properties of curd similar to rennet added cheese. The CFE made cheese had moisture 37 %, fat 45 % on dry basis resembling to rennet made Cheddar cheese. Protein analysis shows that CFE made cheese had significantly higher protein content than control one. The Cheddar cheese with 3% and 1% CFE were preferred by consumers instead of 2% and 4% for their better taste, texture/appearance and overall acceptability. Conclusively, it fulfills the nutritional requirement with acceptable organoleptic characteristics and at the same time provides health benefits.
Third Gender: The Conflict for Sexual Identity in India as Transgender
Third genders have a recorded history of more than 4,000 years. Asian countries have centuries-old histories of existence of gender-variant males who in the moderns times are labeled as 'transgender women'. India has a history of people with a wide range of transgender related identities, cultures, and experiences. People with such identities include Hijras. Aravanis, Kothis, Jogtas/Jogappas, and Shiv-Shakthis. Kama Sutra provides vivid description of sexual life of people with 'third nature' (Tritiya Prakriti). These identities have always been part of the broader culture and were treated with great respect in the past though only some are accorded such respect in the present. Educational Status: Educational status of the transgenders is very poor. This is the main reason fro their deprivation. Their dropout itself cannot be counted. No one will enquire about the reasons for the dropout and the resultant factors. No formal education for transgender is popular in Indian context. They are deprived from family and school environment, transgender discontinues their education and risk their future career opportunities. In most of the cases if there is one transgender student at the school, because of all the discrimination from the teachers and friends they need a company from their sect. This reveals that if there is one support for them to understand them, to love them automatically their study will continue without any issue. But in most of the cases, this situation is really absent from the life of a transgender. Ultimately, they will drop from the education. Social Status: The transgenders in India mostly in Kerala are socially and economically deprived. Because of the lack of education and dropout at their primary classes, more than 80 percent of them did not complete their SSLC itself. They face stigma and discrimination and therefore have fewer opportunities as compared to others. They are hardly educated as they are nor accepted by the society and therefore do not receive proper schooling. Even if they are enrolled in an educational institute, they face harassment and are bullied every day and are asked to leave the school or they drop out on their own. It is because of this that they take up begging and sex work. The amount of money they get from sex work is good enough fro them to buy their cloth and ornaments. There are groups of sex workers at the prime cities. They are forced into sex work which puts them at the highest risk of contracting HIV as they agree to unprotected sexual intercourse because they fear rejection or they want to affirm their gender through sex. Generally, they are considered as the ‘vectors’ of HIV in the society. Loneliness is the biggest mental disorder for them. There is a need for prepare an environment where transgender feels secure. Teacher and community people can play a significant role in inclusion. Gender identity is a very important factor for the success of each and every person. But due to this, there is marginalization in the transgenders.
Person-Led Organizations Nurture Bullying Behavior: A Qualitative Study
Workplace bullying is a social phenomenon which has proved to be hazardous not only for employees’ well-being but also organizations. Despite being prevalent across geographical boundaries, Indian organizations have failed to acknowledge its vices. This paper aims to understand targets’ perception on what makes bullying nurture in organizations. The paper suggests that person-led Indian work settings give birth to bullying behavior as it lacks professional acumen and systems. An analysis of 13 in-depth interviews of employees from the organized sector suggests that organizations, where decision making lies with single individual, may be a hub of hostile behavior due to the culture which promotes ‘yesmanship’, ‘authoritarianism’ and/or blind belief of leaders on certain set of employees. The study used constructivist grounded theory approach, and the data was analyzed using R Based Qualitative Data Analysis (RQDA) software. Respondents reported that bullying behavior is taken lightly by the management with 'just ignore it' attitude. According to the respondents, the behavior prolong as the perpetrator have a direct approach to the top authority. The study concludes that person-led organizations may create a family-like environment which is favored by employees; however, authoritative leaders are unable to gain the trust of employees. Also, employees who are close to the leader may either be a perpetrator or a target of bullying. It is recommended that leaders in such organizations need to acknowledge the presence of bullying which affects an employees’ commitment towards their job and/or organization. They need to have an assertive check on individuals who hide behind ‘yesman’ attitude. This may help employees feel safe in such work settings.
Traditional Terms, Spaces, Forms and Artifacts in Cultural Semiotics of Southwest Nigeria
The paper examined local terms used for spaces, forms and building practices in southwest Nigeria as cultural semiotics. Housing has more cultural meaning than mere shelter as shown in building terms such as ‘roof over my head’. The study is significant in the study area because its people were traditionally orally centered until ‘culture contact’ led to graphical presentation and appreciation in the form of drawings which is a modern language of architecture. This semiotic study will facilitate the understanding of the wholesomeness of traditional building practices and thoughts. This is in the culture of the traditional multi-sensory appreciation of architecture, urban design and the arts. It will analyze traditional aphoristic words and terms which are like proverbs which are significant in language because of their metaphorical essence. Many of such terms in the dominant Yoruba language of the study area are oftentimes phenomenal reducing universal terms like the earth and heaven to the simple module of housing. These words could be worth investigating because they are symbolic serve as codes which are cultural tool of regional ethnic significance. Sassure’s and Pierce’s concepts of Semiotics in line with Eco’s concept of semiotics of metaphor shall be deployed.
A Study on How Newlyweds Handle the Difference with Parents on Wedding Arrangement and Its Implication for Services in Hong Kong
This research examined the literature review of wedding preparation’s challenges and its developmental tasks of family transition under family life cycle. Five interviewees were invited to explore their experience and coping strategies of encountered differences with their parents on wedding preparation. Some coping strategies and processes were highlighted for facilitating the family to achieve the developmental tasks during the wedding preparation. However, those coping strategies and processes may only act as the step and the behavior, while 'concern towards parents' was found as the important element behind these behaviors. In addition to pre-marital counseling, developmental group was suggested to develop under the framework of family life cycle and its related coping strategies on working with the newlyweds who encountered the intergenerational difference on wedding preparation.
Migrants in the West Immersed on Nihilism: Towards a Space for Mutual Recognition and Self-Realization
This presentation aims to discuss how the feeling of ‘nostalgia’ both present on Westerns and migrants could shed light to a mutual recognition and an exchange of ways of life that could enhance mutual possibilities of self-realization. It seems that this feeling of nostalgia is related to another unfolding of the nihilism of the death of God diagnosed by Nietzsche. Westerns are feeling on the margins of the values of their own culture as they feel such values as external to them. At the same time, some groups are claiming the return of the old devalued values. In this scenario, the West is receiving many migrants from different parts of the world since the second half of the last century. Migrants might be suffering from nostalgia or homesickness for having left their home. It might be that sharing a sense of nostalgia, although with different meanings, can bring together Westerns and migrants. Migrants bring ways of life that might be unknown and inexperienced in the West, and these can shed light to new forms of interpretation and cultivation of ones’ drives, and forces and this could become a source of mutual strength cultivation. Therefore, this mutual feeling of nostalgia could lead to ways of exploring the idea of self- realization in Nietzsche detaching it from the idea of being mainly individual to a more trans-individual-cultural claim. Nietzsche argues that nihilism is a European event here translated as a Western event, which would take 200 years until it could be overcome. To overcome nihilism a new kind of human would be needed, a creative and strong kind. For Nietzsche, there is not a fixed or true self, hence one possibility for one to achieve self-realization would reside on cultivating their multiple creative forces. The argument here is that in this recent unfolding of nihilism, translated in the sense of nostalgia, the encounter between the mainstream western immersed on nihilism with migrants could create a sense of a shared temporary home, where these different ways of life could inspire each other to create new meanings. Indeed, contributing to the expansion of one’s world view, drives and forces. Therefore, fertilizing the soil for the cultivation of self-realization and consequently the creation of new values.
Religious Discourses and Their Impact on Regional and Global Geopolitics: A Study of Deobandi in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan
The spread of radical ideology is possible not merely through public meetings, protests, and mosques but even in schools, seminaries, and madrasas. The rhetoric created around the relationship between religion and conflict has been the primary factor for instigating global conflicts – when religion is used to achieve broader objectives. There have been numerous cases of religion-driven conflict around the world be it the Jewish revolt between 66 AD and 628 AD or the 1119 AD the Crusades revolt or during the Cold War period or the rise of right-wing politics in India. Some of the major developments which reiterate the significance of religion in the contemporary times include: (1) The emergence of theocracy in Iran in 1979 (2) Resurgence of world-wide religious beliefs in post-Soviet space. (3) Emergence of transnational terrorism shaped by twisted depiction of Islam by the self proclaimed protectors of the religion. Therefore this paper is premised in the argument that religion has always found itself on the periphery of the discipline of International Relations (IR), and has received less attention than it deserves. The focus of the topic is on the discourses of ‘Deobandi’ and its impact both on the geopolitics of the region- particularly in India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan- and also at the global level. Discourse is a mechanism in use since time immemorial and has been a key tool to mobilise masses against the ruling authority. With the help of field surveys, qualitative and analytical method of research in religion and international relations, it has been found that they are numerous madrassas that are running illegally and are unregistered. These seminaries are operating in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA). During the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, relation between religion and geopolitics was highlighted when there was a sudden spread of radical ideas, finding support from countries like Saudi Arabia (who funded the campaign) and Pakistan (which organised the Saudi funds and set up training camps, both educational and military). During this period there was a huge influence of Wahabi theology on the madrasas which started with Deoband philosophy and later became a mix of Wahabi (influenced by Ahmad Ibn Hannabal and Ibn Taimmiya) and Deobandi philosophy, tending towards fundamentalism. Later the impact of regional geopolitics had influence on the global geopolitics when the incidents like attack on the US in 2001, bomb blasts in U.K, Indonesia, Turkey, and Israel in 2000s. In the midst of all this, there were several scholars who pointed towards Deobandi Philosophy as one of the drivers in the creation of armed Islamic groups in Pakistan, Afghanistan. Hence this paper will make an attempt to understand the trend as to how Deobandi religious discourses originating from India have changed over the decades, and who the agents of such changes are. It will throw light on Deoband from pre-independence till date to create a narrative around the religious discourses and Deobandi philosophy and its spill over impact on the map of global and regional security.
A Comparative Analysis: Cultural Reflections of Mexicans in the United States and Turks in Germany
This paper aims to conduct a comparative analysis on the reflections of cultural elements such as language, festival, and food both in the case of Turkish immigrants in Germany and Mexican immigrants in the United States within a historical perspective. These reflections will be studied first by giving a certain background information on the migratory history of the two nations, Mexican immigration to the US, and Turkish immigration to Germany, respectively. These two cases were picked as the analytical subjects of this paper because both nations first migrated to the related country to constitute a labor force since there was a huge need for that due to several reasons such as the loss of manpower after certain wars or revolutions. At the end of this comparative study, it is speculated to be found that there are certain parallels between these two immigrant societies in the way that they reflect their cultures in the receiving country since both nations have a conventionalist nature which makes them tend more to protect their cultures and pay less effort to integrate into the society in which they are living. Even though this integration might be realized in certain fields like economic status and exogamy, it does not cover all segments nor is there any desire of the receiving government to integrate the immigrants but rather they make policies to assimilate them. This research paper will use a qualitative method which is fundamentally based on the interpretative data drawn from several sociological or ethnographic studies conducted in the related field. The primary and secondary resources of this paper will cover academic books, journal articles, particularly those reporting interviews with the immigrants, and certain governmental documents as well as publicized statistics regarding the subject of analysis. By the use of the aforementioned methodology and resources, the conventionalist nature of the two immigrant nations is aimed to be presented as the unifying factor in the way that Mexicans in the US and Turks in Germany reflect and protect their cultures in the form of language, festivals, and food.
Survival Struggle: To Be a Female Competitor in Survivor
In Turkey national TV channels broadcast a wide range of programs to audience attract viewers. Since the year 2000, especially the competition programs were directed towards entertainment and audience has gained. Even today, television channels have just begun to be broadcast on entertainment channels. Except from the news, the TV collects pleasure with its broadcasts aiming to meet the expectation of the Turkish people of TV 8 TV channels. Survivor, one of the TV 8 programs, draws attention with the ratings it receives and the broad target audience it addresses. Survivor, however, is one of the most exciting competitions on the Turkish television scene, which is rightly and ambitiously competitive in television contest programs. It is a format in which women and men struggle their power borders by winning the competition with their names thanks to their intelligence and endurance games. The contestants of the program, which has been running since March 22, 2005, are seen in a platform where they must present their struggle for their various awards. In Survivor, where competition is at stake, courage and strength are reduced by the reduction of sex. In this study, the critical discourse was made taking into consideration the challenges of female competitors competing to the final stage which is behind the male competitors. Secondly, the variables from the beginning to the present day of the adaptation of the judge to Turkey have been debated in a critical context.
Representations of Violence, the Appreciation of Mexican College Students
Talking about the concept of violence is complex since the only ways we have to approach it is through, first, the institutionalized discourse we receive and internalize, and second, the experienced and typified situations where we can identify the distinctive elements, in this case, recognize the 'violent.' Although for our society violence is understood as a social problem, situations that are not socially accepted for altering the harmony and social coexistence; not all people share the same interpretation. Violence cannot be understood nor sized unless it is through a unique and personal experience that can summarize all its conceptualization in a single act. Meanwhile, we only have what we socially and symbolically shared symbolically, the speech. Discourse that is institutionalized through the establishment of norms and which today gives us a family of associated concepts such as social, political, cultural, economic, gender, interfamilial and psychological violence, to name a few. Based on the above, the axis of our work is to reflect over the concept and analyze how college students understand it and how they incorporate it into their daily discourses. To carry out this research, we worked with 67 college students from the Autonomous University of Baja California in Mexico, who drew a picture of how they understood the concept of violence. Their works showed us a variety of emotions, actions and elements that they relate and link with violence. One of the methodological tools to recognize and be able to establish the link of the knowledge of a concept between discourse and practice is through graphic representations, that is, of drawings. Although the drawing gives us a personal interpretation of the reality of each artist, the repetition of elements and representation of similar situations tells us that this personal interpretation is mediated by a homogenizing discourse that has enough credibility to become part of the personal discourse. The relation of the symbolic elements in a drawing gives us that individual, personal knowledge, a particular construction of how violence can be plotted. Part of that knowledge is based on the daily life of the individual and its relationship with institutions and their social interactions. His or her experience will speak of symbolic elements less abstract and the situation represented will be more specific. Thanks to the drawings we can identify and relate the content of their speeches facing this process of social construction that is violence.
Understanding the Operational Challenges of Social Enterprises: A Review of Real-Life Issues in the Context of Developing Countries
There is growing importance of ‘social enterprise’ among the researchers and policy makers around the globe. Such enterprises have been viewed as alternative means for addressing the concerns relating to financing of corporate enterprises and social empowerment. This, some cases, has led to relatively unrealistic and higher level of expectations among policy makers and the members of the society at large. There is a general perception among different social actors that these enterprises provide universal and magic solution towards employment generation, and thus resulting in eradicating poverty, and ensuring equitable distribution of income and wealth. However, in many cases, these enterprises find a challenging journey in terms of prevailing market structure, socio-political environment, and unrealistic perception and expectations of social participants. This paper is focused on reviewing case studies based on empirical research and information from secondary sources and geared to looking at the challenges that social enterprises face. The research will draw the experience primarily from the developing countries’ perspective by adopting case study methodology. A tentative action plan will be suggested for further review by the policy makers and researchers in this growing arena of discipline. This research will attempt to highlight the myths and realities surrounding the operation of social enterprises.
The Different Essence of Death in the Elegies of Shelley's Adonais and Lord Tennyson's in Memoriam
The topic about death and dying is interesting to discuss since it is strongly related to every individual life. As represented in its title, Adonais: An Elegy on the Death of John Keats is a mournful poem written in 1821 by Percy Bysshe Shelley to mourn the loss of young poet John Keats. To compare, In Memoriam A.H.H. is an elegy written in 1850 about the death of Lord Tennyson’s dearest friend, Arthur Henry Hallam. Although both elegies were written to grieve the authors’ loved ones, their grief affects differently to the psychological being of the narrators. Thus, this research aims to examine the essence of death in affecting the narrators psychologically. By using psychoanalytic criticism, this research reveals the different essence of death in the two elegies as the result of the analysis. Moreover, these two elegies also portray the concept of the afterlife, immortality, and the figure of God. In Adonais, the grief of the narrator to Keats leads him to question the very purpose of life. The loss of his favorite poet which makes him feel sorrowful and mad along his 55 stanzas brings him to a higher psychological level to understand himself. He even sees himself as a Christ-like figure, which shows the idea that God is imaginable. Different from Adonais, the narrator of In Memoriam finds something more spiritual by doing his passionate mourning to Hallam. Through some contemplation in his 133 cantos, in the end, he is convinced that the dear one now dwells with a great Spirit who controls the world. He believes that all of the creation in the universe has to follow one law which is set by God. Hence, it can be concluded that death might bring different consequence to the psyche of every living creature.
Students Perceptions on the Relevance of High School Mathematics in University Education in South Africa
In this study, we investigated the relevance of high school mathematics in university education. The paper particularly focused on whether the concepts taught in high school are enough for engineering courses at diploma level. The study identified particular concepts that are required in engineering courses whether they were adequately covered in high school. A questionnaire was used to investigate whether relevant topics were covered in high school. The respondents were 228 first year students at the Central University of Technology in the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology. The study indicates that there are some topics such as integration, complex numbers and matrices that are not done at high schools and are required in engineering courses at the university. It is further observed that some students did not cover the topics that are in the current syllabus. Female students enter the university less prepared than their male counterparts. More than 30% of the respondents in this study felt that high school mathematics was not useful for them to be able to do engineering courses.
Tourism as a Tool for Building Consensus on the Conservation of Industrial Heritage: A Focus on Japan's Local Communities’ Practices
For the last two decades, much attention has been paid to the conservation of industrial heritage in Japan as a tourism resource to revitalize local communities, especially in rural areas suffering from depopulation and changes in industrial structures. In this process, diverse social agents inside the communities have been regarded as a primary actor of its conservation. However, few studies have examined their concrete and common methods of the utilization of industrial heritage as a tourism resource based on empirical research. Based on the aforementioned issues, this study clarifies the generality of the practices among local communities in Japan to conserve industrial heritage. It uses a comparative research approach toward the methods utilizing industrial heritage as a tourism resource. In addition to reviewing the literature on cultural heritage, it uses the data derived from fieldwork conducted by the author at eight former mines, which are typical examples of industrial heritage in Japan. The major findings of this study can be summarized as follows: Tourism is regarded as an important tool for building consensus on the conservation of industrial heritage among the local communities. This finding is connected to the characteristics of both industrial heritages and recent situations such as depopulation and industrial structural changes, witnessed by the local Japanese communities. Industrial heritage, on the one hand, is a relatively new concept in Japan and is in dissonance with the popular understanding of cultural heritage. Sometimes, it also evokes the negative past memories, such as harsh labor conditions, and requires huge amounts of money to conserve. On the other hand, many local governments struggle against recession and depopulation and yet have to assume accountability of the public spending on heritage conservation. At this juncture, reconstructing local identities is also imperative for local communities. Consequently, tourism occupies a significant place in local communities. First, local agents who engage in conserving the industrial heritage organize small tours, such as school trips or strolls through town with local guides, for local residents. This practice helps convey the cultural value of the local communities both to the present and future generations. Second, tourist attention toward an industrial heritage has a positive effect by converting ruins into heritage sites in the eyes of the local residents. Moreover, knowing the exact number of tourists visiting the industrial heritage site enables local governments to commit to its conservation. This finding enhances our understanding of how Japanese local communities and governments conserve industrial heritages and the generality of the dynamics of its conservation inside the communities under the current social conditions.