Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 39602

Humanities and Social Sciences

2500
66958
Child Trafficking for Adoption Purposes: A Study into the Criminogenic Factors of the German Intercountry Adoption System
Authors:
Abstract:
In Western countries, the demand for adoptable children, especially healthy babies, has been considerably high for several years. Rising infertility rates, liberal abortion politics, the widespread use of contraception, and the increasing acceptance of unmarried motherhood are factors that have decreased the number of infants available for domestic adoption in the U.S. and Europe. As a consequence, many involuntarily childless couples turn to intercountry adoption as a viable alternative to have a child of their own. However, the demand for children far outpaces the supply of orphans with the desired characteristics. The imbalance between the number of prospective adopters and the children available for intercountry adoption results in long waiting lists and high prices. The inordinate sums of money involved in the international adoption system have created a commercial ‘underbelly’ where unethical and illicit practices are employed to provide the adoption market with adoptable children. Children are being purchased or abducted from their families, hospitals or child care institutions and then trafficked to receiving countries as ‘orphans’. This paper aims to uncover and explain the factors of the German adoption system that are conducive to child trafficking for adoption purposes. It explains that the tension between money and integrity as experienced by German adoption agencies, blind trust in the authorities in the sending countries as well as a lenient control system encourage and facilitate the trafficking in children to Germany.
2499
66937
The Composer’s Hand: An Analysis of Arvo Pärt’s String Orchestral Work, Psalom
Abstract:
Arvo Pärt has composed over 80 text-based compositions based on nine different languages. But prior to 2015, it was not publicly known what texts the composer used in composing a number of his non-vocal works, nor the language of those texts. Because of this lack of information, few if any musical scholars have illustrated in any detail how textual structure applies to any of Pärt’s instrumental compositions. However, in early 2015, the Arvo Pärt Centre in Estonia published In Principio, a compendium of the texts Pärt has used to derive many of the parameters of his text-based compositions. This paper provides the first detailed analysis of the relationship between structural aspects of the Church Slavonic Eastern Orthodox text of Psalm 112 and the musical parameters that Pärt used when composing the string orchestral work Psalom. It demonstrates that Pärt’s text-based compositions are carefully crafted works, and that evidence of the presence of the ‘invisible’ hand of the composer can be found within every aspect of the underpinning structures, at the more elaborate middle ground level, and even within surface aspects of these works. Based on the analysis of Psalom, it is evident that the text Pärt selected for Psalom informed many of his decisions regarding the musical structures, parameters and processes that he deployed in composing this non-vocal text-based work. Many of these composerly decisions in relation to these various aspects cannot be fathomed without access to, and an understanding of, the text associated with the work.
2498
66921
Corruption in India: Causes and Remedial Measures
Abstract:
After independence the popular belief that Gandhian will not indulge in corruption got a set-back and post-independence setup paved the way for heavy corruption. The menace which would have dealt with strong legal provisions has become a way of life of Indian society. Corruption is recognised as the single biggest problem facing the country today. It undermines democracy and rule of law, violates human rights, distorts market and corrodes the moral fibre of people. The paper discusses the causes and possible remedial measures of corruption and response of people in Indian society. It emphasizes on factors which provide fertile ground for growth of corruption like, degradation of moral values, lack of a strong anti-corruption law and its effective enforcement, accountability, consistency and a defective system of fighting elections. The paper also highlights the reforms necessary for fighting corruption in India.
2497
66914
A Cross-Cultural Approach for Communication with Biological and Non-Biological Intelligences
Abstract:
This paper posits the need to take a cross-cultural approach to communication with non-human cultures and intelligences in order to meet the following three imminent contingencies: communicating with sentient biological intelligences, communicating with extraterrestrial intelligences, and communicating with artificial super-intelligences. The paper begins with a discussion of how intelligence emerges. It disputes some common assumptions we maintain about consciousness, intention, and language. The paper next explores cross-cultural communication among humans, including non-sapiens species. The next argument made is that we need to become much more serious about communicating with the non-human, intelligent life forms that already exist around us here on Earth. There is an urgent need to broaden our definition of communication and reach out to the other sentient life forms that inhabit our world. The paper next examines the science and philosophy behind CETI (communication with extraterrestrial intelligences) and how it has proven useful, even in the absence of contact with alien life. However, CETI’s assumptions and methodology need to be revised and based on the cross-cultural approach to communication proposed in this paper if we are truly serious about finding and communicating with life beyond Earth. The final theme explored in this paper is communication with non-biological super-intelligences using a cross-cultural communication approach. This will present a serious challenge for humanity, as we have never been truly compelled to converse with other species, and our failure to seriously consider such intercourse has left us largely unprepared to deal with communication in a future that will be mediated and controlled by computer algorithms. Fortunately, our experience dealing with other human cultures can provide us with a framework for this communication. The basic assumptions behind intercultural communication can be applied to the many types of communication envisioned in this paper if we are willing to recognize that we are in fact dealing with other cultures when we interact with other species, alien life, and artificial super-intelligence. The ideas considered in this paper will require a new mindset for humanity, but a new disposition will prepare us to face the challenges posed by a future dominated by artificial intelligence.
2496
66873
Exploring Norm-Emergence Using Multi Agent Simulation Based on Group Cognition Model
Abstract:
In this research, a multi-agent computer simulation is used to understand how a norm can emerge in a society. A group cognition model called mutual belief model is used as the basis of how the agents interact with each other. In particular, the purpose is to find out how a norm can emerge among the members of the society without rule or guidance from an authority, or any superior agents. By using cognition model instead of KISS approach, it is possible to better understand the mechanism of interaction from which a norm emerges. Tragedy of the commons is used to model the problem to be solved by the agent society. Preliminary result shows that individual personality has little effect on agents’ decision. On the other hand, agents’ decision is more affected by the decision of the neighboring agents.
2495
66835
Components of Data-Driven Industrial Services
Abstract:
The design of data-driven industrial services in the context of industry 4.0 represents a major challenge for a large number of companies. Data-driven services require technological and organizational components that most companies have not built up yet and that differ from current configurations. That is why many companies lack a systematic approach and implementation competence for the use of data in the context of industrial services and therefore face the challenge of not being able to expand their market position in an ever-growing competition for data. The present paper addresses this deficit with the aim of describing the main components of data-driven industrial services and by identifying the related crucial features and characteristics through a morphological approach. This will enable industrial service providers to improve strategic and operative management decisions and to configure data-driven services. Analytical research methods, such as classification or morphological methods, are used to gain new insights into research objects. It contributes decisively to generating new knowledge on investigation objects and ensures that results are traceable in a user-independent manner. For this purpose, the morphological method is particularly suitable since the construction of a morphological box allows the derivation of multi-dimensional solutions to describe real situations. First, a reference frame for components of data-driven industrial services is developed, based on the established layer model of digital infrastructures and the service production model. In a second step, the components are described with features that are subsequently specified by characteristics in a third step. Below, the features of the morphology are briefly described. In order to develop and offer data-driven services, companies need to consider the following phases: Collect data, data transfer, and backup, analyze data and service delivery. For each of these components, features and characteristics for data-driven services were developed, following the methodologic approach: Data Collection consists of the following features: data basis, data source, system integration, data preprocessing, data processing capability and data retrieval. The developed characteristics for the feature data basis are Individual object data, aggregated object data of a customer, aggregated object data of multiple customers, aggregated object data of a value chain. Data transfer and backup consists of the characteristics data storage, data access, and data quality management. Data Analysis consists of the features data analysis method and analysis process. Service delivery consists of the implementation, key resources, revenue model, physical service delivery, provision of services in systems and the performance focus. The scientific result of this paper is a morphology for components of data-driven industrial services that support companies in strategic and operative management decisions and depicts a complete overview of technological and organizational components for data-driven industrial services. The results enable companies to configure data-driven services for individual domains and hence close the previously stated research gap. Further research may be conducted in order to develop types of data-driven industrial services. In addition, the model will have to be validated by industrial users.
2494
66803
Interplay with Difference and Identification: Alevi and Sunni Intermarriages in Turkey
Abstract:
This article dwells on the findings of a research project from 2014 to 2017 on intermarriages between people from Alevi and Sunni communities in the city of Izmir, on the western coast of Turkey. The research is composed of 43 individual in-depth interviews with Alevi-Sunni couples (18 couples and 7 individuals, to represent 25 couples in total). It reveals how classifying identities, people's self and group identifications and understanding of difference interplay throughout close interactions of marital experiences. The couples' sense of difference and categorical identifications are built through not only individual interactions but also historical construction of Aleviness and Sunniness, current debates on Islam, political discourses in Turkey, and the representation of locality. The research, thus, contributes to the discussions on the concepts of identity, culture, religion, marriage and communication in the peculiarities of the Turkish context.
2493
66798
The Institutional Change Occurring in the Chinese Sport Sector: A Case Study on the Chinese Football Association Reform
Authors:
Abstract:
The Chinese sport sector is currently undergoing a dramatic institutional change. A sport system that was heavily dominated by the government is starting to shift towards one that is driven by the market. During the past sixty years, the Chinese Football Association (CFA), although ostensibly a ‘non-governmental organization’, has been in fact operated under the close supervision and control of the government. The double-identity of CFA has taken most of the blame for the poor performance of the Chinese football team, especially the men’s team. In 2015, a policy initiated by the Chinese government introduced a potentially radical change to the institutional structure of CFA by delegating the power of government agency – the General Administration of Sport of China - to the organization (CFA) itself. Against such background, an overarching research question was brought up- will an organization remained institutionalized within the system change in response to the external (policy) jolt? To answer this question, three principal data collection methods were employed: document review, participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Document review provides the mapping of the structural and cultural framework in which the CFA functions during the change process. The author have had the chance to interact closely with the organization as participant observer in the organization for a period of time, long enough to collect the data, but never too long to get biased view of the situation. This stage enables the author to gain an in-depth understanding of how CFA managed to restructure the governance and legitimacy. Conducting semi-structured interviews with staff within the CFA and from staff within selected stakeholders of CFA also provided a crucial step to gain an insight into the factors for change as well as the implications of the change. A wide range of interviewees that have been and to be interviewed include: CFA members (senior officials and staff); local football associations members; senior Chinese Super League football club managers; CFA Super League Co., LTD (senior officials and staff); CSL broadcasters; Chinese Olympic Committee members. The preliminary research data shows that the CFA is currently undergoing two levels of change: although the settings of CFA has been gradually restructured (organizational framework), the organizational values and beliefs remain almost the same as the CFA before the reform. This means that the plan of shifting from a governmental agency to an autonomous association is an going process, and that organizational core beliefs and values are more difficult to change than its structural framework. This is due to the inertia of the organizational history and the effect of institutionalization. The change of Chinese Football Association is looked at as a pioneering sport organization in China to undertake the “decoupling” road. It is believed that many other sport organizations, especially sport governing bodies will follow the step of CFA in the near future. Therefore, the experience of CFA change is worthy of studying.
2492
66797
Analyzing The Impact Of Board Diversity On Firm Performance: Case Study Of The Nigerian Banking Sector
Abstract:
In light of global financial crisis in 2007-2008 various factors including board diversity, succession planning and board evaluation have been identified as essential ingredients in ensuring board effectiveness. The composition and structure of the board is of outmost importance in assessing a board’s ability and success in achieving its objectives. Following the corporate frauds and accounting scandals such as Enron, WorldCom, Parmalat, Oceanic Bank Nigeria and AfriBank Nigeria, there has been a notable amount of research about the effectiveness of the board of directors in the corporate governance of firms. The need to have an effective board cannot be over emphasized as it results in a more stable and thriving company. There has been an overarching need in the business world for a more diverse workforce and board of directors. Big corporations like Texaco, Ford Motors and DuPont have stated how diversity at every level of the workforce including the board of directors has been cited as a vital element for a company to succeed. Developed countries are also seeking for companies to have a more diverse board. For instance Norway has implemented a 60:40 board ratio to all companies. In West Africa, particularly Nigeria, the topic of diversity has received little attention as most studies conducted have focused on the gender aspect of diversity, which results found to have a negative impact on firm performance. This paper seeks to examine four variables of diversity; age, ethnicity, gender and skills to weigh the positive or negative impact the variables have on firm performance, based on evidence from the Nigerian Financial sector. Information used for this study will be gathered from financial statements and annual reports so as to enable the researcher to reflect on past years to know what is being done differently today. The findings of this study will help the researcher to develop a working definition for ethnicity with regards to the West African context where the issue of “tribe” is a sensitive topic.
2491
66763
Making Haste Slowly: South Africa's Transition from a Medical to a Social Model regarding Persons with Disabilities
Abstract:
Historically, in South Africa, disability has been viewed as a dilemma of the individual. The discourse surrounding the definition of disability and applicable theories are as fluid as the differing needs of persons with disabilities within society. In 1997, the Office of the Deputy President published the White Paper on the Integrated National Disability Strategy (WPINDS) which sought to integrate disability issues in all governmental development strategies, planning and programs as well as to solidify the South African government’s stance that disability was to be considered according to the social model and not the, previously utilized, medical model of disability. The models of disability are conceptual frameworks for understanding disability and can provide some insight into why certain attitudes exist and how they are reinforced in society. Although the WPINDS was regarded as a critical milestone in the history of the disability rights struggle in South Africa; it has taken approximately twenty years for the publication of a similar document taking into account South Africa’s changing social, economic, political and technological dispensation. December 2015 marked the approval of the White Paper on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (WPRPD) which seeks to update the WPINDS, integrate principles contained in international law instruments and endorse a mainstreaming trajectory for realizing the rights of persons with disabilities. While the WPINDS and the WPRPD were published two decades apart, both documents contain an emphasis on a transition from the medical model to the social model. Whereas, the medical model presupposes that disability is mainly a health and welfare matter and is focused on an individualistic and dependency-based approach; the social model requires a paradigm shift in the manner in which disability is constructed so as to highlight the shortcomings of society in respect of disability and to bring to the fore the capabilities of persons with disabilities. The social model has led to unmatched success in changing the perceptions surrounding disability. This article seeks to investigate the progress made in the implementation of the social model in South Africa by taking into account the effect of the diverse political and cultural landscape in promoting the historically entrenched medical model and the rise of disability activism prior to the new democratic dispensation as well as legislation, case law, policy documents and barriers in respect of persons with disabilities that are pervasive in South African society. The research paper will conclude that although numerous interventions have been identified and implemented to promote the consideration of disability within a social construct in South Africa, such interventions require increased national and international collaboration, resources and pace to ensure that the efforts made lead to sustainable results. For persons with disabilities, what remains to be seen is whether the proliferation of activism by interest groups, social awareness as well as the development of policy documents, legislation and case law will serve as the impetus to dissipate the view that disability is burden to be carried solely on the shoulders of the person with the disability.
2490
66744
The Divergent Discourse of Political Islam: A Comparative Study of Indonesia and Pakistan
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper pursues a systematic analysis of the broad range of theories and studies relevant to Islam and democracy, in general and as they have been developed from and applied to the Indonesian and Pakistani cases. The analysis finds that an Islamic society’s potential to assimilate democratic political institutions is contingent on either an unconstrained 'political participation' or its ability to 'reinterpret' religious text. Drawing on a comparison of Indonesia and Pakistan, the present study favors a route that passes through the religious gates of theoretical reinterpretation. In doing so, the study brings Muslim reformation theory into focus by clarifying the mechanism by which reformation takes place.
2489
66706
Displacement Situation in Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan: Issues and Challenges
Abstract:
Federally Administered Tribal Area(FATA) of Pakistan is one of the most neglected regions in the world as far as development is concerned. It has been the hub of all sorts of illegal activities including militancy and export of terrorism. Therefore, it became inevitable for the government of Pakistan to take action against militants through military operations. Small and large scale military operations are being taken against the non-state actors in FATA with continuity. Over the years, hundreds of thousands have been displaced from the tribal areas of the country. Moreover, military operation Zarb-e-Azb has been launched in North Waziristan Agency in June 2014 to counter militancy across the Af-Pak border region. Though successful in curbing militancy, the operation has displaced around 0.5 million people from the area. Most of them opt to take shelter in the government installed shelter camps, some of them take refuge outside tent villages in the country while some of them prefer to cross into Afghanistan rather their own country Pakistan. This paper will evaluate how the influx of these internally displaced persons in the country is influencing the socio-economic situation of not only the displaced but of the hosting areas as well. Secondly, attention would be given to gauge the impact of such a huge number of displaced population on the law and order and security situation in the host areas.
2488
66681
Use of the Budyko Framework to Estimate the Virtual Water Content in Shijiazhuang Plain, North China
Authors:
Abstract:
One of the most challenging steps in implementing virtual water content (VWC) analysis of crops is to get properly the total volume of consumptive water use (CWU) and, therefore, the choice of a reliable crop CWU estimation method. In practice, lots of previous researches obtaining CWU of crops follow a classical procedure for calculating crop evapotranspiration which is determined by multiplying reference evapotranspiration by appropriate coefficient, such as crop coefficient and water stress coefficients. However, this manner of calculation requires lots of field experimental data at point scale and more seriously, when current growing conditions differ from the standard conditions, may easily produce deviation between the calculated CWU and the actual CWU. Since evapotranspiration caused by crop planting always plays a vital role in surface water-energy balance in an agricultural region, this study decided to alternatively estimates crop evapotranspiration by Budyko framework. After brief introduce the development process of Budyko framework. We choose a modified Budyko framework under unsteady-state to better evaluated the actual CWU and apply it in an agricultural irrigation area in North China Plain which rely on underground water for irrigation. With the agricultural statistic data, this calculated CWU was further converted into VWC and its subdivision of crops at the annual scale. Results show that all the average values of VWC, VWC_blue and VWC_green show a downward trend with increased agricultural production and improved acreage. By comparison with the previous research, VWC calculated by Budyko framework agree well with part of the previous research and for some other research the value is greater. Our research also suggests that this methodology and findings may be reliable and convenient for investigation of virtual water throughout various agriculture regions of the world.
2487
66669
Comparative Policy Analysis on Agropolitan Territorial Development in Rural Area: A Study Case in Bojonegoro Regency, Indonesia
Abstract:
Bojonegoro Regency is one of the districts that use the concept Agropolitan as the Territorial Development Policy. Three sub-district designated as Area Development District of Agropolitan are Kapas, Dander, and Kalitidu or commonly called KADEKA. Current policy has been shown results, but there was an inequality of results in some areas. One of them occurred in the Ngringinrejo village with the main commodities is Starfruit and Wedi village with the main commodities is Salak fruit. Therefore, a comparative study is used to search for causal factors of inequality result of the policy by using the 5 aspects compared, namely: (1) Management Development Agropolitan; (2) Physical Condition agropolitan Region; (3) Implementing Agency at the Village Level; (4) Village Government Support; and (5) Community support. Based on the discussion of qualitative analysis, it was found that five aspects have their respective roles in creating inequality of outcomes that occur in both villages. But beyond that, there are conditions where the two villages experienced the same condition that is when the initial implementation of the policy. The condition is referred to as 'the phenomenon of price trap.' The condition is caused by lower commodity prices, causing the village government's commitment in implementing policies too low, followed by public awareness in support of the policy is also low, so care for commodities is also low, and the quality is too low lead and eventually back causing low price. However, the difference is that the village Ngringinrejo able to get out of this condition with 'the new culture of administration' at the end of 2013. While the conditions in the village of Wedi compounded by not respected request assistance by the irrigation district.
2486
66657
Subject, Language, and Representation: Snyder's Poetics of Emptiness
Authors:
Abstract:
This project explores the possibility of poetics of emptiness in the poetry of Gary Snyder, one of the most experimental American poets, interpreting his works as an expression of his Buddhist concept, emptiness. This philosophical term demonstrates the lack of intrinsic nature in all phenomena and the absence of an independent, perduring self. Snyder’s poetics of emptiness locates the extralinguistic reality, emptiness, within the contingent nexus of language itself instead of transcending or discarding it. Language, therefore, plays an important role in his poetry, a medium intentionally applied to the carrying out of this Buddhist telos. Snyder’s poetry is characterized by strangeness and disruptiveness of language as is often the case with Asian Zen discourses. The elision of a lyric ‘I’ and transitive verbs, for example, is his grammatic attempt to represent the illusory nature of the self. He replaces the solitary speaker with sparely modified, concrete but generic images to prevent any anthropocentric understanding of the world and to demonstrate human enactment into a harmonious interplay with other elements of life as a part of a vast web of interconnections, where everything is interrelated to every other thing. In many of his poems, Snyder employs grammatical and structural ellipses and paratactical construction to avoid a facile discursive relation and to help the reader illogically imagine the inexpressible, the void. Through various uses of typographical and semantical space, his poetry forces the reader to experience the ‘thought-pause’ and intuitively perceive things-as-they-are. Snyder enacts in his Poetics an alternative to postmodern perspectives on the subject, language, and representation, and revitalizes their skeptical look at any account of human agency and the possibility of language.
2485
66634
Poverty and Illiteracy as a Key Factor for Crime and Unrest in Nigeria
Authors:
Abstract:
Nigeria, Africa’s most populous nation is undoubtedly, currently going through one of the most difficult phases in her 55 years of existence as an independent nation. At no other time in her history is she under so much pressure of social unrest and unacceptable rate of crime and criminality than it is today. From the North where there is an insurgency to contend with, then to the South where kidnapping and armed robbery hold sway. These issues did not just sprout from nowhere; they have a root somewhere. This is why this paper seeks to bring to the fore poverty and illiteracy as leading causes of these twin social ills– crime and social restiveness as well as suggest practical solutions to the problems.
2484
66626
Framing Opposition to Nuclear Power: Case of Akkuyu Nuclear Power
Authors:
Abstract:
Although the Akkuyu nuclear power project has been in the planning the Akkuyu nuclear power plant in the Mersin Province of Southern Turkey, recent events have increased its visibility in the Turkish debate. The Fukushima accident, the 2010 nuclear deal with Russia followed by several consequent nuclear revelations of administrative deficiencies, and waste issues all spurted widespread protests across Turkey and have polarized the nation into two camps; supporters and detractors. Those who support a nuclear Turkey include energy entrepreneurs, local investors, and technical experts who are heavily involved in paving the way for the realization of a nuclear project. Civil society activists and environmentalists overwhelmingly oppose the nuclear program. This study focuses on the latter, analyzing how groups opposing nuclear power plants (NPPs) have framed the Akkuyu nuclear project as a dangerous, risky, disadvantageous, and irrational policy choice.
2483
66595
A Hybrid Approach for Thread Recommendation in Massive Open Online Course Forums
Abstract:
Recommender Systems have been developed to provide contents and services compatible to users based on their behaviors and interests. Due to information overload in online discussion forums and users diverse interests, recommending relative topics and threads is considered to be helpful for improving the ease of forum usage. In order to lead learners to find relevant information in educational forums, recommendations are even more needed. We propose a hybrid thread recommender system for MOOC forums by applying social network analysis and association rule mining techniques. Initial results indicate that the proposed recommender system performs comparatively well with regard to limited available data from users' previous posts in the forum.
2482
66476
Deliberative Democracy: As an Approach for Analyzing Gezi Movement Public Forums
Abstract:
Deliberation has been seen one of the most important components of democratic ideals especially since liberal democratic attributions have been under fire. Deliberative democracy advocates that people should participate in collective decision-making processes by other mechanisms rather than conventional ones in order to reach legitimate decisions. Deliberative democratic theory makes emphasis on deliberative communication between people and encourages them not to merely express their political opinions (through surveys and referendum) but to form those opinions through public debates. This paper focuses on deliberative democratic visions of Gezi Park Public Forums by taking deliberative democracy as theoretical basis and examining Gezi Park Public Forums in the light of core elements of deliberative democracy. Gezi Movement started on 28 May 2013 in İstanbul as a reaction to local government's revision plans for Taksim Gezi Park, spread throughout the country and created new zones in public sphere which are called Public Park Forums. During the summer of 2013, especially in İstanbul but also in other cities, people gathered in public parks, discussed and took collective decisions concerning actions which they will take. It is worth to mention that since 3 and half years some Public Park Forums are still continuing their meetings regularly in city of İzmir. This paper analyzes four 'Public Park Forums' in İzmir which are called Bornova Public Forum; Karşıyaka Public Forum, Foça Public Forum and Güzelyalı Public Forum. These Forums are under investigation in terms of their understanding of democracy and the values that support that understanding. Participant observation and in-depth interview methods are being used as research methods. Core element of deliberative democracy are being collected under three main category: common interest versus private interest, membership, rational argument and these values are being questioning within one of each Forum in order to draw an overall picture and also make comparison between them. Discourse analysis is being used in order to examine empirical data and paper aims to reveal how participants of public forums perceive deliberative democratic values and whether they give weight to these values.
2481
66458
Digital and Social Media as Tools for Legitimising Conflict: A Study of the Niger Delta Avengers
Abstract:
Nigeria as a country has been plagued by numerous conflicts since the British colonialists gave in to the advocacy of Nigerian dissents for independence and relinquished power in 1960. These conflicts are often motivated by different issues, from socio-political and economic issues to struggles of ethnic and religious orientation. The Niger Delta region which accounts for the country’s economic mainstay has been at the epicentre of such conflicts. Over the years, peaceful protests, and radical insurgency and resistance movements too numerous to mention have emerged in the region. The Niger Delta Avengers is an example of a recent conflict movement in the region. Using a case study approach, and looking through a cyberconflict perspective, this paper offers a discussion on the intersection between digital and social media and framing in the Niger Delta Avengers conflict. It advocates that the Niger Delta Avengers use digital and social media to legitimise and give credence to their struggle.
2480
66389
Multicultural Perspective on Social Work Education
Abstract:
The paper will present reflections on four years of teaching the course Multicultural Perspective on Community Development, recently becoming a core course for the Certificate in International Social Work to be offered by the School of Social Work at the Arizona State University (USA). The World Congress on Higher Education organized by UNESCO in Paris promoted social responsibility of universities that should manifest itself in more effective education of community leaders. All involved parties agreed that although there is a visible progress in addressing global issues, finding final solutions to global issues requires further multicultural dialogue and expansion of global partnerships, citizens’ engagement and close collaboration between governments, universities and community organizations. Numerous networks and partnerships facilitating multicultural dialogue and international cooperation have been created since then. The course is based on one of them, namely the Global Network for Sustainable Development (GNSD), officially launched in Nepal in 2014, and acting in Nepal, India, and some African countries. The mission of the course is to educate youth about the importance of social work in the process of community building, and about the importance of understanding cultural diversity for effective social work in the global world. In the paper, the structure of the course content, methods of teaching, and students’ evaluations will be presented.
2479
66340
A Comprehensive Theory of Communication with Biological and Non-Biological Intelligence for a 21st Century Curriculum
Abstract:
It is commonly recognized that our present curriculum is not preparing students to function in the 21st century. This is particularly true in regard to communication needs across cultures - both human and non-human. In this paper, a comprehensive theory of communication-based on communication with non-human cultures and intelligences is presented to meet the following three imminent contingencies: communicating with sentient biological intelligences, communicating with extraterrestrial intelligences, and communicating with artificial super-intelligences. The paper begins with the argument that we need to become much more serious about communicating with the non-human, intelligent life forms that already exists around us here on Earth. We need to broaden our definition of communication and reach out to other sentient life forms in order to provide humanity with a better perspective of its place within our ecosystem. The paper next examines the science and philosophy behind CETI (communication with extraterrestrial intelligences) and how it could prove useful even in the absence of contact with alien life. However, CETI’s assumptions and methodology need to be revised in accordance with the communication theory being proposed in this paper if we are truly serious about finding and communicating with life beyond Earth. The final theme explored in this paper is communication with non-biological super-intelligences. Humanity has never been truly compelled to converse with other species, and our failure to seriously consider such intercourse has left us largely unprepared to deal with communication in a future that will be mediated and controlled by computer algorithms. Fortunately, our experience dealing with other cultures can provide us with a framework for this communication. The basic concepts behind intercultural communication can be applied to the three types of communication envisioned in this paper if we are willing to recognize that we are in fact dealing with other cultures when we interact with other species, alien life, and artificial super-intelligence. The ideas considered in this paper will require a new mindset for humanity, but a new disposition will yield substantial gains. A curriculum that is truly ready for the 21st century needs to be aligned with this new theory of communication.
2478
66310
Corporate Governance in Higher Education: A South African Perspective
Abstract:
The study considers corporate governance regulation and practice in South African higher education institutions and makes recommendations for the improvement of current governance practices in this sector. The development of corporate governance principles and practices in South Africa, culminating in the King IV Report on Corporate Governance which was launched in November 2016, is discussed. King IV enjoys international recognition as a progressive corporate governance instrument. It was necessitated by the fundamental changes in business and society nationally and globally, as well as by the significant changes to South African company law introduced by new legislation. Corporate governance and the corporate form are narrowly associated, but there is general recognition that the principles of ethical and effective leadership are not restricted to corporations. Thus King IV was drafted with the express aim that it should apply to all organisations, regardless of their form of incorporation, and the report includes specific sector supplements in support of this aspiration. The South African higher education sector has of late been under intense scrutiny, and a few universities have been placed under administration because of poor governance practices. Universities have also been severely impacted by the consequences of what is generally known as ‘#FeesmustFall’, a student led protest movement initially aimed against the increase of fees at public universities, but which rapidly expanded to also include other concerns. It was clearly necessary to revisit corporate governance policy and practice in the sector. The review of the current higher education governance regime in light of the King IV recommendations, lessons from company law regarding the entrenchment and enforcement of corporate governance principles, and a comparison of higher education governance practices in selected other jurisdictions led to recommendations for the improvement of governance practices in South African higher education. It is further suggested that a sector supplement for higher education institutions may provide additional clarity. Some of the recommendations may be of comparative value for international higher education governance.
2477
66277
The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in Promoting Humanitarian Development: A Case Study in Saudi Arabia
Abstract:
Non-governmental organizations in Saudi Arabia play a vital role in promoting humanitarian development. Though this paper will emphasize this role and will provide a specific case study on the role of Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd Foundation for Humanitarian Development, yet many organizations do not provide transparent information for the accomplishments of the NGOs. This study will provide answers to the main research question regarding this role that NGOs play in promoting humanitarian development. The recent law regulating associations and foundations in Saudi Arabia was issued in December 2015 and went into effect March 2016. Any new association or foundation will need to follow these regulations. Though the registration, implementation, and workflow of the organizations still need major improvement and development, yet, the currently-registered organizations have several notable achievements. Most of these organizations adopt a centralized administration approach which in many cases still hinders progress and may be an obstacle in achieving and reaching a larger population of beneficiaries. A large portion of the existing organizations are charities, some of which have some sort of government affiliation. The laws and regulations limit registration of new organizations. Any violations to Islamic Sharia, contradictions to public order, breach to national unity, foreign and foreign-affiliation organizations prohibits any organization from registration. The lack of transparency in the operations and inner-working of NGOs in Saudi Arabia is apparent for the public. However, the regulations invoke full transparency with the governing ministry. This transparency should be available to the public and in specific to the target population that are eligible to benefit from the NGOs services. In this study, we will provide an extensive review of all related laws, regulations, policies and procedures related to all NGOs in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. This review will include some examples of current NGOs, services and target population. The study will determine the main accomplishments of reputable NGOs that have impacted positively the Saudi communities. The results will highlight and concentrate on actions, services and accomplishments that achieve sustainable assistance in promoting humanitarian development and advance living conditions of target populations of the Saudi community. In particular, we will concentrate on a case study related to PMFHD; one of the largest foundations in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The authors have access to the data related to this foundation and have access to the foundation administration to gather, analyze and conclude the findings of this group. The study will also analyze whether the practices, budgets, services and annual accomplishments of the foundation have fulfilled the humanitarian role of the foundation while meeting the governmental requirements, with an analysis in the light of the new laws. The findings of the study show that great accomplishments for advancing and promoting humanitarian development in Saudi community and international communities have been achieved. Several examples will be included from several NGOs, with specific examples from PMFHD.
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Social Movements of Yogyakarta South Coastal Area Community against the Ferruginous Sand Quarry Construction
Abstract:
In this contemporary era, the term of development often emphasised merely on the economic growth aspect. Development of a program often considered as superior by the government, in fact, it often raises various problems. The problems occur because the development policies determined by the government tend to favor private entrepreneurs and impose on the oppression toward the community. The development promised to prosper the community's life, turn out in fact of harming the community, threatening the survival of the community and damaging the ecosystem of nature where the community hangs their life to it. Nowadays many natural resources should be used for the community’s life prosperity. However, the prosperity is conquered by the private entrepreneurs that are regulated through the free market mechanism and wrapped in democratization. This condition actually is a form of neoliberalism that builds new administration order system which is far from the meaning of the word democracy. The government should play more role in protecting community's life and prosperity, but in fact, the government sides with the private entrepreneurs for the sake of the economic benefits regardless of other aspects of the community’s life. This unjustified condition presents a wide range of social movements from the community in response to the neoliberalis policy that actually eliminates the doctrine of community sovereignty. Social movements performed by Yogyakarta south coastal area community, as the focus of the discussion in this paper, is one of the community’s response toward the government policies related to the construction of the ferruginous sand quarry which is tend to favor on private entrepreneurs and highly prejudicing or even threatening the survival of Yogyakarta south coastal area community. The data collection in this study uses qualitative research methods with in-depth interview data collection techniques and purposive informant determination techniques. This method was chosen in order to obtain the insightful data and detailed information to uncover the injustice policies committed by the government-private entrepreneurs toward Yogyakarta south coastal area community. The brief results of this study show that the conflicts between the community and government-private entrepreneurs occurred because of the differences of interests and paradigm of natural resource management. The resistance movements done by the community to fight back the government-private entrepreneurs was conducted by forming an organization called Paguyupan Petani Lahan Pantai Kulon Progo (PPLP-KP). This organization do the resistances through two ways; firstly, quiet action done through various actions such as; refusing against the socialization, performing discussion to deliberate their argument with the government-private entrepreneurs, complaining the problems to the central government, creating banners or billboards which contain the writing of rejection, performing pray rituals to invoke the justice from the God, as well as instill the resistance ideology to their young generation. Secondly, the rough action also is done through various actions such as; doing roadblocks, conducting rallies, as well as doing clash with the government apparatus. In case the resistances done by the community are seen from the pattern. Actually, the resistances are reaction toward the aggression carried out by the government-private entrepreneurs.
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Exploitation behind the Development of Home Batik Industry in Lawean, Solo, Central Java
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Batik industry has become one of the leading industries in the economy of Indonesia. Since the recognition of batik as one of cultural wealth and national identity of Indonesia by UNESCO, batik production keeps increasing as a result of increasing demands for batik, whether from domestically or abroad. One of the rapid development batik industries in Indonesia is batik industry in Lawean Village, Solo, Central Java, Indonesia. This batik industry generally uses putting-out system where batik workers work in their own houses. With the implementation of this system, therefore employers don’t have to prepare Environmental Impact Analysis (EIA), social security for workers, overtime payment, space for working, and equipment for working. The implementation of putting-out system causes many problems, starting from environmental pollution, the loss of social rights of workers, and even exploitation of workers by batik entrepreneurs. The data used to describe this reality is the primary data from qualitative research with in-depth interview data collection technique. Informants were determined purposively. The theory used to perform data interpretation is the phenomenology of Alfred Schutz. Both qualitative and phenomenology are used in this study to describe batik workers exploitation in terms of the implementation of putting-out system on home batik industry in Lawean. The research result showed that workers in batik industry sector in Lawean were exploited with the implementation of putting-out system. The workers were strictly employed by the entrepreneurs, so that their job cannot be called 'part-time' job anymore. In terms of labor and time, the workers often work more than 12 hours per day and they often work overtime without receiving any overtime payment. In terms of work safety, the workers often have contact with chemical substances contained in batik making materials without using any protection, such as clothes work, which is worsened by the lack of standard or procedure in work that can cause physical damage, such as burnt and peeled off skin. Moreover, exposure and contamination of chemical materials make the workers and their families vulnerable to various diseases. Meanwhile, batik entrepreneurs did not give any social security (including health cost aid). Besides that, the researchers found that batik industry in home industry sector is not environmentally friendly, even damaging ecosystem because industrial waste disposed without EIA.
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Content Monetization as a Mark of Media Economy Quality
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Abstract:
Characteristics of the Web as a channel of information dissemination - accessibility and openness, interactivity and multimedia news - become wider and cover the audience quickly, positively affecting the perception of content, but blur out the understanding of the journalistic work. As a result audience and advertisers continue migrating to the Internet. Moreover, online targeting allows monetizing not only the audience (as customarily given to traditional media) but also the content and traffic more accurately. While the users identify themselves with the qualitative characteristics of the new market, its actors are formed. Conflict of interests is laid in the base of the economy of their relations, the problem of traffic tax as an example. Meanwhile, content monetization actualizes fiscal interest of the state too. The balance of supply and demand is often violated due to the political risks, particularly in terms of state capitalism, populism and authoritarian methods of governance such social institutions as the media. A unique example of access to journalistic material, limited by monetization of content is a television channel Dozhd' (Rain) in Russian web space. Its liberal-minded audience has a better possibility for discussion. However, the channel could have been much more successful in terms of unlimited free speech. Avoiding state pressure and censorship its management has decided to save at least online performance and monetizing all of the content for the core audience. The study Methodology was primarily based on the analysis of journalistic content, on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the audience. Reconstructing main events and relationships of actors on the market for the last six years researcher has reached some conclusions. First, under the condition of content monetization the capitalization of its quality will always strive to quality characteristics of user, thereby identifying him. Vice versa, the user's demand generates high-quality journalism. The second conclusion follows the previous one. The growth of technology, information noise, new political challenges, the economy volatility and the cultural paradigm change – all these factors form the content paying model for an individual user. This model defines him as a beneficiary of specific knowledge and indicates the constant balance of supply and demand other conditions being equal. As a result, a new economic quality of information is created. This feature is an indicator of the market as a self-regulated system. Monetized information quality is less popular than that of the Public Broadcasting Service, but this audience is able to make decisions. These very users keep the niche sectors which have more potential of technology development, including the content monetization ways. The third point of the study allows develop it in the discourse of media space liberalization. This cultural phenomenon may open opportunities for the development of social and economic relations architecture both locally and regionally.
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Gender and Parenthood in Web 2.0.: Research on Role Distance in a Bulgarian Weblog Dedicated to Motherhood
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The persistence of gender arrangements in childcare has been well-documented and theorized, but we know little on how they have been represented in Web 2.0. by the social actors themselves. This paper relies on Goffman’s concept of role distance to explore the online self-representations of mothers as a group and thus the complicated relationship between gender and parenthood. The object of research is a popular Bulgarian weblog dedicated to motherhood, and its content has been analyzed through content analysis. The results demonstrate that the concept of role distance can be successfully used to illuminate the ways the gendered expectations and norms of parenting are being questioned online. The research contributes both to the understanding of the relevance of the concept of role distance in explaining gender relations and of its increasing importance in Web 2.0.
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Augmented Reality Affects the Training Domain: A Survey.
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Augmented Reality (AR) is a strong growing research topic in different training domains like medicine, sports, military, education and industrial use cases like assembly and maintenance tasks. AR claims to improve efficiency and transfer of training tasks. This paper gives a comprehensive overview of augmented reality applications in different training domains published between 1992 and 2016. We searched in six different online databases and selected 307 relevant articles. We focused on AR training applications for assembly and maintenance tasks and found a lack of scientific evidence in guidelines for AR based training systems, especially for Head-Mounted Displays (HMDs). These and further deadlocks will be discussed in detail in this paper. In addition, we present our directions for future research.
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Educational Attainment of Owner-Managers and Performance of Micro- and Small Informal Businesses in Nigeria
Abstract:
Abstract - While much literature exists on microfinancing and its impact on the development of micro, small and medium-scale enterprises (MSME), yet little is known in respect of the impact of different types of education of owner-managers on the performances as well as innovative possibilities of such enterprises. This paper aims at contributing to the understanding of the impact of different types of education (academic, technical, apprenticeship, etc) that influence the performance of micro, small and medium-sized enterprise (MSME). This study utilises a recent and larger data-set collected in six states and FCT Abuja, Nigeria in the year 2014. Furthermore, the study carries out a comparative analysis of business performance among the different geo-political zones in Nigeria, given the educational attainment of the owner-managers. The data set were enterprise-based and were collected by the Nigerian Institute for Social and Economic Research (NISER) in the year 2014. Six hundred and eighty eight enterprises were covered in the survey. The method of data analysis for this study is the use of basic descriptive statistics in addition to the Logistic Regression model used in the prediction of the log of odds of business performance in relation to any of the identified educational attainment of the owner-managers in the sampled enterprises. An OLS econometric technique is also used to determine the effects of owner-managers' different educational types on the performance of the sampled MSME. Policy measures that will further enhance the contributions of education to MSME performance will be put forward.