Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 48522

Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

1308
83618
Example Based Smart Sampling of Design Space System for Facilitating Diverse Product Design
Abstract:
An interactive design approach is proposed to facilitate diversity in product design allowing computer-human interactions. This approach basically uses statistical approaches to interpret human-computer interactions, find the limits of users` visual perception of the relevant shape geometry and use these knowledge to achieve remaining design progress smartly. The design process can be regarded as a process to explore the design space. However, such a design space is often implicit. So what a designer often have to do at the earliest stage is to collect, for instance, a large number of images or sketches of existing products. These collected images are considered as samples of the design space. So, if a design system can generate many samples from a small number of image, it is very helpful for him/her. The outcome of this study is a software, which has system achieves all above discussions providing diverse and target-achieved design variations from a single image, ensuring the obtained designs are feasible in terms of satisfaction of physical (learned from initial image) and perceptional constraints (learned from users). In this system, each shape feature is defined as Bezier curve segment created via control points, which provided by user clicks over the image. These points are analyzed to define physical constraints and dimensions, which are necessary to create a design space. According to the analysis results, relevant feature segments are automatically detected as line or curves, and the continuity conditions at the joints of segments are observed. Such observations are then used as rules while generating new design variations. After that, screening experiments are conducted to reduce dimensions and develop constraints based on visual perception of users. The idea is to find visually insignificant features for the users and fix them throughout all design variations. Perceptional constraints are developed allowing users to modify designs through the interface and the modifications are then analyzed via a decision tree algorithm. Such constraints will also limit the design space and allow designers to work on specific region of the design space, where designs visually appealing users and highly related to the initial design. Later stage of the system is to use space filling algorithms to generate samples. The samples are clustered into user-specified number, based on shape similarity. The similarity is measured by elastic matching, which analyze local deformations required to get other design. The cluster centers, which are furthest from each other and representative for their clusters (prototypes), are used as samples for the next stage. In the final stage, the users are asked to evaluate the prototypes based on requested target, which can be any research topic depending on requirement such as getting visually appealing designs or; for example, to find “speedy” looking designs. The evaluations are converted into mathematical models via Radial Basis Functions (RBF). Finally, new designs are generated crossing shape features and satisfying the explored mathematical model. It is believed that, such system will be useful for designers to get creative design variations and, using them, conduct their experiments effectively by minimum effort.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1307
83569
Modeling Intelligent Threats: Case of Continuous Attacks on a Specific Target
Abstract:
In this paper, we treat a model that falls in the area of protecting targeted systems from intelligent threats including terrorism. We introduce the concept of system survivability, in the context of continuous attacks, as the probability that a system under attack will continue operation up to some fixed time t. We define a constant attack rate (CAR) process as an attack on a targeted system that follows an exponential distribution. We consider the superposition of several CAR processes. From the attacker side, we determine the optimal attack strategy that minimizes the system survivability. We also determine the optimal strengthening strategy that maximizes the system survivability under limited defensive resources. We use operations research techniques to identify optimal strategies of each antagonist. Our results may be used as interesting starting points to develop realistic protection strategies against intentional attacks.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1306
83520
Storage System Validation Study for Raw Cocoa Beans Using Minitab® 17 and R (R-3.3.1)
Abstract:
In this observational study, the performance of a known conventional storage system was tested and evaluated for fitness for its intended purpose. The system has a scope extended for the storage of dry cocoa beans. System sensitivity, reproducibility and uncertainties are not known in details. This study discusses the system performance in the context of existing literature on factors that influence the quality of cocoa beans during storage. Controlled conditions were defined precisely for the system to give reliable base line within specific established procedures. Minitab® 17 and R statistical software (R-3.3.1) were used for the statistical analyses. The approach to the storage system testing was to observe and compare through laboratory test methods the quality of the cocoa beans samples before and after storage. The samples were kept in Kilner jars and the temperature of the storage environment controlled and monitored over a period of 408 days. Standard test methods use in international trade of cocoa such as the cut test analysis, moisture determination with Aqua boy KAM III model and bean count determination were used for quality assessment. The data analysis assumed the entire population as a sample in order to establish a reliable baseline to the data collected. The study concluded a statistically significant mean value at 95% Confidence Interval (CI) for the performance data analysed before and after storage for all variables observed. Correlational graphs showed a strong positive correlation for all variables investigated with the exception of All Other Defect (AOD). The weak relationship between the before and after data for AOD had an explained variability of 51.8% with the unexplained variability attributable to the uncontrolled condition of hidden infestation before storage. The current study concluded with a high-performance criterion for the storage system.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1305
83355
Study of Sustainable Indicators in a Milk Production Process
Abstract:
The progress toward sustainability implies maintaining and preferably improving both, human and ecosystem well-being, according to a triple bottom line that includes the environmental, economic and social dimensions. The life cycle assessment (LCA) is a method applicable to all production sectors that aims to quantify the environmental pressures and the benefits related to goods and services, as well as the trade-offs and the scope for improving areas of the production process. While using LCA to measure the environmental dimension of sustainability is widespread, similar approaches for the economic and the social dimensions still have limited application worldwide and there is a need for consistent and robust methods and indicators. This paper focuses on the milk production process and presents the analysis of the flows exchanged by an industrial installation through accounting all the energy and material inputs and the associated emissions and waste outputs at this stage of its life cycle. The functional unit is one litre of milk produced. Different metrics and indicators are used to assess the three dimensions of sustainability. Metrics considered useful to assess the production activities are the total water and energy consumptions and the milk production volume of each cow. The global warming, the value added and the working hours are indicators used to measure each sustainability dimension. The study is performed with two types of feeding of the cows, which includes a change in percentages of components as well. Nutritional composition of the milk obtained is almost kept. It is observed that environmental and social improvements involve high economic costs.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1304
83327
Study of Application the Lean Thinking at the Cargo Transport Area
Abstract:
The main idea of this paper is to present a survey about one of the aspects Lean Production: the Lean Office focusing on the area of services, particularly in the airline industry of cargo transportation. The Lean production is a philosophy that flourished and gained ground after the Second World War when the Japanese Toyota Company developed a process of identifying and eliminating waste. Bibliographies show that most parts of the companies decide to adopt the principles created at Toyota especially in the manufacturing sector and has no major applications for the service sector. Due to increased competition and the need for competitive advantage, many companies began to observe the lean transformation and take it as reference. From this trend, from the perspective of Lean principles, this study sought to identify and propose actions for improvement in air transport focused in analyze how the concepts developed in manufacturing are adapted to the administrative environment. Hence, when applied in the service area the Lean principles show to be very effective.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1303
83326
Effects of National Policy on Montana Medicaid Coverage and Enrollment
Abstract:
This study explores the relationship between national spending on the Medicaid program, and total Medicaid spending and enrollment in Montana, a state that ranks thirty-third in per capita income and thirty-seventh in median household income in the United States. The purpose of the research is to estimate the potential effects that specific changes to national healthcare policy would likely have on funding for the Montana Medicaid Program and enrollees in the program, members of families in poverty whose incomes are low, even though in many cases they have steady jobs. A particular concern is the effect on access to care for children in poverty who tend to be food insecure and, therefore, especially in need of access to health care. The research uses data collected from a variety of government publications, including the Medicaid Financial Management Report, the Medicaid Managed Care Enrollment Report, and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services MSIS State Summaries for fiscal years 2000-2015. These data were examined using econometric analysis, to assess these impacts. The evidence indicates that the changes included in recent congressional legislative initiatives would potentially leave an additional 50,000 to 60,000 Montana residents, five to six percent of the state’s population, in poverty without access to health care. Impacts on children in poverty would potentially be substantial.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1302
83282
Joint Optimal Pricing and Lot-Sizing Decisions for an Advance Sales System under Stochastic Conditions
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the effect of stochastic inputs on problem of joint optimal pricing and lot-sizing decisions where the inventory cycle is divided into advance and spot sales periods. During the advance sales period, customer can make reservations while customer with reservations can cancel their order. However, during the spot sales period customers receive the order as soon as the order is placed, but they cannot make any reservation or cancellation during that period. We assume that the inter arrival times during the advance sales and spot sales period are exponentially distributed where the arrival rate is decreasing function of price. Moreover, we assume that the number of cancelled reservations is binomially distributed. In addition, we assume that deterioration process follows an exponential distribution. We investigate two cases. First, we consider two-state case where we find the optimal price during the spot sales period and the optimal price during the advance sales period. Next, we develop a generalized case where we extend two-state case also to allow dynamic prices during the spot sales period. We apply the Markov decision theory in order to find the optimal solutions. In addition, for the generalized case, we apply the policy iteration algorithm in order to find the optimal prices, the optimal lot-size and maximum advance sales amount.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1301
83261
Structural Equation Modelling Based Approach to Integrate Customers and Suppliers with Internal Practices for Lean Manufacturing Implementation in the Indian Context
Abstract:
Lean management is an integrated socio-technical system to bring about a competitive state in an organization. The purpose of this paper is to explore and integrate the role of customers and suppliers with the internal practices of the Indian manufacturing industries towards successful implementation of lean manufacturing (LM). An extensive literature survey is carried out. An attempt is made to build an exhaustive list of all the input manifests related to customers, suppliers and internal practices necessary for LM implementation, coupled with a similar exhaustive list of the benefits accrued from its successful implementation. A structural model is thus conceptualized, which is empirically validated based on the data from the Indian manufacturing sector. With the current impetus on developing the industrial sector, the Government of India recently introduced the Lean Manufacturing Competitiveness Scheme that aims to increase competitiveness with the help of lean concepts. There is a huge scope to enrich the Indian industries with the lean benefits, the implementation status being quite low. Hardly any survey-based empirical study in India has been found to integrate customers and suppliers with the internal processes towards successful LM implementation. This empirical research is thus carried out in the Indian manufacturing industries. The basic steps of the research methodology followed in this research are the identification of input and output manifest variables and latent constructs, model proposition and hypotheses development, development of survey instrument, sampling and data collection and model validation (exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling). The analysis reveals six key input constructs and three output constructs, indicating that these constructs should act in unison to maximize the benefits of implementing lean. The structural model presented in this paper may be treated as a guide to integrating customers and suppliers with internal practices to successfully implement lean. Integrating customers and suppliers with internal practices into a unified, coherent manufacturing system will lead to an optimum utilization of resources. This work is one of the very first researches to have a survey-based empirical analysis of the role of customers, suppliers and internal practices of the Indian manufacturing sector towards an effective lean implementation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1300
83258
Product Line Design with Customization in the Presence of Demand Uncertainty
Abstract:
In this paper, we analyze a product line design problem faced by a manufacturing firm where the product line consists of a customized product in addition to a standard product and is offered in a market in which customers are heterogeneous on aesthetic attributes of the product. The customization level of a product is defined by the fraction of aesthetic attributes of the product that the manufacturer chooses to customize. In contrast to the existing literature on product line design that predominantly assumes deterministic demand, we consider the presence of demand uncertainty and frame the product line design problem in a single period (news vendor) setting. We examine the effect of demand uncertainty on product line decisions. Furthermore, we also examine how product line decisions are influenced by channel structure. While we use the centralized channel as a benchmark, we consider the decentralized dual channel where the customized product is sold through an online channel owned by the manufacturer and the standard product is sold through a retailer. We introduce a supply contract between the manufacturer and the retailer for improving channel efficiency and coordinate the distribution channel.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1299
83028
Capacitated Multiple Allocation P-Hub Median Problem on a Cluster Based Network under Congestion
Abstract:
This paper considers a hub location problem where the network service area partitioned into predetermined zones (represented by node clusters is given) and potential hub nodes capacity levels are determined a priori as a selection criteria of hub to investigate congestion effect on network. The objective is to design hub network by determining all required hub locations in the node clusters and also allocate non-hub nodes to hubs such that the total cost including transportation cost, opening cost of hubs and penalty cost for exceed of capacity level at hubs is minimized. A mixed integer linear programming model is developed introducing additional constraints to the traditional model of capacitated multiple allocation hub location problem and empirically tested.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1298
82737
An Improved Method to Compute Sparse Graphs for Traveling Salesman Problem
Authors:
Abstract:
Traveling salesman problem (TSP) is NP-hard in combinatorial optimization. The research shows the algorithms for TSP on the sparse graphs have the shorter computation time than those for TSP according to the complete graphs. We present an improved iterative algorithm to compute the sparse graphs for TSP by frequency graphs computed with frequency quadrilaterals. The iterative algorithm is enhanced by adjusting two parameters of the algorithm. The computation time of the algorithm is O(CNmaxn²) where C is the iterations, Nmax is the maximum number of frequency quadrilaterals containing each edge and n is the scale of TSP. The experimental results showed the computed sparse graphs generally have less than 5n edges for most of these Euclidean instances. Moreover, the maximum degree and minimum degree of the vertices in the sparse graphs do not have much difference. Thus, the computation time of the methods to resolve the TSP on the sparse graphs will be greatly reduced.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1297
82527
A Green Mathematical Model for a Single Machine Scheduling Problem with Batch Delivery System
Abstract:
Manufacturers often submitted jobs in batches to reduce delivery costs. However, dispatching several jobs in the form of batches can have a negative effect on other scheduling-related objective functions such as minimizing the total tardiness. This paper aims to minimize the total tardiness and the sum of delivery costs of a single machine problem in a batch delivery system. Moreover, to propose a kind of green supply chain model, we consider CO₂ gas emissions’ cost and limitation on total emissions of all transportations. We present a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model to solve the problem. As this is a MILP model, the commercial solver (the CPLEX solver) is not guaranteed to find the optimal solution for large-size problems in a reasonable amount of time. So, we present a genetic algorithm to solve the problem.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1296
82437
Understanding Ambivalent Behaviors of Social Media Users toward the 'Like' Function: A Social Capital Perspective
Abstract:
The 'Like' function in social media platforms represents the immediate responses of social media users to postings and other users. A large number of 'likes' is often attributed to fame, agreement, and support from others that many users are proud of and happy with. However, what 'like' implies exactly in social media context is still in discussion. Some argue that it is an accurate parameter of the preferences of social media users, whereas others refute that it is merely an instant reaction that is volatile and vague. To address this gap, this study investigates how social media users perceive the 'like' function and behave differently based on their perceptions. This study posits the following arguments. First, 'like' is interpreted as a quantified form of social capital that resides in social media platforms. This incarnated social capital rationalizes the attraction of people to social media and belief that social media platforms bring benefits to their relationships with others. This social capital is then conceptualized into cognitive and emotive dimensions, where social capital in the cognitive dimension represents the awareness of the 'likes' quantitatively, whereas social capital in the emotive dimension represents the receptions of the 'likes' qualitatively. Finally, the ambivalent perspective of the social media users on 'like' (i.e., social capital) is applied. This view rationalizes why social media users appreciate the reception of 'likes' from others but are aware that those 'likes' can distort the actual responses of other users by sending erroneous signals. The rationale on this ambivalence is based on whether users perceive social media as private or public spheres. When social media is more publicized, the ambivalence is more strongly observed. By combining the ambivalence and dimensionalities of the social capital, four types of social media users with different mechanisms on liking behaviors are identified. To validate this work, a survey with 300 social media users is conducted. The analysis results support most of the hypotheses and confirm that people have ambivalent perceptions on 'like' as a social capital and that perceptions influence behavioral patterns. The implication of the study is clear. First, this study explains why social media users exhibit different behaviors toward 'likes' in social media. Although most of the people believe that the number of 'likes' is the simplest and most frank measure of supports from other social media users, this study introduces the users who do not trust the 'likes' as a stable and reliable parameter of social media. In addition, this study links the concept of social media openness to explain the different behaviors of social media users. Social media openness has theoretical significance because it defines the psychological boundaries of social media from the perspective of users.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1295
82374
A Bi-Objective Stochastic Mathematical Model for Agricultural Supply Chain Network
Abstract:
Nowadays, in advanced countries, agriculture as one of the most significant sectors of the economy, plays an important role in its political and economic independence. Due to farmers' lack of information about products' demand and lack of proper planning for harvest time, annually the considerable amount of products is corrupted. Besides, in this paper, we attempt to improve these unfavorable conditions via designing an effective supply chain network that tries to minimize total costs of agricultural products along with minimizing shortage in demand points. To validate the proposed model, a stochastic optimization approach by using a branch and bound solver of the LINGO software is utilized. Furthermore, to accumulate the data of parameters, a case study in Mazandaran province placed in the north of Iran has been applied. Finally, using ɛ-constraint approach, a Pareto front is obtained and one of its Pareto solutions as best solution is selected. Then, related results of this solution are explained. Finally, conclusions and suggestions for the future research are presented.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1294
82368
Integration of Cleaner Production Innovation and Creativity for Sustainability Supply Chain of Small and Medium Enterprises Batik Bogor
Abstract:
Competitiveness and sustainability issues not only put pressure on big companies, but also small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) Batik Bogor is one of the local culture-based creative industries in Bogor city which is also dealing with the issue of sustainability. The purpose of this research is to develop framework of sustainability at SMEs Batik Indonesia case of SMEs Batik Bogor by integrating innovation of cleaner production in its supply chain. The approach used is desk study, field survey, in-depth interviews, and benchmarking best practices of SMEs sustainability. In-depth interviews involve stakeholders to identify the needs and standards of sustainability of SMEs Batik. Data analysis was done by benchmarking method, MDS method, and SWOT analysis. The results recommend the framework of sustainability for SMEs Batik in Indonesia. The sustainability status of SMEs Batik Bogor is classified as Moderate Sustainable. Factors that support the sustainability of SMEs Batik Bogor such is a strong commitment of top management in adopting cleaner production innovation and creativity approach. Successful cleaner production innovations are implemented primarily in the substitution of dye materials from toxic to non-toxic, reducing the intensity of non-renewable energy use, as well as the reuse and recycle of solid waste. ‘Mosaic Batik’ is one of the innovation of solid waste utilization of batik waste produced by company R & D center that gives benefit to three pillars of sustainability, that is financial benefit, environmental benefit, and social benefit. The sustainability of SMEs Batik Bogor can’t be separated from the support of Bogor City Government which proactively facilitate the promotion of sustainable innovation produced by SMEs Batik Bogor.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1293
82361
Resource-Constrained Assembly Line Balancing Problems with Multi-Manned Workstations
Authors:
Abstract:
Assembly line balancing problems can be categorized into one-sided, two-sided, and multi-manned ones by using the number of operators deployed at workstations. This study explores the balancing problem of a resource-constrained assembly line with multi-manned workstations. Resources include machines or tools in assembly lines such as jigs, fixtures, and hand tools. A mathematical programming model was developed to carry out decision-making and planning in order to minimize the numbers of workstations, resources, and operators for achieving optimal production efficiency. To improve the solution-finding efficiency, a genetic algorithm (GA) and a simulated annealing algorithm (SA) were designed and developed in this study to be combined with a practical case in car making. Results of the GA/SA and mathematics programming were compared to verify their validity. Finally, analysis and comparison were conducted in terms of the target values, production efficiency, and deployment combinations provided by the algorithms in order for the results of this study to provide references for decision-making on production deployment.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1292
82335
A Location-Allocation-Routing Model for Home Health Care Supply Chain Problem
Abstract:
With increasing the life expectancy in developed countries, the role of home care services is highlighted by both academia and industrial contributors in Home Health Care Supply Chain (HHCSC) companies. The main decisions in this supply chain system are the location of pharmacies, the allocation of patients to these pharmacies and also the routing and scheduling decisions of nurses to visit their patients. In this study, for the first time, an integrated model is proposed to consist of all preliminary and necessary decisions in these companies, namely, location-allocation-routing model. This model is a type of NP-hard one. So, an Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) is utilized to solve it in large sizes. Results confirm the efficiency of developed model for HHCSC companies and the performance of employed ICA.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1291
82200
A Location Routing Model for the Logistic System in the Mining Collection Centres of the Northern Region of Boyacá, Colombia
Abstract:
The main objective of this study is to design a mathematical model for the logistics of mining collection centres in the northern region of the department of Boyacá (Colombia), determining the structure that facilitate the flow of products along the supply chain. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to define a suitable design of the distribution network, taking into account the products, customer’s characteristics and the availability of information. Likewise, some other aspects must be defined, such as number and capacity of collection centres to establish, routes that must be taken to deliver products to the customers, among others. This research will use one of the operation research problems, which is used in the design of distribution networks known as Location Routing Problem LRP.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1290
82138
Developing a Knowledge-Based Lean Six Sigma Model to Improve Healthcare Leadership Performance
Abstract:
Purpose: This paper presents a model of a Knowledge-Based (KB) using Lean Six Sigma (L6σ) principles to enhance the performance of healthcare leadership. Design/methodology/approach: Using L6σ principles to enhance healthcare leaders’ performance needs a pre-assessment of the healthcare organisation’s capabilities. The model will be developed using a rule-based approach of KB system. Thus, KB system embeds Gauging Absence of Pre-requisite (GAP) for benchmarking and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for prioritization. A comprehensive literature review will be covered for the main contents of the model with a typical output of GAP analysis and AHP. Findings: The proposed KB system benchmarks the current position of healthcare leadership with the ideal benchmark one (resulting from extensive evaluation by the KB/GAP/AHP system of international leadership concepts in healthcare environments). Research limitations/implications: Future work includes validating the implementation model in healthcare environments around the world. Originality/value: This paper presents a novel application of a hybrid KB combines of GAP and AHP methodology. It implements L6σ principles to enhance healthcare performance. This approach assists healthcare leaders’ decision making to reach performance improvement against a best practice benchmark.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1289
81986
Optimization of Manufacturing Process Parameters: An Empirical Study from Taiwan's Tech Companies
Abstract:
The parameter design is crucial to improving the uniformity of a product or process. In the product design stage, parameter design aims to determine the optimal settings for the parameters of each element in the system, thereby minimizing the functional deviations of the product. In the process design stage, parameter design aims to determine the operating settings of the manufacturing processes so that non-uniformity in manufacturing processes can be minimized. The parameter design, trying to minimize the influence of noise on the manufacturing system, plays an important role in the high-tech companies. Taiwan has many well-known high-tech companies, which show key roles in the global economy. Quality remains the most important factor that enables these companies to sustain their competitive advantage. In Taiwan however, many high-tech companies face various quality problems. A common challenge is related to root causes and defect patterns. In the R&D stage, root causes are often unknown, and defect patterns are difficult to classify. Additionally, data collection is not easy. Even when high-volume data can be collected, data interpretation is difficult. To overcome these challenges, high-tech companies in Taiwan use more advanced quality improvement tools. In addition to traditional statistical methods and quality tools, the new trend is the application of powerful tools, such as neural network, fuzzy theory, data mining, industrial engineering, operations research, and innovation skills. In this study, several examples of optimizing the parameter settings for the manufacturing process in Taiwan’s tech companies will be presented to illustrate proposed approach’s effectiveness. Finally, a discussion of using traditional experimental design versus the proposed approach for process optimization will be made.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1288
81958
From Creativity to Innovation: Tracking Rejected Ideas
Abstract:
Innovative ideas are not always synonymous with business opportunities. Any idea can be creative and not recognized as a potential project in which money and time will be invested, among other resources. Even in firms that promote and enhance innovation, there are two 'check-points', the first corresponding to the acknowledgment of the idea as creative and the second, its consideration as a business opportunity. Both the recognition of new business opportunities or new ideas involve cognitive and psychological frameworks which provide individuals with a basis for noticing connections between seemingly independent events or trends as if they were 'connecting the dots'. It also involves prototypes-representing the most typical member of a certain category–functioning as 'templates' for this recognition. There is a general assumption that these kinds of evaluation processes develop through experience, explaining why expertise plays a central role in this process: the more experienced a professional, the easier for him (her) to identify new opportunities in business. But, paradoxically, an increase in expertise can lead to the inflexibility of thought due to automation of procedures. And, besides this, other cognitive biases can also be present, because new ideas or business opportunities generally depend on heuristics, rather than on established algorithms. The paper presents a literature review about the Einstellung effect by tracking famous cases of rejected ideas, extracted from historical records. It also presents the results of empirical research, with data upon rejected ideas gathered from two different environments: projects rejected during first semester of 2017 at a large incubator center in Sao Paulo and ideas proposed by employees that were rejected by a well-known business company, at its Brazilian headquarter. There is an implicit assumption that Einstellung effect tends to be more and more present in contemporaneity, due to time pressure upon decision-making and idea generation process. The analysis discusses desirability, viability, and feasibility as elements that affect decision-making.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1287
81944
Prototype of Low-Cost Safety-Suit for Manual Scavengers in India
Abstract:
Sewage divers are the workers involved in cleaning and maintaining of the sewerage lines by entering through manholes. The working conditions of sewage divers in India are more challenging than in other countries. Though India has legal acts framed to ensure protection of the divers called 'The Prohibition of Employment of Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013' by Ministry of Law and Justice but these are usually not implemented. Further, the divers are not even provided with safety gear like mask, eyewear, helmet, safety suit, safety belt, gloves, and shoes because of lack of initiative among the agencies/individuals employing them and low awareness of importance of the protective gear amongst workers themselves. Several reports and studies show that because of the non-availability of safety gear, many sewage workers get infected and many of them retire even before attaining superannuation and about 70% of the manual scavengers die while on job. Though there are neoprene safety suits, costing only a few thousand, available in the market which can suffice but is beyond the buying capacity of the sewage diver and agencies/individuals employing them are reluctant to procure it as they find it expensive. In absence of safety suits, the divers get exposed to the parasites, viruses, and disease-causing germs present in the sewage. The research was undertaken with the objective of developing an affordable safety-suit which would save diver from coming into direct contact with the sewage thus preventing infections and diseases. The low cost of the suit may also motivate their employers to procure them for sewage divers.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1286
81835
Understanding Unlawful Behavior in Music Industry Using Agent-Based Modelling and Simulation: A Complementary of Misconception in Value Co-Creation
Abstract:
National Collective Management Institute (LKMN) in Indonesia stated that legal music products were about 77.552.008 unit while illegal music products were about 22.0688.225 unit in 1996 and this number keeps getting worse every year. Consequently, Indonesia named as one of the countries with high piracy levels in 2005. This study models people decision toward unlawful behavior, music content piracy in particular, using agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS). The classification of actors in the model constructed in this study are legal consumer, illegal consumer, and neutral consumer. The decision toward piracy among the actors is a manifestation of the social norm which attributes are social pressure, peer pressure, social approval, and perceived prevalence of piracy. The influencing attributes fluctuate depending on the majority of surrounding behavior called social network. There are two main interventions undertaken in the model, campaign and peer influence, which leads to scenarios in the simulation: positively-framed descriptive norm message, negatively-framed descriptive norm message, positively-framed injunctive norm with benefits message, and negatively-framed injunctive norm with costs message. Using NetLogo, the model is simulated in 30 runs with 10.000 iteration for each run. The initial number of agent was set 100 proportion of 95:5 for illegal consumption. The assumption of proportion is based on the data stated that 95% sales of music industry are pirated. The finding of this study is that negatively-framed descriptive norm message has a worse reversed effect toward music piracy. The study discovers that selecting the context-based campaign is the key process to reduce the level of intention toward music piracy as unlawful behavior by increasing the compliance awareness. The context of Indonesia reveals that that majority of people has actively engaged in music piracy as unlawful behavior, so that people think that this illegal act is common behavior. Therefore, providing the information about how widespread and big this problem is could make people do the illegal consumption behavior instead. The positively-framed descriptive norm message scenario works best to reduce music piracy numbers as it focuses on supporting positive behavior and subject to the right perception on this phenomenon. Music piracy is not merely economical, but rather social phenomenon due to the underlying motivation of the actors which has shifted toward community sharing. The indication of misconception of value co-creation in the context of music piracy in Indonesia is also discussed. This study contributes theoretically that understanding how social norm configures the behavior of decision-making process is essential to breakdown the phenomenon of unlawful behavior in music industry. In practice, this study proposes that reward-based and context-based strategy is the most relevant strategy for stakeholders in music industry. Furthermore, this study provides an opportunity that findings may generalize well beyond music piracy context. As an emerging body of work that systematically constructs the backstage of law and social affect decision-making process, it is interesting to see how the model is implemented in other decision-behavior related situation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1285
81683
The Development of Open Access in Latin America and Caribbean: Mapping National and International Policies and Scientific Publications of the Region
Abstract:
ICTs and technology transfer can benefit and move a country forward in economic and social development. However, ICT and access to the Internet have been inequitably distributed in most developing countries. In terms of science production and dissemination, this divide articulates itself also through the inequitable distribution of access to scientific knowledge and networks, which results in the exclusion of developing countries from the center of science. Developing countries are on the fringe of Science and Technology (S&T) production due not only to low investment in research but also to the difficulties to access international scholarly literature. In this respect, Open access (OA) initiatives and knowledge infrastructure represent key elements for both producing significant changes in scholarly communication and reducing the problems of developing countries. The spreading of the OA movement in the region, exemplified by the growth of regional and national initiatives, such as the creation of OA institutional repositories (e.g. SciELO and Redalyc) and the establishing of supportive governmental policies, provides evidence of the significant role that OA is playing in reducing the scientific gap between Latin American countries and improving their participation in the so-called ‘global knowledge commons’. In this paper, we map OA publications in Latin America and observe how Latin American countries are moving forward and becoming a leading force in widening access to knowledge. Our analysis, developed as part of the H2020 EULAC Focus research project, is based on mixed methods and consists mainly of a bibliometric analysis of OA publications indexed in the most important scientific databases (Web of Science and Scopus) and OA regional repositories, as well as the qualitative analysis of documents related to the main OA initiatives in Latin America. Through our analysis, we aim at reflecting critically on what policies, international standards, and best practices might be adapted to incorporate OA worldwide and improve the infrastructure of the global knowledge commons.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1284
81601
Organisational Factors and Total Quality Management Practice in Nigeria Manufacturing Industry: Evidence from Honeywell Flour Mills Plc
Abstract:
Nigerian manufacturing industry, particularly the flour producing firms play vital roles in Nigerian economy. This sector’s quality management practice is given a little attention along with organizational factors that hinder successful practice of total quality management which needs to be documented. Honeywell Flour Mills Plc operate in Nigeria with an appreciable number of products that serves this sector of the economy. Internal-external disposition of the company and total quality practice of the company deserve some elucidations. Hence, this study examined the influence of organizational factors on total quality management practice of Nigerian manufacturing industry, using Honeywell Flour Mills Plc as a case study. The study employed the correlational type of descriptive survey research design. The population consisted of 656 staff of Honeywell Flour Mills Plc, out of which 235 members were selected through scientific sampling method developed by Paler-Calmorin and Calmorin. A total of 235 copies of questionnaires titled 'Organisational Factors and Total Quality Management Practices (QF-TQM) Questionnaire' were administered with a response rate of 66 copies returned. The following variables were applied internal organisational factors (IOFs), external organizational factors (EOFs) and total quality management (TQM). Data generated were analysed using frequency distribution and regression analysis at 0.05 level. The findings revealed that IOFs positively and significantly related with TQM (r = .147**, N= 64, P(.000) < .01). Also, EOFs negatively and significantly related with TQM (r = -.117, N= 64, P(.000) < .01). Findings showed that internal and external organizational factors jointly influenced TQM practiced in F₍₂,₆₁₎=22.250; R²=.629; Adj.R²=.603; P(.000) < .05). The study concluded that organizational factors are determinants of TQM practice in Nigerian manufacturing industry. It is recommended that both internal and external organizational factors influencing TQM practices should be considered in the development of TQM strategies.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1283
81478
Assessment of Memetic and Genetic Algorithm for a Flexible Integrated Logistics Network
Abstract:
The distribution-allocation problem is known as one of the most comprehensive strategic decision. In real-world cases, it is impossible to solve a distribution-allocation problem in traditional ways with acceptable time. Hence researchers develop efficient non-traditional techniques for the large-term operation of the whole supply chain. These techniques provide near-optimal solutions particularly for large scales test problems. This paper, presents an integrated supply chain model which is flexible in the delivery path. As the solution methodology, we apply a memetic algorithm with a novelty in population presentation. To illustrate the performance of the proposed memetic algorithm, LINGO optimization software serves as a comparison basis for small size problems. In large size cases that we are dealing with in the real world, the Genetic algorithm as the second metaheuristic algorithm is considered to compare the results and show the efficiency of the memetic algorithm.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1282
81441
Study of Electrode Shape during Electrical Discharge Machining of Hardened Die Steel
Abstract:
In Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) operations, the workpiece confers to the shape of the tool. Further, the cost of the tool contributes the maximum effect in total operation cost. Therefore, the shape and profile of the tool becomes highly significant. Thus, in this work, an attempt has been made to study the effect of process parameters on the shape of the tool. The shape of tool has been evaluated by determining the difference in out of roundness of tool before and after machining. Empirical model has been developed and significant process parameters have been identified which affect the shape of the tool. Optimum process parameters have been identified which minimizes the shape distortion.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1281
80922
A Real-Time Simulation Environment for Avionics Software Development and Qualification
Abstract:
The development of guidance, navigation and control algorithms and of avionic procedures requires the disposability of suitable analysis and verification tools, such as simulation environments, which support the design process and allow detecting potential problems prior to the flight test, in order to make new technologies available at reduced cost, time and risk. This paper presents a simulation environment for avionic software development and qualification, especially aimed at equipment for general aviation aircrafts and unmanned aerial systems. The simulation environment includes models for short and medium-range radio-navigation aids, flight assistance systems, and ground control stations. All the software modules are able to simulate the modeled systems both in fast-time and real-time tests and were implemented following component oriented modeling techniques and requirement based approach. The paper describes the specific models features, the architectures of the implemented software systems and its validation process. Performed validation tests highlighted the capability of the simulation environment to guarantee in real-time the required functionalities and performance of the simulated avionics systems, as well as to reproduce the interaction between these systems, thus permitting a realistic and reliable simulation of a complete mission scenario.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1280
80810
Social Enterprise Concept in Sustaining Agro-Industry Development in Indonesia: Case Study of Yourgood Social Business
Abstract:
Fruters Model is a model of technopreneurship-based empowerment in which technology research results, was designed to create high value-added products and implemented as a locomotive of collaborative empowerment so that the impact was widespread. This model still needs to be inventoried and validated the influencing variables in business growth process. Model validation accompanied by mapping was required to be applicable to Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) agroindustry based on sustainable social business and existing real cases. This research explained empowerment model of Yourgood Small Medium Enterprises which emphasized on empowering dairy farmers in rural areas, Cipageran, Cimahi to housewives in urban areas, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. The research was conducted from February to June 2017 and gained a unique business model picture with the social business platform. Through the mapped business model, there were several advantages such as (1) technology acquisition, (2) independence (3) capital generation, (4) good investment growth, (5) strengthening of collaboration, and (6) improvement of social impacts can be replicated on other businesses. The method used in this research was descriptive analysis with design thinking approach as well as qualitative and quantitative analysis which used AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) method. Based on the results, the development of the enterprise’s process was highly affected by (1) supplying farmers with the score of 0.248 out of 1, being the most valuable for the existence of the enterprise. It was followed by (2) university (0.178), (3) supplying farmers (0.153), (4) business actors (0.128), (5) government (0.100), (6) distributor (0.092), (7) technopreneurship laboratory (0.069), (8) banking (0.033), (9) Non Government Organization (NGO) (0,031).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1279
80587
Continuous Improvement as an Organizational Capability in the Industry 4.0 Era
Abstract:
Continuous improvement is becoming increasingly a prerequisite for manufacturing companies to remain competitive in a global market. In addition, future survival and success will depend on the ability to manage the forthcoming digitalization transformation in the industry 4.0 era. Industry 4.0 promises substantially increased operational effectiveness, were all equipment are equipped with integrated processing and communication capabilities. Subsequently, the interplay of human and technology will evolve and influence the range of worker tasks and demands. Taking into account these changes, the concept of continuous improvement must evolve accordingly. Based on a case study from manufacturing industry, the purpose of this paper is to point out what the concept of continuous improvement will meet and has to take into considering when entering the 4th industrial revolution. In the past, continuous improvement has the focus on a culture of sustained improvement targeting the elimination of waste in all systems and processes of an organization by involving everyone. Today, it has to be evolved into the forthcoming digital transformation and the increased interplay of human and digital communication system to reach its full potential. One main findings of this study, is how digital communication systems will act as an enabler to strengthen the continuous improvement process, by moving from collaboration within individual teams to interconnection of teams along the product value chain. For academics and practitioners, it will help them to identify and prioritize their steps towards an industry 4.0 implementation integrated with focus on continuous improvement.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):