A Column Generation Based Algorithm for Airline Cabin Crew Rostering Problem
In airlines, the crew scheduling problem is usually decomposed into two stages: crew pairing and crew rostering. In the crew pairing stage, pairings are generated such that each flight is covered by exactly one pairing and the overall cost is minimized. In the crew rostering stage, the pairings generated in the crew pairing stage are combined with off days, training and other breaks to create individual work schedules. The paper focuses on cabin crew rostering problem, which is challenging due to the extremely large size and the complex working rules involved. In our approach, the objective of rostering consists of two major components. The first is to minimize the number of unassigned pairings and the second is to ensure the fairness to crew members. There are two measures of fairness to crew members, the number of overnight duties and the total fly-hour over a given period. Pairings should be assigned to each crew member so that their actual overnight duties and fly hours are as close to the expected average as possible. Deviations from the expected average are penalized in the objective function. Since several small deviations are preferred than a large deviation, the penalization is quadratic. Our model of the airline crew rostering problem is based on column generation. The problem is decomposed into a master problem and subproblems. The mater problem is modeled as a set partition problem and exactly one roster for each crew is picked up such that the pairings are covered. The restricted linear master problem (RLMP) is considered. The current subproblem tries to find columns with negative reduced costs and add them to the RLMP for the next iteration. When no column with negative reduced cost can be found or a stop criteria is met, the procedure ends. The subproblem is to generate feasible crew rosters for each crew member. A separate acyclic weighted graph is constructed for each crew member and the subproblem is modeled as resource constrained shortest path problems in the graph. Labeling algorithm is used to solve it. Since the penalization is quadratic, a method to deal with non-additive shortest path problem using labeling algorithm is proposed and corresponding domination condition is defined. The major contribution of our model is: 1) We propose a method to deal with non-additive shortest path problem; 2) Operation to allow relaxing some soft rules is allowed in our algorithm, which can improve the coverage rate; 3) Multi-thread techniques are used to improve the efficiency of the algorithm when generating Line-of-Work for crew members. Here a column generation based algorithm for the airline cabin crew rostering problem is proposed. The objective is to assign a personalized roster to crew member which minimize the number of unassigned pairings and ensure the fairness to crew members. The algorithm we propose in this paper has been put into production in a major airline in China and numerical experiments show that it has a good performance.
The Mechanical and Comfort Properties of Cotton/Micro-Tencel Lawn Fabrics
Lawn fabric was usually prepared from originally of linen but at present chiefly cotton. Lawn fabric is worn in summer. Cotton Lawn is a lightweight pure cloth which is heavier than voile. It is so fine that it is somewhat transparent. It is soft and superb to wear thus it is perfect for summer clothes or for regular wear in hotter climates. Tencel (Lyocell) fiber is considered as the fiber of the future as Tencel fibers are absorbent, soft, and extremely strong when wet or dry, and resistant to wrinkles. Fibers are more absorbent than cotton, softer than silk and cooler than linen. High water absorption and water vapor absorption give more heat capacity and heat balancing effect for thermo-regulation. This thermo-regulation is analogous with the action of phase-change-materials. The thermal wear properties result in cool and dry touch that gives cooling effect in sportswear, and the warmth properties (when used as an insulation layer). These cooling and warming effects are adaptive to the environment giving comfort in a broad range of climatic conditions. In this work, single yarns of Ne 80s were made. Yarns were made from conventional ring spinning. Different yarns of 100% cotton, 100% micro-Tencel and Cotton:micro-Tencel blends (67:33, 50:50:33:67) were made. The mechanical and comfort properties of the woven fabrics were compared. The mechanical properties include the tensile and tear strength, bending length, pilling and abrasion resistance whereas comfort properties include the air permeability, moisture management and thermal resistance. It is found that as the content of the micro-Tencel is increased, the mechanical and comfort properties of the woven fabric are also increased.
Production Flow Coordination on Supply Chains: Brazilian Case Studies
One of the biggest barriers that companies find nowadays is the coordination of production flow in their Supply Chains (SC). In this study, coordination is understood as a mechanism for incorporating the entire production channel, with everyone involved focused on achieving the same goals. Sometimes, this coordination is attempted by the use of logistics practices or production plan and control methods. No papers were found in the literature that presented the combined use of logistics practices and production plan and control methods. The main objective of this paper is to propose solutions for six case studies combining logistics practices and Ordering Systems (OS). The methodology used in this study was a conceptual model of decision making. This model contains six phases: a) the analysis the types and characteristics of relationships in the SC; b) the choice of the OS; c) the choice of the logistics practices; d) the development of alternative proposals of combined use; e) the analysis of the consistency of the chosen alternative; f) the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the impact on the coordination of the production flow and the verification of applicability of the proposal in the real case. This study was conducted on six Brazilian SC of different sectors: footwear, food and beverages, garment, sugarcane, mineral and metal mechanical. The results from this study showed that there was improvement in the coordination of the production flow through the following proposals: a) for the footwear industry the use of Period Bath Control (PBC), Quick Response (QR) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP); b) for the food and beverage sector firstly the use of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), ERP, Continuous Replenishment (CR) and Drum-Buffer-Rope Order (DBR) (for situations in which the plants of both companies are distant), and secondly EDI, ERP, Milk-Run and Review System Continues (for situations in which the plants of both companies are close); c) for the garment industry the use of Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment (CPFR) and Constant Work-In-Process (CONWIP) System; d) for the sugarcane sector the use of EDI, ERP and CONWIP System; e) for the mineral processes industry the use of Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI), EDI and MaxMin Control System; f) for the metal mechanical sector the use of CONWIP System and Continuous Replenishment (CR). It should be emphasized that the proposals are exclusively recommended for the relationship between client and supplier studied. Therefore, it cannot be generalized to other cases. However, what can be generalized is the methodology used to choose the best practices for each case. Based on the study, it can be concluded that the combined use of OS and logistics practices enable a better coordination of flow production on SC.
A User Centred Based Approach for Designing Everyday Product: A Case Study of an Alarm Clock
This work explores design concept generation by understanding user needs through observation and interview. The aim is to examine several principles and guidelines in obtaining evidence from observing how users interact with the targeted product and interviewing them to acquire deep insights of their needs. With the help of Quality Function Deployment (QFD), the identified needs of the users while interacting with the product were ranked using the normalised weighting approach. Furthermore, a low fidelity prototype of the alarm clock is developed with a view of addressing the identified needs of the users. Finally, the low fidelity prototype design was evaluated with two design prototypes already existing in the market through a study involving 30 participants. Preliminary results reveal higher performance ratings by the majority of the participants of the new prototype compared to the other existing alarm clocks in the market used in the study.
Optimal Adjustment of Process with Considering Two Different Markets in the Presence of Inspection Errors
This paper is devoted to the study of the optimal process mean determination in a production system with two markets for the sale of its goods. Authors have developed an absorbing Markov chain model in production system where all items are inspected for conformance with their specification limits. It is assumed that when the value of the quality characteristic falls below a lower limit, the item is scrapped and when it falls above an upper limit then the item is reworked (reprocessed). Items are sold in a primary or a secondary market when their quality characteristics were within the specified specification limits. We included the cycle time of production in the model as well as the effects of inspection errors. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the application of the proposed methodology.
Design of Bayesian Multiple Dependent State Sampling Plan Based on Process Capability Index
In this paper, a variable multiple dependent state (MDS) sampling plan is developed based on process capability index using Bayesian approach. The optimal parameters of developed sampling plan with respect to constraints related to the risk of consumer and producer are presented. Two comparison studies have been done. First, the methods of double sampling model, sampling plan for resubmitted lots and repetitive group sampling (RGS) plan are elaborated, and average sample numbers of developed MDS plan and other classical methods are compared. A comparison study between developed MDS plan based on Bayesian approach and the exact probability distribution is carried out.
Searching the Efficient Frontier for the Coherent Covering Location Problem
In this article, we will try to find an efficient boundary approximation for the bi-objective location problem with coherent coverage for two levels of hierarchy (CCLP). We present the mathematical formulation of the model used. Supported efficient solutions and unsupported efficient solutions are obtained by solving the bi-objective combinatorial problem through the weights method using a Lagrangean heuristic. Subsequently, the results are validated through the DEA analysis with the GEM index (Global efficiency measurement).
Optimal Layout Design by Line Balancing Using Simulation Modeling: Case Study on MAA Garment and Textile Factory
This study deals with optimal layout design by line balancing using simulation modeling. Modeling and simulation are potential tools for analysis of the assembly lines like apparel of a garment manufacturing. Thus, the researchers have tried to experiment different controls, responses, constraints and different objectives using an opt quest in the arena tool. The experiment controls the resources of the assembly line process without affecting the real production system.
In this study, the Arena software, auto cad and production operation management (POM) software are employed to model and measure the performance of the existing sewing line of the Ronny t-shirt model. The t-shirt has 12 major parts to be assembled. For each activity, the researcher has taken 15 sampling observations using stopwatch. All the collected data are statistically analyzed using arena input analyzer for statistically significance and determination of expressions to be used to the simulation modeling. Standard simulation model was developed and run for 160 replications. The result shows the line is operating with a line balance efficiency of 72.56%. In the course of action using Opt Quest different types of scenarios had been developed and the best one was selected from the different simulation scenarios with a line balance efficiency of 75.3% and the company saves 518,400 birrs per year that spent for salary of the extra resources allocated to produce the 650 t-shirts. This arena simulation model has considered the production resources like machines four thread over locks, single needle locks, two needles flat locks, operators of the machines, quality checkers, trimmers, inter arrival time, batch arrival of parts, processing time of each activity, sequence of parts, testing different scenarios.
Management of Fitness-For-Duty for Human Error Prevention in Nuclear Power Plants
It is well known that, out of diverse factors, human error is one of the most dreaded factors that may result in unexpected accidents, especially in Nuclear Power Plants. Therefore, it is quite indispensable to make any factors under the effective control that may raise the possibility of human errors for accident prevention. This study aimed to develop a risk management program, especially in the sense that guaranteeing Fitness-for-Duty (FFD) of human beings working in Nuclear Power Plants. Throughout a literal survey, it was found that work stress and fatigue are major psychophysical factors for management. Major stress factors were drawn out repetitive literal surveys and classified into major categories such as Demands, Supports, Relationships, and so on. To manage those factors, a management program on a 4-level approach including tests and interventions based was developed over the whole employment cycle composed of selection and screening of workers, job allocation, and job rotation. In addition, a managerial care program was introduced with the concept of Employee-Assistance-Program (EAP). The developed program was reviewed with repetition by ex-operators in nuclear power plants, and assessed in the affirmative. As a whole, responses implied additional treatment to guarantee high performance of human workers not in normal operations but also in emergency situations. Consequently, the program is under administrative modification for practical application.
Toward Better Quality in Healthcare and Operations Management: A Developmental Literature Review
This work presents the various perspectives, dimensions, components and definitions given to quality in the operations management (OM) and healthcare services (HCS) literature in time, highlighting gaps and learning opportunities between the two disciplines through a thorough (English and French) review drawn from their rich and distinct body of knowledge. Greater and new insights about the general nature of quality are obtained with findings such as in OM, quality has been approached in six fairly distinct paradigms (excellence, value, conformity to specifications, meeting or exceeding customer expectations, attributes, satisfaction), whereas in HCS, two approaches are prominent (Donabedian`s structure, process and outcomes model and Lohr and Schroeder`s circumscribed definition). The two disciplines views on quality seem to have progressed much in parallel with little cross-learning from each other. It then proposes an encompassing definition of quality as a tool and suggests further research and development avenues for a better use of the concept of quality by academics and practitioners alike toward the goals of greater organizational performance and improved management in healthcare and possibly other service domains.
Industrial Engineering Higher Education in Saudi Arabia: Assessing the Current Status
Industrial engineering is among engineering disciplines that have been introduced relatively recently to higher education in Saudi Arabian engineering colleges. The objective of this paper is to shed light on the history and status of IE higher education in different Saudi universities, including statistics comparing student enrollment and graduation in different Saudi public and private universities. This paper then proposes how industrial engineering programs could participate successfully in the Saudi Vision 2030. Finally, the authors show the results of a survey conducted on a number of IE students evaluating various academic and administrative aspects of the IE program at King Saud University.
Optimizing Logistics for Courier Organizations with Considerations of Congestions and Pickups: A Courier Delivery System in Amman as Case Study
Traveling salesman problem (TSP) is a combinatorial integer optimization problem that asks 'What is the optimal route for a vehicle to traverse in order to deliver requests to a given set of customers. It is widely used by the package carrier companies’ distribution centers. The main goal of applying the TSP in courier organizations is to minimize the time it takes for the courier on each trip to deliver or pick up the shipments during a day. In this article, an optimization model is constructed to create a new TSP variant to optimize the routing in a courier organization with a consideration of congestion in Amman, the capital of Jordan. Real data were collected by different methods and analyzed, then, Concert technology - CPLEX was used to solve the proposed model for some random generated data instances and for the real collected data. In the end, results have shown a great improvement in time compared with the current trip times, and an economic study was conducted afterwards to figure out the impact of using such models.
Investigating the Causes of Human Error-Induced Incidents in the Maintenance Operations of Petrochemical Industry by Using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System
This article studied the possible causes of human error-induced incidents in the petrochemical industry maintenance activities by using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). The purpose of the study was anticipating and identifying these causes and proposing corrective and preventive actions. Maintenance department in a petrochemical company was selected for research. A checklist of human error-induced incidents was developed based on four HFACS main levels and nineteen sub-groups. Hierarchical task analysis (HTA) technique was used to identify maintenance activities and tasks. The main causes of possible incidents were identified by checklist and recorded. Corrective and preventive actions were defined depending on priority. Analyzing the worksheets of 444 activities in four levels of HFACS showed 37.6% of the causes were at the level of unsafe actions, 27.5% at the level of unsafe supervision, 20.9% at the level of preconditions for unsafe acts and 14% of the causes were at the level of organizational effects. The HFACS sub-groups showed errors (24.36%) inadequate supervision (14.89%) and violations (13.26%) with the most frequency. According to findings of this study, increasing the training effectiveness of operators and supervision improvement respectively are the most important measures in decreasing the human error-induced incidents in petrochemical industry maintenance.
Modeling Sustainable Truck Rental Operations Using the Closed-Loop Supply Chain Network
Moving industries consume numerous resources and dispose masses of used packaging materials. Proper sorting, recycling and disposing the packaging materials is necessary to avoid a sever pollution disaster. This research paper presents a conceptual model to propose sustainable truck rental operations instead of the regular one. An optimization model was developed to select the locations of truck rental centers, collection sites, maintenance and repair sites, and identify the rental fees to be charged for all routes that maximize the total closed supply chain profits. Fixed costs of vehicle purchasing, costs of constructing collection centers and repair centers, as well as the fixed costs paid to use disposal and recycling centers are considered. Operating costs include the truck maintenance, and repair costs as well as the cost of recycling and disposing the packing materials and the costs of relocating the truck are presented in the model. A numerical example is presented, modeled and the model solution was provided.
A Study on the Water and Oil Repellency Characteristics of Plasma-Treated Pet and Pet/Elastane Fabrics
New orientations have emerged in the textile sector as a result of increasing global competition and environmental problems. Under the scope of new understandings, it is required to bring forward multi-functional, simple and environmentally friendly methods that will meet tight economic and ecological demands of today. Plasma technology has become a significant alternative in this sense. This technology may provide great advantages in case it is developed, however, it does not receive adequate consideration. In this study, plasma treatment was applied by using glow discharge plasma system to 100% polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and 95% PET/5% elastane fabrics and then the effects of plasma polymerization on fabric surface was tested and analyzed using water and oil repellent finishes.
An Inventory Management Model to Manage the Stock Level for Irregular Demand Items
An accurate inventory management policy acquires a crucial role in the several high-availability sectors. In these sectors, due to the high-cost of spares and backorders, an (S-1, S) replenishment policy is necessary for high-availability items. The policy enables the shipment of a substitute efficient item anytime the inventory size decreases by one. This policy can be modelled following the Multi-Echelon Technique for Recoverable Item Control (METRIC). The METRIC is a system-based technique that allows defining the optimum stock level in a multi-echelon network, adopting measures in line with the decision-maker’s perspective. The METRIC defines an availability-cost function with inventory costs and required service levels, using as inputs data about the demand trend, the supplying and maintenance characteristics of the network and the budget/availability constraints. The traditional METRIC relies on the hypothesis that a Poisson distribution well represents the demand distribution in case of items with a low failure rate. However, in this research, we will explore the effects of using a Poisson distribution to model the demand of low failure rate items characterized by an irregular demand trend. This characteristic of a demand is not included in the traditional METRIC formulation leading to the need of revising its traditional formulation. Using the CV (Coefficient of Variation) and ADI (Average inter-Demand Interval) classification, we will define the inherent flaws of Poisson-based METRIC for irregular demand items, defining an innovative ad hoc distribution which can better fit the irregular demands. This distribution will allow defining proper stock levels to reduce stocking and backorder costs due to the high irregularities in the demand trend. A case study in the aviation domain will clarify the benefits of this innovative METRIC approach.
Modelling the Antecedents of Supply Chain Enablers in Online Groceries Using Interpretive Structural Modelling and MICMAC Analysis
Online groceries have transformed the way the supply chains are managed. These are facing numerous challenges in terms of product wastages, low margins, long breakeven to achieve and low market penetration to mention a few. The e-grocery chains need to overcome these challenges in order to survive the competition. The purpose of this paper is to carry out a structural analysis of the enablers in e-grocery chains by applying Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) and MICMAC analysis in the Indian context. The research design is descriptive-explanatory in nature. The enablers have been identified from the literature and through semi-structured interviews conducted among the managers having relevant experience in e-grocery supply chains. The experts have been contacted through professional/social networks by adopting a purposive snowball sampling technique. The interviews have been transcribed, and manual coding is carried using open and axial coding method. The key enablers are categorized into themes, and the contextual relationship between these and the performance measures is sought from the Industry veterans. Using ISM, the hierarchical model of the enablers is developed and MICMAC analysis identifies the driver and dependence powers. Based on the driver-dependence power the enablers are categorized into four clusters namely independent, autonomous, dependent and linkage. The analysis found that information technology (IT) and manpower training acts as key enablers towards reducing the lead time and enhancing the online service quality. Many of the enablers fall under the linkage cluster viz., frequent software updating, branding, the number of delivery boys, order processing, benchmarking, product freshness and customized applications for different stakeholders, depicting these as critical in online food/grocery supply chains. Considering the perishability nature of the product being handled, the impact of the enablers on the product quality is also identified. Hence, study aids as a tool to identify and prioritize the vital enablers in the e-grocery supply chain. The work is perhaps unique, which identifies the complex relationships among the supply chain enablers in fresh food for e-groceries and linking them to the performance measures. It contributes to the knowledge of supply chain management in general and e-retailing in particular. The approach focus on the fresh food supply chains in the Indian context and hence will be applicable in developing economies context, where supply chains are evolving.
Generation of Automated Alarms for Plantwide Process Monitoring
Earlier detection of incipient abnormal operations in terms of plant-wide process management is quite necessary in order to improve product quality and process safety. And generating warning signals or alarms for operating personnel plays an important role in process automation and intelligent plant health monitoring. Various methodologies have been developed and utilized in this area such as expert systems, mathematical model-based approaches, multivariate statistical approaches, and so on. This work presents a nonlinear empirical monitoring methodology based on the real-time analysis of massive process data. Unfortunately, the big data includes measurement noises and unwanted variations unrelated to true process behavior. Thus the elimination of such unnecessary patterns of the data is executed in data processing step to enhance detection speed and accuracy. The performance of the methodology was demonstrated using simulated process data. The case study showed that the detection speed and performance was improved significantly irrespective of the size and the location of abnormal events.
Taguchi-Based Six Sigma Approach to Optimize Surface Roughness for Milling Processes
This paper focuses on using Six Sigma methodologies to improve the surface roughness of a manufactured part produced by the CNC milling machine. It presents a case study where the surface roughness of milled aluminum is required to reduce or eliminate defects and to improve the process capability index Cp and Cpk for a CNC milling process. The six sigma methodology, DMAIC (design, measure, analyze, improve, and control) approach, was applied in this study to improve the process, reduce defects, and ultimately reduce costs. The Taguchi-based six sigma approach was applied to identify the optimized processing parameters that led to the targeted surface roughness specified by our customer. A L9 orthogonal array was applied in the Taguchi experimental design, with four controllable factors and one non-controllable/noise factor. The four controllable factors identified consist of feed rate, depth of cut, spindle speed, and surface roughness. The noise factor is the difference between the old cutting tool and the new cutting tool. The confirmation run with the optimal parameters confirmed that the new parameter settings are correct. The new settings also improved the process capability index. The purpose of this study is that the Taguchi–based six sigma approach can be efficiently used to phase out defects and improve the process capability index of the CNC milling process.
Improving Efficiency of Organizational Performance: The Role of Human Resources in Supply Chains and Job Rotation Practice
Jordan Customs (JC) has been established to achieve objectives that must be consistent with the guidance of the wise leadership and its aspirations toward tomorrow. Therefore, it has developed several needed tools to provide a distinguished service to simplify work procedures and used modern technologies. A supply chain (SC) consists of all parties that are involved directly or indirectly in order to fulfill a customer request, which includes manufacturers, suppliers, shippers, retailers and even customer brokers. Within each firm, the SC includes all functions involved in receiving a filling a customers’ requests; one of the main functions include customer service. JC and global SCs are evolving into dynamic environment, which requires flexibility, effective communication, and team management. Thus, human resources (HRs) insight in these areas are critical for the effective development of global process network. The importance of HRs has increased significantly due to the role of employees depends on their knowledge, competencies, abilities, skills, and motivations. Strategic planning in JC began at the end of the 1990’s including operational strategy for Human Resource Management and Development (HRM&D). However, a huge transformation in human resources happened at the end of 2006; new employees’ regulation for customs were prepared, approved and applied at the end of 2007. Therefore, many employees lost their positions, while others were selected based on professorial recruitment and selection process (enter new blood). One of several policies that were applied by human resources in JC department is job rotation. From the researcher’s point of view, it was not based on scientific basis to achieve its goals and objectives, which at the end leads to having a significant negative impact on the Organizational Performance (OP) and weak job rotation approach. The purpose of this study is to call attention to re-review the applying process and procedure of job rotation that HRM directorate is currently applied at JC. Furthermore, it presents an overview of managing the HRs in the SC network that affects their success. The research methodology employed in this study was described as qualitative by conducting few interviews with managers, internal employee, external clients and reviewing the related literature to collect some qualitative data from secondary sources. Thus, conducting frequently and unstructured job rotation policy (i.e. monthly) will have a significant negative impact on JC performance as a whole. The results of this study show that the main impacts will affect on three main elements in JC: (1) internal employees' performance; (2) external clients, who are dealing with customs services; and finally, JC performance as a whole. In order to implement a successful and perfect job rotation technique at JC in a scientific way and to achieve its goals and objectives; JCs should be taken into consideration the proposed solutions and recommendations that will be presented in this study.
Knowledge Transfer from Experts to Novice: An Empirical Study on Online Communities
This paper aims to investigate factors that drive individuals to transfer their knowledge in the context of online communities. By revisiting tacit-to-explicit knowledge creation, this research attempts to contribute empirically using three online forums (1) Software Engineering; (2) Aerospace Simulator; (3) Health Insurance System. A qualitative approach was deployed to map and recognize the pattern of users ‘Knowledge Transfer (KT), particularly from expert to novice. The findings suggest a common form on how experts give their effort to formulate ‘explicit’ knowledge and how novices ‘understand’ such knowledge. This research underlines that skill; intuition, judgment; value and belief are the prominent factors, both for experts and novice. Further, this research has recognized the groups of expert and novice by their ability to transfer and to ‘adopt’ new knowledge. Future research infers to triangulate the method in which the quantitative study is needed to measure the level of adoption of (new) knowledge by individuals.
A Hybrid Distributed Algorithm for Solving Job Shop Scheduling Problem
In this paper, a distributed hybrid algorithm is proposed for solving the job shop scheduling problem. The suggested method executes different artificial neural networks, heuristics and meta-heuristics simultaneously on more than one machine. The neural networks are used to control the constraints of the problem while the meta-heuristics search the global space and the heuristics are used to prevent the premature convergence. To attain an efficient distributed intelligent method for solving big and distributed job shop scheduling problems, Apache Spark and Hadoop frameworks are used. In the algorithm implementation and design steps, new approaches are applied. Comparison between the proposed algorithm and other efficient algorithms from the literature shows its efficiency, which is able to solve large size problems in short time.
A Hybrid Distributed Algorithm for Multi-Objective Dynamic Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem
In this paper, a hybrid distributed algorithm has been suggested for multi-objective dynamic flexible job shop scheduling problem. The proposed algorithm is high level, in which several algorithms search the space on different machines simultaneously also it is a hybrid algorithm that takes advantages of the artificial intelligence, evolutionary and optimization methods. Distribution is done at different levels and new approaches are used for design of the algorithm. Apache spark and Hadoop frameworks have been used for the distribution of the algorithm. The Pareto optimality approach is used for solving the multi-objective benchmarks. The suggested algorithm that is able to solve large-size problems in short times has been compared with the successful algorithms of the literature. The results prove high speed and efficiency of the algorithm.
A High-Level Co-Evolutionary Hybrid Algorithm for the Multi-Objective Job Shop Scheduling Problem
In this paper, a hybrid distributed algorithm has been suggested for the multi-objective job shop scheduling problem. Many new approaches are used at design steps of the distributed algorithm. Co-evolutionary structure of the algorithm and competition between different communicated hybrid algorithms, which are executed simultaneously, causes to efficient search. Using several machines for distributing the algorithms, at the iteration and solution levels, increases computational speed. The proposed algorithm is able to find the Pareto solutions of the big problems in shorter time than other algorithm in the literature. Apache Spark and Hadoop platforms have been used for the distribution of the algorithm. The suggested algorithm and implementations have been compared with results of the successful algorithms in the literature. Results prove the efficiency and high speed of the algorithm.
Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process Approach for Determination of Supply Chain Performance Evaluation Criteria
Fuzzy AHP(Analytic Hierarchy Process) method is decision-making way at the end of integrating the current AHP method with fuzzy structure. In this study, the processes of production planning, inventory management and purchasing department of a system were analysed and were requested to decide the performance criteria of each area. At this point, the current work processes were analysed by various decision-makers and comparing each criteria by giving points according to 1-9 scale were completed. The criteria were listed in order to their weights by using Fuzzy AHP approach and top three performance criteria of each department were determined. After that, the performance criteria of supply chain consisting of three departments were asked to determine. The processes of each department were compared by decision-makers at the point of building the general performance system (supply chain performance system) and getting the performance criteria. According to the results, the criteria of performance system of supply chain by using Fuzzy AHP were determined for which will be used in the supply chain performance system in the future.
Contribution to the Decision-Making Process for Selecting the Suitable Maintenance Policy
Industrial companies may be confronted with questions about their choice of maintenance policy. This choice must be guided by several numbers of decision criteria or objectives related to their production or service activities but also to their level of development and their investment prospects. A decision-support methodology to choose a maintenance policy (corrective, systematic or conditional preventive, predictive, opportunistic or not) is proposed to facilitate this choice using the main categories of the most important decision criteria. The different steps of this methodology are illustrated using theoretical case: identification of the different maintenance alternatives, determining the structure of the most important categories of the decision criteria, assessing the different maintenance policies on to the criteria by using an ordinal preference relation, and finally ranking the different maintenance policies.
Surface Roughness Formed during Hybrid Turning of Inconel Alloy
Inconel 718 is a material characterized by the unique mechanical properties, high temperature strength, high thermal conductivity and the corrosion resistance. However, these features affect the low machinability of this material, which is usually manifested by the intense tool wear and low surface finish. Therefore, this paper is focused on the evaluation of surface roughness during hybrid machining of Inconel 718. The primary aim of the study was to determine the relations between the vibrations generated during hybrid turning and the formed surface roughness. Moreover, the comparison of tested machining techniques in terms of vibrations, tool wear and surface roughness has been made. The conducted tests included the face turning of Inconel 718 with laser assistance in the range of variable cutting speeds. The surface roughness was inspected with the application of stylus profile meter and accelerations of vibrations were measured with the use of three-component piezoelectric accelerometer. The carried out research shows that application of laser assisted machining can contribute to the reduction of surface roughness and cutting vibrations, in comparison to conventional turning. Moreover, the obtained results enable the selection of effective cutting speed allowing the improvement of surface finish and cutting dynamics.
The Study on Physical Surface Layer after Laser Heating of Inconel 718
This paper focuses on the analysis of physical surface layer after laser heating of Inconel 718 alloy in variable conditions. The primary objective of the work was to determine the relations between the applied absorptive layer deposited on the workpiece, the type of applied laser and the obtained dimensions of re-melted surface, its microstructure, and micro-hardness distribution. Experiments were performed with the application of CO₂ and diode lasers. The Acheson and Gouache substances were selected as the absorptive layers. The carried out tests included the measurements of re-melted areas width and height, the identification of their microstructure, as well as the inspection of micro-hardness distribution inside the surface layer. Results revealed that the application of different lasers and distinct absorptive layers affect the values of re-melted areas’ micro-hardness.
The Analysis of Surface Topography during Turning of Waspaloy with the Application of Response Surface Method
This paper presents the analysis of surface topography during longitudinal turning of Waspaloy. The primary objective of the work was to determine the optimal machining conditions enabling the minimization of surface roughness parameters. Experimental studies were performed with the application of fractional plan (with 1 block and 9 systems). The carried out experiment included the measurements of surface topographies formed after turning with variable cutting conditions (cutting speed vc, cutting depth ap and feed f). Subsequently, the measured quantities have been applied to the optimization procedure based on the application of response surface method (RSM). In order to obtain the optimal cutting parameters, the maximization of total utility function was carried out. Results revealed that the minimal surface roughness parameters values during turning of Waspaloy with the cubic boron nitride (CBN) inserts can be obtained for the: f=0.05 mm/rev, ap =0.23 mm and vc =452 m/min.
The Evaluation of Surface Integrity during Machining of Inconel 718 with Various Laser Assistance Strategies
The paper is focused on the evaluation of surface integrity formed during turning of Inconel 718 with the application of various laser assistance strategies. The primary objective of the work was to determine the relations between the applied machining strategy and the obtained surface integrity, in order to select the effective cutting conditions allowing the obtainment of high surface quality. The carried out experiment included the machining of Inconel 718 in the conventional turning conditions, as well as during the continuous laser assisted machining and sequential laser assistance. The surface integrity was evaluated by the measurements of machined surface topographies, microstructures and the microhardness. Results revealed that surface integrity of Inconel 718 is strongly affected by the selected machining strategy. The significant improvement of the surface roughness formed during machining of Inconel 718, can be reached by the application of simultaneous laser heating and cutting (LAM).