Application of Granular Computing Paradigm in Knowledge Induction
This paper illustrates an application of granular computing approach, namely rough set theory in data mining. The paper outlines the formalism of granular computing and elucidates the mathematical underpinning of rough set theory, which has been widely used by the data mining and the machine learning community. A real-world application is illustrated, and the classification performance is compared with other contending machine learning algorithms. The predictive performance of the rough set rule induction model shows comparative success with respect to other contending algorithms.
Lecturer’s Perception of the Role of Information and Communication Technology in Office Technology and Management Programme in Polytechnics in Nigeria
This study examined lecturers’ perception of the roles of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Office Technology and Management (OTM) programme in polytechnics, in South-West, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was adopted in this study. Purposive sampling technique was used to select all OTM lecturers in the nine (9) Polytechnics in the South-West, Nigeria. A 4-rating scale was adopted questionnaire titled ‘Lecturers’ Perception of the Roles of ICT in OTM Programme in Polytechnics’ with a reliability index of 0.93 was used. Two research questions were answered, and one null hypothesis was tested for the study. Data collected was analysed using descriptive statistics, independent t-test and one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that lecturers have right perception of the roles of ICT in OTM programme in polytechnics. Also, the study revealed no significant difference between the mean perception of male and female lecturers in office technology and management. Based on the findings, the study recommended among others that recruitment of professionals in the field of ICT is necessary for effective teaching learning to be established and OTM curriculum should be constantly reviewed to enhance some ICT package that is acceptable globally.
An Energy Holes Avoidance Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks
In Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs), sensor nodes close to water surface (final destination) are often preferred for selection as forwarders. However, their frequent selection makes them depleted of their limited battery power. In consequence, these nodes die during early stage of network operation and create energy holes where forwarders are not available for packets forwarding. These holes severely affect network throughput. As a result, system performance significantly degrades. In this paper, a routing protocol is proposed to avoid energy holes during packets forwarding. The proposed protocol does not require the conventional position information (localization) of holes to avoid them. Localization is cumbersome; energy is inefficient and difficult to achieve in underwater environment where sensor nodes change their positions with water currents. Forwarders with the lowest water pressure level and the maximum number of neighbors are preferred to forward packets. These two parameters together minimize packet drop by following the paths where maximum forwarders are available. To avoid interference along the paths with the maximum forwarders, a packet holding time is defined for each forwarder. Simulation results reveal superior performance of the proposed scheme than the counterpart technique.
Reliability Factors Based Fuzzy Logic Scheme for Spectrum Sensing
The accurate spectrum sensing is a fundamental requirement of dynamic spectrum access for deployment of Cognitive Radio Network (CRN). To achieve this requirement a Reliability factors based Fuzzy Logic (RFL) Scheme for Spectrum Sensing has been proposed in this paper. Cognitive Radio User (CRU) predicts the presence or absence of Primary User (PU) using energy detector and calculates the reliability factors which are SNR of sensing node, threshold of energy detector and decision difference of each node with other nodes in a cooperative spectrum sensing environment. Then the decision of energy detector is combined with reliability factors of sensing node using Fuzzy Logic. These reliability factors used in RFL Scheme describes the reliability of decision made by a CRU to improve the local spectrum sensing. This novel Fuzzy combining scheme provides the accuracy of decision made by sensor node. The simulation results have shown that the proposed technique provides better PU detection probability than existing Spectrum Sensing Techniques.
Advancing Customer Service Management Platform: Case Study of Social Media Applications
Social media has completely revolutionized the ways communication used to take place even a decade ago. It makes use of computer mediated technologies which helps in the creation of information and sharing. Social media may be defined as the production, consumption and exchange of information across platforms for social interaction. The social media has become a forum in which customer’s look for information about companies to do business with and request answers to questions about their products and services. Customer service may be termed as a process of ensuring customer’s satisfaction by meeting and exceeding their wants. In delivering excellent customer service, knowing customer’s expectations and where they are reaching out is important in meeting and exceeding customer’s want. Facebook is one of the most used social media platforms among others which also include Twitter, Instagram, Whatsapp and LinkedIn. This indicates customers are spending more time on social media platforms, therefore calls for improvement in customer service delivery over the social media pages. Millions of people channel their issues, complaints, complements and inquiries through social media. This study have being able to identify what social media customers want, their expectations and how they want to be responded to by brands and companies. However, the applied research methodology used in this paper was a mixed methods approach. The authors of d paper used qualitative method such as gathering critical views of experts on social media and customer relationship management to analyse the impacts of social media on customer's satisfaction through interviews. The authors also used quantitative such as online survey methods to address issues at different stages and to have insight about different aspects of the platforms i.e. customer’s and company’s perception about the effects of social media. Thereby exploring and gaining better understanding of how brands make use of social media as a customer relationship management tool. And an exploratory research approach strategy was applied analysing how companies need to create good customer support using social media in order to improve good customer service delivery, customer retention and referrals. Therefore many companies have preferred social media platform application as a medium of handling customer’s queries and ensuring their satisfaction, this is because social media tools are considered more transparent and effective in its operations when dealing with customer relationship management.
Estimation of Foliar Nitrogen in Selected Vegetation Communities of Uttrakhand Himalayas Using Hyperspectral Satellite Remote Sensing
The study estimates the nitrogen concentration in selected vegetation community’s i.e. chir pine (pinusroxburghii) by using hyperspectral satellite data and also identified the appropriate spectral bands and nitrogen indices. The Short Wave InfraRed reflectance spectrum at 1790 nm and 1680 nm shows the maximum possible absorption by nitrogen in selected species. Among the nitrogen indices, log normalized nitrogen index performed positively and negatively too. The strong positive correlation is taken out from 1510 nm and 760 nm for the pinusroxburghii for leaf nitrogen concentration and leaf nitrogen mass while using NDNI. The regression value of R² developed by using linear equation achieved maximum at 0.7525 for the analysis of satellite image data and R² is maximum at 0.547 for ground truth data for pinusroxburghii respectively.
Investigating the Factors Affecting on One Time Passwords Technology Acceptance: A Case Study in Banking Environment
According to fast technology growth, modern banking tries to decrease going to banks’ branches and increase customers’ consent. One of the problems which banks face is securing customer’s password. The banks’ solution is one time password creation system. In this research by adapting from acceptance of technology model theory, assesses factors that are effective on banking in Iran especially in using one time password machine by one of the private banks of Iran customers. The statistical population is all of this bank’s customers who use electronic banking service and one time password technology and the questionnaires were distributed among members of statistical population in 5 selected groups of north, south, center, east and west of Tehran. Findings show that confidential preservation, education, ease of utilization and advertising and informing has positive relations and distinct hardware and age has negative relations.
Secure Distance Bounding Protocol on Ultra-WideBand Based Mapping Code
Ultra WidBand-IR physical layer technology has seen a
great development during the last decade which makes it a promising
candidate for short range wireless communications, as they bring
considerable benefits in terms of connectivity and mobility. However,
like all wireless communication they suffer from vulnerabilities in
terms of security because of the open nature of the radio channel. To
face these attacks, distance bounding protocols are the most popular
counter measures. In this paper, we presented a protocol based on
distance bounding to thread the most popular attacks: Distance Fraud,
Mafia Fraud and Terrorist fraud. In our work, we study the way
to adapt the best secure distance bounding protocols to mapping
code of ultra-wideband (TH-UWB) radios. Indeed, to ameliorate the
performances of the protocol in terms of security communication
in TH-UWB, we combine the modified protocol to ultra-wideband
impulse radio technology (IR-UWB). The security and the different
merits of the protocols are analyzed.
Real-Time Demonstration of Visible Light Communication Based on Frequency Shift Keying Modulation Employing a Smartphone as the Receiver
In this article, we demonstrate a visible light communication (VLC) system over 8 meters free space transmission based on a commercial LED and a receiver in connection with an audio interface of a smart phone. The signal is in FSK modulation format. The successful experimental demonstration validates the feasibility of the proposed system in future wireless communication network.
E-Marketing of Information Resources and Services: A Study of Social Media Applications
This study aims to investigate factors affecting the use of social media tools in e-marketing information resources and services. The constructs identified in this study are related to the usefulness of social media tools and using such media as awareness, needs analysis, and satisfaction tools. Moreover, this study investigates the role of management support in the e-marketing process. The study surveyed 89 professionals in private and public academic libraries. The findings show significant positive correlations between the usefulness of the use of social media tools in marketing information resources and services and the awareness, needs analysis and satisfaction. The findings also indicate poor management support in promoting the e-marketing.
News Reading Practices: Traditional Media versus New Media
People always want to be aware of what is happening around them. The nature of man constantly triggers the need for gathering information because of curiosity. The media has emerged to save people the need for information. It is known that the media has changed with the technological developments over time, diversified and, people's information needs are provided in different ways.
Today, the Internet has become an integral part of everyday life. The invasion of the Internet into everyday life practices at this level affects every aspect of life. These effects cause people to change their life practices. Technological developments have always influenced of people, the way they reach information. Looking at the history of the media, the breaking point about the dissemination of information is seen as the invention of the machine of the printing press. This adventure that started with written media has now become a multi-dimensional structure. Written, audio, visual media has now changed shape with new technologies. Especially emerging of the internet to everyday life, of course, has effects on media field. 'New media' has appeared which contains most of traditional media features in its'. While in the one hand this transformation enables captures a harmony between traditional and new media, on the other hand, new media and traditional media are rivaling each other.
The purpose of this study is to examine the problematic relationship between traditional media and new media through the news reading practices of individuals. This study can be evaluated as a kind of media sociology. To reach this aim, two different field researches will be done besides literature review. The research will be conducted in Northern Cyprus. Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus is located in the Mediterranean Sea. North Cyprus is a country which is not recognized by any country except Turkey. Despite this, takes its share from all technological developments take place in the world. One of the field researches will consist of the questionnaires to be applied on media readers' news reading practices. This survey will be conducted in a social media environment. The second field survey will be conducted in the form of interviews with general editorials or news directors in traditional media. In the second field survey, in-depth interview method will be applied.
As a result of these investigations, supporting sides between the new media and the traditional media and directions which contrast with each other will be revealed. In addition to that, it will try to understand the attitudes and perceptions of readers about the traditional media and the new media in this study.
Losing Benefits from Social Network Sites Usage: An Approach to Estimate the Relationship between Social Network Sites Usage and Social Capital
This study examines the relationship between social network sites (SNS) usage and social capital. Because SNS usage can expand the users’ networks, and people who are connected in this networks may become resources to SNS users and lead them to advantage in some situation, it is important to estimate the relationship between SNS usage and ‘who’ is connected or what resources the SNS users can get. Additionally, ‘who’ can be divided in two aspects – people who possess high position and people who are different, hence, it is important to estimate the relationship between SNS usage and high position people and different people. This study adapts Lin’s definition of social capital and the measurement of position generator which tells us who was connected, and can be divided into the same two aspects as well. A national data of America (N = 2,255) collected by Pew Research Center is utilized to do a general regression analysis about SNS usage and social capital. The results indicate that SNS usage is negatively associated with each factor of social capital, and it suggests that, in fact, comparing with non-users, although SNS users can get more connections, the variety and resources of these connections are fewer. For this reason, we could lose benefits through SNS usage.
Reliable and Energy-Aware Data Forwarding under Sink-Hole Attack in Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to attacks from adversaries attempting to disrupt their operations. Sink-hole attacks are a type of attack where an adversary node drops data forwarded through it and hence affecting the reliability and accuracy of the network. Since sensor nodes have limited battery power, it is essential that any solution to the sinkhole attack problem be very energy-aware. In this paper, we present a reliable and energy efficient scheme to forward data from source nodes to the base station while under sink-hole attack. The scheme also detects sink-hole attack nodes and avoid paths that includes them.
Changing Arbitrary Data Transmission Period by Using Bluetooth Module on Gas Sensor Node of Arduino Board
Internet of Things (IoT) applications are widely serviced and spread worldwide. Local wireless data transmission technique must be developed to rate up with some technique. Bluetooth wireless data communication is wireless technique is technique made by Special Inter Group (SIG) using the frequency range 2.4 GHz, and it is exploiting Frequency Hopping to avoid collision with a different device. To implement experiment, equipment for experiment transmitting measured data is made by using Arduino as open source hardware, gas sensor, and Bluetooth module and algorithm controlling transmission rate is demonstrated. Experiment controlling transmission rate also is progressed by developing Android application receiving measured data, and controlling this rate is available at the experiment result. It is important that in the future, improvement for communication algorithm be needed because a few error occurs when data is transferred or received.
Modern Machine Learning Conniptions for Automatic Speech Recognition
This expose presents a luculent of recent machine learning practices as employed in the modern and as pertinent to prospective automatic speech recognition schemes. The aspiration is to promote additional traverse ablution among the machine learning and automatic speech recognition factions that have transpired in the precedent. The manuscript is structured according to the chief machine learning archetypes that are furthermore trendy by now or have latency for building momentous hand-outs to automatic speech recognition expertise. The standards offered and convoluted in this article embraces adaptive and multi-task learning, active learning, Bayesian learning, discriminative learning, generative learning, supervised and unsupervised learning. These learning archetypes are aggravated and conferred in the perspective of automatic speech recognition tools and functions. This manuscript bequeaths and surveys topical advances of deep learning and learning with sparse depictions; further limelight is on their incessant significance in the evolution of automatic speech recognition.
A Method and System for Secure Authentication Using One Time QR Code
User authentication is an important security measure for protecting confidential data and systems. However, the vulnerability while authenticating into a system has significantly increased. Thus, necessary mechanisms must be deployed during the process of authenticating a user to safeguard him/her from the vulnerable attacks. The proposed solution implements a novel authentication mechanism to counter various forms of security breach attacks including phishing, Trojan horse, replay, key logging, Asterisk logging, shoulder surfing, brute force search and others. QR code (Quick Response Code) is a type of matrix barcode or two-dimensional barcode that can be used for storing URLs, text, images and other information. In the proposed solution, during each new authentication request, a QR code is dynamically generated and presented to the user. A piece of generic information is mapped to plurality of elements and stored within the QR code. The mapping of generic information with plurality of elements, randomizes in each new login, and thus the QR code generated for each new authentication request is for one-time use only. In order to authenticate into the system, the user needs to decode the QR code using any QR code decoding software. The QR code decoding software needs to be installed on handheld mobile devices such as smartphones, personal digital assistant (PDA), etc. On decoding the QR code, the user will be presented a mapping between the generic piece of information and plurality of elements using which the user needs to derive cipher secret information corresponding to his/her actual password. Now, in place of the actual password, the user will use this cipher secret information to authenticate into the system. The authentication terminal will receive the cipher secret information and use a validation engine that will decipher the cipher secret information. If the entered secret information is correct, the user will be provided access to the system. Usability study has been carried out on the proposed solution, and the new authentication mechanism was found to be easy to learn and adapt. Mathematical analysis of the time taken to carry out brute force attack on the proposed solution has been carried out. The result of mathematical analysis showed that the solution is almost completely resistant to brute force attack. Today’s standard methods for authentication are subject to a wide variety of software, hardware, and human attacks. The proposed scheme can be very useful in controlling the various types of authentication related attacks especially in a networked computer environment where the use of username and password for authentication is common.
FCNN-MR: A Parallel Instance Selection Method Based on Fast Condensed Nearest Neighbor Rule
Instance selection (IS) technique is used to reduce
the data size to improve the performance of data mining methods.
Recently, to process very large data set, several proposed methods
divide the training set into some disjoint subsets and apply IS
algorithms independently to each subset. In this paper, we analyze
the limitation of these methods and give our viewpoint about how to
divide and conquer in IS procedure. Then, based on fast condensed
nearest neighbor (FCNN) rule, we propose a large data sets instance
selection method with MapReduce framework. Besides ensuring the
prediction accuracy and reduction rate, it has two desirable properties:
First, it reduces the work load in the aggregation node; Second
and most important, it produces the same result with the sequential
version, which other parallel methods cannot achieve. We evaluate the
performance of FCNN-MR on one small data set and two large data
sets. The experimental results show that it is effective and practical.
An Improved Method on Static Binary Analysis to Enhance the Context-Sensitive CFI
Control Flow Integrity (CFI) is one of the most
promising technique to defend Code-Reuse Attacks (CRAs).
Traditional CFI Systems and recent Context-Sensitive CFI use coarse
control flow graphs (CFGs) to analyze whether the control flow
hijack occurs, left vast space for attackers at indirect call-sites. Coarse
CFGs make it difficult to decide which target to execute at indirect
control-flow transfers, and weaken the existing CFI systems actually.
It is an unsolved problem to extract CFGs precisely and perfectly
from binaries now. In this paper, we present an algorithm to get a
more precise CFG from binaries. Parameters are analyzed at indirect
call-sites and functions firstly. By comparing counts of parameters
prepared before call-sites and consumed by functions, targets of
indirect calls are reduced. Then the control flow would be more
constrained at indirect call-sites in runtime. Combined with CCFI,
we implement our policy. Experimental results on some popular
programs show that our approach is efficient. Further analysis show
that it can mitigate COOP and other advanced attacks.
Antecedents of Regret and Satisfaction in Electronic Commerce
Online shopping has become very popular recently. In today’s highly competitive online retail environment, retaining existing customers is a necessity for online retailers. This study focuses on the antecedents and consequences of Internet buyer regret and satisfaction in the online consumer purchasing process. This study examines the roles that online consumer’s purchasing process evaluations (i.e., search experience difficulty, service-attribute evaluations, product-attribute evaluations and post-purchase price perceptions) and alternative evaluation (i.e., alternative attractiveness) play in determining buyer regret and satisfaction in e-commerce. The study also examines the consequences of regret, satisfaction and habit in regard to repurchase intention. In addition, this study attempts to investigate the moderating role of habit in attaining a better understanding of the relationship between repurchase intention and its antecedents. Survey data collected from 431 online customers are analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) with partial least squares (PLS) and support provided for the hypothesized links. These results indicate that online consumer’s purchasing process evaluations (i.e., search experience difficulty, service-attribute evaluations, product-attribute evaluations and post-purchase price perceptions) have significant influences on regret and satisfaction, which in turn influences repurchase intention. In addition, alternative evaluation (i.e., alternative attractiveness) has a significant positive influence on regret. The research model can provide a richer understanding of online customers’ repurchase behavior and contribute to both research and practice.
The Antecedents of Internet Addiction toward Smartphone Usage
Twenty years after Internet development, scholars have started to identify the negative impacts brought by the Internet. Overuse of Internet could develop Internet dependency and in turn cause addiction behavior. Therefore understanding the phenomenon of Internet addiction is important. With the joint efforts of experts and scholars, Internet addiction has been officially listed as a symptom that affects public health, and the diagnosis, causes and treatment of the symptom have also been explored. On the other hand, in the area of smartphone Internet usage, most studies are still focusing on the motivation factors of smartphone usage. Not much research has been done on smartphone Internet addiction. In view of the increasing adoption of smartphones, this paper is intended to find out whether smartphone Internet addiction exists in modern society or not. This study adopted the research methodology of online survey targeting users with smartphone Internet experience. A total of 434 effective samples were recovered. In terms of data analysis, Partial Least Square (PLS) in Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is used for sample analysis and research model testing. Software chosen for statistical analysis is SPSS 20.0 for windows and SmartPLS 2.0. The research result successfully proved that smartphone users who access Internet service via smartphone could also develop smartphone Internet addiction. Factors including flow experience, depression, virtual social support, smartphone Internet affinity and maladaptive cognition all have significant and positive influence on smartphone Internet addiction. In the scenario of smartphone Internet use, descriptive norm has a positive and significant influence on perceived playfulness, while perceived playfulness also has a significant and positive influence on flow experience. Depression, on the other hand, is negatively influenced by actual social support and positive influenced by the virtual social support.
Digital Maturity Framework: A Tool to Manage the Information Technologies and Develop Activities of Innovation in Companies
In this research, it is presented a digital maturity framework, which contributes to the development of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the commercial sector. This proposal is based on three important concepts: Marketing activities in the enterprise, information and communication technologies ICT, as well as Innovation. Prior to the development of this framework, was formulated a quantitative assessment tool through a literature review, and was validated with a method used by experts, and which determines the relationship of digital marketing and innovation activities in companies. The instrument was applied to 64 Mexican companies from the Made in Mexico database, which allowed both descriptive results and correlation results. These contributed to the development of the methodology, and confirming that the management of digital marketing has a positive relation with innovation activities of companies. Also, that analytics in digital marketing is a source for its development. In this paper, the management stages and activities are presented to be developed by companies in order to generate knowledge, which will allow them to reach its digital maturity.
ParkedGuard: An Efficient and Accurate Parked Domain Detection System Using Graphical Locality Analysis and Coarse-To-Fine Strategy
As world wild internet has non-stop developments, making profit by lending registered domain names emerges as a new business in recent years. Unfortunately, the larger the market scale of domain lending service becomes, the riskier that there exist malicious behaviors or malwares hiding behind parked domains will be. Also, previous work for differentiating parked domain suffers two main defects: 1) too much data-collecting effort and CPU latency needed for features engineering and 2) ineffectiveness when detecting parked domains containing external links that are usually abused by hackers, e.g., drive-by download attack. Aiming for alleviating above defects without sacrificing practical usability, this paper proposes ParkedGuard as an efficient and accurate parked domain detector. Several scripting behavioral features were analyzed, while those with special statistical significance are adopted in ParkedGuard to make feature engineering much more cost-efficient. On the other hand, finding memberships between external links and parked domains was modeled as a graph mining problem, and a coarse-to-fine strategy was elaborately designed by leverage the graphical locality such that ParkedGuard outperforms the state-of-the-art in terms of both recall and precision rates.
Mobile Learning in Teacher Education: A Review in Context of Developing Countries
Mobile learning (m-learning) offers unique affordances to learners, setting them free of limitations posed by time and geographic space; thus becoming an affordable device for convenient distant learning. There is a plethora of research available on mobile learning projects planned, implemented and evaluated across disciplines in the context of developed countries, however, the potential of m-learning at different educational levels remain unexplored with little evidence of research carried out in developing countries. Despite the favorable technical infrastructure offered by cellular networks and boom in mobile subscriptions in the developing world, there is limited focus on utilizing m-learning for education and development purposes. The objective of this review is to unify findings from m-learning projects that have been implemented in developing countries such as Pakistan, Bangladesh, Philippines, India, and Tanzania for teachers’ in-service training. The purpose is to draw upon key characteristics of mobile learning that would be useful for future researchers to inform conceptualizations of mobile learning for developing countries.
Energy Management System and Interactive Functions of Smart Plug for Smart Home
Intelligent electronic equipment and automation network is the brain of high-tech energy management systems in critical role of smart homes dominance. Smart home is a technology integration for greater comfort, autonomy, reduced cost, and energy saving as well. These services can be provided to home owners for managing their home appliances locally or remotely and consequently allow them to automate intelligently and responsibly their consumption by individual or collective control systems. In this study, three smart plugs are described and one of them tested on typical household appliances. This article proposes to collect the data from the wireless technology and to extract some smart data for energy management system. This smart data is to quantify for three kinds of load: intermittent load, phantom load and continuous load. Phantom load is a waste power that is one of unnoticed power of each appliance while connected or disconnected to the main. Intermittent load and continuous load take in to consideration the power and using time of home appliances. By analysing the classification of loads, this smart data will be provided to reduce the communication of wireless sensor network for energy management system.
Women Hashtactivism: Civic Engagement in Saudi Arabia
One of the prominent trends in the Saudi digital space in recent years is the boom in the use of social networking sites such as Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter. As of 2016, Twitter has over six million users in Saudi Arabia. In the wake of the recent political instability in the Arab region, digital platforms have gained importance for both, personal and professional purposes. A conspicuously observable tide of social activism has risen, with Twitter playing an increasingly important role. One of their primary goals is to enforce the logic of public visibility, social mobility and civic participation in the Saudi society. Saudi women use Twitter to disseminate specific and relevant information and promote their social agenda that remained unrecognized and invisible in the mainstream media and thus in the public sphere. The question is to what extent does Twitter empower Saudi women or reinforces their social immobility and invisibility? This paper focuses on three kinds of empowerment through Twitter in the religiously conservative and socially patriarchal Saudi society. It traces and analyses how Saudi female hashtactivism is increasingly becoming a site of struggle over visibility, mobility, control, and civic participation. The underlying thesis is that Twitter makes a contribution to the development of participatory culture, especially in the lives of women.
Detailed Analysis of Multi-Mode Optical Fiber Infrastructures for Data Centers
With the exponential growth of social networks, video streaming and increasing demands on data rates, the number of newly built data centers rises proportionately. The data centers, however, have to adjust to the rapidly increased amount of data that has to be processed. For this purpose, multi-mode (MM) fiber based infrastructures are often employed. It stems from the fact, the connections in data centers are typically realized within a short distance, and the application of MM fibers and components considerably reduces costs. On the other hand, the usage of MM components brings specific requirements for installation service conditions. Moreover, it has to be taken into account that MM fiber components have a higher production tolerance for parameters like core and cladding diameters, eccentricity, etc. Due to the high demands for the reliability of data center components, the determination of properly excited optical field inside the MM fiber core belongs to the key parameters while designing such an MM optical system architecture. Appropriately excited mode field of the MM fiber provides optimal power budget in connections, leads to the decrease of insertion losses (IL) and achieves effective modal bandwidth (EMB). The main parameter, in this case, is the encircled flux (EF), which should be properly defined for variable optical sources and consequent different mode-field distribution. In this paper, we present detailed investigation and measurements of the mode field distribution for short MM links purposed in particular for data centers with the emphasis on reliability and safety. These measurements are essential for large MM network design. The various scenarios, containing different fibers and connectors, were tested in terms of IL and mode-field distribution to reveal potential challenges. Furthermore, we focused on estimation of particular defects and errors, which can realistically occur like eccentricity, connector shifting or dust, were simulated and measured, and their dependence to EF statistics and functionality of data center infrastructure was evaluated. The experimental tests were performed at two wavelengths, commonly used in MM networks, of 850 nm and 1310 nm to verify EF statistics. Finally, we provide recommendations for data center systems and networks, using OM3 and OM4 MM fiber connections.
University of Leuven
Even though there is a rapid development in new optical networks, still optical communication infrastructures remain composed of thousands of kilometers of aging optical cables. Many of them are located in a harsh environment which contributes to an increased attenuation or induced birefringence of the fibers leading to the increase of polarization mode dispersion (PMD). In this paper, we report experimental results from environmental optical cable tests and characterization in the climate chamber. We focused on the evaluation of optical network reliability in a harsh environment. For this purpose, a special thermal chamber was adopted, targeting to the large temperature changes between -60 °C and 160 C° with defined humidity. Single mode optical cable 230 meters long, having six tubes and a total number of 72 single mode optical fibers was spliced together forming one fiber link, which was afterward tested in the climate chamber. The main emphasis was put to the polarization mode dispersion (PMD) changes, which were evaluated by three different PMD measuring methods (general interferometry technique, scrambled state-of-polarization analysis and polarization optical time domain reflectometer) in order to fully validate obtained results. Moreover, attenuation and chromatic dispersion (CD), as well as the PMD, were monitored using 17 km long single mode optical cable. Results imply a strong PMD dependence on thermal changes, imposing the exceeding 200 % of its value during the exposure to extreme temperatures and experienced more than 20 dB insertion losses in the optical system. The derived statistic is provided in the paper together with an evaluation of such as optical system reliability, which could be a crucial tool for the optical network designers. The environmental tests are further taken in context to our previously published results from long-term monitoring of fundamental parameters within an optical cable placed in a harsh environment in a special outdoor testbed. Finally, we provide a correlation between short-term and long-term monitoring campaigns and statistics, which are necessary for optical network safety and reliability.
Information Technology Competences for Professional Accountants in Thai Small to Medium Accounting Practice
Today, the majority of the data innovation may be currently majorly influencing business, what more accepted part of the accountant may be evolving. Information Technology elements have been appearing to be crucial in triggering changes of accountants’ roles. Thus, this study aims to investigate IT competencies among professional accountants to enhance firm performance. This research was conducted with 47 respondents at five organizations in Thailand and used quantitative research. The results indicate that the factor IT competencies for professional accountants in Thai small to medium accounting within the organizational issues defines18 factors. Specifically, these new factors, based on the research findings and the literature, then unique to IT competencies for professional accountants, include ERP software skills and accounting law and legal skills. The evidence in this study suggests that Analytical skills, teamwork skills, and accounting software were ranked as much-needed skills to be acquired by accountants while communication skills were ranked as the most required skills and delegation skills as the least required. The findings of the research’s empirical evidence suggest that organizations should understand appropriate in developing information technology influence competencies for knowledge employees in general and professional accountants in particular and provide assistance in all processes of decision making.
Integrated Power Saving for Multiple Relays and UEs in LTE-TDD
In this paper, the design of integrated sleep scheduling for relay nodes and user equipments under a Donor eNB (DeNB) in the mode of Time Division Duplex (TDD) in LTE-A is presented. The idea of virtual time is proposed to deal with the discontinuous pattern of the available radio resource in TDD, and based on the estimation of the traffic load, three power saving schemes in the top-down strategy are presented. Associated mechanisms in each scheme including calculation of the virtual subframe capacity, the algorithm of integrated sleep scheduling, and the mapping mechanisms for the backhaul link and the access link are presented in the paper. Simulation study shows the advantage of the proposed schemes in energy saving over the standard DRX scheme.
Behavioral Pattern of 2G Mobile Internet Subscribers: A Study on an Operator of Bangladesh
Like many other countries of the world, mobile internet has been playing a key role in the growth of internet subscriber base in Bangladesh. This study has attempted to identify particular behavioral or usage patterns of 2G mobile internet subscribers who were using the service of the topmost internet service provider (as well as the top mobile operator) of Bangladesh prior to the launching of 3G services (when 2G was fully dominant). It contains some comprehensive analysis carried on different info regarding 2G mobile internet subscribers, obtained from the operator’s own network insights.This is accompanied by the results of a survey conducted among 40 high-frequency users of this service.