Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 48522

Law and Political Sciences

650
83436
Information Technology: Assessing Indian Realities Vis-à-Vis World Trade Organisation Disciplines
Abstract:
The World Trade Organisation’s (WTO) Information Technology Agreement (ITA), was concluded at the Singapore Ministerial Conference in 1996. The ITA is considered to be one of the biggest tariff-cutting deals because it eliminates all customs-related duties on the exportation of specific categories of information technology products to the territory of any other signatory to the Agreement. Over time, innovations in the information and communication technology (ICT) sector mandated the consideration of expanding the list of products covered by the ITA, which took place in the form of ITA-II negotiations during the WTO’s Nairobi Ministerial Conference. India, which was an original Member of the ITA-I, however, decided to opt-out of the negotiations to expand the list of products covered by the agreement. Instead, it preferred to give priority to its national policy initiative, namely the ‘Make-in-India’ programme [the MiI programme], which embarks upon fostering the domestic production of, inter alia, the ICT sector. India claims to have abstained from the ITA-II negotiations by stating that the zero-tariff regime created by the ITA-I debilitated its electronics-manufacturing sectors and on the contrary resulted in an over-reliance on imported electronic inputs. The author undertakes doctrinal research to examine India’s decision to opt-out of ITA-II negotiations, against the backdrop of the MiI Programme, which endeavours to improve productivity across-the-board. This paper accordingly scrutinises the tariff-cutting strategies of India to weigh the better alternative for India. Apropos, it examines whether initiatives like the MiI programme could plausibly resuscitate the ailing domestic electronics-manufacturing sector. The author opines that the country’s present decision to opt-out of ITA-II negotiations should be perceived as a welcome step. Thus, market-oriented reforms such as the MiI Programme, which focuses on indigenous innovation to improve domestic manufacturing in the ICT sector, should instead, in the present circumstances gain priority. Consequently, the MiI Programme would aid in moulding the country’s current tariff policy in a manner that will concurrently assist the promotion and sustenance of domestic manufacturing in the IT sector.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
649
83389
The Doctrine of Military Necessity under Customary International Law: A Breach of International Humanitarian Law
Abstract:
This paper examines an essential and complex part of International humanitarian law standards of military necessity. Military necessity is an unpredictable phenomenon. The unpredictability of this regulation likewise originates from the fact that is one of the most fundamental, yet most misjudged and distorted standards of international law of armed conflict. This rule has been censured as essentially wrong in light of its non-compliance with the principles of international humanitarian law in recent past. The author noted in this study that military necessity runs counter to humanitarian exigencies. These have generated debate among researchers for them to propose that for international law to be considered more important, it is indispensable that the procedures and substance of custom be illuminated and made accessible to every one of the individuals who may utilize it or be influenced by it. However, a significant number of analysts have attributed particular weaknesses to this doctrine. This study relied on both primary and secondary sources of data collection. Significantly, the recommendation made in this paper, if completely adopted, shall go a long way in guaranteeing a better application of the principles of international humanitarian law.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
648
83320
Correlation Between Knowledge Level and Public Perception of Autopsy on Criminal Offence Victim in Pulau Punjung
Abstract:
In criminal offense case, such as homicide, investigators may request for an autopsy to the victim without family approval in Indonesia. Generally, there has been decreasing in autopsy rate in the world over past years. Family’s refusal is one of the most common problems. The purpose of this study is to find the correlation between knowledge level and public perception of autopsy on criminal offense victim. This cross-sectional study was done from April to May 2017 in subdistrict Pulau Punjung. Participants were asked to fill the questionnaire. There are 15 questions to asses knowledge level, perception, and factors influencing autopsy refusal. The chi-square test was used for the statistical analysis. Out of the total of 436 respondents, 54,5% were found to have poor knowledge level, and 56,7% were found to have poor perception. There was a significant correlation between knowledge level and public perception (p< 0,001). There are 153 respondents who decline autopsy on criminal offense victim with the most factors influencing autopsy refusal is delays in victim’s funeral (92,2%). Conclusion, knowledge level is correlated with public perception in subdistrict of Pulau Punjung, district of Dharmasraya, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Most influencing factor in autopsy refusal is delays in victim’s funeral.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
647
83319
Experimental Assessment of the Effectiveness of Judicial Instructions and of Expert Testimony in Improving Jurors’ Evaluation of Eyewitness Evidence
Abstract:
Eyewitness misidentifications can sometimes lead to wrongful convictions of innocent people. This occurs in part because jurors tend to believe confident eyewitnesses even when the identification took place under suggestive conditions. Empirical research demonstrated that jurors are often unaware of the factors that can influence the reliability of eyewitness identification. Most common legal safeguards that are designed to educate jurors about eyewitness evidence are judicial instructions and expert testimony. To date, very few studies assessed the effectiveness of judicial instructions and most of them found that judicial instructions make jurors more skeptical of eyewitness evidence or do not have any effect on jurors’ judgments. Similar results were obtained for expert testimony. However, none of the previous studies focused on the ability of legal safeguards to improve jurors’ assessment of evidence obtained from suggestive identification procedures—this is one of the gaps addressed by this paper. Furthermore, only three studies investigated whether legal safeguards improve the ultimate accuracy of jurors’ judgments—that is, whether after listening to judicial instructions or expert testimony jurors can differentiate between accurate and inaccurate eyewitnesses. This presentation includes two studies. Both studies used genuine eyewitnesses (i.e., eyewitnesses who watched the crime) and manipulated the suggestiveness of identification procedures. The first study manipulated the presence of judicial instructions; the second study manipulated the presence of one of two types of expert testimony: a traditional, verbal expert testimony or expert testimony accompanied by visual aids. All participant watched a video-recording of an identification procedure and of an eyewitness testimony. The results indicated that neither judicial instructions nor expert testimony affected jurors’ judgments. However, consistent with the previous findings, when the identification procedure was non-suggestive, jurors believed accurate eyewitnesses more often than inaccurate eyewitnesses. When the procedure was suggestive, jurors believed accurate and inaccurate eyewitnesses at the same rate. The paper will discuss the implications of these studies and directions for future research.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
646
83277
Islam, Tolerance and Anti-Terrorism: A Critical Assessment with Reference to the Royal 'Amman Message'
Abstract:
This research project aims to assess the methods of enhancing tolerant thinking and behavior among Muslim societies. This is in addition to spreading the anti-terrorist approach in their communities. The critical assessment for the Islamic major texts in question is the selected way for convincing, as Muslims adopt these sources as the authentic references for their lives and cultures. Moreover, this research devotes a special room to the analysis of the royal ‘Amman Message’ as a contemporary Islamic approach for enhancing tolerance and anti-terrorism from an Islamic perspective. The paper includes the study of the related concepts, texts, practical applications, with some reference to the history of Islam in human interaction, accepting the others, mercy with minorities, protecting human rights. Furthermore, it assesses the methods of enhancing tolerance and minimizing the terrorist thinking and behavior practically, in the view of Amman message, as well.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
645
83200
Investigating the Effect of the Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 on the Incidence of Adverse Medical Events in Her Majesty’s Prison (HMP) Leeds
Abstract:
Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) are synthetic compounds designed to reproduce effects of illicit drugs. Cheap, potent, and readily available on UK highstreets from so-called ‘head shops’, in recent years their use has surged and with it have emerged side effects including seizures, aggression, palpitations, coma, and death. Rapid development of new substances has vastly outpaced pre-existing drug legislation but the Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 rendered all but tobacco, alcohol, and amyl nitrates, illegal. Drug use has long been rife within prisons, but the absence of a reliable screening tool alongside the availability of NPS makes them ideal for prison use. Here we examine the occurrence of NPS-related adverse side effects within HMP Leeds, comparing May-September of 2015 and 2017 using daily reports distributed amongst prison staff summarising medical and behavioural incidents of the previous day. There was a statistically-significant rise of over 200% in the use of NPS between 2015 and 2017: 0.562 and 1.149 incidents per day respectively. In 2017, 38.46% incidents required ambulances, fallen from 51.02% in 2015. Although the most common descriptions in both years were ‘seizure’ and ‘unresponsive’, by 2017 ‘inhalation by staff’ had emerged. Patterns of NPS consumption mirrored the prison regime, peaking when cell doors opened, and prisoners could socialise. Despite limited data, the Psychoactive Substances Act has clearly been an insufficient deterrent to the prison population; more must be done to understand and address substance misuse in prison. NPS remains a significant risk to prisoners’ health and wellbeing.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
644
83180
Transparency in Politics: Evaluation Rules and Principles
Abstract:
since the eve of human societies, the need for survival and covering even the most basic needs such as hunting for food, led to the realization of the need for regulation between the personal and common interest. This led to the establishment of initially unwritten and later on, written rules which then became the Law. Transparency as a word has been used for more than 2.500 years. Born in ancient Greece around the 5th BC century and although it was not originally correlated to political or public administration acts, its enclosed principles and rules, were given even then, great attention. In today’s times of fake news and meta-politics, transparency has greatly correlated with the fight against corruption especially in the financially related matters. It is believed however that transparency, being a much wider than corruption meaning, has an even greater role to play than the corruption counterpart. It can be further used to unveil or examine the genuineness of the will towards the public interest, behind every public policy or political act. Therefore, herein the timeless and fundamental principles of institutional and public administration transparency are made clear as well as their application rules that can and ought to be used as evaluation criteria.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
643
83168
Securitization of Illegal Fishing Cases in Natuna Waters by Indonesian Government: Study Case of Chinese Vessels Shootouts 2016
Abstract:
Indonesia’s Exclusive Economic Zone and the infamous China’s nine-dash line are intersected in Natuna waters. Even though from Indonesia perspective, that line does not possess any legal basis, China treat that line as their national boundaries, therefore allowing Chinese fishermen to fish in the area. Under President Joko Widodo leadership, Indonesia which now focusing to suppress illegal fishing cases while emphasizing their maritime sovereignty is facing an imminent threat from China’s presence in Natuna. Tension between these countries spiked after three incident happened on 2016, especially after Indonesian navy shot Chinese fishermen vessel that suspected doing illegal fishing activity. This action seen as an attempt to secure Indonesia’s law enforcement in their waters after several months before such attempt was intervened by Chinese coast guard. Indonesia tries to securitize this issue to justify the shooting they done to Chinese vessels. In the process of securitization, it is imperative to identify the existential threat that leads to implementation of emergency measures which responded by units in the cases. Chinese coast guard presence in Natuna perceived as an existential threat to Indonesia, therefore, responded by shooting to Chinese vessels on the next encounter. This action then responded by Chinese government who said that there is overlapping claim between them and Indonesia in Natuna.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
642
83148
The Impact of Cybercrime on Youth Development in Nigeria
Abstract:
Cybercrime consists of numerous crimes that are perpetrated on the internet on daily basis. The forms include but not limited to Identity theft, Pretentious dating, Desktop counterfeiting, Internet chat room, Cyber harassment, Fraudulent electronic mails, Automated Teller Machine Spoofing, Pornography, Piracy, Hacking, Credit card frauds, Phishing and Spamming. The general term used among the youths for this type of crime in Nigeria is ‘Yahoo Yahoo’. Cybercrime is on the increase among the youths at all levels as such this study aims at examining the impact of cybercrime on youth development in Nigeria. The study examines the impact of cybercrime on youths’ academic performance, integrity, employment and religious practices. The study is a survey which made use of questionnaire and focus group discussion among 150 randomly selected youths in Gwagwalada LCDA, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. The study adopts the systems theory as its theoretical framework. The study also adopts the simple frequency table and percentage for its data analysis. The study reveals that cybercrime has eaten deep into the minds of some youths and some of them are practicing diabolic means to succeed in it. It is also reveals that majority (68%) of the respondents believe that cybercrime impacts negatively on youths’ academic performance in Nigeria. The major recommendation of this study is that cybercrime offenders should be treated like armed robbers in order to discourage other youths from getting involved in it.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
641
83118
A Study on Reliability of Gender and Stature Determination by Odontometric and Craniofacial Anthropometric Parameters
Abstract:
Human identification is one of the most challenging subjects that man has confronted. The determination of adult sex and stature are two of the four key factors (sex, stature, age, and race) in identification of an individual. Craniofacial and odontometric parameters are important tools for forensic anthropologists when it is not possible to apply advanced techniques for identification purposes. The present study provides anthropometric correlation of the parameters with stature and gender and also devises regression formulae for reconstruction of stature. A total of 312 Nepalese students with equal distribution of sex i.e., 156 male and 156 female students of age 18-35 years were taken for the study. Total of 10 parameters were measured (age, sex, stature, head circumference, head length, head breadth, facial height, bi-zygomatic width, mesio-distal canine width and inter-canine distance of both maxilla and mandible). Co-relation and regression analysis was done to find the association between the parameters. All parameters were found to be greater in males than females and each was found to be statistically significant. Out of total 312 samples, the best regressor for the determination of stature was head circumference and mandibular inter-canine width and that for gender was head circumference and right mandibular teeth. The accuracy of prediction was 83%. Regression equations and analysis generated from craniofacial and odontometric parameters can be a supplementary approach for the estimation of stature and gender when extremities are not available.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
640
83102
Social Movements of Central-Eastern Europe: Examining Trends of Cooperation and Antagonism by Using Big Data
Abstract:
The globalization and the Europeanization have significantly contributed to a change in the role of the nation-states. The global economic crisis, the climate changes, and the recent refugee crisis, are just a few among many challenges that cannot be effectively addressed by the traditional role of the nation-states. One of the main roles of the states is to solve collective action problems, however due to their changing roles; apparently this is getting more and more difficult. Depending on political culture, collective action problems are solved either through cooperation or conflict. The political culture of Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries is marked by low civic participation and by a weak civil society. In this type of culture collective action problems are likely to be induced through conflict, rather than the democratic process of dialogue and any type of social change is probably to be introduced by social movements. Several studies have been conducted on the social movements of the CEE countries, yet, it is still not clear if the most significant social movements of the region tend to choose rather the cooperative or the conflictual way as action strategy. This study differentiates between a national and a European action field, having different social orders. The actors of the two fields are the broadly understood civil society members, conceptualized as social movements. This research tries to answer the following questions: a) What are the norms that best characterize the CEE countries’ social order? b) What type of actors would prefer a change and in which areas? c) Is there a significant difference between the main actors active in the national versus the European field? The main hypotheses are that there are conflicting norms defining the national and the European action field, and there is a significant difference between the action strategies adopted by social movements acting in the two different fields. In mapping the social order, the study uses data provided by the European Social Survey. Big data of the Global Data on Events, Location and Tone (GDELT) database offers information regarding the main social movements and their preferred type of action. The unit of the analysis is the so called ‘Visegrad 4’ countries: Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary and the research uses data starting from 2005 (after the European accession of these four countries) until May, 2017. According to the data, the main hypotheses were confirmed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
639
83095
Albinism in the South African Workplace: The Case of Reasonable Accommodation of a Black Person Living in a White Skin
Abstract:
Dangerous myths and stereotypes contribute to the fact that persons living with albinism are amongst the most vulnerable groups in society. The prevalence of albinism varies around the world and the World Health Organization estimates that around 1 in 5000 people in Sub-Saharan Africa are affected by this genetic disorder. Persons who are living with the condition usually experience a lack of melanin in their skin, eyes and hair that results in possible physical impairments such as poor eyesight and skin cancers. Being affected by such disorders and consequently classified as an albino, give way for unequal treatment which ultimately requires safeguarding these persons against unfair discrimination - not only on the basis of their race and color (or lack thereof), but also on the basis of their disability. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa provides that everyone is equal before the law and prohibits unfair discrimination on the grounds of race, color and disability. This right is given effect to by the Employment Equity Act which strives to eliminate unfair discrimination on similar grounds within any employment policy or practice. An essential non-discrimination measure that can be implemented in the labor market to achieve equality is the duty of reasonable accommodation that rests upon employers. However, reasonable accommodation is only introduced as an affirmative action measure in order to provide equal employment opportunities to the identified designated groups who include black people (defined to include Indians, Chinese and Colored), women and people with disabilities. Even though this duty exists, South African law does not elaborate on the scope of the duty, except for a Disability Code which does not hold the force of law. Furthermore, in respect of applying affirmative action measures to people with disabilities, the law does not elaborate on the meaning of disability. Considering that persons living with albinism will find it difficult to show that they are black or disabled in order to be acknowledged as part of the designated groups, their access to reasonable accommodation will be limited to a great extent. This paper will aim to illustrate to which extent South African law currently fails to implement its international obligations as a State Party to the Conventions of the United Nations, and how these failures should be corrected in order to serve the needs of all South Africans, including albinos.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
638
83006
The Influence of Advertising in the Respect of the Right to Adequate Food: Some Notes regarding the Portuguese Legal Framework
Abstract:
The right to adequate food is a human right protected under several international human rights treaties of universal or regional application. In addition, this social right is – as we intend to demonstrate – guaranteed under the Portuguese Constitution. Therefore, in order to assure the protection of this right, the Portuguese State must not only abstain from interfering with this human right (negative obligation) but also take action to secure the human right to adequate food (positive obligation). In this context, the Portuguese State has developed several governmental policies, such as taxing sugary drinks, setting the maximum amount of salt in the bread or creating the National Program for the Promotion of Healthy Food. Nevertheless, we intend to demonstrate that special attention should be given to advertising, as advertisements have an extreme influence on the consumers' decisions and hence on the food decisions. In this paper, besides explaining the cross construction of the human right to adequate food, we aim to examine the Advertising Portuguese Code and to study the several provisions that could be held by the Portuguese consumer to challenge some advertisements due to the violation of the right to health and the right to adequate food. Moreover, having in mind the influence of advertising on the food decisions and the serious problems that unhealthy food may bring (e.g., child obesity), one should ask if this legal framework should not be reviewed in order to lay out some restrictions on advertising, namely setting advices like in alcohol advertisements.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
637
82827
International Humanitarian Law and the Challenges of New Technologies of Warfare
Abstract:
Undoubtedly, despite all efforts made to achieve overall peace through the application of the principles of international humanitarian law, crimes against mankind which are of unprecedented concern to the whole world have remained unabated. The fall back on war as a technique for settling disputes between nations, individuals, countries and ethnic groups with accompanying toll of deaths and destruction of properties have remained a conspicuous component of human history. Indeed, to control this conduct of warfare and the dehumanization of individuals, a body of law aimed at regulating the impacts of conflicts and hostilities in the theater of war has become necessary. Thus, it is to examine the conditions in which international humanitarian law will apply and also to determine the extent of the challenges of new progressions of warfare that this study is undertaken. All through this examination, we grasped doctrinal approach wherein we used text books, journals, international materials and supposition of law specialists in the field of international humanitarian law. This paper shall examine the distinctive factors responsible for the rebelliousness to the rules of International Humanitarian Law and furthermore, shall proffer possible courses of action that will address the challenges of new technologies of warfare all over the world. Essentially, the basic proposals made in this paper if totally utilized may go far in ensuring a sufficient standard in the application of the rules of international humanitarian law as it relates to an increasingly frequent phenomenon of contemporary developments in technologies of warfare which has in recent past, made it more difficult for the most ideal application of the rules of international humanitarian law. This paper deduces that for a sustainable global peace to be achieved, the rules of International Humanitarian Law as it relates to the utilization of new technologies of warfare should be completely clung to and should be made a strict liability offense. Likewise, this paper further recommends the introduction of domestic criminal law punishment of serious contraventions of the rules of international humanitarian law.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
636
82819
An Examination of Criminology and Cyber Crime in Contemporary Society
Abstract:
The evolving global environment has as of late seen formative difficulties bordering on cyber crime and its attendant effects. This paper looks at what constitutes an offense of cyber crime under the tenets of International Law as no nation can lay bona-fide claim in managing cyber crime as a criminal phenomenon. Therefore, there has been a plethora of ideological, conceptual and mental propositions of policies aimed at domesticating cyber crimes – an international crime. These policies were as a result of parochial consideration and social foundations which negate the spirit of internationally accepted procedures. The study also noted that the non-domestication of cyber crime laws by most countries has led to an increase in cyber crimes and its attendant effects have remained unabated. The author has pointed out emerging international rules as a panacea for a sustainable cyber crime-free society. The paper relied on documentary evidence and hence scooped much of the data from secondary sources such as text books, journals, articles and periodicals and more so, opinion papers, emanating from international criminal court. It concludes that the necessary recommendations made in this paper, if fully adopted, shall go a long way in maintaining a cyber crime-free society. Ultimately, the domestic and international law mechanisms capable of dealing with cyber crime offenses should be expanded and be made proactive in order to deal with the demands of modern day challenges.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
635
82772
Juxtaposing Constitutionalism and Democratic Process in Nigeria Vis a Vis the South African Perspective
Abstract:
Limiting arbitrariness and political power in governance is expressed in the concept of constitutionalism. Constitutionalism acknowledges the necessity for government but insists upon a limitation being placed upon its powers. It is therefore clear that the essence of constitutionalism is obviation of arbitrariness in governance and maximisation of liberty with adequate and expedient restraint on government. The doctrine of separation of powers accompanied by a system of checks and balances in Nigeria like many other African countries is marked by elements of ‘personal government’ and this has raised questions about whether the apparent separation of powers provided for in the Nigerian Constitution is not just a euphemism for the hegemony of the executive over the other two arms of government; the legislature and the judiciary. Another question raised in the article is whether the doctrine is merely an abstract philosophical inheritance that lacks both content and relevance to the realities of the country and region today? The current happenings in Nigeria and most African countries such as the flagrant disregard of court orders by the Executive, indicate clearly that the concept constitutionalism ordinarily goes beyond mere form and strikes at the substance of a constitution. It, therefore, involves a consideration of whether there are provisions in the constitution which limit arbitrariness in the exercise of political powers by providing checks and balances upon such exercise. These questions underscore the need for Africa to craft its own understanding of the separation of powers between the arms of government in furtherance of good governance as it has been seen that it is possible to have a constitution in place which may just be a mere statement of unenforceable ‘rights’ or may be bereft of provisions guaranteeing liberty or adequate and necessary restraint on exercise of government. This paper seeks to expatiate on the importance of the nexus between constitutionalism and democratic process and a juxtaposition of practices between Nigeria and South Africa. The article notes that an abstract analysis of constitutionalism without recourse to the democratic process is meaningless and also analyses the structure of government of some selected African countries. These are examined the extent to which the doctrine operates within the arms of government and concludes that it should not just be regarded as a general constitutional principle but made rigid or perhaps effective and binding through law and institutional reforms.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
634
82674
Synthesis of Fe₃O₄@GSH-Platinum Nanoclusters Core-Shell Microspheres for Latent Fingerprints Detection
Authors:
Abstract:
The fingerprints, as the 'king of evidence', are the important basis in the judicial practice for confirming crime and distinguishing suspects. The most common fingerprints in the crime scenes are not easy to be observed by naked eyes, especially sweat latent fingerprints. Therefore, to develop latent fingerprints techniques and utilize the small amount of organic compounds (such as amino acids, fat, etc.) in sweet, so as to reveal clear latent fingerprints, are essentially important for judicial practice. In recent years, various nanomaterials have displayed great potential in the detection of latent fingerprints, which provide healthy, reliable, efficient and convenient technical support for judicial investigations. Comparing with traditional reagents, nanomaterials have distinct advantages, such as smaller sizes, stronger binding strength and easy to be functionalized. According to the coordination principle, due to the existence of empty orbits in the valence layer of platinum atoms, stable complexes can be formed with molecules, ions or groups which have lone pairs of electrons. Therefore, as the central atom is excellent, the platinum atom and platinum nanoparticles and platinum nanoclusters can combine with thiol (-SH), amino group (-NH₂), carboxyl (-COOH) groups by coordination bond. Considering those above, we synthesized a series of functionalized platinum nanomaterials, in which platinum could interacted with thiol, amino and carboxyl groups of relatively abundant protein, polypeptide, amino acids, lactic acid, urea and other biomolecules due to coordination, hydrophobic interactions, electrostatic, hydrogen bonding and other multiple noncovalent recognitions. As a result, latent fingerprints have been developed and recognised. The positively charged Fe₃O₄ magnetic nanoparticles were obtained by Polyethyleneimine (PEI) as modification agent. The negatively charged Platinum nanoclusters (Pt NCs) were prepared by Glutathione (GSH) as reducing and protective agent. Finally, the spherical fluorescent magnetic nano core-shell microspheres Fe₃O₄@GSH-Pt NCs were formed through electrostatic interaction. The research results show that the mean diameter of Fe₃O₄@GSH-Pt NCs is about 160 nm. Besides, Fe₃O₄@GSH-Pt NCs emit red fluorescence under the excitation of 465 nm. It was demonstrated that the synthesis of Fe₃O₄@GSH-Pt NCs is convenient. The magnetic strength is 23.9 emu/g, and the fluorescence quantum yield is 8.139%. The superparamagnetism and excellent fluorescence properties of the prepared Fe₃O₄@GSH-Pt NCs powders make latent fingermarks viewed directly.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
633
82642
Disclosing a Patriarchal Society: A Socio-Legal Study on the Indigenous Women's Involvement in Natural Resources Management in Kasepuhan Cirompang
Abstract:
The constellation on Indonesian Legal System that varies shows a structural injustice – as a result of patriarchy – exists from the biggest range as a country to the smallest such as a family. Women in their lives, carry out excessive responsibilities in the community. However, the unequal positions between men and women in the society restrain women to fulfill their constructed role. Therefore, increasing the chance for women to become the victim of structural injustice. The lack of authority given to women and its effects can be seen through a case study of the Cirompang Indigenous Women’s involvement in natural resources management. The decision to make the Mount Halimun-Salak as a National Park and the expansion itself did not involve nor consider the existence of indigenous people (Kasepuhan Ciromopang) – especially the women’s experience regarding natural resources management – has been significantly impacting the fulfillment of the indigenous women’s rights. Moreover, the adat law that still reflects patriarchy, made matters worse because women are restricted from expressing their opinion. The writers explored the experience of Cirompang indigenous women through in-depth interviews with them and analyzed it with several theories such as ecofeminism, woman’s access to land and legal pluralism. This paper is important to show how the decision and expansion of the National Park reduced the rights of access to land, natural resources, expressing an opinion, and participating in development. Reflecting on the Cirompang Indigenous Women’s conditions on natural resources management, this paper aims to present the implications of the regulations that do not acknowledge Indigenous women’s experience and the proposed solutions. First, there should be an integration between the law regarding indigenous people and traditional rights in a regulation to align the understanding of indigenous people and their rights. Secondly, Indonesia as a country that’s rich with diversity should ratify the ILO Convention no 169 to reaffirm the protection of Indigenous people’s rights. Last, considering the position of indigenous women that still experienced unjustness in the community, the government and NGOs must collaborate to provide adequate assistance for them.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
632
82632
Minimum Wages and Its Impact on Agriculture and Non Agricultural Sectors with Special Reference to Recent Labour Reforms in India
Abstract:
Labour reform is a most celebrated theme for policy makers, at the same time it is also a most misunderstood and skeptical concept even for the educated masses in India. One of the widely focused and discussed topics which needs an in-depth examination is India’s labour laws. It may actually help to reach points to understand the exact requirements in labour reforms by making the labour laws more simple and concise in form and its implementation. It is also a requirement to guide states in India in terms of making laws on it as Indian Constitution itself is federal in form and unitary in spirit. Recently, Codes of Wages Bill has been introduced in Indian Parliament while other three codes are waiting to come in the same line and those codes actually highlight the simplified features of labour laws to enable labour reform in a succinct manner. However, it still brings more confusion in minds of people. To wipe out the confusion and to bring a note and to put it for correlation among the labour reforms of both centre and states which both generates employment and make growth sustainable in India providing clear public understanding. This time is also ripe minimizing the apprehension about all the coming labour laws simplified in different codes in India. This article attempts to highlight the need of labour reform and its possible impact. It also examines the higher rates of minimum wages and its links with its coverage agriculture and nonagricultural sectors (including mines) over the period time. It also takes into consideration of central sphere and in states sphere minimum wage which are linked with Consumer Price Index to bring into account the living standard of workers and to examine the cause and effect between minimum wage and output in both agriculture and non agricultural sector with regression analysis. Increase in minimum wage has actually strengthened the sustainable output.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
631
82450
The Interaction of Lay Judges and Professional Judges in French, German and British Labour Courts
Abstract:
In German 1st instance labour courts, lay judges always sit with a professional judge and in British and French 1st instance labour courts, lay judges sometimes sit with a professional judge. The lay judges’ main contribution is their workplace knowledge, but they act in a juridical setting where legal norms prevail. Accordingly, the research question is: does the professional judge dominate the lay judges? The research, funded by the Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, is based on over 200 qualitative interviews conducted in France, Germany and Great Britain in 2016-17 with lay and professional judges. Each interview lasted an hour on average, was audio-recorded, transcribed and then analysed using MaxQDA. Status theories, which argue that external sources of (perceived) status are imported into the court, and complementary notions of informational advantage suggest professional judges might exercise domination and control. Furthermore, previous empirical research on British and German labour courts, now some 30 years old, found that professional judges dominated. More recent research on lay judges and professional judges in criminal courts also found professional judge domination. Our findings, however, are more nuanced and distinguish between the hearing and deliberations, and also between the attitudes of judges in the three countries. First, in Germany and Great Britain the professional judge has specialist knowledge and expertise in labour law. In contrast, French professional judges do not study employment law and may only seldom adjudicate on employment law cases. Second, although the professional judge chairs and controls the hearing when he/she sits with lay judges in all three countries, exceptionally in Great Britain lay judges have some latent power as they have to take notes systematically due to the lack of recording technology. Such notes can be material if a party complains of bias, or if there is an appeal. Third, as to labour court deliberations: in France, the professional judge alone determines the outcome of the case, but only if the lay judges have been unable to agree at a previous hearing, which only occurs in 20% of cases. In Great Britain and Germany, although the two lay judges and the professional judge have equal votes, the contribution of British lay judges’ workplace knowledge is less important than that of their German counterparts. British lay judges essentially only sit on discrimination cases where the law, the purview of the professional judge, is complex. They do not sit routinely on unfair dismissal cases where workplace practices are often a key factor in the decision. Also, British professional judges are less reliant on their lay judges than German professional judges. Whereas the latter are career judges, the former only become professional judges after having had several years’ experience in the law and many know, albeit indirectly through their clients, about a wide range of workplace practices. In conclusion, whether or if the professional judge dominates lay judges in labour courts varies by country, although this is mediated by the attitudes of the interactionists.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
630
82294
Prospects and Challenges of Sports Culture in India: A Case Study of Gujarat
Authors:
Abstract:
Sports and physical fitness have been a vital component of our civilization. It is such a power which, motivates and inspires every individual, communities and even countries to be aware of the physical and mental health. All though, sports play vital role in the overall development of the nation, but in the developing countries such as India, this culture of sports is yet to be motivated. However, in India lack of sporting culture has held back the growth of a similar industry in the past, despite the growing awareness and interest in various different sports besides cricket. Hence, due to a lack of sporting culture, corporate investments in India’s sports have traditionally been limited to only non-profit corporate social responsibility activities and initiatives. From past couple of years, India has come up with new initiatives such as Indian Premier League (Cricket), Hockey India League, Indian Badminton League, Pro Kabaddi League, and Indian Super League (Football) which help to boost Indian sports culture and thereby increase economy of the country. Out of 29 states of India, among all of those competitive states, Gujarat is showing very rapid increase in sports participation. Khel Mahakumbh, the competition conducted for the last six years has been a giant step in this direction and covers rural and urban areas of Gujarat. The objective of the research is to address the overall development of the sports system. Sports system includes infrastructure, coaches, resources, and participants. The current existing system is not disabled friendly. This research paper highlights adequate steps in order to improve and sort out pressing issues in the sports system. Education system is highly academic-centric with a definite trend towards reducing school sports and extra-curricular sports in the Gujarat state. Constituents of this research work make an attempt to evaluate the framework of the Olympic Charter, the Sports Authority of India, the Indian Olympics Association and the National Sports Federations. It explores the areas that need to be revamped, rejuvenated and reoriented to function in an open, democratic, equitable, transparent and accountable manner. Research is based on mixed method approach. It is used for the data collection which includes the personal interviews, document analysis and the use of news article. Quality assurance is also tested by conducting the trustworthiness of the paper. Mixed method helps to strengthen the analysis part and give strong base for the discussion during the analysis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
629
82258
The Withdrawal of African States from the International Criminal Court
Abstract:
With the withdrawal, in 2016, of 3 African states from the ICC, the discourse took an interesting twist. African states, or at least some of them, had now shown their resolve to part ways with the ICC and, by implication, focus on further enthroning regional control and governance through an improved continental justice system. A range of views has been expressed over the years on the allegations of bias by some African states and the continued membership of the ICC. While there may be a split on the merits of the allegations of bias, academic analysts have generally not opposed African states’ membership of the ICC nor been particularly optimistic about the prospects of an African criminal court. There is also a degree of ambivalence on whether there are positives to be taken from African states’ withdrawal from the ICC. This article examines the recent developments with the ICC and analyses whether these could be viewed from the positive (or, at least, alternative) spectrum of the AU’s spirited march towards regional sovereignty or entirely negatively from the point of view of African Heads-of-State seeking to enthrone an era of authoritarianism and non-accountability.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
628
82242
The Affective Motivation of Women Miners in Ghana
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Affective motivation (motivation that is emotionally laden usually related to affect, passion, emotions, moods) in the workplace stimulates individuals to reinforce, persist and commit to their task, which leads to the individual and organizational performance. This leads individuals to reach goals especially in situations where task are highly challenging and hostile. In such situations, individuals are more disposed to be more creative, innovative and see new opportunities from the loopholes in their workplace. However, when individuals feel displaced and less important, an adverse reaction may suffice which may be detrimental to the organization and its performance. One sector where affective motivation is eminently present and relevant, is the mining industry. Due to its intense work environment; mostly dominated by men and masculinity cultures; and deliberate exclusion of women in this environment which, makes the women working in these environments to feel marginalized. In Ghana, the mining industry is mostly seen as a very physical environment especially underground and mostly considerd as 'no place for a woman'. Despite the fact that these women feel less 'needed' or 'appreciated' in such environments, they still have to juggle between intense work shifts; face violence and other health risks with their families, which put a strain on their affective motivational reaction. Beyond these challenges, however, several mining companies in Ghana today are working towards providing a fair and equal working situation for both men and women miners, by recognizing them as key stakeholders, as well as including them in the stages of mining projects from the planning and designing phase to the evaluation and implementation stage. Drawing from the psychology and gender literature, this study takes a narrative approach to identify and understand the shifting gender dynamics within the mine works in Ghana, occasioning a change in background disposition of miners, which leads to more women taking up mine jobs in the country. In doing so, a qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured interviews from Ghana. Several women working within the mining industries in Ghana shared their experiences and how they felt and still feel in their workplace. In addition, archival documents were gathered to support the findings. The results suggest a change in enrolment regimes in a mining and technology university in Ghana, making room for a more gender equal enrolments in the university. A renowned university that train and feed mine work professional into the industry. The results further acknowledge gender equal and diversity recruitment policies and initiatives among the mining companies of Ghana. This study contributes to the psychology and gender literature by highlighting the hindrances women face in the mining industry as well as highlighting several of their affective reactions towards gender inequality. The study also provides several suggestions for decision makers in the mining industry of what can be done in the future to reduce the gender inequality gap within the industry.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
627
82232
The Importance of Value Added Services Provided by Science and Technology Parks to Boost Entrepreneurship Ecosystem in Turkey
Abstract:
This paper will aim to discuss the importance of value-added services provided by Science and Technology Parks for entrepreneurship development in Turkey. Entrepreneurship is vital subject for all countries. It has not only fostered economic development but also promoted innovation at local and international levels. To foster high tech entrepreneurship ecosystem, Technopark (Science and Technology Park/STP) concept was initiated with the establishment of Silicon Valley in the 1950s. The success and rise of Silicon Valley led to the spread of technopark activities. Developed economies have been setting up projects to plan and build STPs since the 1960s and 1970s. To promote the establishment of STPs, necessary legislations were made by Ministry of Science, Industry, and Technology in 2001, Technology Development Zones Law (No. 4691) and it has been revised in 2016 to provide more supports. STPs’ basic aim is to provide customers high-quality office spaces with various 'value added services' such as business development, network connections, cooperation programs, investor/customers meetings and internationalization services. For this aim, STPs should help startups deal with difficulties in the early stages and to support mature companies’ export activities in the foreign market. STPs should support the production, commercialization and more significantly internationalization of technology-intensive business and foster growth of companies. Nowadays within this value-added services, internationalization is very popular subject in the world. Most of STPs design clusters or accelerator programs in order to support their companies in the foreign market penetration. If startups are not ready for international competition, STPs should help them to get ready for foreign market with training and mentoring sessions. These training and mentoring sessions should take a goal based approach to working with companies. Each company has different needs and goals. Therefore the definition of ‘success' varies for each company. For this reason, it is very important to create customized value added services to meet the needs of startups. After local supports, STPs should also be able to support their startups in foreign market. Organizing well defined international accelerator program plays an important role in this mission. Turkey is strategically placed between key markets in Europe, Russia, Central Asia and the Middle East. Its population is young and well educated. So both government agencies and the private sectors endeavor to foster and encourage entrepreneurship ecosystem with many supports. In sum, the task of technoparks with these and similar value added services is very important for developing entrepreneurship ecosystem. The priorities of all value added services are to identify the commercialization and growth obstacles faced by entrepreneurs and get rid of them with the one-to-one customized services. Also, in order to have a healthy startup ecosystem and create sustainable entrepreneurship, stakeholders (technoparks, incubators, accelerators, investors, universities, governmental organizations etc.) should fulfill their roles and/or duties and collaborate with each other. STPs play an important role as bridge for these stakeholders & entrepreneurs. STPs always should benchmark and renew services offered to how to help the start-ups to survive, develop their business and benefit from these stakeholders.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
626
82201
Inconvertibility and Irreplaceability between Criminal and Civil Liabilities
Authors:
Abstract:
Article 2 of Interpretations of Certain Issues concerning the Application of the Law in the Trial of Criminal Cases of Traffic Offence by the Supreme People's Court on the 10th of November in 2000 (ICIALTCCTO) provides that the one who, by his traffic offence, causes and is fully or primarily liable for the damage of more than ¥300,000.00 RMB to the public or private property and is incapable to compensate for the damage shall be punished by imprisonment of less than three years or criminal detention. In other words, this provision shall not be applied if he is capable of compensation. Imprisonment of less than three years or criminal detention is a sort of criminal liability whereas compensation a sort of civil one. Pursuant to this provision, with the same act, result and mens rea, the liabilities between capacity and incapacity of compensation, or the rich and the poor, are different. The rich bear only civil liability but the poor criminal one. In other words, a person’s financial status can make the sort of legal liability convert or be replaced as per this provision. But is there convertibility or replaceability between civil and criminal liabilities? 'Yes' is the popular answer to this question among the Chinese criminal law writers. Their reasons include theories of coincidence and assimilation, restorative justice, decriminalization and depenalization, leniency of penal law and so on. The direct cause leading to the convertibility or replaceability between civil and criminal liabilities is the utilitarian thought, which holds that the offenders’ compensation to their victims are usually hard to be carried out. In order to encourage the offenders to compensate their victims actively, the decision right on whether the acts are punishable is transferred to the offenders. However, naturally an act will cause no liability, and it can be a ground of legal liability only when it is combined with other legal elements. It can be a crime, the ground of criminal liability, while combined with the elements provided in criminal law, and a civil wrong, the ground of civil liability, while combined with the elements provided in civil law. A crime and a civil wrong have different structures and are different things which are respectively the grounds of different legal liabilities. As a result, criminal and civil liabilities, because of their different grounds, cannot convert into or replace each other.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
625
82187
Migrant Entrepreneurs and Their Spark for Entrepreneurial Exploration
Abstract:
The war and violence around the world today has brought a mass increase of forcibly displaced individuals to seek refuge in the European Union, where they have to leave their homes and restart a new life built on other cultural, social, economic and legal premises than they are used to. Since 2014, the EU has accepted to help with the crisis by providing protection and refuge, and countries like Germany, Hungary, Austria, and Sweden accepted around two-thirds of EU’s asylum seekers. In 2015 for instance, Sweden harbored large numbers of refugees, which lead to a drastic rise in population. This drastic rise brought an overwhelming challenge to Sweden since they needed to find quick and suitable solutions to accommodate these thousands of refugees. Further, it posed a challenge for Sweden to immediately tackle the problem of integrating the new arrivals in the labor market. With an unstable societal integration and little or no skills to connect to the workforce, these immigrants faced a shaky beginning, as they had to struggle with not just integrating into a new society but also to get suitable jobs. These uncertainties brought pressure on the immigrants, which drove a number of them to move from city to city seeking for a place and alternatives for their well-being, safe haven, and self-provision. As a result, they brought in their own skills, experiences, and cultural orientation into exploring and exploiting new opportunities and filling the gaps in their new environment. In so doing, immigrants contributing with multidisciplinary collaborations, insights, international relations and national growth through the exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities. The study, seek to understand how these uncertainties led migrant entrepreneurs towards entrepreneurial activities. Furthermore, it contributes to understanding their processes towards exploring and exploiting opportunities for entrepreneurship as well as their role in contributing to local and national growth. To reach these aims, an inductive qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured interviews of several migrant entrepreneurs – both female and male – that took part in two different entrepreneurial projects in mid-Sweden. The first project was a business program for African women; the other was an entrepreneurship hub for immigrants. Both were focused on inspiring and coaching immigrants during their entrepreneurial process. An integrated part was to work with the participants’ entrepreneurial skills and abilities. In addition, archival documents were collected. The data was analyzed using content analysis for qualitative research. The study aims to contribute to the entrepreneurship literature by understanding the influences of cognitive and environmental factors towards entrepreneurial activities. This study also provides several suggestions for policymakers on how they can better integrate migrants into becoming contributors to the society.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
624
82145
Divorce Advice and Parents' Council Support Groups: Help for Divorced Parents to Create Co-Parenting after Divorce
Abstract:
At family with children, divorce is a risk for a child to lose the relationship to the parent with whom the child doesn't live. A child has the right to the get care from both parents after the divorce. Even though your ex-spouse isn’t longer your companion, to the child he or she is still unique as a parent and parents must cooperate and support their child in the new family situation. To divorcee, it's necessary to understand the difference between the intimate relationship that ends and parenthood that continues. Cooperative parenting takes a lot of effort and flexibility for the parents to make joint custody work well. It is vital that parents get help to understand the situation from child points of view. When parent is facing divorce, and all the emotions that it brings along, can the child easily be forgotten. To help children, we must help parents to understand, that a relationship can end, parenthood cannot. As professionals, we should help the parents to see the significance and value of both parents to the child and try to support and protect parenthood-relationship between parents. The Federation of Mother and Child Homes and Shelters have developed group models to work with parents during or after divorce. These support groups are led by professionals, but peer support is also used. These support groups have been held over 10 years and there are found from 20 different cities in Finland. Eroneuvo event (divorce advice) service is intended for parents who are considering or have already divorced. The Vanhemman neuvo (parents' council) is a peer support group that helps parents with post-divorce parenting issues. From these groups, parents receive information and peer support for matters related to divorcing and how to support the child and do co-parenting. At the groups and in given information for divorced parents, is used a method called the 'Irreversible triangle'. It's a way to picture the intimate relationship and parenthood after the divorce and what is the difference between these two things. 'Irreversible triangle' is used to help parents and professionals to understand, what happens if a child loses the relationship to the other parent or if parents co-parenting doesn't work well. From the largely collected feedback, group members tell that they feel themselves relieved after taking part of the group. Parents also experience that talking with other parents helps to survive. Group members learn to co-operate with the other parent, and they'll also learn to see the best interest of the child after the divorce. Parents would highly recommend these groups to other parents.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
623
82057
Girls, Justice, and Advocacy: Using Arts-Based Public Health Strategies to Challenge Gender Inequities in Juvenile Justice
Abstract:
Girls in the U.S. juvenile justice system are most often arrested for truancy, drug use, or running from home, all of which are symptoms of abuse. In fact, some have called this 'The Sexual Abuse to Prison Pipeline.' Such abuse has consequences for girls' health, education, employment, and parenting, often resulting in significant health disparities. Yet when arrested, girls rarely encounter services designed to meet their unique needs. Instead, they are expected to cope with a system that was historically designed for males. In fact, even literature advocating for increased gender equity frequently fails to include girls’ voices and firsthand accounts. In response to these combined injustices, public health researchers launched a trauma-informed creative writing intervention in a southern juvenile detention facility. The program was designed to improve the health of detained girls, while also establishing innovative methods of both data collection and social justice advocacy. Girls’ poems and letters were collected and coded, adding rich qualitative data to traditional survey responses. In addition, as part of the intervention, these poems are regularly published by international literary publisher Sarabande Books—and distributed to judges, city leaders, attorneys, state representatives, and more. By utilizing a creative medium, girls generated substantial civic engagement with their concerns—thus expanding their influence and improving policy advocacy efforts. Researchers hypothesized that having access to their communities and policy makers would provide its own health benefits for incarcerated girls: cultivating self-esteem, locus of control, and a sense of leadership. This paper discusses the establishment of this intervention, examines findings from its evaluation, and includes several girls’ poems as exemplars. Grounded in social science regarding expressive writing, stigma, muted group theory, and health promotion, the paper theorizes about the application of arts-based advocacy efforts to other social justice endeavors.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
622
81995
Consideration of Whether Participation in the International '16 Days of Activism against Gender Based Violence' Campaign Is an Effective Teaching Tool for Raising Awareness and Understanding of Gender Based Violence
Abstract:
The international campaign, '16 Days of Activism against Gender Based Violence', seeks to raise awareness and understanding of gender based violence in a variety of settings. The campaign requires its participants to join in for advancing the right to education and challenging violence, discrimination, and inequality and take into account intersections such as gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, socio-economic status and other social identifiers. The authors of this paper are both clinic supervisors at Northumbria University in Newcastle Upon Tyne, England. As part of their research project, the authors are going to ask final year students on the MLaw degree at Northumbria University to become involved in the campaign by participating in a variety of awareness-raising activities during the course of the 16 days, which runs from 27 November 2017 until 10 December 2017. As part of the campaign, the authors will be running the following activities for students to participate in 1. Documentary showing of Banaz, a love story followed by discussion group. 2. 16 blogs for 16 days. Students will contribute to our family law blog over the 16 days, with articles about gender based violence. 3. Guest lecture on domestic violence (potentially run by a domestic violence organisation) 4. Workshop by Professor Ruth Lewis who will be presenting her innovative research in gender based violence and online abuse. 5. Poster competition - the students are asked to submit a poster about the different forms of gender based violence or proposals for ending violence against women and girls. The research aims are to identify whether participation in the project: 1. increases the students' engagement with issues of gender justice 2. is an effective educational tool for raising the students' awareness and understanding of gender based violence in its many forms. 3. increases the students' understanding of the domestic and international framework for protecting victims (in particular women and children) of gender based violence. After the activities, an impartial, experienced researcher will be holding a focus group with volunteering students to discuss their experiences of participating in the activities and whether they felt that participation in the project achieved the aims set out above. This paper will discuss the activities undertaken by the students and will address the data gathered during the focus group. Finally, the authors will discuss their thoughts on whether awareness of gender-based violence and other international family law issues can be appropriately raised in an educational setting.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
621
81959
Non-Violent Homosexual Advance and Other Perverse Uses of the Partial Defences to Murder
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The author presents a doctrinal and comparative study of two specific uses of the defences and partial defences to murder in Australia, The United States, and England and Wales. The non-violent homosexual advance, concerning cases where a heterosexual man has responded with fatal violence to a sexual advance, non-violent in nature, from a homosexual man. Transgender reveal murders are those in which a heterosexual man responds with violence on finding that a woman with whom he has been sexually intimate is a different biological gender to the gender identity they present. Although there has never been a specific defence for such situations, they can be part of the facts of a provocation, loss of control or self-defence plea. This has not been debated in English law as much as in other jurisdictions, but this does not mean it is not a concern here as to whether this ‘category’ of cases might render a successful loss of control partial defence to murder. The study concludes that it is possible for such a case to meet the criteria of this new partial defence, which is a very worrying proposition. The paper asks what lessons we can learn from jurisdictions dealing with this matter on a more frequent basis.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):