Role of Climatic Conditions on Pacific Bluefin Tuna Thunnus orientalis Stock Structure
Bluefin (Thunnus orientalis) tuna is one of the most economically valuable tuna species in the world. In recent years the stock has been observed to decline. It is suspected that the stock-recruitment relationship and population structure is influenced by environmental and climatic variables. This study was aimed at investigating the influence of environmental and climatic conditions on the trajectory of the different life stages of the North Pacific bluefin tuna. Exploratory analysis was performed for the North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on the time series of the bluefin tuna cohorts (age-0, 1, 2,…,9, 10+). General Additive Modeling (GAM) was used to reconstruct the recruitment (R) trajectory. The spatial movement of the SST was also monitored from 1953 to 2012 in the distribution area of the bluefin tuna. Exploratory analysis showed significance influence of the North Pacific Sea Surface temperature (SST) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on the time series of the age-0 group. Other age group (1, 2,…,9, 10+) time series did not exhibit any significant correlations. PDO showed most significant relationship in the months of October to December. Although the stock-recruitment relationship is of biological significance, the recruits (age-0) showed poor correlation with the Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB). Indeed the most significant model incorporated the SSB, SST and PDO. The results show that the stock-recruitment relationship of the North Pacific bluefin tuna is multi-dimensional and cannot be adequately explained by the SSB alone. SST and PDO forcing of the population structure is of significant importance and needs to be accounted for when making harvesting plans for bluefin tuna in the North Pacific.
Flora of Seaweeds and the Preliminary Screening of the Fungal Endophytes
Seaweeds are economically important as they have the potential of being utilized, the capabilities and opportunities for further expansion as well as the availability of other species for future development. Hence, research on the diversity and distribution of seaweeds have to be expanded whilst the seaweeds are one of the Malaysian marine valuable heritage. The study on the distribution of seaweeds at Pengerang, Johor was carried out between February and November 2015 at Kampung Jawa Darat and Kampung Sungai Buntu. The study sites are located at the south-southeast of Peninsular Malaysia where the Petronas Refinery and Petrochemicals Integrated Project Development (RAPID) are in progress. In future, the richness of seaweeds in Pengerang will vanish soon due to the loss of habitat prior to RAPID project. The research was completed to study the diversity of seaweed and to determine the present of fungal endophyte isolated from the seaweed. The sample was calculated by using quadrat with 25-meter line transect by 3 replication for each site. The specimen were preserved, identified, processed in the laboratory and kept as herbarium specimen in Algae Herbarium, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The complete thallus specimens for fungal endophyte screening were chosen meticulously, transferred into sterile zip-lock plastic bag and kept in the freezer for further process. A total of 29 species has been identified including 12 species of Chlorophyta, 2 species of Phaeophyta and 14 species of Rhodophyta. From February to November 2015, the number of species highly varied and there was a significant change in community structure of seaweeds. Kampung Sungai Buntu shows the highest diversity throughout the study compared to Kampung Jawa Darat. This evidence can be related to the high habitat preference such as types of shores which is rocky, sandy and having lagoon and bay. These can enhance the existence of the seaweeds community due to variations of the habitat. Eighteen seaweed species were selected and screened for the capability presence of fungal endophyte; Sargassum polycystum marked having the highest number of fungal endophyte compared to the other species. These evidence has proved the seaweed have capable of accommodating a lot of species of fungal endophytes. Thus, these evidence leads to positive consequences where further research should be employed.
Diversity and Taxonomy: Malaysian Marine Algae Genus Halimeda (Halimedaceae, Chlorophyta)
The study of genus Halimeda in Malaysia is in the early stage due to less specific study on its taxonomy. Most of the previous research tend to choose other genus such as Caulerpa and Gracilaria because of the potential of being utilized. The identification of Halimeda is complex by the high morphological variation within individual species due to different types of habitat and the changes in composition of seawater. The study was completed to study the diversity and distribution of Halimeda in Malaysia and to identify the morphological and anatomical differences between Halimeda species. The methods which have been used for this study are collection of Halimeda and seawater, preservation of specimen, identification of the specimen including the preparation of the temporary slide and decalcification of the calcium layer by using diluted hydrochloric acid. The specimen were processed in laboratory and kept as herbarium specimen in Algae Herbarium, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Environmental parameters were tested by using YSI multiparameter probe and the recorded data were temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen. The nutrient content of seawater such as nitrate and phosphate were analysed by using Hach kit model DR 2000. In the present study, out of 330 herbarium specimen, ten species were identified as Halimeda cuneata, H. discoidea, H. macroloba, H. macrophysa, H. opuntia, H. simulans, H. stuposa, H. taenicola, H. tuna and H. velasquezii. Of these, five species were new record to Malaysia. They are Halimeda cuneata, H. macrophysa, H. stuposa, H. taenicola and H. velasquezii. H. opuntia was found as the most abundance species with wide distribution in Malaysia coastal area. Meanwhile, from the study of their distribution, two localities in which Pulau Balak Balak, Kudat and Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, were noted having high number of Halimeda species. As a conclusion, this study has successfully identified ten species of Halimeda of Malaysia with full description of morphological characteristics that may assist further researcher to differentiate and identify Halimeda.
The Effect That the Data Assimilation of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Has on a Precipitation Forecast
Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has an important influence on the precipitation of its lower reaches. Data from remote sensing has itself advantage and numerical prediction model which assimilates RS data will be better than other. We got the assimilation data of MHS and terrestrial and sounding from GSI, and introduced the result into WRF, then got the result of RH and precipitation forecast. We found that assimilating MHS and terrestrial and sounding made the forecast on precipitation, area and the center of the precipitation more accurate by comparing the result of 1h,6h,12h, and 24h. Analyzing the difference of the initial field, we knew that the data assimilating about Qinghai-Tibet Plateau influence its lower reaches forecast by affecting on initial temperature and RH.
Analysis of Translational Ship Oscillations in a Realistic Environment
To acquire accurate ship motions at the center of gravity, a single low-cost inertial sensor is utilized and applied on board to measure ship oscillating motions. As observations, the three axes accelerations and three axes rotational rates provided by the sensor are used. The mathematical model of processing the observation data includes determination of the distance vector between the sensor and the center of gravity in x, y and z directions. After setting up the transfer matrix from sensor’s own coordinate system to the ship’s body frame, an extended Kalman filter is applied to deal with nonlinearities between the ship motion in the body frame and the observation information in the sensor’s frame. As a side effect, the method eliminates sensor noise and other unwanted errors. Results are not only roll and pitch, but also linear motions, in particular heave and surge at the center of gravity. For testing, we resort to measurements recorded on a small vessel in a well-defined sea state. With response amplitude operators computed numerically by a commercial software (Seaway) motion characteristics are estimated. These agree well with the measurements after processing with the suggested method.
Prediction of Extreme Precipitation in East Asia Using Complex Network
In order to study the spatial structure and dynamical mechanism of extreme precipitation in East Asia, a corresponding climate network is constructed by employing the method of event synchronization. It is found that the area of East Asian summer extreme precipitation can be separated into two regions: one with high area weighted connectivity receiving heavy precipitation mostly during the active phase of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM), and another one with low area weighted connectivity receiving heavy precipitation during both the active and the retreat phase of the EASM. Besides，a way for the prediction of extreme precipitation is also developed by constructing a directed climate networks. The simulation accuracy in East Asia is 58% with a 0-day lead, and the prediction accuracy is 21% and average 12% with a 1-day and an n-day (2≤n≤10) lead, respectively. Compare to the normal EASM year, the prediction accuracy is lower in a weak year and higher in a strong year, which is relevant to the differences in correlations and extreme precipitation rates in different EASM situations. Recognizing and identifying these effects is good for understanding and predicting extreme precipitation in East Asia.
Socioeconomic Impact of Marine Invertebrates Collection on Chuiba and Maringanha Beaches
Marine invertebrates are very important for the livelihood of coastal communities, particularly in Pemba City. The study was conducted From June 2011 to March 2012. The aim of this study is to determine the socioeconomic impact of collecting marine invertebrates in communities and Chuiba Maringanha. Data were collected biweekly during the spring tide ebb in the intertidal zone, and through structured surveys, the confrontation of data was done through direct observation in the neighborhoods. In total 40 collectors was surveyed and it was found that activity of collecting marine invertebrates is practiced by women 57.2% and men 42.5%. Their ages ranged from 9 to 45 years, and the range was 25-32 dominant with 30.5% and collection practice 5-7 times per week they spend about 4-6 hours a day. The collection methods are direct harvesting by hand aided by knives, sharp irons, and transport use pots, buckets, basins, shawls. Were identified in total 8 marketable species namely: Octopus vulgaris 8.6 Kg, Cyprea Tigers 7 units, Cypraea annulus 48 kg, 40 kg holuturias, Cyprea bully, Atrina vexilium 10 kg, Modiulus philiphinarum and lambis lambis. The species with the greatest economic value are sea cucumber (3 Usd/ kg) and Octopus vulgaris ( 2.5 Usd/ kg) more commercialized. The socio-economic impacts on communities of collectors the average income of collectors varies from 0.5 to 5 Usd/ day and the money are intended to purchase food and agricultural instruments. The other socioeconomics impacts are illiteracy with 36% dropout, and 28% have never studied 87% of unemployed collectors, a high number of family members, weak economic power, poor housing made the basis of local materials and relies on community wells to access water, and most do not have electric power.
Phytolith Analysis of Intrabasaltic Palaeosols (Bole Beds) from the Deccan Volcanic Province of Western India: A Preliminary Study
Phytolith studies were carried out for the intrabasaltic bole beds occurring in the western part of the Deccan Volcanic Province. This preliminary study indicates the presence of multiform phytoliths both in red and green boles. Red bole indicates well preserved elongate phytoliths from Acanthaceae plants while bulky Bulliform phytoliths mainly from Pleioblastus/ Andropogonea/reeds plants. Degeneration of few phytoliths from red bole indicates either leaching/etching or some other activity that is responsible for such post-preservation conditions. Phytoliths from the green bole, however, seem to be well preserved as compared to those from the red bole. The phytoliths from green bole are mainly of Festucoid types (especially small square and rectangular types) indicating the presence of Chrysobalanaceae type of vegetation followed by elongate phytoliths from Acanthaceae plant types. The Multiform Trichomes seems to be derived from Panicoid/Andropogonoid/Burseraceae/Fabaceae while Bulliforms from Pleioblastus/Andropogonea/reeds. Presences of silicified woody elements from both red and green boles indicate the presence of dicotyledonous plants which could have been in the form of small shrubs. The degenerated phytoliths in red bole suggest leaching/etching or higher intensity of weathering suggesting the existence of well-drained conditions during its formation that enhanced the leaching activity while the presence of well-preserved phytoliths in green bole point towards the existence of damp and desiccated conditions during its formation. The prevalence of dry condition during red bole formation could suggest their formation under higher temperature as compared to green bole. Based on the phytolith analysis it is too early to comment on the palaeoclimates which could have prevailed during the bole bed formations. However a detailed micromorphological, as well as phytolith analysis of more samples, can throw light on the palaeoenvironmental conditions as well as the biological activity during their formation.
Avifaunal Diversity of Akshi Beach, near Alibaug, District Raigad, India
Akshi a coastal village bordered westward by Arabian sea, is the appropriate habitat for birds as it comprises of the long sandy clean beach and rocky patches sheltering plenty of invertebrate species which form the basic part of shore bird’s diet. Migratory birds and waders are of vital importance in the study of marine and coastal ecosystems as they are indicators of environmental health. In the present study, bird data was recorded by visual estimation, in the form of pictures using Canon powershot SX50. Distant birds were identified using binoculars (Comet 10x50). The study conducted from year 2012 to 2016 revealed 37 species of bird along the coast. This avifauna included winter migratory, local migratory and resident birds with the highest population being of Heuglin’s gulls and brown headed gulls. The species from order Charadriformes dominated the bird population recorded at the study location. Winter migratory birds were found to stay on this coast from November to March. Though the beach is frequented by weekend tourists, it still has retained its identity as prominent biodiversity location, and the migratory birds have kept visiting the habitat annually. Proper monitoring of a number of migratory visitors would be able to help in identifying the destination preference by them.
Molluscan Egg Cases from Intertidal Zone near Alibaug Coast, District Raigad, India
Alibaug is a small town located at foothills of Western Ghats of India recognized internationally for its rich biodiversity, and it encompasses both hilly areas and coastal regions (declared world heritage site by UNESCO). A town and coastal villages nearby are of historical importance and flaunt picturesque seashores with both sandy and rocky habitats. Akshi (18° 37' 37.57" N 72° 53' 10.58" E) is one such beach near Alibaug which has not been explored to document the biodiversity. The intertidal region of this coastline hosts an array of floral and faunal species. Few of these select intertidal areas for breeding. The present study focuses on various egg cases observed in the intertidal zone. Egg masses were found to be in clusters or strings attached to suitable hard substratum like rock or even empty shells. They exhibited remarkable variation in shape, size, and colour. The data was recorded majorly in the form of photographs, and available literature was referred to for identification. During three years of the study period (2013 to 2016), it was found that mainly Gastropod egg cases including Nudibranchs were found attached to the rocks whereas; cephalopod egg cases were observed in the sandy patches and clinging to other fauna. Most of these egg cases were recorded during post monsoon months (October to January). The study revealed the highest number of egg cases to be of Thais spp followed by Natica spp and Hemifusus spp. Cephalopod egg cases were seen only when the water receded remarkably during lowest low tide which happened just once in three years’ study period. This coastline is not subjected to significant pollution and hence, inhabits astonishing biodiversity. In view of the probable threat by tourism or other anthropogenic activities, bio-monitoring of the coast is essential.
Community Support System as a Key Success of Coral Reef Conservation Project: A Study Case on Artificial Reef Project in North Bali
Coral reef conservation projects have been conducted worldwide to support the sustainability of coral reef ecosystem. Many of them were failed and left without significant result. However, some of them were succeeded and gained international recognition for their great benefit toward human and environment. This study aims to understand a key success of the artificial reef project in North Bali which was involving a social community in the past sixteen years. Social survey and statistical analysis were used to understand the correlation between community perception and participation. The finding shows that there is a positive correlation between community perception and participation. Community participation level also may depend on how much their work related to the coral reef ecosystem. Although community’s knowledge of the project is considered intermediate, 86.2% of respondents are willing to involve in this project. Their role to support this project has widely discovered from various involvement, starting with the project planning to the religious ceremonial which they believed as the fundamental act to reach project success. As community participation may become a greater support system for coral reef conservation project, the contributing factor which was leading to the high community participation and positive perception is discovered. There are several Balinese men who become ‘the bridge’ between global science and local awareness. Without whom this study argues that the project may not achieve significant goals that are benefiting the environment and tourism sector in North Bali.
Studying Roughness Effects on Flow Regimes in Offshore Pipelines
Due to the specific condition, offshore pipelines are given careful consideration and care in both design and operation. Most of the offshore pipeline flows are multi-phase. Multi-phase flows construct different pattern or flow regimes (in simultaneous gas-liquid flow, flow regimes like slug flow, wave and …) under different circumstances. One of the influencing factors on the flow regime is the pipeline roughness value. So far, roughness value influences and the sensitivity of the present models to this parameter have not been taken into consideration. Therefore, roughness value influences on the flow regimes in offshore pipelines are discussed in this paper. Results showed that geometry, absolute pipeline roughness value (materials that the pipeline is made of) and flow phases prevailing the system are of the influential parameters on the flow regimes prevailing multi-phase pipelines in a way that a change in any of these parameters results in a change in flow regimes in all or part of the pipeline system.
Effects of Convective Momentum Transport on the Cyclones Intensity: A Case Study
In this study, the effect of convective momentum transport (CMT) on the life of cyclone systems and their organization is analyzed. A case of strong precipitation, in the southeast of Brazil, was simulated using Eta model with two kinds of convective parameterization: Kain-Fritsch without CMT and Kain-fritsch with CMT. Reanalysis data from CFSR were used to compare Eta model simulations. The Wind, mean sea level pressure, rain and temperature are included in analysis. The rain was evaluated by Equitable Threat Score (ETS) and Bias Index; the simulations were compared among themselves to detect the influence of CMT displacement on the systems. The result shows that CMT process decreases the intensity of meso cyclones (higher pressure values on nuclei) and change the positions and production of rain. The decrease of intensity in meso cyclones should be caused by the dissolution of momentum from lower levels from up levels. The rain production and rain distribution were altered because the displacement of the larger systems scales was changed. In addition, the inclusion of CMT process is very important to improve the simulation of life time of meteorological systems.
Numerical Simulation of the Flow around Wing-In-Ground Effect (WIG) Craft
The use of WIG craft is representing an ambitious technology that will support in reducing time, effort, and money of the conventional marine transportation in the future. This paper investigates the aerodynamic characteristic of compound wing-in-ground effect (WIG) craft model. Drag coefficient, lift coefficient and Lift and drag ratio were studied numerically with respect to the ground clearance and the wing angle of attack. The modifications of the wing has been done in order to investigate the most suitable wing configuration that can increase the wing lift-to-drag ratio at low ground clearance. A numerical investigation was carried out in this research work using finite volume Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations (RANSE) code ANSYS CFX, Validation was carried out by using experiments. The experimental and the numerical results concluded that the lift to drag ratio decreased with the increasing of the ground clearance.
Experimental Study on Using the Aluminum Sacrificial Anode as Cathodic Protection for Marine Structures
The corrosion is natural chemical phenomena that is applied in many engineering structures. Hence, it is one of the important topics to study in the engineering research. Ship and offshore structures are most exposed to corrosion due to the presence of corrosive medium of air and the seawater. Consequently, investigation of the corrosion behavior and properties over ship and offshore hulls is one of the important topics to study in the marine engineering research. Using sacrificial anode is the most popular solution for protecting marine structures from corrosion. Hence, this research investigates the extent of corrosion between the composite ship model and relative velocity of water, along with the sacrificial aluminum anode consumption and its degree of protection in seawater. In this study, the consumption rate of sacrificial aluminum anode with respect to relative velocity at different Reynold’s numbers was studied experimentally, and it was found that, the degree of cathodic protection represented by the cathode potential at a given distance from the aluminum anode was decreased slightly with increment of the relative velocity.
An Explorative Research on the Electric and Electronic Officers Employment: Turkish Flagged Ship's Perspective
Assistant department among the electric and electronic officers on ships, has an important place for the maintenance of electric and electronic devices. From this perspective, ships must be employed with a sufficient number of assistant department. In this study, in order to research on the Turkish-flagged ships electric and electronic officers employment; Our national manning regulation compared with international regulations. The data used in this study were collected via visiting of the ships. 3000 gross tonnage and above engaged in international voyages 181 Turkish-flagged ship’s crew lists were compared with Minimum Safety Manning Certificates. According to the findings; employment rate, %54 electric and electronic officers. According to the results of the study; Turkish-flagged ships, although it is not obliged to electric and electronic officers, were employed on ships.
An Explorative Research on the Cook and Stewards Employment: Turkish Flagged Ship's Perspective
Cabin department among the stewards and cooks on ships, has an important place in terms of a sufficient and qualified nutrition of seafarers. From this perspective, ships must be employed with a sufficient number of cabin department. In this study, in order to research on the Turkish-flagged ships cook and stewards employment; Our national manning regulation compared with international regulations. The data used in this study were collected via visiting of the ships. 3000 gross tonnage and above engaged in international voyages 181 Turkish-flagged ship’s crew lists were compared with Minimum Safety Manning Certificates. According to the findings; employment rates, %95,6 cook, and %50,8 steward. According to the results of the study; Turkish-flagged ships, although it is not obliged to cook and steward, were employed on ships.
Inhibition of Sea Urchin and Starfish Embryonic Development by Hexane Extracts from Five Philippine Marine Sponges
The marine environment is undoubtedly a rich source of diverse organisms that possess bioactive secondary metabolites with important pharmacological activities. Marine sponges have since been contributing a wide array of compounds of biomedical and pharmaceutical importance. This study is an attempt to contribute to the growing and advancing marine natural products research. It aims to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the hexane extract (H) from the Philippine marine sponges, Rhabdastrella globostellata (Rg), Callyspongia sp. (Calsp), Callyspongia aerizusa (Ca), Carteriospongia sp. (Carsp), and Cinachyrella sp. (Cisp) using the eggs of starfish, Asterina pectinifera, and sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. Specifically, the cytotoxicity of the marine sponge hexane extract was determined through its inhibition of starfish and sea urchin embryonic development. After 24 hours, CarspH and RgH inhibited early gastrulation of sea urchin at a minimum concentration of 15.63 and 31.25 μg/mL, respectively. CalspH inhibited the early gastrulation of both sea urchin and starfish at 125 μg/mL, whereas CaH halted the morula of sea urchin and early gastrulation of starfish at 250 μg/mL. CispH exhibited relatively weak inhibitory activity on starfish embryogenesis but inhibited the early gastrulation of sea urchin at 250 μg/mL. The results obtained from this study were used as basis for the separation, isolation and purification of the component(s) of the hexane extracts from the five Philippine marine sponges.
Determination of Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins (Brevetoxins) in Shellfish by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
An analytical method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) toxins in shellfish samples. Currently, mouse bioassay (MBA) method has been used for the analysis of NSP toxins and it has the advantage of providing an integrated response to all the NSP toxins. However, in the case of MBA method, there are ethical concerns against the use of the live animal. Thus, in order to replace the MBA method, a lot of alternative methods have been studied and recently several LC-MS/MS methods were reported. In this study, we attempted to develop an accurate and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of the NSP toxins, including PbTx-1, PbTx-2 and PbTx-3, in shellfish. The parameters tested included extraction solvent, heating condition, clean-up method, mobile phase, pH and mass spectrometric parameters.
Climate Related Variability and Stock-Recruitment Relationship of the North Pacific Albacore Tuna
The North Pacific albacore (Thunnus alalunga) is a temperate tuna species distributed in the North Pacific which is of significant economic importance to the Pacific Island Nations and Territories. Despite its importance, the stock dynamics and ecological characteristics of albacore still, have gaps in knowledge. The stock-recruitment relationship of the North Pacific stock of albacore tuna was investigated for different density-dependent effects and a regime shift in the stock characteristics in response to changes in environmental and climatic conditions.
Linear regression analysis for recruit per spawning biomass (RPS) and recruitment (R) against the female spawning stock biomass (SSB) were significant for the presence of different density-dependent effects and positive for a regime shift in the stock time series. Application of Deming regression to RPS against SSB with the assumption for the presence of observation and process errors in both the dependent and independent variables confirmed the results of simple regression. However, R against SSB results disagreed given variance level of < 3 and agreed with linear regression results given the assumption of variance ≥ 3. Assuming the presence of different density-dependent effects in the albacore tuna time series, environmental and climatic condition variables were compared with R, RPS, and SSB. The significant relationship of R, RPS and SSB were determined with the sea surface temperature (SST), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) with SST being the principal variable exhibiting significantly similar trend with R and RPS.
Recruitment is significantly influenced by the dynamics of the SSB as well as environmental conditions which demonstrates that the stock-recruitment relationship is multidimensional. Further investigation of the North Pacific albacore tuna age-class and structure is necessary for further support the results presented here. It is important for fishery managers and decision makers to be vigilant of regime shifts in environmental conditions relating to albacore tuna as it may possibly cause regime shifts in the albacore R and RPS which should be taken into account to effectively and sustainability formulate harvesting plans and management of the species in the North Pacific oceanic region.
Viscous Flow Computations for the Diffuser Section of a Large Cavitation Tunnel
The present paper covers the viscous flow computations for the asymmetric diffuser section of a large, high-speed cavitation tunnel which will be constructed in Istanbul Technical University. The analyses were carried out by using the incompressible Reynold-Averaged-Navier-Stokes equations. While determining the diffuser geometry, a high quality, separation-free flow field with minimum energy loses was particularly aimed. The expansion angle has a critical role on the diffuser hydrodynamic performance. In order obtain a relatively short diffuser length, due to the constructive limitations, and hydrodynamic energy effectiveness, three diffuser sections with varying expansion angles for side and bottom walls were considered. A systematic study was performed to determine the most effective diffuser configuration. The results revealed that the inlet condition of the diffuser greatly affects its flow field. The inclusion of the contraction section in the computations substantially modified the flow topology in the diffuser. The effect of the diffuser flow on the test section flow characteristics was clearly observed. The influence of the introduction of small chamfers at the corners of the diffuser geometry is also presented.
Heavy Metal Contamination and Environmental Risk in Surface Sediments along the Coasts of Suez and Aqaba Gulfs, Egypt
Sandy surface sediments collected from fourteen sites along the gulfs of Suez and Aqaba coasts, Egypt were analyzed for heavy metals including Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Chromium, Nickel, Lead, Copper and Cadmium in order to evaluate the pollution status and environmental risk assessment of the study area. The obtained results showed that the concentrations of investigated metals are represented in the following sequence; For Gulf of Aqaba sediments Fe > Mn > Zn > Pb > Cr > Ni > Cu > Cd. While for Gulf of Suez Sediments Fe > Mn > Pb > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Cd. The degree of surface sediment contamination using Geo-accumulation index (I geo) and Metal Pollution Index (MPI) was computed. Higher MPI values were observed at the sites III (Nama Bay) and VIII (Rex Beach). According to Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) approach, Pb and Cu in the gulf of Suez at station IX (Kabanon Beach) had probably adverse ecological effects to marine organisms.
Fuzzy Inference System for Determining Collision Risk of Ship in Madura Strait Using Automatic Identification System (AIS)
Madura Strait is considered as one of the busiest shipping channels in Indonesia. High vessel traffic density in Madura Strait gives serious threat due to navigational safety in this area i.e. ship collision. This study is necessary as one attempt to enhance the safety of marine traffic. Fuzzy inference system (FIS) is proposed to calculate risk collision of ships. Collision risk is evaluated based on ship domain, Closest Point of Approach (DCPA) and Time to Closest Point of Approach (TCPA). Data were collected by utilizing Automatic Identification System (AIS). This study considers multi-ship collision risk for better and more accurate risk level. Each encounter in the ship domain is analyzed based on type of the collision. Risk level of ships as the result of this study can be used as guidance to avoid the accident, providing a brief description about safety traffic in Madura Strait, and improve the navigational safety in the area.
Speed Optimization Model for Reducing Fuel Consumption Based on Shipping Log Data
It is known that total operating cost of a vessel is dominated by the cost of fuel consumption. The question arises, how to reduce the fuel cost of ship so that the operational costs of fuel can be minimized. As the basis of these kinds of problem, sailing speed determination is an important factor to be considered by a shipping company. Optimal speed determination will give a significant influence on the route and berth schedule of ships, which also affect vessel operating costs. The purpose of this paper is to clarify some important issues about ship speed optimization. Sailing speed, displacement, sailing time and specific fuel consumption were obtained from shipping log data and to be further analyzed for modeling the speed optimization. The proposed speed optimization model is expected to affect the fuel consumption and reduce the cost of fuel consumption.
Performance Analysis of Artificial Neural Network Based Land Cover Classification
Landcover classification using automated classification techniques, while employing remotely sensed multi-spectral imagery, is one of the promising area of research. Different land conditions at different time are captured through satellite and monitored by applying different classification algorithms in specific environment. In this paper, a SPOT 5 image provided by SUPARCO has been studied and classified in ENVI (Environment for Visual Interpretation), a tool widely used in Remote Sensing. In this paper, ANN classification technique is used to detect the land cover changes in Abbottabad district. Obtained results are compared with a pixel based Mahanolobis Distance classifier. The results show that Artificial Neural Network gives the better overall accuracy of 99.20% and Kappa Coefficient value of 0.98 over the Mahalanobis Distance Classifier.
Periodicity Analysis of Long-Term Waterquality Data Series of the Hungarian Section of the River Tisza Using Morlet Wavelet Spectrum Estimation
The River Tisza is the second largest river in Central Europe. In this study, Morlet wavelet spectrum (periodicity) analysis was used with chemical, biological and physical water quality data for the Hungarian section of the River Tisza. In the research 15, water quality parameters measured at 14 sampling sites in the River Tisza and 4 sampling sites in the main artificial changes were assessed for the time period 1993 - 2005. Results show that annual periodicity was not always to be found in the water quality parameters, at least at certain sampling sites. Periodicity was found to vary over space and time, but in general, an increase was observed in the company of higher trophic states of the river heading downstream.
Impacts of Climate Elements on the Annual Periodic Behavior of the Shallow Groundwater Level: Case Study from Central-Eastern Europe
Like most environmental processes, shallow groundwater fluctuation under natural circumstances also behaves periodically. With the statistical tools at hand, it can easily be determined if a period exists in the data or not. Thus, the question may be raised: Does the estimated average period time characterize the whole time period, or not? This is especially important in the case of such complex phenomena as shallow groundwater fluctuation, driven by numerous factors. Because of the continuous changes in the oscillating components of shallow groundwater time series, the most appropriate method should be used to investigate its periodicity, this is wavelet spectrum analysis. The aims of the research were to investigate the periodic behavior of the shallow groundwater time series of an agriculturally important and drought sensitive region in Central-Eastern Europe and its relationship to the European pressure action centers. During the research ~216 shallow groundwater observation wells located in the eastern part of the Great Hungarian Plain with a temporal coverage of 50 years were scanned for periodicity. By taking the full-time interval as 100%, the presence of any period could be determined in percentages. With the complex hydrogeological/meteorological model developed in this study, non-periodic time intervals were found in the shallow groundwater levels. On the local scale, this phenomenon linked to drought conditions, and on a regional scale linked to the maxima of the regional air pressures in the Gulf of Genoa. The study documented an important link between shallow groundwater levels and climate variables/indices facilitating the necessary adaptation strategies on national and/or regional scales, which have to take into account the predictions of drought-related climatic conditions.
Application of Combined Cluster and Discriminant Analysis to Make the Operation of Monitoring Networks More Economical
Water is one of the most important common resources, and as a result of urbanization, agriculture, and industry it is becoming more and more exposed to potential pollutants. The prevention of the deterioration of water quality is a crucial role for environmental scientist. To achieve this aim, the operation of monitoring networks is necessary. In general, these networks have to meet many important requirements, such as representativeness and cost efficiency. However, existing monitoring networks often include sampling sites which are unnecessary. With the elimination of these sites the monitoring network can be optimized, and it can operate more economically. The aim of this study is to illustrate the applicability of the CCDA (Combined Cluster and Discriminant Analysis) to the field of water quality monitoring and optimize the monitoring networks of a river (the Danube), a wetland-lake system (Kis-Balaton & Lake Balaton), and two surface-subsurface water systems on the watershed of Lake Neusiedl/Lake Fertő and on the Szigetköz area over a period of approximately two decades. CCDA combines two multivariate data analysis methods: hierarchical cluster analysis and linear discriminant analysis. Its goal is to determine homogeneous groups of observations, in our case sampling sites, by comparing the goodness of preconceived classifications obtained from hierarchical cluster analysis with random classifications. The main idea behind CCDA is that if the ratio of correctly classified cases for a grouping is higher than at least 95% of the ratios for the random classifications, then at the level of significance (α=0.05) the given sampling sites don’t form a homogeneous group. Due to the fact that the sampling on the Lake Neusiedl/Lake Fertő was conducted at the same time at all sampling sites, it was possible to visualize the differences between the sampling sites belonging to the same or different groups on scatterplots. Based on the results, the monitoring network of the Danube yields redundant information over certain sections, so that of 12 sampling sites, 3 could be eliminated without loss of information. In the case of the wetland (Kis-Balaton) one pair of sampling sites out of 12, and in the case of Lake Balaton, 5 out of 10 could be discarded. For the groundwater system of the catchment area of Lake Neusiedl/Lake Fertő all 50 monitoring wells are necessary, there is no redundant information in the system. The number of the sampling sites on the Lake Neusiedl/Lake Fertő can decrease to approximately the half of the original number of the sites. Furthermore, neighbouring sampling sites were compared pairwise using CCDA and the results were plotted on diagrams or isoline maps showing the location of the greatest differences. These results can help researchers decide where to place new sampling sites. The application of CCDA proved to be a useful tool in the optimization of the monitoring networks regarding different types of water bodies. Based on the results obtained, the monitoring networks can be operated more economically.
Effects and Mechanization of a High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) Process for Particulate and Microbe Removal from Ballast Water
As a pretreatment process of ballast water treatment, the performance of high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) technology for the removal of particulates and microorganisms was studied. The results showed that HGMS process could effectively remove suspended particles larger than 5 µm and had ability to resist impact load. Microorganism could also be effective removed by HGMS process and the removal effect increased with increasing magnetic field strength. The maximum removal rates for Escherichia coli (E.coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were 4016.1% and 9675.3% higher, respectively, than without the magnetic field. In addition, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of the microbes decreased by 32.2% when the magnetic field strength was 15.4 mT for 72 min. The microstructure of the stainless steel wool was conducted, which showed particle removal by HGMS were common function by the magnetic force of the high-strength, high-gradient magnetic field on weakly magnetic particles in the water and on the stainless steel wool.
Evidence of Total Mercury Biomagnification in Tropical Estuary Lagoon in East Coast of Peninsula, Malaysia
Mercury pollutant is great concerns in globe due to its toxicity and biomagnification through the food web. Recently increasing approaches of stable isotope analyses which have applied in food-web structure are enabled to elucidate more insight trophic transfer of pollutants in ecosystems. In this study, the integration of total mercury (Hg) and stable isotopic analyses (δ13C and δ15N) were measured from basal food sources to invertebrates and fishes in order to determine Hg transfer in Setiu lagoon food webs. The average Hg concentrations showed the increasing trend from low to high trophic levels. The result also indicated that potential Hg exposure from inside mangrove could be higher than that from the tidal flat of mangrove creek. Fish Hg concentrations are highly variable, and many factors driving this variability need further examinations. A positive correlation found between Hg concentrations and δ15N values (the trophic magnification factor was 3.02), suggesting Hg biomagnification through the lagoon food web. Almost all Hg concentrations in fishes and mud crabs did not present a risk for human consumption, however, the Hg concentrations of Caranx ignobilis exceed the permitted level could raise a concern of the potential risk for the marine system. Further investigations should be done to elucidate whether trophic relay relates to high Hg concentrations of some fish species in coastal systems.