Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 54355

Marine and Environmental Sciences

170
99976
Assessment of Natural Radioactivity and Heavy Metal Pollution of Natural Kulakcayiri Lake
Abstract:
Natural radioactivity values of Kulakcayiri Lake (Arnavutkoy/Istanbul) are measured and the heavy metal pollution of the region is identified in the present study. Core samples were taken from various depths of the lake (SK-1=5-5,5 m, SK-2=10-10,5 m, SK-3=15-15,5 m) using drilling method. The samples were prepared for analysis, and the radioactivity concentration of the samples was calculated using HPGe detector. Based on the results, (SK-1, SK-2, SK-3) K-40 concentration was calculated as 325 ± 18 Bq/kg, 353 ± 19 Bq/kg, and 367 ± 19 Bq/kg, the Th-232 concentration was calculated as 38 ± 6 Bq/kg, 43 ± 6 Bq/kg, and 42 ± 6 Bq/kg, and the Ra-226 concentration was calculated as 29 ± 5 Bq/kg, 26 ± 5 Bq/kg, and 26 ± 5 Bq/kg respectively. Cs-137 concentration was below the minimum detectable level for all three samples. Gamma dose rates in the lake and surrounding areas were calculated in order to measure the environmental impacts of the radiation originating from the earth. ESP-2 scintillator was used for calculations. Measurements were taken at 20 locations with 12 km intervals at 1 m height above ground. Each measurement took 1 hour for the equipment to be stabilized. The mean of the measured values was calculated as 37,5 nGy/h. Nineteen different elements and calcium oxide (CaO), titanium oxide (TiO₂) and hematite (Fe₂O₃) concentrations were examined in order to identify trace elements. WDXRF spectrometer was used in the trace element analyses. Based on the analysis results, heavy elements such as cobalt, nickel, lead, chromium, and copper as well as uranium and thorium radioactive elements were identified in the structure of the core samples. Mineralogical structures of the samples were examined in the study using XRD analyses and SEM images. XRD analyses were conducted using Bruker D8 Advance equipment. SEM images of the samples were captured using JEOL JSM-6390LAV equipment. Complex structure SEM images were acquired due to the fact that the sediments were not standard materials. Peaks acquired as a result of XRD analyses were examined, and it is found out that the peaks correspond to hematite (Fe₂O₃), quartz (SiO₂), calcite (CaCO₃), and corundum (Al₂O₃). This study also includes dating procedure using radiocarbon method in order to determine the age of the sediments and sedimentation rates. Based on the result of dating procedure carried out using AMS spectrometer, the sediment precipitation of SK-1 sample occurred in 5599 years, the sediment precipitation of SK-2 sample occurred in 7596 years, and the sediment precipitation of SK-3 sample occurred in 8060 years. According to these results, it is observed that the sedimentation rates vary based on the different depths, and the sedimentation rates were ranked as SK-1 > SK-2 > SK-3.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
169
99378
[Keynote Talk]: Heavy Metal Concentrations in Sediments from the Gulf of Izmir, Eastern Aegean Sea, Turkey
Authors:
Abstract:
In this study, sediment samples were collected from four sampling sites located on the shores of the Gulf of Izmir. In the samples, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were determined using inductively coupled, plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The average heavy metal concentrations were: Cd
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
168
97595
Effect of Design Parameters on Porpoising Instability of a High Speed Planing Craft
Abstract:
It is important to estimate, predict, and avoid the dynamic instability of high speed planing crafts. It is known that design parameters like relative location of center of gravity with respect to the dynamic lift centre and length to beam ratio of the craft have influence on the tendency to porpoise. This paper analyzes the hydrodynamic performance on the basis of the semi-empirical Savitsky method and also estimates the same by numerical simulations based on Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations using a commercial code namely, STAR- CCM+. The paper examines through the same numerical simulation considering dynamic equilibrium, the changing running trim, which results in porpoising. Some interesting results emerge from the study and this leads to early detection of the instability.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
167
97593
Computer-Aided Ship Design Approach for Non-Uniform Rational Basis Spline Based Ship Hull Surface Geometry
Abstract:
This paper presents a surface development and fairing technique combining the features of a modern computer-aided design tool namely the Non-Uniform Rational Basis Spline (NURBS) with an algorithm to obtain a rapidly faired hull form. Some of the older series based designs give sectional area distribution such as in the Wageningen-Lap Series. Others such as the FORMDATA give more comprehensive offset data points. Nevertheless, this basic data still requires fairing to obtain an acceptable faired hull form. This method uses the input of sectional area distribution as an example and arrives at the faired form. Characteristic section shapes define any general ship hull form in the entrance, parallel mid-body and run regions. The method defines a minimum of control points at each section and using the Golden search method or the bisection method; the section shape converges to the one with the prescribed sectional area with a minimized error in the area fit. The section shapes combine into evolving the faired surface by NURBS and typically takes 20 iterations. The advantage of the method is that it is fast, robust and evolves the faired hull form through minimal iterations. The curvature criterion check for the hull lines shows the evolution of the smooth faired surface. The method is applicable to hull form from any parent series and the evolved form can be evaluated for hydrodynamic performance as is done in more modern design practice. The method can handle complex shape such as that of the bulbous bow. Surface patches developed fit together at their common boundaries with curvature continuity and fairness check. The development is coded in MATLAB and the example illustrates the development of the method. The most important advantage is quick time, the rapid iterative fairing of the hull form.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
166
97554
Analysis of Waterjet Propulsion System for an Amphibious Vehicle
Abstract:
This paper reports the design of a waterjet propulsion system for an amphibious vehicle based on circulation distribution over the camber line for the sections of the impeller and stator. In contrast with the conventional waterjet design, the inlet duct is straight for water entry parallel and in line with the nozzle exit. The extended nozzle after the stator bowl makes the flow more axial further improving thrust delivery. Waterjet works on the principle of volume flow rate through the system and unlike the propeller, it is an internal flow system. The major difference between the propeller and the waterjet occurs at the flow passing the actuator. Though a ducted propeller could constitute the equivalent of waterjet propulsion, in a realistic situation, the nozzle area for the Waterjet would be proportionately larger to the inlet area and propeller disc area. Moreover, the flow rate through impeller disk is controlled by nozzle area. For these reasons the waterjet design is based on pump systems rather than propellers and therefore it is important to bring out the characteristics of the flow from this point of view. The analysis is carried out using computational fluid dynamics. Design of waterjet propulsion is carried out adapting the axial flow pump design and performance analysis was done with three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. With the varying environmental conditions as well as with the necessity of high discharge and low head along with the space confinement for the given amphibious vehicle, an axial pump design is suitable. The major problem of inlet velocity distribution is the large variation of velocity in the circumferential direction which gives rise to heavy blade loading that varies with time. The cavitation criteria have also been taken into account as per the hydrodynamic pump design. Generally, waterjet propulsion system can be parted into the inlet, the pump, the nozzle and the steering device. The pump further comprises an impeller and a stator. Analytical and numerical approaches such as RANSE solver has been undertaken to understand the performance of designed waterjet propulsion system. Unlike in case of propellers the analysis was based on head flow curve with efficiency and power curves. The modeling of the impeller is performed using rigid body motion approach. The realizable k-ϵ model has been used for turbulence modeling. The appropriate boundary conditions are applied for the domain, domain size and grid dependence studies are carried out.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
165
96973
Recreation and Environmental Quality of Tropical Wetlands: A Social Media Based Spatial Analysis
Abstract:
Passively crowdsourced data, such as geotagged photographs from social media, represent an opportunistic source of location-based and time-specific behavioral data for ecosystem services analysis. Such data have innovative applications for environmental management and protection, which are replicable at wide spatial scales and in the context of both developed and developing countries. Here we test one such innovation, based on the analysis of the metadata of online geotagged photographs, to investigate the provision of recreational services by the entire network of wetland ecosystems in the state of Kerala, India. We estimate visitation to individual wetlands state-wide and extend, for the first time to a developing region, the emerging application of cultural ecosystem services modelling using data from social media. The impacts of restoration of wetland areal extension and water quality improvement are explored as a means to inform more sustainable management strategies. Findings show that improving water quality to a level suitable for the preservation of wildlife and fisheries could increase annual visits by 350,000, an increase of 13% in wetland visits state-wide, while restoring previously encroached wetland area could result in a 7% increase in annual visits, corresponding to 49,000 visitors, in the Ashtamudi and Vembanad lakes alone, two large coastal Ramsar wetlands in Kerala. We discuss how passive crowdsourcing of social media data has the potential to improve current ecosystem service analyses and environmental management practices also in the context of developing countries.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
164
96632
A Phylogenetic Analysis and Effect of NO₃ Regime on the Level of N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Thalassiosira weissflogii Isolated from Caspian Sea
Abstract:
Thalassiosira weissflogii with proper size and nutrition value specially PUFA n-3 has been widely used in bivalve shellfish larviculture and shrimp industries. This diatom was isolated from Caspian Sea and identified with morphology and molecular characters. T. weissflogii was cultivated in normal and nitrogen deficiency F2 medium during 18 to 30 days, in addition, the growth indices, total lipid, and EPA-DHA content were elucidated. The growth indices of the cells decreased during the stress experiments while the total lipid levels increased during prolonged culturing (30 days). The maximum level of C20:5 was calculated as 8.8 (%TFA) in normal condition during 30 days; however, the combination of N- deficiency condition with prolonged culturing led to the increase of the level of C22:6 from 3.5 to 12.63 (%TFA). The concept of N-deficiency along with prolonged culturing of Thalassiosira weissflogii can improve PUFA n-3 content in order to use in shellfish and shrimp industries.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
163
96472
Airborne CO₂ Lidar Measurements for Atmospheric Carbon and Transport: America (ACT-America) Project and Active Sensing of CO₂ Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons 2017-2018 Field Campaigns
Abstract:
The Active Sensing of CO₂ Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) is a NASA Langley Research Center instrument funded by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate that seeks to advance technologies critical to measuring atmospheric column carbon dioxide (CO₂ ) mixing ratios in support of the NASA ASCENDS mission. The ACES instrument, an Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar, was designed for high-altitude aircraft operations and can be directly applied to space instrumentation to meet the ASCENDS mission requirements. The ACES design demonstrates advanced technologies critical for developing an airborne simulator and spaceborne instrument with lower platform consumption of size, mass, and power, and with improved performance. The Atmospheric Carbon and Transport – America (ACT-America) is an Earth Venture Suborbital -2 (EVS-2) mission sponsored by the Earth Science Division of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. A major objective is to enhance knowledge of the sources/sinks and transport of atmospheric CO₂ through the application of remote and in situ airborne measurements of CO₂ and other atmospheric properties on spatial and temporal scales. ACT-America consists of five campaigns to measure regional carbon and evaluate transport under various meteorological conditions in three regional areas of the Continental United States. Regional CO₂ distributions of the lower atmosphere were observed from the C-130 aircraft by the Harris Corp. Multi-Frequency Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL) and the ACES lidar. The airborne lidars provide unique data that complement the more traditional in situ sensors. This presentation shows the applications of CO₂ lidars in support of these science needs.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
162
95962
Numerical Investigation of Turbulent Flow Control by Suction and Injection on a Subsonic NACA23012 Airfoil by Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Analysis and Perturbed Reynolds Averaged Navier‐Stokes Equations
Authors:
Abstract:
Separation flow control for performance enhancement over airfoils at high incidence angle has become an increasingly important topic. This work details the characteristics of an efficient feedback control of the turbulent subsonic flow over NACA23012 airfoil using forced reduced‐order model based on the proper orthogonal decomposition/Galerkin projection and perturbation method on the compressible Reynolds Averaged Navier‐Stokes equations. The forced reduced‐order model is used in the optimal control of the turbulent separated flow over a NACA23012 airfoil at Mach number of 0.2, Reynolds number of 5×106, and high incidence angle of 24° using blowing/suction controlling jets. The Spallart-Almaras turbulence model is implemented for high Reynolds number calculations. The main shortcoming of the POD/Galerkin projection on flow equations for controlling purposes is that the blowing/suction controlling jet velocity does not show up explicitly in the resulting reduced order model. Combining perturbation method and POD/Galerkin projection on flow equations introduce a forced reduced‐order model that can predict the time-varying influence of the blowing/suction controlling jet velocity. An optimal control theory based on forced reduced‐order system is used to design a control law for a nonlinear reduced‐order model, which attempts to minimize the vorticity content in the turbulent flow field over NACA23012 airfoil. Numerical simulations were performed to help understand the behavior of the controlled suction jet at 12% to 18% chord from leading edge and a pair of blowing/suction jets at 15% to 18% and 24% to 30% chord from leading edge, respectively. Analysis of streamline profiles indicates that the blowing/suction jets are efficient in removing separation bubbles and increasing the lift coefficient up to 22%, while the perturbation method can predict the flow field in an accurate Manner.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
161
94010
The Response of Adaptive Mechanism of Fluorescent Proteins from Coral Species and Target Cell Properties on Signalling Capacity as Biosensor
Abstract:
Fluorescent proteins (FPs) have become very popular since green fluorescent protein discovered from crystal jellyfish. It is known that Anthozoa species have a wide range of chromophore organisms, and the initial crystal structure for non-fluorescent chromophores obtained from the reef-building coral has been determined. There are also differently coloured pigments in non-bioluminescent Anthozoa zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate which are frequently members of the GFP-like protein family. The development of fluorescent proteins (FPs) and their applications is an outstanding example of basic science leading to practical biotechnological and medical applications. Fluorescent proteins have several applications in science and are used as important indicators in molecular biology and cell-based research. With rising interest in cell biology, FPs have used as biosensor indicators and probes in pharmacology and cell biology. Using fluorescent proteins in genetically encoded metabolite sensors has many advantages than chemical probes for metabolites such as easily introduced into any cell or organism in any sub-cellular localization and giving chance to fixing to fluoresce of different colours or characteristics. There are different factors effects to signalling mechanism when they used as a biosensor. While there are wide ranges of research have been done on the significance and applications of fluorescent proteins, the cell signalling response of FPs and target cell are less well understood. In this study, it was aimed to clarify the response of adaptive mechanisms of coral species such as pH, temperature and symbiotic relationship and target cells properties on the signalling capacity. Corals are a rich natural source of fluorescent proteins that change with environmental conditions such as light, heat stress and injury. Adaptation mechanism of coral species to these types of environmental variations is important factor due to FPs properties have affected by this mechanism. Since fluorescent proteins obtained from nature, their own ecological property like the symbiotic relationship is observed very commonly in coral species and living conditions have the impact on FPs efficiency. Target cell properties also have an effect on signalling and visualization. The dynamicity of detector that used for reading fluorescence and the level of background fluorescence are key parameters for the quality of the fluorescent signal. Among the factors, it can be concluded that coral species adaptive characteristics have the strongest effect on FPs signalling capacity.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
160
94003
Valorization of Seafood and Poultry By-Products as Gelatin Source and Quality Assessment
Abstract:
Gelatin is a mixture of peptides obtained from collagen by partial thermal hydrolysis. It is an important and useful biopolymer that is used in the food, pharmacy, and photography products. Generally, gelatins are sourced from pig skin and bones, beef bone and hide, but within the last decade, using alternative gelatin resources has attracted some interest. In this study, functional properties of gelatin extracted from seafood and poultry by-products were evaluated. For this purpose, skins of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) and frog (Rana esculata) were used as seafood by-products and chicken skin as poultry by-product as raw material for gelatin extraction. Following the extraction of gelatin, all samples were lyophilized and stored in plastic bags at room temperature. For comparing gelatins obtained; chemical composition, common quality parameters including bloom value, gel strength, and viscosity in addition to some others like melting and gelling temperatures, hydroxyproline content, and colorimetric parameters were determined. The results showed that the highest protein content obtained in frog gelatin with 90.1% and the highest hydroxyproline content was in chicken gelatin with 7.6% value. Frog gelatin showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) melting point (42.7°C) compared to that of fish (29.7°C) and chicken (29.7°C) gelatins. The bloom value of gelatin from frog skin was found higher (363 g) than chicken and fish gelatins (352 and 336 g, respectively) (P < 0.05). While fish gelatin had higher lightness (L*) value (92.64) compared to chicken and frog gelatins, redness/greenness (a*) value was significantly higher in frog skin gelatin. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that skins of different animals with high commercial value may be utilized as alternative sources to produce gelatin with high yield and desirable functional properties. Functional and quality analysis of gelatin from frog, chicken, and tuna skin showed by-product of poultry and seafood can be used as an alternative gelatine source to mammalian gelatine. The functional properties, including bloom strength, melting points, and viscosity of gelatin from frog skin were more admirable than that of the chicken and tuna skin. Among gelatin groups, significant characteristic differences such as gel strength and physicochemical properties were observed based on not only raw material but also the extraction method.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
159
93373
Modulation of Fish Allergenicity towards the Production of a Low Allergen Farmed Fish
Abstract:
Background: Food allergies are conducted by a hypersensitive response of the immune system. These allergies are a global concern for the public health. Consumption of fish is increasing worldwide as it is a healthy meat with high nutritional value. Unfortunately, fish can cause adverse immune-mediate reactions, affecting part of the population with higher incidence in children. β-parvalbumin, a small, highly conserved stable, calcium or magnesium binding muscle protein is the main fish allergen. In fish-allergic patients, cross-reactivity between different fish species exist due to recognition of highly identical protein regions. Enolases, aldolases, or fish gelatin are other identified fish allergens in some fish species. With no available cure for fish allergies, clinical management is only based on an avoidance diet aiming at the total exclusion of offending food. Methods: Mediterranean fish (S. aurata and D. labrax) were fed specifically designed diets, enriched in components that target the expression or inactivation of parvalbumin (creatine and EDTA, respectively). After 90 days fish were sampled and biological tissues were excised. Proteomics was used to access fish allergens characterization and expression in muscle while IgE assays to confirm the lower allergenic potential are conducted in patients with history of fish allergies. Fish welfare and quality of flesh were established with biochemical, texture and sensorial analysis. Results: Fish welfare shows no major impact between diets. In case of creatine supplementation in D. labrax proteomic analysis show a slight decrease in parvalbumin expression. No accumulation of this compound was found in muscle. For EDTA supplementation in S. aurata IgE assay show a slight decrease in allergenicity when using sera of fish allergic patients. Conclusion: Supplementation with these two compounds seems to change slightly the allergenicity of the two mean Mediterranean species.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
158
92713
Observation and Analysis of Urban Micro-Climate and Urban Morphology on Block Scale in Zhengzhou City
Abstract:
Zhengzhou is a typical plain city with a high population density and a permanent population of 10 million, located in central China. The scale of this city is constantly expanding, and the urban form has changed dramatically by the accelerating process of urbanization, which makes a great effect on the urban microclimate. In order to study the influence of block morphology on urban micro-climate, air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and so on in three typical types of blocks in the center of Zhengzhou were collected, which was chosen to perform the fixed and mobile observation. After data handling and analysis, a series of graphs and diagrams were obtained to reflect the differences in the influence of different types of block morphology on the urban microclimate. These can provide targeted strategies for urban design to improve and regulate urban micro-climate.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
157
92370
Use of Satellite Altimetry and Moderate Resolution Imaging Technology of Flood Extent to Support Seasonal Outlooks of Nuisance Flood Risk along United States Coastlines and Managed Areas
Abstract:
U.S. coastal areas and ecosystems are facing multiple sea level rise threats and effects: heavy rain events, cyclones, and changing wind and weather patterns all influence coastal flooding, sedimentation, and erosion along critical barrier islands and can strongly impact habitat resiliency and water quality in protected habitats. These impacts are increasing over time and have accelerated the need for new tracking techniques, models and tools of flood risk to support enhanced preparedness for coastal management and mitigation. To address this issue, NOAA National Ocean Service (NOS) evaluated new metrics from satellite altimetry AVISO/Copernicus and MODIS IR flood extents to isolate nodes atmospheric variability indicative of elevated sea level and nuisance flood events. Using de-trended time series of cross-shelf sea surface heights (SSH), we identified specific Self Organizing Maps (SOM) nodes and transitions having a strongest regional association with oceanic spatial patterns (e.g., heightened downwelling favorable wind-stress and enhanced southward coastal transport) indicative of elevated coastal sea levels. Results show the impacts of the inverted barometer effect as well as the effects of surface wind forcing; Ekman-induced transport along broad expanses of the U.S. eastern coastline. Higher sea levels and corresponding localized flooding are associated with either pattern indicative of enhanced on-shore flow, deepening cyclones, or local- scale winds, generally coupled with an increased local to regional precipitation. These findings will support an integration of satellite products and will inform seasonal outlook model development supported through NOAAs Climate Program Office and NOS office of Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). Overall results will prioritize ecological areas and coastal lab facilities at risk based on numbers of nuisance flood projected and inform coastal management of flood risk around low lying areas subjected to bank erosion.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
156
91837
Radionuclide Determination Study for Some Fish Species in Kuwait
Abstract:
Kuwait lies to the northwest of the Arabian Gulf. The levels of radionuclides are unknown in this area. Radionuclide like ²¹⁰Po, ²²⁶Ra, and ⁹⁰Sr accumulated in certain body tissues and bones, relate primarily to dietary uptake and inhalation. A large fraction of radiation exposure experienced by individuals comes from food chain transfer. In this study, some types of Kuwait fish were studied for radionuclide determination. These fish were taken from the Kuwaiti water territory during May. The study is to determine the radiation exposure for ²¹⁰Po in some fish species in Kuwait the ²¹⁰Po concentration was found to be between 0.089 and 2.544 Bq/kg the highs was in Zubaidy and the lowest was in Hamour.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
155
90726
Water Education in the Middle East: Case Study of Iran and Turkey
Abstract:
Due to increase of population and healthy food demand, management and conservation of water resources have become one of the main concerns of governments, scientists and economists. In recent years, Iran has exposed to water scarcity as a result of which its rivers, lakes and wetlands have dried up or are in the drying process. Therefore, water crisis has become the most important environmental issue in the country. Under these circumstances, increasing public awareness by promoting their culture as well as public collaboration to protect water resources could only be possible by making courses to reflect water importance. This could be approached by school and high-school students to learn optimum use of water resources. This study initially focuses on the current position of water courses in levels of school and high-school educations in Iran and Turkey and then deals with the challenges to be faced for the promotion of the system. The course titles and number of pages related to water in all primary and secondary textbooks of the education system of Iran and Turkey were determined using content analysis method and the results were presented. The results indicate that primary and secondary textbooks in both countries must focus on water shortage and water protection and teach children the optimum use of water in order to promote water protection.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
154
90041
Dynamic Risk Model for Offshore Decommissioning Using Bayesian Belief Network
Abstract:
The global oil and gas industry is beginning to witness an increase in the number of installations moving towards decommissioning. Decommissioning of offshore installations is a complex, costly and hazardous activity, making safety one of the major concerns. Among existing removal options, complete and partial removal options pose the highest risks. Therefore, a dynamic risk model of the accidents from the two options is important to assess the risks on an overall basis. In this study, a risk-based safety model is developed to conduct quantitative risk analysis (QRA) for jacket structure systems failure. Firstly, bow-tie (BT) technique is utilised to model the causal relationship between the system failure and potential accident scenarios. Subsequently, to relax the shortcomings of BT, Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) were established to dynamically assess associated uncertainties and conditional dependencies. The BBN is developed through a similitude mapping of the developed bow-tie. The BBN is used to update the failure probabilities of the contributing elements through diagnostic analysis, thus, providing a case-specific and realistic safety analysis method when compared to a bow-tie. This paper presents the application of dynamic safety analysis to guide the allocation of risk control measures and consequently, drive down the avoidable cost of remediation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
153
89273
Heuristic Classification of Hydrophone Recordings
Abstract:
An unsupervised machine listening system is constructed and applied to a dataset of 17,195 30-second marine hydrophone recordings. The system is then heuristically supplemented with anecdotal listening, contextual recording information, and supervised learning techniques to reduce the number of false positives. Features for classification are assembled by extracting the following data from each of the audio files: the spectral centroid, root-mean-squared values for each frequency band of a 10-octave filter bank, and mel-frequency cepstral coefficients in 5-second frames. In this way both time- and frequency-domain information are contained in the features to be passed to a clustering algorithm. Classification is performed using the k-means algorithm and then a k-nearest neighbors search. Different values of k are experimented with, in addition to different combinations of the available feature sets. Hypothesized class labels are 'primarily anthrophony' and 'primarily biophony', where the best class result conforming to the former label has 104 members after heuristic pruning. This demonstrates how a large audio dataset has been made more tractable with machine learning techniques, forming the foundation of a framework designed to acoustically monitor and gauge biological and anthropogenic activity in a marine environment.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
152
88643
Effects of China's Urban Form on Urban Carbon Emission
Authors:
Abstract:
Urbanization has reshaped physical environment, energy consumption and carbon emission of the urban area. China is a typical developing country under a rapid urbanization process and is the world largest carbon emission country. This study aims to explore the correlation between urban form and carbon emission caused by urban energy consumption in China. 287 provincial-level and prefecture-level cities are studied in 2000, 2005, and 2010. Compact ratio index, shape index, and fractal dimension index are used to quantify urban form. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) model is employed to explore the relationship between urban form, energy consumption, and related carbon emission. The results show the average compact ratio index decreased from 2000 to 2010 which indicates urban in China sprawled. The average fractal dimension index increases by 3%, indicating the spatial layouts of China's cities were more complicated. The results by the GWR model show that shape index and fractal dimension index had a non-significant relationship with carbon emission by urban energy consumption. However, compact urban form reduced carbon emission. The findings of this study will help policy-makers make sustainable urban planning and reduce urban carbon emission.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
151
88050
A Comparative Analysis of the Performance of COSMO and WRF Models in Quantitative Rainfall Prediction
Abstract:
The Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models are considered powerful tools for guiding quantitative rainfall prediction. A couple of NWP models exist and are used at many operational weather prediction centers. This study considers two models namely the Consortium for Small&ndash;scale Modeling (COSMO) model and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. It compares the models&rsquo; ability to predict rainfall over Uganda for the period 21st April 2013 to 10th May 2013 using the root mean square (RMSE) and the mean error (ME). In comparing the performance of the models, this study assesses their ability to predict light rainfall events and extreme rainfall events. All the experiments used the default parameterization configurations and with same horizontal resolution (7 Km). The results show that COSMO model had a tendency of largely predicting no rain which explained its under&ndash;prediction. The COSMO model (RMSE: 14.16; ME: -5.91) presented a significantly (p = 0.014) higher magnitude of error compared to the WRF model (RMSE: 11.86; ME: -1.09). However the COSMO model (RMSE: 3.85; ME: 1.39) performed significantly (p = 0.003) better than the WRF model (RMSE: 8.14; ME: 5.30) in simulating light rainfall events. All the models under&ndash;predicted extreme rainfall events with the COSMO model (RMSE: 43.63; ME: -39.58) presenting significantly higher error magnitudes than the WRF model (RMSE: 35.14; ME: -26.95). This study recommends additional diagnosis of the models&rsquo; treatment of deep convection over the tropics.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
150
87493
Environmental Impact of Cysts of Some Dinoflagellates Species in the Bizerta Lagoon
Abstract:
The specific composition and abundance of dinoflagellate resistance cysts in relation to environmental factors were studied from the superficial sediment at 123 stations in the Bizerte lagoon. 48 morphotypes of dinoflagellate cysts were identified, mainly dominated by Brigantidinium simplex, Votadinum spinosum, Alexandrium pacificum, Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax, and Lingulodinum machaerophorum. The density of cysts ranged from 1276 to 20126 cysts g⁻¹ dry sediment. Significant differences in the distribution pattern of the cysts were recorded, which allowed us to distinguish two areas; thus the inner areas of the lagoon have an abundance of cysts greater than the areas with marine influence. Ballast water discharges and shellfish culture may be incriminated as potential sources of introduction of species, particularly potentially toxic ones such as A. pacificum and Polysphaeridium zoharyi, without neglecting the role of currents in cyst distribution. Cyst mapping can be used as an indicator of potential foci of future toxic species blooms in this ecosystem.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
149
87479
Alexandrium pacificum Cysts Distribution in One North African Lagoon Ecosystem
Abstract:
Study of dinoflagellate cysts is a precious tool to get information about environment and water quality in many aquatic ecosystems. The distribution of Alexandrium pacificum cysts, in Bizerta lagoon located in North of Tunisia, was made based on sediment samples analysis from 123 equidistant stations delimiting 125 km² surfaces. Sediment characteristics such as percentage of water, organic matter, and particle size were analyzed to determine the factors that influence the distribution of this dinoflagellate. In addition, morphological examination and ribotyping of vegetative forms from microalgal cultures made from cyst germination confirmed the identity of the species attributed to A. pacificum. A correlation between the abundance of A. pacificum cysts and the percentage of water and sediment organic matter was recorded. In addition, the sedimentary fraction < 63μm was found to be potentially favorable for the installation and initiation of the Alexandrium pacificum efflorescence at the Bizerte lagoon. The mapping of cysts in this aquatic ecosystem has also allowed us to define distinct areas with specific abundance with closed relationship with shellfish aquaculture stations located within the lagoon.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
148
87477
A Descriptive Study of Turkish Straits System on Dynamics of Environmental Factors Causing Maritime Accidents
Abstract:
Turkish Straits System which consists of Istanbul Strait (Bosphorus), Canakkale Strait (Dardanelles) and the Marmara Sea has a strategical location on international maritime as it is a unique waterway between the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and the Aegean Sea. Thus, this area has great importance since it is the only waterway between Black Sea countries and the rest of the World. Turkish Straits System has dangerous environmental factors hosts more vessel every day through developing World trade and this situation results in expanding accident risks day by day. Today, a lot of precautions have been taken to ensure safe navigation and to prevent maritime accidents, and international standards are followed to avoid maritime accidents. Despite this, the environmental factors that affect this area, trigger the maritime accidents and threaten the vessels with new accidents risks in different months with different hazards. This descriptive study consists of temporal and spatial analyses of environmental factors causing maritime accidents. This study also aims at contributing to safety navigation including monthly and regionally characteristics of variables. In this context, two different data sets are created consisting of environmental factors and accidents. This descriptive study on the accidents between 2001 and 2017 the mentioned region also studies the months and places of the accidents with environmental factor variables. Environmental factor variables are categorized as dynamic and static factors. Dynamic factors are appointed as meteorological and oceanographical while static factors are appointed as geological factors that threaten safety navigation with geometrical restricts. The variables that form dynamic factors are approached meteorological as wind direction, wind speed, wave altitude and visibility. The circulations and properties of the water mass on the system are studied as oceanographical properties. At the end of the study, the efficient meteorological and oceanographical parameters on the region are presented monthly and regionally. By this way, we acquired the monthly, seasonal and regional distributions of the accidents. Upon the analyses that are done; The Turkish Straits System that connects the Black Sea countries with the other countries and which is one of the most important parts of the world trade; is analyzed on temporal and spatial dimensions on the reasons of the accidents and have been presented as environmental factor dynamics causing maritime accidents.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
147
87108
A Comparative Study of Regional Climate Models and Global Coupled Models over Uttarakhand
Abstract:
As a great physiographic divide, the Himalayas affecting a large system of water and air circulation which helps to determine the climatic condition in the Indian subcontinent to the south and mid-Asian highlands to the north. It creates obstacles by defending chill continental air from north side into India in winter and also defends rain-bearing southwesterly monsoon to give up maximum precipitation in that area in monsoon season. Nowadays extreme weather conditions such as heavy precipitation, cloudburst, flash flood, landslide and extreme avalanches are the regular happening incidents in the region of North Western Himalayan (NWH). According to recent scientific concurrence, NWH region has become more unpredictable as there is a considerable variation between the duration of monsoon and the amount of rainfall in the different places of that region. The present study has been planned to investigate the suitable model(s) to find out the rainfall pattern over that region. For this investigation, selected models from Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) has been utilized in a consistent framework for the period of 1976 to 2000 (historical). The ability of these driving models from CORDEX domain and CMIP5 has been examined according to their capability of the spatial distribution as well as time series plot of rainfall over NWH in the rainy season and compared with the ground-based IMD gridded rainfall data set. It is noted from the analysis that the models like MIROC5 and MPI-ESM-LR from the both CORDEX and CMIP5 provide the best spatial distribution of rainfall over NWH region. But the driving models from CORDEX underestimates the daily rainfall amount as compared to CMIP5 driving models as it is unable to capture daily rainfall data properly when it has been plotted for time series (TS) individually for the state of Uttarakhand (UK) and Himachal Pradesh (HP). So finally it can be said that the driving models from CMIP5 are better than CORDEX domain models to investigate the rainfall pattern over NWH region. Further discussions about this work will be done at the time of presentation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
146
86326
Geochemical Evaluation of Metal Content and Fluorescent Characterization of Dissolved Organic Matter in Lake Sediments
Abstract:
Purpose of this paper is to evaluate the environmental status of a coastal Mediterranean lake, named Koumoundourou, located in the northeastern coast of Elefsis Bay, in the western region of Attiki in Greece, 15 km far from Athens. It is preserved from ancient times having an important archaeological interest. Koumoundourou lake is also considered as a valuable wetland accommodating an abundant flora and fauna, with a variety of bird species including a few world’s threatened ones. Furthermore, it is a heavily modified lake, affected by various anthropogenic pollutant sources which provide industrial, urban and agricultural contaminants. The adjacent oil refineries and the military depot are the major pollution providers furnishing with crude oil spills and leaks. Moreover, the lake accepts a quantity of groundwater leachates from the major landfill of Athens. The environmental status of the lake results from the intensive land uses combined with the permeable lithology of the surrounding area and the existence of karstic springs which discharge calcareous mountains. Sediment samples were collected along the shoreline of the lake using a Van Veen grab stainless steel sampler. They were studied for the determination of the total metal content and the metal fractionation in geochemical phases as well as the characterization of the dissolved organic matter (DOM). These constituents have a significant role in the ecological consideration of the lake. Metals may be responsible for harmful environmental impacts. The metal partitioning offers comprehensive information for the origin, mode of occurrence, biological and physicochemical availability, mobilization and transport of metals. Moreover, DOM has a multifunctional importance interacting with inorganic and organic contaminants leading to biogeochemical and ecological effects. The samples were digested using microwave heating with a suitable laboratory microwave unit. For the total metal content, the samples were treated with a mixture of strong acids. Then, a sequential extraction procedure was applied for the removal of exchangeable, carbonate hosted, reducible, organic/sulphides and residual fractions. Metal content was determined by an ICP-MS (Perkin Elmer, ICP MASS Spectrophotometer NexION 350D). Furthermore, the DOM was removed via a gentle extraction procedure and then it was characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy using a Perkin-Elmer LS 55 luminescence spectrophotometer equipped with the WinLab 4.00.02 software for data processing (Agilent, Cary Eclipse Fluorescence). Mono dimensional emission, excitation, synchronous-scan excitation and total luminescence spectra were recorded for the classification of chromophoric units present in the aqueous extracts. Total metal concentrations were determined and compared with those of the Elefsis gulf sediments. Element partitioning showed the anthropogenic sources and the contaminant bioavailability. All fluorescence spectra, as well as humification indices, were evaluated in detail to find out the nature and origin of DOM. All the results were compared and interpreted to evaluate the environmental quality of Koumoundourou lake and the need for environmental management and protection.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
145
86002
Sea Level Characteristics Referenced to Specific Geodetic Datum in Alexandria, Egypt
Abstract:
Two geo-referenced sea level datasets (September 2008 &ndash; November 2010) and (April 2012 &ndash; January 2014) were recorded at Alexandria Western Harbour (AWH). Accurate re-definition of tidal datum, referred to the latest International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF-2014), was discussed and updated to improve our understanding of the old predefined tidal datum at Alexandria. Tidal and non-tidal components of sea level were separated with the use of Delft-3D hydrodynamic model-tide suit (Delft-3D, 2015). Tidal characteristics at AWH were investigated and harmonic analysis showed the most significant 34 constituents with their amplitudes and phases. Tide was identified as semi-diurnal pattern as indicated by a "Form Factor" of 0.24 and 0.25, respectively. Principle tidal datums related to major tidal phenomena were recalculated referred to a meaningful geodetic height datum. The portion of residual energy (surge) out of the total sea level energy was computed for each dataset and found 77% and 72%, respectively. Power spectral density (PSD) showed accurate resolvability in high band (1&ndash;6) cycle/days for the nominated independent constituents, except some neighbouring constituents, which are too close in frequency. Wind and atmospheric pressure data, during the recorded sea level time, were analysed and cross-correlated with the surge signals. Moderate association between surge and wind and atmospheric pressure data were obtained. In addition, long-term sea level rise trend at AWH was computed and showed good agreement with earlier estimated rates.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
144
85920
Spatial Mapping and Change Detection of a Coastal Woodland Mangrove Habitat in Fiji
Abstract:
Mangrove patches are the foundation species located in the estuarine land areas. These patches provide a nursery, food source and protection for numerous aquatic, intertidal and well as land-based organisms. Mangroves also help in coastal protection, maintain water clarity and are one of the biggest sinks for blue carbon sequestration. In the Pacific Island countries, numerous coastal communities have a heavy socioeconomic dependence on coastal resources and mangroves play a key ecological and economical role in structuring the availability of these resources. Fiji has a large mangrove patch located in the Votua area of the Ba province. Globally, mangrove population continues to decline with the changes in climatic conditions and anthropogenic activities. Baseline information through wetland maps and time series change are essential references for development of effective mangrove management plans. These maps reveal the status of the resource and the effects arising from anthropogenic activities and climate change. In this study, we used remote sensing and GIS tools for mapping and temporal change detection over a period of >20 years in Votua, Fiji using Landsat imagery. Landsat program started in 1972 initially as Earth Resources Technology Satellite. Since then it has acquired millions of images of Earth. This archive allows mapping of temporal changes in mangrove forests. Mangrove plants consisted of the species Rhizophora stylosa, Rhizophora samoensis, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Lumnitzera littorea, Heritiera littoralis, Excoecaria agallocha and Xylocarpus granatum. Change detection analysis revealed significant reduction in the mangrove patch over the years. This information serves as a baseline for the development and implementation of effective management plans for one of Fiji’s biggest mangrove patches.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
143
85482
Microplastics in Fish from Grenada, West Indies: Problems and Opportunities
Abstract:
Microplastics are small particles produced for industrial purposes or formed by breakdown of anthropogenic debris. Caribbean nations import large quantities of plastic products. The Caribbean region is vulnerable to natural disasters and Climate Change is predicted to bring multiple additional challenges to island nations. Microplastics have been found in an array of marine environments and in a diversity of marine species. Occurrence of microplastic in the intestinal tracts of marine fish is a concern to human and ecosystem health as pollutants and pathogens can associate with plastics. Studies have shown that the incidence of microplastics in marine fish varies with species and location. Prevalence of microplastics (≤ 5 mm) in fish species from Grenadian waters (representing pelagic, semi-pelagic and demersal lifestyles) harvested for human consumption have been investigated via gut analysis. Harvested tissue was digested in 10% KOH and particles retained on a 0.177 mm sieve were examined. Microplastics identified have been classified according to type, colour and size. Over 97% of fish examined thus far (n=34) contained microplastics. Current and future work includes examining the invasive Lionfish (Pterois spp.) for microplastics, investigating marine invertebrate species as well as examining environmental sources of microplastics (i.e. rivers, coastal waters and sand). Owing to concerns of pollutant accumulation on microplastics and potential migration into organismal tissues, we plan to analyse fish tissue for mercury and other persistent pollutants. Despite having ~110,000 inhabitants, the island nation of Grenada imported approximately 33 million plastic bottles in 2013, of which it is estimated less than 5% were recycled. Over 30% of the imported bottles were ‘unmanaged’, and as such are potential litter/marine debris. A revised Litter Abatement Act passed into law in Grenada in 2015, but little enforcement of the law is evident to date. A local Non-governmental organization (NGO) ‘The Grenada Green Group’ (G3) is focused on reducing litter in Grenada through lobbying government to implement the revised act and running sessions in schools, community groups and on local media and social media to raise awareness of the problems associated with plastics. A local private company has indicated willingness to support an Anti-Litter Campaign in 2018 and local awareness of the need for a reduction of single use plastic use and litter seems to be high. The Government of Grenada have called for a Sustainable Waste Management Strategy and a ban on both Styrofoam and plastic grocery bags are among recommendations recently submitted. A Styrofoam ban will be in place at the St. George’s University campus from January 1st, 2018 and many local businesses have already voluntarily moved away from Styrofoam. Our findings underscore the importance of continuing investigations into microplastics in marine life; this will contribute to understanding the associated health risks. Furthermore, our findings support action to mitigate the volume of plastics entering the world’s oceans. We hope that Grenada’s future will involve a lot less plastic. This research was supported by the Caribbean Node of the Global Partnership on Marine Litter.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
142
85346
Pufferfish Skin Collagens and Their Role in Inflation
Abstract:
Inflation serves different purposes in different organisms and adds beauty to their behavioral attributes. Pufferfishes are also known as blowfish, swellfish, and globefish due to their remarkable ability to puff themselves up like a balloon when threatened. This ability to inflate can be correlated with anatomical features that are unique to pufferfishes. Pufferfish skin provides a rigid framework to support the body contents and a flexible covering to allow whatever changes are necessary for remarkable inflation mechanism. Skin, the outer covering of animals is made up of collagen fibers arranged in more or less ordered arrays. The ventral skin of pufferfish stretches more than dorsal skin during inflation. So, this study is of much of the interest in comparing the structure and mechanical properties of these two skin regions. The collagen fibers were found to be arranged in different ordered arrays for ventral and dorsal skin and concentration of fibers were also found to be different for these two skin parts. Scanning electron microscopy studies of the ventral skin showed a unidirectional arrangement of the collagen fibers, which provide more stretching capacity. Dorsal skin, on the other hand, has an orthogonal arrangement of fibers. This provides more stiffness to the ventral skin at the time of inflation. In this study, the possible role of collagen fibers was determined which significantly contributed to the remarkable inflation mechanism of pufferfishes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
141
85016
Bioactive Rare Acetogenins from the Red Alga Laurencia obtusa
Abstract:
Halogenated cyclic enynes and terpenoids are commonly identified among secondary metabolites of the genus Laurencia. Laurencian acetogenins are entirly C15 non-terpenoid haloethers with different carbocyclic nuclei; a specimen of the Red Sea red alga L. obtusa was investigated for its acetogenin content. The dichloromethane extract of the air-dried red algal material was fractionated on aluminum oxide column preparative thin-layer chromatography. Three new rare C12 acetogenin derivatives (1-3) were isolated from the organic extract obtained from Laurencia obtusa, collected from the territorial Red Sea water of Saudi Arabia. The structures of the isolated metabolites were established by means of spectroscopical data analyses. Examining the isolated compounds in activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) revealed potent Anti-inflammatory activity as evidenced by inhibition of NFκB and release of other inflammatory mediators like TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):