Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 51925

Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

1515
90956
Effect of Zirconium (Zr) Amount on Mechanical and Metallurgical Behavior of ZE41A Magnesium Alloy
Abstract:
ZE41A magnesium alloy has been extensively used in aerospace industry, especially for use in rotorcraft transmission casings. Due to the improved mechanical properties, the latest generation of magnesium casting alloy EV31A-T6 (Elektron 21® specified in AMS 4429) is seen as a potential replacement for ZE41A in terms of strength. Therefore, the necessity of enhancement has been arisen for ZE41A in order to avoid fully replacement. The main element affecting the strength of ZE41A is Zirconium (Zr), which acts as a grain refiner. The specified range of Zr element for ZE41A alloy is between 0.4 wt % and 1.0 wt % (unless otherwise stated by weight percentage after this point) as stated in AMS 4439. This paper investigates the effects of Zr amount on tensile and metallurgical properties of ZE41A magnesium alloy. The Zr alloying amount for the research has been chosen as 0.5 % and 1 %, which are standard amounts in a commercial alloy (average of 0.4-0.6%) and maximum percent in the standard, separately. 1 % Zr amount has been achieved via Zirmax (66.7 Mg-33.3 Zr) master alloy addition. The ultimate tensile strength of ZE41A with 1% Zr has been increased up to about 220-225 MPa in comparison to 200 MPa given in AMS 4439. The reason for the increase in strength with the addition of Zirmax is based on the decrease in grain size, which was measured about 30 µm. Optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were used to detect the change in the microstructural futures via alloying. The zirconium rich coring at the center of the grains was observed in addition to the grain boundary intermetallic phases and bulk Mg-rich matrix. The solidification characteristics were also identified by using the cooling curve obtained from the sand casting mold during cooling of the alloys.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1514
90727
Synthesis and Characterization of the Carbon Spheres Built Up from Reduced Graphene Oxide
Abstract:
The ordered structural carbon (OSC) material is expected to apply to the electrode of secondary batteries, the catalyst supports, and the biomaterials because it shows the low substance-diffusion resistance by its uniform pore size. In general, the OSC material is synthesized using the template material. Changing size and shape of this template provides the pore size of OSC material according to the purpose. Depositing the oxide nanosheets on the polymer sphere template by the layer by layer (LbL) method was reported as one of the preparation methods of OSC material. The LbL method can provide the controlling thickness of structural wall without the surface modification. When the preparation of the uniform carbon sphere prepared by the LbL method which composed of the graphene oxide wall and the polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) core, the reduction treatment will be the important object. Since the graphene oxide has poor electron conductivity due to forming a lot of functional groups on the surface, it could be hard to apply to the electrode of secondary batteries and the catalyst support of fuel cells. In this study, the graphene oxide wall of carbon sphere was reduced by the thermal treatment under the vacuum conditions, and its crystalline structure and electronic state were characterized. Scanning electron microscope images of the carbon sphere after the heat treatment at 300ºC showed maintaining sphere shape, but its shape was collapsed with increasing the heating temperature. In this time, the dissolution rate of PMMA core and the reduction rate of graphene oxide were proportionate to heating temperature. In contrast, extending the heating time was conducive to the conservation of the sphere shape. From results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, its electronic state of the surface was indicated mainly sp² carbon. From the above results, we succeeded in the synthesis of the sphere structure composed by the reduction graphene oxide.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1513
90385
Determination of Mechanical Properties of Adhesives via Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Method
Abstract:
Adhesively bonded joints are used as an alternative to traditional joining methods due to the important advantages they provide. The most important consideration in the use of adhesively bonded joints is that these joints have appropriate requirements for their use in terms of safety. In order to ensure control of this condition, damage analysis of the adhesively bonded joints should be performed by determining the mechanical properties of the adhesives. When the literature is investigated; it is generally seen that the mechanical properties of adhesives are determined by traditional measurement methods. In this study, to determine the mechanical properties of adhesives, the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method, which can be an alternative to traditional measurement methods, has been used. The DIC method is a new optical measurement method which is used to determine the parameters of displacement and strain in an appropriate and correct way. In this study, tensile tests of Thick Adherent Shear Test (TAST) samples formed using DP410 liquid structural adhesive and steel materials and bulk tensile specimens formed using and DP410 liquid structural adhesive was performed. The displacement and strain values of the samples were determined by DIC method and the shear stress-strain curves of the adhesive for TAST specimens and the tensile strain curves of the bulk adhesive specimens were obtained. Various methods such as numerical methods are required as conventional measurement methods (strain gauge, mechanic extensometer, etc.) are not sufficient in determining the strain and displacement values of the very thin adhesive layer such as TAST samples. As a result, the DIC method removes these requirements and easily achieves displacement measurements with sufficient accuracy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1512
90219
Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Synthesis by Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Platinum-Group Metal Catalysts
Abstract:
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are generally synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using Fe, Co, and Ni as catalysts. However, due to the Ostwald ripening of metal catalysts, the diameter distribution of the grown SWCNTs is considerably wide (>2 nm), which is not suitable for electronics applications. In addition, reduction in the growth temperature is desirable for fabricating SWCNT devices compatible with the LSI process. Herein, we performed SWCNT growth by alcohol catalytic CVD using platinum-group metal catalysts (Pt, Rh, and Pd) because these metals have high melting points, and the reduction in the Ostwald ripening of catalyst particles is expected. Our results revealed that web-like SWCNTs were obtained from Pt and Rh catalysts at growth temperature between 500 °C and 600 °C by optimizing the ethanol pressure. The SWCNT yield from Pd catalysts was considerably low. By decreasing the growth temperature, the diameter and chirality distribution of SWCNTs from Pt and Rh catalysts became small and narrow. In particular, the diameters of most SWCNTs grown using Pt catalysts were below 1 nm and their diameter distribution was considerably narrow. On the contrary, SWCNTs can grow from Rh catalysts even at 300 °C by optimizing the growth condition, which is the lowest temperature recorded for SWCNT growth. Our results demonstrated that platinum-group metals are useful for the growth of small-diameter SWCNTs and facilitate low-temperature growth.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1511
90196
Multipass Scratch Characterization of TiNbVN Thin Coatings Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering
Authors:
Abstract:
Transition metal nitrides are widely used as protective coatings on machine parts and cutting tools to protect the surfaces from abrasion and corrosion for decades. In this study, the ternary TiNbVN thin coatings were produced with closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system and their structural, mechanical and fatigue-like (multi-pass scratch test) properties were investigated. Two different substrates (M2 and H13 steels) were used to explore substrates effects. X-Ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used for the structural and chemical analysis of the coatings. Nanohardness tests were proceed for mechanical properties. The fatigue-like properties of the coatings obtained from the multi-scratch test under three different cycle passes. The results showed that TiNbVN films have excellent fatigue resistance and the coatings deposited on M2 steel substrate have higher hardness and better fatigue resistance.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1510
90195
The Tribological Behaviors of Vacuum Gas Nitriding Titanium and Steel Substrates at Different Process Temperatures
Authors:
Abstract:
Metal nitrides show excellence tribological properties and they used for especially on machine parts. In this work, the vacuum gas nitriding proses were applied to the titanium, D2 and 52100 steel substrates at three different proses temperatures (500 °C, 600°C and 700 °C). Structural, mechanical and tribological properties of the samples were characterized. X-Ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses were conducted to determine structural properties. Microhardness test and pin-on-disc wear test were made to observe tribological properties. Coefficient of friction, wear rate and wear traces were examined comparatively. According to the test results, the process temperature very effective parameter for the vacuum gas nitriding method.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1509
90187
Experimental Investigation of the Out-of-Plane Dynamic Behavior of Adhesively Bonded Composite Joints at High Strain Rates
Abstract:
In this investigation, an experimental technique in which the dynamic response, damage kinetic and heat dissipation are measured simultaneously during high strain rates on adhesively bonded joints materials. The material used in this study is widely used in the design of structures for military applications. It was composed of a 45° Bi-axial fiber-glass mat of 0.286 mm thickness in a Polyester resin matrix. In adhesive bonding, a NORPOL Polyvinylester of 1 mm thickness was used to assemble the composite substrate. The experimental setup consists of a compression Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), a high-speed infrared camera and a high-speed Fastcam rapid camera. For the dynamic compression tests, 13 mm x 13 mm x 9 mm samples for out-of-plane tests were considered from 372 to 1030 s-1. Specimen surface is controlled and monitored in situ and in real time using the high-speed camera which acquires the damage progressive in specimens and with the infrared camera which provides thermal images in time sequence. Preliminary compressive stress-strain vs. strain rates data obtained show that the dynamic material strength increases with increasing strain rates. Damage investigations have revealed that the failure mainly occurred in the adhesive/adherent interface because of the brittle nature of the polymeric adhesive. Results have shown the dependency of the dynamic parameters on strain rates. Significant temperature rise was observed in dynamic compression tests. Experimental results show that the temperature change depending on the strain rate and the damage mode and their maximum exceed 100 °C. The dependence of these results on strain rate indicates that there exists a strong correlation between damage rate sensitivity and heat dissipation, which might be useful when developing damage models under dynamic loading tacking into account the effect of the energy balance of adhesively bonded joints.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1508
89365
Comparison of Tribological and Mechanical Properties of White Metal Produced by Laser Cladding and Conventional Methods
Abstract:
Bearing component has strongly required to decrease vibration and wear to achieve high durability and life time. In the industry field, bearing durability is improved by surface treatment on the bearing surface by centrifugal casting or gravity casting production method. However, this manufacturing method has caused problems such as long processing time, defect rate, and health harmful effect. To solve this problem, there is a laser cladding deposition treatment, which provides fast processing and food adhesion. Therefore, optimum conditions of white metal laser deposition should be studied to minimize bearing contact axis wear using laser cladding techniques. In this study, we deposit a soft white metal layer on SCM440, which is mainly used for shaft and bolt. On laser deposition process, the laser power and powder feed rate and laser head speed factors are controlled to find out the optimal conditions. We also measure hardness using micro Vickers, analyze FE-SEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope) and EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) to study the mechanical properties and surface characteristics with various parameters change. Furthermore, this paper suggests the optimum condition of laser cladding deposition to apply in industrial fields. This work was supported by the Industrial Innovation Project of the Korea Evaluation Institute of Industrial Technology (KEIT) granted financial resource from the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea (Research no. 10051653).
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1507
89361
Evaluation of Mechanical Behavior of Laser Cladding in Various Tilting Pad Bearing Materials
Abstract:
The tilting pad bearing is a kind of the fluid film bearing and it can contribute to the high speed and the high load performance compared to other bearings including the rolling element bearing. Furthermore, the tilting bearing has many advantages such as high stability at high-speed performance, long life, high damping, high impact resistance and low noise. Therefore, it mostly used in mid to large size turbomachines, despite the high price disadvantage. Recently, manufacture and process employing laser techniques advancing at a fast-growing rate in mechanical industry, the dissimilar metal weld process employing laser techniques is actively studied. Moreover, also, Industry fields try to apply for welding the white metal and the back metal using laser cladding method for high durability. Furthermore, it has followed that laser cladding method has a lot better bond strength, toughness, anti-abrasion and environment-friendly than centrifugal casting method through preceding research. Therefore, the laser cladding method has a lot better quality, cost reduction, eco-friendliness and permanence of technology than the centrifugal casting method or the gravity casting method. In this study, we compare the mechanical properties of different bearing materials by evaluating the behavior of laser cladding layer with various materials (i.e. SS400, SCM440, S20C) under the same parameters. Furthermore, we analyze the porosity of various tilting pad bearing materials which white metal treated on samples. SEM, EDS analysis and hardness tests of three materials are shown to understand the mechanical properties and tribological behavior. W/D ratio, surface roughness results with various materials are performed in this study.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1506
88729
Investigation on Mesh Sensitivity of a Transient Model for Nozzle Clogging
Abstract:
A transient model for nozzle clogging has been developed, and successfully validated against a laboratory experiment. Key steps of clogging are considered: transport of particles by turbulent flow towards the nozzle wall; interactions between fluid flow and nozzle wall, and the adhesion of the particle on the wall; the growth of the clog layer and its interaction with the flow. The current paper is to investigate the mesh (size and type) sensitivity of the model in both 2 and 3 dimensions. It is found that the algorithm for clog growth alone excluding the flow effect is insensitive to the mesh type and size, but the calculation including flow becomes sensitive to the mesh quality. The use of 2D meshes leads to overestimation of the clog growth because the 3D nature of flow in the boundary layer cannot be properly solved by 2D calculation. 3D simulation with tetrahedron mesh can also lead to an error estimation of the clog growth. A mesh-independent result can be achieved with hexahedral mesh, or at least with triangular prism (inflation layer) for near-wall regions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1505
88423
Experimental Investigation of the Static and Dynamic Behaviour of Double Lap Joints
Abstract:
For many applications, adhesively bonded assemblies have gained an increasing interest in the industry due to several advantages over welding, riveting and bolting, such as reduction of stress concentrations, lightness, low cost and easy manufacturing. This work is largely concerned to show the effects of the loading rate of the adhesively bonded joints under different speed rates. The tensile tests were conducted at four different rates; static (5mm/min, 50mm/min) and dynamic tests (1m/s, and 10m/s). An attempt was made to determine the damage kinetic and a comparison between the use of aluminium and composite laminate substrates is introduced. Aluminum T6082 and glass/vinylester laminated composite Substrates were used to construct aluminum/aluminum and laminate/laminate specimens. The adhesive used in this study was Araldite 2015. The results showed the effects of the loading rate évolution on the double joint strength. The comparison of the results of static and dynamic tests showed a raise of the strength of the specimens while the load velocity is elevated. In the case of composite substrates double joint lap, the stiffness increased by more than 60% between static and dynamic tests. However, in the case of aluminum substrates, the rigidity improved about 28% from static to moderately high velocity loading. For both aluminum and composite double joint lap, the strength increased by approximately 25% when the tensile velocity is increased from 5 mm/min to 50 mm/min (static tests). Nevertheless, the tensile velocity is extended to 1m/s the strength increased by 13% and 25% respectively for composite and aluminum substrates.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1504
88360
Effect of Graphene on the Structural and Optical Properties of Ceria:Graphene Nanocomposites
Abstract:
Bandgap engineering of CeO₂ nanocrystals is of high interest for many research groups to meet the requirement of desired applications. The band gap of CeO₂ nanostructures can be modified by varying the particle size, morphology and dopants. Anchoring the metal oxide nanostructures on graphene sheets will result in composites with improved properties than the parent materials. The presence of graphene sheets will acts a support for the growth, influences the morphology and provides external paths for electronic transitions. Thus, the controllable synthesis of ceria:graphene composites with various morphologies and the understanding of the optical properties is highly important for the usage of these materials in various applications. The development of ceria and ceria:graphene composites with low cost, rapid synthesis with tunable optical properties is still desirable. By this work, we discuss the synthesis of pure ceria (nanospheres) and ceria:graphene composites (nano-rice like morphology) by using commercial microwave oven as a cost effective and environmentally friendly approach. The influence of the graphene on the crystallinity, morphology, band gap and luminescence of the synthesized samples were analyzed. The average crystallite size obtained by using Scherrer formula of the CeO₂ nanostructures showed a decreasing trend with increasing the graphene loading. The higher graphene loaded ceria composite clearly depicted morphology of nano-rice like in shape with the diameter below 10 nm and the length over 50 nm. The presence of graphene and ceria related vibrational modes (100-4000 cm⁻¹) confirmed the successful formation of composites. We observed an increase in band gap (blue shift) with increasing loading amount of graphene. Further, the luminescence related to various F-centers was quenched in the composites. The authors gratefully acknowledge the FONDECYT Project No.: 3160142 and BECA Conicyt National Doctorado2017 No. 21170851 Government of Chile, Santiago, for the financial assistance.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1503
88313
Fabrication of Highly Roughened Zirconia Surface by a Room Temperature Spray Coating
Abstract:
Zirconia has biological, mechanical and optical properties, so, it used as a dental implant material in human body. But, it is difficult to form directly bonding with living tissues after the procedure and induces the falling away from implanted parts of the body. To improve this phenomenon, it is essential to increase the surface roughness of zirconia implants and induce a forming-ability of strong bonds. In this study, we performed a room temperature spray coating on zirconia specimen to obtain a highly roughened zirconia surface. To get optimal surface roughness, we controlled the distance between the nozzle and the substrate, coating times and powder condition. Bonding microstructure, surface roughness, and chemical composition of the coating layer were observed by SEM, XRD and roughness tester.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1502
88232
Granule Morphology of Zirconia Powder with Solid Content on Two-Fluid Spray Drying
Abstract:
Granule morphology and microstructure were affected by slurry viscosity, chemical composition, particle size and spray drying process. In this study, we investigated granule morphology of zirconia powder with solid content on two-fluid spray drying. Zirconia granules after spray drying show sphere-like shapes with a diameter of 40-70 μm at low solid contents (30 or 40 wt%) and specific surface area of 5.1-5.6 m²/g. But a donut-like shape with a few cracks were observed on zirconia granules prepared from the slurry of high solid content (50 wt %), green compacts after cold isostatic pressing under the pressure of 200 MPa have the density of 2.1-2.2 g/cm³ and homogeneous fracture surface by complete destruction of granules. After the sintering at 1500 °C for 2 h, all specimens have relative density of 96.2-98.3 %. With increasing a solid content from 30 to 50 wt%, grain size increased from 0.3 to 0.6 μm, but relative density was inversely decreased from 98.3 to 96.2 %.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1501
88145
Temperature Dependent Interaction Energies among X (=Ru, Rh) Impurities in Pd-Rich PdX Alloys
Abstract:
We study the temperature dependence of the interaction energies (IEs) of X (=Ru, Rh) impurities in Pd, due to the Fermi-Dirac (FD) distribution and the thermal vibration effect by the Debye-Grüneisen model. The n-body (n=2~4) IEs among X impurities in Pd, being used to calculate the internal energies in the free energies of the Pd-rich PdX alloys, are determined uniquely and successively from the lower-order to higher-order, by the full-potential Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green’s function method (FPKKR), combined with the generalized gradient approximation in the density functional theory. We found that the temperature dependence of IEs due to the FD distribution, being usually neglected, is very important to reproduce the X-concentration dependence of the observed solvus temperatures of the Pd-rich PdX (X=Ru, Rh) alloys.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1500
87828
Fluorescent Analysis of Gold Nanoclusters-Wool Keratin Addition to Copper Ions
Abstract:
With the increase of global population, it is of importance for the safe water supply, while, the water-monitoring method with the capability of rapidness, low-cost, green and robustness remains unsolved. In this paper, gold nanoclusters-wool keratin is added into copper ions measured by fluorescent method in order to probe copper ions in aqueous solution. The fluorescent results show that gold nanoclusters-wool keratin exhibits high stability of pHs, while it is sensitive to temperature and time. Based on Gauss fitting method, the results exhibit that the slope of gold nanoclusters-wool keratin with pH resolution under acidic condition is higher compared to it under alkaline solutions. Besides, gold nanoclusters-wool keratin added into copper ions shows a fluorescence turn-off response transferring from red to blue under UV light, leading to the dramatically decreased fluorescent intensity of gold nanoclusters-wool keratin solution located at 690 nm. Moreover, the limited concentration of copper ions tested by gold nanoclusters-wool keratin system is around 1 µmol/L, which meets the need of detection standards. The fitting slope of Stern-Volmer plot at low concentration of copper ions is larger than it at high concentrations, which indicates that aggregated gold nanoclusters are from small amounts to large numbers with the increasing concentration of copper ions. It is expected to provide novel method and materials for copper ions testing with low cost, high efficiency, and easy operability.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1499
87527
Effect of Hollow and Solid Recycled-Poly Fibers on the Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Short-Fiber-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to give a comprehensive overview of the effect of short hollow and solid recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers in different breaking tenacities reinforced isotactic polypropylene (iPP) composites on the mechanical and morphological properties. Composites of iPP/3, 7and 10 wt% of solid and hollow recycled PET fibers were prepared by batched melt mixing in a Brabender. The incorporation of solid recycled-PET fibers in isotactic polypropylene increase Young’s modulus of iPP relatively, meanwhile it increased proportionally with hollow fibers content. An improvement of the storage modulus, and a shift up in glass transition temperatures of hollow fibers/iPP composites was determined by DMA results. The morphology of composites was determined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical polarized microscopy (OM) showing a good dispersion of the hollow fibers. Also, their flexible aspect (folding, bending) was observed. But, one weak interaction between the polymer/fibers phases was shown. Polymers can be effectively reinforced with short hollow recycled PET fibers due to their characteristics like recyclability, lightweight and the flexible aspect, which allows the absorbance of the energy of a striker with a minimum damage of the matrix. Aiming to improve the affinity matrix–recycled hollow PET fibers, it is suggested the addition of compatibilizers, as maleic anhydride.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1498
87464
Effect of Carbon Additions on FeCrNiMnTi High Entropy Alloy
Abstract:
Recently, the high entropy alloys (HEA) are the focus of attention in metallurgical and materials science due to their desirable and superior properties in comparison to conventional alloys. The HEA field has promoted the exploration of several compositions including the addition of non-metallic elements like carbon, which in traditional metallurgy is mainly used in the steel industry. The aim of this work was the synthesis of equiatomic FeCrNiMnTi high entropy alloys, with minor carbon content, by mechanical alloying and sintering. The effect of the addition of carbon nanotubes and graphite were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and microhardness test. The structural and microstructural characteristics of the equiatomic alloys, as well as their hardness were compared with those of an austenitic AISI 321 stainless steel processed under the same conditions. The results showed that porosity in bulk samples decreases with carbon nanotubes addition, while the equiatomic composition favors the formation of titanium carbide and increased the AISI 321 hardness more than three times.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1497
87384
An Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Study of CoTi Thin Films
Abstract:
The cobalt-titanium system was grown as thin films in an INTERCOVAMEX V3 sputtering system, equipped with four magnetrons assisted by DC pulsed and direct DC. A polished highly oriented (400) silicon wafer was used as substrate and the growing temperature was 500 oC. Xray Absorption Spectroscopy experiments were carried out in the SSRL in the 4-3 beam line. The Extenden X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure spectra have been numerically processed by WINXAS software from the background subtraction until the normalization and FFT adjustment. Analyzing the absorption spectra of cobalt in the CoTi2 phase we can appreciate that they agree in energy with the reference spectra that corresponds to the CoO, which indicates that the valence where upon working is Co2+. The RDF experimental results were then compared with those RDF´s generated theoretically by using FEFF software, from a model compound of CoTi2 phase obtained by XRD. The fitting procedure is a highly iterative process. Fits are also checked in R-space using both the real and imaginary parts of Fourier transform. Finally, the presence of overlapping coordination shells and the correctness of the assumption about the nature of the coordinating atom were checked.
Keywords:
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1496
87347
Properties of Compressed Earth Blocks Enhanced with Clay Pozzolana
Abstract:
The high cost of cement and its greenhouse effect on the environment have led to the use of alternative building materials in the production of block and bricks. This study seeks to investigate the properties of compressed earth blocks (CEBs) enhanced with clay pozzolana. CEBs of size 290 × 140 × 100 mm were prepared with 10, 20 and 30 % weight of clay pozzolana. The CEBs were compressed at a constant pressure of 5 MPa and cured for 28 days. The blocks, after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of curing were tested for density, water absorption, compressive strength and erosion. It was found that amount of pozzolana content did not have much influence on blocks’ density. There was a decline in water absorption of the stabilised blocks ranged between 32.8% and 252.2% over the unstabilised blocks. The highest compressive strength (3.75MPa) of the stabilized blocks was achieved at 28th day of curing with 30% clay pozzolana content, which showed an improvement of 116.8% strength over the unstabilised blocks. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant difference in the erosion resistance between the stabilized blocks and the unstabilised blocks. The study concludes that the inclusion of the clay pozzolana increased the properties of the CEBs, and therefore recommended for use in the building of houses.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1495
87235
Systematic Study of Structure Property Relationship in Highly Crosslinked Elastomers
Abstract:
Elastomers are polymeric materials with varied backbone architectures ranging from linear to dendrimeric structures and wide varieties of monomeric repeat units. These elastomers show strongly viscous and weakly elastic when it is not cross-linked. But when crosslinked, based on the extent the properties of these elastomers can range from highly flexible to highly stiff nature. Lightly cross-linked systems are well studied and reported. Understanding the nature of highly cross-linked rubber based upon chemical structure and architecture is critical for varieties of applications. One of the critical parameters is cross-link density. In the current work, we have studied the highly cross-linked state of linear, lightly branched to star-shaped branched elastomers and determined the cross-linked density by using different models. Change in hardness, shift in Tg, change in modulus and swelling behavior were measured experimentally as a function of the extent of curing. These properties were analyzed using varied models to determine cross-link density. We used hardness measurements to examine cure time. Hardness to the extent of curing relationship is determined. It is well known that micromechanical transitions like Tg and storage modulus are related to the extent of crosslinking. The Tg of the elastomer in different crosslinked state was determined by DMA, and based on plateau modulus the crosslink density is estimated by using Nielsen’s model. Usually for lightly crosslinked systems, based on equilibrium swelling ratio in solvent the cross link density is estimated by using Flory–Rhener model. When it comes to highly crosslinked system, Flory-Rhener model is not valid because of smaller chain length. So models based on the assumption of polymer as a Non-Gaussian chain like 1) Helmis–Heinrich–Straube (HHS) model, 2) Gloria M.gusler and Yoram Cohen Model, 3) Barbara D. Barr-Howell and Nikolaos A. Peppas model is used for estimating crosslink density. In this work, correction factors are determined to the existing models and based upon it structure-property relationship of highly crosslinked elastomers was studied.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1494
86274
Ecofriendly Synthesis of [email protected] Nanocomposites and Their Catalytic Activity on Multicomponent Domino Annulation-Aromatization for Quinoline Synthesis
Abstract:
Nanocomposites have been widely used in various fields such as electronics, catalysis, and in chemical, biological, biomedical and optical fields. They display broad biomedical properties like antidiabetic, anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antibacterial activities. Moreover, nanomaterials have been used for wastewater treatment. Particularly, bimetallic hybrid nanocomposites exhibit unique features as compared to their monometallic components. Hybrid nanomaterials not only afford the multifunctionality endowed by their constituents but can also show synergistic properties. In addition, these hybrid nanomaterials have noteworthy catalytic and optical properties. Notably, Au−Ag based nanoparticles can be employed in sensor and catalysis due to their characteristic composition-tunable plasmonic properties. Due to their importance and usefulness, various efforts were developed for their preparation. Generally, chemical methods have been described to synthesize such bimetallic nanocomposites. In such chemical synthesis, harmful and hazardous chemicals cause environmental contamination and increase toxicity levels. Therefore, ecologically benevolent processes for the synthesis of nanomaterials are highly desirable to diminish such environmental and safety concerns. In this regard, here we disclose a simple, cost-effective, external additive free and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of [email protected] nanocomposites using Nephrolepis cordifolia root extract. [email protected] NCs were obtained by the simultaneous reduction of cationic Ag and Au into AgCl in the presence of plant extract. The particle size of 10 to 50 nm was observed with the average diameter of 30 nm. The synthesized nanocomposite was characterized by various modern characterization techniques. For example, UV−visible spectroscopy was used to determine the optical activity of the synthesized NCs, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was employed to investigate the functional groups present in the biomolecules that were responsible for both reducing and capping agents during the formation of nanocomposites. Similarly, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy were used to determine crystallinity, size, oxidation states, thermal stability and weight loss of the synthesized nanocomposites. As a synthetic application, the synthesized nanocomposite exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the multicomponent synthesis of biologically interesting quinoline molecules via domino annulation-aromatization reaction of aniline, arylaldehyde, and phenyl acetylene derivatives. Interestingly, the nanocatalyst was efficiently recycled for five times without substantial loss of catalytic properties.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1493
86066
Alteration Quartz-Kfeldspar-Apatite-Molybdenite at B Anomaly Prospection with Artificial Neural Network to Determining Molydenite Economic Deposits in Malala District, Western Sulawesi
Abstract:
The Malala deposit in northwest Sulawesi is the only known porphyry molybdenum and the only source for rhenium, occurrence in Indonesia. The neural network method produces results that correspond very closely to those of the knowledge-based fuzzy logic method and weights of evidence method. This method required data of solid geology, regional faults, airborne magnetic, gamma-ray survey data and GIS data. This interpretation of the network output fits with the intuitive notion that a prospective area has characteristics that closely resemble areas known to contain mineral deposits. Contrasts with the weights of evidence and fuzzy logic methods, where, for a given grid location, each input-parameter value automatically results in an increase in the prospective estimated. Malala District indicated molybdenum anomalies in stream sediments from in excess of 15 km2 were obtained, including the Takudan Fault as most prominent structure with striking 40̊ to 60̊ over a distance of about 30 km and in most places weakly at anomaly B, developed over an area of 4 km2, with a ‘shell’ up to 50 m thick at the intrusive contact with minor mineralization occurring in the Tinombo Formation. Series of NW trending, steeply dipping fracture zones, named the East Zone has an estimated resource of 100 Mt at 0.14% MoS2 and minimum target of 150 Mt 0.25%. The Malala porphyries occur as stocks and dykes with predominantly granitic, with fluorine-poor class of molybdenum deposits and belongs to the plutonic sub-type. Unidirectional solidification textures consisting of subparallel, crenulated layers of quartz that area separated by layers of intrusive material textures. The deuteric nature of the molybdenum mineralization and the dominance of carbonate alteration.The nature of the Stage I with alteration barren quartz K‐feldspar; and Stage II with alteration quartz‐K‐feldspar‐apatite-molybdenite veins combined with the presence of disseminated molybdenite with primary biotite in the host intrusive.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1492
86053
Thermodynamic Analysis of Hydrogen Plasma Reduction of TiCl₄
Abstract:
With increasing demands for high performance materials, intensive interest on the Ti has been focused. Especially, low cost production process of Ti has been extremely necessitated from wide parts and various industries. Tetrachloride (TiCl₄) is produced by fluidized bed using high TiO₂ feedstock and used as an intermediate product for the production of metal titanium sponge. Reduction of TiCl₄ is usually conducted by Kroll process using magnesium as a reduction reagent, producing metallic Ti in the shape of sponge. The process is batch type and takes very long time including post processes treating sponge. As an alternative reduction reagent, hydrogen in the state of plasma has long been strongly recommended. Experimental confirmation has not been completely reported yet and more strict analysis is required. In the present study, hydrogen plasma reduction process has been thermodynamically analyzed focusing the effects of temperature, pressure and concentration. All thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage® thermodynamical software.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1491
85849
A Study of the Weld Properties of Inconel 625 Based on Nb Content
Abstract:
In this study, shielded metal arc welding was performed as a function of Nb content at 2.24 wt%, 3.25 wt%, and 4.26 wt%. The microstructure was observed using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and showed the development of a columnar dendrite structure in the specimen having the least Nb content. From the hardness test, the hardness value was confirmed to reduce with decreasing Nb content. From electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis, the largest grain size was found in the specimen with Nb content of 2.24 wt%. The potentiodynamic polarization test was carried out to determine the pitting corrosion resistance; there was no significant difference in the pitting corrosion resistance with increasing Nb content. To evaluate the degree of sensitization to intergranular corrosion, the Double Loop Electrochemical Potentiodynamic Reactivation(DL-EPR test) was conducted. A similar degree of sensitization was found in two specimens except with a Nb content of 2.24 wt%, while a relatively high degree of sensitization was found in the specimen with a Nb content of 2.24 wt%.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1490
85801
Study of Biodegradable Composite Materials Based on Polylactic Acid and Vegetal Reinforcements
Abstract:
This study focuses on biodegradable materials made from Poly-lactic acid (PLA) and vegetal reinforcements. Three materials are developed from PLA, as a matrix, and : (i) olive kernels (OK); (ii) alfa (α) short fibers and (iii) OK+ α mixture, as reinforcements. After processing of PLA pellets and olive kernels in powder and alfa stems in short fibers, three mixtures, namely PLA-OK, PLA-α, and PLA-OK-α are prepared and homogenized in Turbula®. These mixtures are then compacted at 180°C under 10 MPa during 15 mn. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) examinations show that PLA matrix adheres at surface of all reinforcements and the dispersion of these ones in matrix is good. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses highlight an increase of PLA inter-reticular distances, especially for the PLA-OK case. These results are explained by the dissociation of some molecules derived from reinforcements followed by diffusion of the released atoms in the structure of PLA. This is consistent with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis results.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1489
85763
Development of a Biodegradable Polymer Reinforced by Olive Kernel Powder
Abstract:
In this work, we developed a biodegradable composite material using Poly-lactic Acid (PLA) as matrix and Olive Kernels particles (OK) as reinforcement. Two steps have been used to make this material: (i) processing of raw materials (PLA and OK) into powder and (ii) uniaxial hot compaction at 180°C under 10 MPa of PLA-50%OK (% vol.) mixture. A microstructural observation by environmental Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a continuous interface PLA-OK in material. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD), it has been highlighted an increase of inter-reticular distances of PLA. These results have been explained by dissociation of some molecules derived from Olive Kernels followed by diffusion, at high temperature, of the released atoms in the structure of PLA. These results are in very good agreement with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) ones.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1488
85057
Three-Dimensional Carbon Foams for the Application as Electrode Material in Energy Storage Systems
Abstract:
Carbon materials, especially three-dimensional carbon foams, show very high potential in the application as electrode material for energy storage systems such as batteries and supercapacitors with unique fast charging and discharging times. Regarding their high specific surface areas (SSA) high specific capacities can be reached. Globugraphite is a newly developed carbon foam with an interconnected globular carbon morphology. Especially, this foam has a statistically distributed hierarchical pore structure resulting from the manufacturing process based on sintered ceramic templates which are synthetized during a final chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. For morphology characterization scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used. In addition, the SSA is carried out by nitrogen adsorption combined with the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) theory. Electrochemical measurements in organic and inorganic electrolyte provide high energy densities and power densities resulting from ion absorption by forming an electrochemical double layer. All values are summarized in a Ragone Diagram. Finally, power densities up to 833 W/kg and energy densities up to 48 Wh/kg could be achieved. The corresponding SSA is between 376 m²/g and 859 m²/g. For organic electrolyte a specific capacity of 71 F/g at a density of 20 mg/cm³ was achieved.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1487
85047
Investigation on the Effect of Welding Parameters in Additive Friction Stir Welding of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide 66 Composite
Abstract:
Metals are being replaced by thermoplastic polymer composites in automotive industries because of their low density, easiness to fabricate, low cost and good wear resistance. Complex polymer components consist of assemblies of smaller parts which can be joined by friction stir welding. This study deals with the additive friction stir welding of 15 wt.% glass fiber reinforced polyamide 66 composite which is a modified technique of the conventional friction stir welding by the addition of a filler plate for the heating of the composite work piece through the tool during the welding process. Welding at different combinations of tool rotational speed, travel speed and tool plunge depth was done after which the tensile strength of the respective experiments was determined. The maximum tensile strength obtained was 77 MPa which was 80% of the strength of the base material. The process parameters were optimized using the L9 orthogonal array and also the effect of individual welding parameter on the tensile strength was studied. The optimum parameter combination was determined with the help of ANOVA studies. The hardness of the welded joints was studied with the help of Shore Durometer which yielded the maximum of D 75.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1486
85013
Effect of Martensite Content and Its Morphology on Mechanical Properties of Microalloyed Dual Phase Steel
Abstract:
Microalloyed dual phase steels have been prepared by intercritical austenitisation (ICA) treatment of normalized steel at different temperature and time. Water quenching wad carried to obtain different martensite volume fraction (MVF) in DP steels. DP steels and normalized steels have been characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, Vickers hardness measurements and tensile properties determination. The effect of MVF and martensite morphology on mechanical properties and fracture behavior of microalloyed dual phase steels have been explained in the present work.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):