The Shape Memory Recovery Properties under Load of a Polymer Composite
Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are replacing shape memory alloys (SMAs) in many applications as SMPs have certain superior properties than SMAs. However, SMAs possess some properties like recovery under stress that SMPs lack. SMPs cannot give complete recovery even under a small load. SMPs are initially heated close to their transition temperature (glass transition temperature or the melting temperature). Then force is applied to deform the heated SMP to a specific position. Subsequently, SMP is allowed to cool keeping it deformed. After cooling, SMP gets the temporary shape. This temporary shape can be recovered by heating it again at the same temperature that was given it while heating it initially. As a result, it will recover its original position. SMP can perform unconstrained recovery and constrained recovery, however; under the load, it only recovers partially. In this work, the recovery under the load of an asymmetrical shape memory composite called as CBCM-SMPC has been investigated. It is found that it has the ability to recover under different loads. Under different loads, it shows powerful complete recovery in reference to initial position. This property can be utilized in many applications.
Heat Loss Control in Stave Cooled Blast Furnace by Optimizing Gas Flow Pattern through Burden Distribution
Productivity of Blast Furnace is largely impacted by fuel efficiency and controlling heat loss is one of the enabling parameters for achieving lower fuel rate. 'I' Blast Furnace is the latest and largest Blast Furnace of Tata Steel Jamshedpur with working volume of 3230 m³ and with rated capacity of 3.055 million tons per annum. Optimizing heat losses in Belly and Bosh zone remained major challenge for blast furnace operators after its commissioning. 'I' Blast has installed Cast Iron & Copper Staves cooling members where copper staves are installed in Belly, Bosh & Lower Stack whereas cast iron staves are installed in upper stack area. Stave cooled Blast Furnaces are prone to higher heat losses in Belly and Bosh region with an increase in coal injection rate as Bosh gas volume increases. Under these conditions, managing gas flow pattern through proper burden distribution, casting techniques & by maintaining desired raw material qualities are of utmost importance for sustaining high injection rates. This study details, the burden distribution control by Ore & Coke ratio adjustment at wall and center of Blast Furnace as the coal injection rates increased from 140 kg/thm to 210 kg/thm. Control of blowing parameters, casting philosophy, specification for raw materials & devising operational practice for controlling heat losses is also elaborated with the model that is used to visualize heat loss pattern in different zones of Blast Furnace.
Research of the Activation Energy of Conductivity in P-I-N SiC Structures Fabricated by Doping with Aluminum Using the Low-Temperature Diffusion Method
The activation energy of conductivity in p-i-n SiC structures fabricated by doping with Aluminum using the new low-temperature diffusion method is investigated. In this method, diffusion is stimulated by the flux of carbon and silicon vacancies created by surface oxidation. The activation energy of conductivity in the p - layer is 0.25 eV and it is close to the ionization energy of Aluminum in 4H-SiC from 0.21 to 0.27 eV for the hexagonal and cubic positions of aluminum in the silicon sublattice for weakly doped crystals. The conductivity of the i-layer (measured in the reverse biased diode) shows 2 activation energies: 0.02 eV and 0.62 eV. Apparently, the 0.62 eV level is a deep trap level and it is a complex of Aluminum with a vacancy. According to the published data, an analogous level system (with activation energies of 0.05, 0.07, 0.09 and 0.67 eV) was observed in the ion Aluminum doped 4H-SiC samples.
Periodic Topology and Size Optimization Design of Tower Crane Boom
In order to achieve the layout and size optimization of the web members of tower crane boom, a truss topology and cross section size optimization method based on continuum is proposed considering three typical working conditions. Firstly, the optimization model is established by replacing web members with web plates. And the web plates are divided into several sub-domains so that periodic SKO method can be carried out for topology optimization of the slender boom. After getting the optimized topology of web plates, the optimized layout of web members is formed through extracting the principal stress distribution. Finally, using the web member radius as design variable, the boom compliance as objective and the material volume of the boom as constraint, the cross section size optimization mathematical model is established. The size optimization criterion is deduced from the mathematical model by Lagrange multiplier method and Kuhn-Tucker condition. By comparing the original boom with the optimal boom, it is identified that this optimization method can effectively lighten the boom and improve its performance.
The Effect of Fe2O3 and Sum of Alkalis Elements on Monocotora Tile
The study of this research is the effect of using Fe2O3 and sum of alkalis elements in the floor tile production. At first, raw materials of floor tile with the same formulation of original sample was prepared and sintered for 39 minutes at 1130˚C in roller kiln and finally, physical properties of the sintered bodies based on floor tile standard process was investigated. The results showed that there was the possibility of production of floor tile containing different percentages of Fe2O3 and sum of Na2O+ K2O. With increasing the Fe2O3 and sum of Na2O+ K2O elements, the percentages of water absorption and raw, dry and sintered strengths were decreased, but the percentages of shrinkage was increased which caused the decreasing the percentages of expansion.
Analysis of the Contribution of Drude and Brendel Model Terms to the Dielectric Function
Parametric modeling provides a means to deeper understand the properties of materials. Drude, Brendel, Lorentz and OJL incorporated in SCOUT® software are some of the models used to study dielectric films. In our work, we utilized Brendel and Drude models to extract the optical constants from spectroscopic data of fabricated undoped and niobium doped titanium oxide thin films. The individual contributions by the two models were studied to establish how they influence the dielectric function. The effect of dopants on their influences was also analyzed. For the undoped films, results indicate minimal contribution from the Drude term due to the dielectric nature of the films. However as doping levels increase, the rise in the concentration of free electrons favors the use of Drude model. Brendel model was confirmed to work well with dielectric films - the undoped titanium Oxide films in our case.
Virtual Prototyping of LED Chip Scale Packaging Using Computational Fluid Dynamic and Finite Element Method
LED technology has been evolving aggressively in recent years from incandescent bulb during older days to as small as chip scale package. It will continue to stay bright in future. As such, there is tremendous pressure to stay competitive in the market by optimizing products to next level of performance and reliability with the shortest time to market. This changes the conventional way of product design and development to virtual prototyping by means of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). It comprises of the deployment of Finite Element Method (FEM) and Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD). FEM accelerates the investigation for early detection of failures such as crack, improve the thermal performance of system and enhance solder joint reliability. CFD helps to simulate the flow pattern of molding material as a function of different temperature, molding parameters settings to evaluate failures like voids and displacement. This paper will briefly discuss the procedures and applications of FEM in thermal stress, solder joint reliability and CFD of compression molding in LED CSP. Integration of virtual prototyping in product development had greatly reduced the time to market. Many successful achievements with minimized number of evaluation iterations required in the scope of material, process setting, and package architecture variant have been materialized with this approach.
Mechanical Properties of Nanocomposites Cobalt Matrix with Nano SiC Particles
Nanocomposites Co-SiC with well dispersed nanoparticles and Co nano grain size has produced using Pulse Reverse Plating (PRP) and using anionic surfactant. Different particle contents of nanocomposites were produced by altering the plating parameters. The method allows great control over the level of nanoparticles in the coating, without changing bath chemistry. Examination by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX), TEM and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed to characterize and study the strengthening mechanisms of these nanocomposites. The primary strengthening mechanisms were shown to be grain refinement and dispersion strengthening. Tribological performances of the produced electroplated nanocomposite Co-SiC coatings were examined. Results showed that the coating with the higher volume fraction (vol. %) of SiC and the smallest grain size has the higher hardness and low wear rate.
Experimental Study on Thermomechanical Properties of New-Generation Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Alloys
By using a combination of new technologies together with an unconventional use of different types of materials, specific mechanical properties and structures of the material can be achieved. Some possibilities are enabled by a combination of powder metallurgy in the preparation of a metal matrix with dispersed stable particles achieved by mechanical alloying and hot consolidation. This paper explains the thermomechanical properties of new generation of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened alloys (ODS) within three ranges of temperature with specified deformation profiles. The results show that the mechanical properties of new ODS alloys are significantly affected by the thermomechanical treatment.
Tuning Nanomechanical Properties of Stimuli-Responsive Hydrogel Nanocomposite Thin Films for Biomedical Applications
The design of stimuli-responsive hydrogel nanocomposite thin films is gaining significant attention in these days due to its wide variety of applications. Soft microrobots, drug delivery, biosensors, regenerative medicine, bacterial adhesion, energy storage and wound dressing are few advanced applications in different fields. In this research work, the nanomechanical properties of composite thin films of 20 microns were tuned by applying homogeneous external DC, and AC magnetic fields of magnitudes 0.05 T and 0.1 T. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) used as a matrix material and elliptical hematite nanoparticles (ratio of the length of the major axis to the length of the minor axis is 140.59 ± 1.072 nm/52.84 ± 1.072 nm) used as filler materials to prepare the nanocomposite thin films. Both quasi-static nanoindentation, Nano Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (Nano-DMA) tests were performed to characterize the viscoelastic properties of PVA, PVA+Hematite (0.1% wt, 2% wt and 4% wt) nanocomposites. Different properties such as storage modulus, loss modulus, hardness, and Er/H were carefully analyzed. The increase in storage modulus, hardness, Er/H and a decrease in loss modulus were observed with increasing concentration and DC magnetic field followed by AC magnetic field. Contact angle and ATR-FTIR experiments were conducted to understand the molecular mechanisms such as hydrogen bond formation, crosslinking density, and particle-particle interactions. This systematic study is helpful in design and modeling of magnetic responsive hydrogel nanocomposite thin films for biomedical applications.
Ultrasonic Measurement of Elastic Properties of Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials
In this study, elastic constants, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratios, and shear moduli of orthotropic composite materials, consisting of E-glass/epoxy and carbon/epoxy, were calculated by ultrasonic velocities which were measured using ultrasonic pulse-echo method. 35 MHz computer controlled analyzer, 60 MHz digital oscilloscope, 5 MHz longitudinal probe and 2,25 MHz transverse probe were used for the measurements of ultrasound velocities; the measurements were performed at ambient temperature. It was understood from the data obtained in this study that, measured ultrasound velocities and the calculated elasticity coefficients were depending on the fiber orientations.
Characterization of Andesite Waste-Reinforced Composites by Ultrasonic Measurements
The electrically conductive modified epoxy resin (MER) and different weight amounts (10–30 wt%) of andesite waste (AW) as filler are mixed together to obtain the andesite waste-reinforced epoxy resin composites. The effects of filler amount on the electrical and ultrasonic properties of the modified epoxy resin are examined. The effects of AW amount on the ultrasonic properties of the obtained MER/AW composites are investigated by ultrasonic pulse-echo method. Experimental results showed that increasing the amount of AW causes a linear increase in the elastic properties. On the other hand, the same amounts of AW decrease the electrical conductivity of MER.
Features of Composites Application in Shipbuilding
Specific features of ship structures, made from composites, i.e. simultaneous shaping of material and structure, large sizes, complicated outlines and tapered thickness have defined leading role of technology, integrating test results from material science, designing and structural analysis. Main procedures of composite shipbuilding are contact molding, vacuum molding and winding. Now, the most demanded composite shipbuilding technology is the manufacture of structures from fiberglass and multilayer hybrid composites by means of vacuum molding. This technology enables the manufacture of products with improved strength properties (in comparison with contact molding), reduction of production duration, weight and secures better environmental conditions in production area. Mechanized winding is applied for the manufacture of parts, shaped as rotary bodies – i.e. parts of ship, oil and other pipelines, deep-submergence vehicles hulls, bottles, reservoirs and other structures. This procedure involves processing of reinforcing fiberglass, carbon and polyaramide fibers. Polyaramide fibers have tensile strength of 5000 MPa, elastic modulus value of 130 MPa and rigidity of the same can be compared with rigidity of fiberglass, however, the weight of polyaramide fiber is 30% less than weight of fiberglass. The same enables to the manufacture different structures, including that, using both – fiberglass and organic composites. Organic composites are widely used for the manufacture of parts with size and weight limitations. High price of polyaramide fiber restricts the use of organic composites. Perspective area of winding technology development is the manufacture of carbon fiber shafts and couplings for ships. JSC ‘Shipbuilding & Shiprepair Technology Center’ (JSC SSTC) developed technology of dielectric uncouplers for cryogenic lines, cooled by gaseous or liquid cryogenic agents (helium, nitrogen, etc.) for temperature range 4.2-300 K and pressure up to 30 MPa – the same is used for separating components of electro physical equipment with different electrical potentials. Dielectric uncouplers were developed, the manufactured and tested in accordance with International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Technical specification. Spiral uncouplers withstand operating voltage of 30 kV, direct-flow uncoupler – 4 kV. Application of spiral channel instead of rectilinear enables increasing of breakdown potential and reduction of uncouplers sizes. 95 uncouplers were successfully the manufactured and tested. At the present time, Russian the manufacturers of ship composite structures have started absorption of technology of manufacturing the same using automated prepreg laminating; this technology enables the manufacture of structures with improved operational specifications.
Microstructure and Sintering of Boron-Alloyed Martensitic Stainless Steel
Liquid phase sintering (LPS) is a versatile technique for achieving effective densification of powder metallurgy (PM) steels and other materials. The aim of this study was to examine the influences of 0.6 wt% boron on the microstructure and LPS behavior of boron-alloyed 410 martensitic stainless steel. The results showed that adding 0.6 wt% boron can obviously promote the LPS due to a eutectic reaction and increase the sintered density of 410 stainless steel. The density was much increased by 1.06 g/cm³ after 1225ºC sintering. Increasing the sintering temperature from 1225ºC to 1275ºC did not obviously improve the sintered density. After sintering at 1225ºC~1275ºC, the matrix was fully martensitic, and intragranular borides were extensively found due to the solidification of eutectic liquid. The microstructure after LPS consisted of the martensitic matrix and (Fe, Cr)2B boride, as identified by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA).
Strength Performance and Microstructure Characteristics of Natural Bonded Fiber Composites from Malaysian Bamboo
Formaldehyde release from wood-based panel composites can be very toxicity and may increase the risk of human health as well as environmental problems. A new bio-composites product without synthetic adhesive or resin is possible to be developed in order to reduce these problems. Apart from formaldehyde release, adhesive is also considered to be expensive, especially in the manufacturing of composite products. Natural bonded composites can be termed as a panel product composed with any type of cellulosic materials without the addition of synthetic resins. It is composed with chemical content activation in the cellulosic materials. Pulp and paper making method (chemical pulping) was used as a general guide in the composites manufacturing. This method will also generally reduce the manufacturing cost and the risk of formaldehyde emission and has potential to be used as an alternative technology in fiber composites industries. In this study, the natural bonded bamboo fiber composite was produced from virgin Malaysian bamboo fiber (Bambusa vulgaris). The bamboo culms were chipped and digested into fiber using this pulping method. The black liquor collected from the pulping process was used as a natural binding agent in the composition. Then the fibers were mixed and blended with black liquor without any resin addition. The amount of black liquor used per composite board was 20%, with approximately 37% solid content. The composites were fabricated using a hot press machine at two different board densities, 850 and 950 kg/m³, with two sets of hot pressing time, 25 and 35 minutes. Samples of the composites from different densities and hot pressing times were tested in flexural strength and internal bonding (IB) for strength performance according to British Standard. Modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) was determined in flexural test, while tensile force perpendicular to the surface was recorded in IB test. Results show that the strength performance of the composites with 850 kg/m³ density were significantly higher than 950 kg/m³ density, especially for samples from 25 minutes hot pressing time. Strength performance of composites from 25 minutes hot pressing time were generally greater than 35 minutes. Results show that the maximum mean values of strength performance were recorded from composites with 850 kg/m³ density and 25 minutes pressing time. The maximum mean values for MOE, MOR and IB were 3251.84, 16.88 and 0.27 MPa, respectively. Only MOE result has conformed to high density fiberboard (HDF) standard (2700 MPa) in British Standard for Fiberboard Specification, BS EN 622-5: 2006. Microstructure characteristics of composites can also be related to the strength performance of the composites, in which, the observed fiber damage in composites from 950 kg/m³ density and overheat of black liquor led to the low strength properties, especially in IB test.
Fabrication of InGaAs PIN Micro-Photodiode Sensor Array
In this letter, we reported the fabrication of InGaAs micro-photodiode sensor array with the rapid thermal diffusion (RTD) technique. The spin-on dopant source Zn was used to form the p-type region in InP layer. Through the RTD technique, the InP/InGaAs heterostructure was formed. We improved our fabrication on the p-i-n photodiode to micro size which pixel is 7.8um, and the pitch is 12.8um. The proper SiNx was deposited to form the passivation layer. The leakage current of single pixel decrease to 3.3pA at -5V, and 35fA at -10mV. The leakage current densities of each voltage are 21uA/cm² at -5V and 0.223uA/cm² at -10mV. As we focus on the wavelength from 0.9um to 1.7um, the optimized Si/Al₂O₃ bilayers are deposited to form the AR-coating.
Flip-Chip bonding for Monolithic of Matrix-Addressable GaN-Based Micro-Light-Emitting Diodes Array
A 64 × 64 GaN-based micro-light-emitting diode array (μLEDA) with 20 μm in pixel size and 40 μm in pitch by flip-chip bonding (FCB) is demonstrated in this study. Besides, an underfilling (UF) technology is applied to the process for improving the uniformity of device. With those configurations, good characteristics are presented, operation voltage and series resistance of a pixel in the 450 nm flip chip μLEDA are 2.89 V and 1077Ω (4.3 mΩ-cm²) at 25 A/cm², respectively. The μLEDA can sustain higher current density compared to conventional LED, and the power of the device is 9.5 μW at 100 μA and 0.42 mW at 20 mA.
Fabrication of High-Power AlGaN/GaN Schottky Barrier Diode with Field Plate Design
In this letter, we demonstrate high-performance AlGaN/GaN planar Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) on the silicon substrate with field plate structure for increasing breakdown voltage VB. A low specific on-resistance RON, SP (3.55 mΩ-cm²), low reverse leakage current ( < 1.35E-7A) at 100V, and high reverse breakdown voltage VB (1.1kV) SBD was be fabricated. A virgin SBD exhibited a breakdown voltage (measured at 1 mA/mm) of 615V, and with the field plate technology device exhibited a breakdown voltage (measured at 1 mA/mm) of 1525V (the anode–cathode distance was LAC = 40 um). Devices without the field plate design exhibited a Baliga’s figure of merit of VB2/ RON, SP = 60.2 MW/cm², whereas devices with the field plate design exhibited a Baliga’s figure of merit of VB2/ RON,SP = 340.9 MW/cm² (the anode–cathode distance was LAC = 20 um).
Hybrid Graphene Based Nanomaterial as Highly Efficient Catalyst for the Electrochemical Determination of Ciprofloxacin
The detection of drug molecules by voltammetry has attracted great interest over the past years. However, many drug molecules exhibit poor electrochemical signals at common electrodes which result in low sensitivity in detection. An efficient way to overcome this problem is to modify electrodes with functional materials. Since discovered in 2004, graphene (or reduced graphene oxide) has emerged as one of the most studied two-dimensional carbon materials in condensed matter physics, electrochemistry, and so on due to its exceptional physicochemical properties. Additionally, the continuous development of technology has opened the new window for the successful fabrications of many novel graphene-based nanomaterials to serve in electrochemical analysis. This research aims to synthesize and characterize gold nanoparticle coated beta-cyclodextrin functionalized reduced graphene oxide (Au NP–β-CD–RGO) nanocomposites with highly conductive and strongly electro-catalytic properties as well as excellent supramolecular recognition abilities for the modification of electrodes. The electrochemical responses of ciprofloxacin at the as-prepared nanocomposite modified electrode was effectively amplified was much higher in comparison with that at the bare electrode. The linear concentration range was from 0.01 to 120 µM, with a detection limit of 2.7 nM using differential pulse voltammetry. Thus, Au NP–β-CD–RGO nanocomposite has great potential as an ideal material to construct sensitive sensors for the electrochemical determination of ciprofloxacin or similar antibacterial drugs in the future based on its excellent stability, selectivity, and reproducibility.
Corrector in Random Homogenization of Pseudo-Elliptic Equations in the Presence of Long-Range Correlations
This paper deals with the homogenization theory for one-dimensional Pseudo-elliptic equations with highly oscillatory random coefficients displaying long-range dependence. It is well known that the characterisation of the corrector to homogenization, i.e. the difference between the random solution and the homogenized solution, strongly depends on the correlation property of the underlying random process. We prove that, under certain nice conditions of long-range correlations, the corrector converge to stochastic integrals with respect to Hermite processes.
Carbonyl Iron Particles Modified with Pyrrole-Based Polymer and Electric and Magnetic Performance of Their Composites
Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are a unique type of materials consisting of two components, magnetic filler, and elastomeric matrix. Their properties can be tailored upon application of an external magnetic field strength. In this case, the change of the viscoelastic properties (viscoelastic moduli, complex viscosity) are influenced by two crucial factors. The first one is magnetic performance of the particles and the second one is off-state stiffness of the elastomeric matrix. The former factor strongly depends on the intended applications; however general rule is that higher magnetic performance of the particles provides higher MR performance of the MRE. Since magnetic particles possess low stability properties against temperature and acidic environment, several methods how to improve these drawbacks have been developed. In the most cases, the preparation of the core-shell structures was employed as a suitable method for preservation of the magnetic particles against thermal and chemical oxidations. However, if the shell material is not single-layer substance, but polymer material, the magnetic performance is significantly suppressed, due to the in situ polymerization technique, when it is very difficult to control the polymerization rate and the polymer shell is too thick. The second factor is the off-state stiffness of the elastomeric matrix. Since the MR effectivity is calculated as the relative value of the elastic modulus upon magnetic field application divided by elastic modulus in the absence of the external field, also the tuneability of the cross-linking reaction is highly desired. Therefore, this study is focused on the controllable modification of magnetic particles using a novel monomeric system based on 2-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)ethyl methacrylate. In this case, the short polymer chains of different chain lengths and low polydispersity index will be prepared, and thus tailorable stability properties can be achieved. Since the relatively thin polymer chains will be grafted on the surface of magnetic particles, their magnetic performance will be affected only slightly. Furthermore, also the cross-linking density will be affected, due to the presence of the short polymer chains. From the application point of view, such MREs can be utilized for, magneto-resistors, piezoresistors or pressure sensors especially, when the conducting shell on the magnetic particles will be created. Therefore, the selection of the pyrrole-based monomer is very crucial and controllably thin layer of conducting polymer can be prepared. Finally, such composite particle consisting of magnetic core and conducting shell dispersed in elastomeric matrix can find also the utilization in shielding application of electromagnetic waves.
Synthesis of Carbonyl Iron Particles Modified with Poly (Trimethylsilyloxyethyl Methacrylate) Nano-Grafts
Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are multi-phase composite materials containing micron-sized ferromagnetic particles dispersed in an elastomeric matrix. Their properties such as modulus, damping, magneto-striction, and electrical conductivity can be controlled by an external magnetic field and/or pressure. These features of the MREs are used in the development of damping devices, shock attenuators, artificial muscles, sensors or active elements of electric circuits. However, imperfections on the particle/matrix interfaces result in the lower performance of the MREs when compared with theoretical values. Moreover, magnetic particles are susceptible to corrosion agents such as acid rains or sea humidity. Therefore, the modification of particles is an effective tool for the improvement of MRE performance due to enhanced compatibility between particles and matrix as well as improvements of their thermo-oxidation and chemical stability. In this study, the carbonyl iron (CI) particles were controllably modified with poly(trimethylsilyloxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMATMS) nano-grafts to develop magnetic core–shell structures exhibiting proper wetting with various elastomeric matrices resulting in improved performance within a frame of rheological, magneto-piezoresistance, pressure-piezoresistance, or radio-absorbing properties. The desired molecular weight of PHEMATMS nano-grafts was precisely tailored using surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The CI particles were firstly functionalized using a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane agent, followed by esterification reaction with α-bromoisobutyryl bromide. The ATRP was performed in the anisole medium using ethyl α-bromoisobutyrate as a macroinitiator, N, N´, N´´, N´´-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine as a ligand, and copper bromide as an initiator. To explore the effect PHEMATMS molecular weights on final properties, two variants of core-shell structures with different nano-graft lengths were synthesized, while the reaction kinetics were designed through proper reactant feed ratios and polymerization times. The PHEMATMS nano-grafts were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography proving information to their monomer conversions, molecular chain lengths, and low polydispersity indexes (1.28 and 1.35) as the results of the executed ATRP. The successful modifications were confirmed via Fourier transform infrared- and energy-dispersive spectroscopies while expected wavenumber outputs and element presences, respectively, of constituted PHEMATMS nano-grafts, were occurring in the spectra. The surface morphology of bare CI and their PHEMATMS-grafted analogues was further studied by scanning electron microscopy, and the thicknesses of grafted polymeric layers were directly observed by transmission electron microscopy. The contact angles as a measure of particle/matrix compatibility were investigated employing the static sessile drop method. The PHEMATMS nano-grafts enhanced compatibility of hydrophilic CI with low-surface-energy hydrophobic polymer matrix in terms of their wettability and dispersibility in an elastomeric matrix. Thus, the presence of possible defects at the particle/matrix interface is reduced, and higher performance of modified MREs is expected.
Influence of Cold Rotary Swaging on Structural and Mechanical Properties of Commercially Pure Titanium
Effects of work hardening on microstructural and mechanical properties of commercially pure titanium were studied. The material was processed in a rotary swaging machine. Two grades were used for the experiments: Ti Grade 2 and Ti Grade 4. Various degrees of deformation were applied. The maximum true strain was 2.2. The processing increased the dislocation density and produced elongated grains in the direction of the material flow. In the direction of the material flow, the ultrafine-grained structure was obtained. Ti Grade 2 after rotary swaging reached an ultimate strength of 964 MPa, while Ti Grade 4 showed an ultimate strength of 1040 MPa. These strength levels were obtained at the true strain of 2.2. Ti Grade 2 was found to undergo more intensive work hardening. Hardness profiles for both materials across the wire cross-section showed an increase towards the centre.
Segmental Dynamics of Poly(Alkyl Methacrylate) Chain in Ultra-Thin Spin-Cast Films
Polymeric materials are often used in a form of thin film such as food wrap and surface coating. In such the applications, polymer films thinner than 100 nm have been often used. The thickness of such the ultra-thin film is less than the unperturbed size of a polymer chain; therefore, the polymer chain in an ultra-thin film is strongly constrained. However, the details on the constrained dynamics of polymer molecules in ultra-thin films are still unclear. In the current study, the segmental dynamics of single polymer chain was directly investigated by fluorescence microscopy. The individual chains of poly(alkyl methacrylate) labeled by a perylenediimide dye molecule were observed by a highly sensitive fluorescence microscope in a defocus condition. The translational and rotational diffusion of the center segment in a single polymer chain was directly analyzed. The segmental motion in a thin film with a thickness of 10 nm was found to be suppressed compared to that in a bulk state. The detailed analysis of the molecular motion revealed that the diffusion rate of the in-plane rotation was similar to the thin film and the bulk; on the other hand, the out-of-plane motion was restricted in a thin film. This result indicates that the spatial restriction in an ultra-thin film thinner than the unperturbed chain dimension alters the dynamics of individual molecules in a polymer system.
Production of Metal Matrix Composites with Diamond for Abrasive Cutting Resistance by Gas Infiltration Casting
Metal matrix composites (MMCs) have been explored for many applications for many decades. Recently, this includes investigations for thermal applications associated with electronics, such as in heat sinks. Here, to promote thermal conductivity, composites of a metal matrix with diamond particles are used. However, this class of composites has not yet been extensively examined for mechanical and tribological behavior, especially for applications that require extreme mechanical and tribological strength, such as the resistance to abrasive cutting. Therefore, this research seeks to develop a composite material with metal matrix and diamond particles which resist abrasive and cutting forces. The development progresses through a series of steps, exploring methods to process the material, understanding the mechanics of abrasive behavior and optimizing the composite structure to resist abrasive cutting. In processing, infiltration casting under gas pressure has been applied to molten aluminum to obtain a significant penetration of the metal into a preform of diamond particles. Different diamond particle sizes were used with different surface modifications (coated/uncoated), and to compare resulting composites with the same particle sizes. Al-1 wt.% Mg as a matrix alloy was utilised to investigate the possible effect of Mg on bonding phases during the infiltration process. The mechanical behavior and microstructure of the materials produced have been characterised. These tests showed that the surface modification of the diamond particles with a reactive material (Ti-coating) has an important role for enhancing the bonding between the aluminium matrix and diamond reinforcement as apparent under SEM observation. The effect of this improved bond is seen in the cutting resistance of the material.
Minimizing the Drilling-Induced Damage in Graphite-Epoxy Composites
Fiber reinforced polymeric composites are finding wide- spread industrial applications because of their exceptionally high specific strength and specific modulus of elasticity. Nevertheless, it is very seldom to get ready-for-use components or products made of FRP composites. Secondary processing by machining, particularly drilling, is almost always required to make holes for fastening components together to produce assemblies. That creates problems since the FRP composites are neither homogeneous nor isotropic. Some of the problems that are encountered include the subsequent damage in the region around the drilled hole and the drilling – induced delamination of the layer of ply, that occurs both at the entrance and the exit planes of the work piece. Evidently, the functionality of the work piece would be detrimentally affected. The current work was carried out with the aim of eliminating or at least minimizing the work piece damage associated with drilling of FPR composites. Each test specimen involves a unidirectional reinforced Graphite fiber/Epoxy composite having a thickness of 12.5 mm (0.5 inch). A large number of test specimens were subjected to drilling operations with different combinations of feed rates and cutting speeds. The drilling induced damage was taken as the ratio of the maximum diameter in the damage zone to the nominal hole diameter and is referred to as the delamination factor. The later was determined for each combination of feed rate and cutting speed, and a matrix comprising those values was established, where the columns indicate varying feed rate while and rows indicate varying cutting speeds. Next, the ANOVA (analysis of variance) approach was employed using Minitab software, in order to obtain the combination that would improve the drilling induced damage. Experimental results show that low feed rates coupled with high cutting speeds yielded the best results.
High Strength Biocompatible Wires of Commercially Pure Titanium
COMTES FHT has been active in research and development of high-strength wires for quite some time. The main material was pure titanium. The primary goal of this effort is to develop a continuous production process for ultrafine and nanostructured materials with the aid of severe plastic deformation (SPD). This article outlines mechanical and microstructural properties of the materials and the options available for testing the components made of these materials. Ti Grade 2 and Grade 4 wires are the key products of interest. Ti Grade 2 with ultrafine to nano-sized grain shows the ultimate strength of up to 1050 MPa. Ti Grade 4 reaches ultimate strengths of up to 1250 MPa. These values are twice or three times as high as those found in the unprocessed material. For those fields of medicine where implantable metallic materials are used, bulk ultrafine to nanostructured titanium is available. It is manufactured by SPD techniques. These processes leave the chemical properties of the initial material unchanged but markedly improve its final mechanical properties, in particular, the strength. Ultrafine to nanostructured titanium retains all the significant and, from the biological viewpoint, desirable properties that are important for its use in medicine, i.e. those properties which made pure titanium the preferred material also for dental implants.
Compression Property and Fracture Mode of Additive Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V Lattice
Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a novel process for producing solid or porous materials with complicated shapes. Selective laser melting (SLM) is a dominant AM method to fabricate various metallic materials, including Ti, Al, Ni, and Fe alloys. For biomedical applications, SLM Ti-6Al-4V lattice had been extensively prepared and studied in the literature. However, the fracture behaviors of SLM Ti-6Al-4V lattice under different loading states have not been clearly identified yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the microstructure, uniaxial compression property, and fracture behavior of SLM Ti-6Al-4V lattice. The results indicated that the microstructure of SLM Ti-6Al-4V lattice is α′-martensite, and the compression stress-strain curve is zigzag due to the brittle breakage of the strut. Besides, under compression loading, SLM Ti-6Al-4V lattice fractures in an obvious 45° shear band. After 1000°C heat treatment, the microstructure can be changed from α′-martensite to α+β mixture, and the brittleness of the lattice is sufficiently alleviated.
Refinement of Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly (Lactic Acid)/Poly (Ethylene-Co-Glycidyle Methacrylate)/ Hexagonal Boron Nitride Blend-Composites through Electron-Beam Irradiation
The main objective of this work is to determine the influence of electron beam irradiation on thermal and mechanical properties of Poly (lactic acid) (PLA)/Poly (ethylene-co-glycidyle methacrylate) (PEGM)/Hexagonal boron nitride (HBN) blend-composites. To reduce the brittleness and improve the toughness of PLA, the PLA/PEGM blend is prepared by using twin-screw Micro compounder. However, the heat deflection temperature (HDT) and other tensile properties were reduced. The HBN has been incorporated into the PLA/PEGM blend as part per hundred i.e. 5 phr and 10phr to improve the HDT. The prepared specimens of blend and blend-composites were irradiated to high energy (4.5 MeV) electron beam (E-beam) at different radiation doses to introduce the cross linking among the polymer chains and uniform dispersion of HBN particles in the PLA/PEGM/HBN blend-composites. The further improvement in the notched impact strength and HDT have been achieved in the case of PLA/PEGM/HBN blend-composites. The irradiated PLA/PEGM/HBN 5phr blend composite shows high notched impact strength and HDT as compared to other unirradiated and E-beam irradiated blend and blend-composites. The improvements in the yield strength and tensile modulus have also been noticed in the case of E-beam irradiated PLA/PEGM/HBN blend-composites as compared to unirradiated blend-composites.
A Simple Chemical Approach to Regenerating Strength of Thermally Recycled Glass Fibre
Glass fibre is currently used as reinforcement in over 90% of all fibre-reinforced composites produced. The high rigidity and chemical resistance of these composites are required for optimum performance but unfortunately results in poor recyclability; when such materials are no longer fit for purpose, they are frequently deposited in landfill sites. Recycling technologies, for example, thermal treatment, can be employed to address this issue; temperatures typically between 450 and 600 °C are required to allow degradation of the rigid polymeric matrix and subsequent extraction of fibrous reinforcement. However, due to the severe thermal conditions utilised in the recycling procedure, glass fibres become too weak for reprocessing in second-life composite materials. In addition, more stringent legislation is being put in place regarding disposal of composite waste, and so it is becoming increasingly important to develop long-term recycling solutions for such materials. In particular, the development of a cost-effective method to regenerate strength of thermally recycled glass fibres will have a positive environmental effect as a reduced volume of composite material will be destined for landfill. This research study has demonstrated the positive impact of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution, prepared at relatively mild temperatures and at concentrations of 1.5 M and above, on the strength of heat-treated glass fibres. As a result, alkaline treatments can potentially be implemented to glass fibres that are recycled from composite waste to allow their reuse in second-life materials. The optimisation of the strength recovery process is being conducted by varying certain reaction parameters such as molarity of alkaline solution and treatment time. It is believed that deep V-shaped surface flaws exist commonly on severely damaged fibre surfaces and are effectively removed to form smooth, U-shaped structures following alkaline treatment. Although these surface flaws are believed to be present on glass fibres they have not in fact been observed, however, they have recently been discovered in this research investigation through analytical techniques such as AFM (atomic force microscopy) and SEM (scanning electron microscopy). Reaction conditions such as molarity of alkaline solution affect the degree of etching of the glass fibre surface, and therefore the extent to which fibre strength is recovered. A novel method in determining the etching rate of glass fibres after alkaline treatment has been developed, and the data acquired can be correlated with strength. By varying reaction conditions such as alkaline solution temperature and molarity, the activation energy of the glass etching process and the reaction order can be calculated respectively. The promising results obtained from NaOH and KOH treatments have opened an exciting route to strength regeneration of thermally recycled glass fibres, and the optimisation of the alkaline treatment process is being continued in order to produce recycled fibres with properties that match original glass fibre products. The reuse of such glass filaments indicates that closed-loop recycling of glass fibre reinforced composite (GFRC) waste can be achieved. In fact, the development of a closed-loop recycling process for GFRC waste is already underway in this research study.