Dry Friction Fluctuations in Plain Journal Bearings
This paper compares oscillations in the dry friction coefficient in different journal bearings. Measurements are made of the average and standard deviation in the coefficient of friction as a function of sliding velocity. The standard deviation of the friction coefficient changed dramatically with sliding velocity. The magnitude and frequency of the oscillations were a function of the velocity. A numerical model was developed for the frictional oscillations. There was good agreement between the model and results. Five different materials were used as the sliding surfaces in the experiments, Aluminum, Bronze, Mild Steel, Stainless Steel, and Nylon.
Reduction of Content of Lead and Zinc from Wastewater by Using of Metallurgical Waste
The aim of this paper was to study the sorption properties of a blast furnace sludge used as the sorbent. The sorbent was utilized for reduction of the content of lead and zinc ions. Sorbent utilized in this work was obtained from metallurgical industry from the process of wet gas treatment in iron production. The Blast furnace sludge was characterized by X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and XRFS spectroscopy. Sorption experiments were conducted in batch mode. The sorption of metal ions in the sludge was determined by correlation of adsorption isotherm models. The Adsorption of lead and zinc ions was best fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacity of lead and zinc ions was 53.8 mg.g⁻¹ and 10.7 mg.g⁻¹ respectively. The results indicated that blast furnace sludge could be effectively used as secondary material and also employed as a low-cost alternative for the removal of heavy metals ions from wastewater.
Improvement of the Concentration of a Low-Grade Greisen Ore Containing Cassiterite Using a High Voltage Pulse Technique in the Comminution Circuit
Although greisen ores are one of the largest metal resources in Europe, its processing is often difficult due to a very fine grained and intergrown mineralization. Moreover, challenges have to be overcome if the valuable mineral is cassiterite due to its brittleness which requires to carefully design the beneficiation flowsheet in order to avoid overgrinding and loss of tin in the fine particles. Other drawbacks include the low concentration of the values in the ore and the difficulty of accessing them in order to have the concentrate contents necessary for metallurgical use in a cost-effective way. The European deposits nonetheless possess strategic importance under the above-mentioned conditions. High voltage breakage is a novel comminution method that relies on highly energetic electrical pulses to fragment rocks. The potential of this technique to improve liberation and to increase the grindability of ores was already demonstrated by several authors, but its application to a low-grade greisen ore has not yet been reported. Within the FAME project (Flexible and Mobile Economic Processing Technologies – H2020 funding), a low-grade schist ore containing cassiterite has been treated in a batch device to evaluate the influence of a high voltage pulses (HVP) treatment on liberation and breakage. A specific approach has also been implemented in order to determine the influence of this innovative treatment on the performances of the cassiterite concentration steps and to compare this pathway to the conventional one. The results obtained so far show that the HVP treatment allows not only to fragment but also to weaken the samples. Moreover, liberation of cassiterite is improved which leads to an increase in its recovery during concentration processes.
Full-Scale 3D Simulation of the Electroslag Rapid Remelting Process
The standard electroslag remelting (ESR) process can ideally control the solidification of an ingot and produce homogeneous structure with minimum defects. However, the melt rate of electrode is rather low that makes the whole process uneconomical especially to produce small ingot sizes. In contrast, continuous casting is an economical process to produce small ingots such as billets at high casting speed. Unfortunately, deep liquid melt pool forms in the billet ingot of continuous casting that leads to center porosity and segregation. As such, continuous casting is not suitable to produce segregation prone alloys like tool steel or several super alloys. On the other hand, the electro slag rapid remelting (ESRR) process has advantages of both traditional ESR and continuous casting processes to produce billets. In the ESRR process, a T-shaped mold is used including a graphite ring that takes major amount of current through the mold. There are only a few reports available in the literature discussing about this topic. The research on the ESRR process is currently ongoing aiming to improve the design of the T-shaped mold, to decrease overall heat loss in the process, and to obtain a higher temperature at metal meniscus. In the present study, a 3D model is proposed to investigate the electromagnetic, thermal, and flow fields in the whole process as well as solidification of the billet ingot. We performed a fully coupled numerical simulation to explore the influence of the electromagnetically driven flow (MHD) on the thermal field in the slag and ingot. The main goal is to obtain some fundamental understanding of the formation of melt pool of the solidifying billet ingot in the ESRR process.
Porosity and Surface Chemistry of Functionalized Carbonaceous Materials from Date Palm Leaflets
Date palm leaflets were utilized as a precursor for activated carbon (AC) preparation using KOH activation. AC produced was oxidized using nitric acid producing oxidized activated carbon (OAC). OAC that possesses acidic surface was surface functionalized to produce basic activated carbons using linear diamine compounds (ethylene diamine and propylene diamine). OAC was also functionalized to produce hydrophobic activated carbons using ethylamine (EA) and aniline (AN). Dehydrated carbon was also prepared from date palm leaflets using sulfuric acid dehydration/ oxidation and was surface functionalized in the same way as AC. Nitric acid oxidation was not necessary for DC as it is acidic carbon. The surface area of AC is high (823 m2/g) with microporosity domination, however, after oxidation and surface functionalization, both the surface area and surface microporosity decrease tremendously. DC surface area was low (15 m2/g) with mesoporosity domination. Surface functionalization has decreased the surface area of activated carbons. FTIR spectra show that -COOH group on DC and OAC almost disappeared after surface functionalization. The surface chemistry of all carbons produced was tested for pHzpc, basic sites, boehm titration, thermogravimetric analysis and zeta potential measurement. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy in addition to CHN elemental analysis were also carried out. DC and OAC possess low pHzpc and high surface functionality, however, basic and hydrophobic carbons possess high pHzpc and low surface functionality. The different behavior of carbons is related to their different surface chemistry. Methylene blue adsorption was found to be faster on hydrophobic carbons based on AC and DC. The Larger adsorption capacity of methylene blue was found for hydrophobic carbons. Dominating adsorption forces of methylene blue varies from carbon to another depending on its surface nature. Sorption forces include hydrophobic forces, H-bonding, electrostatic interactions and van der Waals forces.
Electrodeposition of NiO Films from Organic Solvent-Based Electrolytic Solutions for Solar Cell Application
The preparation of semiconductor oxide layers and structures by soft techniques is an important field of research. Higher performances are expected from the optimizing of the oxide films and then use of new methods of preparation for a better control of their chemical, morphological, electrical and optical properties. We present the preparation of NiO by electrodeposition from pure polar aprotic medium and mixtures with water. The effect of the solvent, of the electrochemical deposition parameters and post-deposition annealing treatment on the structural, morphological and optical properties of the films is investigated. We remarkably show that the solvent is inserted in the deposited layer and act as a blowing agent, giving rise to mesoporous films after elimination by thermal annealing. These layers of p-type oxide have been successfully used, after sensitization by a dye, in p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. The effects of the solvent on the layer properties and the application of these layers in p-type dye-sensitized solar cells are described.
Nanotechnology for Flame Retardancy of Thermoset Resins
In recent years, nanotechnology has been successfully applied for flame retardancy of polymers, in particular for construction materials. The consumption of thermoset resins as a construction polymers materials is approximately over one million tone word wide. Excellent mechanical, relatively high heat and thermal stability of their type of polymers are proven for variety applications, e.g. transportation, electrical, electronic, building part industry. Above applications in addition to the strength and thermal properties also requires -referring to the legal regulation or recommendation - an adequate level of flammability of the materials. This publication present the evaluation was made of effectiveness of flame retardancy of halogen-free hybrid flame retardants(FR) as compounds nitric/phosphorus modifiers that act with nanofillers (nano carbons, organ modified montmorillonite, nano silica, microsphere) in relation to unsaturated polyester/epoxy resins and glass-reinforced on base this resins laminates(GRP) as a final products. The analysis of the fire properties provided proof of effective flame retardancy of the tested composites by defining oxygen indices values (LOI), with the use of thermogravimetric methods (TGA) and combustion head (CH). An analysis of the combustion process with Cone Calorimeter (CC) method included in the first place N/P units and nanofillers with the observed phenomenon of synergic action of compounds. The fine-plates, phase morphology and rheology of composites were assessed by SEM/ TEM analysis. Polymer-matrix glass reinforced laminates with modified resins meet LOI over 30%, reduced in a decrease by 70% HRR (according to CC analysis), positive description of the curves TGA and values CH; no adverse negative impact on mechanical properties. The main objective of our current project is to contribute to the general understanding of the flame retardants mechanism and to investigate the corresponding structure/properties relationships. We confirm that nanotechnology systems are successfully concept for commercialized forms for non-flammable GRP pipe, concrete composites, and flame retardant tunnels constructions.
Effect of Heating Rate on Microstructural Developments in Cold Heading Quality Steel Used for Automotive Applications
Microstructural study and phase transformation in steels is a basic and important step during the design of structural steel. There are huge efforts and study has been done so far on phase transformations, due to so many steel grades available commercially the phase development in steel has different consequences. In the present work an effort has been made to study the effect of heating rate on microstructural features of cold heading quality steel. The SEM, optical microscopy, and heat treatment techniques have been applied to observe the microstructural features in the experimental steel. It was observed that heating rate has the strong influence on phase transformation of CHQ steel under investigation. Heating rate increases the austenite formation kinetics with respect to holding time, and this austenite has been transformed to martensite upon cooling. Heating rate also plays a vital role on nucleation sites of austenite formation in the experimental steel.
Thermo-Mechanical Treatment of Chromium Alloyed Low Carbon Steel
Thermo-mechanical processing with various processing parameters was applied to 0.2%C-0.6%Mn-2S%i-0.8%Cr low alloyed high strength steel. The aim of the processing was to achieve the microstructures typical for TRIP (transformation induced plasticity) steels. Thermo-mechanical processing used in this work incorporated two or three deformation steps. The deformations were in all the cases carried out during the cooling from soaking temperatures to various bainite hold temperatures. In this way, 4- 10% of retained austenite were retained in the final microstructures, consisting further of ferrite, bainite, martensite and pearlite. The complex character of TRIP steel microstructure is responsible for its good strength and ductility. The strengths achieved in this work were in the range of 740 MPa – 836 MPa with ductility A5mm of 31-41%.
Evaluation of Forming Properties on AA 5052 Aluminium Alloy by Incremental Forming
Sheet metal forming is a vital manufacturing process used in automobile, aerospace, agricultural industries, etc. Incremental forming is a promising process providing a short and inexpensive way of forming complex three-dimensional parts without using die. The aim of this research is to study the forming behaviour of AA 5052, Aluminium Alloy, using incremental forming and also to study the FLD of cone shape AA 5052 Aluminium Alloy at room temperature and various annealing temperature. Initially the surface roughness and wall thickness through incremental forming on AA 5052 Aluminium Alloy sheet at room temperature is optimized by controlling the effects of forming parameters. The central composite design (CCD) was utilized to plan the experiment. The step depth, feed rate, and spindle speed were considered as input parameters in this study. The surface roughness and wall thickness were used as output response. The process performances such as average thickness and surface roughness were evaluated. The optimized results are taken for minimum surface roughness and maximum wall thickness. The optimal results are determined based on response surface methodology and the analysis of variance. Formability Limit Diagram is constructed on AA 5052 Aluminium Alloy at room temperature and various annealing temperature by using optimized process parameters from the response surface methodology. The cone has higher formability than the square pyramid and higher wall thickness distribution. Finally the FLD on cone shape and square pyramid shape at room temperature and the various annealing temperature is compared experimentally and simulated with Abaqus software.
Effect of Plasma Discharge Power on Activation Energies of Plasma Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Thin Films
Plasma Assisted Physical Vapor Deposition (PAPVD) method used to produce Poly(ethylene oxide) (pPEO) thin films. Depositions were progressed at various plasma discharge powers as 0, 2, 5 and 30 W for pPEO at 500nm film thicknesses. The capacitance and dielectric dissipation of the thin films were measured at 0,1-107 Hz frequency range and 173-353 K temperature range by an impedance analyzer. Then, alternative conductivity (σac) and activation energies were derived from capacitance and dielectric dissipation. σac of conventional PEO (PEO precursor) was measured to determine the effect of plasma discharge. Differences were observed between the alternative conductivity of PEO’s and pPEO’s depending on plasma discharge power. By this purpose, structural characterization techniques such as Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) were applied on pPEO thin films. Structural analysis showed that density of crosslinking is plasma power dependent. The crosslinking density increases with increasing plasma discharge power and this increase is displayed as increasing dynamic glass transition temperatures at DSC results. Also, shifting of frequencies of some type of bond vibrations, belonging to bond vibrations produced after fragmentation because of plasma discharge, were observed at FTIR results. The dynamic glass transition temperatures obtained from alternative conductivity results for pPEO consistent with the results of DSC. Activation energies exhibit Arrhenius behavior. Activation energies decrease with increasing plasma discharge power. This behavior supports the suggestion expressing that long polymer chains and long oligomers are fragmented into smaller oligomers or radicals.
Preparation and Characterization of α–Alumina with Low Sodium Oxide
In order to prepare the α-alumina with low content of sodium oxide from aluminum trihydroxide as a reactant, three kinds of methods were employed as follows; the mixture of Chamotte (aggregate composed of silica and alumina), ammonium chloride and aluminum fluoride with aluminum trihydroxide under 1600°C, respectively. The sodium oxide in α-alumina produced above methods was analyzed by XRF and the particle size distribution was determined by particle size analyzer, and the specific surface area of α-alumina was measured by BET method, and phase of α-alumina produced was confirmed by XRD. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by Development Program of Technical Innovation funded by Korea Technology and Information Promotion Agency for SMEs (KTIP-2016-S2401821).
Polypropylene/Red Mud Polymer Composites: Effects of Powder Size on Mechanical and Thermal Properties
Polymer/clay composites have received great attention in the past three decades owing to their light weight coupled with significantly better mechanical and barrier properties than the corresponding neat polymer resins. An investigation was carried out on the effects of red mud powder size and ratio on the mechanical and thermal properties of polypropylene /red mud polymer composites. Red mud, in four different concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 30 wt %) and three different powder size (180, 63 and 38 micron) were added to PP to produce composites. The mechanical properties, including the elasticity modulus, tensile & yield strength, % elongation, hardness, Izod impact strength and the thermal properties including the melt flow index, heat deflection temperature and vicat softening point of the composites were investigated. The structures of the composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and compared to mechanical and thermal properties as a function of red mud powder content and size.
Effect of the Hardness of Spacer Agent on Structural Properties of Metallic Scaffolds
Pore size and morphology plays a crucial role on mechanical properties of porous scaffolds. In this research, titanium scaffold was prepared using space holder technique. Sodium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate were utilized as spacer agent separately. The effect of the hardness of spacer on the cell morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical stereo microscopy. Image analyzing software was used to interpret the microscopic images quantitatively. It was shown that sodium chloride, due to its higher hardness, maintain its morphology during cold compaction, and cause better replication in porous scaffolds.
Powder Injection Molding of Novel Beta Titanium Alloys
This paper describes the mechanical properties of injection molded of a Ti10Nb10Zr alloy. Ti, Nb, and Zr powders were used for this study. In the first experiments elemental metal powders of Ti, Nb and Zr were mixed according to the desired composition of Ti10Nb10Zr. Mixed powders were injection molded with a wax-based binder. The critical powder loading for injection molding was 55 vol.%. Binder debinding was performed in the solvent and thermal method under high purity argon atmosphere. After debinding the samples were sintered at 1100-1500°C for 1-3 h in the vacuum (10-5 mbar). The performances of the sintered parts were characterized using tensile testing, hardness testing, optical microcopy and scanning electron microscopy. The strengths and weaknesses of the test conditions have been analyzed from the densification behavior, microstructure, and mechanical properties.
Destructive and Nondestructive Characterization of Advanced High Strength Steels DP1000/1200
Advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) are increasingly being used in automotive components. The use of AHSS sheets plays an important role in reducing weight, as well as increasing the resistance to impact in vehicle components. However, the large-scale use of these sheets becomes more difficult due to the limitations during the forming process. Such limitations are due to the elastically driven change of shape of a metal sheet during unloading and following forming, known as the springback effect. As the magnitude of the springback tends to increase with the strength of the material, it is among the most worrisome problems in the use of AHSS steels.
The prediction of strain hardening, especially under non-proportional loading conditions, is very limited due to the lack of constitutive models and mainly due to very limited experimental tests. It is very clear from the literature that in experimental terms there is not much work to evaluate deformation behavior under real conditions, which implies a very limited and scarce development of mathematical models for these conditions. The Bauschinger effect is also fundamental to the difference between kinematic and isotropic hardening models used to predict springback in sheet metal forming. It is of major importance to deepen the phenomenological knowledge of the mechanical and microstructural behavior of the materials, in order to be able to reproduce with high fidelity the behavior of extension of the materials by means of computational simulation.
For this, a multi phenomenological analysis and characterization are necessary to understand the various aspects involved in plastic deformation, namely the stress-strain relations and also the variations of electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability associated with the metallurgical changes due to plastic deformation.
Aiming a complete mechanical-microstructural characterization, uniaxial tensile tests involving successive cycles of loading and unloading were performed, as well as biaxial tests such as the Erichsen test. Also, nondestructive evaluation comprising eddy currents to verify microstructural changes due to plastic deformation and ultrasonic tests to evaluate the local variations of thickness were made.
The material parameters for the stable yield function and the monotonic strain hardening were obtained using uniaxial tension tests in different material directions and balanced biaxial tests. Both the decrease of the modulus of elasticity and Bauschinger effect were determined through the load-unload tensile tests. By means of the eddy currents tests, it was possible to verify changes in the magnetic permeability of the material according to the different plastically deformed areas. The ultrasonic tests were an important aid to quantify the local plastic extension.
With these data, it is possible to parameterize the different models of kinematic hardening to better approximate the results obtained by simulation with the experimental results, which are fundamental for the springback prediction of the stamped parts.
Preparation of Silicon-Based Oxide Hollow Nanofibers Using Single-Nozzle Electrospinning
In this study, the silicon-base oxide nanofibers with hollow structure were prepared using single-nozzle electrospinning and heat treatment. Firstly, precursor solution was prepared: the Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) dissolved in ethanol and to make sure the concentration of solution in appropriate using single-nozzle electrospinning to produce the nanofibers. Secondly, control morphology of the electrostatic spinning nanofibers was conducted, and design the temperature profile to created hollow nanofibers, exploring the morphology and properties of nanofibers. The characterized of nanofibers, following instruments were used: Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The AFM was used to scan the nanofibers, and 3D Graphics were applied to explore the surface morphology of fibers. FE-SEM and TEM were used to explore the morphology and diameter of nanofibers and hollow nanofiber. The excitation and emission spectra explored by PL. Finally, XRD was used for identified crystallization of ceramic nanofibers. Using electrospinning technique followed by subsequent heat treatment, we have successfully prepared silicon-base oxide nanofibers with hollow structure. Thus, the microstructure and morphology of electrostatic spinning silicon-base oxide hollow nanofibers were explored. Major characteristics of the nanofiber in terms of crystalline, optical properties and crystal structure were identified.
Reversible and Irreversible Wrinkling in Tube Hydroforming Process
This research aims at analyzing and optimizing the hydroforming process parameters to achieve a sound bulged tube without failure. Theoretical constitutive model is formulated to develop a working diagram including process window, which represents the optimize region to carry out the hydroforming process and predict the type of tube failure during the process accurately. The model is applied into different bulging ratios for low carbon steel (C1010). From this study, it is concluded that the tubes with bulging ratios up to 50% and 70% are successfully formed without defects. The tubes with bulging ratio of 90% are successfully formed by hydroforming with optimized the loading path (axial feed versus internal pressure) within the process window. The working diagram is modified due to different types of formation of wrinkling during the hydroforming process. The formation of wrinkles with increasing axial feed can be useful in terms of the achievement of higher bulging ratio and/or less thinning and this type of wrinkles can be overcome through the internal pressure in the later stage of the hydroforming process. On the other hand, the formation of wrinkles may be harmful, if it cannot be reversed.
Benefits of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) Method for Preparation of Transparent Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide (IGZO) Thin Films
Transparent semiconducting amorphous IGZO films have attracted great attention due to their excellent electrical properties and possible utilization in thin film transistors or in photovoltaic applications as they show 20-50 times higher mobility than that of amorphous silicon. It is also known that the properties of IGZO films are highly sensitive to process parameters, especially to oxygen partial pressure. In this study we have focused on the comparison of properties of transparent semiconducting amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin films prepared by conventional sputtering methods and those prepared by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) method. Furthermore we tried to optimize electrical and optical properties of the IGZO thin films and to investigate possibility to apply these coatings on thermally sensitive flexible substrates. We employed dc, pulsed dc, mid frequency sine wave and HiPIMS power supplies for magnetron deposition. Magnetrons were equipped with sintered ceramic InGaZnO targets. As oxygen vacancies are considered to be the main source of the carriers in IGZO films, it is expected that with the increase of oxygen partial pressure number of oxygen vacancies decreases which results in the increase of film resistivity. Therefore in all experiments we focused on the effect of oxygen partial pressure, discharge power and pulsed power mode on the electrical, optical and mechanical properties of IGZO thin films and also on the thermal load deposited to the substrate. As expected, we have observed a very fast transition between low- and high-resistivity films depending on oxygen partial pressure when deposition using conventional sputtering methods/power supplies have been utilized. Therefore we established and utilized HiPIMS sputtering system for enlargement of operation window for better control of IGZO thin film properties. It is shown that with this system we are able to effectively eliminate steep transition between low and high resistivity films exhibited by DC mode of sputtering and the electrical resistivity can be effectively controlled in the wide resistivity range of 10-² to 10⁵ Ω.cm. The highest mobility of charge carriers (up to 50 cm2/V.s) was obtained at very low oxygen partial pressures. Utilization of HiPIMS also led to significant decrease in thermal load deposited to the substrate which is beneficial for deposition on the thermally sensitive and flexible polymer substrates. Deposition rate as a function of discharge power and oxygen partial pressure was also systematically investigated and the results from optical, electrical and structure analysis will be discussed in detail. Most important result which we have obtained demonstrates almost linear control of IGZO thin films resistivity with increasing of oxygen partial pressure utilizing HiPIMS mode of sputtering and highly transparent films with low resistivity were prepared already at low pO2. It was also found that utilization of HiPIMS technique resulted in significant improvement of surface smoothness in reactive mode of sputtering (with increasing of oxygen partial pressure).
Key Roles of the N-Type Oxide Layer in Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells
Wide bandgap n-type oxide layers (TiO2, SnO2, ZnO etc.) play key roles in perovskite solar cells. They act as electron transport layers, and they permit the charge separation. They are also the substrate for the preparation of perovskite in the direct architecture. Therefore, they have a strong influence on the perovskite loading, its crystallinity and they can induce a degradation phenomenon upon annealing. The interface between the oxide and the perovskite is important, and the quality of this heterointerface must be optimized to limit the recombination of charges phenomena and performance losses. One can also play on the oxide and use two oxide contact layers for improving the device stability and durability. These aspects will be developed and illustrated on the basis of recent results obtained at Chimie-ParisTech.
Three Dimensional Flexible Dynamics of Continuous Cislunar Payloads Transfer System
Based on the Motorized Momentum Exchange Tether (MMET), with the principle of momentum exchange, the three dimension flexible dynamics of continuous cislunar payloads transferring system (CCPTS) is built by Lagrange method and its numerical solution is solved by Mathematica software. In the derivation precession of potential energy, this paper uses the Tylor expansion method to simplify the Lagrange equation. Furthermore, the tension coming from the centripetal load is considered in the elastic potential energy. The comparison simulation results between the 3D rigid model and 3D flexible model of CCPTS shows that the tether flexibility has important influence on CCPTS’s orbital parameters (such as radius of CCPTS’s COM and the true anomaly) and the tether’s rotational movement, the relative deviation of radius and the true anomaly between the two dynamic models is about 0.00678% and 0.00259%, the relative deviation of the angle of tether-span and local gravity gradient is about 3.55%. Additionally, the external torque has an apparent influence on the tether’s axial vibration.
Microstructure and Hardness of Ti-6Al-4V Alloys Oxynitrided by Gas Diffusion
The commercially available titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, was oxynitrided in the deoxygenated nitrogen gas at high temperatures followed by cooling in oxygen-containing nitrogen in order to analyze the influence of oxynitriding parameters on the phase modification, hardness, and the microstructural evolution of the oxynitrided coating. The surface microhardness of the oxynitrided alloy increased due to the strengthening effect of the formed titanium oxynitrides, TiNxOy. The maximum microhardness was obtained, when TiNxOy had near equiatomic composition of nitrogen and oxygen. It could be attained under the optimum oxygen partial pressure and temperature-time condition.
Wastewater Treatment from Heavy Metals by Nanofiltration and Ion Exchange
The technologies of ion exchange and nanofiltration can be used for treatment of wastewater containing copper and other heavy metal ions to decrease the environmental risks. Nanofiltration characteristics under water treatment of heavy metals have been studied. The influence of main technical process parameters - pressure, temperature, concentration and pH value of the initial solution on flux and rejection of nanofiltration membranes has been considered. And ion exchange capacities of resins in removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater have been determined.
Effect of Punch and Die Profile Radii on the Maximum Drawing Force and the Total Consumed Work in Deep Drawing of a Flat Ended Cylindrical Brass
Deep drawing is considered to be the most widely used sheet metal forming processes among the particularly in automobile and aircraft industries. It is widely used for manufacturing a large number of the body and spare parts. In its simplest form it may be defined as a secondary forming process by which a sheet metal is formed into a cylinder or alike by subjecting the sheet to compressive force through a punch with a flat end of the same geometry as the required shape of the cylinder end while it is held by a blank holder which hinders its movement but does not stop it. The punch and die profile radii play In this paper, the effects of punch and die profile radii on the autographic record, the minimum thickness strain location where the cracks normally start and cause the fracture, the maximum deep drawing force and the total consumed work in the drawing flat ended cylindrical brass cups are investigated. Five punches and five dies each having different profile radii were manufactured for this investigation. Furthermore, their effect on the quality of the drawn cups is also presented and discussed. It was found that the die profile radius has more effect on the maximum drawing force and the total consumed work than the punch profile radius.
Effect of Zirconium Addition to Aluminum Grain Refined by Ti on its Resistance to Wear: A Three-Dimensional Approach
Aluminum and its alloys are versatile materials which are widely used in industrial and engineering applications due to their good and useful properties e.g. high strength to weight ratio, high thermal and electrical conductivities and good resistance to corrosion. However, against these favorable properties they have the disadvantage they solidifying large grain columnar structure which negatively affects their mechanical properties and surface quality. Aluminum alloys are normally grain refined by some alloying elements, such as Ti, Ti-B or Zr. In this paper, the effect of zirconium addition to Al grain refined by Ti after extrusion on its wear resistance is investigated under different loads and sliding speeds namely at 5,10 and 20 N loads and sliding speeds ranging from m/min. and m/min. the results are presented in three-dimensional wear mode. To the best the authors' knowledge, the wear of aluminum in 3-dimensions has never been tackled before. In this work, the wear resistance of by presenting the results of wear are presented and discussed on the time, load and speed plots.
Highly Selective and Sensitive Supramolecular Interactions of Gold Nanoparticles with Pefloxacin in Real Samples
A rapid, easy and field portable colorimetric assay for detecting Pefloxacin (Pef) in aqueous solution based on an aggregation-induced color transition of Schiff base 2 decorated water soluble gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been developed. Schiff 2 base was synthesized, characterized and coated around gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Factors affecting the analytical performance gold nanoparticles such as salt concentration, temperature, particle size, incubation time and pH were evaluated. The supramolecular interaction of AuNPs with widely used drugs has been explored through UV-vis spectral titrations and FT-IR. The UV-visible spectral changes upon addition of various widely used drugs reveal that AuNPs experiencing selective interaction with Pefloxacin over other drugs with the detection limit of 0.01μM. The presence of Pefloxacin could rapidly induce the aggregation of gold nanoparticles, thereby resulting in wine-red-to-grey color and that was associated to the red shifted absorption band of the functionalized gold nanoparticles; monitored by a UV-vis spectrophotometer which was also discernible by the naked eye. This method can be applied for the simple determination of Pef in aqueous solutions, tablets and in human blood plasma.
Investigation of Optical, Film Formation and Magnetic Properties of PS Lates/MNPs Composites
In this study, optical, film formation, morphological and the magnetic properties of a nanocomposite system, composed of polystyrene (PS) latex polymer and core-shell magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is presented. Nine different mixtures were prepared by mixing of PS latex dispersion with different amount of MNPs in the range of (0- 100 wt%). PS/MNPs films were prepared from these mixtures on glass substrates by drop casting method. After drying at room temperature, each film sample was separately annealed at temperatures from 100 to 250 °C for 10 min. In order to monitor film formation process, the transmittance of these composites was measured after each annealing step as a function of MNPs content. Below a critical MNPs content (30 wt%), it was found that PS percolates into the MNPs hard phase and forms an interconnected network upon annealing. The transmission results showed above this critical value, PS latexes were no longer ﬁlm forming at all temperatures. Besides, the PS/MNPs composite ﬁlms also showed excellent magnetic properties. All composite films showed superparamagnetic behaviors. The saturation magnetisation (Ms) first increased up to 0.014 emu in the range of (0-50) wt% MNPs content and then decreased to 0.010 emu with increasing MNPs content. The highest value of Ms was approximately 0.020 emu and was obtained for the film filled with 85 wt% MNPs content. These results indicated that the optical, film formation and magnetic properties of PS/MNPs composite ﬁlms can be readily tuned by varying loading content of MNPs nanoparticles.
Characterizing Surface Machining-Induced Local Deformation Using Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD)
The subsurface layer of a component plays a significant role in its service performance. Any surface mechanical process during fabrication can introduce a deformed layer near the surface, which can be related to the microstructure alteration and strain hardening, and affects the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the material. However, there exists a great difficulty in determining the subsurface deformation induced by surface machining. In this study, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to study the deformed layer of surface milled 316 stainless steel. The microstructure change was displayed by the EBSD maps and characterized by misorientation variation. The results revealed that the surface milling resulted in heavily nonuniform deformations in the subsurface layer and even in individual grains. The direction of the predominant grain deformation was about 30-60 deg to the machined surface. Moreover, a local deformation rate (LDR) was proposed to quantitatively evaluate the local deformation degree. Both of the average and maximum LDRs were utilized to characterize the deformation trend along the depth direction. It was revealed that the LDR had a strong correlation with the development of grain and sub-grain boundaries. In this work, a scan step size of 1.2 μm was chosen for the EBSD measurement. A LDR higher than 18 deg/μm indicated a newly developed grain boundary, while a LDR ranged from 2.4 to 18 deg/μm implied the generation of a sub-grain boundary. And a lower LDR than 2.4 deg/μm could only introduce a slighter deformation and no sub-grain boundary was produced. According to the LDR analysis with the evolution of grain or sub grain boundaries, the deformed layer could be classified into four zones: grain broken layer, seriously deformed layer, slightly deformed layer and non-deformed layer.
Impact of Alkaline Activator Composition and Precursor Types on Properties and Durability of Alkali-Activated Cements Mortars
Alkali-activated materials are promising binders obtained by an alkaline attack on fly-ashes, metakaolin, blast slag among others. In order to guarantee the highest ecological and cost efficiency, a proper selection of precursors and alkaline activators has to be carried out. These choices deeply affect the microstructure, chemistry and performances of this class of materials. Even if, in the last years, several researches have been focused on mix designs and curing conditions, the lack of exhaustive activation models, standardized mix design and curing conditions and an insufficient investigation on shrinkage behavior, efflorescence, additives and durability prevent them from being perceived as an effective and reliable alternative to Portland. The aim of this study is to develop alkali-activated cements mortars containing high amounts of industrial by-products and waste, such as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and ashes obtained from the combustion process of forest biomass in thermal power plants. In particular, the experimental campaign was performed in two steps. In the first step, research was focused on elucidating how the workability, mechanical properties and shrinkage behavior of produced mortars are affected by the type and fraction of each precursor as well as by the composition of the activator solutions. In order to investigate the microstructures and reaction products, SEM and diffractometric analyses have been carried out. In the second step, their durability in harsh environments has been evaluated. Mortars obtained using only GGBFS as binder showed mechanical properties development and shrinkage behavior strictly dependent on SiO2/Na2O molar ratio of the activator solutions. Compressive strengths were in the range of 40-60 MPa after 28 days of curing at ambient temperature. Mortars obtained by partial replacement of GGBFS with metakaolin and forest biomass ash showed lower compressive strengths (≈35 MPa) and shrinkage values when higher amount of ashes were used. By varying the activator solutions and binder composition, compressive strength up to 70 MPa associated with shrinkage values of about 4200 microstrains were measured. Durability tests were conducted to assess the acid and thermal resistance of the different mortars. They all showed good resistance in a solution of 5%wt of H2SO4 also after 60 days of immersion, while they showed a decrease of mechanical properties in the range of 60-90% when exposed to thermal cycles up to 700°C.
Electrical and Piezoelectric Properties of Vanadium-Modified Lead-Free (K₀.₅Na₀.₅)NbO₃ Ceramics
During the last decade, there has been a significant growth in developing lead-free piezoelectric ceramics which have the potential to replace the currently dominant but highly superior lead-based piezoelectric materials such as PZT. Among the lead-free piezoelectrics, (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 - based piezoceramics are promising candidates due to their superior piezoelectric properties and high Curie temperatures. In this work, (K0.5Na0.5)(Nb1-xVx)O3 powders with x varying the range 0 to 0.05 were synthesized from the raw materials K2CO3, Na2CO3, Nb2O5, and V2O5. These powders were ball milled with high-energy Retsch PM 100 ball mill using isopropanol as the medium at the speed of 200rpm for a duration of 8h. The milled powders were sintered at 1080oC for 1h. The crystalline phase of all the calcined powders and corresponding ceramics prepared was found to be perovskite with orthorhombic symmetry. The ceramic with V5+ content of x=0.03 exhibits the maximum values in density of 4.292 g/cc, room temperature dielectric constant (εr) of 432, and piezoelectric charge constant (d33) of 93pC/N. For this sample, the dielectric tan δ loss remains relatively low over a wide temperature range. The temperature dependence of P-E hysteresis loops has been investigated for the ceramic composition with x = 0.03.