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International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 44166

Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

Luminescent Dye-Doped Polymer Nanofibers Produced by Electrospinning Technique
Among the numerous methods for obtaining polymer nanofibers, the electrospinning technique distinguishes itself due to the more growing interest induced by its proved utility leading to developing and improving of the method and the appearance of novel materials. In particular, production of polymeric nanofibers in which different dopants are introduced was intensively studied in the last years because of the increased interest for the obtaining of functional electrospun nanofibers. Electrospinning is a facile method of obtaining polymer nanofibers with diameters from tens of nanometers to micrometrical sizes that are cheap, flexible, scalable, functional and biocompatible. Besides the multiple applications in medicine, polymeric nanofibers obtained by electrospinning permit manipulation of light at nanometric dimensions when doped with organic dyes or different nanoparticles. It is a simple technique that uses an electrical field to draw fine polymer nanofibers from solutions and does not require complicated devices or high temperatures. Different morphologies of the electrospun nanofibers can be obtained for the same polymeric host when different parameters of the electrospinning process are used. Consequently, we can obtain tuneable optical properties of the electrospun nanofibers (e.g. changing the wavelength of the emission peak) by varying the parameters of the fabrication method. We focus on obtaining doped polymer nanofibers with enhanced optical properties using the electrospinning technique. The aim of the paper is to produce dye-doped polymer nanofibers’ mats incorporating uniformly dispersed dyes. Transmission and fluorescence of the fibers will be evaluated by spectroscopy methods. The morphological properties of the electrospun dye-doped polymer fibers will be evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We will tailor the luminescent properties of the material by doping the polymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone or polymethylmetacrilate) with different dyes (coumarins, rhodamines and sulforhodamines). The tailoring will be made taking into consideration the possibility of changing the luminescent properties of electrospun polymeric nanofibers that are doped with different dyes by using different parameters for the electrospinning technique (electric voltage, distance between electrodes, flow rate of the solution, etc.). Furthermore, we can evaluated the influence of the concentration of the dyes on the emissive properties of dye-doped polymer nanofibers using different concentrations. The advantages offered by the electrospinning technique when producing polymeric fibers are given by the simplicity of the method, the tunability of the morphology allowed by the possibility of controlling all the process parameters (temperature, viscosity of polymeric solution, applied voltage, distance between electrodes, etc.), and by the absence of necessity of using harsh and supplementary chemicals such as the ones used in the traditional nanofabrication techniques. Acknowledgments: The authors acknowledge the financial support received through IFA CEA Project No. C5-08/2016.
ZnS and Graphene Quantum Dots Nanocomposite as Potential Electron Acceptor for Photovoltaics
Zinc sulphide (ZnS) quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized successfully via simple sonochemical method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis revealed the average size of QDs of the order of 3.7 nm. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra depicts the highest purity of product. The band gap was tuned to 5.2 eV by optimizing the synthesis parameters. UV-Vis absorption spectra of various ZnS QD sizes provide confirmation for the quantum confinement effect. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis confirmed the formation of single phase ZnS QDs. To fabricate the diode, blend of ZnS QDs and P3HT was prepared and the heterojunction of PEDOT:PSS and the blend were formed by spin coating on ITO coated glass substrate. The diode behaviour of the heterojunction was analysed, wherein the ideality factor was found to be 2.53 with turn on voltage 0.75V, and the barrier height was found to be 1.429 eV. ZnS-Graphene quantum dots nanocomposite was characterised for the surface morphological study. It was found that the synthesized ZnS QDs appears as quasi-spherical particles on the graphene sheets. The particle size of ZnS- graphene nanocomposites was found to be 8.4 nm. From voltage-current characteristics of ZnS-graphene nanocomposites, it is observed that the conductivity of the composite increases by 10⁴ times the conductivity of ZnS QDs. Thus the addition of graphene QDs in ZnS QDs, enhances the mobility of the charge carriers in the composite material. Thus, the graphene Quantum dots, a new class of 0D carbon material derived from graphene sheets with high specific area for a large interface, high mobility, and tunable band gap, shows a great potential as an electron-acceptors in photovoltaic devices.
The Actuation of Semicrystalline Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Tie Molecules: A Computational and Experimental Study
The area of artificial muscles has received significant attention from many research domains including soft robotics, biomechanics and smart textiles in recent years. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) has been used to form artificial muscles since it contracts upon heating when under load. In this study, PVDF fibers were produced by melt spinning technique at different solid state draw ratios and then actuation mechanism for PVDF tie molecules within the semicrystalline region of PVDF polymer has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Tie molecules are polymer chains that link two (or more) crystalline regions in semicrystalline polymers. The changes in fiber length upon heating have been investigated using a novel simulation technique. The results show that conformational changes of the tie molecules from the longer all-trans conformation at low temperature (β structure) to the shorter conformation (α structure) at higher temperature accrue by increasing the temperature. These results may be applied to understand the actuation observed for PVDF upon heating.
Experiment Study on the Influence of Tool Materials on the Drilling of Thick Stacked Plate of 2219 Aluminum Alloy
The drilling and riveting process are widely used in the assembly of carrier rocket, which makes the efficiency and quality of drilling become the important factor affecting the assembly process. According to the problem existing in the drilling of thick stacked plate (thickness larger than 10mm) of carrier rocket, such as drill break, large noise, and burr, etc. experiment study of the influence of tool material on the drilling was carried out. The cutting force was measured by a piezoelectric dynamometer, the aperture was measured with an outline projector, and the burr is observation and measurement by a digital stereo microscope. Through the measurement, the effects of tool material on the drilling were analyzed from the aspects of drilling force, diameter, and burr. The results show that compared with carbide drill and coated carbide one, even the drilling force of high speed steel is larger, it has some advantages, such as the number of holes which can be obtained is much more, the height of burr is small, the exit is smooth, and the slim burr is less, and the tool is wear but not fracture. Therefore, the high speed steel tool is suitable for the drilling of thick stacked plate of 2219 Aluminum alloy.
Predictions for the Anisotropy in Thermal Conductivity in Polymers Subjected to Model Flows by Combination of the eXtended Pom-Pom Model and the Stress-Thermal Rule
The viscoelastic behavior of polymeric flows under isothermal conditions has been extensively researched. However, most of the processing of polymeric materials occurs under non-isothermal conditions and understanding the linkage between the thermo-physical properties and the process state variables remains a challenge. Furthermore, the cost and energy required to manufacture, recycle and dispose polymers is strongly affected by the thermo-physical properties and their dependence on state variables such as temperature and stress. Experiments show that thermal conductivity in flowing polymers is anisotropic (i.e. direction dependent). This phenomenon has been previously omitted in the study and simulation of industrially relevant flows. Our work combines experimental evidence of a universal relationship between thermal conductivity and stress tensors (i.e. the stress-thermal rule) with differential constitutive equations for the viscoelastic behavior of polymers to provide predictions for the anisotropy in thermal conductivity in uniaxial, planar, equibiaxial and shear flow in commercial polymers. A particular focus is placed on the eXtended Pom-Pom model which is able to capture the non-linear behavior in both shear and elongation flows. The predictions provided by this approach are amenable to implementation in finite elements packages, since viscoelastic and thermal behavior can be described by a single equation. Our results include predictions for flow-induced anisotropy in thermal conductivity for low and high density polyethylene as well as confirmation of our method through comparison with a number of thermoplastic systems for which measurements of anisotropy in thermal conductivity are available. Remarkably, this approach allows for universal predictions of anisotropy in thermal conductivity that can be used in simulations of complex flows in which only the most fundamental rheological behavior of the material has been previously characterized (i.e. there is no need for additional adjusting parameters other than those in the constitutive model). Accounting for polymers anisotropy in thermal conductivity in industrially relevant flows benefits the optimization of manufacturing processes as well as the mechanical and thermal performance of finalized plastic products during use.
3D Carbon Structures (Globugraphite) with Hierarchical Pore Morphology for the Application in Energy Storage Systems
Three-dimensional carbon materials can be used as electrode materials for energy storage systems such as batteries and supercapacitors. Fast charging and discharging times are realizable without reducing the performance due to aging processes. Furthermore high specific surface area (SSA) of three-dimensional carbon structures leads to high specific capacities. One newly developed carbon foam is Globugraphite. This interconnected globular carbon morphology with statistically distributed hierarchical pores is manufactured by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process from ceramic templates resulting from a sintering process. Via scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the morphology is characterized. Moreover, the SSA was measured by the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) theory. Measurements of Globugraphite in an organic and inorganic electrolyte show high energy densities and power densities resulting from ion absorption by forming an electrochemical double layer. A comparison of the specific values is summarized in a Ragone diagram. Energy densities up to 48 Wh/kg and power densities to 833 W/kg could be achieved for an SSA from 376 m²/g to 859 m²/g. For organic electrolyte, a specific capacity of 100 F/g at a density of 20 mg/cm³ was achieved.
A Crystal Plasticity Approach to Model Dynamic Strain Aging
Dynamic strain aging (DSA), resulting from the reorientation of C-Mn clusters in the core of dislocations, can provide a strain hardening mechanism. In addition, in Hadfield steel, negative strain rate sensitivity is observed due to the DSA. In our study, we incorporated dynamic strain aging onto crystal plasticity computations to predict the local instabilities and corresponding negative strain rate sensitivity. Specifically, the material response of Hadfield steel was obtained from monotonic and strain-rate jump experiments under tensile loading. The strain rate range was adjusted from 10⁻⁴ to 10⁻¹s ⁻¹. The crystal plasticity modeling of the material response was carried out based on Voce-type hardening law and corresponding Voce hardening parameters were determined. The solute pinning effect of carbon atom was incorporated to crystal plasticity simulations at microscale level by computing the shear stress contribution imposed on an arrested dislocation by carbon atom. After crystal plasticity simulations with modifying hardening rule, which takes into account the contribution of DSA, it was seen that the model successfully predicts both the role of DSA and corresponding strain rate sensitivity.
Effect of Brittleness and Tensile Strength in the Weld Area and Heat Affected Zone Area between Dissimilar Materials under High Working Temperature
Under high working temperatures and with dissimilar material joints, cracks often occur along the interface between two different materials, and those cracks occur due to multiple factors such as the material characteristics including the stress distribution based on the chemical and the mechanical properties for each material especially if one of those material contains 1.25Cr 0.5 Mo. Effect of brittleness and the tensile strength in the weld area and heat affected zone area (HAZ) between dissimilar materials will be discussed in this paper. Detailed investigation showed using different material with different characteristics other than the characteristics of 1.25Cr 0.5Mo material leads to multiple cracks and immediate failure under high working temperatures.
Hot Deformability of Si-Steel Strips Containing Al
The present work is dealing with 2% Si- steel alloy. The alloy contains 0.05% C as well as 0.85 Al. The alloy under investigation would be used for electrical transformation purposes. A heating (expansion) - cooling (contraction) dilation investigation was executed to detect the α,α+γ and γ transformation temperatures at the inflection points of the dilation curve. On heating primary α was detected at a temperature range RT- 687oC. The domain of α+γ was detected in the range 687°C -746 °C. γ phase exists in the closed γ region at the range 746 °C -1043 °C. The domain of α phase appears again at a temperature range 1043-1105 °C, and followed by secondary α at temperature higher than 1105 °C A physical simulation of thermo-mechanical processing on the as-cast alloy was carried out. The simulation process put into consideration the hot flat rolling pilot plant parameters. The process was executed on the thermo-mechanical simulator (Gleeble 3500). The process was design to include seven consecutive passes. The 1st pass represents the roughing stage, while the rest 6- passes represent finish rolling stage. The whole process was executed at the temperature range 1100 °C to 900 °C. The amount of strain starts with 23.5% at the roughing pass and decrease continuously to reach 7.5% at the last finishing pass. The flow curve of the alloy can be abstracted from the stress-strain curves representing simulated passes. It shows alloy hardening from a pass to the other up to pass no. 6, as a result of decreasing the deformation temperature and increasing of cumulative strain. After pass no.6 the deformation process enhances the dynamic recrystallization phenomena to appear, where the z-parameter would be high.
Role of Cellulose Fibers in Tuning the Microstructure and Crystallographic Phase of α-Fe₂O₃ and α-FeOOH Nanoparticles
It is very well known that properties of material changes as their size approach to nanoscale level due to the high surface area to volume ratio. However, in last few decades, a tenet ‘structure dictates function’ is quickly being adopted by researchers working with nanomaterials. The design and exploitation of nanoparticles with tailored shape and size has become one of the primary goals of materials science researchers to expose the properties of nanostructures. To date, various methods, including soft/hard template/surfactant assisted route hydrothermal reaction, seed mediated growth method, capping molecule-assisted synthesis, polyol process, etc. have been adopted to synthesize the nanostructures with controlled size and shape and monodispersity. However controlling the shape and size of nanoparticles is an ultimate challenge of modern material research. In particular, many efforts have been devoted to rational and skillful control of hierarchical and complex nanostructures. Thus in our research work, role of cellulose in manipulating the nanostructures has been discussed. Nanoparticles of α-Fe₂O₃ (diameter ca. 15 to 130 nm) were immobilized on the cellulose fiber surface by a single step in situ hydrothermal method. However, nanoflakes of α-FeOOH having thickness ca. ~25 nm and length ca. ~250 nm were obtained by the same method in absence of cellulose fibers. A possible nucleation and growth mechanism of the formation of nanostructures on cellulose fibers have been proposed. The covalent bond formation between the cellulose fibers and nanostructures has been discussed with supporting evidence from the spectroscopic and other analytical studies such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The role of cellulose in manipulating the nanostructures has been discussed.
Consolidation of Carbonyl Nickel Powders by Hot Pressing
In the current study, carbonyl nickel powders were sintered by uniaxial hot pressing technique. Loose starting powders were poured directly into a graphite die with a 15.4 mm inner diameter. Two graphite punches with an outer diameter of 15 mm were inserted into the die, then the powders were sintered at different sintering temperatures, holding times and pressure conditions. The sintered samples were polished and examined by optical microscopy. Hardness and bending behavior of the sintered samples were investigated in order to determine the mechanical properties of the sintered nickel samples. To carried out the friction properties of the produced samples wear tests were studied using a pin on disc tribometer. Load and distance were selected as wear test parameters.The fracture surface of the samples after bending test was also carried out by using scanning electron microscopy.
Fluorescence Quenching as an Efficient Tool for Sensing Application, Study on the Fluorescence Quenching of Naphthalimide Dye by Graphene Oxide
Recently graphene has attracted much attention because of its unique optical, mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. Graphene has been used as a key material in the technological applications in various areas, such as sensors, drug delivery, super capacitors, transparent conductor and solar cell. It has a superior quenching efficiency for various fluorophores. Based on this unique properties, the optical sensors with graphene materials as the energy acceptors have demonstrated great success in recent years. During quenching the emission of a fluorophore is perturbed by a quencher, which can be a substrate or biomolecule, due to this phenomenon, fluorophore-quencher has been used for selective detection of target molecules. Among fluorescence dyes, 1,8-naphthalimide is well known for its typical intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and photo-induced charge transfer (PET) fluorophore, strong absorption and emission in the visible region, high photo stability and large Stokes’ shift. Derivatives of 1,8-naphthalimides have found applications in some areas especially fluorescence sensors. Herein the fluorescence quenching of graphene oxide has been carried out on a naphthalimide dye as a fluorescent probe model. The quenching ability of graphene oxide on naphthalimide dye was studied by UV-VIS and flourescence spectroscopy.This study showed that graphene is an efficient quencher for flourescent dyes. Therefore making it a suitable candidate as a high precision sensing platform. To the best of our knowledge, studies on the quenching and absorption of naphthalimide dyes by graphene oxide are rare.
Non-Circular Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers Chainring Failure Analysis
This paper presents a Finite Element model to simulate the teeth failure of non-circular composite chainring. Model consists of the chainring and a part of the chain. To reduce the size of the model only the first 11 rollers are simulated. In order to validate the model, it is firstly applied to a circular aluminum chainring and evolution of the stress in the teeth is compared with the literature. Then, effect of the non-circular shape is studied through three different loading positions. Strength of non-circular composite chainring and failure scenario is investigated. Moreover, two composite lay-up are proposed to observe the influence of the stacking. Results show that composite material can be used but the lay-up has a large influence on the strength. Finally, whatever the loading positions the first composite failure occurs always in the first tooth and then migrates to the last.
Dynamic Thermomechanical Behavior of Adhesively Bonded Composite Joints
Composite materials are increasingly being used as a substitute for metallic materials in many technological applications like aeronautics, aerospace, marine and civil engineering applications. For composite materials, the thermomechanical response evolves with the strain rate. The energy balance equation for anisotropic, elastic materials includes heat source terms that govern the conversion of some of the kinetic work into heat. The remainder contributes to the stored energy creating the damage process in the composite material. In this paper, we investigate the bulk thermomechanical behavior of adhesively-bonded composite assemblies to quantitatively asses the temperature rise which accompanies adiabatic deformations. In particular, adhesively bonded joints in glass/vinylester composite material are subjected to in-plane dynamic loads under a range of strain rates. Dynamic thermomechanical behavior of this material is investigated using compression Split Hopkinson Pressure Bars (SHPB) coupled with a high speed infrared camera and a high speed camera to measure in real time the dynamic behavior, the damage kinetic and the temperature variation in the material. The interest of using high speed IR camera is in order to view in real time the evolution of heat dissipation in the material when damage occurs. But, this technique does not produce thermal values in correlation with the stress-strain curves of composite material because of its high time response in comparison with the dynamic test time. For this reason, the authors revisit the application of specific thermocouples placed on the surface of the material to ensure the real thermal measurements under dynamic loading using small thermocouples. Experiments with dynamically loaded material show that the thermocouples record temperatures values with a short typical rise time as a result of the conversion of kinetic work into heat during compression test. This results show that small thermocouples can be used to provide an important complement to other noncontact techniques such as the high speed infrared camera. Significant temperature rise was observed in in-plane compression tests especially under high strain rates. During the tests, it has been noticed that sudden temperature rise occur when macroscopic damage occur. This rise in temperature is linked to the rate of damage. The more serve the damage is, a higher localized temperature is detected. This shows the strong relationship between the occurrence of damage and induced heat dissipation. For the case of the in plane tests, the damage takes place more abruptly as the strain rate is increased. The difference observed in the obtained thermomechanical response in plane compression is explained only by the difference in the damage process being active during the compression tests. In this study, we highlighted the dependence of the thermomechanical response on the strain rate of bonded specimens. The effect of heat dissipation of this material cannot hence be ignored and should be taken into account when defining damage models during impact loading.
Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Abu Ghalaga Ilmenite Ore
The present work aims to study the leaching of Abu Ghalaga ilmenite ore by hydrochloric acid and simultaneous reduction by iron powder method to dissolve its titanium and iron contents. Iron content in the produced liquor is separated by solvent extraction using TBP as a solvent. All parameters affecting the efficiency of the dissolution process were separately studied including the acid concentration, solid/liquid ratio which controls the ilmenite/acid molar ratio, temperature, time and grain size. The optimum conditions at which maximum leaching occur are 30% HCl acid with a solid/liquid ratio of 1/30 at 80 °C for 4 h using ore ground to -350 mesh size. At the same time, all parameters affecting on solvent extraction and stripping of iron content from the produced liquor were studied. Results show that the best extraction is at solvent/solution 1/1 by shaking at 240 RPM for 45 minutes at 30 °C whereas best striping of iron at H₂O/solvent 2/1.
Refinement of Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly (Lactic Acid)/Poly (Ethylene-Co-Glycidyle Methacrylate)/ Hexagonal Boron Nitride Blend-Composites through Electron-Beam Irradiation
The main objective of this work is to determine the influence of electron beam irradiation on thermal and mechanical properties of Poly (lactic acid) (PLA)/Poly (ethylene-co-glycidyle methacrylate) (PEGM)/Hexagonal boron nitride (HBN) blend-composites. To reduce the brittleness and improve the toughness of PLA, the PLA/PEGM blend is prepared by using twin-screw Micro compounder. However, the heat deflection temperature (HDT) and other tensile properties were reduced. The HBN has been incorporated into the PLA/PEGM blend as part per hundred i.e. 5 phr and 10phr to improve the HDT. The prepared specimens of blend and blend-composites were irradiated to high energy (4.5 MeV) electron beam (E-beam) at different radiation doses to introduce the cross linking among the polymer chains and uniform dispersion of HBN particles in the PLA/PEGM/HBN blend-composites. The further improvement in the notched impact strength and HDT have been achieved in the case of PLA/PEGM/HBN blend-composites. The irradiated PLA/PEGM/HBN 5phr blend composite shows high notched impact strength and HDT as compared to other unirradiated and E-beam irradiated blend and blend-composites. The improvements in the yield strength and tensile modulus have also been noticed in the case of E-beam irradiated PLA/PEGM/HBN blend-composites as compared to unirradiated blend-composites.
Reduction Behavior of Medium Grade Manganese Ore from Karangnunggal during a Sintering Process in Methane Gas
In this investigation, manganese has been produced from medium grade manganese ore from Karangnunggal mine (West Java, Indonesia). The ores were grinded using a jar mill to pass through a 150 mesh sieve. The effects of keeping it at a temperature of 1200 °C in methane gas on the structural properties have been studied. The material’s properties have been characterized on the basis of the experimental data obtained using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It has been found that the ore contains MnO₂ as the main constituents at about 46.80 wt.%. It can be also observed that the ore particles are agglomerated forming dense grains with different texture and morphology. The irregular-shaped grains with dark contrast, the large brighter grains, and smaller grains with bright texture and smooth surfaces are associated with the presence of manganese, calcium, and quartz, respectively. From XRD patterns, MnO₂ is reduced to hausmannite (Mn₃O₄), manganosite (MnO) and manganese carbide (Mn₇C₃). At a temperature of 1200°C the keeping time does not have any effect on the formation of crystals and the crystalline phases remain almost unchanged in the time range from 15 to 90 minutes. An increase of the keeping time up to 45 minutes during the sintering process leads to an increase of the MnO concentration, while at 90 minutes, the concentration decreases. At longer keeping times the excess reaction of the methane gas and manganese oxide in the ore causes an increase of carbon deposition. As a result, it blocks the particle surface and then hinders the reduction process of manganese oxide. From FTIR spectrum allows one to explain that the appearance of C=O stretching mode arises from absorption of atmospheric methane and manganese oxide of the ore. The intensity of this band increases with increasing the keeping time, indicating an increase of carbon deposition on the surface of manganese oxide.
Growth Model of a 3d Carbon Structure (Aerographite) in a Replica-Chemical Vapor Deposition Process and It´S Properties
Aerographite is an interconnected 3D carbon structure with a tetrapodic morphology. The synthesis is based on the replication of a template morphology in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. By the variable morphology, Aerographite finds use in the various end-end applications such as e.g. sensors, biomedicine or polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). The growth mechanism of Aerographite was observed after interrupted synthesis via scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. In which the replication of the template morphology is performed in an epitaxial process and starts at the most favorable points the corner between the single tetrapod arms. Based on these growth model, the wall number was modified to design the properties of Aerographite especially the electrical conductivity of the neat structure and Aerographite-epoxy composites were targeted. Furthermore, the number of walls have an influence on the mechanical properties of these PNCs. It could be shown that with increasing wall numbers the electrical conductivity as well as the mechanical properties increase and Aerographite exhibits a metallic character. Furthermore, the formation of a defined wall number results in an optimal D/G ratio in Raman spectroscopy.
Influence of Boron and Germanium Doping on Physical-Mechanical Properties of Monocrystalline Silicon
Boron-doped Czochralski (CZ) silicon of p-type, widely used in the photovoltaic industry is suffering from the light-induced-degradation (LID) of bulk electrophysical characteristics. This is caused by specific metastable B-O defects, which are characterized by strong recombination activity. In this regard, it is actual to suppress B-O defects in CZ silicon. One of the methods is doping of silicon by different isovalent elements (Ge, C, Sn). The present work deals with the investigations of the influence of germanium doping on the internal friction and shear modulus amplitude dependences in the temperature interval of 600-800⁰C and 0.5-5 Hz frequency range in boron-containing monocrystalline silicon. Experimental specimens were grown by Czochralski method (CZ) in [111] direction. Four different specimens were investigated: Si+0,5at%Ge:B (5.1015cm-3), Si+0,5at%Ge:B (1.1019cm-3), Si+2at%Ge:B (5.1015cm-3) and Si+2at%Ge:B (1.1019cm-3). Increasing tendency of dislocation density and inhomogeneous distribution in silicon crystals with high content of boron and germanium were revealed by metallographic studies on the optical microscope of NMM-80RF/TRF. Weak increase of current carriers-holes concentration and slight decrease of their mobility were observed by Van der Pauw method on Ecopia HMS-3000 device. Non-monotonous changes of dislocation origin defects mobility and microplastic deformation characteristics influenced by measuring temperatures and boron and germanium concentrations were revealed. Possible mechanisms of changes of mechanical characteristics in Si-Ge experimental specimens were discussed.
Correlation between Defect Suppression and Biosensing Capability of Hydrothermally Grown ZnO Nanorods
Biosensors are analytical devices with wide range of applications in biological, chemical, environmental and clinical analysis. It comprises of bio-recognition layer which has biomolecules (enzymes, antibodies, DNA, etc.) immobilized over it for detection of analyte and transducer which converts the biological signal into the electrical signal. The performance of biosensor primarily the depends on the bio-recognition layer and therefore it has to be chosen wisely. In this regard, nanostructures of metal oxides such as ZnO, SnO2, V2O5, and TiO2, etc. have been explored extensively as bio-recognition layer. Recently, ZnO has the attracted attention of researchers due to its unique properties like high iso-electric point, biocompatibility, stability, high electron mobility and high electron binding energy, etc. Although there have been many reports on usage of ZnO as bio-recognition layer but to the authors’ knowledge, none has ever observed correlation between optical properties like defect suppression and biosensing capability of the sensor. Here, ZnO nanorods (ZNR) have been synthesized by a low cost, simple and low-temperature hydrothermal growth process, over Platinum (Pt) coated glass substrate. The ZNR have been synthesized in two steps viz. initially a seed layer was coated over substrate (Pt coated glass) followed by immersion of it into nutrient solution of Zinc nitrate and Hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) with in situ addition of KMnO4. The addition of KMnO4 was observed to have a profound effect over the growth rate anisotropy of ZnO nanostructures. Clustered and powdery growth of ZnO was observed without addition of KMnO4, although by addition of it during the growth, uniform and crystalline ZNR were found to be grown over the substrate. Moreover, the same has resulted in suppression of defects as observed by Normalized Photoluminescence (PL) spectra since KMnO4 is a strong oxidizing agent which provides an oxygen rich growth environment. Further, to explore the correlation between defect suppression and biosensing capability of the ZNR Glucose oxidase (Gox) was immobilized over it, using physical adsorption technique followed by drop casting of nafion. Here the main objective of the work was to analyze effect of defect suppression over biosensing capability, and therefore Gox has been chosen as model enzyme, and electrochemical amperometric glucose detection was performed. The incorporation of KMnO4 during growth has resulted in variation of optical and charge transfer properties of ZNR which in turn were observed to have deep impact on biosensor figure of merits. The sensitivity of biosensor was found to increase by 12-18 times, due to variations introduced by addition of KMnO4 during growth. The amperometric detection of glucose in continuously stirred buffer solution was performed. Interestingly, defect suppression has been observed to contribute towards the improvement of biosensor performance. The detailed mechanism of growth of ZNR along with the overall influence of defect suppression on the sensing capabilities of the resulting enzymatic electrochemical biosensor and different figure of merits of the biosensor (Glass/Pt/ZNR/Gox/Nafion) will be discussed during the conference.
The Role of Physically Adsorbing Species of Oxyhydryl Reagents in Flotation Aggregate Formation
The authors discuss the collecting abilities of desorbable (DS) species of saturated fatty acids. The DS species of the reagent are understood as species capable of moving from the surface of the mineral particle to the bubble, at the moment of the rupture of the interlayer of liquid separating these objects of interaction. DS species of carboxylic acids (molecules and ionic-molecular complexes) have the ability to spread over the surface of the bubble. The rate of their spreading at pH 7 and 10 over the water surface is determined. The collectibility criterion of saturated fatty acids is proposed. The value of forces exerted by the spreading DS species of reagents on liquid in the interlayer and the liquid flow rate from the interlayer are determined.
Computationally Efficient Stacking Sequence Blending for Composite Structures with a Large Number of Design Regions Using Cellular Automata
This article introduces a computationally efficient method for stacking sequence blending of composite structures. The computational efficiency makes the presented method especially interesting for composite structures with a large number of design regions. Optimization of composite structures with an unequal load distribution may lead to locally optimized thicknesses and ply orientations that are incompatible with one another. Blending constraints can be enforced to achieve structural continuity. In literature, many methods can be found to implement structural continuity by means of stacking sequence blending in one way or another. The complexity of the problem makes the blending of a structure with a large number of adjacent design regions, and thus stacking sequences, prohibitive. In this work the local stacking sequence optimization is preconditioned using a method found in the literature that couples the mechanical behavior of the laminate, in the form of lamination parameters, to blending constraints, yielding near-optimal easy-to-blend designs. The preconditioned design is then fed to the scheme using cellular automata that have been developed by the authors. The method is applied to the benchmark 18-panel horseshoe blending problem to demonstrate its performance. The computational efficiency of the proposed method makes it especially suited for composite structures with a large number of design regions.
Behavior of Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composite with Nano-Ceramic Particle under Ballistic Impact and Quasi-Static Punch-Shear Loading
The performance of Fibre Reinforced Polymer composite with the nano-ceramic particle as function of time and thickness of laminate which is subjected to ballistic impact and quasi-static punch-shear loading is investigated. The material investigated is made up of several layers of Kevlar fibres which are fabricated with nano-ceramic particles and epoxy resin by compression moulding. The ballistic impact and quasi-static punch-shear loading are studied experimentally and numerically. The failure mechanism is observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The result obtained in the experiment and numerical studies are compared. Due to nano size of the ceramic particle, the strength to weight ratio and penetrating resistance will improve in Fibre Reinforced Polymer composite which will have better impact property compared to ceramic plates.
Comparative Life Cycle Analysis of the SLIMMER Batch Powder Manufacturing Process with Conventional Techniques
Prompted by current developments in the manufacturing industry and the implementation of commitments in Climate Change awareness, there is a need for the development of processes that are both sustainable and cost-effective. Information on the environmental aspects of different processes are needed which has resulted in the development of many indicators and tools for benchmarking and assessing the environmental impacts of various processes. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool used to assess the potential impacts on the environment and resources used throughout the lifecycle of a process. The interest in novel powder manufacturing processes has grown somewhat because of the potential to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However due to production of GHG emissions and energy consumption during the raw material extraction, powder production, component manufacture, use phase and end-of-life, powder manufacturing processes carry environmental impacts which need to be quantified. LCA is particularly well suited for the comparison of conventional and novel processes as it accounts for energy consumption and GHG emissions across the full life cycle of a process. This helps inform decision makers of the attributable impacts to the environment. SLIMMER is a novel, sequential, net-shape process to enable complex, light-weight components to be created with minimum waste capable of supporting a wide range of production volumes. This paper presents LCA results of the process for the manufacture of steel components demonstrated by benchmarking the environmental impacts of the SLIMMER process against existing powder metallurgy manufacturing processes over their different life cycle stages.
Tuning of Indirect Exchange Coupling in FePt/Al₂O₃/Fe₃Pt System
The indirect exchange coupled system consists of two ferromagnetic layers separated by non-magnetic spacer layer. The type of exchange coupling may be either ferro or anti-ferro depending on the thickness of the spacer layer. In the present work, the strength of exchange coupling in FePt/Al₂O₃/Fe₃Pt has been investigated by varying the thickness of the spacer layer Al₂O₃. The FePt/Al₂O₃/Fe₃Pt trilayer structure is fabricated on Si single crystal substrate using sputtering technique. The thickness of FePt and Fe₃Pt is fixed at 60 nm and 2 nm respectively. The thickness of spacer layer Al₂O₃ was varied from 0 to 16 nm. The normalized hysteresis loops recorded at room temperature both in the in-plane and out of plane configuration reveals that the orientation of easy axis lies along the plane of the film. It is observed that the hysteresis loop for ts=0 nm does not exhibit any knee around H=0 indicating that the hard FePt layer and soft Fe₃Pt layer are strongly exchange coupled. However, the insertion of Al₂O₃ spacer layer of thickness ts = 0.7 nm results in appearance of a minor knee around H=0 suggesting the weakening of exchange coupling between FePt and Fe₃Pt. The disappearance of knee in hysteresis loop with further increase in thickness of the spacer layer up to 8 nm predicts the co-existence of ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) exchange interaction between FePt and Fe₃Pt. In addition to this, the out of plane hysteresis loop also shows an asymmetry around H=0. The exchange field Hex = (Hc↑-HC↓)/2, where Hc↑ and Hc↓ are the coercivity estimated from lower and upper branch of hysteresis loop, increases from ~ 150 Oe to ~ 700 Oe respectively. This behavior may be attributed to the uncompensated moments in the hard FePt layer and soft Fe₃Pt layer at the interface. A better insight into the variation in indirect exchange coupling has been investigated using recoil curves. It is observed that the almost closed recoil curves are obtained for ts= 0 nm up to a reverse field of ~ 5 kOe. On the other hand, the appearance of appreciable open recoil curves at lower reverse field ~ 4 kOe for ts = 0.7 nm indicates that uncoupled soft phase undergoes irreversible magnetization reversal at lower reverse field suggesting the weakening of exchange coupling. The openness of recoil curves decreases with increase in thickness of the spacer layer up to 8 nm. This behavior may be attributed to the competition between FM and AFM exchange interactions. The FM exchange coupling between FePt and Fe₃Pt due to porous nature of Al₂O₃ decreases much slower than the weak AFM coupling due to interaction between Fe ions of FePt and Fe₃Pt via O ions of Al₂O₃. The hysteresis loop has been simulated using Monte Carlo based on Metropolis algorithm to investigate the variation in strength of exchange coupling in FePt/Al₂O₃/Fe₃Pt trilayer system.
Modification of Hexagonal Boron Nitride Induced by Focused Laser Beam
Hexagonal boron nitride is a representative of a widely popular class of two-dimensional Van Der Waals materials. It finds its uses, among others, in construction of complexly layered heterostructures. Hexagonal boron nitride attracts great interest because of its properties characteristic for wide-gap semiconductors as well as an ultra-flat surface.Van Der Waals heterostructures composed of two-dimensional layered materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides or graphene give hope for miniaturization of various electronic and optoelectronic elements. In our presentation, we will show the results of our investigations of the not previously reported modification of the hexagonal boron nitride layers with focused laser beam. The electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) images reveal that the irradiation leads to changes of the local electric fields for a wide range of laser wavelengths (from 442 to 785 nm). These changes are also accompanied by alterations of crystallographic structure of the material, as reflected by Raman spectra. They exhibit high stability and remain visible after at least five months. This behavior can be explained in terms of photoionization of the defect centers in h-BN which influence non-uniform electrostatic field screening by the photo-excited charge carriers. Analyzed changes influence local defect structure, and thus the interatomic distances within the lattice. These effects can be amplified by the piezoelectric character of hexagonal boron nitride, similar to that found in nitrides (e.g., GaN, AlN). Our results shed new light on the optical properties of the hexagonal boron nitride, in particular, those associated with electron-phonon coupling. Our study also opens new possibilities for h-BN applications in layered heterostructures where electrostatic fields can be used in tailoring of the local properties of the structures for use in micro- and nanoelectronics or field-controlled memory storage. This work is supported by National Science Centre project granted on the basis of the decision number DEC-2015/16/S/ST3/00451.
Arsenic(III) Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption onto Fly Ash
In the present study, the kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of the adsorption of As(III) ions from aqueous solution onto fly ash (FA) was investigated in batch adsorption system. Prior to the adsorption studies, the FA was characterized by means of x-ray fluorescence (XRF), x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area determination. The effect of contact time, initial As(III) concentration, FA dosage, stirring speed, solution pH and temperature was examined on the adsorption rate. Experimental results showed a very good compliance with the pseudo-second-order equation, while the equilibrium study showed that the sorption of As(III) ions onto FA fitted the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption process is endothermic and spontaneous, moreover, the maximum percentage removal of As(III) achieved with approx. 2.5 g FA mixed with 25 mL of 100 mg/L As(III) solution was 65.4 % at pH 10, 60 min contact time, temperature of 353 K and a stirring speed of 120 rpm.
Novel Ferroelectric Properties as Studied by Boson Mean Field Laser Radiation Induced from a Beer Bottle
The novel ferroelectric properties appeared in the recent ten years. Many scientists consider them as non-statement science. Nevertheless, many papers are published. The Mean field theory takes an important place in the theory of ferroelectric materials which can be applied for Boson induced laser systems for ‘Star Track’ soldiers. The novel Laser, which was produced in The Vilnius Bambalio University is a ‘now-how’ among other laser systems. The laser can produce power of 30 kW during 15 seconds. Its size and compatibility distinguishes it among other devices and safety gadgets. Scientists of Bambalio University have already patented the device. The most interesting in this innovations is the process of operation. Merely it may be operated through a bottle a beer what makes the measurement so convenient, that an ordinary scientist can process all stuff without significant effort just by taking pleasure by drinking a bottle of beer. Here we would like to report on the laser system and present our unique developments.
Biocompatible Porous Titanium Scaffolds Produced Using a Novel Space Holder Technique
Synthetic scaffolds are a highly promising new approach to replace both autografts and allografts to repair and remodel damaged bone tissue. Biocompatible porous titanium scaffold was manufactured through a powder metallurgy approach. Magnesium powder was used as space holder material which was compacted with titanium powder and removed during sintering. Evaluation of the porosity and mechanical properties showed a high level of compatibility with human bone. Interconnectivity between pores is higher than 95% for porosity as low as 30%. The elastic moduli are 39 GPa, 16 GPa and 9 GPa for 30%, 40% and 50% porosity samples which match well to that of natural bone (4-30 GPa). The yield strengths for 30% and 40% porosity samples of 315 MPa and 175 MPa are superior to that of human bone (130-180 MPa). In-vitro cell culture tests on the scaffold samples using Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) demonstrated their biocompatibility and indicated osseointegration potential. The scaffolds allowed cells to adhere and spread both on the surface and inside the pore structures. With increasing levels of porosity/interconnectivity, improved cell proliferation is obtained within the pores. It is concluded that samples with 30% porosity exhibit the best biocompatibility. The results suggest that porous titanium scaffolds generated using this manufacturing route have excellent potential for hard tissue engineering applications.
Extension of D Blast Furnace Campaign Life at Tata Steel Ltd
Extension of blast furnace campaign life is highly desired for blast furnace operators mainly because of reduction of operating cost and to avoid capital expenditure cost. Tata Steel Ltd, Jamshedpur plant operates seven blast furnaces with combination of old and new technologies. The focus of Tata Steel Ltd is to push for increasing productivity with good quality product and increasing campaign life. This has been challenging for older furnaces because older furnaces are generally equipped with less automation, old design and old equipment. Good operational practices, appropriate remedial measures, and regular planned maintenance helps to achieve long campaign life of old furnaces. Good operating practices like stable and consistent productivity, control of burden distribution, remedial measures like stack gunning and shotcreting for protection of stack wall, enhanced cooling system, and intermediate stack repair helps to achieve long campaign life of old blast furnaces. This paper describes experiences with the current old equipment and design of Tata Steel’s D Blast Furnace for campaign life extension.