Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 55202

Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

1676
100208
[Keynote Talk]: Multi-Scale Damage and Mechanical Behavior of Sheet Molding Compound Composites Subjected to Fatigue, Dynamic, and Post-Fatigue Dynamic Loadings
Abstract:
Sheet Molding Compounds (SMCs) with special microstructures are very attractive to use in automobile structures especially when they are accidentally subjected to collision type accidents because of their high energy absorption capacity. These are materials designated as standard SMC, Advanced Sheet Molding Compounds (A-SMC), Low-Density SMC (LD-SMC), etc. In this study testing methods have been performed to compare the mechanical responses and damage phenomena of SMC, LD-SMC, and A-SMC; under quasi-static and high strain rate tensile tests. The paper also aims at investigating the effect of an initial pre-damage induced by fatigue on the tensile dynamic behavior of A-SMC. In the case of SMCs and A-SMCs, whatever the fibers orientation and applied strain rate are, the first observed phenomenon of damage corresponds to decohesion of the fiber-matrix interface which is followed by coalescence and multiplication of these micro-cracks and their propagations. For LD-SMCs damage mechanisms depends on the presence of Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) and fibers orientation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1675
98974
The Effect of Adhesion on the Frictional Hysteresis Loops at a Rough Interface
Abstract:
Frictional hysteresis is the phenomenon in which mechanical contacts are subject to small (compared to contact area) oscillating tangential displacements. In the presence of adhesion at the interface, the contact repulsive force increases leading to a higher static friction force and pre-sliding displacement. This paper proposes a boundary element model (BEM) for the adhesive frictional hysteresis contact at the interface of two contacting bodies of arbitrary geometries. In this model, adhesion is represented by means of a Dugdale approximation of the total work of adhesion at local areas with a very small gap between the two bodies. The frictional contact is divided into sticking and slipping regions in order to take into account the transition from stick to slip (pre-sliding regime). In the pre-sliding regime, the stick and slip regions are defined based on the local values of shear stress and normal pressure. In the studied cases, a fixed normal force is applied to the interface and the friction force varies in such a way to start gross sliding in one direction reciprocally. For the first case, the problem is solved at the smooth interface between a ball and a flat for different values of work of adhesion. It is shown that as the work of adhesion increases, both static friction and pre-sliding distance increase due to the increase in the contact repulsive force. For the second case, the rough interface between a glass ball against a silicon wafer and a DLC (Diamond-Like Carbon) coating is considered. The work of adhesion is assumed to be identical for both interfaces. As adhesion depends on the interface roughness, the corresponding contact repulsive force is different for these interfaces. For the smoother interface, a larger contact repulsive force and consequently, a larger static friction force and pre-sliding distance are observed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1674
98478
Microstructure and Corrosion Properties of Pulsed Current Gas Metal Arc Welded Narrow Groove and Ultra-Narrow Groove of 304 LN Austenitic Stainless Steel
Abstract:
Two different groove sizes 13.6 mm (narrow groove) and 7.5 mm (ultra-narrow groove) of 304 LN austenitic stainless steel (ASS) plate was welded using pulse gas metal arc welding (P-GMAW). These grooves were welded using multi-pass single seam per layer (MSPPL) deposition technique with full assurance of groove wall fusion. During bead on plate deposition process, the thermal cycle was recorded using strain buster (temperature measuring device). Both the groove has heat affected Zone (HAZ) width of 1-2 mm. After welding, the microstructure studies was done which revealed that there was higher sensitization (Chromium carbide formation in grain boundary) in the HAZ of 13.6 mm groove weldment as compared to the HAZ of 7.5 mm weldment. Electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation test (EPR) was done in 0.5 N H₂SO₄ + 1 M KSCN solution to study the degree of sensitization (DOS) and it was observed that 7.5 mm groove HAZ has lower DOS. Mass deposition in the 13.6 mm weld is higher than 7.5mm groove weld, which naturally induces higher residual stress in 13.6 mm weld. Comparison between microstructural studies and corrosion test summarized that the residual stress affects the sensitization property of welded ASS.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1673
96966
Mechanical Investigation Approach to Optimize the High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel Fe-Based Amorphous Coatings Reinforced by B4C Nanoparticles
Abstract:
Fe-based amorphous feedstock powders are used as the matrix into which various ratios of hard B4C nanoparticles (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 vol.%) as reinforcing agents were prepared using a planetary high-energy mechanical milling. The ball-milled nanocomposite feedstock powders were also sprayed by means of high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) technique. The characteristics of the powder particles and the prepared coating depending on their microstructures and nanohardness were examined in detail using nanoindentation tester. The results showed that the formation of the Fe-based amorphous phase was noticed over the course of high-energy ball milling. It is interesting to note that the nanocomposite coating is divided into two regions, namely, a full amorphous phase region and homogeneous dispersion of B4C nanoparticles with a scale of 10–50 nm in a residual amorphous matrix. As the B4C content increases, the nanohardness of the composite coatings increases, but the fracture toughness begins to decrease at the B4C content higher than 20 vol.%. The optimal mechanical properties are obtained with 15 vol.% B4C due to the suitable content and uniform distribution of nanoparticles. Consequently, the changes in mechanical properties of the coatings were attributed to the changes in the brittle to ductile transition by adding B4C nanoparticles.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1672
96718
Non-Linear Load-Deflection Response of Shape Memory Alloys-Reinforced Composite Cylindrical Shells under Uniform Radial Load
Abstract:
Shape memory alloys (SMA) are often implemented in smart structures as the active components. Their ability to recover large displacements has been used in many applications, including structural stability/response enhancement and active structural acoustic control. SMA wires or fibers can be embedded with composite cylinders to increase their critical buckling load, improve their load-deflection behavior, and reduce the radial deflections under various thermo-mechanical loadings. This paper presents a semi-analytical investigation on the non-linear load-deflection response of SMA-reinforced composite circular cylindrical shells. The cylinder shells are under uniform external pressure load. Based on first-order shear deformation shell theory (FSDT), the equilibrium equations of the structure are derived. One-dimensional simplified Brinson’s model is used for determining the SMA recovery force due to its simplicity and accuracy. Airy stress function and Galerkin technique are used to obtain non-linear load-deflection curves. The results are verified by comparing them with those in the literature. Several parametric studies are conducted in order to investigate the effect of SMA volume fraction, SMA pre-strain value, and SMA activation temperature on the response of the structure. It is shown that suitable usage of SMA wires results in a considerable enhancement in the load-deflection response of the shell due to the generation of the SMA tensile recovery force.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1671
96692
Preparation of Nb Silicide-Based Alloy Powder by Hydrogenation-Dehydrogenation (HDH) Reaction
Abstract:
The Nb silicide-based alloy has the excellent high-temperature strength and relatively lower density than the Ni-based superalloy; therefore, it has been receiving a lot of attention for the next generation high-temperature material. To enhance the high temperature creep property and oxidation resistance, Si was added to the Nb-based alloy, resulting in a multi-phase microstructure with metal solid solution and silicide phase. Since the silicide phase has a low machinability due to its brittle nature, it is necessary to fabricate components using the powder metallurgy. However, powder manufacturing techniques for the alloys have not yet been developed. In this study, we tried to fabricate Nb-based alloy powder by the hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reaction. The Nb-based alloy ingot was prepared by vacuum arc melting and it was annealed in the hydrogen atmosphere for the hydrogenation. After annealing, the hydrogen concentration was increased from 0.004wt% to 1.22wt% and Nb metal phase was transformed to Nb hydride phase. The alloy after hydrogenation could be easily pulverized into powder by ball milling due to its brittleness. For dehydrogenation, the alloy powders were annealed in the vacuum atmosphere. After vacuum annealing, the hydrogen concentration was decreased to 0.003wt% and Nb hydride phase was transformed back to Nb metal phase.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1670
96658
Preparation and Characterization of Hybrid Perovskite Enhanced with PVDF for Pressure Sensing
Abstract:
In this paper pressure detectors were synthesized and characterized using hybrid perovskite/PVDF composites as an active layer. Methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI₃) was synthesized from methylammonium iodide (MAI) (CH₃NH₃I) and lead iodide (PbI₂). Composites of perovskite/PVDF using different weight ratio were prepared as the active material. PVDF with weights percentages of 6%, 8%, and 10% was used. All prepared materials were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectrum (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A Versastat 4 Potentiostat Galvanostat instrument was used to perform the current-voltage characteristics of the fabricated sensors. The pressure sensors exhibited a voltage increase with applying different forces. Also, the current-voltage characteristics (CV) showed different effects with applying forces. So, the results showed a good pressure sensing performance.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1669
96630
Preparation of Magnetic Hydroxyapatite Composite by Wet Chemical Process for Phycobiliproteins Adsorption
Abstract:
Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAp) can be applied to the fabrication of bone replacement materials, the composite of dental filling, and the adsorption of biomolecules and dyes. The integration of HAp and magnetic materials would offer several advantages for bio-separation process because the magnetic adsorbents is capable of recovered by applied magnetic field. C-phycocyanin (C-PC) and Allophycocyanin (APC), isolated from Spirulina platensis, can be used in fluorescent labeling probes, health care foods and clinical diagnostic reagents. Although the purification of C-PC and APC are reported by HAp adsorption, the adsorption of C-PC and APC by magnetic HAp composites was not reported yet. Therefore, the fabrication of HAp with magnetic silica nanoparticles for proteins adsorption was investigated in this work. First, the magnetic silica particles were prepared by covering silica layer on Fe3O4 nanoparticles with a reverse micelle method. Then, the [email protected] nanoparticles were mixed with calcium carbonate to obtain magnetic silica/calcium carbonate composites ([email protected]/CaCO3). The [email protected]/CaCO3 was further reacted with K2HPO4 for preparing the magnetic silica/hydroxyapatite composites ([email protected]/HAp). The adsorption experiments indicated that the adsorption capacity of [email protected]/HAp toward C-PC and APC were highest at pH 6. The adsorption of C-PC and APC by [email protected]/HAp could be correlated by the pseudo-second-order model, indicating chemical adsorption dominating the adsorption process. Furthermore, the adsorption data showed that the adsorption of [email protected]/HAp toward C-PC and APC followed the Langmuir isotherm. The isoelectric points of C-PC and APC were around 5.0. Additionally, the zeta potential data showed the [email protected]/HAp composite was negative charged at pH 6. Accordingly, the adsorption mechanism of [email protected]/HAp toward C-PC and APC should be governed by hydrogen bonding rather than electrostatic interaction. On the other hand, as compared to C-PC, the [email protected]/HAp shows higher adsorption affinity toward APC. Although the [email protected]/HAp cannot recover C-PC and APC from Spirulina platensis homogenate, the [email protected]/HAp can be applied to separate C-PC and APC.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1668
96629
High-Performance Li Doped CuO/Reduced Graphene Oxide Flexible Supercapacitor Electrode
Abstract:
High-performance Li: CuO/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) flexible electrodes for supercapacitors were fabricated via a low-temperature and low-cost route. To increase energy density while maintaining high power density and long-term cyclability, Li was doped to increase the electrical conductivity of CuO particles between RGO flakes. Electrochemical measurements show that the electrical conductivity, specific capacitance, energy density, and rate capability were all enhanced by Li incorporation. The optimized Li:CuO/RGO electrodes show a high energy density of 179.9 Wh/kg and a power density of 900.0 W/kg at a current density of 1 A/g. Cyclic life tests show excellent stability over 10,000 cycles with a capacitance retention of 93.2%. Li doping improves the electrochemical performance of CuO, making CuO a promising pseudocapacitive material for fabricating low-cost excellent supercapacitors.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1667
96583
Process Parameter Study on Friction Push Plug Welding of AA6061 Alloy
Authors:
Abstract:
Friction Push Plug Welding (FPPW) is a solid phase welding suitable for repairing defective welds and filling self-reacting weld keyholes in Friction Stir Welds. In FPPW process, a tapered shaped plug is rotated at high speed and forced into a tapered hole in the substrate. The plug and substrate metal is softened by the increasing temperature generated by friction and material plastic deformation. This paper aims to investigate the effect of process parameters on the quality of the weld. Orthogonal design methods were employed to reduce the amount of experiment. Three values were selected for each process parameter, rotation speed (1500r/min, 2000r/min, 2500r/min), plunge depth (2mm, 3mm, 4mm) and plunge speed (60mm/min, 90mm/min, 120r/min). AA6061aluminum alloy plug and substrate plate was used in the experiment. In a trial test with the plunge depth of 1mm, a noticeable defect appeared due to the short plunge time and insufficient temperature. From the recorded temperature profiles, it was found that the peak temperature increased with the increase of the rotation speed, plunge speed and plunge depth. In the initial stage, the plunge speed was the main factor affecting heat generation, while in the steady state welding stage, the rotation speed played a more important role. The FPPW weld defect includes flash and incomplete penetration in the upper, middle and bottom interface with the substrate. To obtain defect free weld, the higher rotation speed and proper plunge depth were recommended.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1666
96508
Experimental Study of Moisture Effect on the Mechanical Behavior of Flax Fiber Reinforcement
Abstract:
The demand for bio-based materials in semi-structural and structural applications is constantly growing to conform to new environmental policies. Among them, Plant Fiber Reinforced Composites (PFRC) are attractive for the scientific community as well as the industrial world. Due to their relatively low densities and low environmental impact, vegetal fibers appear to be suitable as reinforcing materials for polymers. However, the major issue of plant fibers and PFRC in general is their hydrophilic behavior (high affinity to water molecules). Indeed, when absorbed, water causes fiber swelling and a loss of mechanical properties. Thus, the environmental loadings (moisture, temperature, UV) can strongly affect their mechanical properties and therefore play a critical role in the service life of PFRC. In order to analyze the influence of conditioning at relative humidity on the behavior of flax fiber reinforced composites, a preliminary study on flax fabrics has been conducted. The conditioning of the fabrics in different humid atmospheres made it possible to study the influence of the water content on the hygro-mechanical behavior of flax reinforcement through mechanical tensile tests. This work shows that increasing the relative humidity of the atmosphere induces an increase of the water content in the samples. It also brings up the significant influence of water content on the stiffness and elongation at break of the fabric, while no significant change of the breaking load is detected. Non-linear decrease of flax fabric rigidity and increase of its elongation at maximal force with the increase of water content are observed. It is concluded that water molecules act as a softening agent on flax fabrics. Two kinds of typical tensile curves are identified. Most of the tensile curves of samples show one unique linear region where the behavior appears to be linear prior to the first yarn failure. For some samples in which water content is between 2.7 % and 3.7 % (regardless the conditioning atmosphere), the emergence of a two-linear region behavior is pointed out. This phenomenon could be explained by local heterogeneities of water content which could induce premature local plasticity in some regions of the flax fabric sample behavior.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1665
96417
Investigation of Electrospun Composites Nanofiber of Poly (Lactic Acid)/Hazelnut Shell Powder/Zinc Oxide
Abstract:
In recent years, many researchers focused on nano-size fiber production. Nanofibers have been studied due to their different and superior physical, chemical and mechanical properties. Poly (lactic acid) (PLA), is a type of biodegradable thermoplastic polyester derived from renewable sources used in biomedical owing to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. In addition, zinc oxide is an antibacterial material and hazelnut shell powder is a filling material. In this study, nanofibers were obtained by adding of different ratio Zinc oxide, (ZnO) and hazelnut shell powder at different concentration into Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) by using electrospinning method which is the most common method to obtain nanofibers. After dissolving the granulated polylactic acids in % 1,% 2,% 3 and% 4 with chloroform solvent, they are homogenized by adding tween and hazelnut shell powder at different ratios and then by electrospinning, nanofibers are obtained. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and physical analysis such as density, electrical conductivity, surface tension, viscosity measurement and antimicrobial test were carried out after production process. The resulting structures of the nanofiber possess antimicrobial and antiseptic properties, which are attractive for biomedical applications. The resulting structures of the nanofiber possess antimicrobial, non toxic, self-cleaning and rigid properties, which are attractive for biomedical applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1664
96401
Fabrication of Poly(Ethylene Oxide)/Chitosan/Indocyanine Green Nanoprobe by Co-Axial Electrospinning Method for Early Detection
Abstract:
Early detection of cancer could save human life and quality in insidious cases by advanced biomedical imaging techniques. Designing targeted detection system is necessary in order to protect of healthy cells. Electrospun nanofibers are efficient and targetable nanocarriers which have important properties such as nanometric diameter, mechanical properties, elasticity, porosity and surface area to volume ratio. In the present study, indocyanine green (ICG) organic dye was stabilized and encapsulated in polymer matrix which polyethylene oxide (PEO) and chitosan (CHI) multilayer nanofibers via co-axial electrospinning method at one step. The co-axial electrospun nanofibers were characterized as morphological (SEM), molecular (FT-IR), and entrapment efficiency of Indocyanine Green (ICG) (confocal imaging). Controlled release profile of PEO/CHI/ICG nanofiber was also evaluated up to 40 hours.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1663
96320
Design, Simulation and Fabrication of Electro-Magnetic Pulse Welding Coil and Initial Experimentation
Abstract:
Electro-Magnetic Pulse Welding (EMPW) is a solid state welding process carried out at almost room temperature, in which joining is enabled by high impact velocity deformation. In this process, high voltage capacitor’s stored energy is discharged in an EM coil resulting in a damped, sinusoidal current with an amplitude of several hundred kiloamperes. Due to these transient magnetic fields of few tens of Tesla near the coil is generated. As the conductive (tube) part is positioned in this area, an opposing eddy current is induced in this part. Consequently, high Lorentz forces act on the part, leading to acceleration away from the coil. In case of a tube, it gets compressed under forming velocities of more than 300 meters per second. After passing the joining gap it collides with the second metallic joining rod, leading to the formation of a jet under appropriate collision conditions. Due to the prevailing high pressure, metallurgical bonding takes place. A characteristic feature is the wavy interface resulting from the heavy plastic deformations. In the process, the formation of intermetallic compounds which might deteriorate the weld strength can be avoided, even for metals with dissimilar thermal properties. In order to optimize the process parameters like current, voltage, inductance, coil dimensions, workpiece dimensions, air gap, impact velocity, effective plastic strain, shear stress acting in the welding zone/impact zone etc. are very critical and important to establish. These process parameters could be determined by simulation using Finite Element Methods (FEM) in which electromagnetic –structural couple field analysis is performed. The feasibility of welding could thus be investigated by varying the parameters in the simulation using COMSOL. Simulation results shall be applied in performing the preliminary experiments of welding the different alloy steel tubes and/or alloy steel to other materials. The single turn coil (S.S.304) with field shaper (copper) has been designed and manufactured. The preliminary experiments are performed using existing EMPW facility available Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, India. The experiments are performed at 22kV charged into 64µF capacitor bank and the energy is discharged into single turn EM coil. Welding of axi-symetric components such as aluminum tube and rod has been proven experimentally using EMPW techniques. In this paper EM coil design, manufacturing, Electromagnetic-structural FEM simulation of Magnetic Pulse Welding and preliminary experiment results is reported.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1662
96315
Minimization of the Abrasion Effect of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix on Stainless Steel Injection Nozzle through the Application of Laser Hardening Technique
Abstract:
Currently, laser hardening process is becoming among the most efficient and effective hardening technique due to its significant advantages. The source where heat is generated, the absence of cooling media, self-quenching property, less distortion nature due to localized heat input, environmental friendly behavior and less time to finish the operation are among the main benefits to adopt this technology. This day, a variety of injection machines are used in plastic, textile, electrical and mechanical industries. Due to the fast growing of composite technology, fiber reinforced polymer matrix becoming optional solution to use in these industries. Due, to the abrasion nature of fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite on the injection components, many parts are outdated before the design period. Niko, a company specialized in injection molded products, suffers from the short lifetime of the injection nozzles of the molds, due to the use of fiber reinforced and, therefore, more abrasive polymer matrix. To prolong the lifetime of these molds, hardening the susceptible component like the injecting nozzles was a must. In this paper, the laser hardening process is investigated on Unimax, a type of stainless steel. The investigation to get optimal results for the nozzle-case was performed in three steps. First, the optimal parameters for maximum possible hardenability for the investigated nozzle material is investigated on a flat sample, using experimental testing as well as thermal simulation. Next, the effect of an inclination on the maximum temperature is analyzed both by experimental testing and validation through simulation. Finally, the data combined and applied for the nozzle. This paper describes possible strategies and methods for laser hardening of the nozzle to reach hardness of at least 720 HV for the material investigated. It has been proven, that the nozzle can be laser hardened to over 900 HV with the option of even higher results when more precise positioning of the laser can be assured.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1661
96277
Wet Chemical Synthesis for Fe-Ni Alloy Nanocrystalline Powder
Abstract:
We have synthesized nanocrystalline Fe-Ni alloy powders where Ni varies as 10, 30 and 50 mole% by a wet chemical route (sol-gel auto-combustion) followed by reduction in hydrogen atmosphere. The ratio of citrate to nitrate was maintained at 0.3 where citric acid has worked as a fuel during combustion. The reduction of combusted powders was done at 700°C/1h in hydrogen atmosphere using an atmosphere controlled quartz tube furnace. Phase and microstructure analysis has shown the formation of α-(Fe,Ni) and γ-(Fe,Ni) phases after reduction. An increase in Ni concentration resulted in more γ-(Fe,Ni) formation where complete γ-(Fe,Ni) formation was achieved at 50 mole% Ni concentration. Formation of particles below 50 nm size range was confirmed using Scherrer’s formula and Transmission Electron Microscope. The work is aimed at the effect of Ni concentration on phase, microstructure and magnetic properties of synthesized alloy powders.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1660
95715
Effect of Substrate Temperature on Structure and Properties of Sputtered Transparent Conducting Film of La-Doped BaSnO₃
Abstract:
Lanthanum (La) doped Barium Tin Oxide (BaSnO₃) film is an excellent alternative for expensive Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs) film such as Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). However single crystal film of La-doped BaSnO₃ has been reported with a good amount of conductivity and transparency but in order to improve its reachability, it is important to grow doped BaSO₃ films on an inexpensive substrate. La-doped BaSnO₃ thin films have been grown on quartz substrate by Radio Frequency (RF) sputtering at a different substrate temperature (from 200⁰C to 750⁰C). The thickness of the film measured was varying from 360nm to 380nm with varying substrate temperature. Structure, optical and electrical properties have been studied. The carrier concentration is seen to be decreasing as we enhance the substrate temperature while mobility found to be increased up to 9.3 cm²/V-S. At low substrate temperature resistivity found was lower (< 3x10⁻³ ohm-cm) while sudden enhancement was seen as substrate temperature raises and the trend continues further with increasing substrate temperature. Optical transmittance is getting better with higher substrate temperature from 70% at 200⁰C to > 80% at 750⁰C. Overall, understanding of changes in microstructure, electrical and optical properties of a thin film by varying substrate temperature has been reported successfully.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1659
95420
Free Vibration of Axially Functionally Graded Simply Supported Beams Using Differential Transformation Method
Authors:
Abstract:
Free vibration analysis of homogenous and axially functionally graded simply supported beams within the context of Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is presented in this paper. The material properties of the beams are assumed to obey the linear law distribution. The effective elastic modulus of the composite was predicted by using the rule of mixture. Here, the complexities which appear in solving differential equation of transverse vibration of composite beams which limit the analytical solution to some special cases are overcome using a relatively new approach called the Differential Transformation Method. This technique is applied for solving differential equation of transverse vibration of axially functionally graded beams. Natural frequencies and corresponding normalized mode shapes are calculated for different Young&rsquo;s modulus ratios. MATLAB code is designed to solve the transformed differential equation of the beam. Comparison of the present results with the exact solutions proves the effectiveness, the accuracy, the simplicity, and computational stability of the differential transformation method. The effect of the Young&rsquo;s modulus ratio on the normalized natural frequencies and mode shapes is found to be very important.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1658
95413
Green Function and Eshelby Tensor Based on Mindlin’s 2nd Gradient Model: An Explicit Study of Spherical Inclusion Case
Abstract:
Using Fourier transform and based on the Mindlin&#39;s 2nd gradient model that involves two length scale parameters, the Green&#39;s function, the Eshelby tensor, and the Eshelby-like tensor for a spherical inclusion are derived. It is proved that the Eshelby tensor consists of two parts; the classical Eshelby tensor and a gradient part including the length scale parameters which enable the interpretation of the size effect. When the strain gradient is not taken into account, the obtained Green&#39;s function and Eshelby tensor reduce to its analogue based on the classical elasticity. The Eshelby tensor in and outside the inclusion, the volume average of the gradient part and the Eshelby-like tensor are explicitly obtained. Unlike the classical Eshelby tensor, the results show that the components of the new Eshelby tensor vary with the position and the inclusion dimensions. It is demonstrated that the contribution of the gradient part should not be neglected.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1657
95323
Luminescent and Conductive Cathode Buffer Layer for Enhanced Power Conversion Efficiency of Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells
Abstract:
In this work, we demonstrate that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs) could be improved significantly by using ZnO doped with Aluminum (Al) and Europium (Eu) as cathode buffer layer (CBL). The ZnO:Al,Eu nanoparticle layer has broadband absorption in the ultraviolet (300-400 nm) region. The Al doping contributes to the enhancement in the conductivity whereas Eu doping significantly improves emission in the visible region. Moreover, this emission overlaps with the absorption range of polymer poly [N -9′-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′,3′- benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) significantly and results in an enhanced absorption by the active layer and hence high photocurrent. An increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.8% has been obtained for ZnO: Al,Eu CBL as compared to 5.9% for pristine ZnO, in the inverted device configuration ITO/CBL/active layer/MoOx/Al. The active layer comprises of a blend of PCDTBT donor and [6-6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) acceptor. In the reference device pristine ZnO has been used as CBL, whereas in the other one ZnO:Al,Eu has been used as CBL. The role of the luminescent CBL layer is to down-shift the UV light into visible range which overlaps with the absorption of PCDTBT polymer, resulting in an energy transfer from ZnO:Al,Eu to PCDTBT polymer and the absorption by active layer is enhanced as revealed by transient spectroscopy. This enhancement resulted in an increase in the short circuit current which contributes in an increased PCE in the device employing ZnO: Al,Eu CBL. Thus, the luminescent ZnO: Al, Eu nanoparticle CBL has great potential in organic solar cells.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1656
95321
Thermoelectric Properties of Spark Plasma Sintered Te Doped Cu₃SbSe₄: Promising Thermoelectric Material
Abstract:
Various groups have attempted on enhancing the thermoelectric figure-of-merit (ZT) of the Cu₃SbSe₄ compound by employing doping process. Efforts are made to study the thermoelectric performance of Cu₃SbSe₄ material doped with Te in different compositions (i. e. Cu₃Sb₁₋ₓTeₓSe₄, x = 0.005, 0.01, 0.015, 0.02). The different doping concentration has been selected to identify the suitable doping to increase the thermoelectric performance. Compared to pristine Cu₃SbSe₄, an enhancement of thermoelectric figure-of-merit was achieved for 0.005 Te doped Cu₃SbSe₄. This improvement can be attributed to the reduction of thermal conductivity for 0.005 Te doped Cu₃SbSe₄.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1655
95289
Morphotropic Phase Boundary in Ferromagnets: Unusual Magnetoelastic Behavior In Tb₁₋ₓNdₓCo₂
Abstract:
The morphotropic phase boundary (MPB); a boundary between two different crystallographic symmetries in the composition–temperature phase diagram has been widely studied in ferroelectrics and recently has drawn interest in ferromagnets for obtaining enhanced large field-induced strain. At MPB, the system gets a compressed free energy state, which allows the polarization to freely rotate and hence results in a high magnetoelastic response (e.g., high magnetization, low coercivity, and large magnetostriction). Based on the same mechanism, we designed MPB in a ferromagnetic Tb₁₋ₓNdₓCo₂ system. The temperature-dependent magnetization curves showed spin reorientation (SR); which can be explained by a two-sublattice model. Contrary to previously reported MPB involved ferromagnetic systems, the MPB composition of Tb₀.₃₅Nd₀.₆₅Co₂ exhibits a low saturation magnetization (MS), indicating a compensation of the Tb and Nd magnetic moments at MPB. The coercive field (HC) under a low magnetic field and first anisotropy constant (K₁) shows a minimum value at MPB composition of x=0.65. A detailed spin configuration diagram is provided for the Tb₁₋ₓNdₓCo₂ around the composition for the anisotropy compensation; this can guide the development of novel magnetostrictive materials. The anisotropic magnetostriction (λS) first decreased until x=0.8 and then continuously increased in the negative direction with further increase of Nd concentration. In addition, the large ratio between magnetostriction and the absolute values of the first anisotropy constant (λS/K₁) appears at MPB, indicating that Tb₀.₃₅Nd₀.₆₅Co₂ has good magnetostrictive properties. Present work shows an anomalous type of MPB in ferromagnetic materials, revealing that MPB can also lead to a weakening of magnetoelastic behavior as shown in the ferromagnetic Tb₁₋ₓNdₓCo₂ system. Our work shows the universal presence of MPB in ferromagnetic materials and suggests the differences between different ferromagnetic MPB systems that are important for substantial improvement of magnetic and magnetostrictive properties. Based on the results of this study, similar MPB effects might be achieved in other ferroic systems that can be used for technological applications. The finding of magnetic MPB in the ferromagnetic system leads to some important significances. First, it provides a better understanding of the fundamental concept of spin reorientation transitions (SRT) like ferro-ferro transitions are not only reorientation of magnetization but also crystal symmetry change upon magnetic ordering. Second, the flattened free energy corresponding to a low energy barrier for magnetization rotation and enhanced magnetoelastic response near MPB. Third, to attain large magnetostriction with MPB approach two terminal compounds have different easy magnetization directions below Curie temperature Tc in order to accomplish the weakening of magnetization anisotropy at MPB (as in ferroelectrics), thus easing the magnetic domain switching and the lattice distortion difference between two terminal compounds should be large enough, e.g., lattice distortion of R symmetry ˃˃ lattice distortion of T symmetry). So that the MPB composition agrees to a nearly isotropic state along with large ‘net’ lattice distortion, which is revealed in a higher value of magnetostriction.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1654
95209
Preparation Non-Woven Nanofiber Structures for Uniform and Rapid Drug Releasing Applications Using an Electrospinning Process
Abstract:
Uniform and rapid drug release are important for trauma dressing application. Low glass transition polymer system and non-woven nanofiber structures as the designs conduct rapid-release characteristics. In this study, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polysulfone, and polystyrene were dissolved in dimethylformamide to form precursor solution. These solutions were blended with vitamin C to form the electrospinning solutions. The non-woven nanofibers structures were successfully prepared using an electrospinning process. The following instruments were used to analyze the characteristics of non-woven nanofibers structures: Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The AFM was used to scan the nanofibers. 3D Graphics were applied to explore the surface morphology of nanofibers. FE-SEM was used to explore the morphology of non-woven structures. XRD was used to identify crystal structures in the non-woven structures. The evolution of morphology of non-woven structures was changed dramatically in different durations, because of the moisture absorption and decreasing glass transition temperature; the non-woven nanofiber structures can be applied to uniform and rapid drug release for trauma dressing application.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1653
95191
Primary-Color Emitting Photon Energy Storage Nanophosphors for Developing High Contrast Latent Fingerprints
Abstract:
Commercially available long afterglow /persistent phosphors are proprietary materials and hence the exact composition and phase responsible for their luminescent characteristics such as initial intensity and afterglow luminescence time are not known. Further to generate various emission colors, commercially available persistence phosphors are physically blended with fluorescent organic dyes such as rodhamine, kiton and methylene blue etc. Blending phosphors with organic dyes results into complete color coverage in visible spectra, however with time, such phosphors undergo thermal and photo-bleaching. This results in the loss of their true emission color. Hence, the current work is dedicated studies on inorganic based thermally and chemically stable primary color emitting nanophosphors namely SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+, (CaZn)TiO3:Pr3+, and Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+, Dy3+. SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphor exhibits a strong excitation in UV and visible region (280-470 nm) with a broad emission peak centered at 514 nm is the characteristic emission of parity allowed 4f65d1→4f7 transitions of Eu2+ (8S7/2→2D5/2). Sunlight excitable Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+,Dy3+ nanophosphors emits blue color (464 nm) with Commercial international de I’Eclairage (CIE) coordinates to be (0.15, 0.13) with a color purity of 74 % with afterglow time of > 5 hours for dark adapted human eyes. (CaZn)TiO3:Pr3+ phosphor system possess high color purity (98%) which emits intense, stable and narrow red emission at 612 nm due intra 4f transitions (1D2 → 3H4) with afterglow time of 0.5 hour. Unusual property of persistence luminescence of these nanophoshphors supersedes background effects without losing sensitive information these nanophosphors offer several advantages of visible light excitation, negligible substrate interference, high contrast bifurcation of ridge pattern, non-toxic nature revealing finger ridge details of the fingerprints. Both level 1 and level 2 features from a fingerprint can be studied which are useful for used classification, indexing, comparison and personal identification. facile methodology to extract high contrast fingerprints on non-porous and porous substrates using a chemically inert, visible light excitable, and nanosized phosphorescent label in the dark has been presented. The chemistry of non-covalent physisorption interaction between the long afterglow phosphor powder and sweat residue in fingerprints has been discussed in detail. Real-time fingerprint development on porous and non-porous substrates has also been performed. To conclude, apart from conventional dark vision applications, as prepared primary color emitting afterglow phosphors are potentional candidate for developing high contrast latent fingerprints.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1652
95112
Agile Implementation of 'PULL' Principles in a Manufacturing Process Chain for Aerospace Composite Parts
Abstract:
Market forecasts show a significant increase in the demand for aircraft within the next two decades and production rates will be adapted accordingly. Improvements and optimizations in the industrial system are becoming more important to cope with future challenges in manufacturing and assembly. Highest quality standards have to be met for aerospace parts, whereas cost effective production in industrial systems and methodologies are also a key driver. A look at other industries like e.g., automotive shows well established processes to streamline existing manufacturing systems. In this paper, the implementation of 'PULL' principles in an existing manufacturing process chain for a large scale composite part is presented. A nonlinear extrapolation based on 'Little's Law' showed a risk of a significant increase of parts needed in the process chain to meet future demand. A project has been set up to mitigate the risk whereas the methodology has been changed from a traditional milestone approach in the beginning towards an agile way of working in the end in order to facilitate immediate benefits in the shop-floor. Finally, delivery rates could be increased avoiding more semi-finished parts in the process chain (work in progress & inventory) by the successful implementation of the 'PULL' philosophy in the shop-floor between the work stations. Lessons learned during the running project as well as implementation and operations phases are discussed in order to share best practices.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1651
94980
Reliability of Dissimilar Metal Soldered Joint in Fabrication of Electromagnetic Interference Shielded Door Frame
Abstract:
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) shielded doors made from brass extruded channels need to be welded with shielded enclosures to attain optimum shielding performance. Control of welding induced distortion is a problem in welding dissimilar metals like steel and brass. In this research, soldering of the steel-brass joint has been proposed to avoid weld distortion. The material used for brass channel is UNS C36000. The thickness of brass is defined by the manufacturing process, i.e. extrusion. The thickness of shielded enclosure material (ASTM A36) can be varied to produce joint between the dissimilar metals. Steel sections of different gauges are soldered using (91% tin, 9% zinc) solder to the brass, and strength of joint is measured by standard test procedures. It is observed that thin steel sheets produce a stronger bond with brass. The steel sections further require to be welded with shielded enclosure steel sheets through TIG welding process. Stresses and deformation in the vicinity of soldered portion is calculated through FE simulation. Crack formation in soldered area is also studied through experimental work. It has been found that in thin sheets deformation produced due to applied force is localized and has no effect on soldered joint area whereas in thick sheets profound cracks have been observed in soldered joint. The shielding effectiveness of EMI shielded door is compromised due to these cracks. The shielding effectiveness of the specimens is tested and results are compared.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1650
94686
Computational Modeling of Load Limits of Carbon Fibre Composite Laminates Subjected to Low-Velocity Impact Utilizing Convolution-Based Fast Fourier Data Filtering Algorithms
Abstract:
In this work, we developed a computational model to predict ply level failure in impacted composite laminates. Data obtained from physical testing from flat and round nose impacts of 8-, 16-, 24-ply laminates were considered. Routine inspections of the tested laminates were carried out to approximate ply by ply inflicted damage incurred. Plots consisting of load–time, load–deflection, and energy–time history were drawn to approximate the inflicted damages. Impact test generated unwanted data logged due to restrictions on testing and logging systems were also filtered. Conventional filters (built-in, statistical, and numerical) reliably predicted load thresholds for relatively thin laminates such as eight and sixteen ply panels. However, for relatively thick laminates such as twenty-four ply laminates impacted by flat nose impact generated clipped data which can just be de-noised using oscillatory algorithms. The literature search reveals that modern oscillatory data filtering and extrapolation algorithms have scarcely been utilized. This investigation reports applications of filtering and extrapolation of the clipped data utilising fast Fourier Convolution algorithm to predict load thresholds. Some of the results were related to the impact-induced damage areas identified with Ultrasonic C-scans and found to be in acceptable agreement. Based on consistent findings, utilizing of modern data filtering and extrapolation algorithms to data logged by the existing machines has efficiently enhanced data interpretations without resorting to extra resources. The algorithms could be useful for impact-induced damage approximations of similar cases.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1649
94682
Surface Coatings of Boards Made from Alternative Materials
Abstract:
In recent years, alternative materials, such as annual plants or recycled and waste materials are becoming more and more popular input material for the production of composite materials. They can be used for the production of insulation boards, construction boards or furniture boards. Surface finishing of those boards is essential for utilization in furniture. However, some difficulties could occur during coating of boards from alternative materials; physical and chemical differences from conventional particleboards need to be considered. From the physical aspects, surface soundness and surface roughness mainly determine the quality of the surface. Since surface layers of boards from alternative materials have often lower density, these characteristics could be deteriorated and thus the production process needs to be optimized. Also, chemical reactions of board’s material with coating could be undesirable. The objective of this study is to evaluate the parameters affecting the surface quality of boards made form alternative materials and to find possibilities of the coating of these boards. In this study, boards of particles from rapeseed stems were produced using a laboratory press. Surface soundness, as representatives of mechanical properties and surface roughness, as representative of physical properties, were measured on boards from rapeseed stems. Results clearly indicated that produced boards had lower surface quality than commercially produced particle boards from wood. Therefore, higher thickness of surface coating on rapeseed based boards is needed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1648
94371
Waveguiding in an InAs Quantum Dots Nanomaterial for Scintillation Applications
Abstract:
InAs Quantum Dots (QDs) in a GaAs matrix is a well-documented luminescent material with high light yield, as well as thermal and ionizing radiation tolerance due to quantum confinement. These benefits can be leveraged for high-efficiency, room temperature scintillation detectors. The proposed scintillator is composed of InAs QDs acting as luminescence centers in a GaAs stopping medium, which also acts as a waveguide. This system has appealing potential properties, including high light yield (~240,000 photons/MeV) and fast capture of photoelectrons (2-5ps), orders of magnitude better than currently used inorganic scintillators, such as LYSO or BaF2. The high refractive index of the GaAs matrix (n=3.4) ensures light emitted by the QDs is waveguided, which can be collected by an integrated photodiode (PD). Scintillation structures were grown using Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and consist of thick GaAs waveguiding layers with embedded sheets of modulation p-type doped InAs QDs. An AlAs sacrificial layer is grown between the waveguide and the GaAs substrate for epitaxial lift-off to separate the scintillator film and transfer it to a low-index substrate for waveguiding measurements. One consideration when using a low-density material like GaAs (~5.32 g/cm³) as a stopping medium is the matrix thickness in the dimension of radiation collection. Therefore, luminescence properties of very thick (4-20 microns) waveguides with up to 100 QD layers were studied. The optimization of the medium included QD shape, density, doping, and AlGaAs barriers at the waveguide surfaces to prevent non-radiative recombination. To characterize the efficiency of QD luminescence, low temperature photoluminescence (PL) (77-450 K) was measured and fitted using a kinetic model. The PL intensity degrades by only 40% at RT, with an activation energy for electron escape from QDs to the barrier of ~60 meV. Attenuation within the waveguide (WG) is a limiting factor for the lateral size of a scintillation detector, so PL spectroscopy in the waveguiding configuration was studied. Spectra were measured while the laser (630 nm) excitation point was scanned away from the collecting fiber coupled to the edge of the WG. The QD ground state PL peak at 1.04 eV (1190 nm) was inhomogeneously broadened with FWHM of 28 meV (33 nm) and showed a distinct red-shift due to self-absorption in the QDs. Attenuation stabilized after traveling over 1 mm through the WG, at about 3 cm⁻¹. Finally, a scintillator sample was used to test detection and evaluate timing characteristics using 5.5 MeV alpha particles. With a 2D waveguide and a small area of integrated PD, the collected charge averaged 8.4 x10⁴ electrons, corresponding to a collection efficiency of about 7%. The scintillation response had 80 ps noise-limited time resolution and a QD decay time of 0.6 ns. The data confirms unique properties of this scintillation detector which can be potentially much faster than any currently used inorganic scintillator.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1647
94345
Design of Nano-Reinforced Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic Wheel for Lightweight Vehicles with Integrated Electrical Hub Motor
Abstract:
The increasing attention is given to the issues of environmental pollution and climate change is exponentially stimulating the development of electrically propelled vehicles powered by renewable energy, in particular, the solar one. Given the small amount of solar energy that can be stored and subsequently transformed into propulsive energy, it is necessary to develop vehicles with high mechanical, electrical and aerodynamic efficiencies along with reduced masses. The reduction of the masses is of fundamental relevance especially for the unsprung masses, that is the assembly of those elements that do not undergo a variation of their distance from the ground (wheel, suspension system, hub, upright, braking system). Therefore, the reduction of unsprung masses is fundamental in decreasing the rolling inertia and improving the drivability, comfort, and performance of the vehicle. This principle applies even more in solar propelled vehicles, equipped with an electric motor that is connected directly to the wheel hub. In this solution, the electric motor is integrated inside the wheel. Since the electric motor is part of the unsprung masses, the development of compact and lightweight solutions is of fundamental importance. The purpose of this research is the design development and optimization of a CFRP 16 wheel hub motor for solar propulsion vehicles that can carry up to four people. In addition to trying to maximize aspects of primary importance such as mass, strength, and stiffness, other innovative constructive aspects were explored. One of the main objectives has been to achieve a high geometric packing in order to ensure a reduced lateral dimension, without reducing the power exerted by the electric motor. In the final solution, it was possible to realize a wheel hub motor assembly completely comprised inside the rim width, for a total lateral overall dimension of less than 100 mm. This result was achieved by developing an innovative connection system between the wheel and the rotor with a double purpose: centering and transmission of the driving torque. This solution with appropriate interlocking noses allows the transfer of high torques and at the same time guarantees both the centering and the necessary stiffness of the transmission system. Moreover, to avoid delamination in critical areas, evaluated by means of FEM analysis using 3D Hashin damage criteria, electrospun nanofibrous mats have been interleaved between CFRP critical layers. In order to reduce rolling resistance, the rim has been designed to withstand high inflation pressure. Laboratory tests have been performed on the rim using the Digital Image Correlation technique (DIC). The wheel has been tested for fatigue bending according to E/ECE/324 R124e.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):