Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 50781

Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

1635
88729
Investigation on Mesh Sensitivity of a Transient Model for Nozzle Clogging
Abstract:
A transient model for nozzle clogging has been developed, and successfully validated against a laboratory experiment. Key steps of clogging are considered: transport of particles by turbulent flow towards the nozzle wall; interactions between fluid flow and nozzle wall, and the adhesion of the particle on the wall; the growth of the clog layer and its interaction with the flow. The current paper is to investigate the mesh (size and type) sensitivity of the model in both 2 and 3 dimensions. It is found that the algorithm for clog growth alone excluding the flow effect is insensitive to the mesh type and size, but the calculation including flow becomes sensitive to the mesh quality. The use of 2D meshes leads to overestimation of the clog growth because the 3D nature of flow in the boundary layer cannot be properly solved by 2D calculation. 3D simulation with tetrahedron mesh can also lead to an error estimation of the clog growth. A mesh-independent result can be achieved with hexahedral mesh, or at least with triangular prism (inflation layer) for near-wall regions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1634
88423
Experimental Investigation of the Static and Dynamic Behaviour of Double Lap Joints
Abstract:
For many applications, adhesively bonded assemblies have gained an increasing interest in the industry due to several advantages over welding, riveting and bolting, such as reduction of stress concentrations, lightness, low cost and easy manufacturing. This work is largely concerned to show the effects of the loading rate of the adhesively bonded joints under different speed rates. The tensile tests were conducted at four different rates; static (5mm/min, 50mm/min) and dynamic tests (1m/s, and 10m/s). An attempt was made to determine the damage kinetic and a comparison between the use of aluminium and composite laminate substrates is introduced. Aluminum T6082 and glass/vinylester laminated composite Substrates were used to construct aluminum/aluminum and laminate/laminate specimens. The adhesive used in this study was Araldite 2015. The results showed the effects of the loading rate évolution on the double joint strength. The comparison of the results of static and dynamic tests showed a raise of the strength of the specimens while the load velocity is elevated. In the case of composite substrates double joint lap, the stiffness increased by more than 60% between static and dynamic tests. However, in the case of aluminum substrates, the rigidity improved about 28% from static to moderately high velocity loading. For both aluminum and composite double joint lap, the strength increased by approximately 25% when the tensile velocity is increased from 5 mm/min to 50 mm/min (static tests). Nevertheless, the tensile velocity is extended to 1m/s the strength increased by 13% and 25% respectively for composite and aluminum substrates.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1633
88313
Fabrication of Highly Roughened Zirconia Surface by a Room Temperature Spray Coating
Abstract:
Zirconia has biological, mechanical and optical properties, so, it used as a dental implant material in human body. But, it is difficult to form directly bonding with living tissues after the procedure and induces the falling away from implanted parts of the body. To improve this phenomenon, it is essential to increase the surface roughness of zirconia implants and induce a forming-ability of strong bonds. In this study, we performed a room temperature spray coating on zirconia specimen to obtain a highly roughened zirconia surface. To get optimal surface roughness, we controlled the distance between the nozzle and the substrate, coating times and powder condition. Bonding microstructure, surface roughness, and chemical composition of the coating layer were observed by SEM, XRD and roughness tester.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1632
88232
Granule Morphology of Zirconia Powder with Solid Content on Two-Fluid Spray Drying
Abstract:
Granule morphology and microstructure were affected by slurry viscosity, chemical composition, particle size and spray drying process. In this study, we investigated granule morphology of zirconia powder with solid content on two-fluid spray drying. Zirconia granules after spray drying show sphere-like shapes with a diameter of 40-70 μm at low solid contents (30 or 40 wt%) and specific surface area of 5.1-5.6 m²/g. But a donut-like shape with a few cracks were observed on zirconia granules prepared from the slurry of high solid content (50 wt %), green compacts after cold isostatic pressing under the pressure of 200 MPa have the density of 2.1-2.2 g/cm³ and homogeneous fracture surface by complete destruction of granules. After the sintering at 1500 °C for 2 h, all specimens have relative density of 96.2-98.3 %. With increasing a solid content from 30 to 50 wt%, grain size increased from 0.3 to 0.6 μm, but relative density was inversely decreased from 98.3 to 96.2 %.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1631
87828
Fluorescent Analysis of Gold Nanoclusters-Wool Keratin Addition to Copper Ions
Abstract:
With the increase of global population, it is of importance for the safe water supply, while, the water-monitoring method with the capability of rapidness, low-cost, green and robustness remains unsolved. In this paper, gold nanoclusters-wool keratin is added into copper ions measured by fluorescent method in order to probe copper ions in aqueous solution. The fluorescent results show that gold nanoclusters-wool keratin exhibits high stability of pHs, while it is sensitive to temperature and time. Based on Gauss fitting method, the results exhibit that the slope of gold nanoclusters-wool keratin with pH resolution under acidic condition is higher compared to it under alkaline solutions. Besides, gold nanoclusters-wool keratin added into copper ions shows a fluorescence turn-off response transferring from red to blue under UV light, leading to the dramatically decreased fluorescent intensity of gold nanoclusters-wool keratin solution located at 690 nm. Moreover, the limited concentration of copper ions tested by gold nanoclusters-wool keratin system is around 1 µmol/L, which meets the need of detection standards. The fitting slope of Stern-Volmer plot at low concentration of copper ions is larger than it at high concentrations, which indicates that aggregated gold nanoclusters are from small amounts to large numbers with the increasing concentration of copper ions. It is expected to provide novel method and materials for copper ions testing with low cost, high efficiency, and easy operability.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1630
87527
Effect of Hollow and Solid Recycled-Poly Fibers on the Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Short-Fiber-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to give a comprehensive overview of the effect of short hollow and solid recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers in different breaking tenacities reinforced isotactic polypropylene (iPP) composites on the mechanical and morphological properties. Composites of iPP/3, 7and 10 wt% of solid and hollow recycled PET fibers were prepared by batched melt mixing in a Brabender. The incorporation of solid recycled-PET fibers in isotactic polypropylene increase Young’s modulus of iPP relatively, meanwhile it increased proportionally with hollow fibers content. An improvement of the storage modulus, and a shift up in glass transition temperatures of hollow fibers/iPP composites was determined by DMA results. The morphology of composites was determined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical polarized microscopy (OM) showing a good dispersion of the hollow fibers. Also, their flexible aspect (folding, bending) was observed. But, one weak interaction between the polymer/fibers phases was shown. Polymers can be effectively reinforced with short hollow recycled PET fibers due to their characteristics like recyclability, lightweight and the flexible aspect, which allows the absorbance of the energy of a striker with a minimum damage of the matrix. Aiming to improve the affinity matrix–recycled hollow PET fibers, it is suggested the addition of compatibilizers, as maleic anhydride.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1629
86754
Effect of Roughness and Microstructure on Tribological Behaviour of 35NCD16 Steel
Abstract:
The aim of this work is to study the coupled effect of microstructure and surface roughness on friction coefficient, wear resistance and wear mechanisms. Friction tests on 35NCD16 steel are performed under different normal loads (50-110 N) on a pin-on-plane configuration at cyclic sliding with abrasive silicon carbide grains ranging from 35 µm to 200 µm. To vary hardness and microstructure, the specimens are subjected to water quenching and tempering at various temperatures from 200°C to 600°C. The evolution of microstructures and wear mechanisms of worn surfaces are analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For a given microstructure and hardness, the friction coefficient decreases with increasing of normal load and decreasing of the abrasive particle size. The wear rate increase with increasing of normal load and abrasive particle size. The results also reveal that there is a critical hardness Hcᵣᵢₜᵢcₐₗ around 430 Hv which maximizes the friction coefficient and wear rate. This corresponds to a microstructure transition from martensite laths to carbides and equiaxed grains, for a tempering around 400°C. Above Hcᵣᵢₜᵢcₐₗ the friction coefficient and the amount of material loss decrease with an increase of hardness and martensite volume fraction. This study also shows that the debris size and the space between the abrasive particles decrease with a reduction in the particle size. The coarsest abrasive grains lost their cutting edges, accompanied by particle damage and empty space due to the particle detachment from the resin matrix. The compact packing nature of finer abrasive papers implicates lower particle detachment and facilitates the clogging and the transition from abrasive to adhesive wear.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1628
86274
Ecofriendly Synthesis of [email protected] Nanocomposites and Their Catalytic Activity on Multicomponent Domino Annulation-Aromatization for Quinoline Synthesis
Abstract:
Nanocomposites have been widely used in various fields such as electronics, catalysis, and in chemical, biological, biomedical and optical fields. They display broad biomedical properties like antidiabetic, anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antibacterial activities. Moreover, nanomaterials have been used for wastewater treatment. Particularly, bimetallic hybrid nanocomposites exhibit unique features as compared to their monometallic components. Hybrid nanomaterials not only afford the multifunctionality endowed by their constituents but can also show synergistic properties. In addition, these hybrid nanomaterials have noteworthy catalytic and optical properties. Notably, Au−Ag based nanoparticles can be employed in sensor and catalysis due to their characteristic composition-tunable plasmonic properties. Due to their importance and usefulness, various efforts were developed for their preparation. Generally, chemical methods have been described to synthesize such bimetallic nanocomposites. In such chemical synthesis, harmful and hazardous chemicals cause environmental contamination and increase toxicity levels. Therefore, ecologically benevolent processes for the synthesis of nanomaterials are highly desirable to diminish such environmental and safety concerns. In this regard, here we disclose a simple, cost-effective, external additive free and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of [email protected] nanocomposites using Nephrolepis cordifolia root extract. [email protected] NCs were obtained by the simultaneous reduction of cationic Ag and Au into AgCl in the presence of plant extract. The particle size of 10 to 50 nm was observed with the average diameter of 30 nm. The synthesized nanocomposite was characterized by various modern characterization techniques. For example, UV−visible spectroscopy was used to determine the optical activity of the synthesized NCs, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was employed to investigate the functional groups present in the biomolecules that were responsible for both reducing and capping agents during the formation of nanocomposites. Similarly, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy were used to determine crystallinity, size, oxidation states, thermal stability and weight loss of the synthesized nanocomposites. As a synthetic application, the synthesized nanocomposite exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the multicomponent synthesis of biologically interesting quinoline molecules via domino annulation-aromatization reaction of aniline, arylaldehyde, and phenyl acetylene derivatives. Interestingly, the nanocatalyst was efficiently recycled for five times without substantial loss of catalytic properties.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1627
86053
Thermodynamic Analysis of Hydrogen Plasma Reduction of TiCl₄
Abstract:
With increasing demands for high performance materials, intensive interest on the Ti has been focused. Especially, low cost production process of Ti has been extremely necessitated from wide parts and various industries. Tetrachloride (TiCl₄) is produced by fluidized bed using high TiO₂ feedstock and used as an intermediate product for the production of metal titanium sponge. Reduction of TiCl₄ is usually conducted by Kroll process using magnesium as a reduction reagent, producing metallic Ti in the shape of sponge. The process is batch type and takes very long time including post processes treating sponge. As an alternative reduction reagent, hydrogen in the state of plasma has long been strongly recommended. Experimental confirmation has not been completely reported yet and more strict analysis is required. In the present study, hydrogen plasma reduction process has been thermodynamically analyzed focusing the effects of temperature, pressure and concentration. All thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage® thermodynamical software.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1626
86016
Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites Consisting of Recycled Carbon Fibres and Polyamide 6 Fibres
Abstract:
With the increasing demand and use of carbon fibre reinforced composites (CFRC), disposal of the carbon fibres (CF) and end of life composite parts is gaining tremendous importance on the issue especially of sustainability. Furthermore, a number of processes (e. g. pyrolysis, solvolysis, etc.) are available currently to obtain recycled CF (rCF) from end-of-life CFRC. Since the CF waste or rCF are neither allowed to be thermally degraded nor landfilled (EU Directive 1999/31/EC), profitable recycling and re-use concepts are urgently necessary. Currently, the market for materials based on rCF mainly consists of random mats (nonwoven) made from short fibres. The strengths of composites that can be achieved from injection-molded components and from nonwovens are between 200-404 MPa and are characterized by low performance and suitable for non-structural applications such as in aircraft and vehicle interiors. On the contrary, spinning rCF to yarn constructions offers good potential for higher CFRC material properties due to high fibre orientation and compaction of rCF. However, no investigation is reported till yet on the direct comparison of the mechanical properties of thermoplastic CFRC manufactured from virgin CF filament yarn and spun yarns from staple rCF. There is a lack of understanding on the level of performance of the composites that can be achieved from hybrid yarns consisting of rCF and PA6 fibres. In this drop back, extensive research works are being carried out at the Textile Machinery and High-Performance Material Technology (ITM) on the development of new thermoplastic CFRC from hybrid yarns consisting of rCF. For this purpose, a process chain is developed at the ITM starting from fibre preparation to hybrid yarns manufacturing consisting of staple rCF by mixing with thermoplastic fibres. The objective is to apply such hybrid yarns for the manufacturing of load bearing textile reinforced thermoplastic CFRCs. In this paper, the development of innovative multi-component core-sheath hybrid yarn structures consisting of staple rCF and polyamide 6 (PA 6) on a DREF-3000 friction spinning machine is reported. Furthermore, Unidirectional (UD) CFRCs are manufactured from the developed hybrid yarns, and the mechanical properties of the composites such as tensile and flexural properties are analyzed. The results show that the UD composite manufactured from the developed hybrid yarns consisting of staple rCF possesses approximately 80% of the tensile strength and E-module to those produced from virgin CF filament yarn. The results show a huge potential of the DREF-3000 friction spinning process to develop composites from rCF for high-performance applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1625
85849
A Study of the Weld Properties of Inconel 625 Based on Nb Content
Abstract:
In this study, shielded metal arc welding was performed as a function of Nb content at 2.24 wt%, 3.25 wt%, and 4.26 wt%. The microstructure was observed using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and showed the development of a columnar dendrite structure in the specimen having the least Nb content. From the hardness test, the hardness value was confirmed to reduce with decreasing Nb content. From electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis, the largest grain size was found in the specimen with Nb content of 2.24 wt%. The potentiodynamic polarization test was carried out to determine the pitting corrosion resistance; there was no significant difference in the pitting corrosion resistance with increasing Nb content. To evaluate the degree of sensitization to intergranular corrosion, the Double Loop Electrochemical Potentiodynamic Reactivation(DL-EPR test) was conducted. A similar degree of sensitization was found in two specimens except with a Nb content of 2.24 wt%, while a relatively high degree of sensitization was found in the specimen with a Nb content of 2.24 wt%.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1624
85844
Studying the Load Sharing and Failure Mechanism of Hybrid Composite Joints Using Experiment and Finite Element Modeling
Abstract:
Composite joints have been getting attention recently due to their high specific mechanical strength to weight ratio that is crucial for structures such as aircrafts and automobiles. In this study on hybrid joints, quasi-static experiments and finite element analysis were performed to investigate the failure mechanism of hybrid composite joint with respect to the joint properties such as the adhesive material, clamping force, and joint geometry. The outcomes demonstrated that the stiffness of the adhesive is the most imperative design parameter. In this investigation, two adhesives with various stiffness values were utilized. Regarding the joints utilizing the adhesive with the lower stiffness modulus, it was observed that the load was exchanged promptly through the adhesive since it was shared more proficiently between the bolt and adhesive. This phenomenon permitted the hybrid joints with low-modulus adhesive to support more prominent loads before failure when contrasted with the joints that utilize the stiffer adhesive. In the next step, the stress share between the bond and bolt as a function of various design parameters was studied using a finite element model in which it was understood that the geometrical parameters such as joint overlap and width have a significant influence on the load sharing between the bolt and the adhesive.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1623
85763
Development of a Biodegradable Polymer Reinforced by Olive Kernel Powder
Abstract:
In this work, we developed a biodegradable composite material using Poly-lactic Acid (PLA) as matrix and Olive Kernels particles (OK) as reinforcement. Two steps have been used to make this material: (i) processing of raw materials (PLA and OK) into powder and (ii) uniaxial hot compaction at 180°C under 10 MPa of PLA-50%OK (% vol.) mixture. A microstructural observation by environmental Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a continuous interface PLA-OK in material. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD), it has been highlighted an increase of inter-reticular distances of PLA. These results have been explained by dissociation of some molecules derived from Olive Kernels followed by diffusion, at high temperature, of the released atoms in the structure of PLA. These results are in very good agreement with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) ones.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1622
85417
An Alteration of the Boltzmann Superposition Principle to Account for Environmental Degradation in Fiber Reinforced Plastics
Abstract:
This analysis suggests that the comprehensive degradation caused by any environmental factor on fiber reinforced plastics under mechanical stress can be measured as a change in viscoelastic properties of the material. The change in viscoelastic characteristics is experimentally determined as a time-dependent function expressing the amplification of the stress relaxation. The variation of this experimental function provides a measure of the environmental degradation rate. Where real service environment conditions can be reliably simulated in the laboratory, it is possible to generate master curves that include environmental degradation effect and hence predict the durability of the fiber reinforced plastics under environmental degradation.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1621
85057
Three-Dimensional Carbon Foams for the Application as Electrode Material in Energy Storage Systems
Abstract:
Carbon materials, especially three-dimensional carbon foams, show very high potential in the application as electrode material for energy storage systems such as batteries and supercapacitors with unique fast charging and discharging times. Regarding their high specific surface areas (SSA) high specific capacities can be reached. Globugraphite is a newly developed carbon foam with an interconnected globular carbon morphology. Especially, this foam has a statistically distributed hierarchical pore structure resulting from the manufacturing process based on sintered ceramic templates which are synthetized during a final chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. For morphology characterization scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used. In addition, the SSA is carried out by nitrogen adsorption combined with the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) theory. Electrochemical measurements in organic and inorganic electrolyte provide high energy densities and power densities resulting from ion absorption by forming an electrochemical double layer. All values are summarized in a Ragone Diagram. Finally, power densities up to 833 W/kg and energy densities up to 48 Wh/kg could be achieved. The corresponding SSA is between 376 m²/g and 859 m²/g. For organic electrolyte a specific capacity of 71 F/g at a density of 20 mg/cm³ was achieved.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1620
85047
Investigation on the Effect of Welding Parameters in Additive Friction Stir Welding of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide 66 Composite
Abstract:
Metals are being replaced by thermoplastic polymer composites in automotive industries because of their low density, easiness to fabricate, low cost and good wear resistance. Complex polymer components consist of assemblies of smaller parts which can be joined by friction stir welding. This study deals with the additive friction stir welding of 15 wt.% glass fiber reinforced polyamide 66 composite which is a modified technique of the conventional friction stir welding by the addition of a filler plate for the heating of the composite work piece through the tool during the welding process. Welding at different combinations of tool rotational speed, travel speed and tool plunge depth was done after which the tensile strength of the respective experiments was determined. The maximum tensile strength obtained was 77 MPa which was 80% of the strength of the base material. The process parameters were optimized using the L9 orthogonal array and also the effect of individual welding parameter on the tensile strength was studied. The optimum parameter combination was determined with the help of ANOVA studies. The hardness of the welded joints was studied with the help of Shore Durometer which yielded the maximum of D 75.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1619
84709
Fabrication of Highly-Ordered Interconnected Porous Polymeric Particles and Structures
Abstract:
Porous polymeric materials have attracted a great attention due to their distinctive porous structure within a polymer matrix. They are characterised by the presence of external pores on the surface as well as inner interconnected windows. Conventional techniques to produce porous polymeric materials encounters major challenge in controlling the properties of the resultant structures including morphology, pores, cavities size, and porosity. Herein, we present a facile and versatile microfluidics technique for the fabrication of uniform porous polymeric structures with highly ordered and well-defined interconnected windows. The shapes of the porous structures can either be a microparticles or foam. Both shapes used microfluidics platform to first produce monodisperse emulsion. The uniform emulsions, were then consolidated into porous structures through UV photopolymerisation. The morphology, pores, cavities size, and porosity of the structures can be precisely manipulated by the flowrate. The proposed strategy might provide a key advantage for fabrication of uniform porous materials over many existing technologies.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1618
84682
Synchrotron Based Techniques for the Characterization of Chemical Vapour Deposition Overgrowth Diamond Layers on High Pressure, High Temperature Substrates
Abstract:
The ability to grow boron-doped diamond epilayers of high crystalline quality is a prerequisite for the fabrication of diamond power electronic devices, in particular high voltage diodes and metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors. Boron and intrinsic diamond layers are homoepitaxially overgrown by microwave assisted chemical vapour deposition (MWCVD) on single crystal high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) grown bulk diamond substrates. Various epilayer thicknesses were grown, with dopant concentrations ranging from 1021 atom/cm³ at nanometer thickness in the case of 'delta doping', up 1016 atom/cm³ and 50µm thickness or high electric field drift regions. The crystalline quality of these overgrown layers as regards defects, strain, distortion… is critical for the device performance through its relation to the final electrical properties (Hall mobility, breakdown voltage...). In addition to the optimization of the epilayer growth conditions in the MWCVD reactor, other important questions related to the crystalline quality of the overgrown layer(s) are: 1) what is the dependence on the bulk quality and surface preparation methods of the HPHT diamond substrate? 2) how do defects already present in the substrate crystal propagate into the overgrown layer; 3) what types of new defects are created during overgrowth, what are their growth mechanisms, and how can these defects be avoided? 4) how can we relate in a quantitative manner parameters related to the measured crystalline quality of the boron doped layer to the electronic properties of final processed devices? We describe synchrotron-based techniques developed to address these questions. These techniques allow the visualization of local defects and crystal distortion which complements the data obtained by other well-established analysis methods such as AFM, SIMS, Hall conductivity…. We have used Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) at the ID01 beamline of the ESRF to study lattice parameters and damage (strain, tilt and mosaic spread) both in diamond substrate near surface layers and in thick (10–50 µm) overgrown boron doped diamond epi-layers. Micro- and nano-section topography have been carried out at both the BM05 and ID06-ESRF) beamlines using rocking curve imaging techniques to study defects which have propagated from the substrate into the overgrown layer(s) and their influence on final electronic device performance. These studies were performed using various commercially sourced HPHT grown diamond substrates, with the MWCVD overgrowth carried out at the Fraunhofer IAF-Germany. The synchrotron results are in good agreement with low-temperature (5°K) cathodoluminescence spectroscopy carried out on the grown samples using an Inspect F5O FESEM fitted with an IHR spectrometer.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1617
84481
Oxygen-Tolerant H₂O₂ Reduction Catalysis by Iron Phosphate Coated Iron Oxides
Abstract:
We report on the decisive role of iron phosphate (FePO₄), formed in-situ during the electrochemical characterization, played in the electrocatalytic activity, especially its oxygen tolerance of iron oxides towards H₂O₂ reduction. Iron oxides studied including, Nanorod arrays (NRs) of β-FeOOH, γ-Fe₂O₃, α-Fe₂O₃, α-Fe₂O₃ nanosheets (α-Fe₂O₃NS), α-Fe₂O₃ nanoparticles (α-Fe₂O₃NP), were synthesized using chemical bath deposition. The nanostructure was controlled simply by adjusting the composition of precursor solution and reaction duration for CBD process, whereas the crystal phase was controlled by adjusting the annealing temperature. It was found that iron phosphate (FePO₄) was deposited in-situ onto the surface of this nanostructured α-Fe₂O₃ during the electrochemical pretreatment in the phosphate electrolyte, and both FePO₄ and α-Fe₂O₃ showed the activity in catalysing the electrochemical reduction of H₂O₂. In addition, the interaction/compatibility between deposited FePO₄ and iron oxides has a decisive effect on the overall electrocatalytic activity of the resultant electrodes; FePO₄ only showed synergetic effect on the overall electrocatalytic activity of α-Fe₂O₃NR and α-Fe2O₃NS. Both α-Fe₂O₃NR and α-Fe₂O₃NS showed two reduction peaks in phosphate electrolyte containing H₂O₂, one being pH-dependent and related to the electrocatalytic properties of FePO₄, and the other one being pH-independent and only related to the intrinsic electrocatalytic properties of α-Fe₂O₃NR and α-Fe₂O₃NS. However, all iron oxides showed only one pH-independent reductive peak in non-phosphate electrolyte containing H₂O₂. The synergesitic catalysis exerted by FePO₄ with α-Fe₂O₃NR or α-Fe₂O₃NS providing additional oxygen-insensitive active site for H₂O₂ reduction, which allows their applications to electrochemical detection of H₂O₂ without the interference of O₂ involving in oxidase-catalyzed chemical processes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1616
84326
Quality Improvement of the Sand Moulding Process in Foundries Using Six Sigma Technique
Abstract:
The sand casting process involves pattern making, mould making, metal pouring and shake out. Every step in the sand moulding process is very critical for production of good quality castings. However, waste generated during the sand moulding operation and lack of quality are matters that influences performance inefficiencies and lack of competitiveness in South African foundries. Defects produced from the sand moulding process are only visible in the final product (casting) which results in increased number of scrap, reduced sales and increases cost in the foundry. The purpose of this Research is to propose six sigma technique (DMAIC, Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control) intervention in sand moulding foundries and to reduce variation caused by deficiencies in the sand moulding process in South African foundries. Its objective is to create sustainability and enhance productivity in the South African foundry industry. Six sigma is a data driven method to process improvement that aims to eliminate variation in business processes using statistical control methods .Six sigma focuses on business performance improvement through quality initiative using the seven basic tools of quality by Ishikawa. The objectives of six sigma are to eliminate features that affects productivity, profit and meeting customers’ demands. Six sigma has become one of the most important tools/techniques for attaining competitive advantage. Competitive advantage for sand casting foundries in South Africa means improved plant maintenance processes, improved product quality and proper utilization of resources especially scarce resources. Defects such as sand inclusion, Flashes and sand burn on were some of the defects that were identified as resulting from the sand moulding process inefficiencies using six sigma technique. The courses were we found to be wrong design of the mould due to the pattern used and poor ramming of the moulding sand in a foundry. Six sigma tools such as the voice of customer, the Fishbone, the voice of the process and process mapping were used to define the problem in the foundry and to outline the critical to quality elements. The SIPOC (Supplier Input Process Output Customer) Diagram was also employed to ensure that the material and process parameters were achieved to ensure quality improvement in a foundry. The process capability of the sand moulding process was measured to understand the current performance to enable improvement. The Expected results of this research are; reduced sand moulding process variation, increased productivity and competitive advantage.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1615
84148
Growth Model and Properties of a 3D Carbon Aerogel
Abstract:
Aerographite is a 3D interconnected carbon foam. Its tetrapodal morphology is based on the zinc oxide (ZnO) template structure, which is replicated in the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) into a hollow carbon structure. This replication process is analyzed in ex-situ studies via interrupted synthesis and the observation of the reaction progress by using scanning electron (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy techniques. Based on the epitaxial growth process, with a layer-by-layer growth behaviour of the wall thickness or number of layers and the catalytical graphitization of the deposited amorphous carbon into graphitic carbon by zinc, a growth model is created. The properties of aerographite, such as the electrical conductivity is dependent on the graphitization and number of layer (wall thickness). Wall thicknesses between 3 nm and 22 nm are achieved by a controlled stepwise reduction of the synthesis time on the basis of the developed growth model, and by a further thermal treatment at 1800 °C the graphitization of the presented carbon foam is modified. The variation of the wall thickness leads to an optimum defect density (ID/IG ratio) and the graphitization to an improvement in the electrical conductivity. Furthermore, a metallic conducting behaviour of untreated and 1800 °C treated aerographite can be observed. Due to these structural and defective modifications, a fundamental structural-property equation for the description of their influences on the electrical conductivity is developed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1614
84092
Natural Fibre Composite Structural Sections for Residential Stud Wall Applications
Abstract:
Increasing awareness of environmental concerns is leading a drive towards more sustainable structural products for the built environment. Natural fibres such as flax, jute and hemp have recently been considered for fibre-resin composites, with a major motivation for their implementation being their notable sustainability attributes. While recent decades have seen substantial interest in the use of such natural fibres in composite materials, much of this research has focused on the materials aspects, including fibre processing techniques, composite fabrication methodologies, matrix materials and their effects on the mechanical properties. The present study experimentally investigates the compression strength of structural channel sections of flax, jute and hemp, with a particular focus on their suitability for residential stud wall applications. The section geometry is optimised for maximum strength via the introduction of complex stiffeners in the webs and flanges. Experimental results on both natural fibre composite channel sections and typical steel and timber residential wall studs are compared. The geometrically optimised natural fibre composite channels are shown to have compression capacities suitable for residential wall stud applications, identifying them as a potentially viable alternative to traditional building materials in such application, and potentially other light structural applications.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1613
83988
Morphostructural Characterization of Zinc and Manganese Nano-Oxides
Abstract:
The interest in the unique properties associated with materials having structures on a nanometer scale has been increasing at an exponential rate in last decade. Among the functional mineral compounds such as perovskite (CaTiO3), rutile (TiO2), CaF2, spinel (MgAl2O4), wurtzite (ZnS), zincite (ZnO) and the cupric oxide (CuO) has been used in numerous applications such as catalysis, semiconductors, batteries, gas sensors, biosensors, field transistors and medicine. The Solar Physical Vapor Deposition (SPVD) presented in the paper as elaboration method is an original process to prepare nanopowders working under concentrated sunlight in 2kW solar furnaces. The influence of the synthesis parameters on the chemical and microstructural characteristics of zinc and manganese oxides synthesized nanophases has been systematically studied using XRD, TEM and SEM.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1612
83005
Effects of Sintering Temperature on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Ni-17Cr Alloy
Abstract:
Spark Plasma Sintering technique is a novel processing method that produces limited grain growth and highly dense variety of materials; alloys, superalloys, and carbides just to mention a few. However, initial particle size and spark plasma sintering parameters are factors which influence the grain growth and mechanical properties of sintered materials. Ni-Cr alloys are regarded as the most promising alloys for aerospace turbine blades, owing to the fact that they meet the basic requirements of desirable mechanical strength at high temperatures and good resistance to oxidation. The conventional method of producing this alloy often results in excessive grain growth and porosity levels that are detrimental to its mechanical properties. The effect of sintering temperature was evaluated on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the nanostructured Ni-17Cr alloy. Nickel and chromium powder were milled using high energy ball milling independently for 30 hours, milling speed of 400 revs/min and ball to powder ratio (BPR) of 10:1. The milled powders were mixed in the composition of Nickel having 83 wt % and chromium, 17 wt %. This was sintered at varied temperatures from 800°C, 900°C, 1000°C, 1100°C and 1200°C. The structural characteristics such as porosity, grain size, fracture surface and hardness were analyzed by scan electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, Archimedes densitometry, micro-hardness tester. The corresponding results indicated an increase in the densification and hardness property of the alloy as the temperature increases. The residual porosity of the alloy reduces with respect to the sintering temperature and in contrast, the grain size was enhanced. The study of the mechanical properties, including hardness, densification shows that optimum properties were obtained for the sintering temperature of 1100°C. The advantages of high sinterability of Ni-17Cr alloy using milled powders and microstructural details were discussed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1611
82950
Elastomeric Nanocomposites for Space Applications
Abstract:
Elastomeric composites have been known for a long time, but, to our knowledge, space and the aeronautic community has been directing a special attention to them only in the last decade. The required properties of advanced elastomeric materials used in space applications (such as O-rings) are sealing, abrasion, low-temperature flexibility, the long-term compression set properties, impact resistance and low-temperature thermal stability in different environments, such as ionized radiations. Basically, the elastomeric nanocomposites are composed of a rubber matrix and a wide and varied range of nanofillers, added with the aim of improving the physico-mechanical and elasticity modulus properties of the materials as well as their stability in different environments. The paper presents a partial synthesis of the research regarding the use of silicon carbide in nanometric form and/or organophylized montmorillonite as fillers in butyl rubber matrix. The need of composite materials arose from the fact that stand-alone polymers are ineffective in providing all the superior properties required by different applications. These drawbacks can be diminished or even eliminated by incorporating a new range of additives into the organic matrix, fillers that have important roles in modifying properties of various polymers. A composite material can provide superior and unique mechanical and physical properties because it combines the most desirable properties of its constituents while suppressing their least desirable properties. The commercial importance of polymers and the continuous increase of their use results in the continuous demand for improvement in their properties to meet the necessary conditions. To study the performance of the elastomeric nanocomposites were mechanically tested, it will be tested the qualities of tensile at low temperatures and RT and the behavior at the compression at cryogenic to room temperatures and under different environments. The morphology of specimens will be investigated by optical and scanning electronic microscopy.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1610
82926
Influence of Kneading Conditions on the Textural Properties of Alumina Catalysts Supports for Hydrotreating
Abstract:
Mesoporous alumina is commonly used as a catalyst support for the hydrotreating of heavy petroleum cuts. The process of fabrication usually involves: the synthesis of the boehmite AlOOH precursor, a kneading-extrusion step, and a calcination in order to obtain the final alumina extrudates. Alumina is described as a complex porous medium, generally agglomerates constituted of aggregated nanocrystallites. Its porous texture directly influences the active phase deposition and mass transfer, and the catalytic properties. Then, it is easy to figure out that each step of the fabrication of the supports has a role on the building of their porous network, and has to be well understood to optimize the process. The synthesis of boehmite by precipitation of aluminum salts was extensively studied in the literature and the effect of various parameters, such as temperature or pH, are known to influence the size and shape of the crystallites and the specific surface area of the support. The calcination step, through the topotactic transition from boehmite to alumina, determines the final properties of the support and can tune the surface area, pore volume and pore diameters from those of boehmite. However, the kneading extrusion step has been subject to a very few studies. It generally consists in two steps: an acid, then a basic kneading, where the boehmite powder is introduced in a mixer and successively added with an acid and a base solution to form an extrudable paste. During the acid kneading, the induced positive charges on the hydroxyl surface groups of boehmite create an electrostatic repulsion which tends to separate the aggregates and even, following the conditions, the crystallites. The basic kneading, by reducing the surface charges, leads to a flocculation phenomenon and can control the reforming of the overall structure. The separation and reassembling of the particles constituting the boehmite paste have a quite obvious influence on the textural properties of the material. In this work, we are focused on the influence of the kneading step on the alumina catalysts supports. Starting from an industrial boehmite, extrudates are prepared using various kneading conditions. The samples are studied by nitrogen physisorption in order to analyze the evolution of the textural properties, and by synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), a more original method which brings information about agglomeration and aggregation of the samples. The coupling of physisorption and SAXS enables a precise description of the samples, as same as an accurate monitoring of their evolution as a function of the kneading conditions. These ones are found to have a strong influence of the pore volume and pore size distribution of the supports. A mechanism of evolution of the texture during the kneading step is proposed and could be attractive in order to optimize the texture of the supports and then, their catalytic performances.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1609
82761
Characterization of the Viscoelastic Behavior of Polymeric Composites
Abstract:
Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is one of the most used experimental techniques to investigate the temperature and frequency dependence of the mechanical behavior of viscoelastic materials. The measured data are generally shifted by the application of the principle of the time– temperature superposition (TTS) to obtain the viscoelastic system’s master curve. The aim of this work is to show the methodology to define the horizontal shift factor to be applied to the storage modulus measured in order to indicate the validity of (TTS) principle for this material system. This principle was successfully used to determine the long-term properties of the Sheet Moulding Compound (SMC) composites.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1608
82705
Characteristics of Silicon Integrated Vertical Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors
Authors:
Abstract:
A new vertical carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNTFET) has been developed. The source, drain and gate are vertically stacked in this structure. The carbon nanotubes are put on the side wall of the vertical stack. Unique transfer characteristics which depend on both silicon type and the sign of drain voltage have been observed in silicon integrated CNTFETs. The significant advantage of this CNTFET is that the short channel of the transistor can be fabricated without using complicate lithography technique.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1607
82651
Parameter Optimization and Thermal Simulation in Laser Joining of Coach Peel Panels of Dissimilar Materials
Abstract:
The quality of laser welded-brazed (LWB) joints were strongly dependent on the main process parameters, therefore the effect of laser power (3.2–4 kW), welding speed (60–80 mm/s) and wire feed rate (70–90 mm/s) on mechanical strength and surface roughness were investigated in this study. The comprehensive optimization process by means of response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function was used for multi-criteria optimization. The experiments were planned based on Box– Behnken design implementing linear and quadratic polynomial equations for predicting the desired output properties. Finally, validation experiments were conducted on an optimized process condition which exhibited good agreement between the predicted and experimental results. AlSi3Mn1 was selected as the filler material for joining aluminum alloy 6022 and hot-dip galvanized steel in coach peel configuration. The high scanning speed could control the thickness of IMC as thin as 5 µm. The thermal simulations of joining process were conducted by the Finite Element Method (FEM), and results were validated through experimental data. The Fe/Al interfacial thermal history evidenced that the duration of critical temperature range (700–900 °C) in this high scanning speed process was less than 1 s. This short interaction time leads to the formation of reaction-control IMC layer instead of diffusion-control mechanisms.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
1606
82518
Polycaprolactone/Thermally Exfoliated Graphene Oxide Biocomposite Films: A Promising Moisture Absorption Behavior
Abstract:
Biocomposite materials were fabricated using mixing biodegradable polymer polycaprolactone (PCL) and Thermally Exfoliated Graphene Oxide (TEGO) through solution casting. Various samples of biocomposite films were prepared by varying the TEGO wt% composition by 0.1%, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%. Thereafter, the density and water absorption of the composites were investigated with respect to immersion time in water. The moisture absorption results show that with an increase in weight percentage (from 0.1 to wt 1.5%) of TEGO within the biopolymer films, the absorption value of bio-nanocomposite films reduced rapidly from 27.4% to 14.3%. The density of hybrid composites also increased with increase in weight percentage of TEGO. These results indicate that the optimized composition of constituents in composite membrane could effectively reduce the anhydrous conditions of bio-composite film.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):